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Sample records for actin remodeler eps8

  1. Loss of the actin remodeler Eps8 causes intestinal defects and improved metabolic status in mice.

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    Arianna Tocchetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a variety of organisms, including mammals, caloric restriction improves metabolic status and lowers the incidence of chronic-degenerative diseases, ultimately leading to increased lifespan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that knockout mice for Eps8, a regulator of actin dynamics, display reduced body weight, partial resistance to age- or diet-induced obesity, and overall improved metabolic status. Alteration in the liver gene expression profile, in behavior and metabolism point to a calorie restriction-like phenotype in Eps8 knockout mice. Additionally, and consistent with a calorie restricted metabolism, Eps8 knockout mice show increased lifespan. The metabolic alterations in Eps8 knockout mice correlated with a significant reduction in intestinal fat absorption presumably caused by a 25% reduction in intestinal microvilli length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings implicate actin dynamics as a novel variable in the determination of longevity. Additionally, our observations suggest that subtle differences in energy balance can, over time, significantly affect bodyweight and metabolic status in mice.

  2. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration

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    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large ‘leader bleb.’ Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08314.001 PMID:26163656

  3. Erk regulation of actin capping and bundling by Eps8 promotes cortex tension and leader bleb-based migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Jeremy S; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Chadwick, Richard S; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-07-11

    Within the confines of tissues, cancer cells can use blebs to migrate. Eps8 is an actin bundling and capping protein whose capping activity is inhibited by Erk, a key MAP kinase that is activated by oncogenic signaling. We tested the hypothesis that Eps8 acts as an Erk effector to modulate actin cortex mechanics and thereby mediate bleb-based migration of cancer cells. Cells confined in a non-adhesive environment migrate in the direction of a very large 'leader bleb.' Eps8 bundling activity promotes cortex tension and intracellular pressure to drive leader bleb formation. Eps8 capping and bundling activities act antagonistically to organize actin within leader blebs, and Erk mediates this effect. An Erk biosensor reveals concentrated kinase activity within leader blebs. Bleb contents are trapped by the narrow neck that separates the leader bleb from the cell body. Thus, Erk activity promotes actin bundling by Eps8 to enhance cortex tension and drive the bleb-based migration of cancer cells under non-adhesive confinement.

  4. The actin-binding proteins eps8 and gelsolin have complementary roles in regulating the growth and stability of mechanosensory hair bundles of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells.

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    Jennifer Olt

    Full Text Available Sound transduction depends upon mechanosensitive channels localized on the hair-like bundles that project from the apical surface of cochlear hair cells. Hair bundles show a stair-case structure composed of rows of stereocilia, and each stereocilium contains a core of tightly-packed and uniformly-polarized actin filaments. The growth and maintenance of the stereociliary actin core are dynamically regulated. Recently, it was shown that the actin-binding protein gelsolin is expressed in the stereocilia of outer hair cells (OHCs and in its absence they become long and straggly. Gelsolin is part of a whirlin scaffolding protein complex at the stereocilia tip, which has been shown to interact with other actin regulatory molecules such as Eps8. Here we investigated the physiological effects associated with the absence of gelsolin and its possible overlapping role with Eps8. We found that, in contrast to Eps8, gelsolin does not affect mechanoelectrical transduction during immature stages of development. Moreover, OHCs from gelsolin knockout mice were able to mature into fully functional sensory receptors as judged by the normal resting membrane potential and basolateral membrane currents. Mechanoelectrical transducer current in gelsolin-Eps8 double knockout mice showed a profile similar to that observed in the single mutants for Eps8. We propose that gelsolin has a non-overlapping role with Eps8. While Eps8 is mainly involved in the initial growth of stereocilia in both inner hair cells (IHCs and OHCs, gelsolin is required for the maintenance of mature hair bundles of low-frequency OHCs after the onset of hearing.

  5. Eps8 is recruited to lysosomes and subjected to chaperone-mediated autophagy in cancer cells.

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    Welsch, Thilo; Younsi, Alexander; Disanza, Andrea; Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Scita, Giorgio; Schmidt, Jan

    2010-07-15

    Eps8 controls actin dynamics directly through its barbed end capping and actin-bundling activity, and indirectly by regulating Rac-activation when engaged into a trimeric complex with Eps8-Abi1-Sos1. Recently, Eps8 has been associated with promotion of various solid malignancies, but neither its mechanisms of action nor its regulation in cancer cells have been elucidated. Here, we report a novel association of Eps8 with the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, which is independent from actin polymerization and specifically occurs in cancer cells. Endogenous Eps8 localized to large vesicular lysosomal structures in metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines, such as AsPC-1 and Capan-1 that display high Eps8 levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of Eps8 increased the size of lysosomes. Structure-function analysis revealed that the region encompassing the amino acids 184-535 of Eps8 was sufficient to mediate lysosomal recruitment. Notably, this fragment harbors two KFERQ-like motifs required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Furthermore, Eps8 co-immunoprecipitated with Hsc70 and LAMP-2, which are key elements for the CMA degradative pathway. Consistently, in vitro, a significant fraction of Eps8 bound to (11.9+/-5.1%) and was incorporated into (5.3+/-6.5%) lysosomes. Additionally, Eps8 binding to lysosomes was competed by other known CMA-substrates. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that Eps8 recruitment to the lysosomal membrane was highly dynamic. Collectively, these results indicate that Eps8 in certain human cancer cells specifically localizes to lysosomes, and is directed to CMA. These results open a new field for the investigation of how Eps8 is regulated and contributes to tumor promotion in human cancers.

  6. Biophysical model of the role of actin remodeling on dendritic spine morphology

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    Miermans, C. A.; Kusters, R. P. T.; Hoogenraad, C. C.; Storm, C.

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. It is well established that the remodeling of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present a quantitative, model-based scenario for spine plasticity validated using realistic and physiologically relevant parameters. Our model points to a crucial role for the actin cytoskeleton. In the early stages of spine formation, the interplay between the elastic properties of the spine membrane and the protrusive forces generated in the actin cytoskeleton propels the incipient spine. In the maturation stage, actin remodeling in the form of the combined dynamics of branched and bundled actin is required to form mature, mushroom-like spines. Importantly, our model shows that constricting the spine-neck aids in the stabilization of mature spines, thus pointing to a role in stabilization and maintenance for additional factors such as ring-like F-actin structures. Taken together, our model provides unique insights into the fundamental role of actin remodeling and polymerization forces during spine formation and maturation. PMID:28158194

  7. Actin Remodeling and Polymerization Forces Control Dendritic Spine Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Miermans, Karsten; Storm, Cornelis; Hoogenraad, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic spines are small membranous structures that protrude from the neuronal dendrite. Each spine contains a synaptic contact site that may connect its parent dendrite to the axons of neighboring neurons. Dendritic spines are markedly distinct in shape and size, and certain types of stimulation prompt spines to evolve, in fairly predictable fashion, from thin nascent morphologies to the mushroom-like shapes associated with mature spines. This striking progression is coincident with the (re)configuration of the neuronal network during early development, learning and memory formation, and has been conjectured to be part of the machinery that encodes these processes at the scale of individual neuronal connections. It is well established that the structural plasticity of spines is strongly dependent upon the actin cytoskeleton inside the spine. A general framework that details the precise role of actin in directing the transitions between the various spine shapes is lacking. We address this issue, and present...

  8. Focal adhesion kinase is required for actin polymerization and remodeling of the cytoskeleton during sperm capacitation

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    Ana L. Roa-Espitia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several focal adhesion proteins are known to cooperate with integrins to link the extracellular matrix to the actin cytoskeleton; as a result, many intracellular signaling pathways are activated and several focal adhesion complexes are formed. However, how these proteins function in mammalian spermatozoa remains unknown. We confirm the presence of focal adhesion proteins in guinea pig spermatozoa, and we explore their role during capacitation and the acrosome reaction, and their relationship with the actin cytoskeleton. Our results suggest the presence of a focal adhesion complex formed by β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase (FAK, paxillin, vinculin, talin, and α-actinin in the acrosomal region. Inhibition of FAK during capacitation affected the protein tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation that occurs within the first few minutes of capacitation, which caused the acrosome reaction to become increasingly Ca2+ dependent and inhibited the polymerization of actin. The integration of vinculin and talin into the complex, and the activation of FAK and paxillin during capacitation, suggests that the complex assembles at this time. We identify that vinculin and α-actinin increase their interaction with F-actin while it remodels during capacitation, and that during capacitation focal adhesion complexes are structured. FAK contributes to acrosome integrity, likely by regulating the polymerization and the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton.

  9. PERK and filamin A in actin cytoskeleton remodeling at ER-plasma membrane contact sites.

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    van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) plays a major role during the unfolded protein response (UPR), mainly through eIF2α phosphorylation. We uncovered that PERK, by interacting with Filamin A, elicits F-actin remodeling required for ER-plasma membrane contact site formation after ER-Ca(2+) depletion, through a UPR-independent mechanism.

  10. Mutation of neuron-specific chromatin remodeling subunit BAF53b: rescue of plasticity and memory by manipulating actin remodeling.

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    Vogel Ciernia, Annie; Kramár, Enikö A; Matheos, Dina P; Havekes, Robbert; Hemstedt, Thekla J; Magnan, Christophe N; Sakata, Keith; Tran, Ashley; Azzawi, Soraya; Lopez, Alberto; Dang, Richard; Wang, Weisheng; Trieu, Brian; Tong, Joyce; Barrett, Ruth M; Post, Rebecca J; Baldi, Pierre; Abel, Ted; Lynch, Gary; Wood, Marcelo A

    2017-05-01

    Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons. We generated transgenic mice lacking subdomain 2 of Baf53b (BAF53bΔSB2). Long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory, both of which are associated with phosphorylation of the actin severing protein cofilin, were assessed in these animals. A phosphorylation mimic of cofilin was stereotaxically delivered into the hippocampus of BAF53bΔSB2 mice in an effort to rescue LTP and memory. BAF53bΔSB2 mutant mice show impairments in phosphorylation of synaptic cofilin, LTP, and memory. Both the synaptic plasticity and memory deficits are rescued by overexpression of a phosphorylation mimetic of cofilin. Baseline physiology and behavior were not affected by the mutation or the experimental treatment. This study suggests a potential link between nBAF function, actin cytoskeletal remodeling at the dendritic spine, and memory formation. This work shows that a targeted manipulation of synaptic function can rescue adult plasticity and memory deficits caused by manipulations of nBAF, and thereby provides potential novel avenues for therapeutic development for multiple intellectual disability disorders. © 2017 Vogel Ciernia et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. HGF Modulates Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling and Contraction in Testicular Myoid Cells.

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    Catizone, Angela; Ricci, Giulia; Caruso, Maria; Galdieri, Michela; Scheri, Katia Corano; Di Paolo, Virginia; Canipari, Rita

    2015-01-28

    The presence of the HGF/Met system in the testicular myoid cells was first discovered by our group. However, the physiological role of this pathway remains poorly understood. We previously reported that HGF increases uPA secretion and TGF-β activation in cultured tubular fragments and that HGF is maximally expressed at Stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, when myoid cell contraction occurs. It is well known that the HGF/Met pathway is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling; moreover, the interaction of uPA with its receptor, uPAR, as well as the activation of TGF-β have been reported to be related to the actin cytoskeleton contractility of smooth muscle cells. Herein, we report that HGF induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling in vitro in isolated myoid cells and myoid cell contraction in cultured seminiferous tubules. To better understand these phenomena, we evaluated: (1) the regulation of the uPA machinery in isolated myoid cells after HGF administration; and (2) the effect of uPA or Met inhibition on HGF-treated tubular fragments. Because uPA activates latent TGF-β, the secretion of this factor was also evaluated. We found that both uPA and TGF-β activation increase after HGF administration. In testicular tubular fragments, HGF-induced TGF-β activation and myoid cell contraction are abrogated by uPA or Met inhibitor administration.

  12. HGF Modulates Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling and Contraction in Testicular Myoid Cells

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    Angela Catizone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the HGF/Met system in the testicular myoid cells was first discovered by our group. However, the physiological role of this pathway remains poorly understood. We previously reported that HGF increases uPA secretion and TGF-β activation in cultured tubular fragments and that HGF is maximally expressed at Stages VII–VIII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, when myoid cell contraction occurs. It is well known that the HGF/Met pathway is involved in cytoskeletal remodeling; moreover, the interaction of uPA with its receptor, uPAR, as well as the activation of TGF-β have been reported to be related to the actin cytoskeleton contractility of smooth muscle cells. Herein, we report that HGF induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling in vitro in isolated myoid cells and myoid cell contraction in cultured seminiferous tubules. To better understand these phenomena, we evaluated: (1 the regulation of the uPA machinery in isolated myoid cells after HGF administration; and (2 the effect of uPA or Met inhibition on HGF-treated tubular fragments. Because uPA activates latent TGF-β, the secretion of this factor was also evaluated. We found that both uPA and TGF-β activation increase after HGF administration. In testicular tubular fragments, HGF-induced TGF-β activation and myoid cell contraction are abrogated by uPA or Met inhibitor administration.

  13. ANDROGENS REGULATE T47D CELLS MOTILITY AND INVASION THROUGH ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REMODELLING

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    Maria Magdalena Montt-Guevara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between androgens and breast cancer is controversial. Androgens have complex effects on breast cancer progression and metastasis. Moreover, androgens receptor (AR is expressed in approximately 70% to 90% of invasive breast carcinomas, which has prognostic relevance in basal-like cancers and in triple negative breast cancers. Recent studies have associated the actin-binding proteins of the Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM family with metastasis in endocrine-sensitive cancers. We studied on T47D breast cancer cells whether androgens with different characteristics, such as testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA may regulate breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the control of actin remodelling. We demonstrate that androgens promote migration and invasion in T47D via Moesin activation. We show that T and DHEA exert their actions via the AR and estrogen receptor (ER, while the non aromatizable androgen – DHT only recruits AR. We further report that androgen induced significant changes in actin organization with pseudopodia along with membrane ruffles formation, and this process is mediated by Moesin. Our work identifies novel mechanisms of action of androgens on breast cancer cells. Through the modulation of Moesin, androgens alter the architecture of cytoskeleton in T47D breast cancer cell and promote cell migration and invasion. These results could help to understand the biological actions of androgens on breast cancer, and eventually to develop new strategies for treatment of breast cancer.

  14. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

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    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger, E-mail: roger.karlsson@wgi.su.se

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  15. Alix Protein Is Substrate of Ozz-E3 Ligase and Modulates Actin Remodeling in Skeletal Muscle*

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    Bongiovanni, Antonella; Romancino, Daniele P.; Campos, Yvan; Paterniti, Gaetano; Qiu, Xiaohui; Moshiach, Simon; Di Felice, Valentina; Vergani, Naja; Ustek, Duran; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Alix/AIP1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein that participates in basic cellular processes, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton assembly, by binding selectively to a variety of partner proteins. However, the mechanisms regulating Alix turnover, subcellular distribution, and function in muscle cells are unknown. We now report that Alix is expressed in skeletal muscle throughout myogenic differentiation. In myotubes, a specific pool of Alix colocalizes with Ozz, the substrate-binding component of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase complex Ozz-E3. We found that interaction of the two endogenous proteins in the differentiated muscle fibers changes Alix conformation and promotes its ubiquitination. This in turn regulates the levels of the protein in specific subcompartments, in particular the one containing the actin polymerization factor cortactin. In Ozz−/− myotubes, the levels of filamentous (F)-actin is perturbed, and Alix accumulates in large puncta positive for cortactin. In line with this observation, we show that the knockdown of Alix expression in C2C12 muscle cells affects the amount and distribution of F-actin, which consequently leads to changes in cell morphology, impaired formation of sarcolemmal protrusions, and defective cell motility. These findings suggest that the Ozz-E3 ligase regulates Alix at sites where the actin cytoskeleton undergoes remodeling. PMID:22334701

  16. Alix protein is substrate of Ozz-E3 ligase and modulates actin remodeling in skeletal muscle.

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    Bongiovanni, Antonella; Romancino, Daniele P; Campos, Yvan; Paterniti, Gaetano; Qiu, Xiaohui; Moshiach, Simon; Di Felice, Valentina; Vergani, Naja; Ustek, Duran; d'Azzo, Alessandra

    2012-04-06

    Alix/AIP1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein that participates in basic cellular processes, including membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton assembly, by binding selectively to a variety of partner proteins. However, the mechanisms regulating Alix turnover, subcellular distribution, and function in muscle cells are unknown. We now report that Alix is expressed in skeletal muscle throughout myogenic differentiation. In myotubes, a specific pool of Alix colocalizes with Ozz, the substrate-binding component of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligase complex Ozz-E3. We found that interaction of the two endogenous proteins in the differentiated muscle fibers changes Alix conformation and promotes its ubiquitination. This in turn regulates the levels of the protein in specific subcompartments, in particular the one containing the actin polymerization factor cortactin. In Ozz(-/-) myotubes, the levels of filamentous (F)-actin is perturbed, and Alix accumulates in large puncta positive for cortactin. In line with this observation, we show that the knockdown of Alix expression in C2C12 muscle cells affects the amount and distribution of F-actin, which consequently leads to changes in cell morphology, impaired formation of sarcolemmal protrusions, and defective cell motility. These findings suggest that the Ozz-E3 ligase regulates Alix at sites where the actin cytoskeleton undergoes remodeling.

  17. Remodelling of cortical actin where lytic granules dock at natural killer cell immune synapses revealed by super-resolution microscopy.

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    Brown, Alice C N; Oddos, Stephane; Dobbie, Ian M; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Parton, Richard M; Eissmann, Philipp; Neil, Mark A A; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul M W; Davis, Ilan; Davis, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which is too low to resolve cortical actin during lytic granule secretion. Here we use two high-resolution imaging techniques to probe the synaptic organisation of NK cell receptors and filamentous (F)-actin. A combination of optical tweezers and live cell confocal microscopy reveals that microclusters of NKG2D assemble into a ring-shaped structure at the centre of intercellular synapses, where Vav1 and Grb2 also accumulate. Within this ring-shaped organisation of NK cell proteins, lytic granules accumulate for secretion. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to gain super-resolution of ~100 nm, cortical actin was detected in a central region of the NK cell synapse irrespective of whether activating or inhibitory signals dominate. Strikingly, the periodicity of the cortical actin mesh increased in specific domains at the synapse when the NK cell was activated. Two-colour super-resolution imaging revealed that lytic granules docked precisely in these domains which were also proximal to where the microtubule-organising centre (MTOC) polarised. Together, these data demonstrate that remodelling of the cortical actin mesh occurs at the central region of the cytolytic NK cell immune synapse. This is likely to occur for other types of cell secretion and also emphasises the importance of emerging super-resolution imaging technology for revealing new biology.

  18. Remodelling of cortical actin where lytic granules dock at natural killer cell immune synapses revealed by super-resolution microscopy.

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    Alice C N Brown

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural Killer (NK cells are innate immune cells that secrete lytic granules to directly kill virus-infected or transformed cells across an immune synapse. However, a major gap in understanding this process is in establishing how lytic granules pass through the mesh of cortical actin known to underlie the NK cell membrane. Research has been hampered by the resolution of conventional light microscopy, which is too low to resolve cortical actin during lytic granule secretion. Here we use two high-resolution imaging techniques to probe the synaptic organisation of NK cell receptors and filamentous (F-actin. A combination of optical tweezers and live cell confocal microscopy reveals that microclusters of NKG2D assemble into a ring-shaped structure at the centre of intercellular synapses, where Vav1 and Grb2 also accumulate. Within this ring-shaped organisation of NK cell proteins, lytic granules accumulate for secretion. Using 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM to gain super-resolution of ~100 nm, cortical actin was detected in a central region of the NK cell synapse irrespective of whether activating or inhibitory signals dominate. Strikingly, the periodicity of the cortical actin mesh increased in specific domains at the synapse when the NK cell was activated. Two-colour super-resolution imaging revealed that lytic granules docked precisely in these domains which were also proximal to where the microtubule-organising centre (MTOC polarised. Together, these data demonstrate that remodelling of the cortical actin mesh occurs at the central region of the cytolytic NK cell immune synapse. This is likely to occur for other types of cell secretion and also emphasises the importance of emerging super-resolution imaging technology for revealing new biology.

  19. Mutation of Neuron-Specific Chromatin Remodeling Subunit BAF53b: Rescue of Plasticity and Memory by Manipulating Actin Remodeling

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    Ciernia, Annie Vogel; Kramár, Enikö A.; Matheos, Dina P.; Havekes, Robbert; Hemstedt, Thekla J.; Magnan, Christophe N.; Sakata, Keith; Tran, Ashley; Azzawi, Soraya; Lopez, Alberto; Dang, Richard; Wang, Weisheng; Trieu, Brian; Tong, Joyce; Barrett, Ruth M.; Post, Rebecca J.; Baldi, Pierre; Abel, Ted; Lynch, Gary; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic…

  20. Constitutive phosphorylation of eps8 in tumor cell lines: relevance to malignant transformation

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    Matoskova, B; Wong, W T; Salcini, A E

    1995-01-01

    eps8, a recently identified tyrosine kinase substrate, has been shown to augment epidermal growth factor (EGF) responsiveness, implicating it in EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated mitogenic signaling. We investigated the status of eps8 phosphorylation in normal and transformed cells and the role of eps8...... in transformation. In NIH 3T3 cells overexpressing EGFR (NIH-EGFR), eps8 becomes rapidly phosphorylated upon EGF stimulation. At receptor-saturating doses of EGF, approximately 30% of the eps8 pool is tyrosine phosphorylated. Under physiological conditions of activation (i.e., at low receptor occupancy...... in NIH-EGFR cells. Overexpression of eps8 was able to transform NIH 3T3 cells under limiting conditions of activation of the EGFR pathway. Concomitant tyrosine phosphorylation of eps8 and shc, but not of rasGAP, phospholipase C-gamma, and eps15, was frequently detected in tumor cells. This suggested...

  1. The Cofilin Phosphatase Slingshot Homolog 1 (SSH1) Links NOD1 Signaling to Actin Remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Bielig, Harald; Lautz, Katja; Braun, Peter R.; Menning, Maureen; Machuy, Nikolaus; Brügmann, Christine; Barisic, Sandra; Eisler, Stephan A.; Andree, Maria; Zurek, Birte; Kashkar, Hamid; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Hausser, Angelika; Meyer, Thomas F.; Kufer, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary NOD1 was one of the first NLR-family members shown to act as an important intracellular pattern-recognition molecule mediating antimicrobial activities in mammals. It has been demonstrated that perturbation of F-actin and RhoGTPase activity affects NOD1 and NOD2 signaling, however, the effectors of this process remained elusive. By using a multilayered high-throughput druggable genome wide siRNA screening approach to discover novel components specific for the NOD1 pathway, we i...

  2. Actin remodeling by ADF/cofilin is required for cargo sorting at the trans-Golgi network.

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    von Blume, Julia; Duran, Juan M; Forlanelli, Elena; Alleaume, Anne-Marie; Egorov, Mikhail; Polishchuk, Roman; Molina, Henrik; Malhotra, Vivek

    2009-12-28

    Knockdown of the actin-severing protein actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin inhibited export of an exogenously expressed soluble secretory protein from Golgi membranes in Drosophila melanogaster and mammalian tissue culture cells. A stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture mass spectrometry-based protein profiling revealed that a large number of endogenous secretory proteins in mammalian cells were not secreted upon ADF/cofilin knockdown. Although many secretory proteins were retained, a Golgi-resident protein and a lysosomal hydrolase were aberrantly secreted upon ADF/cofilin knockdown. Overall, our findings indicate that inactivation of ADF/cofilin perturbed the sorting of a subset of both soluble and integral membrane proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). We suggest that ADF/cofilin-dependent actin trimming generates a sorting domain at the TGN, which filters secretory cargo for export, and that uncontrolled growth of this domain causes missorting of proteins. This type of actin-dependent compartmentalization and filtering of secretory cargo at the TGN by ADF/cofilin could explain sorting of proteins that are destined to the cell surface.

  3. The Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil up-regulates astrocytic glutamate transport subsequent to actin remodelling in murine cultured astrocytes

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    Lau, Cl; O'Shea, Rd; Bischof, L

    2011-01-01

    immunocytochemistry) induced by Fasudil was accompanied by reduced phalloidin staining of F-actin and increased V(max) for [(3) H]-d-Asp uptake. Immunoblotting after biotinylation demonstrated that Fasudil increased the expression of EAAT1 and EAAT2 on the cell surface. Immunocytochemistry indicated that Fasudil...

  4. Novel binding partners and differentially regulated phosphorylation sites clarify Eps8 as a multi-functional adaptor.

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    Debbie L Cunningham

    Full Text Available Eps8 is involved in both cell signalling and receptor trafficking. It is a known phosphorylation substrate for two proteins involved in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR signalling pathway: the receptor itself and Src. Here we report a differential proteomic analysis of Eps8 aimed to identify specific FGFR and Src family kinase dependent phosphosites and co-associated phosphodependent binding partners. This study reveals a total of 22 Eps8 pTyr and pSer/Thr phosphorylation sites, including those that are dependent on Src family and FGFR kinase activity. Peptide affinity purification of proteins that bind to a selection of the pTyr phosphosites has identified a range of novel Eps8 binding partners including members of the intracellular vesicle trafficking machinery (clathrin and AP-2, proteins which have been shown to regulate activated receptor trafficking (NBR1 and Vav2, and proteins involved in receptor signalling (IRS4 and Shp2. Collectively this study significantly extends the understanding of Eps8 post-translational modification by regulated phosphorylation, identifies novel Eps8 binding partners implicated in receptor trafficking and signalling, and confirms the functions of Eps8 at the nexus of receptor signalling and vesicular trafficking.

  5. The arouser EPS8L3 gene is critical for normal memory in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly LaFerriere

    Full Text Available The genetic mechanisms that influence memory formation and sensitivity to the effects of ethanol on behavior in Drosophila have some common elements. So far, these have centered on the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, synapsin and fas2-dependent processes, pumilio-dependent regulators of translation, and a few other genes. However, there are several genes that are important for one or the other behaviors, suggesting that there is an incomplete overlap in the mechanisms that support memory and ethanol sensitive behaviors. The basis for this overlap is far from understood. We therefore examined memory in arouser (aru mutant flies, which have recently been identified as having ethanol sensitivity deficits. The aru mutant flies showed memory deficits in both short-term place memory and olfactory memory tests. Flies with a revertant aru allele had wild-type levels of memory performance, arguing that the aru gene, encoding an EPS8L3 product, has a role in Drosophila memory formation. Furthermore, and interestingly, flies with the aru(8-128 insertion allele had deficits in only one of two genetic backgrounds in place and olfactory memory tests. Flies with an aru imprecise excision allele had deficits in tests of olfactory memory. Quantitative measurements of aru EPS8L3 mRNA expression levels correlate decreased expression with deficits in olfactory memory while over expression is correlated with place memory deficits. Thus, mutations of the aru EPS8L3 gene interact with the alleles of a particular genetic background to regulate arouser expression and reveals a role of this gene in memory.

  6. The Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Effector EspW Triggers Actin Remodeling in a Rac1-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Pamela; Crepin, Valerie F; Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D; Frankel, Gad; Berger, Cedric N

    2017-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signaling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization and subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues, is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7. Screening a collection of clinical EPEC isolates revealed that espW is present in 52% of the tested strains. We report that EspW modulates actin dynamics in a Rac1-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of EspW results in formation of unique membrane protrusions. Infection of Swiss cells with an EHEC espW deletion mutant induces a cell shrinkage phenotype that could be rescued by Rac1 activation via expression of the bacterial guanine nucleotide exchange factor, EspT. Furthermore, using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the motor protein Kif15 as a potential interacting partner of EspW. Kif15 and EspW colocalized in cotransfected cells, while ectopically expressed Kif15 localized to the actin pedestals following EHEC infection. The data suggest that Kif15 recruits EspW to the site of bacterial attachment, which in turn activates Rac1, resulting in modifications of the actin cytoskeleton that are essential to maintain cell shape during infection. Copyright © 2017 Sandu et al.

  7. An Elmo-Dock complex locally controls Rho GTPases and actin remodeling during cadherin-mediated adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toret, Christopher P; Collins, Caitlin; Nelson, W James

    2014-12-08

    Cell-cell contact formation is a dynamic process requiring the coordination of cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion and integrin-based cell migration. A genome-wide RNA interference screen for proteins required specifically for cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion identified an Elmo-Dock complex. This was unexpected as Elmo-Dock complexes act downstream of integrin signaling as Rac guanine-nucleotide exchange factors. In this paper, we show that Elmo2 recruits Dock1 to initial cell-cell contacts in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. At cell-cell contacts, both Elmo2 and Dock1 are essential for the rapid recruitment and spreading of E-cadherin, actin reorganization, localized Rac and Rho GTPase activities, and the development of strong cell-cell adhesion. Upon completion of cell-cell adhesion, Elmo2 and Dock1 no longer localize to cell-cell contacts and are not required subsequently for the maintenance of cell-cell adhesion. These studies show that Elmo-Dock complexes are involved in both integrin- and cadherin-based adhesions, which may help to coordinate the transition of cells from migration to strong cell-cell adhesion. © 2014 Toret et al.

  8. Actin acting at the Golgi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gustavo; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Salcedo-Sicilia, Laia; Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric

    2013-09-01

    The organization, assembly and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton provide force and tracks for a variety of (endo)membrane-associated events such as membrane trafficking. This review illustrates in different cellular models how actin and many of its numerous binding and regulatory proteins (actin and co-workers) participate in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus and in trafficking-associated processes such as sorting, biogenesis and motion of Golgi-derived transport carriers.

  9. Phosphoproteome and transcription factor activity profiling identify actions of the anti-inflammatory agent UTL-5g in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells including disrupting actin remodeling and STAT-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Nicholas J; Stemmer, Paul M; Chen, Ben; Valeriote, Frederick; Gao, Xiaohua; Guatam, Subhash C; Shaw, Jiajiu

    2017-09-15

    UTL-5g is a novel small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator. It reduces cisplatin-induced side effects by protecting kidney, liver, and platelets, thereby increasing tolerance for cisplatin. UTL-5g also reduces radiation-induced acute liver toxicity. The mechanism of action for UTL-5g is not clear at the present time. A phosphoproteomic analysis to a depth of 4943 phosphopeptides and a luminescence-based transcription factor activity assay were used to provide complementary analyses of signaling events that were disrupted by UTL-5g in RAW 264.7 cells. Transcriptional activity downstream of the interferon gamma, IL-6, type 1 Interferon, TGF-β, PKC/Ca2+ and the glucocorticoid receptor pathways were disrupted by UTL-5g. Phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that hyperphosphorylation of proteins involved in actin remodeling was suppressed by UTL-5g (gene set analysis, FDR 5g. This global characterization of UTL-5g activity in a macrophage cell line discovered that it disrupts selected aspects of LPS signaling including Stat3 activation and actin remodeling providing new insight on how UTL-5g acts to reduce cisplatin-induced side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enigma interacts with adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains to control insulin-induced actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose transporter 4 translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barres, Romain; Grémeaux, Thierry; Gual, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    APS (adaptor protein with PH and SH2 domains) initiates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway involved in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We recently identified Enigma, a PDZ and LIM domain-containing protein, as a partner of APS and showed that APS-Enigma complex plays...... a critical role in actin cytoskeleton organization in fibroblastic cells. Because actin rearrangement is important for insulin-induced glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) translocation, we studied the potential involvement of Enigma in insulin-induced glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Enigma m......RNA was expressed in differentiated adipocytes and APS and Enigma were colocalized with cortical actin. Expression of an APS mutant unable to bind Enigma increased the insulin-induced Glut 4 translocation to the plasma membrane. By contrast, overexpression of Enigma inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport...

  11. Yeast translation elongation factor-1A binds vacuole-localized Rho1p to facilitate membrane integrity through F-actin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodman, James A R; Yang, Yang; Logan, Michael R; Eitzen, Gary

    2015-02-20

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that modulate a variety of cellular processes, most notably those involving actin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast vacuolar membrane fusion requires re-organization of actin filaments mediated by two Rho GTPases, Rho1p and Cdc42p. Cdc42p initiates actin polymerization to facilitate membrane tethering; Rho1p has a role in the late stages of vacuolar fusion, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we identified eEF1A as a vacuolar Rho1p-interacting protein. eEF1A (encoded by the TEF1 and TEF2 genes in yeast) is an aminoacyl-tRNA transferase needed during protein translation. eEF1A also has a second function that is independent of translation; it binds and organizes actin filaments into ordered cable structures. Here, we report that eEF1A interacts with Rho1p via a C-terminal subdomain. This interaction occurs predominantly when both proteins are in the GDP-bound state. Therefore, eEF1A is an atypical downstream effector of Rho1p. eEF1A does not promote vacuolar fusion; however, overexpression of the Rho1p-interacting subdomain affects vacuolar morphology. Vacuoles were destabilized and prone to leakage when treated with the eEF1A inhibitor narciclasine. We propose a model whereby eEF1A binds to Rho1p-GDP on the vacuolar membrane; it is released upon Rho1p activation and then bundles actin filaments to stabilize fused vacuoles. Therefore, the Rho1p-eEF1A complex acts to spatially localize a pool of eEF1A to vacuoles where it can readily organize F-actin. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Vinculin, VASP, and profilin are coordinately regulated during actin remodeling in epithelial cells, which requires de novo protein synthesis and protein kinase signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Margaret P

    2004-08-01

    Transformation progression of epithelial cells involves alterations in their morphology, polarity, and adhesive characteristics, all of which are associated with the loss and/or reorganization of actin structures. To identify the underlying mechanism of formation of the adhesion-dependent, circumferential actin network, the expression and localization of the actin binding and regulating proteins (ABPs), vinculin, VASP, and profilin were evaluated. Experimental depolarization of epithelial cells results in the loss of normal F-actin structures and the transient upregulation of vinculin, VASP, and profilin. This response is due to the loss of cell-cell, and not cell-substrate interactions, since cells that no longer express focal adhesions or stress fibers are still sensitive to changes in adhesion and manifest this in the altered profile of expression of these ABPs. Transient upregulation is dependent upon de novo protein synthesis, and protein kinase-, but not phosphatase-sensitive signal transduction pathway(s). Inhibition of the synthesis of these proteins is accompanied by dephosphorylation of the ribosomal S6 protein, but does not involve inhibition of the PI3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway. Constitutive expression of VASP results in altered cell morphology and adhesion and F-actin and vinculin structures. V12rac1 expressing epithelial cells are constitutively nonadhesive, malignantly transformed, and constitutively express high levels of these ABPs, with altered subcellular localizations. Transformation suppression is accompanied by the restoration of normal levels of the three ABPs, actin structures, adhesion, and epithelial morphology. Thus, vinculin, VASP, and profilin are coordinately regulated by signal transduction pathways that effect a translational response. Additionally, their expression profile maybe indicative of the adhesion and transformation status of epithelial cells. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The ER Stress Sensor PERK Coordinates ER-Plasma Membrane Contact Site Formation through Interaction with Filamin-A and F-Actin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Giordano, Francesca; Gerlo, Sarah; Segura, Inmaculada; Van Eygen, Sofie; Molenberghs, Geert; Rocha, Susana; Houcine, Audrey; Derua, Rita; Verfaillie, Tom; Vangindertael, Jeroen; De Keersmaecker, Herlinde; Waelkens, Etienne; Tavernier, Jan; Hofkens, Johan; Annaert, Wim; Carmeliet, Peter; Samali, Afshin; Mizuno, Hideaki; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2017-03-02

    Loss of ER Ca(2+) homeostasis triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and drives ER-PM contact sites formation in order to refill ER-luminal Ca(2+). Recent studies suggest that the ER stress sensor and mediator of the unfolded protein response (UPR) PERK regulates intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes, but the mechanisms remain elusive. Here, using proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID), we identified the actin-binding protein Filamin A (FLNA) as a key PERK interactor. Cells lacking PERK accumulate F-actin at the cell edges and display reduced ER-PM contacts. Following ER-Ca(2+) store depletion, the PERK-FLNA interaction drives the expansion of ER-PM juxtapositions by regulating F-actin-assisted relocation of the ER-associated tethering proteins Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and Extended Synaptotagmin-1 (E-Syt1) to the PM. Cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation elicits rapid and UPR-independent PERK dimerization, which enforces PERK-FLNA-mediated ER-PM juxtapositions. Collectively, our data unravel an unprecedented role of PERK in the regulation of ER-PM appositions through the modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prostaglandins temporally regulate cytoplasmic actin bundle formation during Drosophila oogenesis

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    Spracklen, Andrew J.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Chen, Xiang; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Tootle, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs)—lipid signals produced downstream of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes—regulate actin dynamics in cell culture and platelets, but their roles during development are largely unknown. Here we define a new role for Pxt, the Drosophila COX-like enzyme, in regulating the actin cytoskeleton—temporal restriction of actin remodeling during oogenesis. PGs are required for actin filament bundle formation during stage 10B (S10B). In addition, loss of Pxt results in extensive early actin remodeling, including actin filaments and aggregates, within the posterior nurse cells of S9 follicles; wild-type follicles exhibit similar structures at a low frequency. Hu li tai shao (Hts-RC) and Villin (Quail), an actin bundler, localize to all early actin structures, whereas Enabled (Ena), an actin elongation factor, preferentially localizes to those in pxt mutants. Reduced Ena levels strongly suppress early actin remodeling in pxt mutants. Furthermore, loss of Pxt results in reduced Ena localization to the sites of bundle formation during S10B. Together these data lead to a model in which PGs temporally regulate actin remodeling during Drosophila oogenesis by controlling Ena localization/activity, such that in S9, PG signaling inhibits, whereas at S10B, it promotes Ena-dependent actin remodeling. PMID:24284900

  15. Actin Co-Sedimentation Assay; for the Analysis of Protein Binding to F-Actin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Jyoti; Barber, Diane

    2008-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton within the cell is a network of actin filaments that allows the movement of cells and cellular processes, and that generates tension and helps maintains cellular shape. Although the actin cytoskeleton is a rigid structure, it is a dynamic structure that is constantly remodeling. A number of proteins can bind to the actin cytoskeleton. The binding of a particular protein to F-actin is often desired to support cell biological observations or to further understand dynamic processes due to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin co-sedimentation assay is an in vitro assay routinely used to analyze the binding of specific proteins or protein domains with F-actin. The basic principles of the assay involve an incubation of the protein of interest (full length or domain of) with F-actin, ultracentrifugation step to pellet F-actin and analysis of the protein co-sedimenting with F-actin. Actin co-sedimentation assays can be designed accordingly to measure actin binding affinities and in competition assays. PMID:19066573

  16. Nuclear Actin in Development and Transcriptional Reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misu, Shinji; Takebayashi, Marina; Miyamoto, Kei

    2017-01-01

    Actin is a highly abundant protein in eukaryotic cells and dynamically changes its polymerized states with the help of actin-binding proteins. Its critical function as a constituent of cytoskeleton has been well-documented. Growing evidence demonstrates that actin is also present in nuclei, referred to as nuclear actin, and is involved in a number of nuclear processes, including transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The contribution of nuclear actin to transcriptional regulation can be explained by its direct interaction with transcription machineries and chromatin remodeling factors and by controlling the activities of transcription factors. In both cases, polymerized states of nuclear actin affect the transcriptional outcome. Nuclear actin also plays an important role in activating strongly silenced genes in somatic cells for transcriptional reprogramming. When these nuclear functions of actin are considered, it is plausible to speculate that nuclear actin is also implicated in embryonic development, in which numerous genes need to be activated in a well-coordinated manner. In this review, we especially focus on nuclear actin's roles in transcriptional activation, reprogramming and development, including stem cell differentiation and we discuss how nuclear actin can be an important player in development and cell differentiation.

  17. p190RhoGAP links the β1 integrin/caveolin-1 mechano-signaling complex to RhoA and actin remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baohua; Radel, Chris; Hughes, Dalton; Kelemen, Sheri; Rizzo, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hemodynamic shear stress influences endothelial cell phenotype. Integrins and RhoA are essential components in the process that allow endothelial cells to adapt to flow. However, the signaling mechanisms that relay from integrins to RhoA are not well defined. We hypothesized that the β1 integrin/caveolin-1 signaling complex plays a role in shear stress regulation of RhoA activity through temporal regulation of p190RhoGAP. Methods and Results BAEC were subjected to laminar shear stress (10dynes/cm2) for up to 6 hrs. β1 integrin blockade inhibited Src-family kinases (SFK) and p190RhoGAP tyrosine phosophorylation observed following acute onset of shear stress. Depletion of caveolin-1 blocked the decline in p190RhoGAP tyrosine phosporylation observed at later time points through sustaining SFK activity. Manipulation of β1 integrin and caveolin-1 also altered shear-regulation of RhoA activity. More importantly, cells depleted of p190RhoGAP showed faulty temporal regulation of RhoA activity. Each of these treatments attenuated actin reorganization induced by flow. Similarly, stress fibers failed to form in endothelial cells exposed to enhanced blood flow in caveolin-1 knockout mice. Conclusions Our studies demonstrate that p190RhoGAP links integrins, caveolin-1/caveolae to RhoA in a mechanotransduction cascade that participates in endothelial adaptation to flow. PMID:21051664

  18. Shedding light on nuclear actin dynamics and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The functions of nuclear actin have been a mystery for many years. Recent papers demonstrate that the nuclear and cytoplasmic actin pools are in dynamic communication, but that not all nuclear actin freely exchanges. Extracellular signals can induce changes in nuclear actin dynamics, affecting activity of the myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF) transcriptional coactivators, which reversibly bind G-actin. By contrast, actin is stably associated with the Ino80 chromatin remodelling complex, where it plays a role in the recognition of nucleosome linker DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification and first characterization of SmEps8, a potential interaction partner of SmTK3 and SER transcribed in the gonads of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buro, C; Burmeister, C; Quack, T; Grevelding, C G

    2017-09-01

    In eukaryotes the roles of protein kinases (PKs) regulating important biological processes such as growth and differentiation are well known. Molecular, biochemical, and physiological analyses trying to unravel principles of schistosome development have substantiated the importance for PKs also in this parasite. Amongst others the role of SmTK3 was studied, one of the first cellular PKs characterized from Schistosoma mansoni. Its function was demonstrated in mitogenic and differentiation processes in the gonads. Furthermore, first insights were obtained for the downstream part of a signal transduction cascade SmTK3 is involved in, which includes the diaphanous homolog SmDia. Here we attempted to further unravel the SmTK3 signaling cascade by searching for upstream interaction partners. Using yeast three-hybrid (Y3H) analyses we detected the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway substrate 8 of S. mansoni (SmEps8) as the most interesting candidate. By detailed interaction analyses we showed a contribution of the Src homology (SH) domains SH2 and SH3 of SmTK3 to binding, with a clear bias towards SH2. Compared to full-length SmEps8, binding was enhanced when only its 5' part including the phosphotyrosine binding domain (PTB) was used for interaction analyses including the SH2 domain of SmTK3, although phosphorylation seemed not to play a decisive role for binding. RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated similar transcription patterns of SmTK3 and SmEPS8, which co-localize in the reproductive organs. Furthermore, first evidence was obtained for SmEps8 interaction and colocalization with SER, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) homologs detected in S. mansoni. The results of this study provide first evidence for a SER-SmEps8-SmTK3-SmDia signal transduction pathway controlling differentiation processes in the gonads of S. mansoni. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The pros and cons of common actin labeling tools for visualizing actin dynamics during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Fagan, Tiffany N; Lovander, Kaylee E; Tootle, Tina L

    2014-09-15

    Dynamic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is required for both development and tissue homeostasis. While fixed image analysis has provided significant insight into such events, a complete understanding of cytoskeletal dynamics requires live imaging. Numerous tools for the live imaging of actin have been generated by fusing the actin-binding domain from an actin-interacting protein to a fluorescent protein. Here we comparatively assess the utility of three such tools--Utrophin, Lifeact, and F-tractin--for characterizing the actin remodeling events occurring within the germline-derived nurse cells during Drosophila mid-oogenesis or follicle development. Specifically, we used the UAS/GAL4 system to express these tools at different levels and in different cells, and analyzed these tools for effects on fertility, alterations in the actin cytoskeleton, and ability to label filamentous actin (F-actin) structures by both fixed and live imaging. While both Utrophin and Lifeact robustly label F-actin structures within the Drosophila germline, when strongly expressed they cause sterility and severe actin defects including cortical actin breakdown resulting in multi-nucleate nurse cells, early F-actin filament and aggregate formation during stage 9 (S9), and disorganized parallel actin filament bundles during stage 10B (S10B). However, by using a weaker germline GAL4 driver in combination with a higher temperature, Utrophin can label F-actin with minimal defects. Additionally, strong Utrophin expression within the germline causes F-actin formation in the nurse cell nuclei and germinal vesicle during mid-oogenesis. Similarly, Lifeact expression results in nuclear F-actin only within the germinal vesicle. F-tractin expresses at a lower level than the other two labeling tools, but labels cytoplasmic F-actin structures well without causing sterility or striking actin defects. Together these studies reveal how critical it is to evaluate the utility of each actin labeling tool

  1. Actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés M; Egekvist, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik F

    2015-01-01

    cryotherapy (57.7%) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (17.1%) and imiquimod (11.2%). The likelihood of receiving cryotherapy was higher for men (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.47) and increased with age (2.2% per year, 0.4-4.0%). PDT represented the most...... treatment overall, except in instances of severe actinic damage, in which PDT is the first-choice treatment. © 2016 International Society of Dermatology....

  2. Cytoskeletal actin dynamics shape a ramifying actin network underpinning immunological synapse formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzsche, Marco; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; Chang, Veronica T.

    2017-01-01

    T cell activation and especially trafficking of T cell receptor microclusters during immunological synapse formation are widely thought to rely on cytoskeletal remodeling. However, important details on the involvement of actin in the latter transport processes are missing. Using a suite of advanced...... optical microscopes to analyze resting and activated T cells, we show that, following contact formation with activating surfaces, these cells sequentially rearrange their cortical actin across the entire cell, creating a previously unreported ramifying actin network above the immunological synapse...... lengths of two differently sized filamentous actin populations, wherein forminmediated long actin filaments support a very flat and stiff contact at the immunological synapse interface. The initiation of immunological synapse formation, as highlighted by calcium release, requires markedly little contact...

  3. Proteomic comparison of the EWS-FLI1 expressing cells EF with NIH-3T3 and actin remodeling effect of (R/W9 cell-penetrating peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Clavier

    2016-03-01

    Biological significance: Up to now very few global quantitative proteomic studies have been published to help understand the oncogenic transformation induced by EWS-FLI1 fusion protein and leading to Ewing sarcoma development and dissemination. The comparison we did in this study between a model tumoral cell line EF and its non-tumoral counterpart (3T3 allowed us to highlight several features either common to most tumor types or specific to Ewing sarcoma. Particularly, lack of actin cytoskeleton organization could very likely be explained by the down-regulation of many important actin binding proteins. These results are in accordance with the hypothesis of a passive/stochastic mode of dissemination conferring Ewing sarcoma tumoral cell a high metastatic potential.

  4. Bundling Actin Filaments From Membranes: Some Novel Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eThomas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Progress in live-cell imaging of the cytoskeleton has significantly extended our knowledge about the organization and dynamics of actin filaments near the plasma membrane of plant cells. Noticeably, two populations of filamentous structures can be distinguished. On the one hand, fine actin filaments which exhibit an extremely dynamic behavior basically characterized by fast polymerization and prolific severing events, a process referred to as actin stochastic dynamics. On the other hand, thick actin bundles which are composed of several filaments and which are comparatively more stable although they constantly remodel as well. There is evidence that the actin cytoskeleton plays critical roles in trafficking and signaling at both the cell cortex and organelle periphery but the exact contribution of actin bundles remains unclear. A common view is that actin bundles provide the long-distance tracks used by myosin motors to deliver their cargo to growing regions and accordingly play a particularly important role in cell polarization. However, several studies support that actin bundles are more than simple passive highways and display multiple and dynamic roles in the regulation of many processes, such as cell elongation, polar auxin transport, stomatal and chloroplast movement, and defense against pathogens. The list of identified plant actin-bundling proteins is ever expanding, supporting that plant cells shape structurally and functionally different actin bundles. Here I review the most recently characterized actin-bundling proteins, with a particular focus on those potentially relevant to membrane trafficking and/or signaling.

  5. Distributed actin turnover in the lamellipodium and FRAP kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew B; Kiuchi, Tai; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-08

    Studies of actin dynamics at the leading edge of motile cells with single-molecule speckle (SiMS) microscopy have shown a broad distribution of EGFP-actin speckle lifetimes and indicated actin polymerization and depolymerization over an extended region. Other experiments using FRAP with the same EGFP-actin as a probe have suggested, by contrast, that polymerization occurs exclusively at the leading edge. We performed FRAP experiments on XTC cells to compare SiMS to FRAP on the same cell type. We used speckle statistics obtained by SiMS to model the steady-state distribution and kinetics of actin in the lamellipodium. We demonstrate that a model with a single diffuse actin species is in good agreement with FRAP experiments. A model including two species of diffuse actin provides an even better agreement. The second species consists of slowly diffusing oligomers that associate to the F-actin network throughout the lamellipodium or break up into monomers after a characteristic time. Our work motivates studies to test the presence and composition of slowly diffusing actin species that may contribute to local remodeling of the actin network and increase the amount of soluble actin. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 1 (ESD1) encodes ACTIN-RELATED PROTEIN 6 (AtARP6), a putative component of chromatin remodelling complexes that positively regulates FLC accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Trillo, Mar; Lázaro, Ana; Poethig, R Scott; Gómez-Mena, Concepción; Piñeiro, Manuel A; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M; Jarillo, Jose A

    2006-04-01

    We have characterized Arabidopsis esd1 mutations, which cause early flowering independently of photoperiod, moderate increase of hypocotyl length, shortened inflorescence internodes, and altered leaf and flower development. Phenotypic analyses of double mutants with mutations at different loci of the flowering inductive pathways suggest that esd1 abolishes the FLC-mediated late flowering phenotype of plants carrying active alleles of FRI and of mutants of the autonomous pathway. We found that ESD1 is required for the expression of the FLC repressor to levels that inhibit flowering. However, the effect of esd1 in a flc-3 null genetic background and the downregulation of other members of the FLC-like/MAF gene family in esd1 mutants suggest that flowering inhibition mediated by ESD1 occurs through both FLC-and FLC-like gene-dependent pathways. The ESD1 locus was identified through a map-based cloning approach. ESD1 encodes ARP6, a homolog of the actin-related protein family that shares moderate sequence homology with conventional actins. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments, we have determined that ARP6 is required for both histone acetylation and methylation of the FLC chromatin in Arabidopsis.

  7. SPARC Interacts with Actin in Skeletal Muscle in Vitro and in Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise H; Jepsen, Pia Lørup; Boysen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    to actin. This interaction is present in regenerating myofibers of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, polymyositis, and compartment syndrome. Analysis of the α-, β-, and γ-actin isoforms in SPARC knockout myoblasts reveals a changed expression pattern with dominance of γ-actin. In SPARC knockout...... stimulation protocol, we find a defective force recovery. Therefore, SPARC appears to be an important modulator of the actin cytoskeleton, implicating maintenance of muscular function. This direct interaction with actin suggests a new role of SPARC during tissue remodeling....

  8. αE-catenin actin-binding domain alters actin filament conformation and regulates binding of nucleation and disassembly factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott D; Kwiatkowski, Adam V; Ouyang, Chung-Yueh; Liu, Hongjun; Pokutta, Sabine; Watkins, Simon C; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Weis, William I; Mullins, R Dyche; Nelson, W James

    2013-12-01

    The actin-binding protein αE-catenin may contribute to transitions between cell migration and cell-cell adhesion that depend on remodeling the actin cytoskeleton, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We show that the αE-catenin actin-binding domain (ABD) binds cooperatively to individual actin filaments and that binding is accompanied by a conformational change in the actin protomer that affects filament structure. αE-catenin ABD binding limits barbed-end growth, especially in actin filament bundles. αE-catenin ABD inhibits actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex and severing by cofilin, both of which contact regions of the actin protomer that are structurally altered by αE-catenin ABD binding. In epithelial cells, there is little correlation between the distribution of αE-catenin and the Arp2/3 complex at developing cell-cell contacts. Our results indicate that αE-catenin binding to filamentous actin favors assembly of unbranched filament bundles that are protected from severing over more dynamic, branched filament arrays.

  9. p53 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling to suppress tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Keigo; Ebata, Takahiro; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Tobiume, Kei; Wolf, Steven John; Kawauchi, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cells possess unique characteristics such as invasiveness, the ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and an inherent stemness. Cell morphology is altered during these processes and this is highly dependent on actin cytoskeleton remodeling. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is, therefore, important for determination of cell fate. Mutations within the TP53 (tumor suppressor p53) gene leading to loss or gain of function (GOF) of the protein are often observed in aggressive cancer cells. Here, we highlight the roles of p53 and its GOF mutants in cancer cell invasion from the perspective of the actin cytoskeleton; in particular its reorganization and regulation by cell adhesion molecules such as integrins and cadherins. We emphasize the multiple functions of p53 in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling in response to the extracellular microenvironment, and oncogene activation. Such an approach provides a new perspective in the consideration of novel targets for anti-cancer therapy.

  10. Active multistage coarsening of actin networks driven by myosin motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marina Soares e; Depken, Martin; Stuhrmann, Björn; Korsten, Marijn; MacKintosh, Fred C.; Koenderink, Gijsje H.

    2011-01-01

    In cells, many vital processes involve myosin-driven motility that actively remodels the actin cytoskeleton and changes cell shape. Here we study how the collective action of myosin motors organizes actin filaments into contractile structures in a simplified model system devoid of biochemical regulation. We show that this self-organization occurs through an active multistage coarsening process. First, motors form dense foci by moving along the actin network structure followed by coalescence. Then the foci accumulate actin filaments in a shell around them. These actomyosin condensates eventually cluster due to motor-driven coalescence. We propose that the physical origin of this multistage aggregation is the highly asymmetric load response of actin filaments: they can support large tensions but buckle easily under piconewton compressive loads. Because the motor-generated forces well exceed this threshold, buckling is induced on the connected actin network that resists motor-driven filament sliding. We show how this buckling can give rise to the accumulation of actin shells around myosin foci and subsequent coalescence of foci into superaggregates. This new physical mechanism provides an explanation for the formation and contractile dynamics of disordered condensed actomyosin states observed in vivo. PMID:21593409

  11. Myosins, Actin and Autophagy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruppa, Antonina J; Kendrick‐Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2016-01-01

    .... In this review, we will discuss the importance of actin filament dynamics for autophagy progression and highlight the distinct requirement for three classes of myosins during different stages of the autophagy pathway...

  12. The F-actin modifier villin regulates insulin granule dynamics and exocytosis downstream of islet cell autoantigen 512

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mziaut

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Our findings show that villin controls the size of the F-actin cages restricting SGs and, thus, regulates their dynamics and availability for exocytosis. Evidence that villin acts downstream of Ica512 also indicates that SGs directly influence the remodeling properties of the cortical actin cytoskeleton for tight control of insulin secretion.

  13. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, H.S.; Lee, M.Y.; Moon, J.S.; Moon, J.K.; Yu, Y.M.; Cho, I.S.; Bae, H.; Boer, de S.M.; Ju, H.; Hammond, J.; Jackson, A.O.

    2013-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB) proteins were coexpressed in cells

  14. T lymphocyte migration: an action movie starring the actin and associated actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc eDupré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a dynamic filament meshwork that builds the architecture of the cell to sustain its fundamental properties. This physical structure is characterized by a continuous remodeling, which allows cells to accomplish complex motility steps such as directed migration, crossing of biological barriers and interaction with other cells. T lymphocytes excel in these motility steps to ensure their immune surveillance duties. In particular, actin cytoskeleton remodeling is key to facilitate the journey of T lymphocytes through distinct tissue environments and to tune their stop and go behavior during the scanning of antigen-presenting cells. The molecular mechanisms controlling actin cytoskeleton remodeling during T lymphocyte motility have been only partially unraveled, since the function of many actin regulators has not yet been assessed in these cells. Our review aims to integrate the current knowledge into a comprehensive picture of how the actin cytoskeleton drives T lymphocyte migration. We will present the molecular actors that control actin cytoskeleton remodeling, as well as their role in the different T lymphocyte motile steps. We will also highlight which challenges remain to be addressed experimentally and which approaches appear promising to tackle them.

  15. Fluorescence single-molecule imaging of actin turnover and regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Cells must rapidly remodel the actin filament network to achieve various cellular functions. Actin filament turnover is a dynamic process that plays crucial roles in cell adhesion, locomotion, cytokinesis, endocytosis, phagocytosis, tissue remodeling, etc., and is regulated by cell signaling cascades. Success in elucidating dynamic biological processes such as actin-based motility relies on the means enabling real time monitoring of the process. The invention of live-cell fluorescence single-molecule imaging has opened a window for direct viewing of various actin remodeling processes. In general, assembly and dissociation of actin and its regulators turned out to occur at the faster rates than previously estimated by biochemical and structural analyses. Cells undergo such fast continuous exchange of the components perhaps not only to drive actin remodeling but also to facilitate rapid response in many other cell mechanics and signaling cascades. This chapter describes how epifluorescence single-molecule imaging which visualizes deeper area than the TIRF microscopy is achieved in XTC cells, the currently best platform for this approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotnick, Edna; Sol, Asaf; Muhlrad, Andras

    2017-01-01

    Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III) and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  17. Histones bundle F-actin filaments and affect actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Blotnick

    Full Text Available Histones are small polycationic proteins complexed with DNA located in the cell nucleus. Upon apoptosis they are secreted from the cells and react with extracellular polyanionic compounds. Actin which is a polyanionic protein, is also secreted from necrotic cells and interacts with histones. We showed that both histone mixture (histone type III and the recombinant H2A histone bundles F-actin, increases the viscosity of the F-actin containing solution and polymerizes G-actin. The histone-actin bundles are relatively insensitive to increase of ionic strength, unlike other polycation, histatin, lysozyme, spermine and LL-37 induced F-actin bundles. The histone-actin bundles dissociate completely only in the presence of 300-400 mM NaCl. DNA, which competes with F-actin for histones, disassembles histone induced actin bundles. DNase1, which depolymerizes F- to G-actin, actively unbundles the H2A histone induced but slightly affects the histone mixture induced actin bundles. Cofilin decreases the amount of F-actin sedimented by low speed centrifugation, increases light scattering and viscosity of F-actin-histone mixture containing solutions and forms star like superstructures by copolymerizing G-actin with H2A histone. The results indicate that histones are tightly attached to F-actin by strong electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. Since both histones and F-actin are present in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis, therefore, the formation of the stable histone-actin bundles can contribute to the pathology of this disease by increasing the viscosity of the sputum. The actin-histone interaction in the nucleus might affect gene expression.

  18. Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan N; Zastrow, Michael S; Wilson, Katherine L

    2010-01-01

    lamins, particularly lamin A, might impact the concentration of free actin in the nucleus or pathways including transcription, nuclear export, chromatin remodeling, chromatin movement and nuclear assembly that require nuclear myosin 1c and polymerizable actin.

  19. Antiparallel dimer and actin assembly†

    OpenAIRE

    Grintsevich, Elena E.; Phillips, Martin; Pavlov, Dmitry; Phan, Mai; Reisler, Emil; Muhlrad, Andras

    2010-01-01

    Antiparallel dimer (APD) is a unique actin species, which can be detected in the early stages of actin polymerization. In this work, we introduce novel tools to examine the effects of the APD on actin polymerization. We document that bifunctional methanothiosulfonate (MTS) reagents are an attractive alternative to the routinely used p-phenylenemaleimide (pPDM) for APD detection, allowing for a fast and efficient cross-linking under conditions of actin polymerization at neutral pH. We report a...

  20. Myocardial reverse remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellawell, Jennifer L; Margulies, Kenneth B

    2012-06-01

    Despite an extensive literature defining the mechanisms and significance of pathological myocardial remodeling, there has been no comprehensive review of the inverse process, often labeled reverse remodeling. Accordingly, the goal of this review is to overview the varied settings in which clinically significant reverse remodeling has been well documented. When available, we reviewed relevant randomized, controlled clinical trials, and meta-analyses with sufficient cardiac imaging data to permit conclusions about reverse remodeling. When these types of studies were not available, relevant case-control studies and case series that employed appropriate methodology were reviewed. Regression of pathological myocardial hypertrophy, chamber shape distortions, and dysfunction occurs in a wide variety of settings. Although reverse remodeling occurs spontaneously in some etiologies of myocardial dysfunction and failure, remodeling is more commonly observed in response to medical, device-based, or surgical therapies, including β-blockers, revascularization, cardiac resynchronization therapy, and valve surgery. Indeed, reverse remodeling following pathophysiologically targeted interventions helps validate that the targeted mechanisms are propelling and/or sustaining pathological remodeling. The diverse clinical settings in which reverse remodeling has been observed demonstrates that myocardial remodeling is bidirectional and occurs across the full spectrum of myocardial disease severity, duration, and etiology. Observations in several settings suggest that recovered hearts are not truly normal despite parallel improvements at organ, tissue, and cellular level. Nevertheless, the link between reverse remodeling and improved outcomes should inspire further research to better understand the mechanisms responsible for both reverse remodeling and persistent deviations from normalcy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Endocytosis-dependent coordination of multiple actin regulators is required for wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Yutaka; Coulson-Gilmer, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    The ability to heal wounds efficiently is essential for life. After wounding of an epithelium, the cells bordering the wound form dynamic actin protrusions and/or a contractile actomyosin cable, and these actin structures drive wound closure. Despite their importance in wound healing, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the assembly of these actin structures at wound edges are not well understood. In this paper, using Drosophila melanogaster embryos, we demonstrate that Diaphanous, SCAR, and WASp play distinct but overlapping roles in regulating actin assembly during wound healing. Moreover, we show that endocytosis is essential for wound edge actin assembly and wound closure. We identify adherens junctions (AJs) as a key target of endocytosis during wound healing and propose that endocytic remodeling of AJs is required to form “signaling centers” along the wound edge that control actin assembly. We conclude that coordination of actin assembly, AJ remodeling, and membrane traffic is required for the construction of a motile leading edge during wound healing. PMID:26216900

  2. Chronic Actinic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD is characterized by persistent eczema-like lesions, mainly on sun-exposed sites, induced by ultraviolet B, sometimes ultraviolet A, and occasionally visible light. CAD is a rare photodermatitis. It is often associated with contact allergens including airborne allergens such as fragrances, plant antigens and topical medications. A 62 year old farmer is applied with eczematous lesions restricted to sun-exposed areas. Clinical findings and histopathologic features were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic actinic dermatitis. The patient also had contact allergy to multiple allergens. We present this case to emphasize the significance of patch test on CAD treatment and the success of topical tacrolimus and azathioprine.

  3. TWISTED DWARF1 Mediates the Action of Auxin Transport Inhibitors on Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Aurelien; Zwiewka, Marta; Sovero, Valpuri; Ge, Pei; Aryal, Bibek; Hao, Pengchao; Linnert, Miriam; Burgardt, Noelia Inés; Lücke, Christian; Weiwad, Matthias; Michel, Max; Weiergräber, Oliver H.; Pollmann, Stephan; Azzarello, Elisa; Fukao, Yoichiro; Hoffmann, Céline; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and architecture is regulated by the polar distribution of the hormone auxin. Polarity and flexibility of this process is provided by constant cycling of auxin transporter vesicles along actin filaments, coordinated by a positive auxin-actin feedback loop. Both polar auxin transport and vesicle cycling are inhibited by synthetic auxin transport inhibitors, such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), counteracting the effect of auxin; however, underlying targets and mechanisms are unclear. Using NMR, we map the NPA binding surface on the Arabidopsis thaliana ABCB chaperone TWISTED DWARF1 (TWD1). We identify ACTIN7 as a relevant, although likely indirect, TWD1 interactor, and show TWD1-dependent regulation of actin filament organization and dynamics and that TWD1 is required for NPA-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The TWD1-ACTIN7 axis controls plasma membrane presence of efflux transporters, and as a consequence act7 and twd1 share developmental and physiological phenotypes indicative of defects in auxin transport. These can be phenocopied by NPA treatment or by chemical actin (de)stabilization. We provide evidence that TWD1 determines downstream locations of auxin efflux transporters by adjusting actin filament debundling and dynamizing processes and mediating NPA action on the latter. This function appears to be evolutionary conserved since TWD1 expression in budding yeast alters actin polarization and cell polarity and provides NPA sensitivity. PMID:27053424

  4. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  5. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by an interaction of IQGAP related protein GAPA with filamin and cortexillin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Subhanjan; Burgute, Bhagyashri; Rieger, Daniela; Müller, Rolf; Rivero, Francisco; Faix, Jan; Schleicher, Michael; Noegel, Angelika A

    2010-11-10

    Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin.

  6. Regulation of the actin cytoskeleton by an interaction of IQGAP related protein GAPA with filamin and cortexillin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhanjan Mondal

    Full Text Available Filamin and Cortexillin are F-actin crosslinking proteins in Dictyostelium discoideum allowing actin filaments to form three-dimensional networks. GAPA, an IQGAP related protein, is required for cytokinesis and localizes to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis. Here we describe a novel interaction with Filamin which is required for cytokinesis and regulation of the F-actin content. The interaction occurs through the actin binding domain of Filamin and the GRD domain of GAPA. A similar interaction takes place with Cortexillin I. We further report that Filamin associates with Rac1a implying that filamin might act as a scaffold for small GTPases. Filamin and activated Rac associate with GAPA to regulate actin remodelling. Overexpression of filamin and GAPA in the various strains suggests that GAPA regulates the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with Filamin and that it controls cytokinesis through association with Filamin and Cortexillin.

  7. Interplay between myosin IIA-mediated contractility and actin network integrity orchestrates podosome composition and oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Dries, K.; Meddens, M.B.M.; de Keijzer, S.; Shekhar, S.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Figdor, Carl; Cambi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-resident dendritic cells patrol for foreign antigens while undergoing slow mesenchymal migration. Using actomyosin-based structures called podosomes, dendritic cells probe and remodel extracellular matrix topographical cues. Podosomes comprise an actin-rich protrusive core surrounded by an

  8. Actin filaments as tension sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Vitold E; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H

    2012-02-07

    The field of mechanobiology has witnessed an explosive growth over the past several years as interest has greatly increased in understanding how mechanical forces are transduced by cells and how cells migrate, adhere and generate traction. Actin, a highly abundant and anomalously conserved protein, plays a large role in forming the dynamic cytoskeleton that is so essential for cell form, motility and mechanosensitivity. While the actin filament (F-actin) has been viewed as dynamic in terms of polymerization and depolymerization, new results suggest that F-actin itself may function as a highly dynamic tension sensor. This property may help explain the unusual conservation of actin's sequence, as well as shed further light on actin's essential role in structures from sarcomeres to stress fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...

  10. HLA typing in actinic prurigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, D P; Lane, P R; Irvine, J; Martel, M J; Hogan, D J

    1990-06-01

    Thirty-two actinic prurigo patients of Cree ancestry underwent human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing and were compared with 32 control subjects of Cree ancestry. We found a significantly increased frequency of HLA-A24 and Cw4 antigens and a significant decrease in the frequency of the A3 antigen in actinic prurigo patients. These HLA associations may be helpful in determining whether actinic prurigo is a distinct disease or a variant of polymorphous light eruption.

  11. Modification of actins by phallotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, T

    1977-06-01

    Phallotoxins bind to filamentous actin (F-actin) from liver or rabbit muscle with Kdiss approximately 10(-8) M. By this combination the structure of F-actin is stabilized to such an extent that it will be resistant to the depolymerizing action of 0.6 M KI and of deoxyribonuclease I, to denaturation by heat (70 degrees C), and to local ruptures caused by ultrasonication or by cytochalasin B. The structural features of phallotoxins essential for affinity to F-actin are specific.

  12. NHERF1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization through modulation of α-actinin-4 stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Licui; Zheng, Junfang; Wang, Qiqi; Song, Ran; Liu, Hua; Meng, Ran; Tao, Tao; Si, Yang; Jiang, Wenguo; He, Junqi

    2016-02-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is composed of a highly dynamic network of filamentous proteins, yet the molecular mechanism that regulates its organization and remodeling remains elusive. In this study, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF)-1 loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments reveal that polymerized actin cytoskeleton (F-actin) in HeLa cells is disorganized by NHERF1, whereas actin protein expression levels exhibit no detectable change. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying actin cytoskeleton disorganization by NHERF1, a combined 2-dimensional electrophoresis-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry approach was used to screen for proteins regulated by NHERF1 in HeLa cells. α-Actinin-4, an actin cross-linking protein, was identified. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation studies showed the α-actinin-4 carboxyl-terminal region specifically interacted with the NHERF1 postsynaptic density 95/disc-large/zona occludens-1 domain. The NHERF1/α-actinin-4 interaction increased α-actinin-4 ubiquitination and decreased its expression levels, resulting in actin cytoskeleton disassembly. Our study identified α-actinin-4 as a novel NHERF1 interaction partner and provided new insights into the regulatory mechanism of the actin cytoskeleton by NHERF1. © FASEB.

  13. Single Actin Bundle Rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehle, Dan; Mollenkopf, Paul; Glaser, Martin; Golde, Tom; Schuldt, Carsten; Käs, Josef A; Schnauß, Jörg

    2017-10-24

    Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  14. Single Actin Bundle Rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Strehle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bundled actin structures play an essential role in the mechanical response of the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Although responsible for crucial cellular processes, they are rarely investigated in comparison to single filaments and isotropic networks. Presenting a highly anisotropic structure, the determination of the mechanical properties of individual bundles was previously achieved through passive approaches observing bending deformations induced by thermal fluctuations. We present a new method to determine the bending stiffness of individual bundles, by measuring the decay of an actively induced oscillation. This approach allows us to systematically test anisotropic, bundled structures. Our experiments revealed that thin, depletion force-induced bundles behave as semiflexible polymers and obey the theoretical predictions determined by the wormlike chain model. Thickening an individual bundle by merging it with other bundles enabled us to study effects that are solely based on the number of involved filaments. These thicker bundles showed a frequency-dependent bending stiffness, a behavior that is inconsistent with the predictions of the wormlike chain model. We attribute this effect to internal processes and give a possible explanation with regard to the wormlike bundle theory.

  15. Ring closure in actin polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Supurna; Chattopadhyay, Sebanti

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments.We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers.

  16. SYP73 Anchors the ER to the Actin Cytoskeleton for Maintenance of ER Integrity and Streaming in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Renna, Luciana; Stefano, Giovanni; Brandizzi, Federica

    2016-12-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that spreads throughout the cytoplasm as one interconnected network of narrow tubules and dilated cisternae that enclose a single lumen. The ER network undergoes extensive remodeling, which critically depends on membrane-cytoskeleton interactions [1]. In plants, the ER is also highly mobile, and its streaming contributes significantly to the movement of other organelles [2, 3]. The remodeling and motility of the plant ER rely mainly on actin [4] and to a minor extent on microtubules [5]. Although a three-way interaction between the ER, cytosolic myosin-XI, and F-actin mediates the plant ER streaming [6], the mechanisms underlying stable interaction of the ER membrane with actin are unknown. Early electron microscopy studies suggested a direct attachment of the plant ER with actin filaments [7, 8], but it is plausible that yet-unknown proteins facilitate anchoring of the ER membrane with the cytoskeleton. We demonstrate here that SYP73, a member of the plant Syp7 subgroup of SNARE proteins [9] containing actin-binding domains, is a novel ER membrane-associated actin-binding protein. We show that overexpression of SYP73 causes a striking rearrangement of the ER over actin and that, similar to mutations of myosin-XI [4, 10, 11], loss of SYP73 reduces ER streaming and affects overall ER network morphology and plant growth. We propose a model for plant ER remodeling whereby the dynamic rearrangement and streaming of the ER network depend on the propelling action of myosin-XI over actin coupled with a SYP73-mediated bridging, which dynamically anchors the ER membrane with actin filaments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Role for Nuclear F-Actin Induction in Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Adrian R.; Lawler, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesviruses, which include important pathogens, remodel the host cell nucleus to facilitate infection. This remodeling includes the formation of structures called replication compartments (RCs) in which herpesviruses replicate their DNA. During infection with the betaherpesvirus, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), viral DNA synthesis occurs at the periphery of RCs within the nuclear interior, after which assembled capsids must reach the inner nuclear membrane (INM) for translocation to the cytoplasm (nuclear egress). The processes that facilitate movement of HCMV capsids to the INM during nuclear egress are unknown. Although an actin-based mechanism of alphaherpesvirus capsid trafficking to the INM has been proposed, it is controversial. Here, using a fluorescently-tagged, nucleus-localized actin-binding peptide, we show that HCMV, but not herpes simplex virus 1, strongly induced nuclear actin filaments (F-actin) in human fibroblasts. Based on studies using UV inactivation and inhibitors, this induction depended on viral gene expression. Interestingly, by 24 h postinfection, nuclear F-actin formed thicker structures that appeared by super-resolution microscopy to be bundles of filaments. Later in infection, nuclear F-actin primarily localized along the RC periphery and between the RC periphery and the nuclear rim. Importantly, a drug that depolymerized nuclear F-actin caused defects in production of infectious virus, capsid accumulation in the cytoplasm, and capsid localization near the nuclear rim, without decreasing capsid accumulation in the nucleus. Thus, our results suggest that for at least one herpesvirus, nuclear F-actin promotes capsid movement to the nuclear periphery and nuclear egress. We discuss our results in terms of competing models for these processes. PMID:27555312

  18. TIRF microscopy analysis of human Cof1, Cof2, and ADF effects on actin filament severing and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Samantha M; Jansen, Silvia; Goode, Bruce L

    2016-04-24

    Dynamic remodeling and turnover of cellular actin networks requires actin filament severing by actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/Cofilin proteins. Mammals express three different ADF/Cofilins (Cof1, Cof2, and ADF), and genetic studies suggest that in vivo they perform both overlapping and unique functions. To gain mechanistic insights into their different roles, we directly compared their G-actin and F-actin binding affinities, and quantified the actin filament severing activities of human Cof1, Cof2, and ADF using in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. All three ADF/Cofilins had similar affinities for G-actin and F-actin. However, Cof2 and ADF severed filaments much more efficiently than Cof1 at both lower and higher concentrations and using either muscle or platelet actin. Furthermore, Cof2 and ADF were more effective than Cof1 in promoting "enhanced disassembly" when combined with actin disassembly co-factors Coronin-1B and actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1), and these differences were observed on both preformed and actively growing filaments. To probe the mechanism underlying these differences, we used multi-wavelength total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to directly observe Cy3-Cof1 and Cy3-Cof2 interacting with actin filaments in real time during severing. Cof1 and Cof2 each bound to filaments with similar kinetics, yet Cof2 induced severing much more rapidly than Cof1, decreasing the time interval between initial binding on a filament and severing at the same location. These differences in ADF/Cofilin activities and mechanisms may be used in cells to tune filament turnover rates, which can vary widely for different actin structures. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Challenge Integrity: The Cell-Penetrating Peptide BP100 Interferes with the Auxin-Actin Oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Kai; Sanyal, Papia; Hundt, Svenja; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S; Nick, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Actin filaments are essential for the integrity of the cell membrane. In addition to this structural role, actin can modulate signaling by altering polar auxin flow. On the other hand, the organization of actin filaments is modulated by auxin constituting a self-referring signaling hub. Although the function of this auxin–actin oscillator is not clear, there is evidence for a functional link with stress signaling activated by the NADPH oxidase Respiratory burst oxidase Homolog (RboH). In the current work, we used the cell-penetrating peptide BP100 to induce a mild and transient perturbation of membrane integrity. We followed the response of actin to the BP100 uptake in a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged actin marker line of tobacco Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cells by spinning disc confocal microscopy. We observed that BP100 enters in a stepwise manner and reduces the extent of actin remodeling. This actin ‘freezing’ can be rescued by the natural auxin IAA, and mimicked by the auxin-efflux inhibitor 1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA). We further tested the role of the membrane-localized NADPH oxidase RboH using the specific inhibitor diphenyl iodonium (DPI), and found that DPI acts antagonistically to BP100, although DPI alone can induce a similar actin ‘freezing’ as well. We propose a working model, where the mild violation of membrane integrity by BP100 stimulates RboH, and the resulting elevated levels of reactive oxygen species interfere with actin dynamicity. The mitigating effect of auxin is explained by competition of auxin- and RboH-triggered signaling for superoxide anions. This self-referring auxin–actin–RboH hub might be essential for integrity sensing.

  20. Single β-actin mRNA detection in neurons reveals a mechanism for regulating its translatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxbaum, Adina R; Wu, Bin; Singer, Robert H

    2014-01-24

    The physical manifestation of learning and memory formation in the brain can be expressed by strengthening or weakening of synaptic connections through morphological changes. Local actin remodeling underlies some forms of plasticity and may be facilitated by local β-actin synthesis, but dynamic information is lacking. In this work, we use single-molecule in situ hybridization to demonstrate that dendritic β-actin messenger RNA (mRNA) and ribosomes are in a masked, neuron-specific form. Chemically induced long-term potentiation prompts transient mRNA unmasking, which depends on factors active during synaptic activity. Ribosomes and single β-actin mRNA motility increase after stimulation, indicative of release from complexes. Hence, the single-molecule assays we developed allow for the quantification of activity-induced unmasking and availability for active translation. Further, our work demonstrates that β-actin mRNA and ribosomes are in a masked state that is alleviated by stimulation.

  1. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin-severing function of villin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelmann, Florent; Chamaillard, Mathias; El-Marjou, Fatima; Simon, Anthony; Netter, Jeanne; Vignjevic, Danijela; Nichols, Buford L; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Grandjean, Teddy; Louvard, Daniel; Revenu, Céline; Robine, Sylvie

    2013-04-09

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we address how polarized enterocytes harboring actin-rich apical microvilli undergo extensive cell remodeling to drive injury repair. Using live imaging technologies, we demonstrate that enterocytes in vitro and in vivo rapidly depolarize their microvilli at the wound edge. Through its F-actin-severing activity, the microvillar actin-binding protein villin drives both apical microvilli disassembly in vitro and in vivo and promotes lamellipodial extension. Photoactivation experiments indicate that microvillar actin is mobilized at the lamellipodium, allowing optimal migration. Finally, efficient repair of colonic mechanical injuries requires villin severing of F-actin, emphasizing the importance of villin function in intestinal homeostasis. Thus, villin severs F-actin to ensure microvillus depolarization and enterocyte remodeling upon injury. This work highlights the importance of specialized apical pole disassembly for the repolarization of epithelial cells initiating migration.

  2. Arp2/3- and cofilin-coordinated actin dynamics is required for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation to the surface of muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tim Ting; Patel, Nish; Shaw, Alisa E; Bamburg, James R; Klip, Amira

    2010-10-15

    GLUT4 vesicles are actively recruited to the muscle cell surface upon insulin stimulation. Key to this process is Rac-dependent reorganization of filamentous actin beneath the plasma membrane, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Using L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stably expressing myc-tagged GLUT4, we found that Arp2/3, acting downstream of Rac GTPase, is responsible for the cortical actin polymerization evoked by insulin. siRNA-mediated silencing of either Arp3 or p34 subunits of the Arp2/3 complex abrogated actin remodeling and impaired GLUT4 translocation. Insulin also led to dephosphorylation of the actin-severing protein cofilin on Ser-3, mediated by the phosphatase slingshot. Cofilin dephosphorylation was prevented by strategies depolymerizing remodeled actin (latrunculin B or p34 silencing), suggesting that accumulation of polymerized actin drives severing to enact a dynamic actin cycling. Cofilin knockdown via siRNA caused overwhelming actin polymerization that subsequently inhibited GLUT4 translocation. This inhibition was relieved by reexpressing Xenopus wild-type cofilin-GFP but not the S3E-cofilin-GFP mutant that emulates permanent phosphorylation. Transferrin recycling was not affected by depleting Arp2/3 or cofilin. These results suggest that cofilin dephosphorylation is required for GLUT4 translocation. We propose that Arp2/3 and cofilin coordinate a dynamic cycle of actin branching and severing at the cell cortex, essential for insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in muscle cells.

  3. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Matsumori, Haruka [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel [Department of Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Goldberg, Ilya G. [Image Informatics and Computational Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriko [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Harata, Masahiko, E-mail: mharata@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  4. Ring closure in actin polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Supurna, E-mail: supurna@rri.res.in [Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560080 (India); Chattopadhyay, Sebanti [Doon University, Dehradun 248001 (India)

    2017-03-18

    We present an analysis for the ring closure probability of semiflexible polymers within the pure bend Worm Like Chain (WLC) model. The ring closure probability predicted from our analysis can be tested against fluorescent actin cyclization experiments. We also discuss the effect of ring closure on bend angle fluctuations in actin polymers. - Highlights: • Ring closure of biopolymers. • Worm like chain model. • Predictions for experiments.

  5. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siccardi, Stefano, E-mail: ssiccardi@2ssas.it [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Tuszynski, Jack A., E-mail: jackt@ualberta.ca [Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Adamatzky, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.adamatzky@uwe.ac.uk [The Unconventional Computing Centre, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-08

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications. - Highlights: • We simulate interaction between voltage pulses using on actin filaments. • We use a coupled nonlinear transmission line model. • We design Boolean logical gates via interactions between the voltage pulses. • We construct one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses.

  6. Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjitske A Oenema

    Full Text Available Airway remodelling, including smooth muscle remodelling, is a primary cause of airflow limitation in asthma. Recent evidence links bronchoconstriction to airway remodelling in asthma. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A possible player is the multifunctional cytokine TGF-β, which plays an important role in airway remodelling. Guinea pig lung slices were used as an in vitro model to investigate mechanisms involved in bronchoconstriction-induced airway remodelling. To address this aim, mechanical effects of bronchoconstricting stimuli on contractile protein expression and TGF-β release were investigated. Lung slices were viable for at least 48 h. Both methacholine and TGF-β1 augmented the expression of contractile proteins (sm-α-actin, sm-myosin, calponin after 48 h. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that increased sm-myosin expression was enhanced in the peripheral airways and the central airways. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction mediated the release of biologically active TGF-β, which caused the increased contractile protein expression, as inhibition of actin polymerization (latrunculin A or TGF-β receptor kinase (SB431542 prevented the methacholine effects, whereas other bronchoconstricting agents (histamine and KCl mimicked the effects of methacholine. Collectively, bronchoconstriction promotes the release of TGF-β, which induces airway smooth muscle remodelling. This study shows that lung slices are a useful in vitro model to study mechanisms involved in airway remodelling.

  7. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Almuzzaini, Bader; Drou, Nizar; Kremb, Stephan; Yousif, Ayman; Farrants, Ann-Kristin Östlund; Gunsalus, Kristin; Percipalle, Piergiorgio

    2017-11-03

    During differentiation and development, cell fate and identity are established by waves of genetic reprogramming. Although the mechanisms are largely unknown, during these events, dynamic chromatin reorganization is likely to ensure that multiple genes involved in the same cellular functions are coregulated, depending on the nuclear environment. In this study, using high-content screening of embryonic fibroblasts from a β-actin knockout (KO) mouse, we found major chromatin rearrangements and changes in histone modifications, such as methylated histone (H)3-lysine-(K)9. Genome-wide H3K9 trimethylation-(Me)3 landscape changes correlate with gene up- and down-regulation in β-actin KO cells. Mechanistically, we found loss of chromatin association by the Brahma-related gene (Brg)/Brahma-associated factor (BAF) chromatin remodeling complex subunit Brg1 in the absence of β-actin. This actin-dependent chromatin reorganization was concomitant with the up-regulation of sets of genes involved in angiogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and myofibroblast features in β-actin KO cells. Some of these genes and phenotypes were gained in a β-actin dose-dependent manner. Moreover, reintroducing a nuclear localization signal-containing β-actin in the knockout cells affected nuclear features and gene expression. Our results suggest that, by affecting the genome-wide organization of heterochromatin through the chromatin-binding activity of the BAF complex, β-actin plays an essential role in the determination of gene expression programs and cellular identity.-Xie, X., Almuzzaini, B., Drou, N., Kremb, S., Yousif, A., Östlund Farrants, A.-K., Gunsalus, K., Percipalle, P. β-Actin-dependent global chromatin organization and gene expression programs control cellular identity. © FASEB.

  8. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  9. How cellular membrane properties are affected by the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemière, J; Valentino, F; Campillo, C; Sykes, C

    2016-11-01

    Lipid membranes define the boundaries of living cells and intracellular compartments. The dynamic remodelling of these membranes by the cytoskeleton, a very dynamic structure made of active biopolymers, is crucial in many biological processes such as motility or division. In this review, we present some aspects of cellular membranes and how they are affected by the presence of the actin cytoskeleton. We show that, in parallel with the direct study of membranes and cytoskeleton in vivo, biomimetic in vitro systems allow reconstitution of biological processes in a controlled environment. In particular, we show that liposomes, or giant unilamellar vesicles, encapsulating a reconstituted actin network polymerizing at their membrane are suitable models of living cells and can be used to decipher the relative contributions of membrane and actin on the mechanical properties of the cellular interface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Chromatin remodeling in mammalian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Birgit; Cabot, Ryan A

    2018-03-01

    The mammalian embryo undergoes a dramatic amount of epigenetic remodeling during the first week of development. In this review, we discuss several epigenetic changes that happen over the course of cleavage development, focusing on covalent marks (e.g., histone methylation and acetylation) and non-covalent remodeling (chromatin remodeling via remodeling complexes; e.g., SWI/SNF-mediated chromatin remodeling). Comparisons are also drawn between remodeling events that occur in embryos from a variety of mammalian species. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  11. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of gamma(cyto-actin does not exacerbate the mdx phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W Prins

    Full Text Available We previously documented a ten-fold increase in gamma(cyto-actin expression in dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and hypothesized that increased gamma(cyto-actin expression may participate in an adaptive cytoskeletal remodeling response. To explore whether increased gamma(cyto-actin fortifies the cortical cytoskeleton in dystrophic skeletal muscle, we generated double knockout mice lacking both dystrophin and gamma(cyto-actin specifically in skeletal muscle (ms-DKO. Surprisingly, dystrophin-deficient mdx and ms-DKO mice presented with comparable levels of myofiber necrosis, membrane instability, and deficits in muscle function. The lack of an exacerbated phenotype in ms-DKO mice suggests gamma(cyto-actin and dystrophin function in a common pathway. Finally, because both mdx and ms-DKO skeletal muscle showed similar levels of utrophin expression and presented with identical dystrophies, we conclude utrophin can partially compensate for the loss of dystrophin independent of a gamma(cyto-actin-utrophin interaction.

  12. Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

    2003-01-01

    According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

  13. Immunological responses and actin dynamics in macrophages are controlled by N-cofilin but are independent from ADF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Friederike; Gurniak, Christine B; Fleischer, Bernhard; Kirfel, Gregor; Witke, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton are essential for immune cell function and a number of immune deficiencies have been linked to mutations, which disturb the actin cytoskeleton. In macrophages and dendritic cells, actin remodelling is critical for motility, phagocytosis and antigen presentation, however the actin binding proteins, which control antigen presentation have been poorly characterized. Here we dissect the specific roles of the family of ADF/cofilin F-actin depolymerizing factors in macrophages and in local immune responses. Macrophage migration, cell polarization and antigen presentation to T-cells require n-cofilin mediated F-actin remodelling. Using a conditional mouse model, we show that n-cofilin also controls MHC class II-dependent antigen presentation. Other cellular processes such as phagocytosis and antigen processing were found to be independent of n-cofilin. Our data identify n-cofilin as a novel regulator of antigen presentation, while ADF on the other hand is dispensable for macrophage motility and antigen presentation.

  14. EFFECTS OF ESTETROL ON MIGRATION AND INVASION IN T47-D BREAST CANCER CELLS THROUGH THE ACTIN CYTOSKELETON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silvia eGiretti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estetrol (E4 is a natural human estrogen present at high concentrations during pregnancy. Due to its high oral bioavailability and long plasma half-life, E4 is particularly suitable for therapeutic applications. E4 acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exerting estrogenic actions on the endometrium or the central nervous system, while antagonizing the actions of estradiol in the breast. We tested the effects of E4 on its own or in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2 on T47-D estrogen receptor (ER positive breast cancer cell migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices. E4 administration to T47-D cells weakly stimulated migration and invasion. However, E4 decreased the extent of movement and invasion induced by E2. Breast cancer cell movement requires a remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. During exposure to E4, a weak, concentration-dependent, redistribution of actin fibers towards the cell membrane was observed. However, when E4 was added to E2, a inhibition of actin remodeling induced by E2 was seen. Estrogens stimulate ER+ breast cancer cell movement through the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM family of actin regulatory proteins, inducing actin and cell membrane remodeling. E4 was a weak inducer of moesin phosphorylation on Thr558, which accounts for its functional activation. In co-treatment with E2, E4 blocked the activation of this actin controller in a concentration-related fashion. These effects were obtained through recruitment of ERα. In conclusion, E4 acted as a weak estrogen on breast cancer cell cytoskeleton remodeling and movement. However, when E2 was present, E4 counteracted the stimulatory actions of E2. This contributes to the emerging hypothesis that E4 may be a naturally occurring estrogen receptor modulator in the breast.

  15. Dendritic Actin Cytoskeleton: Structure, Functions, and Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Konietzny

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is a versatile and ubiquitous cytoskeletal protein that plays a major role in both the establishment and the maintenance of neuronal polarity. For a long time, the most prominent roles that were attributed to actin in neurons were the movement of growth cones, polarized cargo sorting at the axon initial segment, and the dynamic plasticity of dendritic spines, since those compartments contain large accumulations of actin filaments (F-actin that can be readily visualized using electron- and fluorescence microscopy. With the development of super-resolution microscopy in the past few years, previously unknown structures of the actin cytoskeleton have been uncovered: a periodic lattice consisting of actin and spectrin seems to pervade not only the whole axon, but also dendrites and even the necks of dendritic spines. Apart from that striking feature, patches of F-actin and deep actin filament bundles have been described along the lengths of neurites. So far, research has been focused on the specific roles of actin in the axon, while it is becoming more and more apparent that in the dendrite, actin is not only confined to dendritic spines, but serves many additional and important functions. In this review, we focus on recent developments regarding the role of actin in dendrite morphology, the regulation of actin dynamics by internal and external factors, and the role of F-actin in dendritic protein trafficking.

  16. Arabidopsis actin-depolymerizing factor7 severs actin filaments and regulates actin cable turnover to promote normal pollen tube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiyan; Xie, Yurong; Jiang, Yuxiang; Qu, Xiaolu; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-09-01

    Actin filaments are often arranged into higher-order structures, such as the longitudinal actin cables that generate the reverse fountain cytoplasmic streaming pattern present in pollen tubes. While several actin binding proteins have been implicated in the generation of these cables, the mechanisms that regulate their dynamic turnover remain largely unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana actin-depolymerizing factor7 (ADF7) is required for turnover of longitudinal actin cables. In vitro biochemical analyses revealed that ADF7 is a typical ADF that prefers ADP-G-actin over ATP-G-actin. ADF7 inhibits nucleotide exchange on actin and severs filaments, but its filament severing and depolymerizing activities are less potent than those of the vegetative ADF1. ADF7 primarily decorates longitudinal actin cables in the shanks of pollen tubes. Consistent with this localization pattern, the severing frequency and depolymerization rate of filaments significantly decreased, while their maximum lifetime significantly increased, in adf7 pollen tube shanks. Furthermore, an ADF7-enhanced green fluorescent protein fusion with defective severing activity but normal G-actin binding activity could not complement adf7, providing compelling evidence that the severing activity of ADF7 is vital for its in vivo functions. These observations suggest that ADF7 evolved to promote turnover of longitudinal actin cables by severing actin filaments in pollen tubes.

  17. Dynamic Actin Structures Stabilized by Profilin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toren Finkel; Julie A. Theriot; Kirk R. Dise; Gordon F. Tomaselli; Pascal J. Goldschmidt-Clermont

    1994-01-01

    We describe the production and analysis of clonal cell lines in which we have overexpressed human profilin, a small ubiquitous actin monomer binding protein, to assess the role of profilin on actin function in vivo...

  18. The DCR protein TTC3 affects differentiation and Golgi compactness in neurons through specific actin-regulating pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Elena Berto

    Full Text Available In neuronal cells, actin remodeling plays a well known role in neurite extension but is also deeply involved in the organization of intracellular structures, such as the Golgi apparatus. However, it is still not very clear which mechanisms may regulate actin dynamics at the different sites. In this report we show that high levels of the TTC3 protein, encoded by one of the genes of the Down Syndrome Critical Region (DCR, prevent neurite extension and disrupt Golgi compactness in differentiating primary neurons. These effects largely depend on the capability of TTC3 to promote actin polymerization through signaling pathways involving RhoA, ROCK, CIT-N and PIIa. However, the functional relationships between these molecules differ significantly if considering the TTC3 activity on neurite extension or on Golgi organization. Finally, our results reveal an unexpected stage-dependent requirement for F-actin in Golgi organization at different stages of neuronal differentiation.

  19. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  20. Vascular remodelling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eugene Haydn; Soltani, Amir; Reid, David William; Ward, Chris

    2008-02-01

    We review the recent literature, focusing on 2006 and 2007, to produce an update on the patho-biology of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor in the asthmatic airway. In terms of conceptual development in asthma research, airway inflammation and remodelling have been regarded as separate processes or perhaps as sequential, with early inflammation leading later to remodelling. Recent insights identify a central role for vascular endothelial growth factor in stimulating both inflammation and vascular remodelling coincidentally, with the full panoply of vascular endothelial growth factor mediated events being complex and wide. Both nitric oxide and matrix metalloproteinase-9 induction may be important downstream pathogenic mechanisms. Virus-mediated exacerbations are a prime manifestation of the oscillating trajectory of clinical asthma. The early stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production is probably a central aetiological mechanism, with secondary inflammation and angiogenesis. The time scale of the latter, especially, fits with the time scale of clinico-physiological changes after exacerbation. These vascular endothelial growth factor induced changes are potentially modifiable with therapy. Insights into the importance of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis in asthma pathogenesis now lead to potential new therapeutic possibilities and elucidate why recent advances in asthma therapeutics have been so successful.

  1. Plant Actin-Depolymerizing Factors Possess Opposing Biochemical Properties Arising from Key Amino Acid Changes throughout Evolution[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qiong; Niu, Yue; He, Yongxing; Tong, Shaofei; Niu, Zhimin; Ma, Jianchao; Yang, Yang; An, Lizhe; Wan, Dongshi

    2017-01-01

    Functional divergence in paralogs is an important genetic source of evolutionary innovation. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are among the most important actin binding proteins and are involved in generating and remodeling actin cytoskeletal architecture via their conserved F-actin severing or depolymerizing activity. In plants, ADFs coevolved with actin, but their biochemical properties are diverse. Unfortunately, the biochemical function of most plant ADFs and the potential mechanisms of their functional divergence remain unclear. Here, in vitro biochemical analyses demonstrated that all 11 ADF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit opposing biochemical properties. Subclass III ADFs evolved F-actin bundling (B-type) function from conserved F-actin depolymerizing (D-type) function, and subclass I ADFs have enhanced D-type function. By tracking historical mutation sites on ancestral proteins, several fundamental amino acid residues affecting the biochemical functions of these proteins were identified in Arabidopsis and various plants, suggesting that the biochemical divergence of ADFs has been conserved during the evolution of angiosperm plants. Importantly, N-terminal extensions on subclass III ADFs that arose from intron-sliding events are indispensable for the alteration of D-type to B-type function. We conclude that the evolution of these N-terminal extensions and several conserved mutations produced the diverse biochemical functions of plant ADFs from a putative ancestor. PMID:28123105

  2. Plant Actin-Depolymerizing Factors Possess Opposing Biochemical Properties Arising from Key Amino Acid Changes throughout Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Qiong; Qian, Dong; Niu, Yue; He, Yongxing; Tong, Shaofei; Niu, Zhimin; Ma, Jianchao; Yang, Yang; An, Lizhe; Wan, Dongshi; Xiang, Yun

    2017-02-01

    Functional divergence in paralogs is an important genetic source of evolutionary innovation. Actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are among the most important actin binding proteins and are involved in generating and remodeling actin cytoskeletal architecture via their conserved F-actin severing or depolymerizing activity. In plants, ADFs coevolved with actin, but their biochemical properties are diverse. Unfortunately, the biochemical function of most plant ADFs and the potential mechanisms of their functional divergence remain unclear. Here, in vitro biochemical analyses demonstrated that all 11 ADF genes in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit opposing biochemical properties. Subclass III ADFs evolved F-actin bundling (B-type) function from conserved F-actin depolymerizing (D-type) function, and subclass I ADFs have enhanced D-type function. By tracking historical mutation sites on ancestral proteins, several fundamental amino acid residues affecting the biochemical functions of these proteins were identified in Arabidopsis and various plants, suggesting that the biochemical divergence of ADFs has been conserved during the evolution of angiosperm plants. Importantly, N-terminal extensions on subclass III ADFs that arose from intron-sliding events are indispensable for the alteration of D-type to B-type function. We conclude that the evolution of these N-terminal extensions and several conserved mutations produced the diverse biochemical functions of plant ADFs from a putative ancestor. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamin-2 regulates fusion pore expansion and quantal release through a mechanism that involves actin dynamics in neuroendocrine chromaffin cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlek M González-Jamett

    Full Text Available Over the past years, dynamin has been implicated in tuning the amount and nature of transmitter released during exocytosis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we investigated whether this mechanism rely on dynamin's ability to remodel actin cytoskeleton. According to this idea, inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity suppressed the calcium-dependent de novo cortical actin and altered the cortical actin network. Similarly, expression of a small interfering RNA directed against dynamin-2, an isoform highly expressed in chromaffin cells, changed the cortical actin network pattern. Disruption of dynamin-2 function, as well as the pharmacological inhibition of actin polymerization with cytochalasine-D, slowed down fusion pore expansion and increased the quantal size of individual exocytotic events. The effects of cytochalasine-D and dynamin-2 disruption were not additive indicating that dynamin-2 and F-actin regulate the late steps of exocytosis by a common mechanism. Together our data support a model in which dynamin-2 directs actin polymerization at the exocytosis site where both, in concert, adjust the hormone quantal release to efficiently respond to physiological demands.

  4. ADF/Cofilin Controls Synaptic Actin Dynamics and Regulates Synaptic Vesicle Mobilization and Exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Zimmermann, Anika-Maria; Görlich, Andreas; Gurniak, Christine B; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco; Friauf, Eckhard; Witke, Walter; Rust, Marco B

    2015-09-01

    Actin is a regulator of synaptic vesicle mobilization and exocytosis, but little is known about the mechanisms that regulate actin at presynaptic terminals. Genetic data on LIMK1, a negative regulator of actin-depolymerizing proteins of the ADF/cofilin family, suggest a role for ADF/cofilin in presynaptic function. However, synapse physiology is fully preserved upon genetic ablation of ADF in mice, and n-cofilin mutant mice display defects in postsynaptic plasticity, but not in presynaptic function. One explanation for this phenomenon is overlapping functions of ADF and n-cofilin in presynaptic physiology. Here, we tested this hypothesis and genetically removed ADF together with n-cofilin from synapses. In double mutants for ADF and n-cofilin, synaptic actin dynamics was impaired and more severely affected than in single mutants. The resulting cytoskeletal defects heavily affected the organization, mobilization, and exocytosis of synaptic vesicles in hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. Our data for the first time identify overlapping functions for ADF and n-cofilin in presynaptic physiology and vesicle trafficking. We conclude that n-cofilin is a limiting factor in postsynaptic plasticity, a function which cannot be substituted by ADF. On the presynaptic side, the presence of either ADF or n-cofilin is sufficient to control actin remodeling during vesicle release. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Apical and basal epitheliomuscular F-actin dynamics during Hydra bud evagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufschnaiter, Roland; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bending of 2D cell sheets is a fundamental morphogenetic mechanism during animal development and reproduction. A critical player driving cell shape during tissue bending is the actin cytoskeleton. Much of our current knowledge about actin dynamics in whole organisms stems from studies of embryonic development in bilaterian model organisms. Here, we have analyzed actin-based processes during asexual bud evagination in the simple metazoan Hydra. We created transgenic Hydra strains stably expressing the actin marker Lifeact-GFP in either ectodermal or endodermal epitheliomuscular cells. We then combined live imaging with conventional phalloidin staining to directly follow actin reorganization. Bending of the Hydra epithelial double layer is initiated by a group of epitheliomuscular cells in the endodermal layer. These cells shorten their apical-basal axis and arrange their basal muscle processes in a circular configuration. We propose that this rearrangement generates the initial forces to bend the endoderm towards the ectoderm. Convergent tissue movement in both epithelial layers towards the centre of evagination then leads to elongation and extension of the bud along its new body axis. Tissue movement into the bud is associated with lateral intercalation of epithelial cells, remodelling of apical septate junctions, and rearrangement of basal muscle processes. The work presented here extends the analysis of morphogenetic mechanisms beyond embryonic tissues of model bilaterians. PMID:28630355

  6. Myo1c binding to submembrane actin mediates insulin-induced tethering of GLUT4 vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguslavsky, Shlomit; Chiu, Tim; Foley, Kevin P.; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Antonescu, Costin N.; Bayer, K. Ulrich; Bilan, Philip J.; Klip, Amira

    2012-01-01

    GLUT4-containing vesicles cycle between the plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. Insulin promotes GLUT4 exocytosis by regulating GLUT4 vesicle arrival at the cell periphery and its subsequent tethering, docking, and fusion with the plasma membrane. The molecular machinery involved in GLUT4 vesicle tethering is unknown. We show here that Myo1c, an actin-based motor protein that associates with membranes and actin filaments, is required for insulin-induced vesicle tethering in muscle cells. Myo1c was found to associate with both mobile and tethered GLUT4 vesicles and to be required for vesicle capture in the total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) zone beneath the plasma membrane. Myo1c knockdown or overexpression of an actin binding–deficient Myo1c mutant abolished insulin-induced vesicle immobilization, increased GLUT4 vesicle velocity in the TIRF zone, and prevented their externalization. Conversely, Myo1c overexpression immobilized GLUT4 vesicles in the TIRF zone and promoted insulin-induced GLUT4 exposure to the extracellular milieu. Myo1c also contributed to insulin-dependent actin filament remodeling. Thus we propose that interaction of vesicular Myo1c with cortical actin filaments is required for insulin-mediated tethering of GLUT4 vesicles and for efficient GLUT4 surface delivery in muscle cells. PMID:22918957

  7. Zipper-like series of desmosomes supported by subplasmalemmal actin belts in thymic epithelial reticular cells in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Pop, F; Mănoiu, V M; Lupuşoru, M O; Didilescu, A C

    2013-07-01

    Remodeling of epithelial tissues requires coordinated cell migration. Most of the mechanisms regulating desmosome assembly and stability in migrating epithelial cells are still unknown. The actin cytoskeleton is a significant component of desmosome assembly and maturation. The association of the actin cytoskeleton with adherens junctions requires additional ultrastructural investigations. A transmission electron microscopic study was performed on five samples of rat thymus. Interepithelial series of desmosomes up to 6.5 μm length were found as were composite series of junctions (tight, adherens, and desmosomes). As a particular feature, subplasmalemmal belts of microfilaments, apparently of actin, ran adjacent to the inner dense plaques of desmosomes, passing beneath and at a distance to the tight junctions. They were not found beneath the adherens junctions. The series of desmosomes were termed zipper-like desmosomes (ZLDs), and were either complete, or imperfect. Terminal imperfect or incomplete desmosomes were found at the ends of the zipper-like series. Alpha-smooth muscle actin immune labeling on six other samples of rat thymus was strongly suggestive of the existence of subplasmalemmal actin belts in the epithelial reticular system. Further studies are needed to establish the exact role of the ZLDs during processes of epithelial remodeling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical remodeling of normally sized mammalian cells under a gravity vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Lüwen; Zhang, Fan; Lü, Dongyuan; Li, Ning; Zheng, Lu; Xu, Yanhong; Li, Zhan; Sun, Shujin; Long, Mian

    2017-02-01

    Translocation of the dense nucleus along a gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a cell, but the underlying mechanisms of cytoskeletal network and focal adhesion complex (FAC) reorganization in a mammalian cell remain unclear. We quantified the remodeling of an MC3T3-E1 cell placed in upward-, downward-, or edge-on-orientated substrate. Nucleus longitudinal translocation presents a high value in downward orientation at 24 h or in edge-on orientation at 72 h, which is consistent with orientation-dependent distribution of perinuclear actin stress fibers and vimentin cords. Redistribution of total FAC area and fractionized super mature adhesion number coordinates this dependence at short duration. This orientation-dependent remodeling is associated with nucleus flattering and lamin A/C phosphorylation. Actin depolymerization or Rho-associated protein kinase signaling inhibition abolishes the orientation dependence of nucleus translocation, whereas tubulin polymerization inhibition or vimentin disruption reserves the dependence. A biomechanical model is therefore proposed for integrating the mechanosensing of nucleus translocation with cytoskeletal remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravity vector.-Zhang, C., Zhou, L., Zhang, F., Lü, D., Li, N., Zheng, L., Xu, Y., Li, Z., Sun, S., Long, M. Mechanical remodeling of normally sized mammalian cells under a gravity vector. © FASEB.

  9. Actin fringes of polar cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Octavian O H

    2017-06-15

    The eukaryotic actin cytoskeleton is a highly dynamic framework that is involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth, division, morphology, and motility. G-actin polymerizes into microfilaments that associate into bundles, patches, and networks, which, in turn, organize into higher order structures that are fundamental for the course of important physiological events. Actin rings are an example for such higher order actin entities, but this term represents an actually diverse set of subcellular structures that are involved in various processes. This review especially sheds light on a crucial type of non-constricting ring-like actin networks, and categorizes them under the term 'actin fringe'. These 'actin fringes' are visualized as highly dynamic and yet steady structures in the tip of various polarized growing cells. The present comprehensive overview compares the actin fringe characteristics of rapidly elongating pollen tubes with several related actin arrays in other cell types of diverse species. The current state of knowledge about various actin fringe functions is summarized, and the key role of this structure in the polar growth process is discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Architecture dependence of actin filament network disassembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressin, Laurène; Guillotin, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Michelot, Alphée

    2015-06-01

    Turnover of actin networks in cells requires the fast disassembly of aging actin structures. While ADF/cofilin and Aip1 have been identified as central players, how their activities are modulated by the architecture of the networks remains unknown. Using our ability to reconstitute a diverse array of cellular actin organizations, we found that ADF/cofilin binding and ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly both depend on actin geometrical organization. ADF/cofilin decorates strongly and stabilizes actin cables, whereas its weaker interaction to Arp2/3 complex networks is correlated with their dismantling and their reorganization into stable architectures. Cooperation of ADF/cofilin with Aip1 is necessary to trigger the full disassembly of all actin filament networks. Additional experiments performed at the single-molecule level indicate that this cooperation is optimal above a threshold of 23 molecules of ADF/cofilin bound as clusters along an actin filament. Our results indicate that although ADF/cofilin is able to dismantle selectively branched networks through severing and debranching, stochastic disassembly of actin filaments by ADF/cofilin and Aip1 represents an efficient alternative pathway for the full disassembly of all actin networks. Our data support a model in which the binding of ADF/cofilin is required to trigger a structural change of the actin filaments, as a prerequisite for their disassembly by Aip1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesoscopic model of actin-based propulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available Two theoretical models dominate current understanding of actin-based propulsion: microscopic polymerization ratchet model predicts that growing and writhing actin filaments generate forces and movements, while macroscopic elastic propulsion model suggests that deformation and stress of growing actin gel are responsible for the propulsion. We examine both experimentally and computationally the 2D movement of ellipsoidal beads propelled by actin tails and show that neither of the two models can explain the observed bistability of the orientation of the beads. To explain the data, we develop a 2D hybrid mesoscopic model by reconciling these two models such that individual actin filaments undergoing nucleation, elongation, attachment, detachment and capping are embedded into the boundary of a node-spring viscoelastic network representing the macroscopic actin gel. Stochastic simulations of this 'in silico' actin network show that the combined effects of the macroscopic elastic deformation and microscopic ratchets can explain the observed bistable orientation of the actin-propelled ellipsoidal beads. To test the theory further, we analyze observed distribution of the curvatures of the trajectories and show that the hybrid model's predictions fit the data. Finally, we demonstrate that the model can explain both concave-up and concave-down force-velocity relations for growing actin networks depending on the characteristic time scale and network recoil. To summarize, we propose that both microscopic polymerization ratchets and macroscopic stresses of the deformable actin network are responsible for the force and movement generation.

  12. Fascin regulates nuclear actin during Drosophila oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelpsch, Daniel J; Groen, Christopher M; Fagan, Tiffany N; Sudhir, Sweta; Tootle, Tina L

    2016-10-01

    Drosophila oogenesis provides a developmental system with which to study nuclear actin. During Stages 5-9, nuclear actin levels are high in the oocyte and exhibit variation within the nurse cells. Cofilin and Profilin, which regulate the nuclear import and export of actin, also localize to the nuclei. Expression of GFP-tagged Actin results in nuclear actin rod formation. These findings indicate that nuclear actin must be tightly regulated during oogenesis. One factor mediating this regulation is Fascin. Overexpression of Fascin enhances nuclear GFP-Actin rod formation, and Fascin colocalizes with the rods. Loss of Fascin reduces, whereas overexpression of Fascin increases, the frequency of nurse cells with high levels of nuclear actin, but neither alters the overall nuclear level of actin within the ovary. These data suggest that Fascin regulates the ability of specific cells to accumulate nuclear actin. Evidence indicates that Fascin positively regulates nuclear actin through Cofilin. Loss of Fascin results in decreased nuclear Cofilin. In addition, Fascin and Cofilin genetically interact, as double heterozygotes exhibit a reduction in the number of nurse cells with high nuclear actin levels. These findings are likely applicable beyond Drosophila follicle development, as the localization and functions of Fascin and the mechanisms regulating nuclear actin are widely conserved. © 2016 Kelpsch et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Chordate muscle actins differ distinctly from invertebrate muscle actins. The evolution of the different vertebrate muscle actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, J; Weber, K

    1984-11-05

    A total of 30 actins from various chordate and invertebrate muscle sources were either characterized by full amino acid sequence data or typed by those partial sequences in the NH2-terminal tryptic peptide which are known to be specific markers for different actin isoforms. The results show that most, if not all, invertebrate muscle actins are homologous to each other and to the isoforms recognized as vertebrate cytoplasmic actins. In contrast the actin forms typically found in muscle cells of warm-blooded vertebrates are noticeably different from invertebrate muscle actins and seem to have appeared in evolution already with the origin of chordates. During subsequent vertebrate evolution there has been a high degree of sequence conservation similar or stronger than that seen in histone H4. Urochordates, Cephalochordates and probably also Agnathes express only one type of muscle actin. Two types, a striated muscle-specific form and a smooth muscle form, are already observed in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes. Later in evolution, with the origin of reptiles, both muscle actins seem to have duplicated again; the striated muscle type branched into a skeletal- and cardiac-specific form, while the smooth muscle form duplicated into a vascular- and stomach-specific type. These findings support the hypothesis that each of the four muscle actins of warm-blooded vertebrates are coded for by a small number and possibly only one functional gene.

  14. LL-37 induces polymerization and bundling of actin and affects actin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Sol

    Full Text Available Actin exists as a monomer (G-actin which can be polymerized to filaments F-actin that under the influence of actin-binding proteins and polycations bundle and contribute to the formation of the cytoskeleton. Bundled actin from lysed cells increases the viscosity of sputum in lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. The human host defense peptide LL-37 was previously shown to induce actin bundling and was thus hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenicity of this disease. In this work, interactions between actin and the cationic LL-37 were studied by optical, proteolytic and surface plasmon resonance methods and compared to those obtained with scrambled LL-37 and with the cationic protein lysozyme. We show that LL-37 binds strongly to CaATP-G-actin while scrambled LL-37 does not. While LL-37, at superstoichiometric LL-37/actin concentrations polymerizes MgATP-G-actin, at lower non-polymerizing concentrations LL-37 inhibits actin polymerization by MgCl(2 or NaCl. LL-37 bundles Mg-F-actin filaments both at low and physiological ionic strength when in equimolar or higher concentrations than those of actin. The LL-37 induced bundles are significantly less sensitive to increase in ionic strength than those induced by scrambled LL-37 and lysozyme. LL-37 in concentrations lower than those needed for actin polymerization or bundling, accelerates cleavage of both monomer and polymer actin by subtilisin. Our results indicate that the LL-37-actin interaction is partially electrostatic and partially hydrophobic and that a specific actin binding sequence in the peptide is responsible for the hydrophobic interaction. LL-37-induced bundles, which may contribute to the accumulation of sputum in cystic fibrosis, are dissociated very efficiently by DNase-1 and also by cofilin.

  15. Actomyosin pulsation and flows in an active elastomer with turnover and network remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Deb Sankar; Munjal, Akankshi; Lecuit, Thomas; Rao, Madan

    2017-10-24

    Tissue remodeling requires cell shape changes associated with pulsation and flow of the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we describe the hydrodynamics of actomyosin as a confined active elastomer with turnover of its components. Our treatment is adapted to describe the diversity of contractile dynamical regimes observed in vivo. When myosin-induced contractile stresses are low, the deformations of the active elastomer are affine and exhibit spontaneous oscillations, propagating waves, contractile collapse and spatiotemporal chaos. We study the nucleation, growth and coalescence of actomyosin-dense regions that, beyond a threshold, spontaneously move as a spatially localized traveling front. Large myosin-induced contractile stresses lead to nonaffine deformations due to enhanced actin and crosslinker turnover. This results in a transient actin network that is constantly remodeling and naturally accommodates intranetwork flows of the actomyosin-dense regions. We verify many predictions of our study in Drosophila embryonic epithelial cells undergoing neighbor exchange during germband extension.

  16. SUMO and Chromatin Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, David; Pemberton, Lucy F; Merrill-Schools, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    Many of the known SUMO substrates are nuclear proteins, which regulate gene expression and chromatin dynamics. Sumoylation, in general, appears to correlate with decreased transcriptional activity, and in many cases modulation of the chromatin template is implicated. Sumoylation of the core histones is associated with transcriptional silencing, and transcription factor sumoylation can decrease gene expression by promoting recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes. Additionally, sumoylation of transcriptional corepressors and chromatin remodeling enzymes can influence interactions with other transcriptional regulators, and alter their enzymatic activity. In some cases, proteins that are components of transcriptional corepressor complexes have been shown to be SUMO E3 ligases, further emphasizing the integration of sumoylation with the regulation of chromatin remodeling. Despite the evidence suggesting that sumoylation is primarily repressive for access to chromatin, recent analyses suggest that protein sumoylation on the chromatin template may play important roles at highly expressed genes. Elucidating the dynamic interplay of sumoylation with other post-translational modifications of histones and chromatin associated proteins will be key to fully understanding the regulation of access to the chromatin template.

  17. Actin cortex architecture regulates cell surface tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Priyamvada; Clark, Andrew G; Smith, Matthew B; Cassani, Davide A D; Dierkes, Kai; Ragab, Anan; Roux, Philippe P; Charras, Guillaume; Salbreux, Guillaume; Paluch, Ewa K

    2017-06-01

    Animal cell shape is largely determined by the cortex, a thin actin network underlying the plasma membrane in which myosin-driven stresses generate contractile tension. Tension gradients result in local contractions and drive cell deformations. Previous cortical tension regulation studies have focused on myosin motors. Here, we show that cortical actin network architecture is equally important. First, we observe that actin cortex thickness and tension are inversely correlated during cell-cycle progression. We then show that the actin filament length regulators CFL1, CAPZB and DIAPH1 regulate mitotic cortex thickness and find that both increasing and decreasing thickness decreases tension in mitosis. This suggests that the mitotic cortex is poised close to a tension maximum. Finally, using a computational model, we identify a physical mechanism by which maximum tension is achieved at intermediate actin filament lengths. Our results indicate that actin network architecture, alongside myosin activity, is key to cell surface tension regulation.

  18. Purification of Actin from Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Characterization of Functional Differences from Muscle Actin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Shih-Chieh; Pollard, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important genetic model organism for studying the mechanisms of endocytosis and cytokinesis. However, most work on the biochemical properties of fission yeast actin-binding proteins has been done with skeletal muscle actin for matters of convenience. When simulations of mathematical models of the mechanism of endocytosis were compared with events in live cells, some of the reactions appeared to be much faster than observed in biochemical experiments with muscle actin. Here, we used gelsolin affinity chromatography to purify actin from fission yeast. S. pombe actin shares many properties with skeletal muscle actin but has higher intrinsic nucleotide exchange rate, faster trimer nucleus formation, faster phosphate dissociation rate from polymerized actin, and faster nucleation of actin filaments with Arp2/3 complex. These properties close the gap between the biochemistry and predictions made by mathematical models of endocytosis in S. pombe cells. PMID:21148484

  19. Pharmacological treatment of actinic keratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Zwierzyńska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Actinic keratosis (AK is a disease characterized by hyperkeratotic lesions on skin damaged by ultraviolet. radiation. These lesions may progress to squamous cell or basal cell carcinoma. Currently pharmacotherapy and different surgical procedures are used in AK therapy. The most common treatment options are 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, diclofenac, ingenol mebutate, and first and third generation retinoids (retinol, adapalene, tazarotene. Furthermore, research is being carried out in order to test new medications including nicotinamide, resiquimod, piroxicam, potassium dobesilate and oleogel based on a triterpene extract (betulin, betulinic acid. Recently, the preventive effect of acetylsalicylic acid and celecoxib has also been investigated.

  20. Bioinformatics study of the mangrove actin genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wasilah, M.; Sumardi

    2017-01-01

    This study describes the bioinformatics methods to analyze eight actin genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, subcellular localization, similarity, and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of eight mangroves showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of eight mangrove actin genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure for BgActl, KcActl, RsActl, and A. corniculatum Act. In contrast to this observation, the remaining actin genes were random coil > extended chain structure > a helix. This study, therefore, shown the prediction of secondary structure was performed for necessary structural information. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide or mitochondrial target were too small, indicated that no chloroplast or mitochondrial transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove actin genes. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove actin genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove actin gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Three groups of mangrove actin genes were formed, the first group contains B. gymnorrhiza BgAct and R. stylosa RsActl. The second cluster which consists of 5 actin genes the largest group, and the last branch consist of one gene, B. sexagula Act. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant actin genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  1. Dynamic Actin Gene Family Evolution in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liucun Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through “birth and death” model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves.

  2. Dynamic Actin Gene Family Evolution in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Yijun; Wen, Tieqiao; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through “birth and death” model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves. PMID:23841080

  3. Actin nucleation: spire - actin nucleator in a class of its own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Buzz; Kunda, Patricia

    2005-04-26

    The rate limiting step for actin filament polymerisation is nucleation, and two types of nucleator have been described: the Arp2/3 complex and the formins. A recent study has now identified in Spire a third class of actin nucleator. The four short WH2 repeats within Spire bind four consecutive actin monomers to form a novel single strand nucleus for 'barbed end' actin filament elongation.

  4. Cells involved in extracellular matrix remodeling after acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Larissa Ferraz [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Mataveli, Fábio D’Aguiar [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mader, Ana Maria Amaral Antônio; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell [Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Justo, Giselle Zenker; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida da Silva [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate the effects of VEGF{sub 165} gene transfer in the process of remodeling of the extracellular matrix after an acute myocardial infarct. Wistar rats were submitted to myocardial infarction, after the ligation of the left descending artery, and the left ventricle ejection fraction was used to classify the infarcts into large and small. The animals were divided into groups of ten, according to the size of infarcted area (large or small), and received or not VEGF{sub 165} treatment. Evaluation of different markers was performed using immunohistochemistry and digital quantification. The primary antibodies used in the analysis were anti-fibronectin, anti-vimentin, anti-CD44, anti-E-cadherin, anti-CD24, anti-alpha-1-actin, and anti-PCNA. The results were expressed as mean and standard error, and analyzed by ANOVA, considering statistically significant if p≤0.05. There was a significant increase in the expression of undifferentiated cell markers, such as fibronectin (protein present in the extracellular matrix) and CD44 (glycoprotein present in the endothelial cells). However, there was decreased expression of vimentin and PCNA, indicating a possible decrease in the process of cell proliferation after treatment with VEGF{sub 165}. Markers of differentiated cells, E-cadherin (adhesion protein between myocardial cells), CD24 (protein present in the blood vessels), and alpha-1-actin (specific myocyte marker), showed higher expression in the groups submitted to gene therapy, compared to non-treated group. The value obtained by the relation between alpha-1-actin and vimentin was approximately three times higher in the groups treated with VEGF{sub 165}, suggesting greater tissue differentiation. The results demonstrated the important role of myocytes in the process of tissue remodeling, confirming that VEGF{sub 165} seems to provide a protective effect in the treatment of acute myocardial infarct.

  5. No-Regrets Remodeling, 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-12-01

    No-Regrets Remodeling, sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is an informative publication that walks homeowners and/or remodelers through various home remodeling projects. In addition to remodeling information, the publication provides instruction on how to incorporate energy efficiency into the remodeling process. The goal of the publication is to improve homeowner satisfaction after completing a remodeling project and to provide the homeowner with a home that saves energy and is comfortable and healthy.

  6. Actin Cytoskeleton and Golgi Involvement in Barley stripe mosaic virus Movement and Cell Wall Localization of Triple Gene Block Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoun-Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV induces massive actin filament thickening at the infection front of infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. To determine the mechanisms leading to actin remodeling, fluorescent protein fusions of the BSMV triple gene block (TGB proteins were coexpressed in cells with the actin marker DsRed: Talin. TGB ectopic expression experiments revealed that TGB3 is a major elicitor of filament thickening, that TGB2 resulted in formation of intermediate DsRed:Talin filaments, and that TGB1 alone had no obvious effects on actin filament structure. Latrunculin B (LatB treatments retarded BSMV cell-to-cell movement, disrupted actin filament organization, and dramatically decreased the proportion of paired TGB3 foci appearing at the cell wall (CW. BSMV infection of transgenic plants tagged with GFP-KDEL exhibited membrane proliferation and vesicle formation that were especially evident around the nucleus. Similar membrane proliferation occurred in plants expressing TGB2 and/or TGB3, and DsRed: Talin fluorescence in these plants colocalized with the ER vesicles. TGB3 also associated with the Golgi apparatus and overlapped with cortical vesicles appearing at the cell periphery. Brefeldin A treatments disrupted Golgi and also altered vesicles at the CW, but failed to interfere with TGB CW localization. Our results indicate that actin cytoskeleton interactions are important in BSMV cell-to-cell movement and for CW localization of TGB3.

  7. Effects of F/G-actin ratio and actin turn-over rate on NADPH oxidase activity in microglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Izabela; Pedersen, Line Hjortshøj; Byg, Luise

    2010-01-01

    Most in vivo studies that have addressed the role of actin dynamics in NADPH oxidase function in phagocytes have used toxins to modulate the polymerization state of actin and mostly effects on actin has been evaluated by end point measurements of filamentous actin, which says little about actin...

  8. Actin cytoskeleton regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition in metastatic cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Shankar

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is associated with loss of the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin and disruption of cell-cell junctions as well as with acquisition of migratory properties including reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and activation of the RhoA GTPase. Here we show that depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton of various metastatic cancer cell lines with Cytochalasin D (Cyt D reduces cell size and F-actin levels and induces E-cadherin expression at both the protein and mRNA level. Induction of E-cadherin was dose dependent and paralleled loss of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. E-cadherin levels increased 2 hours after addition of Cyt D in cells showing an E-cadherin mRNA response but only after 10-12 hours in HT-1080 fibrosarcoma and MDA-MB-231 cells in which E-cadherin mRNA level were only minimally affected by Cyt D. Cyt D treatment induced the nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of EMT-associated SNAI 1 and SMAD1/2/3 transcription factors. In non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells, that express E-cadherin and represent a cancer cell model for EMT, actin depolymerization with Cyt D induced elevated E-cadherin while actin stabilization with Jasplakinolide reduced E-cadherin levels. Elevated E-cadherin levels due to Cyt D were associated with reduced activation of Rho A. Expression of dominant-negative Rho A mutant increased and dominant-active Rho A mutant decreased E-cadherin levels and also prevented Cyt D induction of E-cadherin. Reduced Rho A activation downstream of actin remodelling therefore induces E-cadherin and reverses EMT in cancer cells. Cyt D treatment inhibited migration and, at higher concentrations, induced cytotoxicity of both HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells and normal Hs27 fibroblasts, but only induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HT-1080 cancer cells. Our studies suggest that actin remodelling is an upstream regulator of EMT in metastatic cancer cells.

  9. Deconstructing the cadherin-catenin-actin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Soichiro; Pokutta, Sabine; Drees, Frauke; Weis, William I; Nelson, W James

    2005-12-02

    Spatial and functional organization of cells in tissues is determined by cell-cell adhesion, thought to be initiated through trans-interactions between extracellular domains of the cadherin family of adhesion proteins, and strengthened by linkage to the actin cytoskeleton. Prevailing dogma is that cadherins are linked to the actin cytoskeleton through beta-catenin and alpha-catenin, although the quaternary complex has never been demonstrated. We test this hypothesis and find that alpha-catenin does not interact with actin filaments and the E-cadherin-beta-catenin complex simultaneously, even in the presence of the actin binding proteins vinculin and alpha-actinin, either in solution or on isolated cadherin-containing membranes. Direct analysis in polarized cells shows that mobilities of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and alpha-catenin are similar, regardless of the dynamic state of actin assembly, whereas actin and several actin binding proteins have higher mobilities. These results suggest that the linkage between the cadherin-catenin complex and actin filaments is more dynamic than previously appreciated.

  10. Exploring the Possible Role of Lysine Acetylation on Entamoeba histolytica Virulence: A Focus on the Dynamics of the Actin Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. López-Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytoskeleton remodeling can be regulated, among other mechanisms, by lysine acetylation. The role of acetylation on cytoskeletal and other proteins of Entamoeba histolytica has been poorly studied. Dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial for amebic motility and capping formation, processes that may be effective means of evading the host immune response. Here we report the possible effect of acetylation on the actin cytoskeleton dynamics and in vivo virulence of E. histolytica. Using western blot, immunoprecipitation, microscopy assays, and in silico analysis, we show results that strongly suggest that the increase in Aspirin-induced cytoplasm proteins acetylation reduced cell movement and capping formation, likely as a consequence of alterations in the structuration of the actin cytoskeleton. Additionally, intrahepatic inoculation of Aspirin-treated trophozoites in hamsters resulted in severe impairment of the amebic virulence. Taken together, these results suggest an important role for lysine acetylation in amebic invasiveness and virulence.

  11. Specification of Architecture and Function of Actin Structures by Actin Nucleation Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skau, Colleen T; Waterman, Clare M

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is essential for diverse processes in mammalian cells; these processes range from establishing cell polarity to powering cell migration to driving cytokinesis to positioning intracellular organelles. How these many functions are carried out in a spatiotemporally regulated manner in a single cytoplasm has been the subject of much study in the cytoskeleton field. Recent work has identified a host of actin nucleation factors that can build architecturally diverse actin structures. The biochemical properties of these factors, coupled with their cellular location, likely define the functional properties of actin structures. In this article, we describe how recent advances in cell biology and biochemistry have begun to elucidate the role of individual actin nucleation factors in generating distinct cellular structures. We also consider how the localization and orientation of actin nucleation factors, in addition to their kinetic properties, are critical to their ability to build a functional actin cytoskeleton.

  12. A method for rapidly screening functionality of actin mutants and tagged actins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommelaere Heidi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant production and biochemical analysis of actin mutants has been hampered by the fact that actin has an absolute requirement for the eukaryotic chaperone CCT to reach its native state. We therefore have developed a method to rapidly screen the folding capacity and functionality of actin variants, by combining in vitro expression of labelled actin with analysis on native gels, band shift assays or copolymerization tests. Additionally, we monitor, using immuno-fluorescence, incorporation of actin variants in cytoskeletal structures in transfected cells. We illustrate the method by two examples. In one we show that tagged versions of actin do not always behave native-like and in the other we study some of the molecular defects of three &bgr;-actin mutants that have been associated with diseases.

  13. An ancient Sec10-formin fusion provides insights into actin-mediated regulation of exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gisbergen, Peter A C; Wu, Shu-Zon; Chang, Mingqin; Pattavina, Kelli A; Bartlett, Madelaine E; Bezanilla, Magdalena

    2018-01-26

    Exocytosis, facilitated by the exocyst, is fundamentally important for remodeling cell walls and membranes. Here, we analyzed For1F, a novel gene that encodes a fusion of an exocyst subunit (Sec10) and an actin nucleation factor (formin). We showed that the fusion occurred early in moss evolution and has been retained for more than 170 million years. In Physcomitrella patens, For1F is essential, and the expressed protein is a fusion of Sec10 and formin. Reduction of For1F or actin filaments inhibits exocytosis, and For1F dynamically associates with Sec6, another exocyst subunit, in an actin-dependent manner. Complementation experiments demonstrate that constitutive expression of either half of the gene or the paralogous Sec10b rescues loss of For1F, suggesting that fusion of the two domains is not essential, consistent with findings in yeast, where formin and the exocyst are linked noncovalently. Although not essential, the fusion may have had selective advantages and provides a unique opportunity to probe actin regulation of exocytosis. © 2018 van Gisbergen et al.

  14. Letrozole regulates actin cytoskeleton polymerization dynamics in a SRC-1 dependent manner in the hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yangang; Yu, Yanlan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Li; Qiu, Linli; Zhao, Jikai; Liu, Mengying; Zhang, Jiqiang

    2017-03-01

    In the hippocampus, local estrogens (E2) derived from testosterone that is catalyzed by aromatase play important roles in the regulation of hippocampal neural plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The actin cytoskeleton contributes greatly to hippocampal synaptic plasticity; however, whether it is regulated by local E2 and the related mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we first examined the postnatal developmental profiles of hippocampal aromatase and specific proteins responsible for actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Then we used aromatase inhibitor letrozole (LET) to block local E2 synthesis and examined the changes of these proteins and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), the predominant coactivator for steroid nuclear receptors. Finally, SRC-1 specific RNA interference was used to examine the effects of SRC-1 on the expression of these actin remodeling proteins. The results showed a V-type profile for aromatase and increased profiles for actin cytoskeleton proteins in both male and female hippocampus without obvious sex differences. LET treatment dramatically decreased the F-actin/G-actin ratio, the expression of Rictor, phospho-AKT (ser473), Profilin-1, phospho-Cofilin (Ser3), and SRC-1 in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro studies demonstrated that LET induced downregulation of these proteins could be reversed by E2, and E2 induced increase of these proteins were significantly suppressed by SRC-1 shRNA interference. These results for the first time clearly demonstrated that local E2 inhibition could induce aberrant actin polymerization; they also showed an important role of SRC-1 in the mediation of local E2 action on hippocampal synaptic plasticity by regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased fibroblast telomerase expression precedes myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reis Waisberg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify the relationship between fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblasts, and telomerase-mediated regulatory signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: Thirty-four surgical lung biopsies, which had been obtained from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histologically classified as usual interstitial pneumonia, were examined. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate fibroblast telomerase expression, myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and the tissue expression of inter leu kin-4, transforming growth factor-β, and basic fibroblast growth factor. The point-counting technique was used to quantify the expression of these markers in unaffected, collapsed, mural fibrosis, and honeycombing areas. The results were correlated to patient survival. RESULTS: Fibroblast telomerase expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression were higher in collapsed areas, whereas myofibroblast expression and interleukine-4 tissue expression were higher in areas of mural fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β expression was higher in collapsed, mural fibrosis and honeycombing areas in comparison to unaffected areas. Positive correlations were found between basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression and fibroblast telomerase expression and between interleukin-4 tissue expression and myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression. Negative correlations were observed between interleukin-4 expression and basic fibroblast growth factor tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis. Myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression and interleukin-4 tissue expression in areas of mural fibrosis were negatively associated with patient survival. CONCLUSION: Fibroblast telomerase expression is higher in areas of early remodeling in lung tissues demonstrating typical interstitial pneumonia, whereas myofibroblast α-smooth muscle actin expression predominates in areas of late remodeling

  16. Nuclear Actin and Myosins in Adenovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchsova, Beata; Serebryannyy, Leonid A.; de Lanerolle, Primal

    2015-01-01

    Adenovirus serotypes have been shown to cause drastic changes in nuclear organization, including the transcription machinery, during infection. This ability of adenovirus to subvert transcription in the host cell facilitates viral replication. Because nuclear actin and nuclear myosin I, myosin V and myosin VI have been implicated as direct regulators of transcription and important factors in the replication of other viruses, we sought to determine how nuclear actin and myosins are involved in adenovirus infection. We first confirmed reorganization of the host’s transcription machinery to viral replication centers. We found that nuclear actin also reorganizes to sites of transcription through the intermediate but not the advanced late phase of viral infection. Furthermore, nuclear myosin I localized with nuclear actin and sites of transcription in viral replication centers. Intriguingly, nuclear myosins V and VI, which also reorganized to viral replication centers, exhibited different localization patterns, suggesting specialized roles for these nuclear myosins. Finally, we assessed the role of actin in adenovirus infection and found both cytoplasmic and nuclear actin likely play roles in adenovirus infection and replication. Together our data suggest the involvement of actin and multiple myosins in the nuclear replication and late viral gene expression of adenovirus. PMID:26226218

  17. Erbium laser resurfacing for actinic cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel L

    2013-11-01

    Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous condition characterized by grayish-whitish area(s) of discoloration on the mucosal lip, often blunting the demarcation between mucosa and cutaneous lip. Actinic cheilitis is considered to be an early part of the spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma specifically of the lip has a high rate of recurrence and metastasis through the oral cavity leading to a poor overall survival. Risk factors for the development of actinic cheilitis include chronic solar irradiation, increasing age, male gender, light skin complexion, immunosuppression, and possibly tobacco and alcohol consumption. Treatment options include topical pharmacotherapy (eg, fluorouracil, imiquimod) or procedural interventions (eg, cryotherapy, electrosurgery, surgical vermillionectomy, laser resurfacing), each with their known advantages and disadvantages. There is little consensus as to which treatment options offer the most clinical utility given the paucity of comparative clinical data. In my practice, laser resurfacing has become an important tool for the treatment of actinic cheilitis owing to its ease of use and overall safety, tolerability, and cosmetic acceptability. Herein the use of erbium laser resurfacing is described for three actinic cheilitis presentations for which I find it particularly useful: clinically prominent actinic cheilitis, biopsy-proven actinic cheilitis, and treatment of the entire lip following complete tumor excision of squamous cell carcinoma. All patients were treated with a 2940-nm erbium laser (Sciton Profile Contour Tunable Resurfacing Laser [TRL], Sciton, Inc., Palo Alto, CA).

  18. Dynamics of an F-actin aggresome generated by the actin-stabilizing toxin jasplakinolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Aguado, Carmen; Mato, Eugenia; Sánchez-Ruíz, Yován; Esteban, Inmaculada; Alberch, Jordi; Knecht, Erwin; Egea, Gustavo

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we report the formation of several cytoplasmic inclusion bodies composed of filamentous actin (F-actin) and generated by experimental treatments using depolymerizing or stabilizing actin toxins in neuronal and non-neuronal mammalian cell lines. The actin-stabilizing toxin jasplakinolide (Jpk) induced, in a microtubule-dependent manner, a single, large F-actin aggregate, which contained beta- and gamma-actin, ADF/cofilin, cortactin, and the actin nucleator Arp2/3. This aggregate was tightly associated with the Golgi complex and mitochondria, and was surrounded by vimentin intermediate filaments, microtubules and MAP4. Therefore, the Jpk-induced single, large F-actin aggregate fits the established criteria for being considered an aggresome. Lysosomes and/or autophagic vacuoles, proteasomes and microtubules were found to directly participate in the dissolution of this F-actin aggresome. Finally, the model reported here is simple, highly reproducible and reversible, and it provides an opportunity to test pharmacological agents that interfere with the formation, maintenance and/or disappearance of F-actin-enriched pathological inclusion bodies.

  19. Multiple-particle tracking measurements of heterogeneities in solutions of actin filaments and actin bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, J; Tseng, Y; Fedorov, E; Herwig, M B; Almo, S C; Wirtz, D

    2000-08-01

    One of the central functions of actin cytoskeleton is to provide the mechanical support required for the establishment and maintenance of cell morphology. The mechanical properties of actin filament assemblies are a consequence of both the available polymer concentration and the actin regulatory proteins that direct the formation of higher order structures. By monitoring the displacement of well-dispersed microspheres via fluorescence microscopy, we probe the degree of spatial heterogeneity of F-actin gels and networks in vitro. We compare the distribution of the time-dependent mean-square displacement (MSD) of polystyrene microspheres imbedded in low- and high-concentration F-actin solutions, in the presence and absence of the F-actin-bundling protein fascin. The MSD distribution of a 2. 6-microM F-actin solution is symmetric and its standard deviation is similar to that of a homogeneous solution of glycerol of similar zero-shear viscosity. However, increasing actin concentration renders the MSD distribution wide and asymmetric, an effect enhanced by fascin. Quantitative changes in the shape of the MSD distribution correlate qualitatively with the presence of large heterogeneities in F-actin solutions produced by increased filament concentration and the presence of actin bundles, as detected by confocal microscopy. Multiple-particle tracking offers a new, quantitative method to characterize the organization of biopolymers in solution.

  20. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruedee Phasukthaworn

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies.

  1. Actin filaments at the leading edge of cancer cells are characterized by a high mobile fraction and turnover regulation by profilin I.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Lorente

    Full Text Available Cellular motility is the basis for cancer cell invasion and metastasis. In the case of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women, metastasis represents the most devastating stage of the disease. The central role of cellular motility in cancer development emphasizes the importance of understanding the specific mechanisms involved in this process. In this context, tumor development and metastasis would be the consequence of a loss or defect of the mechanisms that control cytoskeletal remodeling. Profilin I belongs to a family of small actin binding proteins that are thought to assist in actin filament elongation at the leading edge of migrating cells. Traditionally, Profilin I has been considered to be an essential control element for actin polymerization and cell migration. Expression of Profilin I is down-regulated in breast and various other cancer cells. In MDA-MB-231 cells, a breast cancer cell line, further inhibition of Profilin I expression promotes hypermotility and metastatic spread, a finding that contrasts with the proposed role of Profilin in enhancing polymerization. In this report, we have taken advantage of the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP of GFP-actin to quantify and compare actin dynamics at the leading edge level in both cancer and non-cancer cell models. Our results suggest that (i a high level of actin dynamics (i.e., a large mobile fraction of actin filaments and a fast turnover is a common characteristic of some cancer cells; (ii actin polymerization shows a high degree of independence from the presence of extracellular growth factors; and (iii our results also corroborate the role of Profilin I in regulating actin polymerization, as raising the intracellular levels of Profilin I decreased the mobile fraction ratio of actin filaments and slowed their polymerization rate; furthermore, increased Profilin levels also led to reduced individual cell velocity and directionality.

  2. Swinholide A is a microfilament disrupting marine toxin that stabilizes actin dimers and severs actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, M R; Spector, I; Bershadsky, A D; Korn, E D

    1995-02-24

    Swinholide A, isolated from the marien sponge Theonella swinhoei, is a 44-carbon ring dimeric dilactone macrolide with a 2-fold axis of symmetry. Recent studies have elucidated its unusual structure and shown that it has potent cytotoxic activity. We now report that swinholide A disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of cells grown in culture, sequesters actin dimers in vitro in both polymerizing and non-polymerizing buffers with a binding stoichiometry of one swinholide A molecule per actin dimer, and rapidly severs F-actin in vitro with high cooperativity. These unique properties are sufficient to explain the cytotoxicity of swinholide A. They also suggest that swinholide A might be a model for studies of the mechanism of action of F-actin severing proteins and be therapeutically useful in conditions where filamentous actin contributes to pathologically high viscosities.

  3. Actinic keratosis on the scalp (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunshine. Areas with high exposure such as the scalp (bald individuals), forearms, face, and back of the ... damaged and produces lesions like these on the scalp. The lesions, called actinic keratosis, may later become ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: actin-accumulation myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by mutations in the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene (ACTA1). Neuromuscul Disord. 2003 Sep;13(7-8):519-31. Review. ... Features What are genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is direct-to-consumer ...

  5. A vertebrate slow skeletal muscle actin isoform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mudalige, Wasana A. K. A; Jackman, Donna M; Waddleton, Deena M; Heeley, David H

    2007-01-01

    Salmonids utilize a unique, class II isoactin in slow skeletal muscle. This actin contains 12 replacements when compared with those from salmonid fast skeletal muscle, salmonid cardiac muscle and rabbit skeletal muscle...

  6. Mechanics model for actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan

    2009-02-01

    We present here a mechanics model for the force generation by actin polymerization. The possible adhesions between the actin filaments and the load surface, as well as the nucleation and capping of filament tips, are included in this model on top of the well-known elastic Brownian ratchet formulation. A closed form solution is provided from which the force-velocity relationship, summarizing the mechanics of polymerization, can be drawn. Model predictions on the velocity of moving beads driven by actin polymerization are consistent with experiment observations. This model also seems capable of explaining the enhanced actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes and beads by the presence of Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, as observed in recent experiments.

  7. Actin expression in trypanosomatids (Euglenozoa: Kinetoplastea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Cristina Kalb Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Heteroxenic and monoxenic trypanosomatids were screened for the presence of actin using a mouse polyclonal antibody produced against the entire sequence of the Trypanosoma cruzi actin gene, encoding a 41.9 kDa protein. Western blot analysis showed that this antibody reacted with a polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa in the whole-cell lysates of parasites targeting mammals (T. cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major, insects (Angomonas deanei, Crithidia fasciculata, Herpetomonas samuelpessoai and Strigomonas culicis and plants (Phytomonas serpens. A single polypeptide of approximately 42 kDa was detected in the whole-cell lysates of T. cruzi cultured epimastigotes, metacyclic trypomastigotes and amastigotes at similar protein expression levels. Confocal microscopy showed that actin was expressed throughout the cytoplasm of all the tested trypanosomatids. These data demonstrate that actin expression is widespread in trypanosomatids.

  8. Structural Differences Explain Diverse Functions of Plasmodium Actins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahokoski, Juha; Martinez, Silvia Muñico; Ignatev, Alexander; Lepper, Simone; Frischknecht, Friedrich; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Sachse, Carsten; Kursula, Inari

    2014-01-01

    Actins are highly conserved proteins and key players in central processes in all eukaryotic cells. The two actins of the malaria parasite are among the most divergent eukaryotic actins and also differ from each other more than isoforms in any other species. Microfilaments have not been directly observed in Plasmodium and are presumed to be short and highly dynamic. We show that actin I cannot complement actin II in male gametogenesis, suggesting critical structural differences. Cryo-EM reveals that Plasmodium actin I has a unique filament structure, whereas actin II filaments resemble canonical F-actin. Both Plasmodium actins hydrolyze ATP more efficiently than α-actin, and unlike any other actin, both parasite actins rapidly form short oligomers induced by ADP. Crystal structures of both isoforms pinpoint several structural changes in the monomers causing the unique polymerization properties. Inserting the canonical D-loop to Plasmodium actin I leads to the formation of long filaments in vitro. In vivo, this chimera restores gametogenesis in parasites lacking actin II, suggesting that stable filaments are required for exflagellation. Together, these data underline the divergence of eukaryotic actins and demonstrate how structural differences in the monomers translate into filaments with different properties, implying that even eukaryotic actins have faced different evolutionary pressures and followed different paths for developing their polymerization properties. PMID:24743229

  9. Symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the actin fusion structure is involved in osteoclast fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiro Takito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the zipper-like structure (ZLS, a podosome-related structure that transiently appears at the cell contact zone, in osteoclast fusion. Live-cell imaging of osteoclasts derived from RAW264.7 cells transfected with EGFP-actin revealed consistent symmetrical retrograde actin flow in the ZLS, but not in the podosome cluster, the podosome ring or the podosome belt. Confocal imaging showed that the distributions of F-actin, vinculin, paxillin and zyxin in the ZLS were different from those in the podosome belt. Thick actin filament bundles running outside the ZLS appeared to recruit non-muscle myosin IIA. The F-actin-rich domain of the ZLS contained actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3. Inhibition of Arp2/3 activity disorganized the ZLS, disrupted actin flow, deteriorated cell-cell adhesion and inhibited osteoclast hypermultinucleation. In contrast, ML-7, an inhibitor of myosin light chain kinase, had little effect on the structure of ZLS and promoted osteoclast hypermultinucleation. These results reveal a link between actin flow in the ZLS and osteoclast fusion. Osteoclast fusion was promoted by branched actin elongation and negatively regulated by actomyosin contraction.

  10. Actin binding domain of filamin distinguishes posterior from anterior actin filaments in migrating Dictyostelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Keitaro; Nagasaki, Akira; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Uyeda, Taro Q P

    2016-01-01

    Actin filaments in different parts of a cell interact with specific actin binding proteins (ABPs) and perform different functions in a spatially regulated manner. However, the mechanisms of those spatially-defined interactions have not been fully elucidated. If the structures of actin filaments differ in different parts of a cell, as suggested by previous in vitro structural studies, ABPs may distinguish these structural differences and interact with specific actin filaments in the cell. To test this hypothesis, we followed the translocation of the actin binding domain of filamin (ABDFLN) fused with photoswitchable fluorescent protein (mKikGR) in polarized Dictyostelium cells. When ABDFLN-mKikGR was photoswitched in the middle of a polarized cell, photoswitched ABDFLN-mKikGR rapidly translocated to the rear of the cell, even though actin filaments were abundant in the front. The speed of translocation (>3 μm/s) was much faster than that of the retrograde flow of cortical actin filaments. Rapid translocation of ABDFLN-mKikGR to the rear occurred normally in cells lacking GAPA, the only protein, other than actin, known to bind ABDFLN. We suggest that ABDFLN recognizes a certain feature of actin filaments in the rear of the cell and selectively binds to them, contributing to the posterior localization of filamin.

  11. Morphological changes in liposomes caused by polymerization of encapsulated actin and spontaneous formation of actin bundles.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, H.; Hotani, H.

    1992-01-01

    Spherical giant liposomes that had encapsulated skeletal-muscle G-actin were made by swelling a dried lipid mixture of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin, 1:1 (wt/wt), in a solution of G-actin/CaCl2 at 0 degree C. Polymerization of the encapsulated G-actin into actin filaments was achieved by raising the temperature to 30 degrees C. We observed the subsequent shape changes of the liposomes by dark-field and differential interference-contrast light microscopy. After approximately 40 m...

  12. Pharmacoeconomic Considerations in Treating Actinic Keratosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marjorie V. Neidecker; Mary Lynn. Davis-Ajami; Rajesh Balkrishnan; Feldman, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Actinic keratosis is among the most commonly treated skin conditions in the outpatient setting. Its prevalence spans the globe, with greater distribution in fair skinned individuals and the immunocompromised. With high prevalence, increasing incidence and the risk of transformation to a cancerous lesion, prevention and timely treatment present opportunities to rein in costs. The purpose of this article is to review published economic studies relating to the treatment of actinic keratosis, to ...

  13. Molecular Simulations of Actomyosin Network Self-Assembly and Remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komianos, James; Popov, Konstantin; Papoian, Garegin; Papoian Lab Team

    Actomyosin networks are an integral part of the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells and play an essential role in determining cellular shape and movement. Actomyosin network growth and remodeling in vivo is based on a large number of chemical and mechanical processes, which are mutually coupled and spatially and temporally resolved. To investigate the fundamental principles behind the self-organization of these networks, we have developed a detailed mechanochemical, stochastic model of actin filament growth dynamics, at a single-molecule resolution, where the nonlinear mechanical rigidity of filaments and their corresponding deformations under internally and externally generated forces are taken into account. Our work sheds light on the interplay between the chemical and mechanical processes governing the cytoskeletal dynamics, and also highlights the importance of diffusional and active transport phenomena. Our simulations reveal how different actomyosin micro-architectures emerge in response to varying the network composition. Support from NSF Grant CHE-1363081.

  14. Extra-nuclear signaling of progesterone receptor to breast cancer cell movement and invasion through the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Fu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone plays a role in breast cancer development and progression but the effects on breast cancer cell movement or invasion have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigate the actions of natural progesterone and of the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and on breast cancer cell movement and invasion. In particular, we characterize the nongenomic signaling cascades implicated in these actions. T47-D breast cancer cells display enhanced horizontal migration and invasion of three-dimensional matrices in the presence of both progestins. Exposure to the hormones triggers a rapid remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles required for cell movement, which are dependent on the rapid phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory protein moesin. The extra-cellular small GTPase RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK-2 cascade plays central role in progesterone- and MPA-induced moesin activation, cell migration and invasion. In the presence of progesterone, progesterone receptor A (PRA interacts with the G protein G alpha(13, while MPA drives PR to interact with tyrosine kinase c-Src and to activate phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, leading to the activation of RhoA/ROCK-2. In conclusion, our findings manifest that progesterone and MPA promote breast cancer cell movement via rapid actin cytoskeleton remodeling, which are mediated by moesin activation. These events are triggered by RhoA/ROCK-2 cascade through partially differing pathways by the two compounds. These results provide original mechanistic explanations for the effects of progestins on breast cancer progression and highlight potential targets to treat endocrine-sensitive breast cancers.

  15. Impact of peptide micropatterning on endothelial cell actin remodeling for cell alignment under shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Céline; Bareille, Reine; Rémy, Murielle; Guignandon, Alain; Bordenave, Laurence; Laroche, Gaetan; Durrieu, Marie-Christine

    2012-12-01

    HSVEC behavior under physiological shear stress in vitro is investigated on PET surfaces micropatterned with both RGDS and WQPPRARI peptides. This technique allows (i) creating geometries on surface to guide cell orientation under shear stress and (ii) controlling surface chemical composition in order to modulate cell behavior. Under shear stress, endothelial cells adhere on patterned PET surfaces and present a more rapid orientation in flow direction in comparison to cells cultured on homogeneous surfaces. Micropatterned surfaces presenting a large surface area ratio of RGDS/WQPPRARI peptides induce fibrillar adhesion, while surfaces presenting an equal RGDS/WQPPRARI peptides surface area ratio preferentially induce focal adhesion. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Structure of a Longitudinal Actin Dimer Assembled by Tandem W Domains: Implications for Actin Filament Nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebowski, Grzegorz; Namgoong, Suk; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Leavis, Paul C.; Navaza, Jorge; Dominguez, Roberto (IBS); (BBRI); (UPENN-MED)

    2013-11-20

    Actin filament nucleators initiate polymerization in cells in a regulated manner. A common architecture among these molecules consists of tandem WASP homology 2 domains (W domains) that recruit three to four actin subunits to form a polymerization nucleus. We describe a low-resolution crystal structure of an actin dimer assembled by tandem W domains, where the first W domain is cross-linked to Cys374 of the actin subunit bound to it, whereas the last W domain is followed by the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4. While the arrangement of actin subunits in the dimer resembles that of a long-pitch helix of the actin filament, important differences are observed. These differences result from steric hindrance of the W domain with intersubunit contacts in the actin filament. We also determined the structure of the first W domain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VopL cross-linked to actin Cys374 and show it to be nearly identical with non-cross-linked W-Actin structures. This result validates the use of cross-linking as a tool for the study of actin nucleation complexes, whose natural tendency to polymerize interferes with most structural methods. Combined with a biochemical analysis of nucleation, the structures may explain why nucleators based on tandem W domains with short inter-W linkers have relatively weak activity, cannot stay bound to filaments after nucleation, and are unlikely to influence filament elongation. The findings may also explain why nucleation-promoting factors of the Arp2/3 complex, which are related to tandem-W-domain nucleators, are ejected from branch junctions after nucleation. We finally show that the simple addition of the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4 to tandem W domains can change their activity from actin filament nucleation to monomer sequestration.

  17. Balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required to assemble functional epithelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Lissette A; Vedula, Pavan; Gutierrez, Natasha; Shah, Neel; Rodriguez, Steven; Ayee, Brian; Davis, Justin; Rodriguez, Alexis J

    2015-12-01

    Regulating adherens junction complex assembly/disassembly is critical to maintaining epithelial homeostasis in healthy epithelial tissues. Consequently, adherens junction structure and function is often perturbed in clinically advanced tumors of epithelial origin. Some of the most studied factors driving adherens junction complex perturbation in epithelial cancers are transcriptional and epigenetic down-regulation of E-cadherin expression. However, numerous reports demonstrate that post-translational regulatory mechanisms such as endocytosis also regulate early phases of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastatic progression. In already assembled healthy epithelia, E-cadherin endocytosis recycles cadherin-catenin complexes to regulate the number of mature adherens junctions found at cell-cell contact sites. However, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, endocytosis negatively regulates adherens junction assembly by removing E-cadherin from the cell surface. By contrast, following de novo epithelial cell-cell contact, spatially localized β-actin translation drives cytoskeletal remodeling and consequently E-cadherin clustering at cell-cell contact sites and therefore positively regulates adherens junction assembly. In this report we demonstrate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis and β-actin translation-dependent cadherin-catenin complex anchoring oppose each other following epithelial cell-cell contact. Consequently, the final extent of adherens junction assembly depends on which of these processes is dominant following epithelial cell-cell contact. We expressed β-actin transcripts impaired in their ability to properly localize monomer synthesis (Δ3'UTR) in MDCK cells to perturb actin filament remodeling and anchoring, and demonstrate the resulting defect in adherens junction structure and function is rescued by inhibiting dynamin mediated endocytosis. Therefore, we demonstrate balancing spatially regulated β-actin translation and dynamin

  18. Probing the phalloidin binding site of actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich, H; Zobeley, S; Heintz, D; Drewes, G

    1993-03-08

    Phallotoxins form tight complexes with filamentous actin and stabilize the polymer against shearing stress. In the present study a phalloidin derivative containing a thiol-capturing moiety was prepared and reacted with single thiol groups of monomeric muscle actin. Sites of attachment in the protein were Cys-374 next to the C-terminus and Cys-10, close to the N-terminus; the latter was recently shown to be uncovered during a slow but reversible conformational transition occurring in ADP-G-actin. Phalloidin bound to Cys-374 stabilizes filaments against shearing stress almost as effectively as free phalloidin, indicating that the phalloidin binding site cannot be far from the C-terminus of actin. Stabilization was also achieved when the phalloidin reagent was added to F-actin, however, the subsequent formation of a covalent linkage with Cys-374 was not observed, most likely due to a restricted mobility of the reactants. In contrast to the efficient stabilization of filaments by phalloidin linked to Cys-374 a destabilizing effect was observed when phalloidin was attached to Cys-10. It appears that phalloidin located close to the N-terminus is unable to bind to the normal binding site in its own filament. Pronounced gelification of this actin derivative suggests that the toxin is able to mediate crosslinking with neighbouring filaments. From these results we conclude that the phalloidin binding site of actin is distant from the N-terminus, but close to the C-terminus. Furthermore, the data provide evidence that binding of phalloidin reduces the mobility of the C-terminus.

  19. Green fluorescent protein-mtalin causes defects in actin organization and cell expansion in Arabidopsis and inhibits actin depolymerizing factor's actin depolymerizing activity in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Anthony, R.G.; Hussey, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to an actin binding domain is a commonly used method for live cell imaging of the actin cytoskeleton. One of these chimeric proteins is GFP-mTalin (GFP fused to the actin binding domain of mouse talin). Although it has been demonstrated that

  20. Glutamyl phosphate is an activated intermediate in actin crosslinking by actin crosslinking domain (ACD toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kudryashova

    Full Text Available Actin Crosslinking Domain (ACD is produced by several life-threatening Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria as part of larger toxins and delivered into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic host cells via Type I or Type VI secretion systems. Upon delivery, ACD disrupts the actin cytoskeleton by catalyzing intermolecular amide bond formation between E270 and K50 residues of actin, leading to the formation of polymerization-deficient actin oligomers. Ultimately, accumulation of the crosslinked oligomers results in structural and functional failure of the actin cytoskeleton in affected cells. In the present work, we advanced in our understanding of the ACD catalytic mechanism by discovering that the enzyme transfers the gamma-phosphoryl group of ATP to the E270 actin residue, resulting in the formation of an activated acyl phosphate intermediate. This intermediate is further hydrolyzed and the energy of hydrolysis is utilized for the formation of the amide bond between actin subunits. We also determined the pH optimum for the reaction and the kinetic parameters of ACD catalysis for its substrates, ATP and actin. ACD showed sigmoidal, non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics for actin (K(0.5 = 30 µM reflecting involvement of two actin molecules in a single crosslinking event. We established that ACD can also utilize Mg(2+-GTP to support crosslinking, but the kinetic parameters (K(M = 8 µM and 50 µM for ATP and GTP, respectively suggest that ATP is the primary substrate of ACD in vivo. The optimal pH for ACD activity was in the range of 7.0-9.0. The elucidated kinetic mechanism of ACD toxicity adds to understanding of complex network of host-pathogen interactions.

  1. The unusual dynamics of parasite actin result from isodesmic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Kristen M; Ma, Christopher I; Fremont, Daved H; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Cooper, John A; Sept, David; Sibley, L David

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports have indicated that parasite actins are short and inherently unstable, despite being required for motility. Here we re-examine the polymerization properties of actin in Toxoplasma gondii, unexpectedly finding that it exhibits isodesmic polymerization in contrast to the conventional nucleation-elongation process of all previously studied actins from both eukaryotes and bacteria. Polymerization kinetics of actin in T. gondii lacks both a lag phase and critical concentration, normally characteristic of actins. Unique among actins, the kinetics of assembly can be fit with a single set of rate constants for all subunit interactions, without need for separate nucleation and elongation rates. This isodesmic model accurately predicts the assembly, disassembly and the size distribution of actin filaments in T. gondii in vitro, providing a mechanistic explanation for actin dynamics in vivo. Our findings expand the repertoire of mechanisms by which actin polymerization is governed and offer clues about the evolution of self-assembling, stabilized protein polymers.

  2. Impact of Carbon Nanomaterials on Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Li, Xu; Li, Xin; Zhao, Lina

    2016-03-01

    Many nanomaterials have entered people's daily lives and impact the normal process of biological entities consequently. As one kind of the important nanomaterials, carbon based nanomaterials have invoked a lot of concerns from scientific researches because of their unique physicochemical properties. In eukaryotes, actin is the most abundantly distributed protein in both cytoplasm and cell nucleus, and closely controls the cell proliferation and mobility. Recently, many investigations have found some carbon based nanomaterials can affect actin cytoskeleton remarkably, including fullerenes derivatives, carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives. However, these interaction processes are complicated and the underlying mechanism is far from being understood clearly. In this review, we discussed the different mechanisms of carbon nanomaterials impact on actin polymerization into three pathways, as triggering the signaling pathways from carbon nanomaterials outside of cells, increasing the production of reactive oxygen species from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells and direct interaction from carbon nanomaterials inside of cells. As a result, the dimension and size of carbon nanomaterials play a key role in regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, we forecasted the possible investigation strategy for meeting the challenges of the future study on this topic. We hope the findings are helpful in understanding the molecular mechanism in carbon nanomaterials regulating actin polymerization, and provide new insight in novel nanomedicine development for inhibition tumor cell migration.

  3. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  4. The Actin Cytoskeleton Is Involved in Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF-Induced Ret Translocation into Lipid Rafts in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, a potential therapeutic factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD, exerts its biological effects through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase. The redistribution of Ret into lipid rafts substantially influences Ret signaling, but the mechanisms underlying Ret translocation remain unclear. The purpose of our study was to further explore the signaling mechanisms of GDNF and to determine whether the actin cytoskeleton is involved in the GDNF-induced Ret translocation into lipid rafts. In MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells, we used density gradient centrifugation and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to separate and visualize lipid rafts, co-immunoprecipitation to analyze protein-protein interactions, and latrunculin B (Lat B and jasplakinolide (Jas to disrupt and enhance the polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton, respectively. The results showed that Ret translocated into lipid rafts and coimmunoprecipitated with actin in response to GDNF treatment. After Lat B or Jas treatment, the Ret–F-actin association induced by GDNF was impaired or enhanced respectively and then the levels of Ret translocated into lipid rafts were correspondingly inhibited or promoted. These data indicate that actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling are integral to GDNF-induced cell signaling in dopaminergic cells and define a new role of the actin cytoskeleton in promoting Ret redistribution into lipid rafts.

  5. Connecting membranes to the actin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwei; Hawkins, Tim J; Hussey, Patrick J

    2017-08-02

    In plants, the actin cytoskeleton plays a major role in organelle movement, cargo transport, maintaining cell polarity and controlling the morphogenesis of endomembrane systems. All of these events require a direct connection between membrane structures and the cytoskeleton. Our knowledge in this field has been greatly advanced by a few recent discoveries including the identification of the plant specific NETWORKED family of proteins, which can mediate such linkages. Other proteins that are known to regulate actin nucleation and polymerization are also likely to be involved, but many key questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we will focus on recent research on the interfaces between the actin cytoskeleton and membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, the vacuole and autophagosomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-Straub type actin from molluscan catch muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelud' ko, Nikolay S., E-mail: sheludko@stl.ru; Girich, Ulyana V.; Lazarev, Stanislav S.; Vyatchin, Ilya G.

    2016-05-27

    We have developed a method of obtaining natural actin from smooth muscles of the bivalves on the example of the Crenomytilus grayanus catch muscle. The muscles were previously rigorized to prevent a loss of thin filaments during homogenization and washings. Thin filaments were isolated with a low ionic strength solution in the presence of ATP and sodium pyrophosphate. Surface proteins of thin filaments-tropomyosin, troponin, calponin and some minor actin-binding proteins-were dissociated from actin filaments by increasing the ionic strength to 0.6 M KCL. Natural fibrillar actin obtained in that way depolymerizes easily in low ionic strength solutions commonly used for the extraction of Straub-type actin from acetone powder. Purification of natural actin was carried out by the polymerization–depolymerization cycle. The content of inactivated actin remaining in the supernatant is much less than at a similar purification of Straub-type actin. A comparative investigation was performed between the natural mussel actin and the Straub-type rabbit skeletal actin in terms of the key properties of actin: polymerization, activation of Mg-ATPase activity of myosin, and the electron-microscopic structure of actin polymers. -- Highlights: •We developed method of repolymerizable invertebrate smooth muscle actin obtaining. •Our method does not involve use of denaturating agents, which could modify proteins. •Viscosity and polymerization rate of actin, gained that way, is similar to Straub one. •Electron microscopy showed that repolymerized mussel actin is similar to Straub one. •Repolymerized mussel actin has greater ATPase activating capacity, than Straub actin.

  7. A Continuum Model of Actin Waves in Dictyostelium discoideum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamviwath, Varunyu; Hu, Jifeng; Othmer, Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    Actin waves are complex dynamical patterns of the dendritic network of filamentous actin in eukaryotes. We developed a model of actin waves in PTEN-deficient Dictyostelium discoideum by deriving an approximation of the dynamics of discrete actin filaments and combining it with a signaling pathway that controls filament branching. This signaling pathway, together with the actin network, contains a positive feedback loop that drives the actin waves. Our model predicts the structure, composition, and dynamics of waves that are consistent with existing experimental evidence, as well as the biochemical dependence on various protein partners. Simulation suggests that actin waves are initiated when local actin network activity, caused by an independent process, exceeds a certain threshold. Moreover, diffusion of proteins that form a positive feedback loop with the actin network alone is sufficient for propagation of actin waves at the observed speed of . Decay of the wave back can be caused by scarcity of network components, and the shape of actin waves is highly dependent on the filament disassembly rate. The model allows retraction of actin waves and captures formation of new wave fronts in broken waves. Our results demonstrate that a delicate balance between a positive feedback, filament disassembly, and local availability of network components is essential for the complex dynamics of actin waves. PMID:23741312

  8. Expression of cardiac alpha-actin spares extraocular muscles in skeletal muscle alpha-actin diseases--quantification of striated alpha-actins by MRM-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, Gianina; Colley, Stephen M J; Walker, Kendall R; Clement, Sophie; Bringans, Scott; Lipscombe, Richard; Fabian, Victoria A; Laing, Nigel G; Nowak, Kristen J

    2008-12-01

    As with many skeletal muscle diseases, the extraocular muscles (EOMs) are spared in skeletal muscle alpha-actin diseases, with no ophthalmoplegia even in severely affected patients. We hypothesised that the extraocular muscles sparing in these patients was due to significant expression of cardiac alpha-actin, the alpha-actin isoform expressed in heart and foetal skeletal muscle. We have shown by immunochemistry, Western blotting and a novel MRM-mass spectrometry technique, comparable levels of cardiac alpha-actin in the extraocular muscles of human, pig and sheep to those in the heart. The sparing of extraocular muscles in skeletal muscle alpha-actin disease is thus probably due to greater levels of cardiac alpha-actin, than the negligible amounts in skeletal muscles, diluting out the effects of the mutant skeletal muscle alpha-actin.

  9. The maternal-to-zygotic transition targets actin to promote robustness during morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuliu Zheng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Robustness is a property built into biological systems to ensure stereotypical outcomes despite fluctuating inputs from gene dosage, biochemical noise, and the environment. During development, robustness safeguards embryos against structural and functional defects. Yet, our understanding of how robustness is achieved in embryos is limited. While much attention has been paid to the role of gene and signaling networks in promoting robust cell fate determination, little has been done to rigorously assay how mechanical processes like morphogenesis are designed to buffer against variable conditions. Here we show that the cell shape changes that drive morphogenesis can be made robust by mechanisms targeting the actin cytoskeleton. We identified two novel members of the Vinculin/α-Catenin Superfamily that work together to promote robustness during Drosophila cellularization, the dramatic tissue-building event that generates the primary epithelium of the embryo. We find that zygotically-expressed Serendipity-α (Sry-α and maternally-loaded Spitting Image (Spt share a redundant, actin-regulating activity during cellularization. Spt alone is sufficient for cellularization at an optimal temperature, but both Spt plus Sry-α are required at high temperature and when actin assembly is compromised by genetic perturbation. Our results offer a clear example of how the maternal and zygotic genomes interact to promote the robustness of early developmental events. Specifically, the Spt and Sry-α collaboration is informative when it comes to genes that show both a maternal and zygotic requirement during a given morphogenetic process. For the cellularization of Drosophilids, Sry-α and its expression profile may represent a genetic adaptive trait with the sole purpose of making this extreme event more reliable. Since all morphogenesis depends on cytoskeletal remodeling, both in embryos and adults, we suggest that robustness-promoting mechanisms aimed at actin

  10. Integration of signaling and cytoskeletal remodeling by Nck in directional cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Sankar P; Rivera, Gonzalo M

    2013-01-01

    Planar and apical-basal cellular polarization of epithelia and endothelia are crucial during morphogenesis. The establishment of these distinct polarity states and their transitions are regulated by signaling networks that include polarity complexes, Rho GTPases, and phosphoinositides. The spatiotemporal coordination of signaling by these molecules modulates cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle trafficking to specify membrane domains, a prerequisite for the organization of tissues and organs. Here we present an overview of how activation of the WASp/Arp2/3 pathway of actin remodeling by Nck coordinates directional cell migration and speculate on its role as a signaling integrator in the coordination of cellular processes involved in endothelial cell polarity and vascular lumen formation.

  11. Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Strettoi, Enrica

    2003-09-01

    Mammalian retinal degenerations initiated by gene defects in rods, cones or the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) often trigger loss of the sensory retina, effectively leaving the neural retina deafferented. The neural retina responds to this challenge by remodeling, first by subtle changes in neuronal structure and later by large-scale reorganization. Retinal degenerations in the mammalian retina generally progress through three phases. Phase 1 initiates with expression of a primary insult, followed by phase 2 photoreceptor death that ablates the sensory retina via initial photoreceptor stress, phenotype deconstruction, irreversible stress and cell death, including bystander effects or loss of trophic support. The loss of cones heralds phase 3: a protracted period of global remodeling of the remnant neural retina. Remodeling resembles the responses of many CNS assemblies to deafferentation or trauma, and includes neuronal cell death, neuronal and glial migration, elaboration of new neurites and synapses, rewiring of retinal circuits, glial hypertrophy and the evolution of a fibrotic glial seal that isolates the remnant neural retina from the surviving RPE and choroid. In early phase 2, stressed photoreceptors sprout anomalous neurites that often reach the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers. As death of rods and cones progresses, bipolar and horizontal cells are deafferented and retract most of their dendrites. Horizontal cells develop anomalous axonal processes and dendritic stalks that enter the inner plexiform layer. Dendrite truncation in rod bipolar cells is accompanied by revision of their macromolecular phenotype, including the loss of functioning mGluR6 transduction. After ablation of the sensory retina, Müller cells increase intermediate filament synthesis, forming a dense fibrotic layer in the remnant subretinal space. This layer invests the remnant retina and seals it from access via the choroidal route. Evidence of bipolar cell death begins in

  12. Actin dynamics and the elasticity of cytoskeletal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a cell depends on its cytoskeleton, which includes an actin network. This network is transient and depends upon the continual polymerization and depolymerization of actin. The degradation of an actin network, and a corresponding reduction in cell stiffness, can indicate the presence of disease. Numerical simulations will be invaluable for understanding the physics of these systems and the correlation between actin dynamics and elasticity. Here we develop a model that is capable of generating actin network structures. In particular, we develop a model of actin dynamics which considers the polymerization, depolymerization, nucleation, severing, and capping of actin filaments. The structures obtained are then fed directly into a mechanical model. This allows us to qualitatively assess the effects of changing various parameters associated with actin dynamics on the elasticity of the material.

  13. Actin-associated protein palladin is required for migration behavior and differentiation potential of C2C12 myoblast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Uyen Nhi; Liang, Vincent Roderick; Wang, Hao-Ven, E-mail: hvwang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Palladin is involved in myogenesis in vitro. • Palladin knockdown by siRNA increases myoblast proliferation, viability and differentiation. • Palladin knockdown decreases C2C12 myoblast migration ability. - Abstract: The actin-associated protein palladin has been shown to be involved in differentiation processes in non-muscle tissues. However, but its function in skeletal muscle has rarely been studied. Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. Since intact actin-cytoskeletal remodeling is necessary for myogenesis, in the present study, we pursue to investigate the role of actin-associated palladin in skeletal muscle differentiation. Palladin in C2C12 myoblasts is knocked-down using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). The results show that down-regulation of palladin decreased migratory activity of mouse skeletal muscle C2C12 myoblasts. Furthermore, the depletion of palladin enhances C2C12 vitality and proliferation. Of note, the loss of palladin promotes C2C12 to express the myosin heavy chain, suggesting that palladin has a role in the modulation of C2C12 differentiation. It is thus proposed that palladin is required for normal C2C12 myogenesis in vitro.

  14. In vivo imaging of cell behaviors and F-actin reveals LIM-HD transcription factor regulation of peripheral versus central sensory axon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Erica F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of specific neuronal morphology requires precise control over cell motility processes, including axon formation, outgrowth and branching. Dynamic remodeling of the filamentous actin (F-actin cytoskeleton is critical for these processes; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling motile axon behaviors and F-actin dynamics in vivo. Neuronal structure is specified in part by intrinsic transcription factor activity, yet the molecular and cellular steps between transcription and axon behavior are not well understood. Zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB sensory neurons have a unique morphology, with central axons that extend in the spinal cord and a peripheral axon that innervates the skin. LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD transcription factor activity is required for formation of peripheral RB axons. To understand how neuronal morphogenesis is controlled in vivo and how LIM-HD transcription factor activity differentially regulates peripheral versus central axons, we used live imaging of axon behavior and F-actin distribution in vivo. Results We used an F-actin biosensor containing the actin-binding domain of utrophin to characterize actin rearrangements during specific developmental processes in vivo, including axon initiation, consolidation and branching. We found that peripheral axons initiate from a specific cellular compartment and that F-actin accumulation and protrusive activity precede peripheral axon initiation. Moreover, disruption of LIM-HD transcriptional activity has different effects on the motility of peripheral versus central axons; it inhibits peripheral axon initiation, growth and branching, while increasing the growth rate of central axons. Our imaging revealed that LIM-HD transcription factor activity is not required for F-actin based protrusive activity or F-actin accumulation during peripheral axon initiation, but can affect positioning of F-actin accumulation and axon formation. Conclusion Our ability

  15. Tumor-suppression functions of merlin are independent of its role as an organizer of the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Dominique; Saint-Amaux, Aurelie Lampin; Giovannini, Marco

    2009-11-15

    Merlin is the product of the Nf2 tumor-suppressor gene, and inactivation of Nf2 leads to the development of neural tumors such as schwannomas and meningiomas in humans and mice. Merlin is a member of the ERM (ezrin, radixin and moesin) family of proteins that function as organizers of the actin cytoskeleton. Merlin structure is thought to be similar to that of the ERM proteins, and is held in a closed clamp conformation via intramolecular interactions of its N-terminal FERM (four-point-one, ERM) domain with an alpha-helical C-terminal domain. Like ERMs, merlin can remodel actin-rich cortical structures, yet merlin uniquely inhibits the proliferation of many different cell types. Here, we report that the F2 subdomain of the FERM domain and a domain close to the C-terminus that is defined by residues 532-579 are essential for merlin-mediated inhibition of primary Schwann cell proliferation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the F1 subdomain of the merlin FERM domain is required for actin colocalization, proper regulation of merlin C-terminal phosphorylation and for remodeling the cytoskeleton, yet is not required for the inhibition of Schwann cell proliferation. Thus, tumor suppression by merlin is independent of its role as an organizer of the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells.

  16. A Radial Actin Network in Apical Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhiyi; Großhans, Jörg

    2016-11-07

    Contractile actomyosin networks are central to cell shape change, rearrangements, and migration during animal tissue morphogenesis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Coravos and Martin (2016) report that the actin network is radially polarized in apically constricting cells, suggesting a constriction model similar to the contraction mechanism in muscle sarcomeres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chromatin remodeling in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarillo, José A; Piñeiro, Manuel; Cubas, Pilar; Martínez-Zapater, José M

    2009-01-01

    Plant development results from specific patterns of gene expression that are tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner. Chromatin remodeling plays a central role in establishing these expression patterns and maintaining epigenetic transcriptional states through successive rounds of mitosis that take place within a cell lineage. Plant epigenetic switches occur not only at the embryo stage, but also during postembryonic developmental transitions, suggesting that chromatin remodeling activities in plants can provide a higher degree of regulatory flexibility which probably underlies their developmental plasticity. Here, we highlight recent progress in the understanding of plant chromatin dynamic organization, facilitating the activation or repression of specific sets of genes involved in different developmental programs and integrating them with the response to environmental signals. Chromatin conformation controls gene expression both in actively dividing undifferentiated cells and in those already fate-determined. In this context, we first describe chromatin reorganization activities required to maintain meristem function stable through DNA replication and cell division. Organ initiation at the apex, with emphasis on reproductive development, is next discussed to uncover the chromatin events involved in the establishment and maintenance of expression patterns associated with differentiating cells; this is illustrated with the complex epigenetic regulation of the Arabidopsis floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Finally, we discuss the involvement of chromatin remodeling in plant responses to environmental cues and to different types of stress conditions.

  18. Formin DAAM1 Organizes Actin Filaments in the Cytoplasmic Nodal Actin Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiwei Luo; Zi Zhao Lieu; Ed Manser; Alexander D Bershadsky; Michael P Sheetz

    2016-01-01

    .... DAAM1 was found to be distributed between the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. The membrane binding likely occurs through an interaction with lipid rafts, but is not required for F-actin assembly...

  19. TRPV1 attenuates intracranial arteriole remodeling through inhibiting VSMC phenotypic modulation in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Jie; Liu, Yun; Hu, Zi-Cheng; Zhou, Yi; Pi, Yan; Guo, Lu; Wang, Xu; Chen, Xue; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2017-04-01

    The phenotypic modulation of contractile vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is widely accepted as the pivotal process in the arterial remodeling induced by hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) on regulating VSMC plasticity and intracranial arteriole remodeling in hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and TRPV1-/- mice on a C57BL/6J background were used. By microscopic observation of the histopathological sections of vessels from hypertensive SHR and age-matched normotensive WKY control rats, we found that hypertension induced arterial remodeling. Decreased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and SM22α while increased osteopontin (OPN) were observed in aorta and VSMCs derived from SHR compared with those in WKY, and VSMCs derived from SHR upregulated inflammatory factors. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin significantly increased expression of α-SMA and SM22α, reduced expression of OPN, retarded proliferative and migratory capacities and inhibited inflammatory status in VSMCs from SHR, which was counteracted by TRPV1 antagonist 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin (iRTX) combined with capsaicin. TRPV1 activation by capsaicin ameliorated intracranial arteriole remodeling in SHR and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. However, the attenuation of arteriole remodeling by capsaicin was not observed in TRPV1-/- mice. Furthermore, TRPV1 activation significantly decreased the activity of PI3K and phosphorylation level of Akt in SHR-derived VSMCs. Taken together, we provide evidence that TRPV1 activation by capsaicin attenuates intracranial arteriole remodeling through inhibiting VSMC phenotypic modulation during hypertension, which may be at least partly attributed to the suppression PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings highlight the prospect of TRPV1 in prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  20. Static stretch induces active morphological remodeling and functional impairment of alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanhong; Zhan, Qingyuan; Hu, Qinghua; Sun, Bing; Yang, Chun; Wang, Chen

    2009-01-01

    Static stretch is frequently observed in the lung. Both static stretch and cyclic stretch can induce cell death and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase trafficking, but stretch-induced alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) functions are much less responsive to static than to cyclic stretch. AEC remodeling under static stretch may be partly explained. The aim of this study was to explore the AEC remodeling and functional changes under static stretch conditions. We used A549 cells as a model of AEC type II cells. We assessed F-actin content and cell viability by fluorescence staining at various static-stretch magnitudes and time points. Specifically, we used scanning electron microscopy to explore the possible biological mechanisms used by A549 cells to 'escape' static-stretch-induced injury. Finally, we measured choline cytidylyltransferase-alpha (CCT alpha) mRNA and protein by real-time PCR and Western blot to evaluate cellular secretory function. The results showed that the magnitude of static stretch was the primary determinant of static-stretch-induced cell death and cytoskeleton organization, but an extended duration of high static deformation/stretch (37% change in surface area) had no cumulative effects on cell death and cytoskeleton organization. AEC remodeling (expansion-contraction-reexpansion) under static stretch conditions may explain this interesting phenomenon partly. After cell remodeling, CCT alpha expression in A549 cells was influenced not only by stretch magnitude but also by stretch time. Under static stretch conditions, A549 cells undergo morphological and functional changes. They can survive stress failure from overstretching by remodeling their body to 'escape' the injury. During this complex course of remodeling, cellular function was partly damaged. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Sarcomeric lesions and remodeling proximal to intercalated disks in overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebir, Sied; Orfanos, Zacharias; Schuld, Julia; Linhart, Markus; Lamberz, Christian; van der Ven, Peter F M; Schrickel, Jan; Kirfel, Gregor; Fürst, Dieter O; Meyer, Rainer

    2016-10-15

    Pressure overload induces cardiac remodeling involving both the contractile machinery and intercalated disks (IDs). Filamin C (FlnC) and Xin actin-binding repeat-containing proteins (XIRPs) are multi-adapters localizing in IDs of higher vertebrates. Knockout of the gene encoding Xin (Xirp1) in mice leads to a mild cardiac phenotype with ID mislocalization. In order to amplify this phenotype, we performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) on control and Xirp1-deficient mice. TAC induced similar left ventricular hypertrophy in both genotypes, suggesting that the lack of Xin does not lead to higher susceptibility to cardiac overload. However, in both genotypes, FlnC appeared in "streaming" localizations across multiple sarcomeres proximal to the IDs, suggesting a remodeling response. Furthermore, FlnC-positive areas of remodeling, reminiscent of sarcomeric lesions previously described for skeletal muscles (but so far unreported in the heart), were also observed. These adaptations reflect a similarly strong effect of the pressure induced by TAC in both genotypes. However, 2 weeks post-operation TAC-treated knockout hearts had reduced levels of connexin43 and slightly increased incidents of ventricular tachycardia compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Our findings highlight the FlnC-positive sarcomeric lesions and ID-proximal streaming as general remodeling responses in cardiac overload-induced hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Requires Host Cell Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, David A.; Coleman, Daniel J.; Lane, Michael A.; May, Robin C.; Machesky, Laura M.; Clark, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum accumulates host cell actin at the interface between the parasite and the host cell cytoplasm. Here we show that the actin polymerizing proteins Arp2/3, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and neural Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) are present at this interface and that host cell actin polymerization is necessary for parasite infection.

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum infection requires host cell actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D A; Coleman, D J; Lane, M A; May, R C; Machesky, L M; Clark, D P

    2001-09-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum accumulates host cell actin at the interface between the parasite and the host cell cytoplasm. Here we show that the actin polymerizing proteins Arp2/3, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and neural Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) are present at this interface and that host cell actin polymerization is necessary for parasite infection.

  4. Actin cytoskeleton demonstration in Trichomonas vaginalis and in other trichomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugerolle, G; Bricheux, G; Coffe, G

    1996-01-01

    The flagellate form of Trichomonas vaginalis (T v) transforms to amoeboid cells upon adherence to converslips. They grow and their nuclei divide without undergoing cytokinesis, yielding giant cells and a monolayer of T v F-actin was demonstrated in Trichomonas vaginalis by fluorescence microscopy using phalloidin and an anti-actin mAb which labelled the cytoplasm of both the flagellate and amoeboid forms. Comparative electrophoresis and immunoblotting established that the actin band has the same 42 kDa as muscle actin, but 2-D electrophoresis resolved the actin band into four spots; the two major spots observed were superimposable with major muscle actin isoforms. Electron microscopy demonstrated an ectoplasmic microfibrillar layer along the adhesion zone of amoeboid T v adhering to coverslips. Immunogold staining, using anti-actin monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that this layer was mainly composed of actin microfilaments. A comparative immunoblotting study comprising seven trichomonad species showed that all trichomonads studied expressed actin. The mAb Sigma A-4700 specific for an epitope on the actin C-terminal sequence labelled only actin of Trichomonas vaginalis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum. Trichomitus batrachorum and Hypotrichomonas acosta, but not the actin of Tritrichomonas foetus, Tritrichomonas augusta and Monocercomonas sp. This discrimination between a 'trichomonas branch' and a 'tritrichomonas branch' is congruent with inferred sequence phylogeny from SSu rRNA and with classical phylogeny of trichomonads.

  5. Calcium remodeling in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Basic and clinical data indicate that aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may prevent colon cancer but mechanisms remain unknown. Aspirin metabolite salicylate and other NSAIDs may inhibit tumor cell growth acting on store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), suggesting an important role for this pathway in CRC. Consistently, SOCE is emerging as a novel player in different forms of cancer, including CRC. SOCE and store-operated currents (SOCs) are dramatically enhanced in CRC while Ca(2+) stores are partially empty in CRC cells. These features may contribute to CRC hallmarks including enhanced cell proliferation, migration, invasion and survival. At the molecular level, enhanced SOCE and depleted stores are mediated by overexpression of Orai1, Stromal interaction protein 1 (STIM1) and Transient receptor protein channel 1 (TRPC1) and downregulation of STIM2. In normal colonic cells, SOCE is mediated by Ca(2+)-release activated Ca(2+) channels made of STIM1, STIM2 and Orai1. In CRC cells, SOCE is mediated by different store-operated currents (SOCs) driven by STIM1, Orai1 and TRPC1. Loss of STIM2 contributes to depletion of Ca(2+) stores and enhanced resistance to cell death in CRC cells. Thus, SOCE is a novel key player in CRC and inhibition by salicylate and other NSAIDs may contribute to explain chemoprevention activity. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent form of cancer worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that intracellular Ca(2+) remodeling may contribute to cancer hallmarks. In addition, aspirin and other NSAIDs might prevent CRC acting on remodeled Ca(2+) entry pathways. In this review, we will briefly describe 1) the players involved in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms involved in SOCE activation and inactivation, 2) the evidence that aspirin

  6. Actin, actin-related proteins and profilin in diatoms: a comparative genomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumeier, Charlotte; Polinski, Ellen; Menzel, Diedrik

    2015-10-01

    Diatoms are heterokont unicellular algae with a widespread distribution throughout all aquatic habitats. Research on diatoms has advanced significantly over the last decade due to available genetic transformation methods and publicly available genome databases. Yet up to now, proteins involved in the regulation of the cytoskeleton in diatoms are largely unknown. Consequently, this work focuses on actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs) encoded in the diatom genomes of Thalassiosira pseudonana, Thalassiosira oceanica, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries. Our comparative genomic study revealed that most diatoms possess only a single conventional actin and a small set of ARPs. Among these are the highly conserved cytoplasmic Arp1 protein and the nuclear Arp4 as well as Arp6. Diatom genomes contain genes coding for two structurally different homologues of Arp4 that might serve specific functions. All diatom species examined here lack ARP2 and ARP3 proteins, suggesting that diatoms are not capable of forming the Arp2/3 complex, which is essential in most eukaryotes for actin filament branching and plus-end dynamics. Interestingly, none of the sequenced representatives of the Bacillariophyta phylum code for profilin. Profilin is an essential actin-binding protein regulating the monomer actin pool and is involved in filament plus-end dynamics. This is the first report of organisms not containing profilin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tailor-made ezrin actin binding domain to probe its interaction with actin in-vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Shrivastava

    Full Text Available Ezrin, a member of the ERM (Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin protein family, is an Actin-plasma membrane linker protein mediating cellular integrity and function. In-vivo study of such interactions is a complex task due to the presence of a large number of endogenous binding partners for both Ezrin and Actin. Further, C-terminal actin binding capacity of the full length Ezrin is naturally shielded by its N-terminal, and only rendered active in the presence of Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2 or phosphorylation at the C-terminal threonine. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for the design, expression and purification of constructs, combining the Ezrin C-terminal actin binding domain, with functional elements such as fusion tags and fluorescence tags to facilitate purification and fluorescence microscopy based studies. For the first time, internal His tag was employed for purification of Ezrin actin binding domain based on in-silico modeling. The functionality (Ezrin-actin interaction of these constructs was successfully demonstrated by using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. This design can be extended to other members of the ERM family as well.

  8. FMNL3 FH2-actin structure gives insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Morgan E; Heimsath, Ernest G; Gauvin, Timothy J; Higgs, Henry N; Kull, F Jon

    2013-01-01

    Formins are actin-assembly factors that act in a variety of actin-based processes. The conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain promotes filament nucleation and influences elongation through interaction with the barbed end. FMNL3 is a formin that induces assembly of filopodia but whose FH2 domain is a poor nucleator. The 3.4-Å structure of a mouse FMNL3 FH2 dimer in complex with tetramethylrhodamine-actin uncovers details of formin-regulated actin elongation. We observe distinct FH2 actin-binding regions; interactions in the knob and coiled-coil subdomains are necessary for actin binding, whereas those in the lasso-post interface are important for the stepping mechanism. Biochemical and cellular experiments test the importance of individual residues for function. This structure provides details for FH2-mediated filament elongation by processive capping and supports a model in which C-terminal non-FH2 residues of FMNL3 are required to stabilize the filament nucleus.

  9. Pathophysiology of Vascular Remodeling in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás F. Renna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular remodeling refers to alterations in the structure of resistance vessels contributing to elevated systemic vascular resistance in hypertension. We start with some historical aspects, underscoring the importance of Glagov’s contribution. We then move to some basic concepts on the biomechanics of blood vessels and explain the definitions proposed by Mulvany for specific forms of remodeling, especially inward eutrophic and inward hypertrophic. The available evidence for the existence of remodeled resistance vessels in hypertension comes next, with relatively more weight given to human, in comparison with animal data. Mechanisms are discussed. The impact of antihypertensive drug treatment on remodeling is described, again with emphasis on human data. Some details are given on the three mechanisms to date which point to remodeling resistance arteries as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. We terminate by considering the potential role of remodeling in the pathogenesis of endorgan damage and in the perpetuation of hypertension.

  10. ALKBH4-dependent demethylation of actin regulates actomyosin dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, M.-M.; Shi, Y.; Niu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of actomyosin dynamics by post-transcriptional modifications in cytoplasmic actin is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that dioxygenase ALKBH4-mediated demethylation of a monomethylated site in actin (K84me1) regulates actin-myosin interaction and actomyosin-dependent proces......Regulation of actomyosin dynamics by post-transcriptional modifications in cytoplasmic actin is still poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that dioxygenase ALKBH4-mediated demethylation of a monomethylated site in actin (K84me1) regulates actin-myosin interaction and actomyosin......-dependent processes such as cytokinesis and cell migration. ALKBH4-deficient cells display elevated K84me1 levels. Non-muscle myosin II only interacts with unmethylated actin and its proper recruitment to and interaction with actin depend on ALKBH4. ALKBH4 co-localizes with the actomyosin-based contractile ring......-type but not catalytically inactive ALKBH4. Similar to actin and myosin knock-out mice, homozygous Alkbh4 mutant mice display early embryonic lethality. These findings imply that ALKBH4-dependent actin demethylation regulates actomyosin function by promoting actin-non-muscle myosin II interaction....

  11. Purification and properties of soluble actin from sea urchin eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, I; Spudich, J A

    1980-03-01

    Unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were homogenized in a buffer containing 0.1 M KCl and 2 mM MgCl2 at pH 6.85. About 50% of the actin was recovered in the high-speed supernate of the homogenate. More than 80% of the actin in this supernate was found to be monomeric upon gel filtration chromatography through a Sephadex G-150 column or by a DNase I inhibition assay. The critical concentration for polymerization of this actin prior to further purification was 0.3-0.9 mg/ml under various conditions. Actin was purified to near homogeneity from the Sephadex G-150 pool with high yield. The purified actin had a critical concentration for polymerization of 0.02-0.03 mg/ml. The isoelectric point of the crude actin and the purified actin was the same. Indeed, we found that there is only one isoelectric focusing species of actin in the sea urchin egg, and it has an isoelectric point more basic than rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The discrepancy between the polymerizability of the crude and purified actin may be due to the presence of factors in the crude fraction which inhibit the polymerization of actin.

  12. Bone remodelling in inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Steven R; Purdue, P Edward; Crotti, Tania N; Shen, Zhenxin; Flannery, Merrilee R; Binder, Nikolaus B; Ross, F Patrick; McHugh, Kevin P

    2013-04-01

    The inflammatory arthropathies that include rheumatoid arthritis, the seronegative spondyloarthropathies and systemic lupus erythematosus are characterised by marked alterations in the architecture and structural integrity of peri-articular bone; however, the pattern and natural history of the skeletal changes differs in these conditions. In part, this can be attributed to differences in the primary anatomical site of the inflammation, but also there is evidence that there are differences in the biological properties and products produced by inflammatory tissues. This review will focus on recent advances in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the differential pattern of articular bone remodelling in these prototypical inflammatory forms of arthritis.

  13. More than a mere supply of monomers: G-Actin pools regulate actin dynamics in dendritic spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlett, Katalin

    2017-08-07

    Synaptic activity reshapes the morphology of dendritic spines via regulating F-actin arborization. In this issue, Lei et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201612042) reports a novel, G-actin-dependent regulation of actin polymerization within spine heads. They show that actin monomer levels are elevated in spines upon activity, with G-actin immobilized by the local enrichment of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3) within the spine plasma membrane. © 2017 Schlett.

  14. Filamentous actin detected in rat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, A W; Genereux, K; Pfeiffer, D C

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we report the positive staining of epididymal spermatozoa and testicular cells (late spermatids and spermatozoa) with fluorescent phallotoxins. Staining is most obvious with rhodamine phalloidin, but is also detectible with NBD-phallacidin. Specific fluorescence is emitted as a linear tract along the dorsal curvature of the head and as an inverted V-shaped structure in what appears to be the anterior aspect of the post-acrosomal region. We conclude that filamentous actin occurs in the heads of rat spermatozoa. Moreover, we speculate that this filamentous actin is concentrated in two regions of the perinuclear theca; in the subacrosomal space along the dorsal curvature of the nucleus, and in the post-acrosomal region in an area termed the ventral spur.

  15. Distinct functional interactions between actin isoforms and nonsarcomeric myosins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Müller

    Full Text Available Despite their near sequence identity, actin isoforms cannot completely replace each other in vivo and show marked differences in their tissue-specific and subcellular localization. Little is known about isoform-specific differences in their interactions with myosin motors and other actin-binding proteins. Mammalian cytoplasmic β- and γ-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A. These interactions support a wide range of cellular processes including cytokinesis, maintenance of cell polarity, cell adhesion, migration, and mechano-electrical transduction. To elucidate differences in the ability of isoactins to bind and stimulate the enzymatic activity of individual myosin isoforms, we characterized the interactions of human skeletal muscle α-actin, cytoplasmic β-actin, and cytoplasmic γ-actin with human myosin-7A and nonmuscle myosins-2A, -2B and -2C1. In the case of nonmuscle myosins-2A and -2B, the interaction with either cytoplasmic actin isoform results in 4-fold greater stimulation of myosin ATPase activity than was observed in the presence of α-skeletal muscle actin. Nonmuscle myosin-2C1 is most potently activated by β-actin and myosin-7A by γ-actin. Our results indicate that β- and γ-actin isoforms contribute to the modulation of nonmuscle myosin-2 and myosin-7A activity and thereby to the spatial and temporal regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. FRET-based analyses show efficient copolymerization abilities for the actin isoforms in vitro. Experiments with hybrid actin filaments show that the extent of actomyosin coupling efficiency can be regulated by the isoform composition of actin filaments.

  16. PI(3,5)P2 controls endosomal branched actin dynamics by regulating cortactin–actin interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nan Hyung; Qi, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Branched actin critically contributes to membrane trafficking by regulating membrane curvature, dynamics, fission, and transport. However, how actin dynamics are controlled at membranes is poorly understood. Here, we identify the branched actin regulator cortactin as a direct binding partner of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) and demonstrate that their interaction promotes turnover of late endosomal actin. In vitro biochemical studies indicated that cortactin binds PI(3,5)P2 via its actin filament-binding region. Furthermore, PI(3,5)P2 competed with actin filaments for binding to cortactin, thereby antagonizing cortactin activity. These findings suggest that PI(3,5)P2 formation on endosomes may remove cortactin from endosome-associated branched actin. Indeed, inhibition of PI(3,5)P2 production led to cortactin accumulation and actin stabilization on Rab7+ endosomes. Conversely, inhibition of Arp2/3 complex activity greatly reduced cortactin localization to late endosomes. Knockdown of cortactin reversed PI(3,5)P2-inhibitor–induced actin accumulation and stabilization on endosomes. These data suggest a model in which PI(3,5)P2 binding removes cortactin from late endosomal branched actin networks and thereby promotes net actin turnover. PMID:26323691

  17. The Legionella Kinase LegK2 Targets the ARP2/3 Complex To Inhibit Actin Nucleation on Phagosomes and Allow Bacterial Evasion of the Late Endocytic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, Céline; Sperandio, Daniel; Baïlo, Nathalie; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; LeClaire, Lawrence; Chadeau-Argaud, Elise; Pombo-Grégoire, Isabel; Hervet, Eva; Vianney, Anne; Gilbert, Christophe; Faure, Mathias; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of legionellosis, replicates within phagocytic cells. Crucial to biogenesis of the replicative vacuole is the Dot/Icm type 4 secretion system, which translocates a large number of effectors into the host cell cytosol. Among them is LegK2, a protein kinase that plays a key role in Legionella infection. Here, we identified the actin nucleator ARP2/3 complex as a target of LegK2. LegK2 phosphorylates the ARPC1B and ARP3 subunits of the ARP2/3 complex. LegK2-dependent ARP2/3 phosphorylation triggers global actin cytoskeleton remodeling in cells, and it impairs actin tail formation by Listeria monocytogenes, a well-known ARP2/3-dependent process. During infection, LegK2 is addressed to the Legionella-containing vacuole surface and inhibits actin polymerization on the phagosome, as revealed by legK2 gene inactivation. Consequently, LegK2 prevents late endosome/lysosome association with the phagosome and finally contributes to remodeling of the bacterium-containing phagosome into a replicative niche. The inhibition of actin polymerization by LegK2 and its effect on endosome trafficking are ARP2/3 dependent since it can be phenocopied by a specific chemical inhibitor of the ARP2/3 complex. Thus, LegK2-ARP2/3 interplay highlights an original mechanism of bacterial virulence with an unexpected role in local actin remodeling that allows bacteria to control vesicle trafficking in order to escape host defenses. PMID:25944859

  18. Caveolin-1-mediated Japanese encephalitis virus entry requires a two-step regulation of actin reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingqiang; Cao, Mingmei; Song, Hongyuan; Chen, Shenglin; Qian, Xijing; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Hao; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Yan; Wei, Youheng; Zhu, Yongzhe; Qi, Zhongtian

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the detailed mechanism of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) cell entry. Utilize a siRNA library targeting cellular membrane trafficking genes to identify key molecules that mediate JEV entry into human neuronal cells. JEV enters human neuronal cells by caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis, which depends on a two-step regulation of actin cytoskeleton remodeling triggered by RhoA and Rac1: RhoA activation promoted the phosphorylation of caveolin-1, and then Rac1 activation facilitated caveolin-associated viral internalization. Specifically, virus attachment activates the EGFR-PI3K signaling pathway, thereby leading to RhoA activation. This work provides a detailed picture of the entry route and intricate cellular events following the entry of JEV into human neuronal cells, and promotes a better understanding of JEV entry.

  19. Virulent Burkholderia species mimic host actin polymerases to drive actin-based motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benanti, Erin L; Nguyen, Catherine M; Welch, Matthew D

    2015-04-09

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and B. mallei are bacterial pathogens that cause melioidosis and glanders, whereas their close relative B. thailandensis is non-pathogenic. All use the trimeric autotransporter BimA to facilitate actin-based motility, host cell fusion, and dissemination. Here, we show that BimA orthologs mimic different host actin-polymerizing proteins. B. thailandensis BimA activates the host Arp2/3 complex. In contrast, B. pseudomallei and B. mallei BimA mimic host Ena/VASP actin polymerases in their ability to nucleate, elongate, and bundle filaments by associating with barbed ends, as well as in their use of WH2 motifs and oligomerization for activity. Mechanistic differences among BimA orthologs resulted in distinct actin filament organization and motility parameters, which affected the efficiency of cell fusion during infection. Our results identify bacterial Ena/VASP mimics and reveal that pathogens imitate the full spectrum of host actin-polymerizing pathways, suggesting that mimicry of different polymerization mechanisms influences key parameters of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adrenocortical zonation, renewal, and remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjut ePihlajoki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal cortex is divided into concentric zones. In humans the major cortical zones are the zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis. The adrenal cortex is a dynamic organ in which senescent cells are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This constant renewal facilitates organ remodeling in response to physiological demand for steroids. Cortical zones can reversibly expand, contract, or alter their biochemical profiles to accommodate needs. Pools of stem/progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule, subcapsular region, and juxtamedullary region can differentiate to repopulate or expand zones. Some of these pools appear to be activated only during specific developmental windows or in response to extreme physiological demand. Senescent cells can also be replenished through direct lineage conversion; for example, cells in the zona glomerulosa can transform into cells of the zona fasciculata. Adrenocortical cell differentiation, renewal, and function are regulated by a variety of endocrine/paracrine factors including adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin II, insulin-related growth hormones, luteinizing hormone, activin, and inhibin. Additionally, zonation and regeneration of the adrenal cortex are controlled by developmental signaling pathways, such as the sonic hedgehog, delta-like homologue 1, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT/β-catenin pathways. The mechanisms involved in adrenocortical remodeling are complex and redundant so as to fulfill the offsetting goals of organ homeostasis and stress adaptation.

  1. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) Inhibition during Mid-Gestation Impairs Trophoblast Invasion and Spiral Artery Remodelling during Pregnancy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, Amy; Correia, Jeanne; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Trophoblast cell proliferation, migration and invasion into the endometrium are fundamental events in the initiation of placentation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion in vitro, however its precise role in trophoblast invasion in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in mice. Both LIF and its receptor (LIFRα) co-localized with cytokeratin-positive invasive endovascular extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via administration of our unique LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal trophoblast invasion and impaired spiral artery remodeling compared to PEG control. PEGLA-treated mouse decidual vessels were characterized by retention of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA)-positive vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), while PEG control decidual vessels were remodelled by cytokeratin-positive trophoblasts. LIF blockade did not alter F4/80-positive decidual macrophage numbers between treatment groups, but resulted in down-regulation of decidual transcript levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), which are important immune cell activation factors that promote spiral artery remodeling during pregnancy. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in trophoblast invasion in vivo and may facilitate trophoblast-decidual-immune cell cross talk to enable adequate spiral artery remodeling.

  2. Cytoskeletal Expression and Remodeling in Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraas, Liana C; Guidry, Julia B; Pineda, Emma T; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    Many emerging cell-based therapies are based on pluripotent stem cells, though complete understanding of the properties of these cells is lacking. In these cells, much is still unknown about the cytoskeletal network, which governs the mechanoresponse. The objective of this study was to determine the cytoskeletal state in undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells and remodeling with differentiation. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), as well as the original un-reprogrammed embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), were evaluated for expression of cytoskeletal markers. We found that pluripotent stem cells overall have a less developed cytoskeleton compared to fibroblasts. Gene and protein expression of smooth muscle cell actin, vimentin, lamin A, and nestin were markedly lower for ESCs than MEFs. Whereas, iPSC samples were heterogeneous with most cells expressing patterns of cytoskeletal proteins similar to ESCs with a small subpopulation similar to MEFs. This indicates that dedifferentiation during reprogramming is associated with cytoskeletal remodeling to a less developed state. In differentiation studies, it was found that shear stress-mediated differentiation resulted in an increase in expression of cytoskeletal intermediate filaments in ESCs, but not in iPSC samples. In the embryoid body model of spontaneous differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, however, both ESCs and iPSCs had similar gene expression for cytoskeletal proteins during early differentiation. With further differentiation, however, gene levels were significantly higher for iPSCs compared to ESCs. These results indicate that reprogrammed iPSCs more readily reacquire cytoskeletal proteins compared to the ESCs that need to form the network de novo. The strategic selection of the parental phenotype is thus critical not only in the context of reprogramming but also the ultimate functionality of the iPSC-differentiated cell population. Overall, this

  3. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1–4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. PMID:27226579

  5. Computational Study of the Binding Mechanism of Actin-Depolymerizing Factor 1 with Actin in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Du

    Full Text Available Actin is a highly conserved protein. It plays important roles in cellular function and exists either in the monomeric (G-actin or polymeric form (F-actin. Members of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF/cofilin protein family bind to both G-actin and F-actin and play vital roles in actin dynamics by manipulating the rates of filament polymerization and depolymerization. It has been reported that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants of actin-depolymerizing factor 1 (ADF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana decreased the binding affinity of ADF for the actin monomer. To investigate the binding mechanism and dynamic behavior of the ADF1-actin complex, we constructed a homology model of the AtADF1-actin complex based on the crystal structure of AtADF1 and the twinfilin C-terminal ADF-H domain in a complex with a mouse actin monomer. The model was then refined for subsequent molecular dynamics simulations. Increased binding energy of the mutated system was observed using the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area and Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-GB/PBSA methods. To determine the residues that make decisive contributions to the ADF1 actin-binding affinity, per-residue decomposition and computational alanine scanning analyses were performed, which provided more detailed information on the binding mechanism. Root-mean-square fluctuation and principal component analyses confirmed that the S6D and R98A/K100A mutants induced an increased conformational flexibility. The comprehensive molecular insight gained from this study is of great importance for understanding the binding mechanism of ADF1 and G-actin.

  6. Chromatin Remodelers: From Function to Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Längst

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin remodelers are key players in the regulation of chromatin accessibility and nucleosome positioning on the eukaryotic DNA, thereby essential for all DNA dependent biological processes. Thus, it is not surprising that upon of deregulation of those molecular machines healthy cells can turn into cancerous cells. Even though the remodeling enzymes are very abundant and a multitude of different enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes exist in the cell, the particular remodeling complex with its specific nucleosome positioning features must be at the right place at the right time in order to ensure the proper regulation of the DNA dependent processes. To achieve this, chromatin remodeling complexes harbor protein domains that specifically read chromatin targeting signals, such as histone modifications, DNA sequence/structure, non-coding RNAs, histone variants or DNA bound interacting proteins. Recent studies reveal the interaction between non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodeling complexes showing importance of RNA in remodeling enzyme targeting, scaffolding and regulation. In this review, we summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling enzyme targeting to chromatin and their role in cancer development.

  7. Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; van Deel, Elza D; de Waard, Monique C; de Boer, Martine; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

  8. RV Remodeling in Olympic Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Pisicchio, Cataldo; Caselli, Stefano; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Spataro, Antonio; Pelliccia, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sex and different sports on right ventricular (RV) remodeling and compare the derived upper limits with widely used revised Task Force (TF) reference values. Uncertainties exist regarding the extent and physiological determinants of RV remodeling in highly trained athletes. The issue is important, considering that in athletes RV size occasionally exceeds the cutoff limits proposed to diagnose arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy. A total of 1,009 Olympic athletes (mean age 24 ± 6 years; n = 647 [64%] males) participating in skill, power, mixed, and endurance sport were evaluated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler/tissue Doppler imaging. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) in parasternal long-axis (PLAX) and short-axis views, fractional area change, s' velocity, and morphological features were assessed. Indexed RVOT PLAX was greater in females than in males (15.3 ± 2.2 mm/m2 vs. 14.4 ± 1.9 mm/m2; p view were significantly different among skill, power, mixed, and endurance sports: 14.3 ± 2.1 mm/m2 versus 14.7 ± 1.9 mm/m2 versus 14.0 ± 1.8 mm/m2 versus 15.7 ± 2.2 mm/m2, respectively (p view was 18 mm/m2 and 20 mm/m2, respectively. Fractional area change and s' velocity did not differ among the groups (p = 0.34 for both). RV enlargement compatible with major and minor TF diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy was observed in 41 (4%) and 319 (32%) athletes. A rounded apex was described in 823 (81%) athletes, prominent trabeculations in 378 (37%) athletes, and a prominent/hyperreflective moderator band in 5 (0.5%) athletes. RV remodeling occurs in Olympic athletes, with male sex and endurance practice playing the major impact. A significant subset (up to 32%) of athletes exceeds the normal TF limits; therefore, we recommend referring to the 95th percentiles here reported as referral values; alternatively, only major diagnostic TF criteria for arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy

  9. Transient activation of PKC results in long-lasting detrimental effects on systolic [Ca2+]i in cardiomyocytes by altering actin cytoskeletal dynamics and T-tubule integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ang; Chen, Rong; Wang, Yihui; Huang, Chun-Kai; Chen, Biyi; Kutschke, William; Hong, Jiang; Song, Long-Sheng

    2018-01-04

    Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes contribute to the development of heart failure through dysregulation of Ca2+ handling properties and disruption of contractile function in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms by which PKC activation leads to Ca2+ dysfunction are incompletely understood. Shortly upon ventricular pressure overload in mice, we detected transient PKC activation that was associated with pulsed actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. In cultured cardiomyocytes, transient activation of PKC promoted long-term deleterious effects on the integrity of the transverse (T)- tubule system, resulting in a significant decrease in the amplitude and increase in the rising kinetics of Ca2+ transients. Treatment with a PKCα/β inhibitor restored the synchronization of Ca2+ transients and maintained T-tubule integrity in cultured cardiomyocytes. Supporting these data, PKCα/β inhibition protected against T-tubule remodeling and cardiac dysfunction in a mouse model of pressure overload-induced heart failure. Mechanistically, transient activation of PKC resulted in biphasic actin cytoskeletal rearrangement, consistent with in vivo observations in the pressure overloaded mouse model. Transient inhibition of actin polymerization or depolymerization resulted in severe T-tubule damage, recapitulating the T-tubule damage induced by PKC activation. Moreover, inhibition of stretch activated channels (SAC) protected against T-tubule remodeling and E-C coupling dysfunction induced by transient PKC activation and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement. These data identify a key mechanistic link between transient PKC activation and long-term Ca2+ handling defects through PKC-induced actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and resultant T-tubule damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Actin- and microtubule-dependent regulation of Golgi morphology by FHDC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sarah J.; Thurston, Susan F.; Copeland, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is the central hub of intracellular trafficking and consists of tethered stacks of cis, medial, and trans cisternae. In mammalian cells, these cisternae are stitched together as a perinuclear Golgi ribbon, which is required for the establishment of cell polarity and normal subcellular organization. We previously identified FHDC1 (also known as INF1) as a unique microtubule-binding member of the formin family of cytoskeletal-remodeling proteins. We show here that endogenous FHDC1 regulates Golgi ribbon formation and has an apparent preferential association with the Golgi-derived microtubule network. Knockdown of FHDC1 expression results in defective Golgi assembly and suggests a role for FHDC1 in maintenance of the Golgi-derived microtubule network. Similarly, overexpression of FHDC1 induces dispersion of the Golgi ribbon into functional ministacks. This effect is independent of centrosome-derived microtubules and instead likely requires the interaction between the FHDC1 microtubule-binding domain and the Golgi-derived microtubule network. These effects also depend on the interaction between the FHDC1 FH2 domain and the actin cytoskeleton. Thus our results suggest that the coordination of actin and microtubule dynamics by FHDC1 is required for normal Golgi ribbon formation. PMID:26564798

  11. Fronts and waves of actin polymerization in a bistability-based mechanism of circular dorsal ruffles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernitt, Erik; Döbereiner, Hans-Günther; Gov, Nir S.; Yochelis, Arik

    2017-06-01

    During macropinocytosis, cells remodel their morphologies for the uptake of extracellular matter. This endocytotic mechanism relies on the collapse and closure of precursory structures, which are propagating actin-based, ring-shaped vertical undulations at the dorsal (top) cell membrane, a.k.a. circular dorsal ruffles (CDRs). As such, CDRs are essential to a range of vital and pathogenic processes alike. Here we show, based on both experimental data and theoretical analysis, that CDRs are propagating fronts of actin polymerization in a bistable system. The theory relies on a novel mass-conserving reaction-diffusion model, which associates the expansion and contraction of waves to distinct counter-propagating front solutions. Moreover, the model predicts that under a change in parameters (for example, biochemical conditions) CDRs may be pinned and fluctuate near the cell boundary or exhibit complex spiral wave dynamics due to a wave instability. We observe both phenomena also in our experiments indicating the conditions for which macropinocytosis is suppressed.

  12. Aldose reductase inhibition prevents allergic airway remodeling through PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C S Yadav

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term and unresolved airway inflammation and airway remodeling, characteristic features of chronic asthma, if not treated could lead to permanent structural changes in the airways. Aldose reductase (AR, an aldo-sugar and lipid aldehyde metabolizing enzyme, mediates allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice, but its role in the airway remodeling is not known. In the present study, we have examined the role of AR on airway remodeling using ovalbumin (OVA-induced chronic asthma mouse model and cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (SAECs and mouse lung fibroblasts (mLFs. METHODS: Airway remodeling in chronic asthma model was established in mice sensitized and challenged twice a week with OVA for 6 weeks. AR inhibitor, fidarestat, was administered orally in drinking water after first challenge. Inflammatory cells infiltration in the lungs and goblet cell metaplasia, airway thickening, collagen deposition and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR in response to increasing doses of methacholine were assessed. The TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in SAECs and changes in mLFs were examined to investigate AR-mediated molecular mechanism(s of airway remodeling. RESULTS: In the OVA-exposed mice for 6 wks inflammatory cells infiltration, levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, goblet cell metaplasia, collagen deposition and AHR were significantly decreased by treatment with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. Further, inhibition of AR prevented TGFβ1-induced altered expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Occludin, and MMP-2 in SAECs, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in mLFs. Further, in SAECs, AR inhibition prevented TGFβ1- induced activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway but not the phosphorylation of Smad2/3. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that allergen-induced airway remodeling is mediated by AR and its inhibition blocks the progression of remodeling via inhibiting TGFβ1-induced Smad

  13. Adhesive F-actin Waves: A Novel Integrin-Mediated Adhesion Complex Coupled to Ventral Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Lindsay B.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    At the leading lamellipodium of migrating cells, protrusion of an Arp2/3-nucleated actin network is coupled to formation of integrin-based adhesions, suggesting that Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization and integrin-dependent adhesion may be mechanistically linked. Arp2/3 also mediates actin polymerization in structures distinct from the lamellipodium, in “ventral F-actin waves” that propagate as spots and wavefronts along the ventral plasma membrane. Here we show that integrins engage the extracellular matrix downstream of ventral F-actin waves in several mammalian cell lines as well as in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These “adhesive F-actin waves” require a cycle of integrin engagement and disengagement to the extracellular matrix for their formation and propagation, and exhibit morphometry and a hierarchical assembly and disassembly mechanism distinct from other integrin-containing structures. After Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization, zyxin and VASP are co-recruited to adhesive F-actin waves, followed by paxillin and vinculin, and finally talin and integrin. Adhesive F-actin waves thus represent a previously uncharacterized integrin-based adhesion complex associated with Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. PMID:22069459

  14. Actin-Dynamics in Plant Cells: The Function of Actin-Perturbing Substances: Jasplakinolide, Chondramides, Phalloidin, Cytochalasins, and Latrunculins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Blaas, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the most common F-actin-perturbing substances that are used to study actin dynamics in living plant cells in studies on morphogenesis, motility, organelle movement, or when apoptosis has to be induced. These substances can be divided into two major subclasses: F-actin-stabilizing and -polymerizing substances like jasplakinolide and chondramides and F-actin-severing compounds like chytochalasins and latrunculins. Jasplakinolide was originally isolated form a marine sponge, and can now be synthesized and has become commercially available, which is responsible for its wide distribution as membrane-permeable F-actin-stabilizing and -polymerizing agent, which may even have anticancer activities. Cytochalasins, derived from fungi, show an F-actin-severing function and many derivatives are commercially available (A, B, C, D, E, H, J), also making it a widely used compound for F-actin disruption. The same can be stated for latrunculins (A, B), derived from red sea sponges; however the mode of action is different by binding to G-actin and inhibiting incorporation into the filament. In the case of swinholide a stable complex with actin dimers is formed resulting also in severing of F-actin. For influencing F-actin dynamics in plant cells only membrane permeable drugs are useful in a broad range. We however introduce also the phallotoxins and synthetic derivatives, as they are widely used to visualize F-actin in fixed cells. A particular uptake mechanism has been shown for hepatocytes, but has also been described in siphonal giant algae. In the present chapter the focus is set on F-actin dynamics in plant cells where alterations in cytoplasmic streaming can be particularly well studied; however methods by fluorescence applications including phalloidin and antibody staining as well as immunofluorescence-localization of the inhibitor drugs are given.

  15. Actin-Dynamics in Plant Cells: The Function of Actin Perturbing Substances Jasplakinolide, Chondramides, Phalloidin, Cytochalasins, and Latrunculins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzinger, Andreas; Blaas, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter will give an overview of the most common F-actin perturbing substances, that are used to study actin dynamics in living plant cells in studies on morphogenesis, motility, organelle movement or when apoptosis has to be induced. These substances can be divided into two major subclasses – F-actin stabilizing and polymerizing substances like jasplakinolide, chondramides and F-actin severing compounds like chytochalasins and latrunculins. Jasplakinolide was originally isolated form a marine sponge, and can now be synthesized and has become commercially available, which is responsible for its wide distribution as membrane permeable F-actin stabilizing and polymerizing agent, which may even have anti-cancer activities. Cytochalasins, derived from fungi show an F-actin severing function and many derivatives are commercially available (A, B, C, D, E, H, J), also making it a widely used compound for F-actin disruption. The same can be stated for latrunculins (A, B), derived from red sea sponges, however the mode of action is different by binding to G-actin and inhibiting incorporation into the filament. In the case of swinholide a stable complex with actin dimers is formed resulting also in severing of F-actin. For influencing F-actin dynamics in plant cells only membrane permeable drugs are useful in a broad range. We however introduce also the phallotoxins and synthetic derivatives, as they are widely used to visualize F-actin in fixed cells. A particular uptake mechanism has been shown for hepatocytes, but has also been described in siphonal giant algae. In the present chapter the focus is set on F-actin dynamics in plant cells where alterations in cytoplasmic streaming can be particularly well studied; however methods by fluorescence applications including phalloidin- and antibody staining as well as immunofluorescence-localization of the inhibitor drugs are given. PMID:26498789

  16. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  17. Role of Actin Cytoskeleton During Mammalian Sperm Acrosomal Exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarowski, Ana; Luque, Guillermina M; La Spina, Florenza A; Krapf, Dario; Buffone, Mariano G

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sperm require to undergo an exocytotic process called acrosomal exocytosis in order to be able to fuse with the oocyte. This ability is acquired during the course of sperm capacitation. This review is focused on one aspect related to this acquisition: the role of the actin cytoskeleton. Evidence from different laboratories indicates that actin polymerization occurs during capacitation, and the detection of several actin-related proteins suggests that the cytoskeleton is involved in important sperm functions. In other mammalian cells, the cortical actin network acts as a dominant negative clamp which blocks constitutive exocytosis but, at the same time, is necessary to prepare the cell to undergo regulated exocytosis. Thus, F-actin stabilizes structures generated by exocytosis and supports the physiological progression of this process. Is this also the case in mammalian sperm? This review summarizes what is currently known about actin and its related proteins in the male gamete, with particular emphasis on their role in acrosomal exocytosis.

  18. Electron tomography reveals unbranched networks of actin filaments in lamellipodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Edit; Jacob, Sonja; Nemethova, Maria; Resch, Guenter P; Small, J Victor

    2010-05-01

    Eukaryotic cells can initiate movement using the forces exerted by polymerizing actin filaments to extend lamellipodial and filopodial protrusions. In the current model, actin filaments in lamellipodia are organized in a branched, dendritic network. We applied electron tomography to vitreously frozen 'live' cells, fixed cells and cytoskeletons, embedded in vitreous ice or in deep-negative stain. In lamellipodia from four cell types, including rapidly migrating fish keratocytes, we found that actin filaments are almost exclusively unbranched. The vast majority of apparent filament junctions proved to be overlapping filaments, rather than branched end-to-side junctions. Analysis of the tomograms revealed that actin filaments terminate at the membrane interface within a zone several hundred nanometres wide at the lamellipodium front, and yielded the first direct measurements of filament densities. Actin filament pairs were also identified as lamellipodium components and bundle precursors. These data provide a new structural basis for understanding actin-driven protrusion during cell migration.

  19. Direct determination of actin polarity in the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Akihiro; Mueller, Jan; Urban, Edit; Vinzenz, Marlene; Small, J Victor; Maéda, Yuichiro

    2012-06-22

    Actin filaments are polar structures that exhibit a fast growing plus end and a slow growing minus end. According to their organization in cells, in parallel or antiparallel arrays, they can serve, respectively, in protrusions or in contractions. The determination of actin filament polarity in subcellular compartments is therefore required to establish their local function. Myosin binding has previously been the sole method of polarity determination. Here, we report the first direct determination of actin filament polarity in the cell without myosin binding. Negatively stained cytoskeletons of lamellipodia were analyzed by adapting electron tomography and a single particle analysis for filamentous complexes. The results of the stained cytoskeletons confirmed that all actin filament ends facing the cell membrane were the barbed ends. In general, this approach should be applicable to the analysis of actin polarity in tomograms of the actin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ISWI chromatin remodellers sense nucleosome modifications to determine substrate preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dann, Geoffrey P; Liszczak, Glen P; Bagert, John D

    2017-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers regulate access to genetic information by controlling nucleosome positions in vivo. However, the mechanism by which remodellers discriminate between different nucleosome substrates is poorly understood. Many chromatin remodelling proteins possess conserved...... activity of all ISWI remodellers evaluated. This dependence also extends to CHD and SWI/SNF family remodellers, suggesting that the acidic patch may be generally required for chromatin remodelling. Critically, remodelling activity can be regulated by modifications neighbouring the acidic patch, signifying...... that it may act as a tunable interaction hotspot for ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers and, by extension, many other chromatin effectors that engage this region of the nucleosome surface....

  1. Tribute to Fumio Oosawa the pioneer in actin biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2017-06-15

    Fumio Oosawa and his colleagues at Nagoya University laid the foundation for mechanistic studies of actin. Using relatively primitive tools they discovered that actin monomers assemble in a two-step mechanism: highly unfavorable formation of small oligomeric nuclei followed by rapid elongation. Oosawa and his student Sadashi Hatano were the first to purify actin from a nonmuscle cell, Physarum polycephalum, initiating studies of the molecular mechanism of cellular movements. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional sorting of actin isoforms in microvascular pericytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    We characterized the form and distribution of muscle and nonmuscle actin within retinal pericytes. Antibodies with demonstrable specificities for the actin isoforms were used in localization and immunoprecipitation experiments to identify those cellular domains that were enriched or deficient in one or several actin isoforms. Living pericyte behavior was monitored with phase-contract video microscopy before fixation to identify those cellular areas that might preferentially be stained with either of the fluorescent antiactins or phallotoxins. Antibody and phallotoxin staining of pericytes revealed that nonmuscle actin is present within membrane ruffles, pseudopods, and stress fibers. In contrast, muscle actin could be convincingly localized in stress fibers, but not within specific motile areas of pericyte cytoplasm. To confirm and quantitatively extend the results obtained by fluorescence microscopy, nonionic and ionic detergents were used to selectively extract the motile or immobilized (stress fiber- containing) regions of biosynthetically labeled pericyte cytoplasm. Immunoprecipitated actins that were present within these discrete cellular domains were subjected to isoelectric focusing in urea- polyacrylamide gels before fluorographic analysis. Scanning laser densitometry of the focused actins could not reveal any detectable alpha-actin within those beta- and gamma-actin-enriched motile regions extracted with nonionic detergents. Moreover, when pericyte stress fibers are completely dissolved by ionic detergent lysis, three actin isoforms can be quantified to be present in a ratio of 1:2.75:3 (alpha:beta:gamma). These biochemical findings on biosynthetically labeled and immunoprecipitated pericyte actins confirm the fluorescent localization studies. While the regulatory events governing this actin sorting are unknown, it seems possible that such events may play important roles in controlling cell shape, adhesion, or the promotion of localized cell spreading

  3. Measuring F-actin properties in dendritic spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko eKoskinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated that the actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the control of dendritic spine shape. Synaptic stimulation rapidly changes the actin dynamics and many actin regulators have been shown to play roles in neuron functionality. Accordingly, defects in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons have been implicated in memory disorders. Due to the small size of spines, it is difficult to detect changes in the actin structures in dendritic spines by conventional light microscopy imaging. Instead, to know how tightly actin filaments are bundled together, and how fast the filaments turnover, we need to use advanced microscopy techniques, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP, photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP fluorescence decay and fluorescence anisotropy. Fluorescence anisotropy, which measures the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET between two GFP fluorophores, has been proposed as a method to measure the level of actin polymerization. Here, we propose a novel idea that fluorescence anisotropy could be more suitable to study the level of actin filament bundling instead of actin polymerization. We validate the method in U2OS cell line where the actin structures can be clearly distinguished and apply the method to analyze how actin filament organization in dendritic spines changes during neuronal maturation. In addition to fluorescence anisotropy validation, we take a critical look at the properties and limitations of FRAP and PAGFP fluorescence decay methods and offer our proposals for the analysis methods for these approaches. These three methods complement each other, each providing additional information about actin dynamics and organization in dendritic spines.

  4. Microtubules Modulate F-actin Dynamics during Neuronal Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Meka, Durga Praveen; Scharrenberg, Robin; König, Theresa; Schwanke, Birgit; Kobler, Oliver; Windhorst, Sabine; Kreutz, Michael R; Mikhaylova, Marina; Calderon de Anda, Froylan

    2017-08-29

    Neuronal polarization is reflected by different dynamics of microtubule and filamentous actin (F-actin). Axonal microtubules are more stable than those in the remaining neurites, while dynamics of F-actin in axonal growth cones clearly exceed those in their dendritic counterparts. However, whether a functional interplay exists between the microtubule network and F-actin dynamics in growing axons and whether this interplay is instrumental for breaking cellular symmetry is currently unknown. Here, we show that an increment on microtubule stability or number of microtubules is associated with increased F-actin dynamics. Moreover, we show that Drebrin E, an F-actin and microtubule plus-end binding protein, mediates this cross talk. Drebrin E segregates preferentially to growth cones with a higher F-actin treadmilling rate, where more microtubule plus-ends are found. Interruption of the interaction of Drebrin E with microtubules decreases F-actin dynamics and arrests neuronal polarization. Collectively the data show that microtubules modulate F-actin dynamics for initial axon extension during neuronal development.

  5. Electrostatics control actin filament nucleation and elongation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L; Lamb, Don C; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-04-26

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment.

  6. Electrostatics Control Actin Filament Nucleation and Elongation Kinetics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevenna, Alvaro H.; Naredi-Rainer, Nikolaus; Schönichen, André; Dzubiella, Joachim; Barber, Diane L.; Lamb, Don C.; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a central mediator of cellular morphogenesis, and rapid actin reorganization drives essential processes such as cell migration and cell division. Whereas several actin-binding proteins are known to be regulated by changes in intracellular pH, detailed information regarding the effect of pH on the actin dynamics itself is still lacking. Here, we combine bulk assays, total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques, and theory to comprehensively characterize the effect of pH on actin polymerization. We show that both nucleation and elongation are strongly enhanced at acidic pH, with a maximum close to the pI of actin. Monomer association rates are similarly affected by pH at both ends, although dissociation rates are differentially affected. This indicates that electrostatics control the diffusional encounter but not the dissociation rate, which is critical for the establishment of actin filament asymmetry. A generic model of protein-protein interaction, including electrostatics, explains the observed pH sensitivity as a consequence of charge repulsion. The observed pH effect on actin in vitro agrees with measurements of Listeria propulsion in pH-controlled cells. pH regulation should therefore be considered as a modulator of actin dynamics in a cellular environment. PMID:23486468

  7. Isolation from thyroid cells or purified plasma membranes with associated actin microfilaments. Proteins bound to actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnouf, F; Delobbe, A; Gabrion, J; Mesnier, D; Pradel, L A

    1982-02-01

    Plasma membranes of thyroid cells were purified from hog thyroid glands following two procedures. Their homogeneity was tested by electron microscopy and by measurements of the activity of membrane-bound enzyme markers. According to the procedure used the membrane fractions obtained present some differences in their morphological features as well as in the repartition of the activities of the membrane-bound enzyme markers. However, whatever the composition of the membrane fraction examined (membrane vesicles, single membrane sheets with junctional complexes), decoration with heavy meromyosin clearly shows the presence of actin filaments attached to these fragments. Analysis of proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicates the presence of about twelve major components with actin. Treatment of membranes with Triton X-100 results in an insoluble core which contains all the actin and most of the major proteins. The selective extraction of these components by buffers differing in their ionic strength, pH, or the presence or absence of ATP X Mg has been used to characterize some of the proteins associated to actin; among them are filamin, myosin, alpha-actinin, tropomyosin.

  8. Local VE-cadherin mechanotransduction triggers long-ranged remodeling of endothelial monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adrienne K; Wang, Ning; Leckband, Deborah E

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we present results demonstrating that mechanotransduction by vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin, also known as CDH5) complexes in endothelial cells triggers local cytoskeletal remodeling, and also activates global signals that alter peripheral intercellular junctions and disrupt cell-cell contacts far from the site of force application. Prior studies have documented the impact of actomyosin contractile forces on adherens junction remodeling, but the role of VE-cadherin in force sensation and its ability to influence endothelial cell and tissue mechanics globally have not been demonstrated. Using mechanical manipulation of VE-cadherin bonds and confocal imaging, we demonstrate VE-cadherin-based mechanotransduction. We then demonstrate that it requires homophilic VE-cadherin ligation, an intact actomyosin cytoskeleton, Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. VE-cadherin-mediated mechanotransduction triggered local actin and vinculin recruitment, as well as global signals that altered focal adhesions and disrupted peripheral intercellular junctions. Confocal imaging revealed that VE-cadherin-specific changes appear to propagate across cell junctions to disrupt distant inter-endothelial junctions. These results demonstrate the central role of VE-cadherin adhesions and the actomyosin cytoskeleton within an integrated, mechanosensitive network that both induces local cytoskeletal remodeling at the site of force application and regulates the global integrity of endothelial tissues. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. The TGB1 movement protein of Potato virus X reorganizes actin and endomembranes into the X-body, a viral replication factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilsner, Jens; Linnik, Olga; Wright, Kathryn M; Bell, Karen; Roberts, Alison G; Lacomme, Christophe; Santa Cruz, Simon; Oparka, Karl J

    2012-03-01

    Potato virus X (PVX) requires three virally encoded proteins, the triple gene block (TGB), for movement between cells. TGB1 is a multifunctional protein that suppresses host gene silencing and moves from cell to cell through plasmodesmata, while TGB2 and TGB3 are membrane-spanning proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum-derived granular vesicles. Here, we show that TGB1 organizes the PVX "X-body," a virally induced inclusion structure, by remodeling host actin and endomembranes (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi). Within the X-body, TGB1 forms helically arranged aggregates surrounded by a reservoir of the recruited host endomembranes. The TGB2/3 proteins reside in granular vesicles within this reservoir, in the same region as nonencapsidated viral RNA, while encapsidated virions accumulate at the outer (cytoplasmic) face of the X-body, which comprises a highly organized virus "factory." TGB1 is both necessary and sufficient to remodel host actin and endomembranes and to recruit TGB2/3 to the X-body, thus emerging as the central orchestrator of the X-body. Our results indicate that the actin/endomembrane-reorganizing properties of TGB1 function to compartmentalize the viral gene products of PVX infection.

  10. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  11. Cholinergic Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway diseases. Moreover, it has become apparent that acetylcholine is synthesized by nonneuronal cells and tissues, including inflammatory cells and structural cells. In this paper, we will discuss the regulatory role of acetylcholine in inflammation and remodelling in which we will focus on the role of the airway smooth muscle cell as a target cell for acetylcholine that modulates inflammation and remodelling during respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.

  12. Comparison of cryofixation and aldehyde fixation for plant actin immunocytochemistry: aldehydes do not destroy F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitha, S; Baluska, F; Braun, M; Samaj, J; Volkmann, D; Barlow, P W

    2000-08-01

    For walled plant cells, the immunolocalization of actin microfilaments, also known as F-actin, has proved to be much trickier than that of microtubules. These difficulties are commonly attributed to the high sensitivity of F-actin to aldehyde fixatives. Therefore, most plant studies have been accomplished using fluorescent phallotoxins in fresh tissues. Nevertheless, concerns regarding the questionable ability of phallotoxins to bind the whole complement of F-actin necessitate further optimization of actin immunofluorescence methods. We have compared two procedures: (1) formaldehyde fixation and (2) rapid freezing and freeze substitution (cryofixation), both followed by embedding in low-melting polyester wax. Actin immunofluorescence in sections of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) root gave similar results with both methods. The compatibility of aldehydes with actin immunodetection was further confirmed by the freeze-shattering technique that does not require embedding after aldehyde fixation. It appears that rather than aldehyde fixation, some further steps in the procedures used for actin visualization are critical for preserving F-actin. Wax embedding, combined with formaldehyde fixation, has proved to be also suitable for the detection of a wide range of other antigens.

  13. Encoding Mechano-Memories in Actin Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucard, Louis; Majumdar, Sayantan; Levine, Alex; Gardel, Margaret

    The ability of cells to sense and adapt to external mechanical stimuli is vital to many of its biological functions. A critical question is therefore to understand how mechanosensory mechanisms arise in living matter, with implications in both cell biology and smart materials design. Experimental work has demonstrated that the mechanical properties of semiflexible actin networks in Eukaryotic cells can be modulated (either transiently or irreversibly) via the application of external forces. Previous work has also shown with a combination of numerical simulations and analytic calculations shows that the broken rotational symmetry of the filament orientational distribution in semiflexible networks leads to dramatic changes in the mechanical response. Here we demonstrate with a combination of numerical and analytic calculations that the observed long-lived mechano-memory in the actin networks arise from changes in the nematic order of the constituent filaments. These stress-induced changes in network topology relax slowly under zero stress and can be observed through changes in the nonlinear mechanics. Our results provide a strategy for designing a novel class of materials and demonstrate a new putative mechanism of mechanical sensing in eukaryotic cells.

  14. Plasmin enzymatic activity in the presence of actin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusova E. I.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the changes in the plasmin activity towards substrates with high and low molecular mass in the presence of actin. Methods. The proteins used for this investigation were obtained by affinity chromatography and gel-filtration. The plasmin enzymatic activity was determined by a turbidimetric assay and a chromogenic substrate-based assay. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and biotin-avidin-phosphatase system were used to study the interaction of plasminogen and its fragments with actin. Results. It was shown that G-actin causes 1.5-fold decrease in the rate of polymeric fibrin hydrolysis by plasmin and Glu-plasminogen activated by the tissue plasminogen activator. However, actin did not impede plasmin autolysis and had no influence on its amidase activity. We have studied an interaction of biotinylated Glu-plasminogen and its fragments (kringle 1-3, kringle 4 and mini-plasminogen with immobilized G-actin. Glu-plasminogen and kringle 4 had a high affinity towards actin (C50 is 113 and 117 nM correspondingly. Mini-plasminogen and kringe 4 did not bind to actin. A similar affinity of Glu-plasminogen and kringle 1-3 towards actin proves the involvement of the kringle 1-3 lysine-binding sites of the native plasminogen form in the actin interaction. Conclusions. Actin can modulate plasmin specificity towards high molecular mass substrates through its interaction with lysine-binding sites of the enzyme kringle domains. Actin inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin is due to its competition with fibrin for thelysine binding sites of plasminogen/plasmin.

  15. Mutational remodeling of enzyme specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, R; Agard, D A

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering techniques has come the ability to modify proteins as desired. Given this stunning capability, the question remains what residues should be altered, and how should they be changed to achieve a particular specificity pattern. The goals of such modifications are likely to fall into either of two categories: probing the function of a protein or attempting to alter its properties. In either case, our understanding of the consequences of a mutation, as ascertained by our ability to predict the results, is currently quite limited. The problem is extraordinarily complex; our understanding of how to calculate the energetics involved is still incomplete, and we are just beginning to accumulate experimental data which may help guide us. On the positive side, theoretical methods are now being developed and refined that should prove useful in the drive to engineer enzyme specificity. What may be most important at this juncture is to expand the experimental database interrelating sequence, function, and structure. That is, there should be a concerted effort to combine functional analysis of mutant proteins with structural analysis. Only from this combined examination of the effects of mutations can sufficient data be accumulated to test and improve both qualitative and quantitative approaches or methods for remodeling enzyme specificity.

  16. Lead Poisoning in Remodeling of Old Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Bart

    1973-01-01

    An article based on Dr. Muriel D. Wolf's study of elevated blood lead levels in children and adults present during the remodeling of old homes. Lead poisoning examples, symptoms, and precautions are given. (ST)

  17. Transcriptional networks and chromatin remodeling controlling adipogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Rasmus; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    remodeling have revealed 'snapshots' of this cascade and the chromatin landscape at specific time-points of differentiation. These studies demonstrate that multiple adipogenic transcription factors co-occupy hotspots characterized by an open chromatin structure and specific epigenetic modifications...

  18. Actin growth profile in clathrin-mediated endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweten, D. J.; Bayly, P. V.; Carlsson, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in yeast is driven by a protein patch containing close to 100 different types of proteins. Among the proteins are 5000 -10 000 copies of polymerized actin, and successful endocytosis requires growth of the actin network. Since it is not known exactly how actin network growth drives endocytosis, we calculate the spatial distribution of actin growth required to generate the force that drives the process. First, we establish the force distribution that must be supplied by actin growth, by combining membrane-bending profiles obtained via electron microscopy with established theories of membrane mechanics. Next, we determine the profile of actin growth, using a continuum mechanics approach and an iterative procedure starting with an actin growth profile obtained from a linear analysis. The profile has fairly constant growth outside a central hole of radius 45-50 nm, but very little growth in this hole. This growth profile can reproduce the required forces if the actin shear modulus exceeds 80 kPa, and the growing filaments can exert very large polymerization forces. The growth profile prediction could be tested via electron-microscopy or super-resolution experiments in which the turgor pressure is suddenly turned off.

  19. Building an artificial actin cortex on microscopic pillar arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayadi, R; Roos, W H

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells obtain their morphology and mechanical strength from the cytoskeleton and in particular from the cross-linked actin network that branches throughout the whole cell. This actin cortex lies like a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) biopolymer network just below the cell membrane, to which it

  20. Isolation and characterization of the actin gene from Tetrahymena thermophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Claire G.; Pearlman, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    The macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila contains a single actin gene. We have isolated this gene from a partial plasmid library by using the yeast actin gene as a probe. The nucleotide sequence of the gene has been determined and the amino acid sequence of the potential protein deduced. The encoded protein is 375 amino acids long, one amino acid longer than the yeast actin. It is one of the most divergent actins sequenced to date, being only 75% homologous to yeast actin. Unlike the actin genes from most other organisms, it does not contain introns. The coding region contains TAA and TAG codons; the translation termination codon is TGA. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the Tetrahymena actin with that of actins from other organisms suggests that TAG may code for glutamic acid. The gene is transcribed from multiple initiation sites between 57 and 98 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon. The 5′ flanking region is very A+T-rich and contains numerous “TATA-like” sequences upstream of the transcription start sites. Images PMID:16593729

  1. Detecting Actin Fibers in Cell Images Using Minimal Spanning Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-21

    AD-A273 914 Detecting Actin Fibers in Cell Images using Minimal Spanning Trees Andrew E. Johnson and Rar1 E. Valdis-Pirez September 21, 1993 CMU-RI...elements. page 2 1.1 The Biological Problem Actin is a protein common in muscle cells of animals which is biologically significant because it is

  2. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.

  3. Actin-mediated cytoplasmic organization of plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, van der H.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I present results that give insight in the role of the actin cytoskeleton in the production of an organized cytoplasm in plant cells, which is, for instance, required for proper cell morphogenesis. Chapter 1 is a review in which we discuss the possible role of actin-based force

  4. The phosphorylation status and cytoskeletal remodeling of striatal astrocytes treated with quinolinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierozan, Paula; Ferreira, Fernanda; Ortiz de Lima, Bárbara; Gonçalves Fernandes, Carolina [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil); Totarelli Monteforte, Priscila; Castro Medaglia, Natalia de; Bincoletto, Claudia; Soubhi Smaili, Soraya [Departamento de Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    Quinolinic acid (QUIN) is a glutamate agonist which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neural cells to excitotoxicity. QUIN is produced from the amino acid tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway (KP). Dysregulation of this pathway is associated with neurodegenerative conditions. In this study we treated striatal astrocytes in culture with QUIN and assayed the endogenous phosphorylating system associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin as well as cytoskeletal remodeling. After 24 h incubation with 100 µM QUIN, cells were exposed to {sup 32}P-orthophosphate and/or protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase dependent of Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin II (PKCaMII) or protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, H89 (20 μM), KN93 (10 μM) and staurosporin (10 nM), respectively. Results showed that hyperphosphorylation was abrogated by PKA and PKC inhibitors but not by the PKCaMII inhibitor. The specific antagonists to ionotropic NMDA and non-NMDA (50 µM DL-AP5 and CNQX, respectively) glutamate receptors as well as to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGLUR; 50 µM MCPG), mGLUR1 (100 µM MPEP) and mGLUR5 (10 µM 4C3HPG) prevented the hyperphosphorylation provoked by QUIN. Also, intra and extracellular Ca{sup 2+} quelators (1 mM EGTA; 10 µM BAPTA-AM, respectively) prevented QUIN-mediated effect, while Ca{sup 2+} influx through voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel type L (L-VDCC) (blocker: 10 µM verapamil) is not implicated in this effect. Morphological analysis showed dramatically altered actin cytoskeleton with concomitant change of morphology to fusiform and/or flattened cells with retracted cytoplasm and disruption of the GFAP meshwork, supporting misregulation of actin cytoskeleton. Both hyperphosphorylation and cytoskeletal remodeling were reversed 24 h after QUIN removal. Astrocytes are highly plastic cells and the vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the neurotoxicity of QUIN in neurodegenerative

  5. Extracellular ATP decreases trophoblast invasion, spiral artery remodeling and immune cells in the mesometrial triangle in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, F; Melgert, B N; Chiang, C; Borghuis, T; Klok, P A; de Vos, P; van Goor, H; Bakker, W W; Faas, M M

    2014-08-01

    Preeclampsia is characterized by deficient trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling, a process governed by inflammatory cells. High levels of the danger signal extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have been found in women with preeclampsia and infusion of ATP in pregnant rats induced preeclampsia-like symptoms such as albuminuria and placental ischemia. We hypothesized that ATP inhibits trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling and affects macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells present in the rat mesometrial triangle. Pregnant rats were infused with ATP or saline (control) on day 14 of pregnancy. Rats were sacrificed on day 15, 17 or 20 of pregnancy and placentas with mesometrial triangle were collected. Sections were stained for trophoblast cells, α-smooth muscle actin (spiral artery remodeling), NK cells and various macrophage populations. Expression of various cytokines in the mesometrial triangle was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. ATP infusion decreased interstitial trophoblast invasion on day 17 and spiral artery remodeling on day 17 and 20, increased activated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive macrophages on day 15, decreased NK cells on day 17 and 20, and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-positive and CD206-positive macrophages and TNF-α and IL-33 expression at the end of pregnancy (day 20). Interstitial trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in the rat mesometrial triangle were decreased by infusion of ATP. These ATP-induced modifications were preceded by an increase in activated TRAP-positive macrophages and coincided with NK cell numbers, suggesting that they are involved. Trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling may be inhibited by ATP-induced activated macrophages and decreased NK cells in the mesometrial triangle in rat pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The binding of fluorescent phallotoxins to actin in myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna, D; Lehrer, S S

    1993-12-01

    Fluorescence microscope observation of myofibrils incubated with rhodamine-phalloidin and coumarine-phallacidin showed an initial appearance of fluorescence bands at the Z-lines and near the middle of the sarcomeres indicating preferential binding of dye to actin subunits located at both actin filament ends. After long incubation times (1-3 h) however, a final pattern is reached which consists of fluorescent Z-lines in the center of uniformly labelled actin bands, with greater fluorescence in the Z-lines than in the uniform region outside the Z-lines. Increasing the temperature or the ionic strength increased the rate of change to the final pattern. These data indicate: (1) that the ends of the actin filament are kinetically more accessible to phallotoxins; (2) at long times when equilibrium binding presumably occurs, the concentration of actin subunits in the Z-band is greater than in the rest of the sarcomere.

  7. Phallotoxin and actin binding assay by fluorescence enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z J; Haugland, R P; You, W M; Haugland, R P

    1992-01-01

    The fluorescence of five fluorophores conjugated to phallotoxins was found to be specifically enhanced upon binding to F-actin in a polymerizing buffer. Rhodamine phalloidin had the greatest fluorescence enhancement of ninefold. The fluorescence titration of rhodamine phalloidin by actin was shown to be consistent with stoichiometric binding. The fluorescence enhancement of rhodamine phalloidin at 5 microM is linearly related to F-actin concentrations up to 2 microM and therefore can be used as an easy means of F-actin quantitation. In a competition assay, other phallotoxins reduce the fluorescence enhancement that results from the binding of rhodamine phalloidin to polymerized actin. This reduction also permits a convenient measurement of the binding constants of any competing phallotoxins.

  8. Initiation of DNA replication requires actin dynamics and formin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisis, Nikolaos; Krasinska, Liliana; Harker, Bethany; Urbach, Serge; Rossignol, Michel; Camasses, Alain; Dewar, James; Morin, Nathalie; Fisher, Daniel

    2017-11-02

    Nuclear actin regulates transcriptional programmes in a manner dependent on its levels and polymerisation state. This dynamics is determined by the balance of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, formin- and redox-dependent filament polymerisation. Here, using Xenopus egg extracts and human somatic cells, we show that actin dynamics and formins are essential for DNA replication. In proliferating cells, formin inhibition abolishes nuclear transport and initiation of DNA replication, as well as general transcription. In replicating nuclei from transcriptionally silent Xenopus egg extracts, we identified numerous actin regulators, and disruption of actin dynamics abrogates nuclear transport, preventing NLS (nuclear localisation signal)-cargo release from RanGTP-importin complexes. Nuclear formin activity is further required to promote loading of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto chromatin, as well as initiation and elongation of DNA replication. Therefore, actin dynamics and formins control DNA replication by multiple direct and indirect mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Analysis of actin assembly by in vitro TIRF microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitsprecher, Dennis; Kiesewetter, Antje K; Linkner, Joern; Faix, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Since directed movement toward an extracellular chemoattractant requires rapid and continuous reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton to form complex structures such as a protruding lamellipodium, it is of great interest to analyze and understand the individual contribution of proteins specifically involved in this process. Over the last decade, enormous progress has been made toward understanding the versatile molecular mechanisms underlying actin-based cell motility and the regulation of site-specific F-actin assembly and disassembly. In spite of this wealth of knowledge and due to the constant discovery of novel regulatory factors, many questions remain to be answered. In this chapter, we describe a powerful method that allows to study the effects of actin-binding proteins on the assembly of single filaments by in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy using purified proteins and fluorescently labeled actin.

  10. Dynamics of the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid remodeling network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Acyl chain remodeling in lipids is a critical biochemical process that plays a central role in disease. However, remodeling remains poorly understood, despite massive increases in lipidomic data. In this work, we determine the dynamic network of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (PE remodeling, using data from pulse-chase experiments and a novel bioinformatic network inference approach. The model uses a set of ordinary differential equations based on the assumptions that (1 sn1 and sn2 acyl positions are independently remodeled; (2 remodeling reaction rates are constant over time; and (3 acyl donor concentrations are constant. We use a novel fast and accurate two-step algorithm to automatically infer model parameters and their values. This is the first such method applicable to dynamic phospholipid lipidomic data. Our inference procedure closely fits experimental measurements and shows strong cross-validation across six independent experiments with distinct deuterium-labeled PE precursors, demonstrating the validity of our assumptions. In contrast, fits of randomized data or fits using random model parameters are worse. A key outcome is that we are able to robustly distinguish deacylation and reacylation kinetics of individual acyl chain types at the sn1 and sn2 positions, explaining the established prevalence of saturated and unsaturated chains in the respective positions. The present study thus demonstrates that dynamic acyl chain remodeling processes can be reliably determined from dynamic lipidomic data.

  11. 25-Hydroxycholesterol promotes fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling through NF-κB dependent pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Tomohiro [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Sugiura, Hisatoshi, E-mail: sugiura@rm.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Koarai, Akira; Kikuchi, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Masataka; Kawabata, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Keiichiro; Hirano, Tsunahiko; Nakanishi, Masanori; Matsunaga, Kazuto; Minakata, Yoshiaki [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, School of Medicine, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama 641-8509 (Japan); Ichinose, Masakazu [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Abnormal structural alterations termed remodeling, including fibrosis and alveolar wall destruction, are important features of the pathophysiology of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) is enzymatically produced by cholesterol 25-hydorxylase (CH25H) in macrophages and is reported to be involved in the formation of arteriosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that the expression of CH25H and production of 25HC were increased in the lungs of COPD. However, the role of 25-HC in lung tissue remodeling is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of 25-HC on fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling using human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL-1) in vitro. 25-HC significantly augmented α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) (P<0.001) and collagen I (P<0.001) expression in HFL-1. 25-HC also significantly enhanced the release and activation of matrix metallaoproteinase (MMP)-2 (P<0.001) and MMP-9 (P<0.001) without any significant effect on the production of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. 25-HC stimulated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β{sub 1} production (P<0.01) and a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody restored these 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses. 25-HC significantly promoted the translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 into the nuclei (P<0.01), but not phospholylated-c-jun, a complex of activator protein-1. Pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB restored the 25-HC-augmented pro-fibrotic responses and TGF-β{sub 1} release. These results suggest that 25-HC could contribute to fibroblast-mediated lung tissue remodeling by promoting myofibroblast differentiation and the excessive release of extracellular matrix protein and MMPs via an NF-κB-TGF-β dependent pathway.

  12. The physical interaction of myoblasts with the microenvironment during remodeling of the cytoarchitecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Modulevsky

    Full Text Available Integrins, focal adhesions, the cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix, form a structural continuum between the external and internal environment of the cell and mediate the pathways associated with cellular mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction. This continuum is important for the onset of muscle tissue generation, as muscle precursor cells (myoblasts require a mechanical stimulus to initiate myogenesis. The ability to sense a mechanical cue requires an intact cytoskeleton and strong physical contact and adhesion to the microenvironment. Importantly, myoblasts also undergo reorientation, alignment and large scale remodeling of the cytoskeleton when they experience mechanical stretch and compression in muscle tissue. It remains unclear if such dramatic changes in cell architecture also inhibit physical contact and adhesion with the tissue microenvironment that are clearly important to myoblast physiology. In this study, we employed interference reflection microscopy to examine changes in the close physical contact of myoblasts with a substrate during induced remodeling of the cytoarchitecture (de-stabilization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and inhibition of acto-myosin contractility. Our results demonstrate that while each remodeling pathway caused distinct effects on myoblast morphology and sub-cellular structure, we only observed a ~13% decrease in close physical contact with the substrate, regardless of the pathway inhibited. However, this decrease did not correlate well with changes in cell adhesion strength. On the other hand, there was a close correlation between cell adhesion and β1-integrin expression and the presence of cell-secreted fibronectin, but not with the presence of intact focal adhesions. In this study, we have shown that myoblasts are able to maintain a large degree of physical contact and adhesion to the microenvironment, even during shot periods (<60 min of large scale remodeling and physiological

  13. Xenon and isoflurane reduce left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Anna B; Funcke, Sandra; Becker, Michael M; Goetzenich, Andreas; Bleilevens, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Steendijk, Paul; Hein, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Xenon and isoflurane are known to have cardioprotective properties. We tested the hypothesis that these anesthetics positively influence myocardial remodeling 28 days after experimental perioperative myocardial infarction and compared their effects. A total of 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 60 min of coronary artery occlusion and 120 min of reperfusion. Prior to ischemia, the animals were randomized for the different narcotic regimes (0.6 vol% isoflurane, 70 vol% xenon, or intraperitoneal injection of s-ketamine). Acute injury was quantified by echocardiography and troponin I. After 4 weeks, left ventricular function was assessed by conductance catheter to quantify hemodynamic compromise. Cardiac remodeling was characterized by quantification of dilatation, hypertrophy, fibrosis, capillary density, apoptosis, and expression of fetal genes (α/β myosin heavy chains, α-skeletal actin, periostin, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase). Whereas xenon and isoflurane impeded the acute effects of ischemia-reperfusion on hemodynamics and myocardial injury at a comparable level, differences were found after 4 weeks. Xenon in contrast to isoflurane or ketamine anesthetized animals demonstrated a lower remodeling index (0.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.3g/ml), better ejection fraction (62 ± 9 vs. 49 ± 7 and 35 ± 6%), and reduced expression of β-myosin heavy chain and periostin. The effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis, capillary density, and apoptosis were comparable. Compared to isoflurane and s-ketamine, xenon limited progressive adverse cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction 28 days after perioperative myocardial infarction.

  14. Excitable actin dynamics in lamellipodial protrusion and retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gillian L; Petroccia, Heather M; Watanabe, Naoki; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2012-04-04

    Many animal cells initiate crawling by protruding lamellipodia, consisting of a dense network of actin filaments, at their leading edge. We imaged XTC cells that exhibit flat lamellipodia on poly-L-lysine-coated coverslips. Using active contours, we tracked the leading edge and measured the total amount of F-actin by summing the pixel intensities within a 5-μm band. We observed protrusion and retraction with period 130-200 s and local wavelike features. Positive (negative) velocities correlated with minimum (maximum) integrated actin concentration. Approximately constant retrograde flow indicated that protrusions and retractions were driven by fluctuations of the actin polymerization rate. We present a model of these actin dynamics as an excitable system in which a diffusive, autocatalytic activator causes actin polymerization; F-actin accumulation in turn inhibits further activator accumulation. Simulations of the model reproduced the pattern of actin polymerization seen in experiments. To explore the model's assumption of an autocatalytic activation mechanism, we imaged cells expressing markers for both F-actin and the p21 subunit of the Arp2/3 complex. We found that integrated Arp2/3-complex concentrations spike several seconds before spikes of F-actin concentration. This suggests that the Arp2/3 complex participates in an activation mechanism that includes additional diffuse components. Response of cells to stimulation by fetal calf serum could be reproduced by the model, further supporting the proposed dynamical picture. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Daylight photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegell, Stine; Wulf, H C; Szeimies, R-M

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive therapy for non-melanoma skin cancers including actinic keratoses (AKs) because it allows treatment of large areas; it has a high response rate and results in an excellent cosmesis. However, conventional PDT for AKs is associated with inconveniently long...... clinic visits and discomfort during therapy. In this article, we critically review daylight-mediated PDT, which is a simpler and more tolerable treatment procedure for PDT. We review the effective light dose, efficacy and safety, the need for prior application of sunscreen, and potential clinical scope...... of daylight-PDT. Three randomized controlled studies have shown that daylight-mediated PDT is an effective treatment of thin AKs. Daylight-mediated PDT is nearly pain-free and more convenient for both the clinics and patients. Daylight-mediated PDT is especially suited for patients with large field...

  16. Actin-Depolymerizing Factor2-Mediated Actin Dynamics Are Essential for Root-Knot Nematode Infection of Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, M.; Ketelaar, T.; Rodiuc, N.; Banora, M.Y.; Smertenko, A.; Engler, G.; Abad, P.; Hussey, P.J.; Almeida Engler, De J.

    2009-01-01

    Reorganization of the actin and microtubule networks is known to occur in targeted vascular parenchymal root cells upon infection with the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Here, we show that actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) is upregulated in the giant feeding cells of Arabidopsis thaliana that

  17. Toxoplasma gondii profilin acts primarily to sequester G-actin while formins efficiently nucleate actin filament formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Kristen M; Daher, Wassim; Ma, Christopher I; Soldati-Favre, Dominique; Sibley, L David

    2012-03-27

    Apicomplexan parasites employ gliding motility that depends on the polymerization of parasite actin filaments for host cell entry. Despite this requirement, parasite actin remains almost entirely unpolymerized at steady state; formation of filaments required for motility relies on a small repertoire of actin-binding proteins. Previous studies have shown that apicomplexan formins and profilin exhibit canonical functions on heterologous actins from higher eukaryotes; however, their biochemical properties on parasite actins are unknown. We therefore analyzed the impact of T. gondii profilin (TgPRF) and FH1-FH2 domains of two formin isoforms in T. gondii (TgFRM1 and TgFRM2) on the polymerization of T. gondii actin (TgACTI). Our findings based on in vitro assays demonstrate that TgFRM1-FH1-FH2 and TgFRM2-FH1-FH2 dramatically enhanced TgACTI polymerization in the absence of profilin, making them the sole protein factors known to initiate polymerization of this normally unstable actin. In addition, T. gondii formin domains were shown to both initiate polymerization and induce bundling of TgACTI filaments; however, they did not rely on TgPRF for these activities. In contrast, TgPRF sequestered TgACTI monomers, thus inhibiting polymerization even in the presence of formins. Collectively, these findings provide insight into the unusual control mechanisms of actin dynamics within the parasite.

  18. Titin-Actin Interaction: PEVK-Actin-Based Viscosity in a Large Animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titin exhibits an interaction between its PEVK segment and the actin filament resulting in viscosity, a speed dependent resistive force, which significantly influences diastolic filling in mice. While diastolic disease is clinically pervasive, humans express a more compliant titin (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.5–1.0 than mice (N2BA:N2B ratio ~0.2. To examine PEVK-actin based viscosity in compliant titin-tissues, we used pig cardiac tissue that expresses titin isoforms similar to that in humans. Stretch-hold experiments were performed at speeds from 0.1 to 10 lengths/s from slack sarcomere lengths (SL to SL of 2.15 μm. Viscosity was calculated from the slope of stress-relaxation vs stretch speed. Recombinant PEVK was added to compete off native interactions and this found to reduce the slope by 35%, suggesting that PEVK-actin interactions are a strong contributor of viscosity. Frequency sweeps were performed at frequencies of 0.1–400 Hz and recombinant protein reduced viscous moduli by 40% at 2.15 μm and by 50% at 2.25 μm, suggesting a SL-dependent nature of viscosity that might prevent SL ``overshoot’’ at long diastolic SLs. This study is the first to show that viscosity is present at physiologic speeds in the pig and supports the physiologic relevance of PEVK-actin interactions in humans in both health and disease.

  19. Basement Membrane Laminin α2 Regulation of BTB Dynamics via Its Effects on F-Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons Is Mediated Through mTORC1 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ying; Chen, Haiqi; Lui, Wing-Yee; Lee, Will M; Cheng, C Yan

    2017-04-01

    A local axis connects the apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface, the basal ES at the blood-testis barrier (BTB), and the basement membrane across the seminiferous epithelium functionally in rat testes. As such, cellular events that take place simultaneously across the epithelium such as spermiation and BTB remodeling that occur at the apical ES and the basal ES, respectively, at stage VIII of the cycle are coordinated. Herein, laminin α2, a structural component of the basement membrane, was found to regulate BTB dynamics. Sertoli cells were cultured in vitro to allow the establishment of a tight junction (TJ) barrier that mimicked the BTB in vivo. Knockdown of laminin α2 by transfecting Sertoli cells with laminin α2-specific short hairpin RNA vs the nontargeting negative control was shown to perturb the Sertoli cell TJ barrier, illustrating laminin α2 was involved in regulating BTB dynamics. This regulatory effect was mediated through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling because the two mTORC1 downstream signaling molecules ribosomal protein S6 and Akt1/2 were activated and inactivated, respectively, consistent with earlier findings that mTORC1 is involved in promoting BTB remodeling. Also, laminin α2 knockdown induced F-actin and microtubule (MT) disorganization through changes in the spatial expression of F-actin regulators actin-related protein 3 and epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 vs end-binding protein 1 (a MT plus-end tracking protein, +TIP). These laminin α2 knockdown-mediated effects on F-actin and MT organization was blocked by exposing Sertoli cells to rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTORC1 signaling, and also SC79, an activator of Akt. In summary, laminin α2-mediated regulation on Sertoli cell BTB dynamics is through mTORC1 signaling. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  20. Tropomyosin prevents depolymerization of actin filaments from the pointed end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broschat, K O

    1990-12-05

    Regulation of the pointed, or slow-growing, end of actin filaments is essential to the regulation of filament length. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of skeletal muscle tropomyosin (TM) in regulating pointed end assembly and disassembly in vitro. The effects of TM upon assembly and disassembly of actin monomers from the pointed filament end were measured using pyrenyl-actin fluorescence assays in which the barbed ends were capped by villin. Tropomyosin did not affect pointed end elongation; however, filament disassembly from the pointed end stopped in the presence of TM under conditions where control filaments disassembled within minutes. The degree of protection against depolymerization was dependent upon free TM concentration and upon filament length. When filaments were diluted to a subcritical actin concentration in TM, up to 95% of the filamentous actin remained after 24 h and did not depolymerize further. Longer actin filaments (150 monomers average length) were more effectively protected from depolymerization than short filaments (50 monomers average length). Although filaments stopped depolymerizing in the presence of TM, they were not capped as shown by elongation assays. This study demonstrates that a protein, such as TM, which binds to the side of the actin filament can prevent dissociation of monomers from the end without capping the end to elongation. In skeletal muscle, tropomyosin could prevent thin filament disassembly from the pointed end and constitute a mechanism for regulating filament length.

  1. Visualization of endothelial actin cytoskeleton in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Fraccaroli

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis requires coordinated changes in cell shape of endothelial cells (ECs, orchestrated by the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanisms that regulate this rearrangement in vivo are poorly understood - largely because of the difficulty to visualize filamentous actin (F-actin structures with sufficient resolution. Here, we use transgenic mice expressing Lifeact-EGFP to visualize F-actin in ECs. We show that in the retina, Lifeact-EGFP expression is largely restricted to ECs allowing detailed visualization of F-actin in ECs in situ. Lifeact-EGFP labels actin associated with cell-cell junctions, apical and basal membranes and highlights actin-based structures such as filopodia and stress fiber-like cytoplasmic bundles. We also show that in the skin and the skeletal muscle, Lifeact-EGFP is highly expressed in vascular mural cells (vMCs, enabling vMC imaging. In summary, our results indicate that the Lifeact-EGFP transgenic mouse in combination with the postnatal retinal angiogenic model constitutes an excellent system for vascular cell biology research. Our approach is ideally suited to address structural and mechanistic details of angiogenic processes, such as endothelial tip cell migration and fusion, EC polarization or lumen formation.

  2. MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST) for studying actin polymerization kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topf, Andrea; Franz, Peter; Tsiavaliaris, Georgios

    2017-10-01

    Here, we present a MicroScale Thermophoresis (MST)-based assay for in vitro assessment of actin polymerization. By monitoring the thermophoretic behavior of ATTO488-labeled actin in a temperature gradient over time, we could follow polymerization in real time and resolve its three characteristic phases: nucleation, elongation, and steady-state equilibration. Titration experiments allowed us to evaluate the effects of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) on polymerization, including DNase I-induced inhibition and mDia2FH1FH2 (mDia2)-assisted acceleration of nucleation. The corresponding rates of actin filament elongation were quantitatively determined, yielding values in good agreement with those obtained using the pyrene-actin polymerization assay. Finally, we measured the effect of myosin on actin polymerization, circumventing the problems of fluorescence quenching and signal disturbance that occur with other techniques. MST is a simple and valuable research tool for investigating actin kinetics covering a wide range of molecular interactions, with low protein consumption.

  3. Genetic crosses and complementation reveal essential functions for the Plasmodium stage-specific actin2 in sporogonic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreadaki, M.; Morgan, R.N.; Deligianni, E.; Kooij, T.W.A.; Santos, J.M.; Spanos, L.; Matuschewski, K.; Louis, C.; Mair, G.R.; Siden-Kiamos, I.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria parasites have two actin isoforms, ubiquitous actin1 and specialized actin2. Actin2 is essential for late male gametogenesis, prior to egress from the host erythrocyte. Here, we examined whether the two actins fulfil overlapping functions in Plasmodium berghei. Replacement of actin2 with

  4. Developmental expression of the alpha-skeletal actin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonk Freek J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is a cytoskeletal protein which exerts a broad range of functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. In higher vertebrates, six primary actin isoforms can be distinguished: alpha-skeletal, alpha-cardiac, alpha-smooth muscle, gamma-smooth muscle, beta-cytoplasmic and gamma-cytoplasmic isoactin. Expression of these actin isoforms during vertebrate development is highly regulated in a temporal and tissue-specific manner, but the mechanisms and the specific differences are currently not well understood. All members of the actin multigene family are highly conserved, suggesting that there is a high selective pressure on these proteins. Results We present here a model for the evolution of the genomic organization of alpha-skeletal actin and by molecular modeling, illustrate the structural differences of actin proteins of different phyla. We further describe and compare alpha-skeletal actin expression in two developmental stages of five vertebrate species (mouse, chicken, snake, salamander and fish. Our findings confirm that alpha-skeletal actin is expressed in skeletal muscle and in the heart of all five species. In addition, we identify many novel non-muscular expression domains including several in the central nervous system. Conclusion Our results show that the high sequence homology of alpha-skeletal actins is reflected by similarities of their 3 dimensional protein structures, as well as by conserved gene expression patterns during vertebrate development. Nonetheless, we find here important differences in 3D structures, in gene architectures and identify novel expression domains for this structural and functional important gene.

  5. Actin genes and their expression in pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Du, Jiangli; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-30

    Actin is a multi-functional gene family that can be divided into muscle-type actins and non-muscle-type actins. In this study, 37 unigenes encoding actins were identified from RNA-Seq data of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. According to phylogenetic analysis, four and three cDNAs belong to cytoplasmic- and heart-type actins and were named LvActinCT and LvActinHT, respectively. 10 cDNAs belong to the slow-type skeletal muscle actins, and 18 belong to the fast-type skeletal muscle actins; they were designated LvActinSSK and LvActinFSK, respectively. Some muscle actin genes formed gene clusters in the genome. Multiple alternative transcription starts sites (ATSSs) were found for LvActinCT1. Based on the early developmental expression profile, almost all LvActins were highly expressed between the early limb bud and post-larval stages. Using LvActinSSK5 as probes, slow-type muscle was localized in pleopod muscle and superficial ventral muscle. We also found three actin genes that were down-regulated in the hemocytes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)- and Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. This study provides valuable information on the actin gene structure of shrimp, furthers our understanding of the shrimp muscle system and helps us develop strategies for disease control and sustainable shrimp farming.

  6. Adipose tissue remodeling in pathophysiology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Fried, Susan K

    2010-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that adipose tissue undergoes a continuous process of remodeling that is pathologically accelerated in the obese state. Contrary to earlier dogma, adipocytes die and are replaced by newly differentiated ones. This review will summarize recent advances of our knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate adipose tissue remodeling and highlight the influences of obesity, depot, and sex, as well as the relevance of rodent models to humans. A substantial literature now points to the importance of dynamic changes in adipocyte and immune cell turnover, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling in regulating the expandability and functional integrity of this tissue. In obesity, the macrophages are recruited, surrounding dead adipocytes and polarized toward an inflammatory phenotype. The number of dead adipocytes is closely associated with the pathophysiological consequences of obesity, including insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. Further, there are substantial depot, sex and species differences in the extent of remodeling. Adipose tissue undergoes a continuous remodeling process that normally maintains tissue health, but may spin out of control and lead to adipocyte death in association with the recruitment and activation of macrophages, and systemic insulin resistance.

  7. Actin-ADF/cofilin rod formation in Caenorhabditis elegans muscle requires a putative F-actin binding site of ADF/cofilin at the C-terminus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kanako; Ono, Shoichiro

    2009-07-01

    Under a number of stress or pathological conditions, actin and actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin form rod-like structures that contain abnormal bundles of actin filaments that are heavily decorated with ADF/cofilin. However, the mechanism of actin rod formation and the physiological role of actin rods are not clearly understood. Here, we report that overexpression of green fluorescent protein-fused UNC-60B, a muscle-specific ADF/cofilin isoform, in Caenorhabditis elegans body wall muscle induces formation of rod-like structures. The rods contained GFP-UNC-60B, actin-interacting protein 1 (AIP1), and actin, but not other major actin-associated proteins, thus resembling actin-ADF/cofilin rods found in other organisms. However, depletion or overexpression of AIP1 did not affect formation of the actin-GFP-UNC-60B rods, suggesting that AIP1 does not play a significant role in the rod assembly. Truncation of the C-terminal tail, a putative F-actin binding site, of UNC-60B abolished induction of the rod formation, strongly suggesting that stable association of UNC-60B with F-actin, which is mediated by its C-terminus, is required for inducing actin-ADF/cofilin rods. This study suggests that C. elegans can be a new model to study functions of actin-ADF/cofilin rods. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Transformation of actin-encapsulating liposomes induced by cytochalasin D.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyata, H.; Kinosita, K

    1994-01-01

    Liposomes encapsulating actin filaments were prepared by swelling at 0 degrees C lipid film consisting of a mixture of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin (equal amounts by weight) in 100 microM rabbit skeletal muscle actin and 0.5 mM CaCl2 followed by polymerization of actin at 30 degrees C. Liposomes initially assumed either disk or dumbbell shape, but when cytochalasin D was added to the medium surrounding the liposomes, they were found to become spindle shaped. Liposomes conta...

  9. Actin purification from a gel of rat brain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levilliers, N; Peron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Actin, 99% pure, has been recovered from rat brain with a high yield (greater than 15 mg/100 g brain). We have shown that: 1. a low ionic strength extract from rat brain tissue is capable of giving rise to a gel; 2. actin is the main gel component and its proportion is one order of magnitude higher than in the original extract; 3. actin can be isolated from this extract by a three-step procedure involving gelation, dissociation of the gel in 0.6 M KCl, followed by one or two depolymerization-polymerization cycles.

  10. Flightless I interacts with NMMIIA to promote cell extension formation, which enables collagen remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Pamma D.; Wang, Yongqiang; Bresnick, Anne; Janmey, Paul A.; McCulloch, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role of the actin-capping protein flightless I (FliI) in collagen remodeling by mouse fibroblasts. FliI-overexpressing cells exhibited reduced spreading on collagen but formed elongated protrusions that stained for myosin10 and fascin and penetrated pores of collagen-coated membranes. Inhibition of Cdc42 blocked formation of cell protrusions. In FliI-knockdown cells, transfection with constitutively active Cdc42 did not enable protrusion formation. FliI-overexpressing cells displayed increased uptake and degradation of exogenous collagen and strongly compacted collagen fibrils, which was blocked by blebbistatin. Mass spectrometry analysis of FliI immunoprecipitates showed that FliI associated with nonmuscle myosin IIA (NMMIIA), which was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. GFP-FliI colocalized with NMMIIA at cell protrusions. Purified FliI containing gelsolin-like domains (GLDs) 1–6 capped actin filaments efficiently, whereas FliI GLD 2–6 did not. Binding assays showed strong interaction of purified FliI protein (GLD 1–6) with the rod domain of NMMIIA (kD = 0.146 μM), whereas FliI GLD 2–6 showed lower binding affinity (kD = 0.8584 μM). Cells expressing FliI GLD 2–6 exhibited fewer cell extensions, did not colocalize with NMMIIA, and showed reduced collagen uptake compared with cells expressing FliI GLD 1–6. We conclude that FliI interacts with NMMIIA to promote cell extension formation, which enables collagen remodeling in fibroblasts. PMID:25877872

  11. TIRF assays for real-time observation of microtubules and actin coassembly: Deciphering tau effects on microtubule/actin interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezel, Eléa; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Elie, Auréliane; Zala, Ninon; Denarier, Eric; Serre, Laurence; Arnal, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are key players in vital processes in cells. Although the importance of microtubule-actin interaction for cell development and function has been highlighted for years, the properties of these two cytoskeletons have been mostly studied separately. Thus we now need procedures to simultaneously assess actin and microtubule properties to decipher the basic mechanisms underlying microtubule-actin crosstalk. Here we describe an in vitro assay that allows the coassembly of both filaments and the real-time observation of their interaction by TIRF microscopy. We show how this assay can be used to demonstrate that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, is a bona fide actin-microtubule cross-linker. The procedure relies on the use of highly purified proteins and chemically passivated perfusion chambers. We present a step-by-step protocol to obtain actin and microtubule coassembly and discuss the major pitfalls. An ImageJ macro to quantify actin and microtubule interaction is also provided. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structural organization of actin in the sea urchin egg cortex: microvillar elongation in the absence of actin filament bundle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, D A; Rebhun, L I; Hyatt, H

    1982-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the formation of actin filament bundles and the elongation of microvilli (MV) after fertilization in sea urchin eggs. In a previous study (1979, J Cell Biol. 83:241-248) we demonstrated that increased pH induced the formation of actin filaments in isolated sea urchin egg cortices with the concomitant elongation of MV. On the basis of these results we suggested that increased cytoplasmic pH after fertilization causes a reorganization of cortical actin, which in turn provides the force for MV elongation. To test this hypothesis, we compared the morphology of microvilli in eggs activated with and without the release of fertilization acid. Activation of eggs in normal sea water with the calcium ionophore A23187 causes the release of fertilization acid and the elongation of MV containing core bundles of actin filaments. Eggs activated with A23187 in NA(+)-free water do not undergo normal fertilization acid release but develop elongated, flaccid MV. These MV contain an irregular network of actin filaments rather than the parallel bundles of filaments found in normal MV. The addition of 40 mM NaCl to these eggs results in the release of H(+) and the concomitant conversion of flaccid MV to erect MV containing typical core bundles of actin filaments. Identical results are obtained when 10 mM NH(4)Cl is substituted for NaCl. The induction of cytoplasmic alkalinization in unactivated eggs with NH(4)Cl does not cause either MV elongation or the formation of actin filament bundles . These results suggest that: (a) the elongation of MV is stimulated by a rise in intracellular free Ca(++) concentration; (b) actin filament bundle formation is triggered by an increase in cytoplasmic pH; and (c) the formation of actin filament bundles is not necessary for MV elongation but is required to provide rigid support for MV.

  13. Preventive effect of yuzu and hesperidin on left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in rat permanent left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium.

  14. Preventive Effect of Yuzu and Hesperidin on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Rat Permanent Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery Occlusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye Yon; Ahn, Ji Hun; Park, Se Won; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling, which includes ventricular dilatation and increased interstitial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI), is the critical process underlying the progression to heart failure. Therefore, a novel approach for preventing LV remodeling after MI is highly desirable. Yuzu is a citrus plant originating in East Asia, and has a number of cardioprotective properties such as hesperidin. However, no study has proved whether yuzu can prevent LV remodeling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of yuzu on heart failure (HF) and its potential impact on the LV remodeling process after MI. Our in vivo study using the permanent left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion model demonstrate that one week pre-treatment with yuzu or its major metabolite hesperidin before LAD occlusion significantly attenuated cardiac dysfunction, myocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Not only yuzu but also hesperidin inhibited caspase-3 activity, myeloperoxidase expression, α-smooth muscle actin expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity in a permanent LAD occlusion rat model. To our knowledge, our findings provide the first evidence that yuzu and hesperidin prevent MI-induced ventricular dysfunction and structural remodeling of myocardium. PMID:25559243

  15. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L.; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Ardura, Juan A.; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. PMID:27008860

  16. Airborne particulate matter in vitro exposure induces cytoskeleton remodeling through activation of the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in A549 epithelial lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirino, Yolanda I; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; García-García, Carlos; Soto-Reyes, Ernesto; Osornio-Vargas, Álvaro Román; Herrera, Luis A; López-Saavedra, Alejandro; Miranda, Javier; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Sánchez-Pérez, Yesennia

    2017-04-15

    Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ) is considered a risk factor for the development of lung cancer. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which PM 10 is associated with cancer, but there is evidence that its exposure can lead to an acquired invasive phenotype, apoptosis evasion, inflammasome activation, and cytoskeleton remodeling in lung epithelial cells. Cytoskeleton remodeling occurs through actin stress fiber formation, which is partially regulated through ROCK kinase activation, we aimed to investigate if this protein was activated in response to PM 10 exposure in A549 lung epithelial cells. Results showed that 10μg/cm 2 of PM 10 had no influence on cell viability but increased actin stress fibers, cytoplasmic ROCK expression, and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase-targeting 1 (MYPT1) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins, which are targeted by ROCK. The inhibition of ROCK prevented actin stress fiber formation and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MLC, suggesting that PM 10 activated the ROCK-MYPT1-MLC pathway in lung epithelial cells. The activation of ROCK1 has been involved in the acquisition of malignant phenotypes, and its induction by PM 10 exposure could contribute to the understanding of PM 10 as a risk factor for cancer development through the mechanisms associated with invasive phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone remodeling as a spatial evolutionary game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Marc D; Murgas, Kevin A

    2017-04-07

    Bone remodeling is a complex process involving cell-cell interactions, biochemical signaling and mechanical stimuli. Early models of the biological aspects of remodeling were non-spatial and focused on the local dynamics at a fixed location in the bone. Several spatial extensions of these models have been proposed, but they generally suffer from two limitations: first, they are not amenable to analysis and are computationally expensive, and second, they neglect the role played by bone-embedded osteocytes. To address these issues, we developed a novel model of spatial remodeling based on the principles of evolutionary game theory. The analytically tractable framework describes the spatial interactions between zones of bone resorption, bone formation and quiescent bone, and explicitly accounts for regulation of remodeling by bone-embedded, mechanotransducing osteocytes. Using tools from the theory of interacting particle systems we systematically classified the different dynamic regimes of the spatial model and identified regions of parameter space that allow for global coexistence of resorption, formation and quiescence, as observed in physiological remodeling. In coexistence scenarios, three-dimensional simulations revealed the emergence of sponge-like bone clusters. Comparison between spatial and non-spatial dynamics revealed substantial differences and suggested a stabilizing role of space. Our findings emphasize the importance of accounting for spatial structure and bone-embedded osteocytes when modeling the process of bone remodeling. Thanks to the lattice-based framework, the proposed model can easily be coupled to a mechanical model of bone loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protection of actin from heat denaturation by various phallotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J X; Schäfer, A J; Faulstich, H; Wieland, T

    1976-08-01

    Phallotoxins protect F-actin from heat denaturation at a temperature of 70 degrees C for 3 min. This has been shown by difference spectroscopy. G-actin is not protected from heat denaturation by phalloidin. Among the various phallopeptides investigated, 4 toxic ones showed the same protecting ability, whereas non-toxic seco-compounds has no effect. The non-toxic (S)-phalloidinsulfoxide A exhibited only a partial protecting activity, corresponding to an affinity for F-actin of about one tenth of that of the toxic peptides. Evidence for this was obtained from the easy displacement of the sulfoxide A from F-actin by phalloidin as well as by a spectroscopic dilution titration.

  19. Mechanical integration of actin and adhesion dynamics in cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Margaret L; Schneider, Ian C; Aratyn-Schaus, Yvonne; Waterman, Clare M

    2010-01-01

    Directed cell migration is a physical process that requires dramatic changes in cell shape and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. For efficient movement, these processes must be spatiotemporally coordinated. To a large degree, the morphological changes and physical forces that occur during migration are generated by a dynamic filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton. Adhesion is regulated by dynamic assemblies of structural and signaling proteins that couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Here, we review current knowledge of the dynamic organization of the F-actin cytoskeleton in cell migration and the regulation of focal adhesion assembly and disassembly with an emphasis on how mechanical and biochemical signaling between these two systems regulate the coordination of physical processes in cell migration.

  20. The actin cytoskeleton in spindle assembly and positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunda, Patricia; Baum, Buzz

    2009-04-01

    The most dramatic changes in eukaryotic cytoskeletal organization and dynamics occur during passage through mitosis. Although both spindle self-organization and actin-dependent cytokinesis have long been the subject of intense investigation, it has only recently become apparent that the actin cortex also has a key role during early mitosis. This is most striking in animal cells, in which changes in the actin cytoskeleton drive mitotic cell rounding and cortical stiffening. This mitotic cortex then functions as a foundation for spindle assembly and to guide spindle orientation with respect to extracellular chemical and mechanical cues. Here, we discuss this recent work and the possible role of crosstalk between the mitotic actin cortex and the plus ends of astral microtubules in this process.

  1. Induction of anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackroff, Robert V; Hufnagel, Linda A

    2002-01-01

    Both cytochalasin D and latrunculin B reversibly inhibited Tetrahymena phagocytosis at concentrations similar to those effective in mammalian systems, even though ciliate actins are known to be highly divergent from mammalian actins. Overnight exposure to relatively low (0.25 microM) concentrations of latrunculin B induced resistance in Tetrahymena to the inhibitory effects of that drug, as well as cross-resistance to cytochalasin D. However, much higher (> 30 microM) concentrations of cytochalasin D were required for induction of cross-resistance to latrunculin B. Anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena may involve a general multidrug resistance mechanism and/or specific feedback regulation of F-actin assembly and stability.

  2. Antenna mechanism of length control of actin cables

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Kondev, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This antenna mechanism involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentra...

  3. Interactions between plant endomembrane systems and the actin cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengwei eWang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane trafficking, organelle movement and morphogenesis in plant cells are mainly controlled by the cytoskeleton. Not all proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics in animal systems have functional homologues in plants, especially for those proteins that form the bridge between the cytoskeleton and membrane; the membrane-actin adaptors. Their nature and function is only just beginning to be elucidated and this field has been greatly enhanced by the recent identification of the NETWORKED (NET proteins which act as membrane-actin adaptors. In this review, we will summarize the role of the actin cytoskeleton and its regulatory proteins in their interaction with endomembrane compartments and where they potentially act as platforms for cell signalling and the coordination of other subcellular events.

  4. Biomechanical Remodeling of the Diabetic Gastrointestinal Tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    several years, several studies demonstrated that experimental diabetes induces GI morphological and biomechanical remodeling. Following the development of diabetes, the GI wall becomes thicker and the stiffness of the GI wall increases in a time-dependent manner. It is well known that mechanosensitive...... the biomechanical environment of the mechanosensitive nerve endings, therefore, the structure as well as the tension, stress and strain distribution in the GI wall is important for the sensory and motor function. Biomechanical remodeling of diabetic GI tract including alterations of residual strain and increase...

  5. A function for filamentous alpha-smooth muscle actin: Retardation of motility in human breast fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Petersen, Ole William

    1996-01-01

    Actins are known to comprise six mammalian isoforms of which beta- and gamma-nonmuscle actins are present in all cells, whereas alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-sm) actin is normally restricted to cells of the smooth muscle lineages. alpha-Sm actin has been found also to be expressed transiently in cer...

  6. Slug enhances invasion ability of pancreatic cancer cells through upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and actin cytoskeleton remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kejun; Chen, Dong; JIAO, XUELONG; Zhang, Shaoyan; Liu, Xiangping; Cao, Jingyu; Wu, Liqun; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Slug, a member of the Snail family of transcription factors, has a crucial role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing several epithelial markers and adhesion molecules, including E-cadherin. A recent study demonstrated that no relationship exists between Slug and E-cadherin in pancreatic cancer. Another study showed that in malignant mesothelioma effusions Slug was associated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, but that there was no associatio...

  7. Identification of a Hormone-regulated Dynamic Nuclear Actin Network Associated with Estrogen Receptor α in Human Breast Cancer Cell Nuclei*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A.; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A.; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERα assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERα and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERα interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERα fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising β-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERα and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERα actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene activity, spatial and functional

  8. Identification of a hormone-regulated dynamic nuclear actin network associated with estrogen receptor alpha in human breast cancer cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Concetta; Tarallo, Roberta; Bamundo, Angela; Cuomo, Danila; Franci, Gianluigi; Nassa, Giovanni; Paris, Ornella; Ravo, Maria; Giovane, Alfonso; Zambrano, Nicola; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Jänne, Olli A; Baumann, Marc; Nyman, Tuula A; Cicatiello, Luigi; Weisz, Alessandro

    2010-06-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) is a modular protein of the steroid/nuclear receptor family of transcriptional regulators that upon binding to the hormone undergoes structural changes, resulting in its nuclear translocation and docking to specific chromatin sites. In the nucleus, ERalpha assembles in multiprotein complexes that act as final effectors of estrogen signaling to the genome through chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, leading to dynamic and coordinated regulation of hormone-responsive genes. Identification of the molecular partners of ERalpha and understanding their combinatory interactions within functional complexes is a prerequisite to define the molecular basis of estrogen control of cell functions. To this end, affinity purification was applied to map and characterize the ERalpha interactome in hormone-responsive human breast cancer cell nuclei. MCF-7 cell clones expressing human ERalpha fused to a tandem affinity purification tag were generated and used to purify native nuclear ER-containing complexes by IgG-Sepharose affinity chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation. Purified complexes were analyzed by two-dimensional DIGE and mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of a ligand-dependent multiprotein complex comprising beta-actin, myosins, and several proteins involved in actin filament organization and dynamics and/or known to participate in actin-mediated regulation of gene transcription, chromatin dynamics, and ribosome biogenesis. Time course analyses indicated that complexes containing ERalpha and actin are assembled in the nucleus early after receptor activation by ligands, and gene knockdown experiments showed that gelsolin and the nuclear isoform of myosin 1c are key determinants for assembly and/or stability of these complexes. Based on these results, we propose that the actin network plays a role in nuclear ERalpha actions in breast cancer cells, including coordinated regulation of target gene

  9. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF Inhibition during Mid-Gestation Impairs Trophoblast Invasion and Spiral Artery Remodelling during Pregnancy in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Winship

    Full Text Available The placenta forms the interface between the maternal and fetal circulation and is critical for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. Trophoblast cell proliferation, migration and invasion into the endometrium are fundamental events in the initiation of placentation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion in vitro, however its precise role in trophoblast invasion in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that LIF would be required for normal trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling in mice. Both LIF and its receptor (LIFRα co-localized with cytokeratin-positive invasive endovascular extravillous trophoblasts (EVT in mouse implantation sites during mid-gestation. Temporally blocking LIF action during specific periods of placental development via administration of our unique LIFRα antagonist, PEGLA, resulted in abnormal trophoblast invasion and impaired spiral artery remodeling compared to PEG control. PEGLA-treated mouse decidual vessels were characterized by retention of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA-positive vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs, while PEG control decidual vessels were remodelled by cytokeratin-positive trophoblasts. LIF blockade did not alter F4/80-positive decidual macrophage numbers between treatment groups, but resulted in down-regulation of decidual transcript levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin-10 (IL-10, which are important immune cell activation factors that promote spiral artery remodeling during pregnancy. Our data suggest that LIF plays an important role in trophoblast invasion in vivo and may facilitate trophoblast-decidual-immune cell cross talk to enable adequate spiral artery remodeling.

  10. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janega Pavol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH, orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease.

  11. Bulkiness or aromatic nature of tyrosine-143 of actin is important for the weak binding between F-actin and myosin-ADP-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomibuchi, Yuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Uyeda, Taro Q.P. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Takeyuki, E-mail: tw007@nasu.bio.teikyo-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan); Department of Judo Therapy, Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Toyosatodai 1-1, Utsunomiya 320-8551 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The effect of mutation of Tyr143 that becomes more exposed on assembly was examined. •Mutation of tyrosine-143 of Dictyostelium actin changed actin polymerizability. •The bulkiness or aromatic nature of Tyr143 is important for the weak binding. •The weak interaction between myosin and actin strengthened by Tyr143Trp mutation. -- Abstract: Actin filaments (F-actin) interact with myosin and activate its ATPase to support force generation. By comparing crystal structures of G-actin and the quasi-atomic model of F-actin based on high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy, the tyrosine-143 was found to be exposed more than 60 Å{sup 2} to the solvent in F-actin. Because tyrosine-143 flanks the hydrophobic cleft near the hydrophobic helix that binds to myosin, the mutant actins, of which the tyrosine-143 was replaced with tryptophan, phenylalanine, or isoleucine, were generated using the Dictyostelium expression system. It polymerized significantly poorly when induced by NaCl, but almost normally by KCl. In the presence of phalloidin and KCl, the extents of the polymerization of all the mutant actins were comparable to that of the wild-type actin so that the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity could be reliably compared. The affinity of skeletal heavy meromyosin to F-actin and the maximum ATPase activity (V{sub max}) were estimated by a double reciprocal plot. The Tyr143Trp-actin showed the higher affinity (smaller K{sub app}) than that of the wild-type actin, with the V{sub max} being almost unchanged. The K{sub app} and V{sub max} of the Tyr143Phe-actin were similar to those of the wild-type actin. However, the activation by Tyr143Ile-actin was much smaller than the wild-type actin and the accurate determination of K{sub app} was difficult. Comparison of the myosin ATPase activated by the various mutant actins at the same concentration of F-actin showed that the extent of activation correlates well with the solvent-accessible surface areas (ASA

  12. Monoubiquitination Inhibits the Actin Bundling Activity of Fascin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shengchen; Lu, Shuang; Mulaj, Mentor; Fang, Bin; Keeley, Tyler; Wan, Lixin; Hao, Jihui; Muschol, Martin; Sun, Jianwei; Yang, Shengyu

    2016-12-30

    Fascin is an actin bundling protein that cross-links individual actin filaments into straight, compact, and stiff bundles, which are crucial for the formation of filopodia, stereocillia, and other finger-like membrane protrusions. The dysregulation of fascin has been implicated in cancer metastasis, hearing loss, and blindness. Here we identified monoubiquitination as a novel mechanism that regulates fascin bundling activity and dynamics. The monoubiquitination sites were identified to be Lys247 and Lys250, two residues located in a positive charge patch at the actin binding site 2 of fascin. Using a chemical ubiquitination method, we synthesized chemically monoubiquitinated fascin and determined the effects of monoubiquitination on fascin bundling activity and dynamics. Our data demonstrated that monoubiquitination decreased the fascin bundling EC50, delayed the initiation of bundle assembly, and accelerated the disassembly of existing bundles. By analyzing the electrostatic properties on the solvent-accessible surface of fascin, we proposed that monoubiquitination introduced steric hindrance to interfere with the interaction between actin filaments and the positively charged patch at actin binding site 2. We also identified Smurf1 as a E3 ligase regulating the monoubiquitination of fascin. Our findings revealed a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for fascin, which will have important implications for the understanding of actin bundle regulation under physiological and pathological conditions. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Arsenic trioxide preferentially induces nonapoptotic cell deaths as well as actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in the CHO AA8 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Izdebska

    2014-12-01

    -deficient CHO AA8 cells. Furthermore, the distinctive patterns of F-actin remodeling after As2O3 treatment were associated with different modes of cell death, confirming that cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure actively involved in the cell death process.

  14. Tumor suppressors TSC1 and TSC2 differentially modulate actin cytoskeleton and motility of mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A Goncharova

    Full Text Available TSC1 and TSC2 mutations cause neoplasms in rare disease pulmonary LAM and neuronal pathfinding in hamartoma syndrome TSC. The specific roles of TSC1 and TSC2 in actin remodeling and the modulation of cell motility, however, are not well understood. Previously, we demonstrated that TSC1 and TSC2 regulate the activity of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1, stress fiber formation and cell adhesion in a reciprocal manner. Here, we show that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have decreased migration compared to littermate-derived Tsc1(+/+ MEFs. Migration of Tsc1(-/- MEFs with re-expressed TSC1 was comparable to Tsc1(+/+ MEF migration. In contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed an increased migration compared to Tsc2(+/+ MEFs that were abrogated by TSC2 re-expression. Depletion of TSC1 and TSC2 using specific siRNAs in wild type MEFs and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts also showed that TSC1 loss attenuates cell migration while TSC2 loss promotes cell migration. Morphological and immunochemical analysis demonstrated that Tsc1(-/- MEFs have a thin protracted shape with a few stress fibers; in contrast, Tsc2(-/- MEFs showed a rounded morphology and abundant stress fibers. Expression of TSC1 in either Tsc1(-/- or Tsc2(-/- MEFs promoted stress fiber formation, while TSC2 re-expression induced stress fiber disassembly and the formation of cortical actin. To assess the mechanism(s by which TSC2 loss promotes actin re-arrangement and cell migration, we explored the role of known downstream effectors of TSC2, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Increased migration of Tsc2(-/- MEFs is inhibited by siRNA mTOR and siRNA Rictor, but not siRNA Raptor. siRNA mTOR or siRNA Rictor promoted stress fiber disassembly in TSC2-null cells, while siRNA Raptor had little effect. Overexpression of kinase-dead mTOR induced actin stress fiber disassembly and suppressed TSC2-deficient cell migration. Our data demonstrate that TSC1 and TSC2 differentially regulate actin stress fiber formation and cell migration, and that only TSC2 loss promotes

  15. Allogeneic mesenchymal precursor cell therapy to limit remodeling after myocardial infarction: the effect of cell dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Gorman, Joseph H; Ryan, Liam P; Hinmon, Robin; Martens, Timothy P; Schuster, Michael D; Plappert, Theodore; Kiupel, Matti; St John-Sutton, Martin G; Itescu, Silviu; Gorman, Robert C

    2009-03-01

    This experiment assessed the dose-dependent effect of a unique allogeneic STRO-3-positive mesenchymal precursor cell (MPC) on postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The MPCs were administered in a manner that would simulate an off-the-self, early postinfarction, preventative approach to cardiac cell therapy in a sheep transmural myocardial infarct (MI) model. Allogeneic MPCs were isolated from male crossbred sheep. Forty-six female sheep underwent coronary ligation to produce a transmural LV anteroapical infarction. One hour after infarction, the borderzone myocardium received an injection of 25, 75, 225, or 450 x 10(6) MPCs, or cell medium. Echocardiography was performed at 4 and 8 weeks after MI to quantify LV end-diastolic (LVEDV) and end-systolic volumes (LVESV), ejection fraction (EF), and infarct expansion. CD31 and smooth muscle actin (SMA) immunohistochemical staining was performed on infarct and borderzone specimens to quantify vascular density. Compared with controls, low-dose (25 and 75 x 10(6) cells) MPC treatment significantly attenuated infarct expansion and increases in LVEDV and LVESV. EF was improved at all cell doses. CD31 and SMA immunohistochemical staining demonstrated increased vascular density in the borderzone only at the lower cell doses. There was no evidence of myocardial regeneration within the infarct. Allogeneic STRO-3 positive MPCs attenuate the remodeling response to transmural MI in a clinically relevant large-animal model. This effect is associated with vasculogenesis and arteriogenesis within the borderzone and infarct and is most pronounced at lower cell doses.

  16. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  17. Strategies for Energy Efficient Remodeling: SEER 2003 Case Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-11-01

    The goal of the Strategies for Energy Efficiency in Remodeling (SEER) project is to provide information, based on research and case studies, to remodelers and consumers about opportunities to increase home energy performance.

  18. Structural organization of actin in the sea urchin egg cortex: microvillar elongation in the absence of actin filament bundle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Begg, DA; Rebhun, LI; Hyatt, H

    1982-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the formation of actin filament bundles and the elongation of microvilli (MV) after fertilization in sea urchin eggs. In a previous study (1979, J Cell Biol. 83:241-248) we demonstrated that increased pH induced the formation of actin filaments in isolated sea urchin egg cortices with the concomitant elongation of MV. On the basis of these results we suggested that increased cytoplasmic pH after fertilization causes a reorganization of cortical ac...

  19. Retinal remodeling in human retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B W; Pfeiffer, R L; Ferrell, W D; Watt, C B; Marmor, M; Marc, R E

    2016-09-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) in the human is a progressive, currently irreversible neural degenerative disease usually caused by gene defects that disrupt the function or architecture of the photoreceptors. While RP can initially be a disease of photoreceptors, there is increasing evidence that the inner retina becomes progressively disorganized as the outer retina degenerates. These alterations have been extensively described in animal models, but remodeling in humans has not been as well characterized. This study, using computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) seeks to advance our understanding of the retinal remodeling process in humans. We describe cone mediated preservation of overall topology, retinal reprogramming in the earliest stages of the disease in retinal bipolar cells, and alterations in both small molecule and protein signatures of neurons and glia. Furthermore, while Müller glia appear to be some of the last cells left in the degenerate retina, they are also one of the first cell classes in the neural retina to respond to stress which may reveal mechanisms related to remodeling and cell death in other retinal cell classes. Also fundamentally important is the finding that retinal network topologies are altered. Our results suggest interventions that presume substantial preservation of the neural retina will likely fail in late stages of the disease. Even early intervention offers no guarantee that the interventions will be immune to progressive remodeling. Fundamental work in the biology and mechanisms of disease progression are needed to support vision rescue strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  1. Synapse remodeling, compliments of the complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourgeaud, Lawrence; Boulanger, Lisa M

    2007-12-14

    A growing body of evidence indicates that some proteins known for their immune functions also have distinct nonimmune functions in the normal uninjured central nervous system. In this issue, Stevens et al. (2007) demonstrate an unexpected requirement for molecules of the complement cascade in the remodeling of synaptic connections in the developing visual system.

  2. Structure of the FMNL3 FH2/actin complex provides insight into formin-mediated actin nucleation and elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Morgan E.; Heimsath, Ernest G.; Gauvin, Timothy J.; Higgs, Henry N.; Kull, F. Jon

    2012-01-01

    Summary Formins are actin assembly factors that act in a variety of actin-based processes. The conserved formin homology 2 (FH2) domain promotes filament nucleation and influences elongation via interaction with the barbed end. FMNL3 is a formin that induces assembly of filopodia but whose FH2 domain is a poor nucleator. The 3.4 Å structure of an FMNL3 FH2 dimer in complex with tetramethylrhodamine-actin uncovers details of formin-regulated actin elongation. We observe distinct FH2-actin binding regions; interactions in the knob and coiled-coil subdomains are necessary for actin binding while those in the lasso/post interface are important for the stepping mechanism. Biochemical and cellular experiments test the importance of individual residues for function. This structure provides details for FH2 mediated filament elongation via processive capping and supports a model in which C-terminal non-FH2 residues of FMNL3 are required to stabilize the filament nucleus. PMID:23222643

  3. [Effect of sesamin on pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-wei; Gao, Yun-xing; Li, Shu; Yang, Jie-ren

    2015-04-01

    To observe the effect of sesamin (Ses) on pulmonary vascular remodeling in rats with monocrotaline ( MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH). Totally 48 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed adaptively for one week and then divided into the normal control group, the MCT group, the MCT +Ses (50 mg x kg(-1)) group and the MCT + Ses (100 mg x kg(-1)) group, with 12 rats in each group. The PH rat model was induced through the subcutaneous injection with MCT(60 mg x kg(-1)). After the administration for four weeks, efforts were made to measure the right ventricular systolic pressure( RVSP) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) through right jugular vein catheterization, and isolate right ventricle( RV) and left ventricle( LV) +septum (S) and measure their length to calculate RV/ ( LV + S) and ratio of RV to tibial length. Pathologic changes in arterioles were observed by HE staining. Masson's trichrome stain was used to demonstrate changes in collagen deposition of arterioles. The alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression in pulmonary arteries was measured by immunohistochemisty. The total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in pulmonary arteries were determined by the colorimetric method. The protein expressions of collagen I, NOX2 and NOX4 were analyzed by Real-time PCR and Western blot. After the administration for 4 weeks, Ses could attenuate RVSP and mPAP induced by MCT, RV/ (LV + S) and ratio of RV to Tibial length, alpha-SMA and collagen I expressions and remodeling of pulmonary vessels and right ventricle. Meanwhile, Ses could obviously inhibit the expressions of NOX2, NOX4 and MDA content and increase T-AOC. Sesamin could ameliorate pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by monocrotaline in PH rats. Its mechanism may be related to expressions of NOX2 and NOX4 expression and reduction in oxidative stress injury.

  4. Bronchial Smooth Muscle Remodeling in Nonsevere Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Allard, Benoit; Thumerel, Matthieu; Begueret, Hugues; Dupin, Isabelle; Ousova, Olga; Lassalle, Régis; Maurat, Elise; Ozier, Annaig; Trian, Thomas; Marthan, Roger; Berger, Patrick

    2016-03-15

    Increased bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) mass is a key feature of airway remodeling that classically distinguishes severe from nonsevere asthma. Proliferation of BSM cells involves a specific mitochondria-dependent pathway in individuals with severe asthma. However, BSM remodeling and mitochondrial biogenesis have not been examined in nonsevere asthma. We aimed to assess whether an increase in BSM mass was also implicated in nonsevere asthma and its relationship with mitochondria and clinical outcomes. We enrolled 34 never-smoker subjects with nonsevere asthma. In addition, we recruited 56 subjects with nonsevere asthma and 19 subjects with severe asthma as comparative groups (COBRA cohort [Cohorte Obstruction Bronchique et Asthme; Bronchial Obstruction and Asthma Cohort; sponsored by the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research, INSERM]). A phenotypic characterization was performed using questionnaires, atopy and pulmonary function testing, exhaled nitric oxide measurement, and blood collection. Bronchial biopsy specimens were processed for immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy analysis. After BSM remodeling assessment, subjects were monitored over a 12-month period. We identified characteristic features of remodeling (BSM area >26.6%) and increased mitochondrial number within BSM in a subgroup of subjects with nonsevere asthma. The number of BSM mitochondria was positively correlated with BSM area (r = 0.78; P asthma with high BSM had worse asthma control and a higher rate of exacerbations per year compared with subjects with low BSM. This study reveals that BSM remodeling and mitochondrial biogenesis may play a critical role in the natural history of nonsevere asthma (Mitasthme study). Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00808730).

  5. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guichuan; Mohamalawari, Deepti R.; Blancaflor, Elison B.

    2003-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been proposed to be a major player in plant gravitropism. However, understanding the role of actin in this process is far from complete. To address this problem, we conducted an analysis of the effect of Latrunculin B (Lat B), a potent actin-disrupting drug, on root gravitropism using various parameters that included detailed curvature kinetics, estimation of gravitropic sensitivity, and monitoring of curvature development after extended clinorotation. Lat B treatment resulted in a promotion of root curvature after a 90 degrees reorientation in three plant species tested. More significantly, the sensitivity of maize (Zea mays) roots to gravity was enhanced after actin disruption, as determined from a comparison of presentation time of Lat B-treated versus untreated roots. A short 10-min gravistimulus followed by extended rotation on a 1-rpm clinostat resulted in extensive gravitropic responses, manifested as curvature that often exceeded 90 degrees. Application of Lat B to the cap or elongation zone of maize roots resulted in the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, which was confined to the area of localized Lat B application. Only roots with Lat B applied to the cap displayed the strong curvature responses after extended clinorotation. Our study demonstrates that disrupting the actin cytoskeleton in the cap leads to the persistence of a signal established by a previous gravistimulus. Therefore, actin could function in root gravitropism by providing a mechanism to regulate the proliferation of a gravitropic signal originating from the cap to allow the root to attain its correct orientation or set point angle.

  6. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

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    Ben-Dov, Nadav [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  7. Mechanics of Biomimetic Liposomes Encapsulating an Actin Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevorkian, Karine; Manzi, John; Pontani, Léa-Lætitia; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Cell-shape changes are insured by a thin, dynamic, cortical layer of cytoskeleton underneath the plasma membrane. How this thin cortical structure impacts the mechanical properties of the whole cell is not fully understood. Here, we study the mechanics of liposomes or giant unilamellar vesicles, when a biomimetic actin cortex is grown at the inner layer of the lipid membrane via actin-nucleation-promoting factors. Using a hydrodynamic tube-pulling technique, we show that tube dynamics is clearly affected by the presence of an actin shell anchored to the lipid bilayer. The same force pulls much shorter tubes in the presence of the actin shell compared to bare membranes. However, in both cases, we observe that the dynamics of tube extrusion has two distinct features characteristic of viscoelastic materials: rapid elastic elongation, followed by a slower elongation phase at a constant rate. We interpret the initial elastic regime by an increase of membrane tension due to the loss of lipids into the tube. Tube length is considerably shorter for cortex liposomes at comparable pulling forces, resulting in a higher spring constant. The presence of the actin shell seems to restrict lipid mobility, as is observed in the corral effect in cells. The viscous regime for bare liposomes corresponds to a leakout of the internal liquid at constant membrane tension. The presence of the actin shell leads to a larger friction coefficient. As the tube is pulled from a patchy surface, membrane tension increases locally, leading to a Marangoni flow of lipids. As a conclusion, the presence of an actin shell is revealed by its action that alters membrane mechanics. PMID:26682806

  8. Participation of actin on Giardia lamblia growth and encystation.

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    Araceli Castillo-Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microfilaments play a determinant role in different cell processes such as: motility, cell division, phagocytosis and intracellular transport; however, these structures are poorly understood in the parasite Giardia lamblia. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By confocal microscopy using TRITC-phalloidin, we found structured actin distributed in the entire trophozoite, the label stand out at the ventral disc, median body, flagella and around the nuclei. During Giardia encystation, a sequence of morphological changes concurrent to modifications on the distribution of structured actin and in the expression of actin mRNA were observed. To elucidate whether actin participates actively on growth and encystation, cells were treated with Cytochalasin D, Latrunculin A and Jasplakinolide and analyzed by confocal and scanning electron microscopy. All drugs caused a growth reduction (27 to 45% and changes on the distribution of actin. Besides, 60 to 80% of trophozoites treated with the drugs, exhibited damage at the caudal region, alterations in the flagella and wrinkles-like on the plasma membrane. The drugs also altered the cyst-yield and the morphology, scanning electron microscopy revealed diminished cytokinesis, cysts with damages in the wall and alterations in the size and on the intermembranal space. Furthermore, the drugs caused a significant reduction of the intensity of fluorescence-labeled CWP1 on ESV and on cyst wall, this was coincident with a reduction of CWP1 gene expression (34%. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: All our results, indicated an important role of actin in the morphology, growth and encystation and indirectly suggested an actin role in gene expression.

  9. Effect of human adipose derived stem cells on scar formation and remodeling in a pig model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, In Sik; Jeon, Yeo Reum; Lee, Won Jai; Lee, Jae Wook; Rah, Dong Kyun; Tark, Kwan Chul; Lew, Dae Hyun

    2012-10-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have positive effects in the wound healing process. To clarify whether ASCs positively mitigate scar formation in the wound remodeling process. Full-thickness skin defects were created on the dorsal skin of Yorkshire pigs. After the defects were transformed into early scars, ASCs were injected, and the same amount of phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was injected in the control group. Clinical and histologic examinations were performed. In the experimental group, the areas of scars were smaller than those of control groups. The color of scars was more similar to that of the surrounding normal tissue, and scar pliability was better. The number of mast cells decreased, and more-mature collagen arrangement was noted. In the early period of scar remodeling, the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)3 and matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) was greater in the experimental group than in control group. In the late period, the level of alpha smooth muscle actin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were dramatically less, although the level of MMP1 was lower in the experimental group than in control group. Local injection of ASCs decreases scar size and provides better color quality and scar pliability. It decreases the activity of mast cells and inhibits the action of TGF-β against fibroblasts and positively stimulates scar remodeling through greater expression of MMP molecules. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Modulation of actin structure and function by phosphorylation of Tyr-53 and profilin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Kyuwon; Liu, Xiong; Ferron, Francois; Shu, Shi; Korn, Edward D.; Dominguez, Roberto (NIH); (UPENN-MED)

    2008-08-27

    On starvation, Dictyostelium cells aggregate to form multicellular fruiting bodies containing spores that germinate when transferred to nutrient-rich medium. This developmental cycle correlates with the extent of actin phosphorylation at Tyr-53 (pY53-actin), which is low in vegetative cells but high in viable mature spores. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures of pY53-actin and unphosphorylated actin in complexes with gelsolin segment 1 and profilin. In the structure of pY53-actin, the phosphate group on Tyr-53 makes hydrogen-bonding interactions with residues of the DNase I-binding loop (D-loop) of actin, resulting in a more stable conformation of the D-loop than in the unphosphorylated structures. A more rigidly folded D-loop may explain some of the previously described properties of pY53-actin, including its increased critical concentration for polymerization, reduced rates of nucleation and pointed end elongation, and weak affinity for DNase I. We show here that phosphorylation of Tyr-53 inhibits subtilisin cleavage of the D-loop and reduces the rate of nucleotide exchange on actin. The structure of profilin-Dictyostelium-actin is strikingly similar to previously determined structures of profilin-{beta}-actin and profilin-{alpha}-actin. By comparing this representative set of profilin-actin structures with other structures of actin, we highlight the effects of profilin on the actin conformation. In the profilin-actin complexes, subdomains 1 and 3 of actin close around profilin, producing a 4.7 deg. rotation of the two major domains of actin relative to each other. As a result, the nucleotide cleft becomes moderately more open in the profilin-actin complex, probably explaining the stimulation of nucleotide exchange on actin by profilin.

  11. Intermittent pacing therapy favorably modulates infarct remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitterdijk, André; Springeling, Tirza; Hermans, Kevin C M; Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Gorsse-Bakker, Charlotte; Mokelke, Eric; Daskalopoulos, Evangelos P; Wielopolski, Piotr A; Cleutjens, Jack P M; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs; Prinzen, Frits W; van der Giessen, Willem J; van Geuns, Robert-Jan M; Duncker, Dirk J

    2017-05-01

    Despite early revascularization, remodeling and dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain important therapeutic targets. Intermittent pacing therapy (IPT) of the LV can limit infarct size, when applied during early reperfusion. However, the effects of IPT on post-AMI LV remodeling and infarct healing are unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of IPT on global LV remodeling and infarct geometry in swine with a 3-day old AMI. For this purpose, fifteen pigs underwent 2 h ligation of the left circumflex coronary artery followed by reperfusion. An epicardial pacing lead was implanted in the peri-infarct zone. After three days, global LV remodeling and infarct geometry were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animals were stratified into MI control and IPT groups. Thirty-five days post-AMI, follow-up MRI was obtained and myofibroblast content, markers of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover and Wnt/frizzled signaling in infarct and non-infarct control tissue were studied. Results showed that IPT had no significant effect on global LV remodeling, function or infarct mass, but modulated infarct healing. In MI control pigs, infarct mass reduction was principally due to a 26.2 ± 4.4% reduction in infarct thickness (P ≤ 0.05), whereas in IPT pigs it was mainly due to a 35.7 ± 4.5% decrease in the number of infarct segments (P ≤ 0.05), with no significant change in infarct thickness. Myofibroblast content of the infarct zone was higher in IPT (10.9 ± 2.1%) compared to MI control (5.4 ± 1.6%; P ≤ 0.05). Higher myofibroblast presence did not coincide with alterations in expression of genes involved in ECM turnover or Wnt/frizzled signaling at 5 weeks follow-up. Taken together, IPT limited infarct expansion and altered infarct composition, showing that IPT influences remodeling of the infarct zone, likely by increasing regional myofibroblast content.

  12. Regulation of cell structure and function by actin-binding proteins: villin's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Seema; George, Sudeep P

    2008-06-18

    Villin is a tissue-specific actin modifying protein that is associated with actin filaments in the microvilli and terminal web of epithelial cells. It belongs to a large family of actin-binding proteins which includes actin-capping, -nucleating and/or -severing proteins such as gelsolin, severin, fragmin, adseverin/scinderin and actin crosslinking proteins such as dematin and supervillin. Studies done in epithelial cell lines and villin knock-out mice have demonstrated the function of villin in regulating actin dynamics, cell morphology, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cell migration and cell survival. In addition, the ligand-binding properties of villin (F-actin, G-actin, calcium, phospholipids and phospholipase C-gamma1) are mechanistically important for the crosstalk between signaling pathways and actin reorganization in epithelial cells.

  13. Multiple roles for the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Milberg, Oleg; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Regulated exocytosis is the main mechanism utilized by specialized secretory cells to deliver molecules to the cell surface by virtue of membranous containers (i.e. secretory vesicles). The process involves a series of highly coordinated and sequential steps, which include the biogenesis of the vesicles, their delivery to the cell periphery, their fusion with the plasma membrane and the release of their content into the extracellular space. Each of these steps is regulated by the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the involvement of actin and its associated molecules during each of the exocytic steps in vertebrates, and suggest that the overall role of the actin cytoskeleton during regulated exocytosis is linked to the architecture and the physiology of the secretory cells under examination. Specifically, in neurons, neuroendocrine, endocrine, and hematopoietic cells, which contain small secretory vesicles that undergo rapid exocytosis (on the order of milliseconds), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in pre-fusion events, where it acts primarily as a functional barrier and facilitates docking. In exocrine and other secretory cells, which contain large secretory vesicles that undergo slow exocytosis (seconds to minutes), the actin cytoskeleton plays a role in post-fusion events, where it regulates the dynamics of the fusion pore, facilitates the integration of the vesicles into the plasma membrane, provides structural support, and promotes the expulsion of large cargo molecules. PMID:22986507

  14. Control of nuclear organization by F-actin binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Karin; Jayo, Asier; Parsons, Maddy

    2017-03-04

    The regulation of nuclear shape and deformability is a key factor in controlling diverse events from embryonic development to cancer cell metastasis, but the mechanisms governing this process are still unclear. Our recent study demonstrated an unexpected role for the F-actin bundling protein fascin in controlling nuclear plasticity through a direct interaction with Nesprin-2. Nesprin-2 is a component of the LINC complex that is known to couple the F-actin cytoskeleton to the nuclear envelope. We demonstrated that fascin, which is predominantly associated with peripheral F-actin rich filopodia, binds directly to Nesprin-2 at the nuclear envelope in a range of cell types. Depleting fascin or specifically blocking the fascin-Nesprin-2 complex leads to defects in nuclear polarization, movement and cell invasion. These studies reveal a novel role for an F-actin bundling protein in control of nuclear plasticity and underline the importance of defining nuclear-associated roles for F-actin binding proteins in future.

  15. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Calvo, María; Benoist, Marion; Esteban, José Antonio; Morales, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  16. Hippocampal Dendritic Spines Are Segregated Depending on Their Actin Polymerization

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    Nuria Domínguez-Iturza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are mushroom-shaped protrusions of the postsynaptic membrane. Spines receive the majority of glutamatergic synaptic inputs. Their morphology, dynamics, and density have been related to synaptic plasticity and learning. The main determinant of spine shape is filamentous actin. Using FRAP, we have reexamined the actin dynamics of individual spines from pyramidal hippocampal neurons, both in cultures and in hippocampal organotypic slices. Our results indicate that, in cultures, the actin mobile fraction is independently regulated at the individual spine level, and mobile fraction values do not correlate with either age or distance from the soma. The most significant factor regulating actin mobile fraction was the presence of astrocytes in the culture substrate. Spines from neurons growing in the virtual absence of astrocytes have a more stable actin cytoskeleton, while spines from neurons growing in close contact with astrocytes show a more dynamic cytoskeleton. According to their recovery time, spines were distributed into two populations with slower and faster recovery times, while spines from slice cultures were grouped into one population. Finally, employing fast lineal acquisition protocols, we confirmed the existence of loci with high polymerization rates within the spine.

  17. Actin Genes in the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis Capitata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymer, D. S.; Anleitner, J. E.; He, M.; Thanaphum, S.; Saul, S. H.; Ivy, J.; Houtchens, K.; Arcangeli, L.

    1990-01-01

    We have undertaken the study of actin gene organization and expression in the genome of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata. Actin genes have been extensively characterized previously in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, and they have valuable properties for comparative studies. These genes are typically highly conserved in coding regions, represented in multiple copies per genome and regulated in expression during development. We have isolated a gene in the medfly using the cloned Drosophila melanogaster 5C actin gene as a probe. This medfly gene detects abundant messages present during late larval and late pupal development as well as in thoracic and leg tissue preparations from newly emerged adults. This pattern of expression is consistent with what has been seen for actin genes in other organisms. Using either the D. melanogaster 5C actin gene or the medfly gene as a probe identifies five common cross reacting Eco RI fragments in genomic DNA, but only under less than fully stringent hybridization conditions. PMID:1692797

  18. Antenna Mechanism of Length Control of Actin Cables.

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    Lishibanya Mohapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Actin cables are linear cytoskeletal structures that serve as tracks for myosin-based intracellular transport of vesicles and organelles in both yeast and mammalian cells. In a yeast cell undergoing budding, cables are in constant dynamic turnover yet some cables grow from the bud neck toward the back of the mother cell until their length roughly equals the diameter of the mother cell. This raises the question: how is the length of these cables controlled? Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for cable length control inspired by recent experimental observations in cells. This "antenna mechanism" involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. We compute the probability distribution of cable lengths as a function of several experimentally tuneable parameters such as the formin-binding affinity of Smy1 and the concentration of myosin motors delivering Smy1. These results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control.

  19. Localization of actin in pollen tubes of Ornithogalum virens L.

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    Małgorzata Stępka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The germinating pollen grain (in vivo on the stigma or in vitro in germination medium forms a pollen tube which transports the vegetative nucleus and generative cell/two sperm cells participating in the process of double fertilization. The growth of the tube and the transport of organelles and the cells occur due to two major motor systems existing in the pollen tubes of higher plants: the tubuline-dynein/kinesin and the actin-myosin system. In pollen tubes of Ornithogalum virens the actin filaments were labelled with TRITC-phalloidin (2 µg/ml in the PIPES buffer and the 10% sucrose, without the fixative and DMSO. Omission of the fixative and permeabilizing agent (DMSO allowed better preservation of the structure, and the "fluorescence" of actin was observed in living pollen tubes. Observations in CLSM (confocal laser scanning microscope showed that actin is distributed in the vicinity of the cell membrane. This could support the view that actin filaments and the plasmalemma form the pollen tube cortex along which the cytoplasmic movement of organelles, and cell transport occurs.

  20. Turnover of branched actin filament networks by stochastic fragmentation with ADF/cofilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Anne-Cécile; Suarez, Cristian; Guérin, Christophe; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Staiger, Christopher J; Blanchoin, Laurent; Boujemaa-Paterski, Rajaa

    2011-07-15

    Cell motility depends on the rapid assembly, aging, severing, and disassembly of actin filaments in spatially distinct zones. How a set of actin regulatory proteins that sustains actin-based force generation during motility work together in space and time remains poorly understood. We present our study of the distribution and dynamics of Arp2/3 complex, capping protein (CP), and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin in actin "comet tails," using a minimal reconstituted system with nucleation-promoting factor (NPF)-coated beads. The Arp2/3 complex concentrates at nucleation sites near the beads as well as in the first actin shell. CP colocalizes with actin and is homogeneously distributed throughout the comet tail; it serves to constrain the spatial distribution of ATP/ADP-P(i) filament zones to areas near the bead. The association of ADF/cofilin with the actin network is therefore governed by kinetics of actin assembly, actin nucleotide state, and CP binding. A kinetic simulation accurately validates these observations. Following its binding to the actin networks, ADF/cofilin is able to break up the dense actin filament array of a comet tail. Stochastic severing by ADF/cofilin loosens the tight entanglement of actin filaments inside the comet tail and facilitates turnover through the macroscopic release of large portions of the aged actin network.

  1. Actin turnover is required for myosin-dependent mitochondrial movements in Arabidopsis root hairs.

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    Maozhong Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that plant mitochondrial movements are myosin-based along actin filaments, which undergo continuous turnover by the exchange of actin subunits from existing filaments. Although earlier studies revealed that actin filament dynamics are essential for many functions of the actin cytoskeleton, there are little data connecting actin dynamics and mitochondrial movements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We addressed the role of actin filament dynamics in the control of mitochondrial movements by treating cells with various pharmaceuticals that affect actin filament assembly and disassembly. Confocal microscopy of Arabidopsis thaliana root hairs expressing GFP-FABD2 as an actin filament reporter showed that mitochondrial distribution was in agreement with the arrangement of actin filaments in root hairs at different developmental stages. Analyses of mitochondrial trajectories and instantaneous velocities immediately following pharmacological perturbation of the cytoskeleton using variable-angle evanescent wave microscopy and/or spinning disk confocal microscopy revealed that mitochondrial velocities were regulated by myosin activity and actin filament dynamics. Furthermore, simultaneous visualization of mitochondria and actin filaments suggested that mitochondrial positioning might involve depolymerization of actin filaments on the surface of mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Base on these results we propose a mechanism for the regulation of mitochondrial speed of movements, positioning, and direction of movements that combines the coordinated activity of myosin and the rate of actin turnover, together with microtubule dynamics, which directs the positioning of actin polymerization events.

  2. [Remodeling of Cardiovascular System: Causes and Consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, E V; Kipenko, A V; Penniyaynen, V A; Pasatetckaia, N A; Tsyrline, V A

    2016-01-01

    Literature and our data suggest the regulatory action of a number of biologically active substances (catecholamines, cardiac glycosides, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor) on the growth and proliferation of heart cells. By using of organotypic tissue culture has proved that the basis of this regulation is the ability of test substances, receptor- or transducer-mediated signaling to modulate the function of Na⁺, K⁺-ATPase. There is a delay in the development of vascular smooth muscle in the late postnatal period in rats with the blockade of the sympathetic nervous system in the prenatal period. The relationship between vascular remodeling and contractile activity is described. It seems that one of the causes of high blood pressure is a remodeling of the cardiovascular system, which precedes the development of hypertension.

  3. The buzz on fly neuronal remodeling.

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    Hewes, Randall S

    2008-11-01

    Hormone-dependent rewiring of axons and dendrites is a conserved feature of nervous system development and plasticity. During metamorphosis in insects, steroid hormones (the ecdysteroids) and terpenoid hormones (the juvenile hormones) regulate extensive remodeling of the nervous system. These changes retool the nervous system for new behavioral and physiological functions that are required for the adult stage of the life cycle. In honey bees and other highly social insects, hormones also regulate behavioral changes and neuronal plasticity associated with transitions between social caste roles. This review focuses on recent work in fruit flies and honey bees that reveals hormonal and molecular mechanisms underlying metamorphic and caste-dependent neuronal remodeling, with specific emphasis on the role of Krüppel homolog 1.

  4. Remodeling of Calcium Entry Pathways in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Carlos; Sobradillo, Diego; Hernández-Morales, Miriam; Núñez, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+) entry pathways play important roles in control of many cellular functions, including long-term proliferation, migration and cell death. In recent years, it is becoming increasingly clear that, in some types of tumors, remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways could contribute to cancer hallmarks such as excessive proliferation, cell migration and invasion as well as resistance to cell death or survival. In this chapter we briefly review findings related to remodeling of Ca(2+) entry pathways in cancer with emphasis on the mechanisms that contribute to increased store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and store-operated currents (SOCs) in colorectal cancer cells. Finally, since SOCE appears critically involved in colon tumorogenesis, the inhibition of SOCE by aspirin and other NSAIDs and its possible contribution to colon cancer chemoprevention is reviewed.

  5. Spiral actin-polymerization waves can generate amoeboidal cell crawling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, A.; Aranson, I. S.; Kruse, K.

    2014-05-09

    Amoeboidal cell crawling on solid substrates is characterized by protrusions that seemingly appear randomly along the cell periphery and drive the cell forward. For many cell types, it is known that the protrusions result from polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, little is known about how the formation of protrusions is triggered and whether the appearance of subsequent protrusions is coordinated. Recently, the spontaneous formation of actin-polymerization waves was observed. These waves have been proposed to orchestrate the cytoskeletal dynamics during cell crawling. Here, we study the impact of cytoskeletal polymerization waves on cell migration using a phase-field approach. In addition to directionally moving cells, we find states reminiscent of amoeboidal cell crawling. In this framework, new protrusions are seen to emerge from a nucleation process, generating spiral actin waves in the cell interior. Nucleation of new spirals does not require noise, but occurs in a state that is apparently displaying spatio-temporal chaos.

  6. New waves in dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton: From branches and bundles to rings, from actin binding proteins to post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertling, Enni; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2017-10-01

    Dendritic spines are small actin-rich protrusions from neuronal dendrites that form the postsynaptic part of most excitatory synapses. Changes in the number or strength of synapses are physiological mechanisms behind learning. The growth and maturation of dendritic spines and the activity-induced changes to their morphology are all based on changes to the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, we will discuss the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spine formation and maturation, as well as in synaptic strengthening. Concerning spine formation, we will focus on spine initiation, which has received less attention in the literature. We will also examine the recently revealed regulation of the actin cytoskeleton through post-translational modifications of actin monomers, in addition to the conventional regulation of actin via actin-binding proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of Petri Nets in Bone Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxi Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding a mechanism of bone remodeling is a challenging task for both life scientists and model builders, since this highly interactive and nonlinear process can seldom be grasped by simple intuition. A set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs have been built for simulating bone formation as well as bone resorption. Although solving ODEs numerically can provide useful predictions for dynamical behaviors in a continuous time frame, an actual bone remodeling process in living tissues is driven by discrete events of molecular and cellular interactions. Thus, an event-driven tool such as Petri nets (PNs, which may dynamically and graphically mimic individual molecular collisions or cellular interactions, seems to augment the existing ODE-based systems analysis. Here, we applied PNs to expand the ODE-based approach and examined discrete, dynamical behaviors of key regulatory molecules and bone cells. PNs have been used in many engineering areas, but their application to biological systems needs to be explored. Our PN model was based on 8 ODEs that described an osteoprotegerin linked molecular pathway consisting of 4 types of bone cells. The models allowed us to conduct both qualitative and quantitative evaluations and evaluate homeostatic equilibrium states. The results support that application of PN models assists understanding of an event-driven bone remodeling mechanism using PN-specific procedures such as places, transitions, and firings.

  8. Bone Remodelling Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Fardellone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients results from chronic inflammation and can lead to osteoporosis and fractures. A few bone remodeling markers have been studied in RA witnessing bone formation (osteocalcin, serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP, serum carboxyterminal propeptide of type I collagen (ICTP, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, osteocalcin (OC, and bone resorption: C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-CTX, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (I-NTX, pyridinolines (DPD and PYD, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP. Bone resorption can be seen either in periarticular bone (demineralization and erosion or in the total skeleton (osteoporosis. Whatever the location, bone resorption results from activation of osteoclasts when the ratio between osteoprotegerin and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (OPG/RANKL is decreased under influence of various proinflammatory cytokines. Bone remodeling markers also allow physicians to evaluate the effect of drugs used in RA like biologic agents, which reduce inflammation and exert a protecting effect on bone. We will discuss in this review changes in bone markers remodeling in patients with RA treated with biologics.

  9. Microtubule and Actin Interplay Drive Intracellular c-Src Trafficking.

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    Christopher Arnette

    Full Text Available The proto-oncogene c-Src is involved in a variety of signaling processes. Therefore, c-Src spatiotemporal localization is critical for interaction with downstream targets. However, the mechanisms regulating this localization have remained elusive. Previous studies have shown that c-Src trafficking is a microtubule-dependent process that facilitates c-Src turnover in neuronal growth cones. As such, microtubule depolymerization lead to the inhibition of c-Src recycling. Alternatively, c-Src trafficking was also shown to be regulated by RhoB-dependent actin polymerization. Our results show that c-Src vesicles primarily exhibit microtubule-dependent trafficking; however, microtubule depolymerization does not inhibit vesicle movement. Instead, vesicular movement becomes both faster and less directional. This movement was associated with actin polymerization directly at c-Src vesicle membranes. Interestingly, it has been shown previously that c-Src delivery is an actin polymerization-dependent process that relies on small GTPase RhoB at c-Src vesicles. In agreement with this finding, microtubule depolymerization induced significant activation of RhoB, together with actin comet tail formation. These effects occurred downstream of GTP-exchange factor, GEF-H1, which was released from depolymerizing MTs. Accordingly, GEF-H1 activity was necessary for actin comet tail formation at the Src vesicles. Our results indicate that regulation of c-Src trafficking requires both microtubules and actin polymerization, and that GEF-H1 coordinates c-Src trafficking, acting as a molecular switch between these two mechanisms.

  10. Identification of Actin-Binding Proteins from Maize Pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, C.J.

    2004-01-13

    Specific Aims--The goal of this project was to gain an understanding of how actin filament organization and dynamics are controlled in flowering plants. Specifically, we proposed to identify unique proteins with novel functions by investigating biochemical strategies for the isolation and characterization of actin-binding proteins (ABPs). In particular, our hunt was designed to identify capping proteins and nucleation factors. The specific aims included: (1) to use F-actin affinity chromatography (FAAC) as a general strategy to isolate pollen ABPs (2) to produce polyclonal antisera and perform subcellular localization in pollen tubes (3) to isolate cDNA clones for the most promising ABPs (4) to further purify and characterize ABP interactions with actin in vitro. Summary of Progress By employing affinity chromatography on F-actin or DNase I columns, we have identified at least two novel ABPs from pollen, PrABP80 (gelsolin-like) and ZmABP30, We have also cloned and expressed recombinant protein, as well as generated polyclonal antisera, for 6 interesting ABPs from Arabidopsis (fimbrin AtFIM1, capping protein a/b (AtCP), adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (AtCAP), AtCapG & AtVLN1). We performed quantitative analyses of the biochemical properties for two of these previously uncharacterized ABPs (fimbrin and capping protein). Our studies provide the first evidence for fimbrin activity in plants, demonstrate the existence of barbed-end capping factors and a gelsolin-like severing activity, and provide the quantitative data necessary to establish and test models of F-actin organization and dynamics in plant cells.

  11. Adiponectin attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell remodeling through nitric oxide and the RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wared eNour-Eldine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adiponectin (APN, an adipocytokine, exerts protective effects on cardiac remodeling, while angiotensin II (Ang II induces hypertension and vascular remodeling. The potential protective role of APN on the vasculature during hypertension has not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we evaluate the molecular mechanisms of the protective role of APN in the physiological response of the vascular wall to Ang II.METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat aortic tissues were used to investigate the effect of APN on Ang II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertrophy. We investigated whether nitric oxide (NO, the RhoA/ROCK pathway, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and reactive oxygen species (ROS mediate the anti-hypertrophic effect of APN. Ang II-induced protein synthesis was attenuated by pre-treatment with APN, NO donor (SNAP, or cGMP. The hypertrophic response to Ang II was associated with a significant increase in RhoA activation and vascular force production, which were prevented by APN and SNAP. NO was also associated with inhibition of Ang II-induced phosphorylation of cofilin. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that 24 hr Ang II treatment increased the F- to G-actin ratio, an effect that was inhibited by SNAP. Ang II-induced ROS formation and upregulation of p22phox mRNA expression were inhibited by APN and NO. Both compounds failed to inhibit Nox1 and p47phox expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the anti-hypertrophic effects of APN are due, in part, to NO-dependent inhibition of the RhoA/ROCK pathway and ROS formation.

  12. The Association of Myosin IB with Actin Waves in Dictyostelium Requires Both the Plasma Membrane-Binding Site and Actin-Binding Region in the Myosin Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeska, Hanna; Pridham, Kevin; Chery, Godefroy; Titus, Margaret A.; Korn, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    F-actin structures and their distribution are important determinants of the dynamic shapes and functions of eukaryotic cells. Actin waves are F-actin formations that move along the ventral cell membrane driven by actin polymerization. Dictyostelium myosin IB is associated with actin waves but its role in the wave is unknown. Myosin IB is a monomeric, non-filamentous myosin with a globular head that binds to F-actin and has motor activity, and a non-helical tail comprising a basic region, a glycine-proline-glutamine-rich region and an SH3-domain. The basic region binds to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane through a short basic-hydrophobic site and the Gly-Pro-Gln region binds F-actin. In the current work we found that both the basic-hydrophobic site in the basic region and the Gly-Pro-Gln region of the tail are required for the association of myosin IB with actin waves. This is the first evidence that the Gly-Pro-Gln region is required for localization of myosin IB to a specific actin structure in situ. The head is not required for myosin IB association with actin waves but binding of the head to F-actin strengthens the association of myosin IB with waves and stabilizes waves. Neither the SH3-domain nor motor activity is required for association of myosin IB with actin waves. We conclude that myosin IB contributes to anchoring actin waves to the plasma membranes by binding of the basic-hydrophobic site to acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane and binding of the Gly-Pro-Gln region to F-actin in the wave. PMID:24747353

  13. Lung tissue remodelling in MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension: a proposal for a novel scoring system and changes in extracellular matrix and fibrosis associated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Grün, Katja; Betge, Stefan; Rohm, Ilonka; Ndongson-Dongmo, Bernadin; Bauer, Reinhard; Schulze, P. Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Petersen, Iver; Neri, Dario; Berndt, Alexander; Jung, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with vasoconstriction and remodelling. We studied lung tissue remodelling in a rat model of PH with special focus on histology and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. After induction of PH by monocrotaline, lung tissue was analysed histologically, by gene expression analysis and immunofluorescence labelling of ED-A domain containing fibronectin (ED-A+ Fn), B domain containing tenascin-C (B+ Tn-C) as well as alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Serum concentrations of ED-A+ Fn were determined by ELISA. Systolic right ventricular pressure (RVPsys) values were significantly elevated in PH (n = 18; 75 ± 26.4 mmHg) compared to controls (n = 10; 29 ± 19.3 mmHg; p = 0.015). The histological sum-score was significantly increased in PH (8.0 ± 2.2) compared to controls (2.5 ± 1.6; p < 0.001). Gene expression analysis revealed relevant induction of several key genes of extracellular matrix remodelling. Increased protein deposition of ED-A+ Fn but not of B+ Tn-C and α-SMA in lung tissue was found in PH (2.88 ± 3.19 area%) compared to controls (1.32 ± 0.16 area%; p = 0.030). Serum levels of ED-A+ Fn were significantly higher in PH (p = 0.007) positively correlating with RVPsys (r = 0.618, p = 0.019). We here present a novel histological scoring system to assess lung tissue remodelling in PH. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of candidate genes involved in collagen matrix turnover, fibrosis and vascular remodelling. The stable increased tissue deposition of ED-A+ Fn in PH as well as its dynamics in serum suggests a role as a promising novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:27835899

  14. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  15. Oral nicotinamide and actinic keratosis: a supplement success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Burcu; Halliday, Gary M; Damian, Diona L

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide has shown potential as a safe and effective intervention for the prevention of malignant and premalignant skin lesions. Recent studies have shown that nicotinamide, in both oral and topical forms, is able to prevent ultraviolet-induced immunosuppression in humans [1,2,3] and mice [4,5]. Immunosuppression is a known factor for the progression of premalignant lesions, such as actinic keratosis [6]. Murine studies have shown that nicotinamide is also able to protect against photocarcinogenesis [4,5]. Preliminary human studies suggest that nicotinamide may help prevent skin cancers and enhance the regression of actinic keratoses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Actin in Mung Bean Mitochondria and Implications for Its Function[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Cheng, Ning; Hsiao, Lin-June; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Dai, Hwa; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Here, a large fraction of plant mitochondrial actin was found to be resistant to protease and high-salt treatments, suggesting it was protected by mitochondrial membranes. A portion of this actin became sensitive to protease or high-salt treatment after removal of the mitochondrial outer membrane, indicating that some actin is located inside the mitochondrial outer membrane. The import of an actin–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein into the mitochondria in a transgenic plant, actin:GFP, was visualized in living cells and demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Polymerized actin was found in mitochondria of actin:GFP plants and in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Notably, actin associated with mitochondria purified from early-developing cotyledons during seed germination was sensitive to high-salt and protease treatments. With cotyledon ageing, mitochondrial actin became more resistant to both treatments. The progressive import of actin into cotyledon mitochondria appeared to occur in concert with the conversion of quiescent mitochondria into active forms during seed germination. The binding of actin to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was demonstrated by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Porin and ADP/ATP carrier proteins were also found in mtDNA-protein complexes. Treatment with an actin depolymerization reagent reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the release of cytochrome C. The potential function of mitochondrial actin and a possible actin import pathway are discussed. PMID:21984697

  17. Two Functionally Distinct Sources of Actin Monomers Supply the Leading Edge of Lamellipodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Vitriol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lamellipodia, the sheet-like protrusions of motile cells, consist of networks of actin filaments (F-actin regulated by the ordered assembly from and disassembly into actin monomers (G-actin. Traditionally, G-actin is thought to exist as a homogeneous pool. Here, we show that there are two functionally and molecularly distinct sources of G-actin that supply lamellipodial actin networks. G-actin originating from the cytosolic pool requires the monomer-binding protein thymosin β4 (Tβ4 for optimal leading-edge localization, is targeted to formins, and is responsible for creating an elevated G/F-actin ratio that promotes membrane protrusion. The second source of G-actin comes from recycled lamellipodia F-actin. Recycling occurs independently of Tβ4 and appears to regulate lamellipodia homeostasis. Tβ4-bound G-actin specifically localizes to the leading edge because it does not interact with Arp2/3-mediated polymerization sites found throughout the lamellipodia. These findings demonstrate that actin networks can be constructed from multiple sources of monomers with discrete spatiotemporal functions.

  18. Pattern formation in polymerising actin flocks: spirals, spots and waves without nonlinear chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goff, Thomas Le; Marenduzzo, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We propose a model solely based on actin treadmilling and polymerisation which describes many characteristic states of actin wave formation: spots, spirals and travelling waves. In our model, as in experiments on cell recovering motility following actin depolymerisation, we choose an isotropic low density initial condition; polymerisation of actin filaments then raises the density towards the Onsager threshold where they align. We show that this alignment, in turn, destabilizes the isotropic phase and generically induces transient actin spots or spirals as part of the dynamical pathway towards a polarized phase which can either be uniform or consist of a series of actin-wave trains (flocks). Our results uncover a universal route to actin wave formation in the absence of any system specific nonlinear biochemistry, and it may help understand the mechanism underlying the observation of actin spots and waves in vivo. They also suggest a minimal setup to design similar patterns in vitro.

  19. Live cell imaging reveals structural associations between the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampathkumar, A.; Lindeboom, J.J.; Debolt, S.; Gutierrez, R.; Ehrhardt, D.W.; Ketelaar, T.; Persson, S.

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletal networks are dynamic structures that organize intracellular processes and facilitate their rapid reorganization. In plant cells, actin filaments (AFs) and MTs are essential for cell growth and morphogenesis. However, dynamic

  20. Formin-mediated actin polymerization at endothelial junctions is required for vessel lumen formation and stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phng, Li-Kun; Gebala, Véronique; Bentley, Katie; Philippides, Andrew; Wacker, Andrin; Mathivet, Thomas; Sauteur, Loïc; Stanchi, Fabio; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Affolter, Markus; Gerhardt, Holger

    2015-01-12

    During blood vessel formation, endothelial cells (ECs) establish cell-cell junctions and rearrange to form multicellular tubes. Here, we show that during lumen formation, the actin nucleator and elongation factor, formin-like 3 (fmnl3), localizes to EC junctions, where filamentous actin (F-actin) cables assemble. Fluorescent actin reporters and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments in zebrafish embryos identified a pool of dynamic F-actin with high turnover at EC junctions in vessels. Knockdown of fmnl3 expression, chemical inhibition of formin function, and expression of dominant-negative fmnl3 revealed that formin activity maintains a stable F-actin content at EC junctions by continual polymerization of F-actin cables. Reduced actin polymerization leads to destabilized endothelial junctions and consequently to failure in blood vessel lumenization and lumen instability. Our findings highlight the importance of formin activity in blood vessel morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Visualization of actin polymerization in invasive structures of macrophages and carcinoma cells using photoconvertible β-actin-Dendra2 fusion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Dovas

    Full Text Available Actin polymerization controls a range of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility and invasion. Generation and elongation of free barbed ends defines the regions of actively polymerizing actin in cells and, consequently, is of importance in the understanding of the mechanisms through which actin dynamics are regulated. Herein we present a method that does not involve cell permeabilization and provides direct visualization of growing barbed ends using photoswitchable β-actin-Dendra2 constructs expressed in murine macrophage and rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. The method exploits the ability of photoconverted (red G-actin species to become incorporated into pre-existing (green actin filaments, visualized in two distinct wavelengths using TIRF microscopy. In growing actin filaments, photoconverted (red monomers are added to the barbed end while only green monomers are recycled from the pointed end. We demonstrate that incorporation of actin into intact podosomes of macrophages occurs constitutively and is amenable to inhibition by cytochalasin D indicating barbed end incorporation. Additionally, actin polymerization does not occur in quiescent invadopodial precursors of carcinoma cells suggesting that the filaments are capped and following epidermal growth factor stimulation actin incorporation occurs in a single but extended peak. Finally, we show that Dendra2 fused to either the N- or the C-terminus of β-actin profoundly affects its localization and incorporation in distinct F-actin structures in carcinoma cells, thus influencing the ability of monomers to be photoconverted. These data support the use of photoswitchable actin-Dendra2 constructs as powerful tools in the visualization of free barbed ends in living cells.

  2. Tubulobulbar complex: Cytoskeletal remodeling to release spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Rahul D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tubulobulbar complexes (TBCs are actin-based structures that help establish close contact between Sertoli–Sertoli cells or Sertoli–mature germ cells (spermatids in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. They are actin-rich push-through devices that eliminate excess spermatid cytoplasm and prepare mature spermatids for release into the tubular lumen. Just prior to spermiation, the elongated spermatid interacts with the Sertoli cell via an extensive structure comprising various adhesion molecules called the apical ectoplasmic specialization which is partially replaced by the apical TBC, on the concave surface of the spermatid head. The sperm release process involves extensive restructuring, namely the disassembly and reassembly of junctions at the Sertoli–spermatid interface in the seminiferous epithelium. Based on the presence of different classes of molecules in the TBCs or the defects observed in the absence of TBCs, the main functions attributed to TBCs are elimination of excess spermatid cytoplasm, endocytosis and recycling of junctional molecules, shaping of the spermatid acrosome, and forming transient anchoring devices for mature spermatids before they are released. This review summarizes the recent findings that focus on the role of TBCs in cell cytoskeleton restructuring during sperm release in the testes and the molecular mechanism involved.

  3. Actin and Apical Constriction: Some (Re)-Assembly Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, Andrew J; Peifer, Mark

    2015-12-21

    Linkage of the actomyosin cytoskeleton to cell-cell junctions drives cell shape change in development and homeostasis. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Jodoin et al. (2015) provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms, revealing that factors driving actin filament disassembly and thus dynamics also play key roles in apical constriction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The actin Cytoskeleton in Root Hairs: a cell elongation device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays an important role in root hair development. It is involved in both the delivery of growth materials to the expanding tip of root hairs and the regulation of the area of tip growth. This review starts with a discussion of the techniques that are available to visualize the

  5. Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis in organ transplant patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basset-Seguin, N.; Baumann Conzett, K.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Gonzalez, H.; Haedersdal, M.; Hofbauer, G.F.; Aguado, L.; Kerob, D.; Lear, J.T.; Piaserico, S.; Ulrich, C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in organ transplant recipients (OTRs) is significantly higher than in immunocompetent patients. Rates of progression and recurrence following treatment are higher too, in part due to the effects of the

  6. Onchocercal DNA amplification using beta actin gene primers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detecting any parts of the parasite stages such as antigens, enzymes and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) is a definitive diagnosis and highly sensitive. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the beta actin gene primer pair to confirm its suitability for validating presence or absence of skin microfilaria at ...

  7. Actin' on HIV: How Dendritic Cells Spread Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Daniel A; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-03-09

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture HIV particles and transmit them to CD4 T cells. In a recent article published in Cell, Ménager and Littman (2016) perform an shRNA screen in DCs and find that actin nucleation and stabilization regulate HIV uptake and maintain the virus on membrane protrusions for efficient transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Decidable and undecidable arithmetic functions in actin filament networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    The plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is very sensitive to its environment, and reacts to stimuli with appropriate motions. Both the sensory and motor stages of these reactions are explained by hydrodynamic processes, based on fluid dynamics, with the participation of actin filament networks. This paper is devoted to actin filament networks as a computational medium. The point is that actin filaments, with contributions from many other proteins like myosin, are sensitive to extracellular stimuli (attractants as well as repellents), and appear and disappear at different places in the cell to change aspects of the cell structure—e.g. its shape. By assembling and disassembling actin filaments, some unicellular organisms, like Amoeba proteus, can move in response to various stimuli. As a result, these organisms can be considered a simple reversible logic gate—extracellular signals being its inputs and motions its outputs. In this way, we can implement various logic gates on amoeboid behaviours. These networks can embody arithmetic functions within p-adic valued logic. Furthermore, within these networks we can define the so-called diagonalization for deducing undecidable arithmetic functions.

  9. Control of the actin cytoskeleton in plant cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, P.J.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Deeks, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the

  10. The integrin-actin connection, an eternal love affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Fässler, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    in the integrin-actin connection by providing a high degree of regulation adjusted to the needs of the cell. In this review we present several examples of this paradigm and with special emphasis on the ILK-PINCH-parvin complex, which amply demonstrates how structural and signalling functions are linked together....

  11. Transportation of Nanoscale Cargoes by Myosin Propelled Actin Filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A. Michael; Mansson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies.

  12. Phosphorylated filamin A regulates actin-linked caveolae dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriel, Olivia; Echarri, Asier; Hellriegel, Christian; Pavón, Dácil M; Beccari, Leonardo; Del Pozo, Miguel A

    2011-08-15

    Caveolae are relatively stable membrane invaginations that compartmentalize signaling, regulate lipid metabolism and mediate viral entry. Caveolae are closely associated with actin fibers and internalize in response to diverse stimuli. Loss of cell adhesion is known to induce rapid and robust caveolae internalization and trafficking toward a Rab11-positive recycling endosome; however, pathways governing this process are poorly understood. Here, we report that filamin A is required to maintain the F-actin-dependent linear distribution of caveolin-1. High spatiotemporal resolution particle tracking of caveolin-1-GFP vesicles by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that FLNa is required for the F-actin-dependent arrest of caveolin-1 vesicles in a confined area and their stable anchorage to the plasma membrane. The linear distribution and anchorage of caveolin-1 vesicles are both required for proper caveolin-1 inwards trafficking. De-adhesion-triggered caveolae inward trafficking towards a recycling endosome is impaired in FLNa-depleted HeLa and FLNa-deficient M2-melanoma cells. Inwards trafficking of caveolin-1 requires both the ability of FLNa to bind actin and cycling PKCα-dependent phosphorylation of FLNa on Ser2152 after cell detachment. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd

  13. Localization of actin in normal human hepatocytes using fluorescent phallotoxins and immunohistochemical amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkoel, L; Brisse, J; Capo, C; Benoliel, A M; Bongrand, P; Garcia, T; Chamlian, A

    1992-07-01

    Two different methods, fluorescent phallotoxins and immunohistochemical amplification systems were used to visualize actin in normal human hepatocytes. With fluorescent phallotoxins (NBD-phallacidin or rhodamine phalloidin), F-actin was distributed along the plasma membranes and at the bile canaliculi. With immunohistochemical methods (biotin-avidin, biotin-streptavidin, silver enhancement), actin was found at the same level, however a cytoplasmic staining was observed and discussed as G-actin localization.

  14. F-actin accumulates in the vulva of female Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C V; Gonçalves, A L R; Cruz, L; Cruz, M C; Ueta, M T; Costa-Cruz, J M

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the actin cytoskeleton architecture in female Strongyloides venezuelensis and thus to investigate the distribution and concentration of actin, female worms were labelled with phalloidin-rhodamine and visualized under confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that filamentous actin accumulates in the vulva and the concentration of F-actin at this site suggests its important role, especially during oviposition, in the life cycle of S. venezuelensis.

  15. Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca

    2003-06-11

    Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

  16. Do cardiac actin mutations lead to altered actomyosin interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahari, Marissa; Dawson, John F

    2015-08-01

    It is currently hypothesized that increased heart muscle contractility leads to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and reduced contractility leads to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). To determine if changes in the core interaction between actin and myosin occur due to mutations in the cardiac actin gene (ACTC), we measured the interactions between myosin and 8 ACTC mutant proteins found in patients with HCM or DCM. R312H showed a decreased actin-activated myosin S1 ATPase rate (13.1 ± 0.63 μmol/L/min) compared to WT (15.3 ± 1.6 μmol/L/min), whereas the rate with E99K was significantly higher (20.1 ± 1.5 μmol/L/min). In vitro motility assays with varying ATP concentrations showed that the KM for E99K remains unchanged with a significantly decreased Vmax (1.90 ± 0.37 μm/sec) compared to WT (3.33 ± 0.46 μm/sec). Based on a 5 nm myosin step size, we calculated a duty ratio of approximately 0.04 for WT and the majority of mutant actins; however, the duty ratio for E99K was twice as high. Based on our analysis of 8 ACTC mutants, we infer that mutations in ACTC lead to disease through various molecular mechanisms. While changes in actomyosin interactions with the E99K mutation might cause increased ATP usage and tension leading to HCM, measurable changes in the basic interaction between actin and myosin do not appear to be involved in the mechanisms of disease development for the other ACTC mutants tested.

  17. Analysis of actin FLAP dynamics in the leading lamella.

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    Igor R Kuznetsov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transport of labeled G-actin from the mid-lamella region to the leading edge in a highly motile malignant rat fibroblast line has been studied using fluorescence localization after photobleaching or FLAP, and the transit times recorded in these experiments were so fast that simple diffusion was deemed an insufficient explanation (see Zicha et al., Science, v. 300, pp. 142-145 [1]. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We re-examine the Zicha FLAP experiments using a two-phase reactive interpenetrating flow formalism to model the cytoplasm and the transport dynamics of bleached and unbleached actin. By allowing an improved treatment of effects related to the retrograde flow of the cytoskeleton and of the geometry and finite thickness of the lamella, this new analysis reveals a mechanism that can realistically explain the timing and the amplitude of all the FLAP signals observed in [1] without invoking special transport modalities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that simple diffusion is sufficient to explain the observed transport rates, and that variations in the transport of labeled actin through the lamella are minor and not likely to be the cause of the observed physiological variations among different segments of the leading edge. We find that such variations in labeling can easily arise from differences and changes in the microscopic actin dynamics inside the edge compartment, and that the key dynamical parameter in this regard is the so-called "dilatation rate" (the velocity of cytoskeletal retrograde flow divided by a characteristic dimension of the edge compartment where rapid polymerization occurs. If our dilatation hypothesis is correct, the transient kinetics of bleached actin relocalization constitute a novel and very sensitive method for probing the cytoskeletal dynamics in leading edge micro-environments which are otherwise very difficult to directly interrogate.

  18. Reverse actin sliding triggers strong myosin binding that moves tropomyosin

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    Bekyarova, T.I.; Reedy, M.C.; Baumann, B.A.J.; Tregear, R.T.; Ward, A.; Krzic, U.; Prince, K.M.; Perz-Edwards, R.J.; Reconditi, M.; Gore, D.; Irving, T.C.; Reedy, M.K. (IIT); (EMBL); (Scripps); (Duke); (Prince); (FSU); (MRC); (U. Florence)

    2008-09-03

    Actin/myosin interactions in vertebrate striated muscles are believed to be regulated by the 'steric blocking' mechanism whereby the binding of calcium to the troponin complex allows tropomyosin (TM) to change position on actin, acting as a molecular switch that blocks or allows myosin heads to interact with actin. Movement of TM during activation is initiated by interaction of Ca{sup 2+} with troponin, then completed by further displacement by strong binding cross-bridges. We report x-ray evidence that TM in insect flight muscle (IFM) moves in a manner consistent with the steric blocking mechanism. We find that both isometric contraction, at high [Ca{sup 2+}], and stretch activation, at lower [Ca{sup 2+}], develop similarly high x-ray intensities on the IFM fourth actin layer line because of TM movement, coinciding with x-ray signals of strong-binding cross-bridge attachment to helically favored 'actin target zones.' Vanadate (Vi), a phosphate analog that inhibits active cross-bridge cycling, abolishes all active force in IFM, allowing high [Ca{sup 2+}] to elicit initial TM movement without cross-bridge attachment or other changes from relaxed structure. However, when stretched in high [Ca{sup 2+}], Vi-'paralyzed' fibers produce force substantially above passive response at pCa {approx} 9, concurrent with full conversion from resting to active x-ray pattern, including x-ray signals of cross-bridge strong-binding and TM movement. This argues that myosin heads can be recruited as strong-binding 'brakes' by backward-sliding, calcium-activated thin filaments, and are as effective in moving TM as actively force-producing cross-bridges. Such recruitment of myosin as brakes may be the major mechanism resisting extension during lengthening contractions.

  19. Evolutionarily divergent, unstable filamentous actin is essential for gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites.

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    Skillman, Kristen M; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Khan, Asis; Tang, Keliang; Sept, David; Sibley, L David

    2011-10-01

    Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and its relationship to gliding motility remain unresolved. We demonstrate that recombinant Toxoplasma (TgACTI) and Plasmodium (PfACTI and PfACTII) actins polymerized into very short filaments in vitro but were induced to form long, stable filaments by addition of equimolar levels of phalloidin. Parasite actins contain a conserved phalloidin-binding site as determined by molecular modeling and computational docking, yet vary in several residues that are predicted to impact filament stability. In particular, two residues were identified that form intermolecular contacts between different protomers in conventional actin filaments and these residues showed non-conservative differences in apicomplexan parasites. Substitution of divergent residues found in TgACTI with those from mammalian actin resulted in formation of longer, more stable filaments in vitro. Expression of these stabilized actins in T. gondii increased sensitivity to the actin-stabilizing compound jasplakinolide and disrupted normal gliding motility in the absence of treatment. These results identify the molecular basis for short, dynamic filaments in apicomplexan parasites and demonstrate that inherent instability of parasite actin filaments is a critical adaptation for gliding motility.

  20. Evolutionarily divergent, unstable filamentous actin is essential for gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites.

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    Kristen M Skillman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and its relationship to gliding motility remain unresolved. We demonstrate that recombinant Toxoplasma (TgACTI and Plasmodium (PfACTI and PfACTII actins polymerized into very short filaments in vitro but were induced to form long, stable filaments by addition of equimolar levels of phalloidin. Parasite actins contain a conserved phalloidin-binding site as determined by molecular modeling and computational docking, yet vary in several residues that are predicted to impact filament stability. In particular, two residues were identified that form intermolecular contacts between different protomers in conventional actin filaments and these residues showed non-conservative differences in apicomplexan parasites. Substitution of divergent residues found in TgACTI with those from mammalian actin resulted in formation of longer, more stable filaments in vitro. Expression of these stabilized actins in T. gondii increased sensitivity to the actin-stabilizing compound jasplakinolide and disrupted normal gliding motility in the absence of treatment. These results identify the molecular basis for short, dynamic filaments in apicomplexan parasites and demonstrate that inherent instability of parasite actin filaments is a critical adaptation for gliding motility.

  1. Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling

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    Fraley Tamara S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRP1 is a LIM domain containing protein localized to the nucleus and the actin cytoskeleton. CRP1 has been demonstrated to bind the actin-bundling protein α-actinin and proposed to modulate the actin cytoskeleton; however, specific regulatory mechanisms have not been identified. Results CRP1 expression increased actin bundling in rat embryonic fibroblasts. Although CRP1 did not affect the bundling activity of α-actinin, CRP1 was found to stabilize the interaction of α-actinin with actin bundles and to directly bundle actin microfilaments. Using confocal and photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET microscopy, we demonstrate that there are two populations of CRP1 localized along actin stress fibers, one associated through interaction with α-actinin and one that appears to bind the actin filaments directly. Consistent with a role in regulating actin filament cross-linking, CRP1 also localized to the membrane ruffles of spreading and PDGF treated fibroblasts. Conclusion CRP1 regulates actin filament bundling by directly cross-linking actin filaments and stabilizing the interaction of α-actinin with actin filament bundles.

  2. Diversity of secondary endosymbiont-derived actin-coding genes in cryptomonads and their evolutionary implications.

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    Tanifuji, Goro; Erata, Mayumi; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Onodera, Naoko; Hara, Yoshiaki

    2006-05-01

    In the secondary endosymbiotic organisms of cryptomonads, the symbiont actin genes have been found together with the host one. To examine whether they are commonly conserved and where they are encoded, host and symbiont actin genes from Pyrenomonas helgolandii were isolated, and their specific and homologous regions were digoxigenin (DIG) labeled separately. Using these probes, Southern hybridization was performed on 13 species of cryptomonads. They were divided into three groups: (1) both host and symbiont actin gene signals were detected, (2) only the host actin gene signal was detected, and (3) host and unknown actin signals were detected. The phylogenetic analysis of these actin gene sequences indicated that the evolutionary rates of the symbiont actin genes were accelerated more than those of the hosts. The unknown actin signals were recognized as the highly diverged symbiont actin genes. One of the diverged symbiont actin sequences from Guillardia theta is presumed to be as a pseudogene or to its precursor. Southern hybridizations based on the samples divided by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that all actin genes were encoded by the host nuclei. These results possibly represent the evolutionary fate of the symbiont actin gene in cryptomonads, which was firstly transferred from the symbiont nucleus or nucleomorph, to the host nucleus and became a pseudogene and then finally disappeared there.

  3. Internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 studied by quasielastic neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuhito [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arata, Toshiaki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Oda, Toshiro [Graduate School of Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Nakajima, Kenji; Ohira-Kawamura, Seiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya [Neutron Science Section, J-PARC Center, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Fujiwara, Satoru, E-mail: fujiwara.satoru@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2015-04-10

    Various biological functions related to cell motility are driven by the interaction between the partner proteins, actin and myosin. To obtain insights into how this interaction occurs, the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin subfragment-1 (S1) were characterized by the quasielastic neutron scattering measurements on the solution samples of F-actin and S1. Contributions of the internal motions of the proteins to the scattering spectra were separated from those of the global macromolecular diffusion. Analysis of the spectra arising from the internal dynamics showed that the correlation times of the atomic motions were about two times shorter for F-actin than for S1, suggesting that F-actin fluctuates more rapidly than S1. It was also shown that the fraction of the immobile atoms is larger for S1 than for F-actin. These results suggest that F-actin actively facilitates the binding of myosin by utilizing the more frequent conformational fluctuations than those of S1. - Highlights: • We studied the internal dynamics of F-actin and myosin S1 by neutron scattering. • The correlation times of the atomic motions were smaller for F-actin than for S1. • The fraction of the immobile atoms was also smaller for F-actin than for S1. • Our results suggest that mobility of atoms in F-actin is higher than that in S1. • We propose that high flexibility of F-actin facilitates the binding of myosin.

  4. Role of arginase in vessel wall remodeling

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    William eDurante

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and L-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide synthesis by competing with nitric oxide synthase for substrate, L-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease.

  5. Pregnancy-induced remodeling of heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierlot, Caitlin M; Moeller, Andrew D; Lee, J Michael; Wells, Sarah M

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated remodeling of aortic and mitral valves leaflets under the volume loading and cardiac expansion of pregnancy. Those valves' leaflets enlarge with altered collagen fiber architecture, content, and cross-linking and biphasic changes (decreases, then increases) in extensibility during gestation. This study extends our analyses to right-sided valves, with additional compositional measurements for all valves. Valve leaflets were harvested from nonpregnant heifers and pregnant cows. Leaflet structure was characterized by leaflet dimensions, and ECM composition was determined using standard biochemical assays. Histological studies assessed changes in cellular and ECM components. Leaflet mechanical properties were assessed using equibiaxial mechanical testing. Collagen thermal stability and cross-linking were assessed using denaturation and hydrothermal isometric tension tests. Pulmonary and tricuspid leaflet areas increased during pregnancy by 35 and 55%, respectively. Leaflet thickness increased by 20% only in the pulmonary valve and largely in the fibrosa (30% thickening). Collagen crimp length was reduced in both the tricuspid (61%) and pulmonary (42%) valves, with loss of crimped area in the pulmonary valve. Thermomechanics showed decreased collagen thermal stability with surprisingly maintained cross-link maturity. The pulmonary leaflet exhibited the biphasic change in extensibility seen in left side valves, whereas the tricuspid leaflet mechanics remained largely unchanged throughout pregnancy. The tricuspid valve exhibits a remodeling response during pregnancy that is significantly diminished from the other three valves. All valves of the heart remodel in pregnancy in a manner distinct from cardiac pathology, with much similarity valve to valve, but with interesting valve-specific responses in the aortic and tricuspid valves. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. A new Python library to analyse skeleton images confirms malaria parasite remodelling of the red blood cell membrane skeleton

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    Juan Nunez-Iglesias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present Skan (Skeleton analysis, a Python library for the analysis of the skeleton structures of objects. It was inspired by the “analyse skeletons” plugin for the Fiji image analysis software, but its extensive Application Programming Interface (API allows users to examine and manipulate any intermediate data structures produced during the analysis. Further, its use of common Python data structures such as SciPy sparse matrices and pandas data frames opens the results to analysis within the extensive ecosystem of scientific libraries available in Python. We demonstrate the validity of Skan’s measurements by comparing its output to the established Analyze Skeletons Fiji plugin, and, with a new scanning electron microscopy (SEM-based method, we confirm that the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum remodels the host red blood cell cytoskeleton, increasing the average distance between spectrin-actin junctions.

  7. The matrix reorganized: extracellular matrix remodeling and integrin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Melinda; Artym, Vira V; Green, J Angelo; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2006-10-01

    Via integrins, cells can sense dimensionality and other physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells respond differently to two-dimensional substrates and three-dimensional environments, activating distinct signaling pathways for each. Direct integrin signaling and indirect integrin modulation of growth factor and other intracellular signaling pathways regulate ECM remodeling and control subsequent cell behavior and tissue organization. ECM remodeling is critical for many developmental processes, and remodeled ECM contributes to tumorigenesis. These recent advances in the field provide new insights and raise new questions about the mechanisms of ECM synthesis and proteolytic degradation, as well as the roles of integrins and tension in ECM remodeling.

  8. Lifeact-mEGFP reveals a dynamic apical F-actin network in tip growing plant cells.

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    Luis Vidali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is essential for tip growth in plants. However, imaging actin in live plant cells has heretofore presented challenges. In previous studies, fluorescent probes derived from actin-binding proteins often alter growth, cause actin bundling and fail to resolve actin microfilaments.In this report we use Lifeact-mEGFP, an actin probe that does not affect the dynamics of actin, to visualize actin in the moss Physcomitrella patens and pollen tubes from Lilium formosanum and Nicotiana tobaccum. Lifeact-mEGFP robustly labels actin microfilaments, particularly in the apex, in both moss protonemata and pollen tubes. Lifeact-mEGFP also labels filamentous actin structures in other moss cell types, including cells of the gametophore.Lifeact-mEGFP, when expressed at optimal levels does not alter moss protonemal or pollen tube growth. We suggest that Lifeact-mEGFP represents an exciting new versatile probe for further studies of actin's role in tip growing plant cells.

  9. In vivo dynamics of the cortical actin network revealed by fast-scanning atomic force microscopy.

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    Zhang, Yanshu; Yoshida, Aiko; Sakai, Nobuaki; Uekusa, Yoshitsugu; Kumeta, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Shige H

    2017-08-01

    Together with lamellipodia and stress fibers, a dynamic network of actin filaments in the cell cortex plays a major role in the maintenance of cell morphology and motility. In contrast to lamellipodia, which have been well studied in various motile cells, the dynamics of actin filaments in the cell cortex have not yet been clarified due to a lack of proper imaging techniques. Here, we utilized high-speed atomic force microscopy for live-cell imaging and analyzed cortical actin dynamics in living cells. We successfully measured the polymerization rate and the frequency of filament synthesis in living COS-7 cells, and examined the associated effects of various inhibitors and actin-binding proteins. Actin filaments are synthesized beneath the plasma membrane and eventually descend into the cytoplasm. The inhibitors, cytochalasin B inhibited the polymerization, while jasplakinolide, inhibited the turnover of actin filaments as well as descension of the newly synthesized filaments, suggesting that actin polymerization near the membrane drives turnover of the cortical actin meshwork. We also determined how actin turnover is maintained and regulated by the free G-actin pool and G-actin binding proteins such as profilin and thymosin β4, and found that only a small amount of free G-actin was present in the cortex. Finally, we analyzed several different cell types, and found that the mesh size and the orientation of actin filaments were highly divergent, indicating the involvement of various actin-binding proteins in the maintenance and regulation of cortical actin architecture in each cell type. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Pitx2-mediated cardiac outflow tract remodeling.

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    Ma, Hsiao-Yen; Xu, Jun; Eng, Diana; Gross, Michael K; Kioussi, Chrissa

    2013-05-01

    Heart morphogenesis involves sequential anatomical changes from a linear tube of a single channel peristaltic pump to a four-chamber structure with two channels controlled by one-way valves. The developing heart undergoes continuous remodeling, including septation. Pitx2-null mice are characterized by cardiac septational defects of the atria, ventricles, and outflow tract. Pitx2-null mice also exhibited a short outflow tract, including unseptated conus and deformed endocardial cushions. Cushions were characterized with a jelly-like structure, rather than the distinct membrane-looking leaflets, indicating that endothelial mesenchymal transition was impaired in Pitx2(-/-) embryos. Mesoderm cells from the branchial arches and neural crest cells from the otic region contribute to the development of the endocardial cushions, and both were reduced in number. Members of the Fgf and Bmp families exhibited altered expression levels in the mutants. We suggest that Pitx2 is involved in the cardiac outflow tract septation by promoting and/or maintaining the number and the remodeling process of the mesoderm progenitor cells. Pitx2 influences the expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in the differentiation of the cushion mesenchyme during heart development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Adipose Tissue Remodeling as Homeostatic Inflammation

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    Michiko Itoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has accumulated indicating that obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Obese adipose tissue is characterized by dynamic changes in cellular composition and function, which may be referred to as “adipose tissue remodeling”. Among stromal cells in the adipose tissue, infiltrated macrophages play an important role in adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. We have demonstrated that a paracrine loop involving saturated fatty acids and tumor necrosis factor-α derived from adipocytes and macrophages, respectively, aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Notably, saturated fatty acids, which are released from hypertrophied adipocytes via the macrophage-induced lipolysis, serve as a naturally occurring ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 complex, thereby activating macrophages. Such a sustained interaction between endogenous ligands derived from parenchymal cells and pathogen sensors expressed in stromal immune cells should lead to chronic inflammatory responses ranging from the basal homeostatic state to diseased tissue remodeling, which may be referred to as “homeostatic inflammation”. We, therefore, postulate that adipose tissue remodeling may represent a prototypic example of homeostatic inflammation. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying homeostatic inflammation may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or treat obesity-related complications.

  12. [Semiology for gluteal remodeling by lipofilling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Quoc, C; Mojallal, A

    2012-12-01

    Gluteal augmentation is a consultation request for many patients. The most common surgical techniques performed for gluteal augmentation employ gluteal implants. However, the results can be frustrating. Liposuction is one of the most common surgical procedures in aesthetic surgery. This surgical procedure can provide some complications. Fat grafting is an effective and predictable way to remodel the buttocks. To get better results, it's important to understand gluteal compartments with a descriptive study. The aim of this study is to describe gluteal semiology for buttocks remodeling with fat grafting. We have described gluteal semiology with our review of literature. We have analyzed fat compartments of gluteal region: volume, links between every compartments, connections with major gluteal muscle and with the skin. We have also analyzed shape and volume of the buttocks. We have described 11 aesthetic subunits, the volume and the shape of the buttocks, and the skin laxity. We did an important literature review to understand the most important gluteal zones to improve for patients' satisfaction. Our gluteal semiology description is very useful to understand liposuction/lipoinjection of gluteal areas. Fat grafting may be a reliable technique, simple and safe procedure. Surgery for correction of the buttocks may involve more than projection and volume. However, these must be in a balanced proportion with the rest of the body. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Recruitment Kinetics of Tropomyosin Tpm3.1 to Actin Filament Bundles in the Cytoskeleton Is Independent of Actin Filament Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appaduray, Mark A; Masedunskas, Andrius; Bryce, Nicole S; Lucas, Christine A; Warren, Sean C; Timpson, Paul; Stear, Jeffrey H; Gunning, Peter W; Hardeman, Edna C

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic network of filaments that is involved in virtually every cellular process. Most actin filaments in metazoa exist as a co-polymer of actin and tropomyosin (Tpm) and the function of an actin filament is primarily defined by the specific Tpm isoform associated with it. However, there is little information on the interdependence of these co-polymers during filament assembly and disassembly. We addressed this by investigating the recovery kinetics of fluorescently tagged isoform Tpm3.1 into actin filament bundles using FRAP analysis in cell culture and in vivo in rats using intracellular intravital microscopy, in the presence or absence of the actin-targeting drug jasplakinolide. The mobile fraction of Tpm3.1 is between 50% and 70% depending on whether the tag is at the C- or N-terminus and whether the analysis is in vivo or in cultured cells. We find that the continuous dynamic exchange of Tpm3.1 is not significantly impacted by jasplakinolide, unlike tagged actin. We conclude that tagged Tpm3.1 may be able to undergo exchange in actin filament bundles largely independent of the assembly and turnover of actin.

  14. VASP activation via the Gα13/RhoA/PKA pathway mediates cucurbitacin-B-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation.

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    Yan-Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available Cucurbitacin B (CuB, a potent antineoplastic agent of cucurbitacin triterpenoids, induces rapid disruption of actin cytoskeleton and aberrant cell cycle inhibiting carcinogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of such anticancer effects remains incompletely understood. In this study, we showed that CuB treatment rapidly induced vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP phosphorylation (i.e. activation at the Ser157 residue and generated VASP clumps which were co-localized with amorphous actin aggregates prior to the formation of highly-ordered cofilin-actin rods in melanoma cells. Knockdown of VASP or inhibition of VASP activation using PKA-specific inhibitor H89 suppressed CuB-induced VASP activation, actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation. The VASP activation was mediated by cAMP-independent PKA activation as CuB decreased the levels of cAMP while MDL12330A, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase, had weak effect on VASP activation. Knockdown of either Gα13 or RhoA not only suppressed VASP activation, but also ameliorated CuB-induced actin aggregation and abrogated cofilin-actin rod formation. Collectively, our studies highlighted that the CuB-induced actin aggregation and cofilin-actin rod formation was mediated via the Gα13/RhoA/PKA/VASP pathway.

  15. Actin-Binding Proteins from Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis Can Functionally Compensate for the Actin-Based Motility Defect of a Burkholderia pseudomallei bimA Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, J M; Ulrich, R L; Taylor, L A; Wood, M W; DeShazer, D; Stevens, M P; Galyov, E E

    2005-01-01

    Recently we identified a bacterial factor (BimA) required for actin-based motility of Burkholderia pseudomallei. Here we report that Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia thailandensis are capable of actin-based motility in J774.2 cells and that BimA homologs of these bacteria can restore the actin-based motility defect of a B. pseudomallei bimA mutant. While the BimA homologs differ in their amino-terminal sequence, they interact directly with actin in vitro and vary in their ability to bind ...

  16. Mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l promotes vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation and vascular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bing; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yun-He; Zhang, You-En; Zheng, Fei; Yang, Jian-Ye; Guo, Ling-Yun; Li, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Tang, Jun-Ming; Chen, Shi-You; Wang, Jia-Ning

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the role of mesoderm/mesenchyme homeobox gene l (Meox1) in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) phenotypic modulation during vascular remodeling. By using immunostaining, Western blot, and histological analyses, we found that Meox1 was up-regulated in PDGF-BB-treated SMCs in vitro and balloon injury-induced arterial SMCs in vivo. Meox1 knockdown by shRNA restored the expression of contractile SMCs phenotype markers including smooth muscle α-actin (α-SMA) and calponin. In contrast, overexpression of Moex1 inhibited α-SMA and calponin expressions while inducing the expressions of synthetic SMCs phenotype markers such as matrix gla protein, osteopontin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Mechanistically, Meox1 mediated the SMCs phenotypic modulation through FAK-ERK1/2 signaling, which appears to induce autophagy in SMCs. In vivo, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated injury-induced neointima formation and promoted SMCs contractile proteins expressions. Meox1 knockdown also reduced the number of proliferating SMCs, suggesting that Meox1 was important for SMCs proliferation in vivo. Moreover, knockdown of Meox1 attenuated ERK1/2 signaling and autophagy markers expressions, suggesting that Meox1 may promote SMCs phenotypic modulation via ERK1/2 signaling-autophagy in vivo. Our data indicated that Meox1 promotes SMCs phenotypic modulation and injury-induced vascular remodeling by regulating the FAK-ERK1/2-autophagy signaling cascade. Thus, targeting Meox1 may be an attractive approach for treating proliferating vascular diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The role of angiogenesis, inflammation and estrogen receptors in breast implant capsules development and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segreto, Francesco; Carotti, Simone; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Tosi, Daniele; Zingariello, Maria; Pendolino, Alfonso Luca; Sancillo, Laura; Morini, Sergio; Persichetti, Paolo

    2017-12-13

    Capsular contracture is the most common complication following breast implant placement. The multiple factors unbalancing the physiological response to the foreign body have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of neo-angiogenesis, inflammation and estrogen receptors in peri-prosthetic tissue development and remodeling. The study enrolled 31 women who underwent expander substitution with definitive implant. Specimens were stained with hematoxylin/eosin, Masson trichrome, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for alpha-smooth muscle actin, estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), Collagen type I and III, CD31 (as a marker of neo-angiogenesis) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Inflammatory infiltration was quantified and analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy was performed for ultrastructural evaluation. Myofibroblasts, mainly localized in the middle layer of capsular tissue, expressed VEGF, ER-α and ER-β. ER-β expression positively correlated with Collagen type I deposition (p= 0.025). Neo-angiogenesis was predominant in the middle layer. CD31 expression positively correlated with Collagen type I expression (p=0.009) and inflammatory infiltration grade (p= 0.004). The degree of inflammatory infiltration negatively correlated with the time from implantation (p = 0.022). The middle layer is key in the development and remodeling of capsular tissue. Myofibroblasts produce VEGF, that induces neo-angiogenesis. New vessels formation is also correlated to the inflammatory response. Collagen deposition is associated with ER-β expression and neo-angiogenesis. These findings may prelude to targeted pharmacologic therapies able to control such interactions, thus hampering the self-sustaining loop promoting the progression of physiologic fibrosis toward pathologic contracture. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier

  18. Ezrin regulating the cytoskeleton remodelling is required for hypoxia-induced Myofibroblast proliferation and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eYi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia pulmonary arterial hypertension (HPAH is a disease of the small vessels characterized by sustained vasoconstriction, thickening of arterial walls, vascular remodelling, and progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance, thus leading to right heart failure and finally death. Recent evidence demonstrated that massive Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle-like Cells (PASMLCs accumulating in the intima might also be developed from the differentiation of Pulmonary Myofibroblast (PMF of tunica media. And PMF appeared the phenomenon of the cytoskeleton remodeling. So, it would be important in the clarification of the pivotal factors controlling this cytoskeleton structure change. Methods: PMFs were cultured from the normal rats and then divided into three groups and incubated by nomal or hypoxic conditions respectively. mRNA level was evaluated by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected by western blot. Cell proliferation was determined by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assay. Results: Here, we report that the hypoxia increased the expression levels of Ezrin mRNA and protein in PMFs, which might explain the expression of cytoskeletal proteins (Destrin, a1-actin, and a1-tubulin in PMFs was significantly induced by hypoxia. After inhibiting Ezrin in PMFs by siRNA transfection, we found the over-expression of cytoskeletal proteins induced by hypoixa were significantly suppressed at all time points. Additionally, we found that hypoxia or over-expression of Ezrin through Ad-Ezrin transfection significantly increases the proliferation and migration of PMFs, and which could be inverted by the transfection of siRNA. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ezrin regulating of aberrant dysregulation of cytoskeletal proteins may be the major cause of PMFs' proliferation and migration under the condition of hypoxia and may, therefore, play a fundamental role in the accumulation of

  19. Actin-mediated gene expression in neurons: the MRTF-SRF connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöll, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    The traditional view of cellular actin is a rather autarkic cytoskeletal framework function confined to the cytoplasm. However, there is now evidence that alterations in actin dynamics are sensed by the nucleus and subsequently modulate gene expression. In communicating with the nucleus, cytoplasmic, and most likely also nucleus-resident actin, provides a further (gene) regulatory loop to cell motility. A transcription module composed of MRTF (myocardin-related transcription factor) and SRF (serum response factor) emerges as prime target of such actin signaling. Here, I focus on the nervous system, where the actin-MRTF-SRF entity governs multiple aspects of neuronal motility.

  20. Transport of single cells using an actin bundle-myosin bionanomotor transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuki, Hideyo; Rice, Kevin M; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Blough, Eric R [Department of Biological Sciences, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Tanaka, Hideyuki [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kolli, Madhukar B; Nalabotu, Siva K [Center for Diagnostic Nanosystems, Marshall University, Huntington, WV (United States); Famouri, Parviz, E-mail: blough@marshall.edu [Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2011-06-17

    The potential of using actin bundles for the transport of liposomes and single cells across myosin-coated surfaces is investigated. Compared to that observed with filamentous actin, the liposome transport using actin bundles was more linear in nature and able to occur over longer distances. Bundles, but not filamentous actin, were capable of moving single cells. Cargo unloading from bundles was achieved by incubation with Triton X-100. These data suggest that actin bundling may improve the ability of the myosin motor system for nanotransport applications.

  1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of actin during microcyst formation and germination in Polysphondylium pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budniak, Aldona; O'Day, Danton H

    2011-07-01

    High osmolarity causes amoebae of the cellular slime mould Polysphondylium pallidum to individually encyst, forming microcysts. During microcyst differentiation, actin is tyrosine phosphorylated. Tyrosine phosphorylation of actin is independent of encystment conditions and occurs during the final stages of microcyst formation. During microcyst germination, actin undergoes dephosphorylation prior to amoebal emergence. Renewed phosphorylation of actin in germinating microcysts can be triggered by increasing the osmolarity of the medium which inhibits emergence. Immunofluorescence reveals that actin is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm in dormant microcysts. Following the onset of germination, actin is observed around vesicles where it co-localizes with phosphotyrosine. Prior to emergence, actin localizes to patches near the cell surface. Increasing osmolarity disrupts this localization and causes actin to redistribute throughout the cytoplasm, a situation similar to that observed in dormant microcysts. The tyrosine phosphorylation state of actin does not appear to influence the long-term viability of dormant microcysts. Together, these results indicate an association between actin tyrosine phosphorylation, organization of the actin cytoskeleton, and microcyst dormancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Competition between Tropomyosin, Fimbrin, and ADF/Cofilin drives their sorting to distinct actin filament networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jenna R; Hocky, Glen M; Homa, Kaitlin E; Morganthaler, Alisha N; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E; Voth, Gregory A; Kovar, David R

    2017-03-10

    The fission yeast actin cytoskeleton is an ideal, simplified system to investigate fundamental mechanisms behind cellular self-organization. By focusing on the stabilizing protein tropomyosin Cdc8, bundling protein fimbrin Fim1, and severing protein coffin Adf1, we examined how their pairwise and collective interactions with actin filaments regulate their activity and segregation to functionally diverse F-actin networks. Utilizing multi-color TIRF microscopy of in vitro reconstituted F-actin networks, we observed and characterized two distinct Cdc8 cables loading and spreading cooperatively on individual actin filaments. Furthermore, Cdc8, Fim1, and Adf1 all compete for association with F-actin by different mechanisms, and their cooperative association with actin filaments affects their ability to compete. Finally, competition between Fim1 and Adf1 for F-actin synergizes their activities, promoting rapid displacement of Cdc8 from a dense F-actin network. Our findings reveal that competitive and cooperative interactions between actin binding proteins help define their associations with different F-actin networks.

  3. Dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eBergs

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. This transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. Particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. Although specific marker proteins to visualize actin cables have been developed in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has remained elusive. Here we visualized actin cables using tropomyosin (TpmA and Lifeact fused to fluorescent proteins in Aspergillus nidulans and studied the dynamics and regulation. GFP tagged TpmA visualized dynamic actin cables formed from the hyphal tip with cycles of elongation and shrinkage. The elongation and shrinkage rates of actin cables were similar and approximately 0.6 μm/s. Comparison of actin markers revealed that high concentrations of Lifeact reduced actin dynamics. Simultaneous visualization of actin cables and microtubules suggests temporally and spatially coordinated polymerization and depolymerization between the two cytoskeletons. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ordered polarized growth regulated by actin cables and microtubules.

  4. Direct visualization of secondary structures of F-actin by electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takashi; Iwane, Atsuko H; Yanagida, Toshio; Namba, Keiichi

    2010-10-07

    F-actin is a helical assembly of actin, which is a component of muscle fibres essential for contraction and has a crucial role in numerous cellular processes, such as the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia, as the most abundant component and regulator of cytoskeletons by dynamic assembly and disassembly (from G-actin to F-actin and vice versa). Actin is a ubiquitous protein and is involved in important biological functions, but the definitive high-resolution structure of F-actin remains unknown. Although a recent atomic model well reproduced X-ray fibre diffraction intensity data from a highly oriented liquid-crystalline sol specimen, its refinement without experimental phase information has certain limitations. Direct visualization of the structure by electron cryomicroscopy, however, has been difficult because it is relatively thin and flexible. Here we report the F-actin structure at 6.6 Å resolution, made obtainable by recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy. The density map clearly resolves all the secondary structures of G-actin, such as α-helices, β-structures and loops, and makes unambiguous modelling and refinement possible. Complex domain motions that open the nucleotide-binding pocket on F-actin formation, specific D-loop and terminal conformations, and relatively tight axial but markedly loose interprotofilament interactions hydrophilic in nature are revealed in the F-actin model, and all seem to be important for dynamic functions of actin.

  5. Probing the flexibility of tropomyosin and its binding to filamentous actin using molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjun; Barua, Bipasha; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E

    2013-10-15

    Tropomyosin (Tm) is a coiled-coil protein that binds to filamentous actin (F-actin) and regulates its interactions with actin-binding proteins like myosin by moving between three positions on F-actin (the blocked, closed, and open positions). To elucidate the molecular details of Tm flexibility in relation to its binding to F-actin, we conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations for both Tm alone and Tm-F-actin complex in the presence of explicit solvent (total simulation time >400 ns). Based on the simulations, we systematically analyzed the local flexibility of the Tm coiled coil using multiple parameters. We found a good correlation between the regions with high local flexibility and a number of destabilizing regions in Tm, including six clusters of core alanines. Despite the stabilization by F-actin binding, the distribution of local flexibility in Tm is largely unchanged in the absence and presence of F-actin. Our simulations showed variable fluctuations of individual Tm periods from the closed position toward the open position. In addition, we performed Tm-F-actin binding calculations based on the simulation trajectories, which support the importance of Tm flexibility to Tm-F-actin binding. We identified key residues of Tm involved in its dynamic interactions with F-actin, many of which have been found in recent mutational studies to be functionally important, and the rest of which will make promising targets for future mutational experiments. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effects of pectenotoxins from marine algae on the polymerization of various actin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Suzanne C; Miles, Christopher O; Karim, Amna; Twiner, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Pectenotoxins (PTXs) are marine toxins produced by dinoflagellates and which accumulate in shellfish. There are at least 14 different analogs of PTX with slight variations in structure leading to different chemical properties and consequently different toxicities. Since preliminary studies have shown that the parent compound PTX1 targets actin, we investigated the effects of two analogs, PTX2 and PTX2 seco acid, on the polymerization and depolymerization of skeletal muscle actin, smooth muscle actin, cardiac muscle actin, and non-muscle actin. Optimized actin assays using fluorescently labeled skeletal muscle actin and SDS-PAGE were jointly used to determine the relative amounts of filamentous and globular actin formed during polymerization and depolymerization experiments. Our findings suggest that PTX2 causes a dose-dependent decrease in both the rate and yield of skeletal muscle actin polymerization (IC50 values of 44 and 177 nM; respectively), with no significant effects on depolymerization. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PTX2 are conserved towards other actin isoforms (i.e., smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and non-muscle), as the inhibitory effects on actin polymerization were also observed with similar IC50 values (range: 19-94 nM). No inhibitory effects on polymerization were observed for PTX2 seco acid, suggesting an intact lactone ring is necessary for bioactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Jewett

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp is conserved among all pathogenic chlamydial species. Previous reports identified single C. trachomatis Tarp actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp mediated actin nucleation. A peptide antiserum specific for the Tarp actin binding domain was generated and inhibited actin polymerization in vitro and C. trachomatis entry in vivo, indicating an essential role for Tarp in chlamydial pathogenesis. Sequence analysis of Tarp orthologs from additional chlamydial species and C. trachomatis serovars indicated multiple putative actin binding sites. In order to determine whether the identified actin binding domains are functionally conserved, GST-Tarp fusions from multiple chlamydial species were examined for their ability to bind and nucleate actin. Chlamydial Tarps harbored variable numbers of actin binding sites and promoted actin nucleation as determined by in vitro polymerization assays. Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells.

  8. Actin structure-dependent stepping of myosin 5a and 10 during processive movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Bao

    Full Text Available How myosin 10, an unconventional myosin, walks processively along actin is still controversial. Here, we used single molecule fluorescence techniques, TIRF and FIONA, to study the motility and the stepping mechanism of dimerized myosin 10 heavy-meromyosin-like fragment on both single actin filaments and two-dimensional F-actin rafts cross-linked by fascin or α-actinin. As a control, we also tracked and analyzed the stepping behavior of the well characterized processive motor myosin 5a. We have shown that myosin 10 moves processively along both single actin filaments and F-actin rafts with a step size of 31 nm. Moreover, myosin 10 moves more processively on fascin-F-actin rafts than on α-actinin-F-actin rafts, whereas myosin 5a shows no such selectivity. Finally, on fascin-F-actin rafts, myosin 10 has more frequent side steps to adjacent actin filaments than myosin 5a in the F-actin rafts. Together, these results reveal further single molecule features of myosin 10 on various actin structures, which may help to understand its cellular functions.

  9. ADF/cofilin-mediated actin retrograde flow directs neurite formation in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kevin C; Hellal, Farida; Neukirchen, Dorothee; Jacob, Sonja; Tahirovic, Sabina; Dupraz, Sebastian; Stern, Sina; Garvalov, Boyan K; Gurniak, Christine; Shaw, Alisa E; Meyn, Liane; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Bamburg, James R; Small, J Victor; Witke, Walter; Bradke, Frank

    2012-12-20

    Neurites are the characteristic structural element of neurons that will initiate brain connectivity and elaborate information. Early in development, neurons are spherical cells but this symmetry is broken through the initial formation of neurites. This fundamental step is thought to rely on actin and microtubule dynamics. However, it is unclear which aspects of the complex actin behavior control neuritogenesis and which molecular mechanisms are involved. Here, we demonstrate that augmented actin retrograde flow and protrusion dynamics facilitate neurite formation. Our data indicate that a single family of actin regulatory proteins, ADF/Cofilin, provides the required control of actin retrograde flow and dynamics to form neurites. In particular, the F-actin severing activity of ADF/Cofilin organizes space for the protrusion and bundling of microtubules, the backbone of neurites. Our data reveal how ADF/Cofilin organizes the cytoskeleton to drive actin retrograde flow and thus break the spherical shape of neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Actin is crucial for all kinetically distinguishable forms of endocytosis at synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Lee, Sunghoon; Sheng, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Weidong; Wang, Dongsheng; Jin, Yinghui; Charnay, Patrick; Ervasti, James M.; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mechanical force is needed to mediate endocytosis. Whether actin, the most abundant force-generating molecule, is essential for endocytosis is highly controversial in mammalian cells, particularly synapses, likely due to the use of actin blockers, the efficiency and specificity of which are often unclear in the studied cell. Here we addressed this issue using knockout approach combined with measurements of membrane capacitance and fission pore conductance, imaging of vesicular protein endocytosis, and electron microscopy. We found that two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are crucial for slow, rapid, bulk, and overshoot endocytosis at large calyx-type synapses, and for slow endocytosis and bulk endocytosis at small hippocampal synapses. Polymerized actin provides mechanical force to form endocytic pits. Actin also facilitates replenishment of the readily releasable vesicle pool, likely via endocytic clearance of active zones. We conclude that polymerized actin provides mechanical force essential for all kinetically distinguishable forms of endocytosis at synapses. PMID:27840001

  11. Variable actin dynamics requirement for the exit of different cargo from the trans-Golgi network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Colonna, Cecilia; Cortegano, Miguel; Calvo, María; Martínez, Susana E; Egea, Gustavo

    2007-08-07

    Efficient post-Golgi trafficking depends on microtubules, but actin filaments and actin-associated proteins are also postulated. Here we examined, by inverse fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, the role of actin dynamics in the exit from the TGN of fluorescent-tagged apical or basolateral and raft or non-raft-associated cargoes. Either the actin-stabilizing jasplakinolide or the actin-depolymerising latrunculin B variably but significantly inhibited post-Golgi traffic of non-raft associated apical p75NTR and basolateral VSV-G cargoes. The TGN-exit of the apical-destined VSV-G mutant was impaired only by latrunculin B. Strikingly, the raft-associated GPI-anchor protein was not affected by either actin toxin. Results indicate that actin dynamics participates in the TGN egress of both apical- and basolateral-targeted proteins but is not needed for apical raft-associated cargo.

  12. Immunolabeling of cells grown attached to a substratum or in suspension with actin antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Anna

    2011-09-01

    Actin is a major component of all eukaryotic cells and is highly conserved across species. The different isoforms of actin show a very high degree of homology, and almost all actins bind cytochalasins, phallotoxins, and DNase I. Actin is important for maintaining cell shape and for myosin-based movements in cells. In addition, the actin cytoskeleton is involved in localization of other molecules in the cytoplasm and in cellular compartmentalization. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies with different specificities are commercially available for labeling actin-containing structures in cells. This article describes a protocol for immunolabeling actin that works well for cells grown in tissue culture as monolayers and for cells grown in suspension cultures that can be attached to polylysine-coated coverslips.

  13. A unique profilin-actin interface is important for malaria parasite motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Moreau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profilin is an actin monomer binding protein that provides ATP-actin for incorporation into actin filaments. In contrast to higher eukaryotic cells with their large filamentous actin structures, apicomplexan parasites typically contain only short and highly dynamic microfilaments. In apicomplexans, profilin appears to be the main monomer-sequestering protein. Compared to classical profilins, apicomplexan profilins contain an additional arm-like β-hairpin motif, which we show here to be critically involved in actin binding. Through comparative analysis using two profilin mutants, we reveal this motif to be implicated in gliding motility of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, the rapidly migrating forms of a rodent malaria parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. Force measurements on migrating sporozoites and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the interaction between actin and profilin fine-tunes gliding motility. Our data suggest that evolutionary pressure to achieve efficient high-speed gliding has resulted in a unique profilin-actin interface in these parasites.

  14. Actin Is Crucial for All Kinetically Distinguishable Forms of Endocytosis at Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Lee, Sung Hoon; Sheng, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Jin, Yinghui; Charnay, Patrick; Ervasti, James M; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2016-12-07

    Mechanical force is needed to mediate endocytosis. Whether actin, the most abundant force-generating molecule, is essential for endocytosis is highly controversial in mammalian cells, particularly synapses, likely due to the use of actin blockers, the efficiency and specificity of which are often unclear in the studied cell. Here we addressed this issue using a knockout approach combined with measurements of membrane capacitance and fission pore conductance, imaging of vesicular protein endocytosis, and electron microscopy. We found that two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are crucial for slow, rapid, bulk, and overshoot endocytosis at large calyx-type synapses, and for slow endocytosis and bulk endocytosis at small hippocampal synapses. Polymerized actin provides mechanical force to form endocytic pits. Actin also facilitates replenishment of the readily releasable vesicle pool, likely via endocytic clearance of active zones. We conclude that polymerized actin provides mechanical force essential for all kinetically distinguishable forms of endocytosis at synapses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Fibrillar actin in the nuclear apparatus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benken, K A; Sabaneeva, E V

    2011-01-01

    Due to their nuclear dualism, ciliates provide a good model for studying the role of actin in spatial organization and transcription activity of the nucleus. The actin in the nuclear apparatus of the ciliate Paramecium caudatum was studied using fluorescently labeled phalloiodin and indirect immunocytochemistry. Fibrillar actin was demonstrated in both of the nuclei. Actin was revealed in the chromatin areas, and was often associated with the periphery of the amplified nucleoli in the macronucleus. Redistribution of actin was observed depending on different physiological state of the cells. Stable infection of the macronulear with the intranuclear endobionts Holospora obtuse led to the loss of nuclear actin accompanied by significant nuclear fragility and redistribution of the phosphorylated form of the actin-binding protein cofilin. Spherical bodies resembling karyosphere were found in the macronuclear anlagen.

  16. Magnetic manipulation of actin orientation, polymerization, and gliding on myosin using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yun; Guzik, Stephanie; Sumner, James P; Koretsky, Alan P [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Moreland, John, E-mail: koretskya@ninds.nih.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-02-11

    The actin cytoskeleton controls cell shape, motility, as well as intracellular molecular trafficking. The ability to remotely manipulate actin is therefore highly desirable as a tool to probe and manipulate biological processes at the molecular level. We demonstrate actin manipulation by labeling actin filaments with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (IOPs) and applying a uniform magnetic field to affect actin orientation, polymerization and gliding on myosin. We show for the first time magnetic manipulation of magnetizable actin filaments at the molecular level while gliding on a bed of myosin molecules and during polymerization. A model for the magnetic alignment and guiding mechanism is proposed based on the torque from the induced molecular anisotropy due to interactions between neighboring IOPs distributed along magnetically labeled actin molecules.

  17. Microfluidics-Assisted TIRF Imaging to Study Single Actin Filament Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank

    2017-12-11

    Dynamic assembly of actin filaments is essential for many cellular processes. The rates of assembly and disassembly of actin filaments are intricately controlled by regulatory proteins that interact with the ends and the sides of filaments and with actin monomers. TIRF-based single-filament imaging techniques have proven instrumental in uncovering mechanisms of actin regulation. In this unit, novel single-filament approaches using microfluidics-assisted TIRF imaging are described. These methods can be used to grow anchored actin filaments aligned in a flow, thus making the analysis much easier as compared to open flow cell approaches. The microfluidic nature of the system also enables rapid change of biochemical conditions and allows simultaneous imaging of a large number of actin filaments. Support protocols for preparing microfluidic chambers and purifying spectrin-actin seeds used for nucleating anchored filaments are also described. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Namwanje, Maria; Fang, Bin; Damle, Manashree; Li, Dylan; Liu, Qiongming; Lazar, Mitchell A; Qiang, Li

    2016-10-01

    Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mouse strains to cold. Surprisingly, 129/Sv and FVB/NJ mice showed distinct brown remodeling features despite their similar resistance to metabolic disorders in comparison to the obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice. FVB/NJ mice demonstrated a preference of brown remodeling in inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (iWAT), whereas 129/Sv mice displayed robust brown remodeling in visceral epididymal fat (eWAT). We further compared gene expression in different depots by RNA-sequencing and identified Hoxc10 as a novel "brake" of brown remodeling in iWAT. Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  19. The behavior of adaptive bone-remodeling simulation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Weinans (Harrie); R. Huiskes (Rik); H.J. Grootenboer

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe process of adaptive bone remodeling can be described mathematically and simulated in a computer model, integrated with the finite element method. In the model discussed here, cortical and trabecular bone are described as continuous materials with variable density. The remodeling rule

  20. Interactions between remodelling, architecture and tissue properties in cancellous bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. van der Linden (Jacqueline)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the research projects described in this thesis was to gain more insight in the regulation of bone remodeling and in the interactions between bone remodeling, architecture and bone tissue properties. The most striking changes during aging and osteoporosis take place in

  1. Experimental investigation of bone remodelling using composite femurs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waide, V.; Cristofolini, L.; Stolk, J.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Toni, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the load transfer patterns of femurs in the intact, immediate post-operative and long-term (remodelled) post-operative implanted conditions for Lubinus SPII and Muller-Curved cemented hip prostheses, and to examine to what extent remodelling may influence the long-term

  2. Remodelling Schools--Experiences from within "Change Teams"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Lowe, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    This article reports early findings from research commissioned by Staffordshire Local Authority that examines workforce remodelling in schools. As Collarbone (2004) states, workforce remodelling is at the heart of the government's change agenda in maintained schools. It is presented as a tool that will enable schools to think both creatively and…

  3. Galectin-3 and post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Wouter C.; van der Velde, A. Rogier; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A.; de Boer, Rudolf A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the current literature regarding the involvement and the putative role(s) of galectin-3 in post-myocardial infarction cardiac remodeling. Post-myocardial infarction remodeling is characterized by acute loss of myocardium, which leads to structural and biomechanical changes in

  4. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  5. A Gly65Val substitution in an actin, GhACT_LI1, disrupts cell polarity and F-actin organization resulting in dwarf, lintless cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Gregory N; Fang, David D; Turley, Rickie B; Florane, Christopher B; Li, Ping; Mattison, Christopher P; Naoumkina, Marina

    2017-04-01

    Actin polymerizes to form part of the cytoskeleton and organize polar growth in all eukaryotic cells. Species with numerous actin genes are especially useful for the dissection of actin molecular function due to redundancy and neofunctionalization. Here, we investigated the role of a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) actin gene in the organization of actin filaments in lobed cotyledon pavement cells and the highly elongated single-celled trichomes that comprise cotton lint fibers. Using mapping-by-sequencing, virus-induced gene silencing, and molecular modeling, we identified the causative mutation of the dominant dwarf Ligon lintless Li1 short fiber mutant as a single Gly65Val amino acid substitution in a polymerization domain of an actin gene, GhACT_LI1 (Gh_D04G0865). We observed altered cell morphology and disrupted organization of F-actin in Li1 plant cells by confocal microscopy. Mutant leaf cells lacked interdigitation of lobes and F-actin did not uniformly decorate the nuclear envelope. While wild-type lint fiber trichome cells contained long longitudinal actin cables, the short Li1 fiber cells accumulated disoriented transverse cables. The polymerization-defective Gly65Val allele in Li1 plants likely disrupts processive elongation of F-actin, resulting in a disorganized cytoskeleton and reduced cell polarity, which likely accounts for the dominant gene action and diverse pleiotropic effects associated with the Li1 mutation. Lastly, we propose a model to account for these effects, and underscore the roles of actin organization in determining plant cell polarity, shape and plant growth. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Dynamics and Morphology of Microvilli Driven by Actin Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir S.

    2006-07-01

    Many different cell types have dynamic protrusions, called microvilli, on their surface. We model these structures as arising from the balance between the force of actin polymerization and the restoring force of the membrane. From this simple model we calculate the distribution function of microvilli heights for several cells. We further describe the phase diagram and the resulting morphology of the microvilli aggregates on the cell surface.

  7. Molecular characterization of an actin depolymerizing factor from Cryptocaryon irritans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Xu, Yang; Guo, Guowei; Lin, Qianqian; Ye, Zhongfeng; Yuan, Liping; Sun, Zhiyu; Ni, Wei

    2013-04-01

    Actin depolymerizing factors regulate actin dynamics involved in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, motility, development and infection. Here, a novel actin depolymerizing factor gene (CiADF 2 ) was cloned from the cDNA library of Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasitic ciliate causing cryptocaryonosis. The full-length cDNA of CiADF 2 was 531 bp. Its open reading frame (ORF) was 417 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 138 aa with typical features of the ADF/cofilin family. Reverse transcription-PCR suggested that CiADF 2 is expressed in all stages of the life cycle. After site-directed mutagenesis of a non-universal genetic code, the ORF was subcloned in Escherichia coli. The bacteria were induced with the addition of isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside to express a fusion protein of recombinant CiADF2 (rCiADF2) with glutathione S transferase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot confirmed the predicted molecular mass of rCiADF2 of 16·2 kDa. A mouse antibody against rCiADF2 recognized native CiADF2, and rCiADF2 reacted with mouse antisera against C. irritans trophonts. CiADF2 was abundant in the plasma around cytostomes, suggesting that CiADF2 is involved in ciliate movement. Moreover, rCiADF2 showed F-actin binding and depolymerizing activity. This study will help to clarify the pathogenic biology of the parasite and develop effective control measures for cryptocaryonosis.

  8. Pulsed actin-myosin network contractions drive apical constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam C.; Kaschube, Matthias; Eric F Wieschaus

    2008-01-01

    Apical constriction facilitates epithelial sheet bending and invagination during morphogenesis1, 2. Apical constriction is conventionally thought to be driven by the continuous purse-string-like contraction of a circumferential actin and Non-Muscle Myosin-II (myosin) belt underlying adherens junctions3–7. However, it is unclear whether other force-generating mechanisms can drive this process. Here, we use real-time imaging and quantitative image analysis of Drosophila gastrulation to show tha...

  9. Virotoxins: actin-binding cyclic peptides of Amanita virosa mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulstich, H; Buku, A; Bodenmüller, H; Wieland, T

    1980-07-08

    Virotoxins are toxic peptides singularly found in Amanita virosa mushrooms. After purification and resolution by high-pressure liquid chromatography, the main component, viroisin, was selectively cleaved and submitted to Edman degradation. The structure could be completely elucidated and was in part found to be the same as in phallotoxins. Differing from the phallotoxins, however, virotoxins are monocyclic peptides and contain D-serine instead of L-cysteine. In addition, two amino acids were detected in virotoxins which thus far have not been found in nature: 2,3-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-L-proline and 2'-(methylsulfonyl)-L-tryptophan. The biological activity of viroisin is comparable to that of the phallotoxins: e.g., with 2.5 mg of viroisin per kg (white mouse), 50% of the animals die within 2-5 h by hemorrhagia of the liver. Also, on the molecular level, the virotoxins behave similar to the phallotoxins. Thus, viroisin binds to rabbit muscle actin as proved by difference UV spectroscopy. With an apparent equilibrium dissociation constant KD approximately 2 x 10(-8) M, the affinity of viroisin is very similar to that of phalloidin. However, the flexibility of the monocyclic structure and the presence of two additional hydroxy groups in the virotoxins suggest a different mode of interaction with actin. While there is proof that the bicyclic phallotoxins possess a rigid binding site, the virotoxins may adopt the biologically active conformation by an induced-fit mechanism upon contact with actin.

  10. The Evolution of the Actin Binding NET Superfamily

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    Tim eHawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The arabidopsis Networked protein superfamily are plant-specific actin binding proteins which specifically label different membrane compartments and identify specialized sites of interaction between actin and membranes unique to plants. There are 13 members of the superfamily in arabidopsis which group into 4 distinct clades or subfamilies. NET homologues are absent from the genomes of metazoa and fungi, furthermore in Plantae NET sequences are also absent from the genome of mosses and more ancient extant plant clades. A single subfamily of the NET proteins are found encoded in the club moss genome; an extant species of the earliest vascular plants. Gymnosperms have examples from subfamilies 4 and 3 with a hybrid form of NET1 and 2 which shows characteristics of both NET1 and NET2. In addition to NET3 and 4 subfamilies, the NET1 and pollen-expressed NET2 subfamilies are only found as independent sequences in angiosperms. This is consistent with the divergence of reproductive actin. The four subfamilies are conserved across monocots and eudicots with the numbers of members of each clade expanding at this point due in part to regions of genome duplication. Since the emergence of the NET superfamily at the dawn of vascular plants they have continued to develop and diversify in a manner which has mirrored the divergence and complexity of plant species through evolution in the ‘March of Progress’.

  11. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic remodeling in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C

    2015-08-05

    Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. [Structural studies of chromatin remodeling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokh, O I; Derkacheva, N I; Studitsky, V M; Sokolova, O S

    2016-01-01

    Changes of chromatin structure require participation of chromatin remodeling factors (CRFs), which are ATP-dependent multisubunit complexes that change the structure of the nucleosome without covalently modifying its components. CRFs act together with other protein factors to regulate the extent of chromatin condensation. Four CRF families are currently distinguished based on their structural and biochemical characteristics: SWI/SNF, ISWI, Mi-2/CHD, and SWR/INO80. X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microscopy are the main methods to obtain structural information about macromolecules. CRFs are difficult to obtain in crystal because of their large sizes and structural heterogeneity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is mostly employed in their structural studies. The review considers all structures obtained for CRFs by TEM and discusses several models of CRF-nucleosome interactions.

  13. The role of actin in root hair morphogenesis : studies with lipochito-oligosaccharide as a growth stimulator and cytochalasin as an actin perturbing drug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.D.; Ruijter, de N.C.A.; Bisseling, T.; Emons, A.M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Root hairs develop from bulges on root epidermal cells and elongate by tip growth, in which Golgi vesicles are targeted, released and inserted into the plasma membrane on one side of the cell. We studied the role of actin in vesicle delivery and retention by comparing the actin filament

  14. Rapamycin attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmanns Harald H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hypoxia induces pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Smooth muscle cell (SMC proliferation and hypertrophy are important contributors to the remodeling that occurs in chronic hypoxic pulmonary vasculature. We hypothesized that rapamycin (RAPA, a potent cell cycle inhibitor, prevents pulmonary hypertension in chronic hypoxic mice. Methods Mice were held either at normoxia (N; 21% O2 or at hypobaric hypoxia (H; 0.5 atm; ~10% O2. RAPA-treated animals (3 mg/kg*d, i.p. were compared to animals injected with vehicle alone. Proliferative activity within the pulmonary arteries was quantified by staining for Ki67 (positive nuclei/vessel and media area was quantified by computer-aided planimetry after immune-labeling for α-smooth muscle actin (pixel/vessel. The ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum (RV/[LV+S] was used to determine right ventricular hypertrophy. Results Proliferative activity increased by 34% at day 4 in mice held under H (median: 0.38 compared to N (median: 0.28, p = 0.028 which was completely blocked by RAPA (median HO+RAPA: 0.23, p = 0.003. H-induced proliferation had leveled off within 3 weeks. At this time point media area had, however, increased by 53% from 91 (N to 139 (H, p Conclusion Therapy with rapamycin may represent a new strategy for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  15. Molecular networks linked by Moesin drive remodeling of the cell cortex during mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, Chantal; Decelle, Barbara; Chicanne, Gaëtan; Dorn, Jonas F.; Payrastre, Bernard; Payre, François; Carreno, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms that drive the series of mitotic cell shape transformations remain elusive. In this paper, we identify two novel networks that collectively control the dynamic reorganization of the mitotic cortex. We demonstrate that Moesin, an actin/membrane linker, integrates these two networks to synergize the cortical forces that drive mitotic cell shape transformations. We find that the Pp1-87B phosphatase restricts high Moesin activity to early mitosis and down-regulates Moesin at the polar cortex, after anaphase onset. Overactivation of Moesin at the polar cortex impairs cell elongation and thus cytokinesis, whereas a transient recruitment of Moesin is required to retract polar blebs that allow cortical relaxation and dissipation of intracellular pressure. This fine balance of Moesin activity is further adjusted by Skittles and Pten, two enzymes that locally produce phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and thereby, regulate Moesin cortical association. These complementary pathways provide a spatiotemporal framework to explain how the cell cortex is remodeled throughout cell division. PMID:21969469

  16. PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2009-06-01

    It is well established that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces the cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration through two major signaling cascades: phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) and Rho GTPases. However, little is known about the cross talk between PLC-gamma1 and Rho GTPases. Here we showed that PLC-gamma1 forms a complex with Rac1 in response to EGF. This interaction is direct and mediated by PLC-gamma1 Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and Rac1 (106)PNTP(109) motif. This interaction is critical for EGF-induced Rac1 activation in vivo, and PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain is actually a potent and specific Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in vitro. We have also demonstrated that the interaction between PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain and Rac1 play a significant role in EGF-induced F-actin formation and cell migration. We conclude that PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cell cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration by a direct functional interaction.

  17. Low coronary driving pressure early in the course of myocardial infarction is associated with subendocardial remodelling and left ventricular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Marcia Kiyomi; De Carvalho Frimm, Clovis; Cúri, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    Subendocardial remodelling of the left ventricular (LV) non-infarcted myocardium has been poorly investigated. Previously, we have demonstrated that low coronary driving pressure (CDP) early postinfarction was associated with the subsequent development of remote subendocardial fibrosis. The present study aimed at examining the role of CDP in LV remodelling and function following infarction. Haemodynamics were performed in Wistar rats immediately after myocardial infarction (MI group) or sham surgery (SH group) and at days 1, 3, 7 and 28. Heart tissue sections were stained with HE, Sirius red and immunostained for α-actin. Two distinct LV regions remote to infarction were examined: subendocardium (SE) and interstitium (INT). Myocyte necrosis, leucocyte infiltration, myofibroblasts and collagen volume fraction were determined. Compared with SH, MI showed lower CDP and LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Necrosis was evident in SE at day 1. Inflammation and fibroplasia predominated in SE as far as day 7. Fibrosis was restricted to SE from day 3 on. Inflammation occurred in INT at days 1 and 3, but at a lower grade than in SE. CDP correlated inversely with SE necrosis (r = −0.65, P = 0.003, at day 1), inflammation (r = −0.76, P < 0.001, at day 1), fibroplasia (r = −0.47, P = 0.04, at day 7) and fibrosis (r = −0.83, P < 0.001, at day 28). Low CDP produced progressive LV expansion. Necrosis at day 1, inflammation at days 3 and 7, and fibroplasia at day 7 correlated inversely with LV function. CDP is a key factor to SE integrity and affects LV remodelling and function following infarction. PMID:17696909

  18. Mapping the ADF/cofilin binding site on monomeric actin by competitive cross-linking and peptide array: evidence for a second binding site on monomeric actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannherz, Hans Georg; Ballweber, Edda; Galla, Marco; Villard, Sylvie; Granier, Claude; Steegborn, Clemens; Schmidtmann, Anja; Jaquet, Kornelia; Pope, Brian; Weeds, Alan G

    2007-02-23

    The binding sites for actin depolymerising factor (ADF) and cofilin on G-actin have been mapped by competitive chemical cross-linking using deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I), gelsolin segment 1 (G1), thymosin beta4 (Tbeta4), and vitamin D-binding protein (DbP). To reduce ADF/cofilin induced actin oligomerisation we used ADP-ribosylated actin. Both vitamin D-binding protein and thymosin beta4 inhibit binding by ADF or cofilin, while cofilin or ADF and DNase I bind simultaneously. Competition was observed between ADF or cofilin and G1, supporting the hypothesis that cofilin preferentially binds in the cleft between sub-domains 1 and 3, similar to or overlapping the binding site of G1. Because the affinity of G1 is much higher than that of ADF or cofilin, even at a 20-fold excess of the latter, the complexes contained predominantly G1. Nevertheless, cross-linking studies using actin:G1 complexes and ADF or cofilin showed the presence of low concentrations of ternary complexes containing both ADF or cofilin and G1. Thus, even with monomeric actin, it is shown for the first time that binding sites for both G1 and ADF or cofilin can be occupied simultaneously, confirming the existence of two separate binding sites. Employing a peptide array with overlapping sequences of actin overlaid by cofilin, we have identified five sequence stretches of actin able to bind cofilin. These sequences are located within the regions of F-actin predicted to bind cofilin in the model derived from image reconstructions of electron microscopical images of cofilin-decorated filaments. Three of the peptides map to the cleft region between sub-domains 1 and 3 of the upper actin along the two-start long-pitch helix, while the other two are in the DNase I loop corresponding to the site of the lower actin in the helix. In the absence of any crystal structures of ADF or cofilin in complex with actin, these studies provide further information about the binding sites on F-actin for these important actin

  19. Latrunculin B-induced plant dwarfism: Plant cell elongation is F-actin-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, F; Jasik, J; Edelmann, H G; Salajová, T; Volkmann, D

    2001-03-01

    Marine macrolides latrunculins are highly specific toxins which effectively depolymerize actin filaments (generally F-actin) in all eukaryotic cells. We show that latrunculin B is effective on diverse cell types in higher plants and describe the use of this drug in probing F-actin-dependent growth and in plant development-related processes. In contrast to other eukaryotic organisms, cell divisions occurs in plant cells devoid of all actin filaments. However, the alignment of the division planes is often distorted. In addition to cell division, postembryonic development and morphogenesis also continue in the absence of F-actin. These experimental data suggest that F-actin is of little importance in the morphogenesis of higher plants, and that plants can develop more or less normally without F-actin. In contrast, F-actin turns out to be essential for cell elongation. When latrunculin B was added during germination, morphologically normal Arabidopsis and rye seedlings developed but, as a result of the absence of cell elongation, these were stunted, resembling either genetic dwarfs or environmental bonsai plants. In conclusion, F-actin is essential for the plant cell elongation, while this F-actin-dependent cell elongation is not an essential feature of plant-specific developmental programs.

  20. Altered Cell Mechanics from the Inside: Dispersed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Integrate with and Restructure Actin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad F. Islam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With a range of desirable mechanical and optical properties, single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs are a promising material for nanobiotechnologies. SWCNTs also have potential as biomaterials for modulation of cellular structures. Previously, we showed that highly purified, dispersed SWCNTs grossly alter F-actin inside cells. F-actin plays critical roles in the maintenance of cell structure, force transduction, transport and cytokinesis. Thus, quantification of SWCNT-actin interactions ranging from molecular, sub-cellular and cellular levels with both structure and function is critical for developing SWCNT-based biotechnologies. Further, this interaction can be exploited, using SWCNTs as a unique actin-altering material. Here, we utilized molecular dynamics simulations to explore the interactions of SWCNTs with actin filaments. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy confirmed that SWCNTs were located within ~5 nm of F-actin in cells but did not interact with G-actin. SWCNTs did not alter myosin II sub-cellular localization, and SWCNT treatment in cells led to significantly shorter actin filaments. Functionally, cells with internalized SWCNTs had greatly reduced cell traction force. Combined, these results demonstrate direct, specific SWCNT alteration of F-actin structures which can be exploited for SWCNT-based biotechnologies and utilized as a new method to probe fundamental actin-related cellular processes and biophysics.

  1. The actin cytoskeleton may control the polar distribution of an auxin transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muday, G. K.; Hu, S.; Brady, S. R.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The gravitropic bending of plants has long been linked to the changes in the transport of the plant hormone auxin. To understand the mechanism by which gravity alters auxin movement, it is critical to know how polar auxin transport is initially established. In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (i.e., from the shoot apex toward the base). It is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. One mechanism for localizing this efflux carrier complex to the basal membrane may be through attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. The efflux carrier protein complex is believed to consist of several polypeptides, including a regulatory subunit that binds auxin transport inhibitors, such as naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Several lines of experimentation have been used to determine if the NPA binding protein interacts with actin filaments. The NPA binding protein has been shown to partition with the actin cytoskeleton during detergent extraction. Agents that specifically alter the polymerization state of the actin cytoskeleton change the amount of NPA binding protein and actin recovered in these cytoskeletal pellets. Actin-affinity columns were prepared with polymers of actin purified from zucchini hypocotyl tissue. NPA binding activity was eluted in a single peak from the actin filament column. Cytochalasin D, which fragments the actin cytoskeleton, was shown to reduce polar auxin transport in zucchini hypocotyls. The interaction of the NPA binding protein with the actin cytoskeleton may localize it in one plane of the plasma membrane, and thereby control the polarity of auxin transport.

  2. Unidirectional growth of heavy meromyosin clusters along actin filaments revealed by real-time fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Rika; Nishikawa, Yusuke; Uyeda, Taro Q P; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka

    2017-12-01

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) forms clusters along actin filaments under low ATP concentrations. Here, we observed the growth of HMM clusters under low concentrations of ATP in real time using fluorescence microscopy. When actin filaments were loosely immobilized on positively charged lipid bilayers, clusters of HMM-GFP were readily formed. Time-lapse observation revealed that the clusters grew unidirectionally. When we used a mixture of actin filaments and copolymers of actin and acto-S1dC, a chimeric protein of actin and the myosin motor domain, HMM-GFP preferentially formed clusters along the copolymers. We thus suggest that binding of myosin motors carrying ADP and Pi induces unidirectional conformational changes in actin filaments and allosterically recruits more myosin binding. In contrast, when actin filaments and copolymers were anchored to glass substrate via stable biotin-avidin linkage, higher concentrations of HMM-GFP were required to form clusters than on the lipid bilayer. Moreover, actin filaments and copolymers were not discriminated regarding preferential cluster formation. This is presumably because the myosin-induced cooperative conformational changes in actin filaments involve changes in the helical twist. Consistent with this, cofilin clusters, which supertwist the helix, were readily formed along loosely immobilized actin filaments, but not along those anchored via biotin-avidin linkage. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Involvement of the conserved adaptor protein Alix in actin cytoskeleton assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shujuan; Wang, Ruoning; Zhou, Xi; He, Guangan; Koomen, John; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Sun, Le; Corvera, Joe; Gallick, Gary E; Kuang, Jian

    2006-11-10

    The conserved adaptor protein Alix, also called AIP1 or Hp95, promotes flattening and alignment of cultured mammalian fibroblasts; however, the mechanism by which Alix regulates fibroblast morphology is not understood. Here we demonstrate that Alix in WI38 cells, which require Alix expression for maintaining typical fibroblast morphology, associates with filamentous actin (F-actin) and F-actin-based structures lamellipodia and stress fibers. Reducing Alix expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreases F-actin content and inhibits stress fiber assembly. In cell-free systems, Alix directly interacts with F-actin at both the N-terminal Bro1 domain and the C-terminal proline-rich domain. In Alix immunoprecipitates from WI38 cell lysates, actin is the most abundant partner protein of Alix. In addition, the N-terminal half of the middle region of Alix binds cortactin, an activator of the ARP2/3 complex-mediated initiation of actin polymerization. Alix is required for lamellipodial localization of cortactin. The C-terminal half of the middle region of Alix interacts with alpha-actinin, a key factor that bundles F-actin in stress fibers. Alix knockdown decreases the amount of alpha-actinin that associates with F-actin. These findings establish crucial involvement of Alix in actin cytoskeleton assembly.

  4. Alteration of the cortical actin cytoskeleton deregulates Ca2+ signaling, monospermic fertilization, and sperm entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Puppo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When preparing for fertilization, oocytes undergo meiotic maturation during which structural changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER that lead to a more efficient calcium response. During meiotic maturation and subsequent fertilization, the actin cytoskeleton also undergoes dramatic restructuring. We have recently observed that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton induced by actin-depolymerizing agents, or by actin-binding proteins, strongly modulate intracellular calcium (Ca2+ signals during the maturation process. However, the significance of the dynamic changes in F-actin within the fertilized egg has been largely unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have measured changes in intracellular Ca2+ signals and F-actin structures during fertilization. We also report the unexpected observation that the conventional antagonist of the InsP(3 receptor, heparin, hyperpolymerizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton in postmeiotic eggs. Using heparin and other pharmacological agents that either hypo- or hyperpolymerize the cortical actin, we demonstrate that nearly all aspects of the fertilization process are profoundly affected by the dynamic restructuring of the egg cortical actin cytoskeleton. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings identify important roles for subplasmalemmal actin fibers in the process of sperm-egg interaction and in the subsequent events related to fertilization: the generation of Ca2+ signals, sperm penetration, cortical granule exocytosis, and the block to polyspermy.

  5. Alteration of the Cortical Actin Cytoskeleton Deregulates Ca2+ Signaling, Monospermic Fertilization, and Sperm Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppo, A.; Chun, Jong T.; Gragnaniello, Giovanni; Garante, Ezio; Santella, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Background When preparing for fertilization, oocytes undergo meiotic maturation during which structural changes occur in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that lead to a more efficient calcium response. During meiotic maturation and subsequent fertilization, the actin cytoskeleton also undergoes dramatic restructuring. We have recently observed that rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton induced by actin-depolymerizing agents, or by actin-binding proteins, strongly modulate intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signals during the maturation process. However, the significance of the dynamic changes in F-actin within the fertilized egg has been largely unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We have measured changes in intracellular Ca2+ signals and F-actin structures during fertilization. We also report the unexpected observation that the conventional antagonist of the InsP3 receptor, heparin, hyperpolymerizes the cortical actin cytoskeleton in postmeiotic eggs. Using heparin and other pharmacological agents that either hypo- or hyperpolymerize the cortical actin, we demonstrate that nearly all aspects of the fertilization process are profoundly affected by the dynamic restructuring of the egg cortical actin cytoskeleton. Conclusions/Significance Our findings identify important roles for subplasmalemmal actin fibers in the process of sperm-egg interaction and in the subsequent events related to fertilization: the generation of Ca2+ signals, sperm penetration, cortical granule exocytosis, and the block to polyspermy. PMID:18974786

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Statics and Dynamics of Actin Cables in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Eddy; Wu, Jian-Qiu; Vavylonis, Dimitrios

    2010-03-01

    The assembly of actin and tubulin proteins into long filaments and bundles, i.e. closely-packed filaments, underlies important cellular processes such as cell motility, intracellular transport, and cell division. Recent theoretical and experimental work has addressed the nonequilibrium dynamics of single microtubules within live cells [1]. Actin filaments usually form dense networks that prevents microscopic imaging of individual filaments or bundles. Here, we studied actin dynamics using fission yeast that has low-density actin cytoskeleton consisting of actin cables (actin bundles aligned along the long axis of the cell) and ``actin patches.'' Yeast cells expressing GFP-CHD were imaged by 3D confocal microscopy. Stretching open active contours [2] were used to segment and track individual actin cables. We analyzed their curvature distribution, the tangent correlation, and the temporal bending amplitude fluctuations. We contrast our findings to equilibrium fluctuating semiflexible polymers and to microtubules in cells. We calculate the important time and length scales for the actin cables. We also discuss our findings within the broad context of understanding actin assembly in cells. [1] C. P. Brangwynne et. al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 118104 (2008) [2] H. Li et. al., Proc. of the IEEE Int'l Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: From Nano to Macro, ISBI'09

  7. A peek into tropomyosin binding and unfolding on the actin filament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tropomyosin is a prototypical coiled coil along its length with subtle variations in structure that allow interactions with actin and other proteins. Actin binding globally stabilizes tropomyosin. Tropomyosin-actin interaction occurs periodically along the length of tropomyosin. However, it is not well understood how tropomyosin binds actin. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tropomyosin's periodic binding sites make differential contributions to two components of actin binding, cooperativity and affinity, and can be classified as primary or secondary sites. We show through mutagenesis and analysis of recombinant striated muscle alpha-tropomyosins that primary actin binding sites have a destabilizing coiled-coil interface, typically alanine-rich, embedded within a non-interface recognition sequence. Introduction of an Ala cluster in place of the native, more stable interface in period 2 and/or period 3 sites (of seven increased the affinity or cooperativity of actin binding, analysed by cosedimentation and differential scanning calorimetry. Replacement of period 3 with period 5 sequence, an unstable region of known importance for cooperative actin binding, increased the cooperativity of binding. Introduction of the fluorescent probe, pyrene, near the mutation sites in periods 2 and 3 reported local instability, stabilization by actin binding, and local unfolding before or coincident with dissociation from actin (measured using light scattering, and chain dissociation (analyzed using circular dichroism. CONCLUSIONS: This, and previous work, suggests that regions of tropomyosin involved in binding actin have non-interface residues specific for interaction with actin and an unstable interface that is locally stabilized upon binding. The destabilized interface allows residues on the coiled-coil surface to obtain an optimal conformation for interaction with actin by increasing the number of local substates that the side chains can sample. We suggest

  8. The redox state of transglutaminase 2 controls arterial remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen van den Akker

    Full Text Available While inward remodeling of small arteries in response to low blood flow, hypertension, and chronic vasoconstriction depends on type 2 transglutaminase (TG2, the mechanisms of action have remained unresolved. We studied the regulation of TG2 activity, its (sub cellular localization, substrates, and its specific mode of action during small artery inward remodeling. We found that inward remodeling of isolated mouse mesenteric arteries by exogenous TG2 required the presence of a reducing agent. The effect of TG2 depended on its cross-linking activity, as indicated by the lack of effect of mutant TG2. The cell-permeable reducing agent DTT, but not the cell-impermeable reducing agent TCEP, induced translocation of endogenous TG2 and high membrane-bound transglutaminase activity. This coincided with inward remodeling, characterized by a stiffening of the artery. The remodeling could be inhibited by a TG2 inhibitor and by the nitric oxide donor, SNAP. Using a pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, 21 proteins were identified as TG2 cross-linking substrates, including fibronectin, collagen and nidogen. Inward remodeling induced by low blood flow was associated with the upregulation of several anti-oxidant proteins, notably glutathione-S-transferase, and selenoprotein P. In conclusion, these results show that a reduced state induces smooth muscle membrane-bound TG2 activity. Inward remodeling results from the cross-linking of vicinal matrix proteins, causing a stiffening of the arterial wall.

  9. Atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation: recent advances and translational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattel, Stanley; Harada, Masahide

    2014-06-10

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF and its complications are responsible for important population morbidity and mortality. Presently available therapeutic approaches have limited efficacy and nontrivial potential to cause adverse effects. Thus, new mechanistic knowledge is essential for therapeutic innovation. Atrial arrhythmogenic remodeling, defined as any change in atrial structure or function that promotes atrial arrhythmias, is central to AF. Remodeling can be due to underlying cardiac conditions, systemic processes and conditions such as aging, or AF itself. Recent work has underlined the importance of remodeling in AF, provided new insights into basic mechanisms, and identified new biomarker/imaging approaches to follow remodeling processes. The importance of intracellular Ca(2+) handling abnormalities has been highlighted, both for the induction of triggered ectopic activity and for the activation of Ca(2+)-related cell signaling that mediates profibrillatory remodeling. The importance of microRNAs, which are a new class of small noncoding sequences that regulate gene expression, has emerged in both electrical and structural remodeling. Remodeling related to aging, cardiac disease, and AF itself is believed to underlie the progressive nature of the arrhythmia, which contributes to the complexities of long-term management. New tools that are being developed to quantify remodeling processes and monitor their progression include novel biomarkers, imaging modalities to quantify/localize fibrosis, and noninvasive monitoring/mapping to better characterize the burden of AF and identify arrhythmic sources. This report reviews recent advances in the understanding of the basic pathophysiology of atrial remodeling and potential therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cellular Interplay between Cardiomyocytes and Nonmyocytes in Cardiac Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norifumi Takeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy entails complex structural remodeling involving rearrangement of muscle fibers, interstitial fibrosis, accumulation of extracellular matrix, and angiogenesis. Many of the processes underlying cardiac remodeling have features in common with chronic inflammatory processes. During these processes, nonmyocytes, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells, residing in or infiltrating into the myocardial interstitium play active roles. This paper mainly addresses the functional roles of nonmyocytes during cardiac remodeling. In particular, we focus on the communication between cardiomyocytes and nonmyocytes through direct cell-cell interactions and autocrine/paracrine-mediated pathways.

  11. Osteoblast recruitment routes in human cancellous bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helene B; Levin Andersen, Thomas; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly proposed that bone forming osteoblasts recruited during bone remodeling originate from bone marrow perivascular cells, bone remodeling compartment canopy cells, or bone lining cells. However, an assessment of osteoblast recruitment during adult human cancellous bone remodeling...... is lacking. We addressed this question by quantifying cell densities, cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation markers, and capillaries in human iliac crest biopsy specimens. We found that recruitment occurs on both reversal and bone-forming surfaces, as shown by the cell density and osterix levels...

  12. Effect of cytochalasins on F-actin and morphology of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mills, J W; Falsig Pedersen, S; Walmod, P S

    2000-01-01

    that, in intact cells, different cytochalasins can have varying effects on cell morphology and F-actin content and organization. To examine this problem in more detail, we analyzed the effects of cytochalasins on the cell morphology of and F-actin content and organization in Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT......) cells. After a 3-min exposure to 0.5 microM cytochalasin D, B, or E, F-actin content was equally reduced in all cases and this correlated with a reduction in the amount of cortical F-actin associated with the EAT cell membrane. However, only with CE was cell morphology markedly altered......, with the appearance of numerous blebs. At 10 microM, blebbing was present in all conditions and the organization of cortical F-actin was disrupted. F-actin content, however, was not further reduced by this higher concentration and in CD it was identical to control levels. Exposure of EAT cells to similar...

  13. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  14. Visualization of Actin Assembly and Filament Turnover by In Vitro Multicolor TIRF Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterhoff, Moritz; Brühmann, Stefan; Franke, Christof; Breitsprecher, Dennis; Faix, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In response to chemotactic signals, motile cells develop a single protruding front to persistently migrate in direction of the chemotactic gradient. The highly dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is an essential part during this process and requires the precise interplay of various actin filament assembly factors and actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although many ABPs have been implicated in cell migration, as yet only a few of them have been well characterized concerning their specific functions during actin network assembly and disassembly. In this chapter, we describe a versatile method that allows the direct visualization of the assembly of single actin filaments and higher structures in real time by in vitro total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF-M) using purified and fluorescently labeled actin and ABPs.

  15. Tracer diffusion through F-actin: effect of filament length and cross-linking

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, J.D.; Luby-Phelps, K.

    1996-01-01

    We have determined diffusion coefficients for small (50- to 70-nm diameter) fluorescein-thiocarbamoyl-labeled Ficoll tracers through F-actin as a function of filament length and cross-linking. fx45 was used to regulate filament length and avidin/biotinylated actin or ABP-280 was used to prepare cross-linked actin gels. We found that tracer diffusion was generally independent of filament length in agreement with theoretical predictions for diffusion through solutions of rods. However, in some ...

  16. Cell elasticity is regulated by the tropomyosin isoform composition of the actin cytoskeleton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Jalilian

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is the primary polymer system within cells responsible for regulating cellular stiffness. While various actin binding proteins regulate the organization and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, the proteins responsible for regulating the mechanical properties of cells are still not fully understood. In the present study, we have addressed the significance of the actin associated protein, tropomyosin (Tpm, in influencing the mechanical properties of cells. Tpms belong to a multi-gene family that form a co-polymer with actin filaments and differentially regulate actin filament stability, function and organization. Tpm isoform expression is highly regulated and together with the ability to sort to specific intracellular sites, result in the generation of distinct Tpm isoform-containing actin filament populations. Nanomechanical measurements conducted with an Atomic Force Microscope using indentation in Peak Force Tapping in indentation/ramping mode, demonstrated that Tpm impacts on cell stiffness and the observed effect occurred in a Tpm isoform-specific manner. Quantitative analysis of the cellular filamentous actin (F-actin pool conducted both biochemically and with the use of a linear detection algorithm to evaluate actin structures revealed that an altered F-actin pool does not absolutely predict changes in cell stiffness. Inhibition of non-muscle myosin II revealed that intracellular tension generated by myosin II is required for the observed increase in cell stiffness. Lastly, we show that the observed increase in cell stiffness is partially recapitulated in vivo as detected in epididymal fat pads isolated from a Tpm3.1 transgenic mouse line. Together these data are consistent with a role for Tpm in regulating cell stiffness via the generation of specific populations of Tpm isoform-containing actin filaments.

  17. Keeping it all together: auxin-actin crosstalk in plant development

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinsheng; Geisler, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Polar auxin transport and the action of the actin cytoskeleton are tightly interconnected, which is documented by the finding that auxin transporters reach their final destination by active movement of secretory vesicles along F-actin tracks. Moreover, auxin transporter polarity and flexibility is thought to depend on transporter cycling that requires endocytosis and exocytosis of vesicles. In this context, we have reviewed the current literature on an involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in...

  18. Actin gene family evolution and the phylogeny of coleoid cephalopods (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, D B; Reece, K S; Graves, J E

    2000-09-01

    Phylogenetic analysis conducted on a 784-bp fragment of 82 actin gene sequences of 44 coleoid cephalopod taxa, along with results obtained from genomic Southern blot analysis, confirmed the presence of at least three distinct actin loci in coleoids. Actin isoforms were characteri zed through phylogenetic analysis of representative cephalopod sequences from each of the three isoforms, along with translated actin cDNA sequences from a diverse array of metazoan taxa downloaded from GenBank. One of the three isoforms found in cephalopods was closely related to actin sequences expressed in the muscular tissues of other molluscs. A second isoform was most similar to cytoplasmic-specific actin amino acid sequences. The muscle type actins of molluscs were found to be distinct from those of arthropods, suggesting at least two independent derivations of muscle actins in the protostome lineage, although statistical support for this conclusion was lacking. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of two of the isoforms from which >30 orthologous coleoid sequences had been obtained (one of the cytoplasmic actins and the muscle actin) supported the monophyly of several higher-level coleoid taxa. These included the superorders Octopodiformes and Decapodiformes, the order Octopoda, the octopod suborder Incirrata, and the teuthoid suborder Myopsida. The monophyly of several taxonomic groups within the Decapodiformes was not supported, including the orders Teuthoidea and Sepioidea and the teuthoid suborder Oegopsida. Parametric bootstrap analysis conducted on the simulated cytoplasmic actin data set provided statistical support to reject the monophyly of the Sepioidea. Although parametric bootstrap analysis of the muscle actin isoform did not reject sepioid monophyly at the 5% level, the results (rejection at P: = 0.068) were certainly suggestive of sepioid nonmonophyly.

  19. Actin polymerization or myosin contraction: two ways to build up cortical tension for symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Kevin; Lemière, Joël; Faqir, Fahima; Manzi, John; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie; Betz, Timo; Sykes, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Cells use complex biochemical pathways to drive shape changes for polarization and movement. One of these pathways is the self-assembly of actin filaments and myosin motors that together produce the forces and tensions that drive cell shape changes. Whereas the role of actin and myosin motors in cell polarization is clear, the exact mechanism of how the cortex, a thin shell of actin that is underneath the plasma membrane, can drive cell shape changes is still an open question. Here, we address this issue using biomimetic systems: the actin cortex is reconstituted on liposome membranes, in an ‘outside geometry’. The actin shell is either grown from an activator of actin polymerization immobilized at the membrane by a biotin–streptavidin link, or built by simple adsorption of biotinylated actin filaments to the membrane, in the presence or absence of myosin motors. We show that tension in the actin network can be induced either by active actin polymerization on the membrane via the Arp2/3 complex or by myosin II filament pulling activity. Symmetry breaking and spontaneous polarization occur above a critical tension that opens up a crack in the actin shell. We show that this critical tension is reached by growing branched networks, nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, in a concentration window of capping protein that limits actin filament growth and by a sufficient number of motors that pull on actin filaments. Our study provides the groundwork to understanding the physical mechanisms at work during polarization prior to cell shape modifications. PMID:24062578

  20. Cell stress promotes the association of phosphorylated HspB1 with F-actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Clarke

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that the small heat shock protein, HspB1, has a direct influence on the dynamics of cytoskeletal elements, in particular, filamentous actin (F-actin polymerization. In this study we have assessed the influence of HspB1 phosphorylation on its interaction(s with F-actin. We first determined the distribution of endogenous non-phosphorylated HspB1, phosphorylated HspB1 and F-actin in neuroendocrine PC12 cells by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. We then investigated a potential direct interaction between HspB1 with F-actin by precipitating F-actin directly with biotinylated phalloidin followed by Western analyses; the reverse immunoprecipitation of HspB1 was also carried out. The phosphorylation influence of HspB1 in this interaction was investigated by using pharmacologic inhibition of p38 MAPK. In control cells, HspB1 interacts with F-actin as a predominantly non-phosphorylated protein, but subsequent to stress there is a redistribution of HspB1 to the cytoskeletal fraction and a significantly increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin. Our data demonstrate HspB1 is found in a complex with F-actin both in phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms, with an increased association of pHspB1 with F-actin after heat stress. Overall, our study combines both cellular and biochemical approaches to show cellular localization and direct demonstration of an interaction between endogenous HspB1 and F-actin using methodolgy that specifically isolates F-actin.

  1. Mechanical Heterogeneity Favors Fragmentation of Strained Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Martiel, Jean-Louis; Blanchoin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present a general model of actin filament deformation and fragmentation in response to compressive forces. The elastic free energy density along filaments is determined by their shape and mechanical properties, which were modeled in terms of bending, twisting, and twist-bend coupling elasticities. The elastic energy stored in filament deformation (i.e., strain) tilts the fragmentation-annealing reaction free-energy profile to favor fragmentation. The energy gradient introduces a local shear force that accelerates filament intersubunit bond rupture. The severing protein, cofilin, renders filaments more compliant in bending and twisting. As a result, filaments that are partially decorated with cofilin are mechanically heterogeneous (i.e., nonuniform) and display asymmetric shape deformations and energy profiles distinct from mechanically homogenous (i.e., uniform), bare actin, or saturated cofilactin filaments. The local buckling strain depends on the relative size of the compliant segment as well as the bending and twisting rigidities of flanking regions. Filaments with a single bare/cofilin-decorated boundary localize energy and force adjacent to the boundary, within the compliant cofilactin segment. Filaments with small cofilin clusters were predicted to fragment within the compliant cofilactin rather than at boundaries. Neglecting contributions from twist-bend coupling elasticity underestimates the energy density and gradients along filaments, and thus the net effects of filament strain to fragmentation. Spatial confinement causes compliant cofilactin segments and filaments to adopt higher deformation modes and store more elastic energy, thereby promoting fragmentation. The theory and simulations presented here establish a quantitative relationship between actin filament fragmentation thermodynamics and elasticity, and reveal how local discontinuities in filament mechanical properties introduced by regulatory proteins can modulate both the severing efficiency

  2. Stress generation and filament turnover during actin ring constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zumdieck

    Full Text Available We present a physical analysis of the dynamics and mechanics of contractile actin rings. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of ring contraction during cytokinesis in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. We present a general analysis of force balances and material exchange and estimate the relevant parameter values. We show that on a microscopic level contractile stresses can result from both the action of motor proteins, which cross-link filaments, and from the polymerization and depolymerization of filaments in the presence of end-tracking cross-linkers.

  3. Quantitative studies of subdiffusion in living cells and actin networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munteanu, Emilia-Laura; Olsen, Anja Lea; Tolic-Nørrelykke, Iva Marija

    2006-01-01

    of optical tweezers data, primarily baed on the power spectra of time series of postions for trapped spherical objects. The majority of precise studies in the literature are performed on in vitro systems, whereas in the present work, an example of an in vivo system is presented for which precise power...... spectral analysis is both useful and necessary. The biological system is the cytoplasm of fission yeast, S. pombe, in which we observe subdiffusion of lipid granuli. in a search for the cause of subdiffusion, we chemically disrupt the actin network in the cytoplasm and further consider in vitro networks...

  4. Colocalization of synapsin and actin during synaptic vesicle recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloom, Ona; Evergren, Emma; Tomilin, Nikolay

    2003-01-01

    activity, however, synapsin was detected in the pool of vesicles proximal to the active zone. In addition, actin and synapsin were found colocalized in a dynamic filamentous cytomatrix at the sites of synaptic vesicle recycling, endocytic zones. Synapsin immunolabeling was not associated with clathrin......-coated intermediates but was found on vesicles that appeared to be recycling back to the cluster. Disruption of synapsin function by microinjection of antisynapsin antibodies resulted in a prominent reduction of the cytomatrix at endocytic zones of active synapses. Our data suggest that in addition to its known...

  5. Health related quality of life in patients with actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tennvall, Gunnel Ragnarson; Norlin, J M; Malmberg, I

    2015-01-01

    with different severity levels of AK treated in dermatology specialist care using generic and disease-specific HRQoL instruments and to analyze their relationship. METHODS: AK patients who visited dermatological clinics in Denmark were included in an observational, cross-sectional, study in a multi......-center setting. Dermatologists assessed AK severity and patients completed: Actinic Keratosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (AKQoL), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and EQ-5D-5 L including EQ-VAS. Differences between categorical subgroups were tested with Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The relationship between...

  6. Cardiovascular remodeling and the peripheral serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Dietrich, Estelle; Aubertin-Kirch, Gaëlle; Maroteaux, Luc; Monassier, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Plasma 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin), released from blood platelets, plays a major role in the human cardiovascular system. Besides the effect of endogenous serotonin, many drugs targeting serotonergic receptors are widely used in the general population (antiobesity agents, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antimigraine agents), and may enhance the cardiovascular risk. Depending on the type of serotonin receptor activated and its location, the use of these compounds triggers acute and chronic effects. The acute cardiovascular response to 5-HT, named the Bezold-Jarish reflex, leads to intense bradycardia associated with atrioventricular block, and involves 5-HT3, 5-HT1B/1D, 5-HT7 and 5-HT2A/2B receptors. The chronic contribution of 5-HT and its receptors (5-HT4 and 5-HT2A/2B) in cardiovascular tissue remodeling, with a particular emphasis on cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and valve degeneration, will be explored in this review. Finally, through the analysis of the effects of sarpogrelate, some new aspects of 5-HT2A receptor pharmacology in vasomotor tone regulation and the interaction between endothelial and smooth muscle cells will also be discussed. The aim of this review is to emphasize the cardiac side effects caused by serotonin receptor activation, and to highlight their possible prevention by the development of new drugs targeting this system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. DOPAMINE EFFECT ON CARDIAC REMODELING IN EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Veber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study morphologic changes in myocardium of Wistar rats caused by single and long term dopamine administration.Methods. In acute study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats by a single intraperitoneal injection. The material was taken in 2, 6, 24 hours and in 1 month after drug administration. In chronic study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats 3 times a day by intraperitoneal injections during 2 weeks. The material was taken just after the drug administration was stopped and in 1 month of animals keeping without stress and drug influences. Control group included 15 rats comparable with experimental animals in age and weight. They were keeped without stress and drug influences. Morphometric parameters of left and right ventricles were evaluated as well as density of cardiomyocytes, collagen, vessels and volume of extracellular space.Results. The enlargement of cardiac fibrosis is found both in acute, and in chronic study. In acute study cardiac fibrosis was located mainly in a right ventricle. In chronic study cardiac fibrosis was located in both ventricles, but also mainly in a right one.Conclusion. Significant morphological «asynchronism» of the left and right ventricles remodeling requires elaboration of methods of myocardium protection and cardiac function control during dopamine administration. 

  8. DOPAMINE EFFECT ON CARDIAC REMODELING IN EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Veber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study morphologic changes in myocardium of Wistar rats caused by single and long term dopamine administration.Methods. In acute study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats by a single intraperitoneal injection. The material was taken in 2, 6, 24 hours and in 1 month after drug administration. In chronic study dopamine 10 mkg/kg was administrated to 15 rats 3 times a day by intraperitoneal injections during 2 weeks. The material was taken just after the drug administration was stopped and in 1 month of animals keeping without stress and drug influences. Control group included 15 rats comparable with experimental animals in age and weight. They were keeped without stress and drug influences. Morphometric parameters of left and right ventricles were evaluated as well as density of cardiomyocytes, collagen, vessels and volume of extracellular space.Results. The enlargement of cardiac fibrosis is found both in acute, and in chronic study. In acute study cardiac fibrosis was located mainly in a right ventricle. In chronic study cardiac fibrosis was located in both ventricles, but also mainly in a right one.Conclusion. Significant morphological «asynchronism» of the left and right ventricles remodeling requires elaboration of methods of myocardium protection and cardiac function control during dopamine administration. 

  9. Microcurrent stimulation promotes reverse remodelling in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Barbara; Mueller, Johannes; Losert, Udo; Podesser, Bruno K; Macfelda, Karin

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that electrical stimulation can improve tissue repair in patients. Imbalances in the extracellular matrix composition induce manifestation of heart failure. Here we investigated the application of microcurrent (MC) to modulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo to reverse remodelling in the heart in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Cardiomyocytes from young SHR (7 months) and old SHR (14 months) were stimulated in vitro and in vivo with MC. MMP and TIMP expression were analysed by qPCR and immunofluorescence to evaluate the modulation of MC treatment. Modulation of cardiomyocytes with MC enhances proliferation with no morphological changes in vitro. By electrical stimulation dual effects, increase and decrease, on MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 mRNA as well as protein expression were observed, depending on the age of the cardiomyocytes. In our in vivo study, MC down-regulated MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-4 and increased TIMP-3 in young SHR. In old SHR MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-4 were up-regulated, whereas TIMP-3 was unaffected. Our data indicate that treatment of MC can modulate the expression of MMPs and TIMPs in vitro and in vivo in SHR. Based on these results new treatments for heart failure could be developed.

  10. Book Review: Remodeling GT once again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita Nathaniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Barry Gibson and Jan Hartman (2014: Rediscovering Grounded Theory London: Sage In their book entitled Rediscovering Grounded Theory, Barry Gibson and Jan Hartman (2014 aim to present grounded theory in a new way with the intention of “forward looking preservation” (p. 237. They claim that Rediscovery is an outcome of many conversations in a London pub over the last eight years. The authors tackle both method and methodology as they meticulously describe the context of The Discovery of Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967 and take an authoritative stand on many of the controversies surrounding remodeling of the method in recent years. Rediscovering also includes substantial how-to sections corresponding to chapters in Glaser’s Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. Rediscovery adds explanatory depth in its discussion of the context of grounded theory, but fails to keep many of its promises. Rediscovery is far reaching. Included in the first part are chapters entitled, What Kind of Theory is Grounded Theory, Constructivism in Grounded Theory, Disentangling Concepts and Categories in Grounded Theory, and Coding in Grounded Theory. These chapters describe the context of the method, discuss the controversies, and present Gibson and Hardman’s positions on contentious issues. The second part of the book consists of chapters that aim to help grounded theorists with procedures such as developing theoretical sensitivity, theoretical sampling, coding, memoing, and writing theory. To their credit, the authors continually acknowledge the originators of the method.

  11. Multiscale Bone Remodelling with Spatial P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diletta Cacciagrano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many biological phenomena are inherently multiscale, i.e. they are characterized by interactions involving different spatial and temporal scales simultaneously. Though several approaches have been proposed to provide "multilayer" models, only Complex Automata, derived from Cellular Automata, naturally embed spatial information and realize multiscaling with well-established inter-scale integration schemas. Spatial P systems, a variant of P systems in which a more geometric concept of space has been added, have several characteristics in common with Cellular Automata. We propose such a formalism as a basis to rephrase the Complex Automata multiscaling approach and, in this perspective, provide a 2-scale Spatial P system describing bone remodelling. The proposed model not only results to be highly faithful and expressive in a multiscale scenario, but also highlights the need of a deep and formal expressiveness study involving Complex Automata, Spatial P systems and other promising multiscale approaches, such as our shape-based one already resulted to be highly faithful.

  12. Statins, fracture risk, and bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V

    2009-01-01

    Statins inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and reduce the intracellular formation of mevalonate. They are chemical compounds able to reduce total cholesterol by 15-40% and LDL cholesterol by 20-60%, and to increase HDL cholesterol by 5-15%. They also reduce triglycerides by 10- 30%. Statins, blocking the mevalonate pathway, inhibit the prenylation of proteins, which is essential to perform their biological function. A great deal of research has documented the positive effect of statins on bone formation and the importance of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) in mediating this effect. Statins are also able to decrease osteoblast apoptosis. The positive effect of statins on bone formation is accompanied by an inhibition of osteoclast activity, which gives statins the ability to uncouple the bone remodeling processes. Patients taking statins have a higher femoral bone density than those who do not. The lipophilic statins seem to be more effective than the hydrophilic statins in protecting bone. In several clinical trials, but not in all, the use of statins had been associated with a reduction in the fracture risk. In conclusion, statins have a positive effect on bone in vitro, but such an efficacy in humans has yet to be clearly demonstrated. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to provide a satisfactory answer on this issue.

  13. Membrane remodelling during vaccinia virus morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichón, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez, María Josefa; Risco, Cristina; Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Fernández, José Jesús; Esteban, Mariano; Carrascosa, José L

    2009-07-01

    VACV (vaccinia virus) is one of the most complex viruses, with a size exceeding 300 nm and more than 100 structural proteins. Its assembly involves sequential interactions and important rearrangements of its structural components. We have used electron tomography of sections of VACV-infected cells to follow, in three dimensions, the remodelling of the membrane components of the virus during envelope maturation. The tomograms obtained suggest that a number of independent 'crescents' interact with each other to enclose the volume of an incomplete ellipsoid in the viral factory area, attaining the overall shape and size characteristic of the first immature form of the virus [IV (immature virus)]. The incorporation of the DNA into these forms leads to particles with a nucleoid [IVN (IV with nucleoid)] that results in local disorganization of the envelope in regions near the condensed DNA. These particles suffer the progressive disappearance of the membrane outer spikes with a change in the shape of the membrane, becoming locally curled. The transformation of the IVN into the mature virus involves an extreme rearrangement of the particle envelope, which becomes fragmented and undulated. During this process, we also observed connections between the outer membranes with internal ones, suggesting that the latter originate from internalization of the IV envelope. The main features observed for VACV membrane maturation during morphogenesis resemble the breakdown and reassembly of cellular endomembranes.

  14. Actin-myosin network is required for proper assembly of influenza virus particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumakura, Michiko; Kawaguchi, Atsushi, E-mail: ats-kawaguchi@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagata, Kyosuke, E-mail: knagata@md.tsukuba.ac.jp

    2015-02-15

    Actin filaments are known to play a central role in cellular dynamics. After polymerization of actin, various actin-crosslinking proteins including non-muscle myosin II facilitate the formation of spatially organized actin filament networks. The actin-myosin network is highly expanded beneath plasma membrane. The genome of influenza virus (vRNA) replicates in the cell nucleus. Then, newly synthesized vRNAs are nuclear-exported to the cytoplasm as ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs), followed by transport to the beneath plasma membrane where virus particles assemble. Here, we found that, by inhibiting actin-myosin network formation, the virus titer tends to be reduced and HA viral spike protein is aggregated on the plasma membrane. These results indicate that the actin-myosin network plays an important role in the virus formation. - Highlights: • Actin-myosin network is important for the influenza virus production. • HA forms aggregations at the plasma membrane in the presence of blebbistatin. • M1 is recruited to the budding site through the actin-myosin network.

  15. Automated segmentation and quantification of actin stress fibres undergoing experimentally induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, H; Artelt, N; Endlich, N; Endlich, K

    2017-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is a main component of cells and it is crucially involved in many physiological processes, e.g. cell motility. Changes in the actin organization can be effected by diseases or vice versa. Due to the nonuniform pattern, it is difficult to quantify reasonable features of the actin cytoskeleton for a significantly high cell number. Here, we present an approach capable to fully segment and analyse the actin cytoskeleton of 2D fluorescence microscopic images with a special focus on stress fibres. The extracted feature data include length, width, orientation and intensity distributions of all traced stress fibres. Our approach combines morphological image processing techniques and a trace algorithm in an iterative manner, classifying the segmentation result with respect to the width of the stress fibres and in nonfibre-like actin. This approach enables us to capture experimentally induced processes like the condensation or the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton. We successfully applied the algorithm to F-actin images of cells that were treated with the actin polymerization inhibitor latrunculin A. Furthermore, we verified the robustness of our algorithm by a sensitivity analysis of the parameters, and we benchmarked our algorithm against established methods. In summary, we present a new approach to segment actin stress fibres over time to monitor condensation or collapse processes. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. A mathematical model of actin filament turnover for fitting FRAP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halavatyi, Aliaksandr A; Nazarov, Petr V; Al Tanoury, Ziad; Apanasovich, Vladimir V; Yatskou, Mikalai; Friederich, Evelyne

    2010-03-01

    A novel mathematical model of the actin dynamics in living cells under steady-state conditions has been developed for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. As opposed to other FRAP fitting models, which use the average lifetime of actins in filaments and the actin turnover rate as fitting parameters, our model operates with unbiased actin association/dissociation rate constants and accounts for the filament length. The mathematical formalism is based on a system of stochastic differential equations. The derived equations were validated on synthetic theoretical data generated by a stochastic simulation algorithm adapted for the simulation of FRAP experiments. Consistent with experimental findings, the results of this work showed that (1) fluorescence recovery is a function of the average filament length, (2) the F-actin turnover and the FRAP are accelerated in the presence of actin nucleating proteins, (3) the FRAP curves may exhibit both a linear and non-linear behaviour depending on the parameters of actin polymerisation, and (4) our model resulted in more accurate parameter estimations of actin dynamics as compared with other FRAP fitting models. Additionally, we provide a computational tool that integrates the model and that can be used for interpretation of FRAP data on actin cytoskeleton.

  17. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  18. F-actin reorganization upon de- and rehydration in the aeroterrestrial green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaas, Kathrin; Holzinger, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a dynamic network involved in many cellular processes like cell division and cytoplasmic streaming. While many studies have addressed the involvement of F-actin in different cellular processes in cultured cells, little is known on the reactions to environmental stress scenarios, where this system might have essential regulatory functions. We investigated here the de- and rehydration kinetics of breakdown and reassembly of F-actin in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum. Measurements of the chlorophyll fluorescence (effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΔF/Fm']) via pulse amplitude modulation were performed as a measure for dehydration induced shut down of physiological activity, which ceased after 141±15min at ∼84% RH. We hypothesized that there is a link between this physiological parameter and the status of the F-actin system. Indeed, 20min of dehydration (ΔF/Fm'=0) leads to a breakdown of the fine cortical F-actin network as visualized by Atto 488 phalloidin staining, and dot-like structures remained. Already 10min after rehydration a beginning reassembly of F-actin is observed, after 25min the F-actin network appeared similar to untreated controls, indicating a full recovery. These results demonstrate the fast kinetics of F-actin dis- and reassembly likely contributing to cellular reorganization upon rehydration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique properties of eukaryote-type actin and profilin horizontally transferred to cyanobacteria.

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    Arthur Guljamow

    Full Text Available A eukaryote-type actin and its binding protein profilin encoded on a genomic island in the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 co-localize to form a hollow, spherical enclosure occupying a considerable intracellular space as shown by in vivo fluorescence microscopy. Biochemical and biophysical characterization reveals key differences between these proteins and their eukaryotic homologs. Small-angle X-ray scattering shows that the actin assembles into elongated, filamentous polymers which can be visualized microscopically with fluorescent phalloidin. Whereas rabbit actin forms thin cylindrical filaments about 100 µm in length, cyanobacterial actin polymers resemble a ribbon, arrest polymerization at 5-10 µm and tend to form irregular multi-strand assemblies. While eukaryotic profilin is a specific actin monomer binding protein, cyanobacterial profilin shows the unprecedented property of decorating actin filaments. Electron micrographs show that cyanobacterial profilin stimulates actin filament bundling and stabilizes their lateral alignment into heteropolymeric sheets from which the observed hollow enclosure may be formed. We hypothesize that adaptation to the confined space of a bacterial cell devoid of binding proteins usually regulating actin polymerization in eukaryotes has driven the co-evolution of cyanobacterial actin and profilin, giving rise to an intracellular entity.

  20. HopW1 from Pseudomonas syringae disrupts the actin cytoskeleton to promote virulence in Arabidopsis.

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    Yongsung Kang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A central mechanism of virulence of extracellular bacterial pathogens is the injection into host cells of effector proteins that modify host cellular functions. HopW1 is an effector injected by the type III secretion system that increases the growth of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae on the Columbia accession of Arabidopsis. When delivered by P. syringae into plant cells, HopW1 causes a reduction in the filamentous actin (F-actin network and the inhibition of endocytosis, a known actin-dependent process. When directly produced in plants, HopW1 forms complexes with actin, disrupts the actin cytoskeleton and inhibits endocytosis as well as the trafficking of certain proteins to vacuoles. The C-terminal region of HopW1 can reduce the length of actin filaments and therefore solubilize F-actin in vitro. Thus, HopW1 acts by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton and the cell biological processes that depend on actin, which in turn are needed for restricting P. syringae growth in Arabidopsis.

  1. Actin, RhoA, and Rab11 participation during encystment in Entamoeba invadens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, M; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Lagunes-Guillén, A E; Chávez-Munguía, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-01-01

    In the genus Entamoeba, actin reorganization is necessary for cyst differentiation; however, its role is still unknown. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of actin and encystation-related proteins during Entamoeba invadens encystation. Studied proteins were actin, RhoA, a small GTPase involved through its effectors in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton; Rab11, a protein involved in the transport of encystation vesicles; and enolase, as an encystment vesicles marker. Results showed a high level of polymerized actin accompanied by increased levels of RhoA-GTP during cell rounding and loss of vacuoles. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization inhibitor, and Y27632, an inhibitor of RhoA activity, reduced encystment in 80%. These inhibitors also blocked cell rounding, disposal of vacuoles, and the proper formation of the cysts wall. At later times, F-actin and Rab11 colocalized with enolase, suggesting that Rab11 could participate in the transport of the cyst wall components through the F-actin cytoskeleton. These results suggest that actin cytoskeleton rearrangement is playing a decisive role in determining cell morphology changes and helping with the transport of cell wall components to the cell surface during encystment of E. invadens.

  2. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-08-25

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division.

  3. Organization of the actin cytoskeleton of resting and activated platelets in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, G; Krumwiede, M; White, J G

    1986-04-01

    The present study has employed lysine, phalloidin, and a low concentration of osmic acid to protect the actin cytoskeleton of resting and thrombin-activated platelets during detergent extraction and fixation in suspension. Thin sections of resting platelets revealed a fine amorphous layer containing a few short actin filaments mimicking discoid shape and a randomly dispersed network of actin polymers in the cytoplasm. Following thrombin activation, the cytoskeleton consisted of a peripheral layer of submembrane actin filaments following the contour of shape change, a variable number of filaments in peripheral cytoplasm and extending into pseudopods, and a concentric mass of actin filaments with constricted microtubule rings in cell centers. Prior treatment with cytochalasin B (CB) appeared to reduce the number of actin filaments in resting platelets. Thrombin activation of CB-treated cells resulted in separation of actin filaments, which became concentrated in cell centers, from microtubule coils remaining at the cell periphery. The appearance of detergent-extracted cytoskeletons of platelet actin protected during fixation in suspension by lysine and phalloidin was remarkably similar to that of resting or CB-treated platelets before and after thrombin activation when viewed in conventionally prepared thin sections without exposure to detergent during fixation. The advantage of the new procedure is revelation of the actin filament organization in suspended platelets, which is obscured by the usual glutaraldehyde-osmic acid fixation technique.

  4. In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin–catenin–actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Adam V.; Maiden, Stephanie L.; Pokutta, Sabine; Choi, Hee-Jung; Benjamin, Jacqueline M.; Lynch, Allison M.; Nelson, W. James; Weis, William I.; Hardin, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The ternary complex of cadherin, β-catenin, and α-catenin regulates actin-dependent cell–cell adhesion. α-Catenin can bind β-catenin and F-actin, but in mammals α-catenin either binds β-catenin as a monomer or F-actin as a homodimer. It is not known if this conformational regulation of α-catenin is evolutionarily conserved. The Caenorhabditis elegans α-catenin homolog HMP-1 is essential for actin-dependent epidermal enclosure and embryo elongation. Here we show that HMP-1 is a monomer with a functional C-terminal F-actin binding domain. However, neither full-length HMP-1 nor a ternary complex of HMP-1–HMP-2(β-catenin)–HMR-1(cadherin) bind F-actin in vitro, suggesting that HMP-1 is auto-inhibited. Truncation of either the F-actin or HMP-2 binding domain of HMP-1 disrupts C. elegans development, indicating that HMP-1 must be able to bind F-actin and HMP-2 to function in vivo. Our study defines evolutionarily conserved properties of α-catenin and suggests that multiple mechanisms regulate α-catenin binding to F-actin. PMID:20689042

  5. In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Adam V; Maiden, Stephanie L; Pokutta, Sabine; Choi, Hee-Jung; Benjamin, Jacqueline M; Lynch, Allison M; Nelson, W James; Weis, William I; Hardin, Jeff

    2010-08-17

    The ternary complex of cadherin, beta-catenin, and alpha-catenin regulates actin-dependent cell-cell adhesion. alpha-Catenin can bind beta-catenin and F-actin, but in mammals alpha-catenin either binds beta-catenin as a monomer or F-actin as a homodimer. It is not known if this conformational regulation of alpha-catenin is evolutionarily conserved. The Caenorhabditis elegans alpha-catenin homolog HMP-1 is essential for actin-dependent epidermal enclosure and embryo elongation. Here we show that HMP-1 is a monomer with a functional C-terminal F-actin binding domain. However, neither full-length HMP-1 nor a ternary complex of HMP-1-HMP-2(beta-catenin)-HMR-1(cadherin) bind F-actin in vitro, suggesting that HMP-1 is auto-inhibited. Truncation of either the F-actin or HMP-2 binding domain of HMP-1 disrupts C. elegans development, indicating that HMP-1 must be able to bind F-actin and HMP-2 to function in vivo. Our study defines evolutionarily conserved properties of alpha-catenin and suggests that multiple mechanisms regulate alpha-catenin binding to F-actin.

  6. AFAP-1L1-mediated actin filaments crosslinks hinder Trypanosoma cruzi cell invasion and intracellular multiplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Karine Canuto Loureiro; Teixeira, Thaise Lara; Machado, Fabrício Castro; da Silva, Aline Alves; Quintal, Amanda Pifano Neto; da Silva, Claudio Vieira

    2016-10-01

    Host actin cytoskeleton polymerization has been shown to play an important role during Trypanosoma cruzi internalization into mammalian cell. The structure and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton in cells are regulated by a vast number of actin-binding proteins. Here we aimed to verify the impact of AFAP-1L1, during invasion and multiplication of T. cruzi. Knocking-down AFAP-1L1 increased parasite cell invasion and intracellular multiplication. Thus, we have shown that the integrity of the machinery formed by AFAP-1L1 in actin cytoskeleton polymerization is important to hinder parasite infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NETWORKED 3B: a novel protein in the actin cytoskeleton-endoplasmic reticulum interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengwei; Hussey, Patrick J

    2017-03-01

    In plants movement of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. However little is known about proteins that link the ER membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. Here we identified a novel protein, NETWORKED 3B (NET3B), which is associated with the ER and actin cytoskeleton in vivo. NET3B belongs to a superfamily of plant specific actin binding proteins, the NETWORKED family. NET3B associates with the actin cytoskeleton in vivo through an N-terminal NET actin binding (NAB) domain, which has been well-characterized in other members of the NET family. A three amino acid insertion, Val-Glu-Asp, in the NAB domain of NET3B appears to lower its ability to localize to the actin cytoskeleton compared with NET1A, the founding member of the NET family. The C-terminal domain of NET3B links the protein to the ER. Overexpression of NET3B enhanced the association between the ER and the actin cytoskeleton, and the extent of this association was dependent on the amount of NET3B available. Another effect of NET3B overexpression was a reduction in ER membrane diffusion. In conclusion, our results revealed that NET3B modulates ER and actin cytoskeleton interactions in higher plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Plant villin, lily P-135-ABP, possesses G-actin binding activity and accelerates the polymerization and depolymerization of actin in a Ca2+-sensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Etsuo; Tominaga, Motoki; Mabuchi, Issei; Tsuji, Yasunori; Staiger, Christopher J; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Shimmen, Teruo

    2005-10-01

    From germinating pollen of lily, two types of villins, P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP, have been identified biochemically. Ca(2+)-CaM-dependent actin-filament binding and bundling activities have been demonstrated for both villins previously. Here, we examined the effects of lily villins on the polymerization and depolymerization of actin. P-115-ABP and P-135-ABP present in a crude protein extract prepared from germinating pollen bound to a DNase I affinity column in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. Purified P-135-ABP reduced the lag period that precedes actin filament polymerization from monomers in the presence of either Ca(2+) or Ca(2+)-CaM. These results indicated that P-135-ABP can form a complex with G-actin in the presence of Ca(2+) and this complex acts as a nucleus for polymerization of actin filaments. However, the nucleation activity of P-135-ABP is probably not relevant in vivo because the assembly of G-actin saturated with profilin, a situation that mimics conditions found in pollen, was not accelerated in the presence of P-135-ABP. P-135-ABP also enhanced the depolymerization of actin filaments during dilution-mediated disassembly. Growth from filament barbed ends in the presence of Ca(2+)-CaM was also prevented, consistent with filament capping activity. These results suggested that lily villin is involved not only in the arrangement of actin filaments into bundles in the basal and shank region of the pollen tube, but also in regulating and modulating actin dynamics through its capping and depolymerization (or fragmentation) activities in the apical region of the pollen tube, where there is a relatively high concentration of Ca(2+).

  9. Neurotrophins in chronic allergic airway inflammation and remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renz, Harald; Kiliç, Ayşe

    2012-01-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, TH2 inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodeling. Airway remodeling represents the disease-limiting stage during disease progression, and the underlying cellular molecular network resulting in airway remodeling are still poorly defined. In addition to the well-established TH2-dependent inflammatory response, several lines of investigation reveal that this regulation in the peripheral central nervous system contributes to disease development, exacerbation and progression. Several members of the neurotrophin family (e.g. nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor) are important transmitters of signals between the immune and the nervous system. Recent data indicate that NGF contributes to the development of airway remodeling in an inflammation and TGF-independent manner. These and other data open the opportunity to therapeutically interfere also on this level of regulation as a novel approach. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Maternal smoking during pregnancy induces airway remodelling in mice offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacquiere, M. J.; Timens, W.; Melgert, B. N.; Geerlings, M.; Postma, D. S.; Hylkema, M. N.

    Children from smoking mothers have an increased risk of developing asthma for reasons largely unknown. The effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on remodelling, allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in offspring were investigated in an experimental asthma model. Mice were

  11. Aortic remodelling in aortic dissection after frozen elephant trunk†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Daniel-Sebastian; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Janosi, Rolf Alexander; Benedik, Jaroslav; Kühl, Hilmar; Penkova, Liuba; Stebner, Ferdinand; Wendt, Daniel; Jakob, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Frozen elephant trunk (FET) can be used for continuous downstream aorta treatment in acute aortic dissection (AAD) and chronic aortic dissection (CAD). The study reports the changes in the lumen volumes along the downstream aorta towards remodelling. In 70 patients (22 CAD, 48 AAD), pre-, postoperative and at least the 1-year follow-up aortic imaging was available. Volume changes of aortic lumen (AL) and true lumen (TL) between examinations along the stent graft aortic segment (A), downstream to coeliac trunk (B) and distally to bifurcation (C) were used for quantification. TL increase >10% with stable AL or AL decrease >10% with stable TL were classified as positive, changes within a 10% threshold as stable, and all other changes as negative remodelling. In AAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (90%), B (65%), C (58%) within 1 year, thereafter in 26 patients (follow-up: 47 ± 21 months) in A (92%), B (65%), C (62%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 5/26 (19%) patients. In CAD, positive or stable remodelling occurred in A (100%), B (86%), C (77%) within 1 year, thereafter in 16 patients (follow-up: 46 ± 20 months) in A (75%), B (44%), C (38%). Negative remodelling in ≥2 segments was found in 7/16 (43%) patients, 5 underwent reintervention, and stabilized thereafter. FET facilitates positive remodelling in AAD and CAD down to stent graft level. Distally, 20% AAD and 40% CAD patients remain at risk for secondary reintervention, and can be identified by negative remodelling in ≥2 segments in the follow-up examinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  12. Vascular remodeling of the mouse yolk sac requires hemodynamic force

    OpenAIRE

    Lucitti, Jennifer L.; Jones, Elizabeth; Huang, Chengqun; Chen, Ju; Fraser, Scott E.; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    The embryonic heart and vessels are dynamic and form and remodel while functional. Much has been learned about the genetic mechanisms underlying the development of the cardiovascular system, but we are just beginning to understand how changes in heart and vessel structure are influenced by hemodynamic forces such as shear stress. Recent work has shown that vessel remodeling in the mouse yolk sac is secondarily effected when cardiac function is reduced or absent. These findings indicate that p...

  13. Cardiac Remodelling and Fibrosis in Cardiomyopathy: Role of Galectin-3

    OpenAIRE

    MY-NHAN NGUYEN

    2018-01-01

    This thesis provides a comprehensive investigation on the contribution of heart scarring, known as cardiac fibrosis, to remodelling and impaired function of the heart. It highlights a relationship between the presence of cardiac fibrosis and severity of irregular heartbeats, and demonstrated the complex role of a molecule called ‘galectin-3’ in the pathogenesis of fibrosis and remodelling in cardiomyopathy. The thesis provides new mechanisms for elevation of galectin-3 blood levels that is in...

  14. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrannini, Giulia; Namwanje, Maria; Fang, Bin; Damle, Manashree; Li, Dylan; Liu, Qiongming; Lazar, Mitchell A.; Qiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Genetic background largely contributes to the complexity of metabolic responses and dysfunctions. Induction of brown adipose features in white fat, known as brown remodeling, has been appreciated as a promising strategy to offset the positive energy balance in obesity and further to improve metabolism. Here we address the effects of genetic background on this process. Methods: We investigated browning remodeling in a depot-specific manner by comparing the response of C57BL/6J, 1...

  15. Effect of Ovariectomy on Stimulating Intracortical Remodeling in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Technically primates and dogs represent ideal models to investigate diseases characterized by abnormal intracortical remodeling. High expenses and ethical issues, however, restrict the use of those animals in research. Rodent models have been used as alternatives instead, but their value is limited, if none, because these animals lack intracortical bone remodeling. This study aimed at investigating the effect of ovariectomy onto the stimulation of intracortical remodeling in rat mandibles. Materials and Methods. Sixteen 12-week-old Spraque-Dawly (SD female rats were randomly assigned into two groups, receiving either ovariectomy or sham operation. All the rats were sacrificed 18 weeks postoperatively. The entire mandibles were harvested for microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assessments. Results. Micro-CT examination showed significantly decreased bone mineral density (0.95 ± 0.01 versus 1.01 ± 0.02 g/cm3, P<0.001 and bone volume (65.78 ± 5.45 versus 87.41 ± 4.12%, P<0.001 in ovariectomy group. Histomorphometric assessment detected a sixfold increased intracortical bone remodeling as well as an increased bone modeling in mandibles of ovariectomized rats. Conclusion. For the first time, to the authors’ knowledge, it was detected that ovariectomy stimulates intracortical remodeling in rat mandibles. This animal model might be of use to study various bone diseases associated with an abnormal intracortical remodeling process.

  16. REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE: ONE OR SEVERAL SCENARIOS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kalyuzhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of the review have analyzed papers published on the problem of remodeling of the left ventricle (LV, which is in accordance with a consensus paper from an International Forum on Cardiac Remodeling may be defined as genome expression, molecular, cellular and interstitial changes that are manifested clinically as changes in size, shape and function of the LV after cardiac injury. Remodeling of the LV is often seen as a nonspecific process independent of the nature of the underlying disease (cluster of disease. This approach, contrary to the theory of multimodal response of the myocardium (myocytes and interstitium on the molecular-genetic, cellular, tissue, and organ levels, largely depending on the nature and duration of the triggering factor, as well as modern ideas about the types of LV remodeling and dividing the latter into serdechadaptive and non-adaptive forms, was the subject of legitimate criticism. Analyzed scenarios the molecular and cellular events, as well as deals with diagnosis of left ventricular remodeling. Discusses the classification of LV remodeling.

  17. Direct imaging of reptation for semiflexible actin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käs, J; Strey, H; Sackmann, E

    1994-03-17

    According to the reptation model of polymer diffusion, a polymer chain exhibits snake-like motion through the entangled mesh of surrounding molecules, in which the undulations of the chain are restricted to a tube-like region. The reptation model can account for many of the dynamic properties of entangled polymer solutions and melts, and has received support from observations of block copolymer diffusion across an interface; but reptative motion has not previously been imaged directly. Here we report such a direct observation of reptation, obtained by video microscopy of fluorescently labelled single, semiflexible filaments of actin in a solution of unlabelled actin filaments. From the restricted thermal undulations of these filaments we can measure the diameter of the confining tube, and we also observe the characteristic thermally excited sliding of the filament out of the end of the tube. We find that the chain self-diffusion coefficient decreases approximately linearly as the filament length increases, in agreement with the reptation model.

  18. Actin in dividing cells: contractile ring filaments bind heavy meromyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, T E

    1973-06-01

    Many microfilaments and microtubules are well preserved after glycerol-extraction of HeLa cells at room temperature (22 degrees ). Incubation in heavy meromyosin from rabbit skeletal muscle results in conspicuous and characteristic "decoration" of microfilaments of the contractile ring. Decoration is completely prevented by 10 mM ATP or 2 mM pyrophosphate, and fails to occur if heavy meromyosin is either omitted or replaced by egg albumin, a nonspecific protein. Decorated microfilaments have a substructure consisting of polarized, repeating arrowheads 27-35 nm apart. The specificity of these results strongly suggests that microfilaments of the contractile ring in HeLa cells are closely related to muscle actin. Very thin undecorated strands among the microfilaments of the contractile ring possibly represent a myosin component. These findings are discussed in terms of: the actomyosin-like properties of the contractile ring as a mechanochemical organelle that causes cell cleavage; the probable universal occurrence of actin-like protein in all dividing animal cells; and the contractile ring's combined sensitivity to cytochalasin B and its affinity for heavy meromyosin, a combination unique among microfilamentous organelles.

  19. Model of cellular mechanotransduction via actin stress fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouget, Cecile L M; Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical stresses due to blood flow regulate vascular endothelial cell structure and function and play a key role in arterial physiology and pathology. In particular, the development of atherosclerosis has been shown to correlate with regions of disturbed blood flow where endothelial cells are round and have a randomly organized cytoskeleton. Thus, deciphering the relation between the mechanical environment, cell structure, and cell function is a key step toward understanding the early development of atherosclerosis. Recent experiments have demonstrated very rapid (∼100 ms) and long-distance (∼10 μm) cellular mechanotransduction in which prestressed actin stress fibers play a critical role. Here, we develop a model of mechanical signal transmission within a cell by describing strains in a network of prestressed viscoelastic stress fibers following the application of a force to the cell surface. We find force transmission dynamics that are consistent with experimental results. We also show that the extent of stress fiber alignment and the direction of the applied force relative to this alignment are key determinants of the efficiency of mechanical signal transmission. These results are consistent with the link observed experimentally between cytoskeletal organization, mechanical stress, and cellular responsiveness to stress. Based on these results, we suggest that mechanical strain of actin stress fibers under force constitutes a key link in the mechanotransduction chain.

  20. Chronic actinic dermatitis - A study of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somani Vijay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic actinic dermatitis (CAD, one of the immune mediated photo-dermatoses, comprises a spectrum of conditions including persistent light reactivity, photosensitive eczema and actinic reticuloid. Diagnostic criteria were laid down about 20 years back, but clinical features are the mainstay in diagnosis. In addition to extreme sensitivity to UVB, UVA and/or visible light, about three quarters of patients exhibit contact sensitivity to several allergens, which may contribute to the etiopathogenesis of CAD. This study was undertaken to examine the clinical features of CAD in India and to evaluate the relevance of patch testing and photo-aggravation testing in the diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The clinical data of nine patients with CAD were analyzed. Histopathology, patch testing and photo-aggravation testing were also performed. Results: All the patients were males. The average age of onset was 57 years. The first episode was usually noticed in the beginning of summer. Later the disease gradually tended to be perennial, without any seasonal variations. The areas affected were mainly the photo-exposed areas in all patients, and the back in three patients. Erythroderma was the presenting feature in two patients. The palms and soles were involved in five patients. Patch testing was positive in seven of nine patients. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CAD mainly depended upon the history and clinical features. The incidence of erythroderma and palmoplantar eczema was high in our series. Occupation seems to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of CAD.

  1. Low-dimensional manifold of actin polymerization dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Carlos; Jarzynski, Christopher; Papoian, Garegin

    2017-12-01

    Actin filaments are critical components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton, playing important roles in a number of cellular functions, such as cell migration, organelle transport, and mechanosensation. They are helical polymers with a well-defined polarity, composed of globular subunits that bind nucleotides in one of three hydrolysis states (ATP, ADP-Pi, or ADP). Mean-field models of the dynamics of actin polymerization have succeeded in, among other things, determining the nucleotide profile of an average filament and resolving the mechanisms of accessory proteins. However, these models require numerical solution of a high-dimensional system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. By truncating a set of recursion equations, the Brooks–Carlsson (BC) model reduces dimensionality to 11, but it still remains nonlinear and does not admit an analytical solution, hence, significantly hindering understanding of its resulting dynamics. In this work, by taking advantage of the fast timescales of the hydrolysis states of the filament tips, we propose two model reduction schemes: the quasi steady-state approximation model is five-dimensional and nonlinear, whereas the constant tip (CT) model is five-dimensional and linear, resulting from the approximation that the tip states are not dynamic variables. We provide an exact solution of the CT model and use it to shed light on the dynamical behaviors of the full BC model, highlighting the relative ordering of the timescales of various collective processes, and explaining some unusual dependence of the steady-state behavior on initial conditions.

  2. A Multimodular Tensegrity Model of an Actin Stress Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yaozhi; Xu, Xian; Lele, Tanmay; Kumar, Sanjay; Ingber, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Stress fibers are contractile bundles in the cytoskeleton that stabilize cell structure by exerting traction forces on extracellular matrix. Individual stress fibers are molecular bundles composed of parallel actin and myosin filaments linked by various actin-binding proteins, which are organized end-on-end in a sarcomere-like pattern within an elongated three-dimensional network. While measurements of single stress fibers in living cells show that they behave like tensed viscoelastic fibers, precisely how this mechanical behavior arises from this complex supramolecular arrangement of protein components remains unclear. Here we show that computationally modeling a stress fiber as a multi-modular tensegrity network can predict several key behaviors of stress fibers measured in living cells, including viscoelastic retraction, fiber splaying after severing, non-uniform contraction, and elliptical strain of a puncture wound within the fiber. The tensegrity model also can explain how they simultaneously experience passive tension and generate active contraction forces; in contrast, a tensed cable net model predicts some, but not all, of these properties. Thus, tensegrity models may provide a useful link between molecular and cellular scale mechanical behaviors, and represent a new handle on multi-scale modeling of living materials. PMID:18632107

  3. ECM-Stimulated Actin Bundle Formation in Embryonic Corneal Epithelia is Tyrosine Phosphorylation Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    SVOBODA, KATHY K.H.; ORLOW, DANIEL L.; CHU, CHIA LIN; REENSTRA, WENDE R.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that corneal epithelial cells isolated without basal lamina respond to extracellular matrix (ECM) in an actin dependent manner; the basal cell surface flattens and the actin cortical mat reorganizes. We hypothesize that the actin reorganization is initiated by intracellular signaling mechanisms that includes tyrosine phoshporylation and activation of the Rho, MAP kinase, and PI3 kinase signal transduction pathways. Our goals were to develop a morphological assay to test this hypothesis by answering the following questions: 1) Do the actin bundle formations in the cortical mat have the same configuration in response to different ECM molecules? 2) What is the minimum time ECM molecules need to be in contact with the tissue for the actin to reorganize? 3) Will blocking tyrosine phosphorylation inhibit reorganization of the actin? 4) Are known signal transduction proteins phosphorylated in response to soluble matrix molecules? The actin cortical mat demonstrated distinct bundle configurations in the presence of different ECM molecules. Soluble fibronectin accumulated at the basal cell surfaces 75-fold over 30 min in a clustered pattern. The cells need contact with ECM for a minimum of 10 min to reform the actin bundles at 2 hr. In contrast, two substances that bind to heptahelical receptors to stimulate the Rho pathway, bombesin and lysophosphatidic acid, reorganized the actin bundles in 15–30 min. Focal adhesion kinase, p190 Rho-GAP, tensin, and paxillin we