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Sample records for acs nearby galaxy

  1. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Skillman, Evan D; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Karachentsev, Igor D; Olsen, Knut; Weisz, Daniel; Christensen, Charlotte; Freeman, Ken; Gilbert, Karoline; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; Hodge, Paul; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentseva, Valentina; Mateo, Mario; Stetson, Peter B; Tavarez, Maritza; Zaritsky, Dennis; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both t he ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  2. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury. X. Quantifying the Star Cluster Formation Efficiency of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Dale, Daniel A; Johnson, L Clifton; Weisz, Daniel R; Fouesneau, Morgan; Olsen, Knut A G; Engelbracht, Charles W; Dalcanton, Julianne J

    2012-01-01

    We study the relationship between the field star formation and cluster formation properties in a large sample of nearby dwarf galaxies. We use optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope and from ground-based telescopes to derive the ages and masses of the young (t_age < 100Myr) cluster sample. Our data provides the first constraints on two proposed relationships between the star formation rate of galaxies and the properties of their cluster systems in the low star formation rate regime. The data show broad agreement with these relationships, but significant galaxy-to-galaxy scatter exists. In part, this scatter can be accounted for by simulating the small number of clusters detected from stochastically sampling the cluster mass function. However, this stochasticity does not fully account for the observed scatter in our data suggesting there may be true variations in the fraction of stars formed in clusters in dwarf galaxies. Comparison of the cluster formation and the brightest cluster in our sample gala...

  3. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury IV. The Star Formation History of NGC 2976

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Stilp, Adrienne; Gilbert, Karoline M; Roskar, Rok; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Skillman, Evan; Holtzman, Jon

    2009-01-01

    We present resolved stellar photometry of NGC 2976 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program. The data cover the radial extent of the major axis of the disk out to 6 kpc, or ~6 scale lengths. The outer disk was imaged to a depth of M_F606W ~ 1, and an inner field was imaged to the crowding limit at a depth of M_F606W ~ -1. Through detailed analysis and modeling of these CMDs we have reconstructed the star formation history of the stellar populations currently residing in these portions of the galaxy, finding similar ancient populations at all radii but significantly different young populations at increasing radii. In particular, outside of the well-measured break in the disk surface brightness profile, the age of the youngest population increases with distance from the galaxy center, suggesting that star formation is shutting down from the outside-in. We use our measured star formation history, along with H I surface density measuremen...

  4. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VIII. The Global Star Formation Histories of 60 Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Karoline M; Skillman, Evan D; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew E; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Holtzman, Jon; Rosema, Keith; Cole, Andrew; Karachentsev, Igor D; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 60 nearby (D~4Mpc) dwarf galaxies based on CMDs of resolved stellar populations from images taken with HST as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury program (ANGST). This volume-limited sample contains 12 dSph/dE, 5 dwarf spiral, 28 dI, 12 transition, and 3 tidal dwarf galaxies. From the best fit SFHs we find three significant results: (1) the average dwarf galaxy formed >50% of its stars by z~2 and 60% of its stars by z~1, regardless of current morphological type; (2) the mean SFHs of dIs, dTrans, and dSphs are similar over most of cosmic time, with the clearest differences appearing during the most recent 1 Gyr; and (3) the mean values are inconsistent with simple SFH models, e.g., exponentially declining SFRs. The mean SFHs are in general agreement with the cosmic SFH, although we observe offsets near z~1 that could be evidence that low mass systems experienced delayed star formation relative to more massive galaxies. The sample shows ...

  5. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury V. Radial Star Formation History of NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Gogarten, Stephanie M; Williams, Benjamin F; Roskar, Rok; Holtzman, Jon; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Debattista, Victor P; Gilbert, Karoline M; Olsen, Knut; Skillman, Evan; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentsev, Igor D; Quinn, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of NGC 300 taken as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). Individual stars are resolved in these images down to an absolute magnitude of M_F814W = 1.0 (below the red clump). We determine the star formation history of the galaxy in 6 radial bins by comparing our observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with synthetic CMDs based on theoretical isochrones. We find that the stellar disk out to 5.4 kpc is primarily old, in contrast with the outwardly similar galaxy M33. We determine the scale length as a function of age and find evidence for inside-out growth of the stellar disk: the scale length has increased from 1.1 +/- 0.1 kpc 10 Gyr ago to 1.3 +/- 0.1 kpc at present, indicating a buildup in the fraction of young stars at larger radii. As the scale length of M33 has recently been shown to have increased much more dramatically with time, our results demonstrate that two galaxies with similar sizes and morphologies can have very different ...

  6. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury IX. Constraining asymptotic giant branch evolution with old metal-poor galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, Leo; Gilbert, Karoline M; Rosenfield, Philip; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Marigo, Paola; Boyer, Martha L; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel R; Melbourne, Jason; Olsen, Knut A G; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to constrain evolutionary models of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase at the limit of low masses and low metallicities, we have examined the luminosity functions and number ratio between AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars from a sample of resolved galaxies from the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). This database provides HST optical photometry together with maps of completeness, photometric errors, and star formation histories for dozens of galaxies within 4 Mpc. We select 12 galaxies characterized by predominantly metal-poor populations as indicated by a very steep and blue RGB, and which do not present any indication of recent star formation in their color--magnitude diagrams. Thousands of AGB stars brighter than the tip of the RGB (TRGB) are present in the sample (between 60 and 400 per galaxy), hence the Poisson noise has little impact in our measurements of the AGB/RGB ratio. We model the photometric data with a few sets of thermally pulsing AGB (TP-AGB) evolutionary models...

  7. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury I. The Star Formation History of the M81 Outer Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel; Dolphin, Andrew; Skillman, Evan; Harris, Jason; Holtzman, Jon; Girardi, Leo; de Jong, Roelof S; Olsen, Knut; Cole, Andrew; Gallart, Carme; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Hidalgo, Sebastian L; Mateo, Mario; Rosema, Keith; Stetson, Peter B; Quinn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a large Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) treasury program to obtain resolved stellar photometry for a volume-limited sample of galaxies out to 4 Mpc. As part of this program, we have obtained deep ACS imaging of a field in the outer disk of the large spiral galaxy M81. The field contains the outskirts of a spiral arm as well as an area containing no current star formation. Our imaging results in a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) reaching to F814W = 28.8 and F606W = 29.5, one magnitude fainter than the red clump. Through detailed modeling of the full CMD, we quantify the age and metallicity distribution of the stellar populations contained in the field. The mean metallicity in the field is -1~100 Myr. We discuss the measured evolution of the M81 disk in the context of surveys of high-redshift disk galaxies and deep stellar photometry of other nearby galaxies. All of these indicate that massive spiral disks are mostly formed by z~1 and...

  8. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VI. The Ancient Star Forming disk of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Karoline M; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. Our deepest field reaches the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ~70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z~2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ~90% formed prior to z~1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early and late type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in GALEX images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mas...

  9. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  10. The History of Star Formation in Galaxy Disks in the Local Volume as Measured by the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Johnson, L C; Weisz, Daniel R; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Gilbert, Karoline M; Skillman, Evan; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Holtzman, Jon; de Jong, Roelof S

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the age distribution of stars residing in spiral disks and dwarf galaxies. We derive a complete star formation history of the ~140 Mpc^3 covered by the volume-limited sample of galaxies in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). The total star formation rate density history is dominated by the large spirals in the volume, although the sample consists mainly of dwarf galaxies. Our measurement shows a factor of ~3 drop at z~2, in approximate agreement with results from other measurement techniques. While our results show that the overall star formation rate density has decreased since z~1, the measured rates during this epoch are higher than those obtained from other measurement techniques. This enhanced recent star formation rate appears to be largely due to an increase in the fraction of star formation contained in low-mass disks at recent times. Finally, our results indicate that despite the differences at recent times, the epoch of formation o...

  11. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury XI. The Remarkably Undisturbed NGC 2403 Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Skillman, Evan D; Radburn-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC2403, obtained from a deep (m<28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC2403, supplemented by several shallow (m<26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24-micron fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirror s the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of 100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer (2x10^{-6} M_{\\sun} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these cha...

  12. Magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.; Braun, R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a recent full-polarization radio continuum survey, performed using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), of several nearby galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The WSRT-SINGS survey has been utilized to study the polarized emission and

  13. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves

    2003-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan const

  14. Satellite galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vennik, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyse distribution, kinematics and star-formation (SF) properties of satellite galaxies in three different samples of nearby groups. We find that studied groups are generally well approximated by low-concentration NFW model, show a variety of LOS velocity dispersion profiles and signs of SF quenching in outskirts of dwarf satellite galaxies.

  15. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury II. Young Stars and their Relation to Halpha and UV Emission Timescales in the M81 Outer Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Gogarten, Stephanie M; Williams, Benjamin F; Seth, Anil C; Dolphin, Andrew; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan; Holtzman, Jon; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; de Jong, Roelof S; Karachentsev, Igor D; Olsen, Knut; Rosema, Keith

    2008-01-01

    We have obtained resolved stellar photometry from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of a field in the outer disk of M81 as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). Motivated by the recent discovery of extended UV (XUV) disks around many nearby spiral galaxies, we use the observed stellar population to derive the recent star formation histories of five ~0.5 kpc-sized regions within this field. These regions were selected on the basis of their UV luminosity from GALEX and include two HII regions, two regions which are UV-bright but Halpha-faint, and one "control" region faint in both UV and Halpha. We estimate our effective SFR detection limit at ~2 x 10^-4 Msun/yr, which is lower than that of GALEX for regions of this size. As expected, the HII regions contain massive main sequence stars (in the mass range 18-27 Msun, based on our best extinction estimates), while similar massive main sequence stars are lacking in the UV-bright/Halpha-faint regions. The o...

  16. Nuclear Activity in Nearby Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Bergmann Storchi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss some recent observational results in the research of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN. These results cover three main topics: (i evidences for the current paradigm for AGN´s, which includes a nuclear supermassive blackhole (SMBH fed via an accretion disk; (ii evidence that this paradigm may also apply to LINER´s, the lowest luminous AGN´s and to normal galaxies; (iii evidences of how the fueling of the SMBH occurs and its relation to recent and intermediate age (106 to 108 yrs old episodes of star formation.

  17. The AGN Population in Nearby Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes; Barthel, Peter; Ho, Luis

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the incidence of black hole accretion-driven nuclear activity in nearby galaxies, we have compiled radio data for the LINERs, composite LINER,/Hn and Seyfert galaxies from a complete magnitude-limited sample of bright nearby galaxies (Palomar sample). Our results show an overal

  18. Important Nearby Galaxies without Accurate Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    The Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and its offspring programs (e.g., THINGS, HERACLES, KINGFISH) have resulted in a fundamental change in our view of star formation and the ISM in galaxies, and together they represent the most complete multi-wavelength data set yet assembled for a large sample of nearby galaxies. These great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the goal of understanding the interstellar medium, the star formation process, and, more generally, galactic evolution at the present epoch. Nearby galaxies provide the basis for which we interpret the distant universe, and the SINGS sample represents the best studied nearby galaxies.Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the SINGS spiral galaxies have numerous distance estimates resulting in confusion. We can rectify this situation for 8 of the SINGS spiral galaxies within 10 Mpc at a very low cost through measurements of the tip of the red giant branch. The proposed observations will provide an accuracy of better than 0.1 in distance modulus. Our sample includes such well known galaxies as M51 (the Whirlpool), M63 (the Sunflower), M104 (the Sombrero), and M74 (the archetypal grand design spiral).We are also proposing coordinated parallel WFC3 UV observations of the central regions of the galaxies, rich with high-mass UV-bright stars. As a secondary science goal we will compare the resolved UV stellar populations with integrated UV emission measurements used in calibrating star formation rates. Our observations will complement the growing HST UV atlas of high resolution images of nearby galaxies.

  19. The Mass Function of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Biviano, A; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1993-01-01

    We present the distribution of virial masses for nearby galaxy clusters, as obtained from a data-set of 75 clusters, each having at least 20 galaxy members with measured redshifts within 1 Abell radius. After having accounted for problems of incompleteness of the data-set, we fitted a power-law to the cluster mass distribution.

  20. Characterising Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramphul, R.; Vaisanen, P.; Van der Heyden, K.

    2017-06-01

    Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (LIRGs) in the local universe are known to be highly interacting galaxies with strong star-formation in obscured environments. LIRGs have diversity in terms of morphology and mode and location of SF, while their even more energetic counterparts, the Ultra-Luminous IR galaxies, ULIRGs, (LIR ≥ 10^12 Lsol ) are normally (remnants of) gas rich major mergers with centralised starbursts and AGN. I will present ongoing work on a survey of >40 (U)LIRGs, in a distance range of 40 to 300Mpc, observed with SALT/RSS in long-slit mode. The sample of galaxies are in various stages of interaction and merging, some with strong AGN contribution. The reduction of the SALT/RSS data, was performed efficiently with our custom-built pipeline written in python/iraf/pyraf and handles error-frames propagation. We are performing a rigorous stellar populations analysis of our sample using Starlight (Cid Fernandes, 2005) which will ultimately lead to understanding the star formation history of these galaxies. We also use automatic line intensity measurements to derive chemical abundances, star formation rates, metallicity and emission line diagnostic. The talk will showcase the latest results that we just obtained for this dataset and discuss some of the future works.

  1. Infrared Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We used the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5) to study the morphological properties of 1137 nearby infrared (IR) galaxies, most of which are brighter than 15.9 mag in r-band. This sample was drawn from a cross-correlation of the Infra-Red Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) point source catalog redshift survey with DR5 at z(≤)0.08. Based on this IR galaxy sample, we constructed five volume-limited sub-samples with IR luminosity ranging from 109.5L⊙ to 1012L⊙. By deriving the IR luminosity functions (LF) for different morphological types, we found that normal spiral galaxies are the dominant population below LIR~ 8 × 1010 L⊙; while the fraction of barred spiral galaxies increases with increasing IR luminosity and becomes dominant in spiral galaxies beyond LIR(≈) 5×1010L⊙. As the IR luminosity decreases, the IR galaxies become more compact and have lower stellar masses. The analysis also shows that normal spiral galaxies give the dominant contribution to the total comoving IR energy density in the nearby universe, while, in contrast, the contribution from peculiar galaxies is only 39%.

  2. The ISM in nearby galaxies: NGC1365

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, Willem; Loenen, Edo; Spaans, Marco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a sensitive spectral survey of the nuclear region of the nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1365. These observations are to confirm a similar program carried out in 2007, which suffers from severe bandpass issues. The previous observations have resulted in 76+ tentative detections, includ

  3. Tracing Cold HI Gas in Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Steven R; Stilp, Adrienne M; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Ott, Juergen; Walter, Fabian; Petersen, Eric A; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array - ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T $\\lesssim$ 1400 K) HI from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc/beam. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total HI mass and nine magnitudes in M_B. We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low dispersion (<6 km/s) component of the spectrum. Most HI spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km/s. Cold HI is found in 23 of 27 (~85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality control cuts. The cold HI contributes ~20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm HI. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold HI emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions <6 km/s) are found primarily beyon...

  4. Molecular gas in nearby powerful radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Combes, F; Van Trung, D

    2001-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the central region of nearby 3CR radio galaxies (z$<$ 0.03). Out of 21 galaxies, 8 have been detected in, at least, one of the two CO transitions. The total molecular gas content is below 10$^9$ \\msun. Their individual CO emission exhibit, for 5 cases, a double-horned line profile that is characteristic of an inclined rotating disk with a central depression at the rising part of its rotation curve. The inferred disk or ring distributions of the molecular gas is consistent with the observed presence of dust disks or rings detected optically in the cores of the galaxies. We reason that if their gas originates from the mergers of two gas-rich disk galaxies, as has been invoked to explain the molecular gas in other radio galaxies, then these galaxies must have merged a long time ago (few Gyr or more) but their remnant elliptical galaxies only recently (last 10$^7$ years or less) become active radio galaxies. Instead, we argue the the cannibalism of g...

  5. WINGS: WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    WFIRST's combination of wide field and high resolution will revolutionize the study of nearby galaxies. We propose to produce and analyze simulated WFIRST data of nearby galaxies and their halos to maximize the scientific yield in the limited observing time available, ensuring the legacy value of WFIRST's eventual archive. We will model both halo structure and resolved stellar populations to optimize WFIRST's constraints on both dark matter and galaxy formation models in the local universe. WFIRST can map galaxy structure down to ~35 mag/square arcsecond using individual stars. The resulting maps of stellar halos and accreting dwarf companions will provide stringent tests of galaxy formation and dark matter models on galactic (and even sub-galactic) scales, which is where the most theoretical tension exists with the Lambda-CDM model. With a careful, coordinated plan, WFIRST can be expected to improve current sample sizes by 2 orders of magnitude, down to surface brightness limits comparable to those currently reached only in the Local Group, and that are >4 magnitudes fainter than achievable from the ground due to limitations in star-galaxy separation. WFIRST's maps of galaxy halos will simultaneously produce photometry for billions of stars in the main bodies of galaxies within 10 Mpc. These data will transform studies of star formation histories that track stellar mass growth as a function of time and position within a galaxy. They also will constrain critical stellar evolution models of the near-infrared bright, rapidly evolving stars that can contribute significantly to the integrated light of galaxies in the near-infrared. Thus, with WFIRST we can derive the detailed evolution of individual galaxies, reconstruct the complete history of star formation in the nearby universe, and put crucial constraints on the theoretical models used to interpret near-infrared extragalactic observations. We propose a three-component work plan that will ensure these gains by

  6. Characterizing Lyman Alpha Scattering in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Östlin, Göran; Gronwall, Caryl

    2017-01-01

    The hydrogen emission line of Lyman alpha (Lyα) has long been recognized as key to studying high redshift star-forming galaxies. However, due to the resonance of the emission line, the path that a Lyα photon takes from emission to eventual escape from the galaxy is essentially a mystery. This scattering poses a problem for using Lyα as a key emission feature of galaxies because it results in Lyα not being observed in all star-forming galaxies, and, in galaxies where it is observed, the place where the photon is originally emitted and where it is observed are two very different things. We discuss here how the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) provides a unique sample of 14 nearby (0.02 Space Telescope imaging. We compare the Lyα/Hα ratios with those expected from pure dust attenuation models, finding that in some cases significant positive departures are found on small scales, consistent with geometrical effects being important on sizes comparable to the HII regions. We then develop a simple scattering model in which we are able to estimate the average path length a Lyα photon travels with respect to non-resonant radiation, and quantifiy the excess dust optical depth to which Lyα radiation may be susceptible.

  7. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey: A Census of the Stellar Halos of Nearby Luminous Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Allison T.

    2017-01-01

    The Dragonfly Telephoto Array, comprised of 48 individual Canon telephoto lenses operating together as a single telescope, is an innovative approach to low surface brightness imaging and the study of galactic stellar halos in particular. Sub-nanometer coatings on each optical element reduce scattered light from nearby bright stars and compact galaxy centers - typically a key obstacle for integrated light observations - by an order of magnitude, and Dragonfly's large field of view (2x2.6 degrees for a single frame) provides a large-scale view of stellar halos free from substructure biases. Using extremely deep (>30 mag/arcsec^2) optical imaging in g and r bands from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS), we have characterized the stellar halos of a sample of ~20 nearby luminous galaxies. I will present measurements of the stellar halo mass fractions of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass, morphology, and environment, and discuss the scatter in halo fractions in the context of the galaxies' individual accretion histories.

  8. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  9. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  10. An Updated Ultraviolet Catalog of GALEX Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song

    2015-01-01

    The ultraviolet catalog of nearby galaxies made by \\citet{Gil07} presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by \\textit{Galaxy Evolution Explorer} (\\textit{GALEX}). We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of \\textit{GALEX}. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameter larger than 1{\\arcmin}. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured with the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of \\citet{Gil07}. The (FUV $- K$) color provides a good criterion to distinguish early and late-type galaxies, which can be impro...

  11. The Nearby Field Galaxy Survey a spectrophotometric and photometric study of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, R A

    2001-01-01

    We report on our observing program to obtain integrated spectrophotometry, intermediate and high resolution major axis spectra, and U,B,R surface photo- metry of a representative sample of ~200 galaxies in the nearby field. The main goal of this program is to provide a comparison sample for high redshift studies and to study the variation in star formation rates (SFR), star forma- tion history (SFH), excitation, metallicity, and internal kinematics over a large range in galaxy luminosity and morphological type. In particular, we extend the work of Kennicutt (1992) to lower luminosity systems. We present the main results of our analysis sofar. In these proceedings, we condense the presented two atlases of (1) images and radial surface brightness profiles and color profiles, and (2) of images and integrated spectra into several example images, profiles and spectra, showing the general trends observed. For the original atlasses we refer to the electronic version, available at http://www.astro.rug.nl/~nfgs/ .

  12. Galaxy Clustering Around Nearby Luminous Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karl B.; Bahcall, John N.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Schneider, Donald P.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z approx. less than 0.30) quasars observed with the Wide Field Camera-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST resolution makes possible galaxy identification brighter than V = 24.5 and as close as 1 min or 2 min to the quasar. We find a significant enhancement of galaxies within a projected separation of approx. less than 100 1/h kpc of the quasars. If we model the QSO/galaxy correlation function as a power law with a slope given by the galaxy/galaxy correlation function, we find that the ratio of the QSO/galaxy to galaxy/galaxy correlation functions is 3.8 +/- 0.8. The galaxy counts within r less than 15 1/h kpc of the quasars are too high for the density profile to have an appreciable core radius (approx. greater than 100 1/h kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  13. A Survey of nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Gordon

    2014-09-01

    This is a continuation of a survey of nearby, nearly face-on spiral galaxies. The main purpose is to search for evidence of collisions with small galaxies that show up in X-rays by the generation of hot shocked gas from the collision. Secondary objectives include study of the spatial distribution point sources in the galaxy and to detect evidence for a central massive blackhole.

  14. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Bock, J.; Bradford, M; Fadda, D.; Levenson, L.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Wright, G.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25−500 μm spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temper...

  15. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Auld, R.; Baes, Maarten; Bendo, GJ; S. Bianchi; Bock, J.; Bomans, DJ; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Clemens, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mu m spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated by the synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temp...

  16. AN UPDATED ULTRAVIOLET CATALOG OF GALEX NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yu; Zou, Hu; Liu, JiFeng; Wang, Song, E-mail: ybai@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: zouhu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: songw@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang Distict, 100012 Beijing (China)

    2015-09-15

    The ultraviolet (UV) catalog of nearby galaxies compiled by Gil de Paz et al. presents the integrated photometry and surface brightness profiles for 1034 nearby galaxies observed by GALEX. We provide an updated catalog of 4138 nearby galaxies based on the latest Genral Release (GR6/GR7) of GALEX. These galaxies are selected from HyperLeda with apparent diameters larger than 1′. From the surface brightness profiles accurately measured using the deep NUV and FUV images, we have calculated the asymptotic magnitudes, aperture (D25) magnitudes, colors, structural parameters (effective radii and concentration indices), luminosities, and effective surface brightness for these galaxies. Archival optical and infrared photometry from HyperLeda, 2MASS, and IRAS are also integrated into the catalog. Our parameter measurements and some analyses are consistent with those of Paz et al. The (FUV − K) color provides a good criterion to distinguish between early- and late-type galaxies, which can be improved further using the concentration indices. The IRX–β relation is reformulated with our UV-selected nearby galaxies.

  17. Galaxy clustering around nearby luminous quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, K B; Kirhakos, S; Schneider, D P; Fisher, Karl B; Bahcall, John N; Schneider, Donald P

    1996-01-01

    We examine the clustering of galaxies around a sample of 20 luminous low redshift (z 100 kpc). Our results reinforce the idea that low redshift quasars are located preferentially in groups of 10-20 galaxies rather than in rich clusters. We see no significant difference in the clustering amplitudes derived from radio-loud and radio-quiet subsamples.

  18. The Evolution of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    2011-01-01

    Within the Local Universe galaxies can be studied in great detail star by star. The Colour-Magnitude Diagram synthesis analysis method is well established as the most accurate way to determine the detailed star formation history of galaxies going back to the earliest times. This approach has benefit

  19. Superdense massive galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Ignacio; de Lorenzo-Caceres, Adriana; Vazdekis, Alexandre; de la Rosa, Ignacio G; Cava, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Superdense massive galaxies (r_e~1 kpc; M~10^{11} Msun) were common in the early universe (z>1.5). Within some hierarchical merging scenarios, a non-negligible fraction (1-10%) of these galaxies is expected to survive since that epoch retaining their compactness and presenting old stellar populations in the present universe. Using the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog from the SDSS Data Release 6 we find only a tiny fraction of galaxies (~0.03%) with r_e8x10^{10} Msun in the local Universe (z<0.2). Surprinsingly, they are relatively young (~2 Gyr) and metal-rich ([Z/H]~0.2). The consequences of these findings within the current two competing size evolution scenarios for the most massive galaxies ("dry" mergers vs "puffing up" due to quasar activity) are discussed.

  20. Molecular gas in nearby powerful radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ocana-Flaquer, B; Lim, L; Dinh-V-Trung,; Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    Powerful radio-AGN are normally hosted by massive elliptical galaxies which are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless the gas is needed in the very center to feed the nuclear activity. Thus it is important to study the origin, the distribution and the kinematics of the molecular gas in such objects. We have performed at the IRAM-30m telescope a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission in the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio-continuum fluxes. The main result of this survey is the very low content in molecular gas of such galaxies compared to FIR selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, taking into account the upper limits, is 1x10^8 Msun; if we calculate it for all the galaxies together, and if we separate them into FR-I and FR-II type galaxies, an important difference is found between them. Moreover, the CO spectra indicates the presence of a central molecular gas disk in these radio galaxies. Our results contrast ...

  1. Stellar ages and metallicities of nearby elliptical galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai-Tian Tang; Qiu-Sheng Gu; Song Huang

    2009-01-01

    Stellar ages and metallicities are crucial for understanding the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies.However,due to the age-metallicity degeneracy,it is hard to measure these two parameters accurately with broad-hand photometry.In this paper,we observed high-resolution spectra for a sample of 20 nearby elliptical galaxies (EGs) with the NAOC 2.16 m telescope,and determined stellar ages and metallicities by using the empirical population synthesis and Lick/IDS index system methods.We found that stellar ages from these two methods are consistent with each other for purely old EGs; however,stellar metallicities show a zeropoint offset of 0.5 Z_⊙.Our results confirm that stellar populations in low-density environment galaxies are more diverse compared to their high-density counterparts.We also investigated the element abundance-galaxy mass relation for nearby elliptical galaxies.

  2. Extinction Mapping of Nearby Galaxies Using LEGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Lauren; Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Calzetti, Daniela; Sabbi, Elena; Ubeda, Leonardo; LEGUS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Extinction by dust affects studies of star formation and stellar evolution in galaxies. There are different ways to measure the distribution of dust column densities across galaxies. Here we present work based on extinctions measured towards individual massive stars.Isochrones of massive stars lie in the same location on a color-color diagram with little dependence on metallicity and luminosity class, so the extinction can be directly derived from the observed photometry. We develop a method for generating extinction maps using photometry of massive stars from the Hubble Space Telescope for the nearly 50 galaxies observed by the Legacy Extragalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS). The derived extinction maps will allow us to correct ground-based and HST Halpha maps for extinction, and will be used to constrain changes in the dust-to-gas ratio across the galaxy sample and in different star formation, metallicity and morphological environments. Previous studies have found links between galaxy metallicity and the dust-to-gas mass ratio. Dust abundance and gas metallicity are critical constraints for chemical and galaxy evolution models. We present a study of LEGUS galaxies spanning a range of distances, metallicities, and galaxy morphologies, including metal-poor dwarfs Holmberg I and II and giant spirals NGC 6503 and NGC 628. We see clear evidence for changes in the dust-to-gas mass ratio with changing metallicity. We also examine changes in the dust-to-gas mass ratio with galactocentric radius. Ultimately, we will provide constraints on the dust-to-gas mass ratio across a wide range of galaxy environments.

  3. HI absorption in nearby compact radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, M.; Allison, J. R.; Sadler, E. M.; Moss, V. A.; Curran, S. J.; Musaeva, A.; Deng, C.; Parry, R.; Sligo, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    HI absorption studies yield information on both AGN feeding and feedback processes. This AGN activity interacts with the neutral gas in compact radio sources, which are believed to represent the young or recently re-triggered AGN population. We present the results of a survey for HI absorption in a sample of 66 compact radio sources at 0.040 100 km s-1) features, indicative of disturbed gas kinematics. Such broad, shallow and offset features are also found within low-excitation radio galaxies which is attributed to disturbed circumnuclear gas, consistent with early-type galaxies typically devoid of a gas-rich disk. Comparing mid-infrared colours of our galaxies with HI detections indicates that narrow and deep absorption features are preferentially found in late-type and high-excitation radio galaxies in our sample. These features are attributed to gas in galactic disks. By combining XMM-Newton archival data with 21-cm data, we find support that absorbed X-ray sources may be good tracers of HI content within the host galaxy. This sample extends previous HI surveys in compact radio galaxies to lower radio luminosities and provides a basis for future work exploring the higher redshift universe.

  4. Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Albert

    2017-03-01

    In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a ``tilted ring model'' allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.

  5. Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bosma, A

    2016-01-01

    In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a "tilted ring model" allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.

  6. Hierarchical Star Formation in Nearby LEGUS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Andrews, Jennifer; Annibali, Francesca; Bright, Stacey N; Calzetti, Daniela; Cignoni, Michele; Evans, Aaron S; Gallagher, John S; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Grebel, Eva K; Hunter, Deidre A; Johnson, Kelsey; Kim, Hwi; Lee, Janice; Sabbi, Elena; Smith, Linda; Thilker, David; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical structure in ultraviolet images of 12 late-type LEGUS galaxies is studied by determining the numbers and fluxes of nested regions as a function of size from ~1 to ~200 pc, and the number as a function of flux. Two starburst dwarfs, NGC 1705 and NGC 5253, have steeper number-size and flux-size distributions than the others, indicating high fractions of the projected areas filled with star formation. Nine subregions in 7 galaxies have similarly steep number-size slopes, even when the whole galaxies have shallower slopes. The results suggest that hierarchically structured star-forming regions several hundred parsecs or larger represent common unit structures. Small galaxies dominated by only a few of these units tend to be starbursts. The self-similarity of young stellar structures down to parsec scales suggests that star clusters form in the densest parts of a turbulent medium that also forms loose stellar groupings on larger scales. The presence of super star clusters in two of our starburst dwarf...

  7. Environmental Effects on Late-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A

    2006-01-01

    The transformations taking place in late-type galaxies in the environment of rich clusters of galaxies at z=0 are reviewed. From the handful of late-type galaxies that inhabit local clusters, whether they were formed in-situ and survived as such, avoiding transformation or even destruction or if they are newcomers that recently infall from outside, we can learn an important lesson on the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We start by reviewing the observational scenario, covering the broadest possible stretch of the electromagnetic spectrum, from the gas tracers, the star formation tracers, the old star tracers and the dust. Strong emphasis is given to the three nearby, well studied clusters Virgo, A1367 and Coma, representative of different evolutionary stages, from unrelaxed, spiral rich (Virgo) to relaxed, spiral poor clusters (Coma). We continue by providing a review of models of galaxy interactions relevant to clusters of galaxies. Prototypes of various mechanisms and processes are discussed and their ty...

  8. Pulsar searches in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Herrera, Eduardo; Maccarone, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    We have been undertaking a comprehensive survey for pulsars and fast radio transients in the dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way using the Green Bank Radio Telescope operating at a central frequency of 350 MHz. Our search pipeline allows the detection of periodical signals and single dispersed pulses and it is optimized to search for millisecond radio pulsars. Here we present preliminary results of the searches we have conducted in the Ursa Minoris, Draco and Leo I dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies. Our searches have revealed no periodic signals but a few unconfirmed millisecond single pulses at various dispersion measures, possibly related to neutron stars. Detecting neutron stars in these systems can potentially help to test the existence of haloes of dark matter surrounding these systems as predicted by Dehnen & King (2006).

  9. Chandra Survey of Nearby Galaxies: The Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Rui; Ho, Luis C.; Feng, Hua

    2017-02-01

    We searched the public archive of the Chandra X-ray Observatory as of 2016 March and assembled a sample of 719 galaxies within 50 Mpc with available Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations. By cross-correlation with the optical or near-infrared nuclei of these galaxies, 314 of them are identified to have an X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN). The majority of them are low-luminosity AGNs and are unlikely X-ray binaries based upon their spatial distribution and luminosity functions. The AGN fraction is around 60% for elliptical galaxies and early-type spirals, but drops to roughly 20% for Sc and later types, consistent with previous findings in the optical. However, the X-ray survey is more powerful in finding weak AGNs, especially from regions with active star formation that may mask the optical AGN signature. For example, 31% of the H ii nuclei are found to harbor an X-ray AGN. For most objects, a single power-law model subject to interstellar absorption is adequate to fit the spectrum, and the typical photon index is found to be around 1.8. For galaxies with a non-detection, their stacked Chandra image shows an X-ray excess with a luminosity of a few times 1037 erg s‑1 on average around the nuclear region, possibly composed of faint X-ray binaries. This paper reports on the technique and results of the survey; in-depth analysis and discussion of the results will be reported in forthcoming papers.

  10. Compact X-ray Sources in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E J M

    1998-01-01

    We have found compact, near-nuclear X-ray sources in 21 (54\\%) of a complete sample of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 $-$ 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are $\\sim$10$^{37}

  11. Star Formation and Gas Accretion in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the relationship between gas accretion and star formation, we analyse a sample of 29 nearby galaxies from the WHISP survey which contains galaxies with and without evidence for recent gas accretion. We compare combined radial profiles of FUV (GALEX) and IR 24 {\\mu}m (Spitzer) characterizing distributions of recent star formation with radial profiles of CO (IRAM, BIMA, or CARMA) and HI (WSRT) tracing molecular and atomic gas contents to examine star formation efficiencies in symmetric (quiescent), asymmetric (accreting), and interacting (tidally disturbed) galaxies. In addition, we investigate the relationship between star formation rate and HI in the outer discs for the three groups of galaxies. We confirm the general relationship between gas surface density and star formation surface density, but do not find a significant difference between the three groups of galaxies.

  12. The disruption of nearby galaxies by the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Putman, M E; Staveley-Smith, L; Banks, G D; Barnes, D G; Bhathal, R; Disney, M J; Ekers, R D; Freeman, K C; Haynes, R F; Henning, P; Jerjen, H; Kilborn, V A; Koribalski, B S; Knezek, P M; Malin, D F; Mould, J R; Oosterloo, T A; Price, R M; Ryder, S D; Sadler, E M; Stewart, I W; Stootman, F; Vaile, R A; Webster, R L; Wright, A E

    1998-01-01

    Interactions between galaxies are common and are an important factor in determining their physical properties such as position along the Hubble sequence and star-formation rate. There are many possible galaxy interaction mechanisms, including merging, ram-pressure stripping, gas compression, gravitational interaction and cluster tides. The relative importance of these mechanisms is often not clear, as their strength depends on poorly known parameters such as the density, extent and nature of the massive dark halos that surround galaxies. A nearby example of a galaxy interaction where the mechanism is controversial is that between our own Galaxy and two of its neighbours -- the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Here we present the first results of a new HI survey which provides a spectacular view of this interaction. In addition to the previously known Magellanic Stream, which trails 100 degrees behind the Clouds, the new data reveal a counter-stream which lies in the opposite direction and leads the motion o...

  13. An Integrated Spectrophotometric Survey of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, J

    2005-01-01

    We present integrated optical spectrophotometry for a sample of 417 nearby galaxies. Our observations consist of spatially integrated, S/N=10-100 spectroscopy between 3600 and 6900 Angstroms at ~8 Angstroms FWHM resolution. In addition, we present nuclear (2.5"x2.5") spectroscopy for 153 of these objects. Our sample targets a diverse range of galaxy types, including starbursts, peculiar galaxies, interacting/merging systems, dusty, infrared-luminous galaxies, and a significant number of normal galaxies. We use population synthesis to model and subtract the stellar continuum underlying the nebular emission lines. This technique results in emission-line measurements reliably corrected for stellar absorption. Here, we present the integrated and nuclear spectra, the nebular emission-line fluxes and equivalent widths, and a comprehensive compilation of ancillary data available in the literature for our sample. In a series of subsequent papers we use these data to study optical star-formation rate indicators, nebul...

  14. Multicolor Photometry of the Nearby Galaxy Cluster A119

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Jin-Tao; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Ma, Jun; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zhou; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Zou, Hu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0:0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC viewing field of 58'* 58', there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1376 galaxies brighter than iBATC = 19:5, photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of earlytype galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of ...

  15. Spherical Accretion in Nearby Weakly Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moscibrodzka, M A

    2005-01-01

    We consider the sample of weakly active galaxies situated in 'Local Universe' collected in the paper of Pellegrini (2005) with inferred accretion efficiencies from $10^{-2}$ to $10^{-7}$. We apply a model of spherically symmetrical Bondi accretion for given parameters ($M_{BH}$,$T_{\\infty}$,$\\rho_{\\infty}$,) taken from observation. We calculate spectra emitted by the gas accreting onto its central objects using Monte Carlo method including synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons as seed photons. We compare our results with observed nuclear X-ray luminosities $L_{X,nuc}$ (0.3-10 keV) of the sample. Model is also tested for different external medium parameters ($\\rho_{\\infty}$ and $T_{\\infty}$) and different free parameters of the model. Our model is able to explain most of the observed nuclear luminosities $L_X$ under an assumption that half of the compresion energy is transfered directly to the electrons.

  16. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. II. Ultra-Diffuse Galaxies near the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 5485

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Allison; van Dokkum, Pieter; Danieli, Shany; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Karachentsev, I. D.; Makarova, L. N.

    2016-12-01

    We present the unexpected discovery of four ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a group environment. We recently identified seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the vicinity of the spiral galaxy M101, using data from the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The galaxies have effective radii of 10″-38″ and central surface brightnesses of 25.6-27.7 mag arcsec-2 in the g-band. We subsequently obtained follow-up observations with HST to constrain the distances to these galaxies. Four remain persistently unresolved even with the spatial resolution of HST/ACS, which implies distances of D\\gt 17.5 Mpc. We show that the galaxies are most likely associated with a background group at ˜27 Mpc containing the massive ellipticals NGC 5485 and NGC 5473. At this distance, the galaxies have sizes of 2.6-4.9 kpc, and are classified as UDGs, similar to the populations that have been revealed in clusters such as Coma, Virgo, and Fornax, yet even more diffuse. The discovery of four UDGs in a galaxy group demonstrates that the UDG phenomenon is not exclusive to cluster environments. Furthermore, their morphologies seem less regular than those of the cluster populations, which may suggest a different formation mechanism or be indicative of a threshold in surface density below which UDGs are unable to maintain stability.

  17. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. II. Ultra diffuse galaxies near the elliptical galaxy NGC 5485

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Danieli, Shany; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai; Karachentsev, I D; Makarova, L N

    2016-01-01

    We present the unexpected discovery of four ultra diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in a group environment. We recently identified seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the vicinity of the spiral galaxy M101, using data from the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. The galaxies have effective radii of $10"-38"$ and central surface brightnesses of $25.6-27.7$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$ in g-band. We subsequently obtained follow-up observations with $HST$ to constrain the distances to these galaxies. Four remain persistently unresolved even with the spatial resolution of $HST$/ACS, which implies distances of $D > 17.5$ Mpc. We show that the galaxies are most likely associated with a background group at $\\sim 27$ Mpc containing the massive ellipticals NGC 5485 and NGC 5473. At this distance, the galaxies have sizes of $2.6-4.9$ kpc, and are classified as UDGs, similar to the populations that have been revealed in clusters such as Coma, Virgo and Fornax, yet even more diffuse. The discovery of four UDGs in a galaxy group demonst...

  18. The distribution of Infrared point sources in nearby elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Misra, Ranjeev; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima

    Infra-red point sources in nearby early-type galaxies are often counterparts of sources in other wavebands such as optical and X-rays. In particular, the IR counterpart of X-ray sources may be due to a globular cluster hosting the X-ray source or could be associated directly with the binary, providing crucial information regarding their environment. In general, the IR sources would be from globular clusters and their IR colors would provide insight into their stellar composition. However, many of the IR sources maybe background objects and it is important to identify them or at least quantify the level of background contamination. Archival Spitzer IRAC images provide a unique opportunity to study these sources in nearby Ellipticals and in particular to estimate the distributions of their IR luminosity, color and distance from the center. We will present the results of such an analysis for three nearby galaxies. We have also estimated the background contamination using several blank fields. Our preliminary results suggest that IR colors can be effectively used to differentiate between the background and sources in the galaxy, and that the distribution of sources are markedly different for different Elliptical galaxies.

  19. UVES Abundances of Stars in Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Venn, Kim; Shetrone, Matt; Primas, Francesca; Hill, Vanessa; Kaufer, Andreas; Szeifert, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of control and is capable of wrecking the galaxy which hosts it. Of course the majority of galaxies seem to amble along somewhere between these two extremes, and the mean properties tend to favour a quiescent self-regulated evolutionary scenario. But there area variety of observations which require us to invoke transitory ‘bursts’ of star-formation at one time or another in most galaxy types. Several nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies have clearly determined star-formation histories with apparent periods of zero star formation followed by periods of fairly active star formation. If we are able to understand what separated these bursts we would understand several important phenomena in galaxy evolution. Were these galaxies able to clear out their gas reservoir in a burst of star formation? How did this gas return? or did it? Have these galaxies receieved gas from the IGM instead? Could stars from these types of galaxy contribute significantly to the halo population in our Galaxy? To answer these questions we need to combine accurate stellar photometry and Colour-Magnitude Diagram interpretation with detailed metal abundances to combine a star-formation rate versus time with a range of element abundances with time. Different elements trace different evolutionary process (e.g., relative contributions of type I and II supernovae). We often aren't even sure of the abundance spread in these galaxies. We have collected detailed high resolution UVES spectra of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I & Carina) to begin to answer these questions. This is a precursor study to a more complete study with FLAMES. We presented at this meeting the initial results for

  20. TRACING COLD H I GAS IN NEARBY, LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Petersen, Eric A. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail: warren@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: walter@mpia.de, E-mail: eapeter2@illinois.edu, E-mail: Baerbel.Koribalski@csiro.au, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We analyze line-of-sight atomic hydrogen (H I) line profiles of 31 nearby, low-mass galaxies selected from the Very Large Array-ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (VLA-ANGST) and The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to trace regions containing cold (T {approx}< 1400 K) H I from observations with a uniform linear scale of 200 pc beam{sup -1}. Our galaxy sample spans four orders of magnitude in total H I mass and nine magnitudes in M{sub B} . We fit single and multiple component functions to each spectrum to isolate the cold, neutral medium given by a low-dispersion (<6 km s{sup -1}) component of the spectrum. Most H I spectra are adequately fit by a single Gaussian with a dispersion of 8-12 km s{sup -1}. Cold H I is found in 23 of 27 ({approx}85%) galaxies after a reduction of the sample size due to quality-control cuts. The cold H I contributes {approx}20% of the total line-of-sight flux when found with warm H I. Spectra best fit by a single Gaussian, but dominated by cold H I emission (i.e., have velocity dispersions of <6 km s{sup -1}), are found primarily beyond the optical radius of the host galaxy. The cold H I is typically found in localized regions and is generally not coincident with the very highest surface density peaks of the global H I distribution (which are usually areas of recent star formation). We find a lower limit for the mass fraction of cold-to-total H I gas of only a few percent in each galaxy.

  1. Starbursts versus Truncated Star Formation in Nearby Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, J A; Caldwell, N; Chaboyer, B; Rose, James A.; Gaba, Alejandro E.; Caldwell, Nelson; Chaboyer, Brian

    2001-01-01

    We present long-slit spectroscopy, B and R bandpass imaging, and 21 cm observations of a sample of early-type galaxies in nearby clusters which are known to be either in a star-forming phase or to have had star formation which recently terminated. From the long-slit spectra, obtained with the Blanco 4-m telescope, we find that emission lines in the star-forming cluster galaxies are significantly more centrally concentrated than in a sample of field galaxies. The broadband imaging reveals that two currently star-forming early-type galaxies in the Pegasus I cluster have blue nuclei, again indicating that recent star formation has been concentrated. In contrast, the two galaxies for which star formation has already ended show no central color gradient. The Pegasus I galaxy with the most evident signs of ongoing star formation (NGC7648), exhibits signatures of a tidal encounter. Neutral hydrogen observations of that galaxy with the Arecibo radiotelescope reveal the presence of ~4 x 10^8 solar masses of HI. Arecib...

  2. The Nature of Accreting Black Holes in Nearby Galaxy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E J M

    1999-01-01

    We have found compact X-ray sources in the center of 21 (54%) of 39 nearby face-on spiral and elliptical galaxies with available ROSAT HRI data. ROSAT X-ray luminosities (0.2 - 2.4 keV) of these compact X-ray sources are ~ 1e37 - 1e40 erg/s (with a mean of 3e39 erg/s. The mean displacement between the location of the compact X-ray source and the optical photometric center of the galaxy is ~ 390 pc. The fact that compact nuclear sources were found in nearly all (five of six) galaxies with previous evidence for a black hole or an AGN indicates that at least some of the X-ray sources are accreting supermassive black holes. ASCA spectra of six of the 21 galaxies show the presence of a hard component with relatively steep (Gamma approx 2.5) spectral slope. A multicolor disk blackbody model fits the data from the spiral galaxies well, suggesting that the X-ray object in these galaxies may be similar to a Black Hole Candidate in its soft (high) state. ASCA data from the elliptical galaxies indicate that hot (kT appr...

  3. From nearby to distant galaxies: kinematical and dynamical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Epinat, Benoit

    2009-01-01

    Kinematical studies of low and high redshift galaxies enables to probe galaxy formation and evolution scenarios. Integral field spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study with accuracy nearby galaxies kinematics. Recent observations also gives a new 2D vision of high redshift galaxies kinematics. This work mostly relies on the kinematical sample of galaxies GHASP. This control sample, composed of 203 local spiral and irregular galaxies in low density environments observed with Fabry-Perot techniques in the Ha line (6563 A), is by now the largest sample of Fabry-Perot data. After a revue on Fabry-Perot interferometry and a presentation of new data reduction procedures, my implications on both 3D-NTT Fabry-Perot instrument and the wide field spectrograph project (WFSpec) for galaxy evolution study with the european ELT are developed. The second section is dedicated to GHASP data. This sample have been fully reduced and analysed using new methods. The kinematical analysis of 2D kinematical maps has been undertaken...

  4. An IceCube Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in nearby Galaxies and Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; D'\\iaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanosk, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Macías, O; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a first search for self-annihilating dark matter in nearby galaxies and galaxy clusters using a sample of high energy neutrinos acquired in 339.8 days of livetime during 2009/10 with the IceCube neutrino observatory in its 59-string configuration. The targets of interest include the Virgo and Coma galaxy clusters, the Andromeda galaxy and several dwarf galaxies. We obtain upper limits on the cross section as function of the WIMP mass between 300 GeV and 100 TeV for the annihilation into b bbar, W+W-, \\tau+\\tau-, \\mu+\\mu- and \

  5. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Blanc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV integral field unit (IFU spectrograph in the world (1.7′×1.7′. It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16′ diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX. Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormously. Here I review the contributions of the Mitchell Spectrograph to the study of nearby galaxies, from the investigation the spatial distribution of dark matter and the properties of supermassive black holes, to the studies of the process of star formation and the chemical composition of stars and gas in the ISM, which provide important information regarding the formation and evolution of these systems. I highlight the fact that wide field integral field spectrographs on small and medium size telescopes can be powerful cost effective tools to study the astrophysics of galaxies. Finally I briefly discuss the potential of HETDEX for conducting studies on nearby galaxies. The survey parameters make it complimentary and competitive to ongoing and future surveys like SAMI and MANGA.

  6. Spiral structure in nearby galaxies II. comparative analysis and conclusions

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, S; Kennicutt, R C

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of two-armed spiral structure in a sample of galax- ies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), with particular focus on the relationships between the properties of the spiral pattern in the stellar disc and the global struc- ture and environment of the parent galaxies. Following Paper I we have used a combination of Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared imaging and visible multi-colour imaging to isolate the spiral pattern in the underlying stellar discs, and we examine the systematic behaviours of the observed amplitudes and shapes (pitch angles) of these spirals. In general, spiral morphology is found to correlate only weakly at best with morphological parameters such as stellar mass, gas fraction, disc/bulge ratio, and vflat. In contrast to weak correlations with galaxy structure a strong link is found between the strength of the spiral arms and tidal forcing from nearby companion galaxies. This appears to support the longstanding suggestion that ei...

  7. HI emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, S N; Allison, J R; Koribalski, B S; Curran, S J; Pracy, M B

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a targeted search for intervening HI absorption in six nearby, gas-rich galaxies using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The sightlines searched have impact parameters of 10-20 kpc. By targeting nearby galaxies we are also able to map their HI emission, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the extended HI distribution. The continuum sightlines intersect the HI disk in four of the six galaxies, but no intervening absorption was detected. Of these four galaxies, we find that three of the non-detections are the result of the background source being too faint. In the fourth case we find that the ratio of the spin temperature to the covering factor ($T_{\\mathrm{S}}/f$) must be much higher than expected ($\\gtrsim$5700 K) in order to explain the non-detection. We discuss how the structure of the background continuum sources may have affected the detection rate of HI absorption in our sample, and the possible implications for future surveys. Future...

  8. Radial gas motions in The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS)

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Tobias M; Klessen, Ralf S; de Blok, W J G

    2016-01-01

    The study of 21cm line observations of atomic hydrogen allows detailed insight into the kinematics of spiral galaxies. We use sensitive high-resolution VLA data from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) to search for radial gas flows primarily in the outer parts (up to $3\\times r_{25}$) of ten nearby spiral galaxies. Inflows are expected to replenish the gas reservoir and fuel star formation under the assumption that galaxies evolve approximately in steady state. We carry out a detailed investigation of existing tilted ring fitting schemes and discover systematics that can hamper their ability to detect signatures of radial flows. We develop a new Fourier decomposition scheme that fits for rotational and radial velocities and simultaneously determines position angle and inclination as a function of radius. Using synthetic velocity fields we show that our novel fitting scheme is less prone to such systematic errors and that it is well suited to detect radial inflows in disks. We apply our fitting scheme to ten...

  9. H{\\alpha} Imaging of Nearby Seyfert Host Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Theios, R L; Ross, N R

    2016-01-01

    We used narrowband interference filters with the CCD imaging camera on the Nickel 1.0 meter telescope at Lick Observatory to observe 31 nearby (z < 0.03) Seyfert galaxies in the 12 {\\mu}m Active Galaxy Sample. We obtained pure emission line images of each galaxy in order to separate H{\\alpha} emission from the nucleus from that of the host galaxy. The extended H{\\alpha} emission is expected to be powered by newly formed hot stars, and correlates well with other indicators of current star formation in these galaxies: 7.7 {\\mu}m PAH, far-infrared, and radio luminosity. Relative to what would be expected from recent star formation, there is a 0.8 dex excess of radio emission in our Seyfert galaxies. The nuclear H{\\alpha} luminosity is dominated by the AGN, and is correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity. There is an upward offset of 1 dex in this correlation for the Seyfert 1s due to a strong contribution from the Broad Line Region. We found a correlation between star formation rate and AGN luminosity. In sp...

  10. The magnetic environment in the central region of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Cornelia C

    2008-01-01

    The central regions of galaxies harbor some of the most extreme physical phenomena, including dense stellar clusters, non-circular motions of molecular clouds and strong and pervasive magnetic field structures. In particular, radio observations have shown that the central few hundred parsecs of our Galaxy has a striking magnetic field configuration. It is not yet clear whether these magnetic structures are unique to our Milky Way or a common feature of all similar galaxies. Therefore, we report on (a) a new radio polarimetric survey of the central 200 pc of the Galaxy to better characterize the magnetic field structure and (b) a search for large-scale and organized magnetized structure in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies using data from the Very Large Array (VLA) archive. The high angular resolution of the VLA allows us to study the central 1 kpc of the nearest galaxies to search for magnetized nuclear features similar to what is detected in our own Galactic center. Such magnetic features play a importa...

  11. Scaling Relations between Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bigiel, F; Walter, F

    2010-01-01

    High resolution, multi-wavelength maps of a sizeable set of nearby galaxies have made it possible to study how the surface densities of HI, H2 and star formation rate (Sigma_HI, Sigma_H2, Sigma_SFR) relate on scales of a few hundred parsecs. At these scales, individual galaxy disks are comfortably resolved, making it possible to assess gas-SFR relations with respect to environment within galaxies. Sigma_H2, traced by CO intensity, shows a strong correlation with Sigma_SFR and the ratio between these two quantities, the molecular gas depletion time, appears to be constant at about 2Gyr in large spiral galaxies. Within the star-forming disks of galaxies, Sigma_SFR shows almost no correlation with Sigma_HI. In the outer parts of galaxies, however, Sigma_SFR does scale with Sigma_HI, though with large scatter. Combining data from these different environments yields a distribution with multiple regimes in Sigma_gas - Sigma_SFR space. If the underlying assumptions to convert observables to physical quantities are m...

  12. Galaxy Distances in the Nearby Universe Corrections For Peculiar Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Marinoni, C; Giuricin, G; Costantini, B

    1998-01-01

    By correcting the redshift--dependent distances for peculiar motions through a number of peculiar velocity field models, we recover the true distances of a wide, all-sky sample of nearby galaxies (~ 6400 galaxies with velocities cz<5500 km/s), which is complete up to the blue magnitude B=14 mag. Relying on catalogs of galaxy groups, we treat ~2700 objects as members of galaxy groups and the remaining objects as field galaxies. We model the peculiar velocity field using: i) a cluster dipole reconstruction scheme; ii) a multi--attractor model fitted to the Mark II and Mark III catalogs of galaxy peculiar velocities. According to Mark III data the Great Attractor has a smaller influence on local dynamics than previously believed, whereas the Perseus-Pisces and Shapley superclusters acquire a specific dynamical role. Remarkably, the Shapley structure, which is found to account for nearly half the peculiar motion of the Local Group, is placed by Mark III data closer to the zone of avoidance with respect to its ...

  13. FIR colours and SEDs of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Buat, V; Cortese, L; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, S; Bock, J; Bomans, D J; Bradford, M; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Clemens, M; Clements, D; Corbelli, E; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Dariush, A; Davies, J; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fadda, D; Fritz, J; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D A; Gavazzi, G; Gear, W; Giovanardi, C; Glenn, J; Gomez, H; Griffin, M; Grossi, M; Hony, S; Hughes, T M; Hunt, L; Isaak, K; Jones, A; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T; Perez-Fournon, I; Pierini, D; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sabatini, S; Sacchi, N; Sauvage, M; Schulz, B; Schirm, M; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Verstappen, J; Vigroux, L; Vlahakis, C; Wilson, C; Wozniak, H; Wright, G; Xilouris, E M; Zeilinger, W; Zibetti, S

    2010-01-01

    We present infrared colours (in the 25-500 mic spectral range) and UV to radio continuum spectral energy distributions of a sample of 51 nearby galaxies observed with SPIRE on Herschel. The observed sample includes all morphological classes, from quiescent ellipticals to active starbursts. Active galaxies have warmer colour temperatures than normal spirals. In ellipticals hosting a radio galaxy, the far-infrared (FIR) emission is dominated bynthe synchrotron nuclear emission. The colour temperature of the cold dust is higher in quiescent E-S0a than in star-forming systems probably because of the different nature of their dust heating sources (evolved stellar populations, X-ray, fast electrons) and dust grain properties. In contrast to the colour temperature of the warm dust, the f350/f500 index sensitive to the cold dust decreases with star formation and increases with metallicity, suggesting an overabundance of cold dust or an emissivity parameter beta<2 in low metallicity, active systems.

  14. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODELING OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH EXTRAPLANAR DUSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Seon, Kwang-Il, E-mail: jhshinn@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-20

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dusts of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are generally well-reproduced by two dust layers and one light source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR{sub UV}), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of an extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the remaining three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GALEX point spread function. This indicates that the galaxy samples reported to have UV halos may be contaminated by galaxies with negligible extraplanar (halo) dust. The galaxies showing evidence of an extraplanar dust layer fall within a narrow range on the scatter plots between physical parameters such as SFR{sub UV} and extraplanar dust mass. Several mechanisms that could possibly produce the extraplanar dust are discussed. We also found a hint that the extraplanar dust scale-height might not be much different from the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission characteristic height.

  15. The Nuclear Activities of Nearby S0 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Mengyuan; Chen, Yanmei; Zhou, Luwenjia

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of nuclear activities in nearby S0 galaxies. After cross-matching the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) with the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies (RC3) and visually checking the SDSS images, we derive a sample of 583 S0 galaxies with the central spectrophotometric information. In order to separate nebular emission lines from the underlying stellar contribution, we fit the stellar population model to the SDSS spectra of these S0 galaxies. According to the BPT diagram, we find that $8\\%$ of S0 galaxies show central star-forming activity, while the fractions of Seyfert, Composite and LINERs are 2\\%, 8\\%, and 21.4\\%, respectively. We also find that star-forming S0s have the lowest stellar masses, over one magnitude lower than the others, and that the active S0s locate mainly in the sparse environment, while the normal S0s in the dense environment, which might suggest that the environment plays an important role in quenching star formation and/or AGN activity in S0 gal...

  16. Black Holes at the Centers of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Edward C; Sugarman, Hannah R; Velez, Darik O; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d < 80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M_BH < 1e6 M_sun. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. The host galaxies in our sample are thus the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O III] lambda5007 luminosities of...

  17. Ultraviolet Radiative Transfer Modeling of Nearby Galaxies with Extraplanar Dusts

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine their relation to the host galaxy, the extraplanar dust of six nearby galaxies are modeled, employing a three dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer code. The targets are from the highly-inclined galaxies that show dust-scattered ultraviolet halos, and the archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV band images were fitted with the model. The observed images are in general well reproduced by two dust layers and one light-source layer, whose vertical and radial distributions have exponential profiles. We obtained several important physical parameters, such as star formation rate (SFR_UV), face-on optical depth, and scale-heights. Three galaxies (NGC 891, NGC 3628, and UGC 11794) show clear evidence for the existence of extraplanar dust layer. However, it is found that the rest three targets (IC 5249, NGC 24, and NGC 4173) do not necessarily need a thick dust disk to model the ultraviolet (UV) halo, because its contribution is too small and the UV halo may be caused by the wing part of the GA...

  18. Radial Star Formation Histories in Fifteen Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, Daniel A; Egan, Arika A; Hatlestad, Alan J; Herzog, Laura J; Leung, Andrew S; McLane, Jacob N; Phenicie, Christopher; Roberts, Jareth S; Barnes, Kate L; Boquien, Mederic; Calzetti, Daniela; Cook, David O; Kobulnicky, Henry A; Staudaher, Shawn M; van Zee, Liese

    2015-01-01

    New deep optical and near-infrared imaging is combined with archival ultraviolet and infrared data for fifteen nearby galaxies mapped in the Spitzer Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science survey. These images are particularly deep and thus excellent for studying the low surface brightness outskirts of these disk-dominated galaxies with stellar masses ranging between 10^8 and 10^11 Msun. The spectral energy distributions derived from this dataset are modeled to investigate the radial variations in the galaxy colors and star formation histories. Taken as a whole, the sample shows bluer and younger stars for larger radii until reversing near the optical radius, whereafter the trend is for redder and older stars for larger galacto-centric distances. These results are consistent with an inside-out disk formation scenario coupled with an old stellar outer disk population formed through radial migration and/or the cumulative history of minor mergers and accretions of satellite dwarf galaxies. However, these trends...

  19. Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, KONG; Lin, LIN; Jin-rong, LI; Xu, ZHOU; Hu, ZOU; Hong-yu, LI; Fu-zhen, CHEN; Wei, DU; Zhou, FAN; Ye-wei, MAO; Jing, WANG; Yi-nan, ZHU; Zhi-min, ZHOU

    2014-10-01

    In recent years the number of worldwide 8∼10 m-class ground-based telescopes is continually increased, the 4 m-diameter or smaller telescopes have become the small and medium-sized telescopes. In order to obtain some noticeable scientific results by using these existing small and medium-sized telescopes, we have to consider very carefully what we can do, and what we can not. For this reason, the Time Allocation Committee of the 2.16 m telescope of the National Astronomical observatories of China (NAOC) has decided to support some key projects since 2013. The long-term project “Spectroscopic Observations of the Star Formation Regions in Nearby Galaxies” proposed by us is one of three key projects, it is supported by the committee with 30 dark/grey nights in each of three years. The primary goal of this project is to make the spectroscopic observations of the star formation regions along the directions parallel and perpendicular to the main-axes of 20 nearby galaxies with the NAO 2.16 m telescope and the Hec-tospec multi-fiber spectrograph on the 6.5 m MMT (Multiple Mirror Telescope) via the Telescope Access Program (TAP). With the spectra of a large sample of star formation regions, combining with the exising multi-wavelength data from UV to IR, we can study the galaxy dust extinction, star formation rate, metal abundance, and the two-dimensional distributions of stellar population proper-ties, as well as the relationships of the galaxy two-dimensional properties with the galaxy morphologies and environments. As the first paper of this project, we describe here the scientific objectives, sample selection, observation strategy, and present the preliminary result of the spectroscopic observation towards the galaxy NGC 2403.

  20. Comparing [CII], HI, and CO dynamics of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    de Blok, W J G; Smith, J -D T; Herrera-Camus, R; Bolatto, A D; Requena-Torres, M A; Crocker, A F; Croxall, K V; Kennicutt, R C; Koda, J; Armus, L; Boquien, M; Dale, D; Kreckel, K; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    The HI and CO components of the interstellar medium (ISM) are usually used to derive the dynamical mass M_dyn of nearby galaxies. Both components become too faint to be used as a tracer in observations of high-redshift galaxies. In those cases, the 158 $\\mu$m line of atomic carbon [CII] may be the only way to derive M_dyn. As the distribution and kinematics of the ISM tracer affects the determination of M_dyn, it is important to quantify the relative distributions of HI, CO and [CII]. HI and CO are well-characterised observationally, however, for [CII] only very few measurements exist. Here we compare observations of CO, HI, and [CII] emission of a sample of nearby galaxies, drawn from the HERACLES, THINGS and KINGFISH surveys. We find that within R_25, the average [CII] exponential radial profile is slightly shallower than that of the CO, but much steeper than the HI distribution. This is also reflected in the integrated spectrum ("global profile"), where the [CII] spectrum looks more like that of the CO tha...

  1. The Effect of Nearby Voids on Galaxy Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucklein, Brian K; Hintz, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    The size, shape and degree of emptiness of void interiors sheds light on the details of galaxy formation. A particularly interesting question is whether void interiors are completely empty or contain a dwarf population. However the nearby voids that are most conducive for dwarf searches have large angular diameters, on the order of a steradian, making it difficult to redshift-map a statistically significant portion of their volume to the magnitude limit of dwarf galaxies. As part of addressing this problem, we investigate here the usefulness of number counts in establishing the best locations to search inside nearby (d < 300 Mpc) galaxy voids, utilizing Wolf plots of log(n < m) vs. m as the basic diagnostic. To illustrate expected signatures, we consider the signature of three void profiles, "cut out", "built up", and "universal profile" carved into Monte-Carlo Schechter function models. We then investigate the signatures of voids in the Millennium Run dark matter simulation and the Sloan Digital Sky Su...

  2. Infrared colour properties of nearby radio-luminous galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xiao-hong; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    By combining the data of the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Akari satellite, we study the infrared colour properties of a sample of 2712 nearby radio-luminous galaxies (RLGs). These RLGs are divided into radio-loud (RL) active galactic nuclei (AGNs), mainly occurring at redshifts of $0.05$ 3.0. We also analyse the MIR colours of RL AGNs divided into low- and high-excitation radio galaxies (LERGs and HERGs, respectively). The ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram clearly shows separate distributions of LERGs and HERGs and a region of overlap, which suggests that LERGs and HERGs have different MIR properties. LERGs are responsible for the double-core distribution of RL AGNs on the ([3.4]-[4.6])$-$([4.6]-[12]) diagram. In addition, we also suggest 90$-$140$\\mu$m band spectral index $\\alpha(90,140)<-1.4$ as a criterion of selecting nearby active galaxies with non-thermal emissions at FIR wavelengths.

  3. Resolving the Milky Way and Nearby Galaxies with WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalirai, Jasonjot

    High-resolution studies of nearby stellar populations have served as a foundation for our quest to understand the nature of galaxies. Today, studies of resolved stellar populations constrain fundamental relations -- such as the initial mass function of stars, the time scales of stellar evolution, the timing of mass loss and amount of energetic feedback, the color-magnitude relation and its dependency on age and metallicity, the stellar-dark matter connection in galaxy halos, and the build up of stellar populations over cosmic time -- that represent key ingredients in our prescription to interpret light from the Universe and to measure the physical state of galaxies. More than in any other area of astrophysics, WFIRST will yield a transformative impact in measuring and characterizing resolved stellar populations in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. The proximity and level of detail that such populations need to be studied at directly map to all three pillars of WFIRST capabilities - sensitivity from a 2.4 meter space based telescope, resolution from 0.1" pixels, and large 0.3 degree field of view from multiple detectors. Our WFIRST GO Science Investigation Team (F) will develop three WFIRST (notional) GO programs related to resolved stellar populations to fully stress WFIRST's Wide Field Instrument. The programs will include a Survey of the Milky Way, a Survey of Nearby Galaxy Halos, and a Survey of Star-Forming Galaxies. Specific science goals for each program will be validated through a wide range of observational data sets, simulations, and new algorithms. As an output of this study, our team will deliver optimized strategies and tools to maximize stellar population science with WFIRST. This will include: new grids of IR-optimized stellar evolution and synthetic spectroscopic models; pipelines and algorithms for optimal data reduction at the WFIRST sensitivity and pixel scale; wide field simulations of MW environments and galaxy halos; cosmological simulations

  4. Chandra ACIS Observations of the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobar, Dale; Turner, Kevin; Schlegel, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    The ACIS detector (Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged the nearby spiral NGC 300 over three epochs for a total exposure of 1.885x102 ksec. We describe each observation as well as the merged data set. Each exposure contains 132 individual sources. We focus on the time variability and luminosity distributions of the sources. Initial results show no diffuse emissions in the galaxy. Finally, we compare the merged data set and the detected sources with other wavebands.

  5. Central Mass Concentration and Bar Dissolution in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Das, M; Vogel, S N; Regan, M W; Sheth, K; Harris, A I; Jefferys, W H; Das, Mousumi; Teuben, Peter J.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Regan, Michael W.; Sheth, Kartik; Harris, Andrew I.; Jefferys, William H.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the BIMA Survey of Nearby Galaxies (SONG) to investigate the relationship between ellipticity and central mass concentration in barred spirals. Existing simulations predict that bar ellipticity decreases as inflowing mass driven by the bar accumulates in the central regions, ultimately destroying the bar. Using the ratio of the bulge mass to the mass within the bar radius as an estimate of the central mass concentration, we obtain dynamical mass estimates from SONG CO 1-0 rotation curve data. We find an inverse correlation between bar ellipticity and central mass concentration, consistent with simulations of bar dissolution.

  6. Full stellar kinematical profiles of central parts of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vudragović, A.; Samurović, S.; Jovanović, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. We present the largest catalog of detailed stellar kinematics of the central parts of nearby galaxies, which includes higher moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) function represented by the Gauss-Hermite series. The kinematics is measured on a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Alfalfa) survey using spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Aims: The SDSS DR7 offers measurements of the LOSVD based on the assumption of a pure Gaussian shape of the broadening function caused by the combination of rotational and random motion of the stars in galaxies. We discuss the consequences of this oversimplification since the velocity dispersion, one of the measured quantities, often serves as the proxy to important modeling parameters such as the black-hole mass and the virial mass of galaxies. Methods: The publicly available pPXF code is used to calculate the full kinematical profile for the sample galaxies including higher moments of their LOSVD. Both observed and synthetic stellar libraries were used and the related template mismatch problem is discussed. Results: For the whole sample of 2180 nearby galaxies reflecting morphological distribution characteristic for the local Universe, we successfully recovered stellar kinematics of their central parts, including higher order moments of the LOSVD function, for signal-to-noise above 50. Conclusions: We show the consequences of the oversimplification of the LOSVD function with Gaussian function on the velocity dispersion for the empirical and the synthetic stellar library. For the empirical stellar library, this approximation leads to an increase in the virial mass of 13% on average, while for the synthetic library the effect is weaker, with an increase of 9% on average. Systematic erroneous estimates of the velocity dispersion comes from the use of the synthetic stellar library instead of the empirical one and is much larger than the value imposed by

  7. The Hierarchical Distribution of Young Stellar Clusters in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spatial distributions of young stellar clusters in six nearby galaxies to trace the large scale hierarchical star-forming structures. The six galaxies are drawn from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We quantify the strength of the clustering among stellar clusters as a function of spatial scale and age to establish the survival timescale of the substructures. We separate the clusters into different classes, compact (bound) clusters and associations (unbound), and compare the clustering among them. We find that younger star clusters are more strongly clustered over small spatial scales and that the clustering disappears rapidly for ages as young as a few tens of Myr, consistent with clusters slowly losing the fractal dimension inherited at birth from their natal molecular clouds.

  8. Nearby Galaxy is a Hotbed of Star Birth Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This new image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is of the nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 1569. This galaxy is a hotbed of vigorous star birth activity which blows huge bubbles that riddle its main body. The bubble structure is sculpted by the galactic super-winds and outflows caused by a colossal input of energy from collective supernova explosions that are linked with a massive episode of star birth. The bubbles seen in this image are made of hydrogen gas that glows when hit by the fierce wind and radiation from hot young stars and is racked by supernova shocks. Its 'star factories' are also manufacturing brilliant blue star clusters. NGC 1569 had a sudden onset of star birth about 25 million years ago, which subsided about the time the very earliest human ancestors appeared on Earth. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST.

  9. The environment of nearby Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R; van Eymeren, Janine; Esteban, Cesar; Popping, Attila; Hibbard, John

    2009-01-01

    We are obtaining deep multiwavelength data of a sample of nearby blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDGs) combining broad-band optical/NIR and H$\\alpha$ photometry, optical spectroscopy and 21-cm radio observations. Here we present HI results obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array for some BCDGs, all showing evident interaction features in their neutral gas component despite the environment in which they reside. Our analysis strongly suggests that interactions with or between low-luminosity dwarf galaxies or HI clouds are the main trigger mechanism of the star-forming bursts in BCDGs; however these dwarf objects are only detected when deep optical images and complementary HI observations are performed. Are therefore BCDGs real isolated systems?

  10. Mid-J CO Emission in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, M; Busquet, G; Glenn, J; Isaak, K; Kamenetzky, J; Rangwala, N; Schirm, M R P; Baes, M; Barlow, M J; Boselli, A; Cooray, A; Cormier, D

    2013-01-01

    We study for the first time the complete sub-millimeter spectra (450 GHz to 1550 GHz) of a sample of nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) onboard Herschel. The CO ladder (from Jup = 4 to 12) is the most prominent spectral feature in this range. These CO lines probe warm molecular gas that can be heated by ultraviolet photons, shocks, or X-rays originated in the active galactic nucleus or in young star-forming regions. In these proceedings we investigate the physical origin of the CO emission using the averaged CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of six Seyfert galaxies. We use a radiative transfer model assuming an isothermal homogeneous medium to estimate the molecular gas conditions. We also compare this CO SLED with the predictions of photon and X-ray dominated region (PDR and XDR) models.

  11. Dense Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Vila-Vilaro, B; Okumura, S K; Shibatsuka, T; Okiura, M; Ishizuki, S; Kawabe, R

    2002-01-01

    An imaging survey of CO(1-0), HCN(1-0), and HCO$^+$(1-0) lines in the centers of nearby Seyfert galaxies has been conducted using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array and the RAINBOW interferometer. Preliminary results reveal that 3 Seyferts out of 7 show abnormally high HCN/CO and HCN/HCO$^+$ ratios, which cannot occur even in nuclear starburst galaxies. We suggest that the enhanced HCN emission originated from X-ray irradiated dense obscuring tori, and that these molecular line ratios can be a new diagnostic tool to search for ``pure'' AGNs. According to our HCN diagram, we suggest that NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 5194 host ``pure'' AGNs, whereas Seyfert nuclei of NGC 3079, NGC 6764, and NGC 7469 may be ``composite'' in nature.

  12. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Aaron E.; Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D = 4-7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches a limiting surface brightness of {μ }B ˜ 28-30 mag arcsec-2 and probes colors down to {μ }B ˜ 27.5 mag arcsec-2. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column density H i data to better constrain the star-forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy’s disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies’ outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarity in outer disk properties despite each galaxy showing distinct levels of environmental influence, from a purely isolated galaxy (M94) to one experiencing weak tidal perturbations from its satellite galaxies (M106) to a galaxy recovering from a recent merger (M64), suggesting that a variety of evolutionary histories can yield similar outer disk structure. While this suggests a common secular mechanism for outer disk formation, the large extent of these smooth, red stellar populations—which reach several disk scale lengths beyond the galaxies’ spiral structure—may challenge models of radial migration given the lack of any nonaxisymmetric forcing at such large radii.

  13. The Nuclear Near-Infrared Spectral Properties of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, R E; Martins, L; Riffel, R; Martin, O Gonzalez; Almeida, C Ramos; Dutra, D Ruschel; Ho, L C; Thanjavur, K; Flohic, H; Alonso-Herrero, A; Lira, P; McDermid, R; Riffel, R A; Schiavon, R P; Winge, C; Hoenig, M D; Perlman, E

    2015-01-01

    We present spectra of the nuclear regions of 50 nearby (D = 1 - 92 Mpc, median = 20 Mpc) galaxies of morphological types E to Sm. The spectra, obtained with the Gemini Near-IR Spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope, cover a wavelength range of approximately 0.85-2.5 microns at R~1300--1800. There is evidence that most of the galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but the range of AGN luminosities (log (L2-10 keV [erg/s]) = 37.0-43.2) in the sample means that the spectra display a wide variety of features. Some nuclei, especially the Seyferts, exhibit a rich emission-line spectrum. Other objects, in particular the type 2 Low Ionisation Nuclear Emission Region galaxies, show just a few, weak emission lines, allowing a detailed view of the underlying stellar population. These spectra display numerous absorption features sensitive to the stellar initial mass function, as well as molecular bands arising in cool stars, and many other atomic absorption lines. We compare the spectra of subsets of galaxie...

  14. Structure and Kinematics of the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy UGCA 105

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Philip; Gentile, Gianfranco; Oh, Se-Heon; Schuberth, Ylva; Bekhti, Nadya Ben; Winkel, Benjamin; Klein, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Owing to their shallow stellar potential, dwarf galaxies possess thick gas disks, which makes them good candidates for studies of the galactic vertical kinematical structure. We present 21 cm line observations of the isolated nearby dwarf irregular galaxy UGCA 105, taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), and analyse the geometry of its neutral hydrogen (HI) disk and its kinematics. The galaxy shows a fragmented HI distribution. It is more extended than the optical disk, and hence allows one to determine its kinematics out to very large galacto-centric distances. The HI kinematics and morphology are well-ordered and symmetric for an irregular galaxy. The HI is sufficiently extended to observe a substantial amount of differential rotation. Moreover, UGCA 105 shows strong signatures for the presence of a kinematically anomalous gas component. Performing tilted-ring modelling by use of the least-squares fitting routine TiRiFiC, we found that the HI disk of UGCA 105 has a moderately warped and ...

  15. The Red and Featureless Outer Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Aaron E; Harding, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We present results from deep, wide-field surface photometry of three nearby (D=4--7 Mpc) spiral galaxies: M94 (NGC 4736), M64 (NGC 4826), and M106 (NGC 4258). Our imaging reaches limiting surface brightnesses of $\\mu_{B} \\sim$ 28 -- 30 mag arcsec$^{-2}$ and probes colors down to $\\mu_{B} \\sim$ 27.5 mag arcsec$^{-2}$. We compare our broadband optical data to available ultraviolet and high column-density HI data to better constrain the star forming history and stellar populations of the outermost parts of each galaxy's disk. Each galaxy has a well-defined radius beyond which little star formation occurs and the disk light appears both azimuthally smooth and red in color, suggestive of old, well-mixed stellar populations. Given the lack of ongoing star formation or blue stellar populations in these galaxies' outer disks, the most likely mechanisms for their formation are dynamical processes such as disk heating or radial migration, rather than inside-out growth of the disks. This is also implied by the similarit...

  16. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. II. Implications for understanding galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, KA; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Ultraviolet Visual-Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's) : Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of

  17. Dark matter searches with Cherenkov telescopes: nearby dwarf galaxies or local galaxy clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A; Zandanel, F; Gomez, Mario E; Prada, F

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years, most of the attention in gamma-ray dark matter (DM) searches has been devoted to neutralino annihilations in nearby dwarf galaxies. However, massive galaxy clusters in the local Universe may constitute very good targets as well. The main aim of this work is to compare both dwarf galaxies and local galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters, and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman~1 appears as the best candidate in the sample and, given the morphology of its annihilation signal, it is also one of the objects more readily observable by IACTs. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the hi...

  18. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey. I. Substantial variation in the diffuse stellar halos around spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through accretion; as less massive galaxies are disrupted and merge over time, their debris results in diffuse, clumpy stellar halos enveloping the central galaxy. Here we present a study of the variation in the stellar halos of galaxies, using data from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS). The survey consists of wide field, deep ($\\mu_{g} > 31$ mag arcsec$^{-2}$) optical imaging of nearby galaxies using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Our sample includes eight spiral galaxies with stellar masses similar to that of the Milky Way, inclinations of $16-90$ degrees and distances between $7-18$ Mpc. We construct stellar mass surface density profiles from the observed $g$-band surface brightness in combination with the $g-r$ color as a function of radius, and compute the halo fractions from the excess stellar mass (relative to a disk$+$bulge fit) beyond $5$ half-mass radii. We find a mean halo fraction of $0.009 \\pm 0.005$ and a large RMS scatter of $1.01^{+0.9}_{-0.26}$ dex. The...

  19. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. III. The Three-Component Structure of Nearby Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Song; Peng, Chien Y; Li, Zhao-Yu; Barth, Aaron J

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments in our understanding of the formation and evolution of massive galaxies, we explore the detailed photometric structure of a representative sample of 94 bright, nearby elliptical galaxies, using high-quality optical images from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. The sample spans a range of environments and stellar masses, from M* = 10^{10.2} to 10^{12.0} solar mass. We exploit the unique capabilities of two-dimensional image decomposition to explore the possibility that local elliptical galaxies may contain photometrically distinct substructure that can shed light on their evolutionary history. Compared with the traditional one-dimensional approach, these two-dimensional models are capable of consistently recovering the surface brightness distribution and the systematic radial variation of geometric information at the same time. Contrary to conventional perception, we find that the global light distribution of the majority (>75%) of elliptical galaxies is not well described by ...

  20. MAPPING DUST THROUGH EMISSION AND ABSORPTION IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreckel, Kathryn; Groves, Brent; Schinnerer, Eva; Meidt, Sharon E.; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh S. [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98 bis Bvd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Aniano, Gonzalo [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), Batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Draine, Bruce T. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gordon, Karl D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Crocker, Alison F.; Smith, J. D. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Kennicutt, Robert C., E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Dust has long been identified as a barrier to measuring inherent galaxy properties. However, the link between dust and attenuation is not straightforward and depends on both the amount of dust and its distribution. Herschel imaging of nearby galaxies undertaken as part of the KINGFISH project allows us to map the dust as seen in emission with unprecedented sensitivity and {approx}1 kpc resolution. We present here new optical integral field unit spectroscopy for eight of these galaxies that provides complementary 100-200 pc scale maps of the dust attenuation through observation of the reddening in both the Balmer decrement and the stellar continuum. The stellar continuum reddening, which is systematically less than that observed in the Balmer decrement, shows no clear correlation with the dust, suggesting that the distribution of stellar reddening acts as a poor tracer of the overall dust content. The brightest H II regions are observed to be preferentially located in dusty regions, and we do find a correlation between the Balmer line reddening and the dust mass surface density for which we provide an empirical relation. Some of the high-inclination systems in our sample exhibit high extinction, but we also find evidence that unresolved variations in the dust distribution on scales smaller than 500 pc may contribute to the scatter in this relation. We caution against the use of integrated A{sub V} measures to infer global dust properties.

  1. Origins Space Telescope: Interstellar Medium, Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battersby, Cara; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2017-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its imagers and spectrographs will enable a variety of surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu.This presentation will provide a summary of the science case related to the Interstellar Medium (ISM), the Milky Way, and Nearby Galaxies. Origins will enable a comprehensive view of magnetic fields, turbulence, and the multi-phase ISM; connecting physics at all scales, from galaxies to protostellar cores. With unprecedented sensitivity, Origins will measure and characterize the mechanisms of feedback from star formation and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) over cosmic time and trace the trail of water from interstellar clouds, to protoplanetary disks, to Earth itself in order to understand the abundance and availability of water for habitable planets.

  2. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Nearby Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Bigiel, Frank; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; de Blok, W J G; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rosolowsky, Erik; Schinnerer, Eva; Schuster, Karl-Friedrich; Usero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by 12CO(2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between Sig_mol and Sig_SFR but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, t_dep^mol = Sig_mol / Sig_SFR. At our 1 kpc common resolution, CO correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally and using a fixed, Milky Way alpha_CO, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, t_dep^mol=Sig_mol/Sig_SFR ~ 2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex scatter, in good agreement with literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density and find N=1+/-0.15 for our full data set with some variation from galaxy to galaxy. However, we caution that a power law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlat...

  3. The Host Galaxies of Nearby, Optically Luminous, AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petric, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    Coevolution of galaxies and their central black holes (BH) has been the central theme of much of recent extragalactic astronomical research. Observations of the dynamics of stars and gas in the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies suggest that the majority of spheroidal galaxies in the local Universe contain massive BHs and that the masses of those central BH correlate with the velocity dispersions of the stars in the spheroid and the bulge luminosity. Cold ISM is the basic fuel for star-formation and BH growth so its study is essential to understanding how galaxies evolve.I will present high sensitivity observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory to measure the cold dust content in a sample of 85 nearby (z measurements from the Two Micron All Sky Survey and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer to determine their IR spectral energy distributions which we use to assess and compare the aggregate dust properties of QSO1s and QSO2s. I will also present NIR spectroscopy obtained with Gemini's Near-Infrared Spectrograph of a sub-sample of QSO2s and QSO1s which I use to compare the ratio of cold to warm H2 gas that emits in the NIR in the hosts of QSO1s and QSO2s.Finally I will present a comparison of star-formation in QSO1s and QSO2s. For both QSO1s and QSO2s 3stimates of star-formation rates that are based on the total IR continuum emission correlate with those based on the 11.3 micron PAH feature. However, for the QSO1s, star-formation rates estimated from the FIR continuum are higher than those estimated from the 11.3 micron PAH emission. This result can be attributed to a variety of factors including the possible destruction of the PAHs and that, in some sources, a fraction of the FIR originates from dust heated by the active galactic nucleus and by old stars. For QSO2s the SFR derived from the 11.3 micron PAH feature match those derived from the 160micron emission.

  4. The Dragonfly nearby Galaxies Survey. I. Substantial Variation in the Diffuse Stellar Halos around Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Allison; van Dokkum, Pieter; Abraham, Roberto; Zhang, Jielai

    2016-10-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through accretion; as less massive galaxies are disrupted and merge over time, their debris results in diffuse, clumpy stellar halos enveloping the central galaxy. Here we present a study of the variation in the stellar halos of galaxies, using data from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS). The survey consists of wide field, deep ({μ }g\\gt 31 mag arcsec‑2) optical imaging of nearby galaxies using the Dragonfly Telephoto Array. Our sample includes eight spiral galaxies with stellar masses similar to that of the Milky Way, inclinations of 16-19 degrees and distances between 7-18 Mpc. We construct stellar mass surface density profiles from the observed g-band surface brightness in combination with the g ‑ r color as a function of radius, and compute the halo fractions from the excess stellar mass (relative to a disk+bulge fit) beyond 5 half-mass radii. We find a mean halo fraction of 0.009 ± 0.005 and a large rms scatter of {1.01}-0.26+0.9 dex. The peak-to-peak scatter of the halo fraction is a factor of \\gt 100—while some galaxies feature strongly structured halos resembling that of M31, three of the eight have halos that are completely undetected in our data. We conclude that spiral galaxies as a class exhibit a rich variety in stellar halo properties, implying that their assembly histories have been highly non-uniform. We find no convincing evidence for an environmental or stellar mass dependence of the halo fraction in the sample.

  5. Faint Galaxies in deep ACS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Benítez, N; Bouwens, R; Menanteau, F; Blakeslee, J P; Gronwall, C; Illingworth, G D; Meurer, G; Broadhurst, T J; Clampin, M; Franx, M; Hartig, G F; Magee, D; Sirianni, M; Ardila, D R; Bartko, F; Brown, R A; Burrows, C J; Cheng, E S; Cross, N J G; Feldman, P D; Golimowski, D A; Infante, L; Kimble, R A; Krist, J E; Lesser, M P; Levay, Z G; Martel, A R; Miley, G K; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Sparks, W B; Tran, H D; Tsvetanov, Z I; Zheng, R L

    2003-01-01

    We present the analysis of the faint galaxy population in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Early Release Observation fields VV 29 (UGC 10214) and NGC 4676. Here we attempt to thoroughly consider all aspects relevant for faint galaxy counting and photometry, developing methods which are based on public software and that are easily reproducible by other astronomers. Using simulations we determine the best SExtractor parameters for the detection of faint galaxies in deep HST observations, paying special attention to the issue of deblending, which significantly affects the normalization and shape of the number count distribution. We confirm, as claimed by Bernstein, Freedman and Madore (2002), that Kron-like magnitudes, such as the ones generated by SExtractor, can miss more than half of the light of faint galaxies, what dramatically affects the slope of the number counts. We present catalogs for the VV 29 and NGC 4676 fields with photometry in the g,V and I bands. We also show that combining the bayesian so...

  6. The Mitchell Spectrograph: Studying Nearby Galaxies with the VIRUS Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A

    2014-01-01

    The Mitchell Spectrograph (a.k.a. VIRUS-P) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory is currently the largest field of view (FOV) integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph in the world (1.7'x1.7'). It was designed as a prototype for the highly replicable VIRUS spectrograph which consists of a mosaic of IFUs spread over a 16' diameter FOV feeding 150 spectrographs similar to the Mitchell. VIRUS will be deployed on the 9.2 meter Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) and will be used to conduct the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). Since seeing first light in 2007 the Mitchell Spectrograph has been widely used, among other things, to study nearby galaxies in the local universe where their internal structure and the spatial distribution of different physical parameters can be studied in great detail. These observations have provided important insight into many aspects of the physics behind the formation and evolution of galaxies and have boosted the scientific impact of the 2.7 meter telescope enormous...

  7. Resolved Near-Infrared Stellar Populations in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dalcanton, Julianne J; Melbourne, Jason L; Girardi, Léo; Dolphin, Andy; Rosenfield, Philip A; Boyer, Martha L; de Jong, Roelof S; Gilbert, Karoline; Marigo, Paola; Olsen, Knut; Seth, Anil C; Skillman, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) for the resolved stellar populations within 26 fields of 23 nearby galaxies (<4 Mpc), based on F110W and F160W images from Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The CMDs sample both old dormant and young star-forming populations. We match key NIR CMD features with their counterparts in optical CMDs, and identify the red core Helium burning (RHeB) sequence as a significant contributor to the NIR flux in stellar populations younger than a few 100 Myrs old, suggesting that star formation can drive surprisingly rapid variations in the NIR mass-to-light ratio. The NIR luminosity of star forming galaxies is therefore not necessarily proportional to the stellar mass. We note that these individual bright RHeB stars may be misidentified as old stellar clusters in low resolution imaging. We also discuss the CMD location of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and the separation of AGB sub-populations using a combination of optic...

  8. Star Formation and Supercluster Environment of 107 nearby Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A.; Einasto, Maret; Vennik, Jaan

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the relationship between star formation (SF), substructure, and supercluster environment in a sample of 107 nearby galaxy clusters using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Previous works have investigated the relationships between SF and cluster substructure, and cluster substructure and supercluster environment, but definitive conclusions relating all three of these variables has remained elusive. We find an inverse relationship between cluster SF fraction (fSF) and supercluster environment density, calculated using the Galaxy luminosity density field at a smoothing length of 8 h‑1 Mpc (D8). The slope of fSF versus D8 is ‑0.008 ± 0.002. The fSF of clusters located in low-density large-scale environments, 0.244 ± 0.011, is higher than for clusters located in high-density supercluster cores, 0.202 ± 0.014. We also divide superclusters, according to their morphology, into filament- and spider-type systems. The inverse relationship between cluster fSF and large-scale density is dominated by filament- rather than spider-type superclusters. In high-density cores of superclusters, we find a higher fSF in spider-type superclusters, 0.229 ± 0.016, than in filament-type superclusters, 0.166 ± 0.019. Using principal component analysis, we confirm these results and the direct correlation between cluster substructure and SF. These results indicate that cluster SF is affected by both the dynamical age of the cluster (younger systems exhibit higher amounts of SF); the large-scale density of the supercluster environment (high-density core regions exhibit lower amounts of SF); and supercluster morphology (spider-type superclusters exhibit higher amounts of SF at high densities).

  9. The Chemical Anatomy of Nuclei of Nearby Barred Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. S.; Turner, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    We present images of the millimeter lines of eight molecules---C2H, C34S, N2H+, CH3OH, HNCO, HNC, HC3N, and SO---in the nuclei of the nearby barred spiral galaxies, IC 342 and Maffei 2, made with the OVRO and BIMA arrays. These maps are compared to obtain a picture of changes in chemistry on sizescales of individual giant molecular clouds (GMCs) within a nucleus and between nuclei of similar morphological type. Emission from all species except SO are detected in both galaxies. Marked differences in morphology between the observed species are seen in both galaxies. A principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to quantify differences among the images. In IC 342, the PCA reveals that while all molecules are zeroth order correlated, that is, trace dense GMCs, there are three distinct groups of molecules distinguished by the location of their emission within the nucleus. N2H+ and HNC are widespread and bright, tracing all of the GMCs. C2H and C34S, tracers of photo-dissociation region chemistry, originate exclusively from the central ˜ 5'' ring illuminated by the 60 Myr, massive central cluster. CH3OH (and HNCO), a typical tracer of grain processing, correlates well with the expected locations of bar-induced orbital shocks. In Maffei 2, the PCA demonstrates that its chemistry is quite similar to IC 342, with the molecules tending to couple together in the same groups and with the same structural components of the nucleus. C2H dominates from the central starburst region, but is significantly more extended than IC 342 because its star formation is more extended. The correlation between HNCO and CH3OH in Maffei 2 is even strongly than in IC 342, being entirely dominated by the bar ends and orbit intersections. This provides strong evidence that HNCO is formed by the same processes as CH3OH. Funding for this research is provided by the Laboratory for Astronomical Imaging at the University of Illinois through the NSF grant AST-0228953, and by NSF grants AST-0071276 and

  10. The Observational Mass Function of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1998-01-01

    We present a new determination of the mass function of galaxy clusters, based on optical virial mass estimates for a large sample of 152 nearby (z M_lim)=(6.3\\pm 1.2) 10^{-6} (h^{-1} Mpc)^{-3} for cluster masses estimated within a 1.5 h^{-1} Mpc radius. Our mass function is intermediate between the two previous estimates by Bahcall & Cen (1993) and by Biviano et al. (1993). Based on the Press--Schechter approach, we use this mass function to constrain the amplitude of the fluctuation power spectrum at the cluster scale. After suitably convolving the PS predictions with observational errors on cluster masses and COBE--normalizing the fluctuation power spectrum, we find sigma_8=(0.60\\pm 0.04) Omega_0^{-0.46+0.09Omega_0} for flat low--density models and \\sigma_8=(0.60\\pm 0.04) Omega_0^{-0.48+0.17Omega_0} for open models (at the 90% c.l.).

  11. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN NEARBY DISK GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Sandstrom, Karin; Meidt, Sharon; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schinnerer, Eva [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schruba, Andreas [California Institute for Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Rosolowsky, Erik [University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Schuster, Karl-Friedrich [IRAM, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Usero, Antonio [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, C/ Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    We compare molecular gas traced by {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps from the HERACLES survey, with tracers of the recent star formation rate (SFR) across 30 nearby disk galaxies. We demonstrate a first-order linear correspondence between {Sigma}{sub mol} and {Sigma}{sub SFR} but also find important second-order systematic variations in the apparent molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}. At the 1 kpc common resolution of HERACLES, CO emission correlates closely with many tracers of the recent SFR. Weighting each line of sight equally, using a fixed {alpha}{sub CO} equivalent to the Milky Way value, our data yield a molecular gas depletion time, {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol}={Sigma}{sub mol}/{Sigma}{sub SFR}{approx}2.2 Gyr with 0.3 dex 1{sigma} scatter, in very good agreement with recent literature data. We apply a forward-modeling approach to constrain the power-law index, N, that relates the SFR surface density and the molecular gas surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}{proportional_to}{Sigma}{sub mol}{sup N}. We find N = 1 {+-} 0.15 for our full data set with some scatter from galaxy to galaxy. This also agrees with recent work, but we caution that a power-law treatment oversimplifies the topic given that we observe correlations between {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} and other local and global quantities. The strongest of these are a decreased {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} in low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies and a correlation of the kpc-scale {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} with dust-to-gas ratio, D/G. These correlations can be explained by a CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor ({alpha}{sub CO}) that depends on dust shielding, and thus D/G, in the theoretically expected way. This is not a unique interpretation, but external evidence of conversion factor variations makes this the most conservative explanation of the strongest observed {tau}{sub dep}{sup mol} trends. After applying a D/G-dependent {alpha}{sub CO}, some weak correlations between {tau}{sub dep

  12. HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    HUBBLE PEEKS INTO A STELLAR NURSERY IN A NEARBY GALAXY NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into a neighboring galaxy to reveal details of the formation of new stars. Hubble's target was a newborn star cluster within the Small Magellanic Cloud, a small galaxy that is a satellite of our own Milky Way. The new images show young, brilliant stars cradled within a nebula, or glowing cloud of gas, cataloged as N 81. These massive, recently formed stars inside N 81 are losing material at a high rate, sending out strong stellar winds and shock waves and hollowing out a cocoon within the surrounding nebula. The two most luminous stars, seen in the Hubble image as a very close pair near the center of N 81, emit copious ultraviolet radiation, causing the nebula to glow through fluorescence. Outside the hot, glowing gas is cooler material consisting of hydrogen molecules and dust. Normally this material is invisible, but some of it can be seen in silhouette against the nebular background, as long dust lanes and a small, dark, elliptical-shaped knot. It is believed that the young stars have formed from this cold matter through gravitational contraction. Few features can be seen in N 81 from ground-based telescopes, earning it the informal nick-name 'The Blob.' Astronomers were not sure if just one or a few hot stars were embedded in the cloud, or if it was a stellar nursery containing a large number of less massive stars. Hubble's high-resolution imaging shows the latter to be the case, revealing that numerous young, white-hot stars---easily visible in the color picture---are contained within N 81. This crucial information bears strongly on theories of star formation, and N 81 offers a singular opportunity for a close-up look at the turbulent conditions accompanying the birth of massive stars. The brightest stars in the cluster have a luminosity equal to 300,000 stars like our own Sun. Astronomers are especially keen to study star formation in the Small Magellanic

  13. On The Linearity of The Black Hole - Bulge Mass Relation in Active and in Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Laor, Ari

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of PG quasar observations suggests a nonlinear relation between the black hole mass, M_BH, and the bulge mass, M_bulge, although a linear relation, as proposed for nearby galaxies, cannot be ruled out. New M_BH values for nearby galaxies from Gebhardt et al., and L_bulge measurements for Seyfert 1 galaxies from Virani et al., are used here to obtain a more accurate value for the slope of the M_BH-M_bulge relation. The combined sample of 40 active and non-active galaxies suggests a si...

  14. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey II: Warm Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Three Field Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, B E; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Bendo, G J; Brinks, E; Clements, D L; Irwin, J A; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Mühle, S; Mortimer, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sinukoff, E; Spekkens, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; van der Werf, P P; Vlahakis, C; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of large-area CO J=3-2 emission mapping of three nearby field galaxies, NGC 628, NGC 3521, and NGC 3627, completed at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These galaxies all have moderate to strong CO J=3-2 detections over large areas of the fields observed by the survey, showing resolved structure and dynamics in their warm/dense molecular gas disks. All three galaxies were part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey sample, and as such have excellent published multi-wavelength ancillary data. These data sets allow us to examine the star formation properties, gas content, and dynamics of these galaxies on sub-kiloparsec scales. We find that the global gas depletion times for dense/warm molecular gas in these galaxies is consistent with other results for nearby spiral galaxies, indicating this may be independent of galaxy properties such as structures, gas compositions, and environments. Similar to the results from the THINGS HI survey,...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS nearby galaxies morphologies (Yoshino+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, A.; Yamauchi, C.

    2015-01-01

    These catalogues are intended to study statistically Box/Peanut or Bar structures in edge-on or face-on nearby galaxies, containing values of surface brightness parameters of model galaxy, coordinate, redshift, morphology and matched PGC number for edge-on or face-on nearby galaxies in g, r and i-band selected from SDSS DR7. table1[gri].dat are the catalogues for edge-on galaxies in g, r and i-band, respectively. table2[gri].dat are those for face-on galaxies. table3[gri].dat contain only Box/Peanut galaxies extracted from table1[gri].dat. table4[gri].dat contain only Barred galaxies extracted from table2[gri].dat. (12 data files).

  16. The Butcher-Oemler Effect at Low Redshift Spectroscopy of Five Nearby Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Caldwell, N; Caldwell, Nelson; Rose, James

    1996-01-01

    We present multi-fiber spectroscopy and broadband imaging of early-type galaxies in five nearby rich clusters of galaxies. The main purpose was to look for ``abnormal'' spectrum galaxies (i.e., post-starburst galaxies which have strong Balmer absorption lines and emission line galaxies) in nearby clusters that are similar to those found by Caldwell et al. (1993) in the Coma cluster. Our primary conclusion is that 15% of the early-type galaxies in these nearby rich clusters have signs of ongoing or recent star formation. Thus activity similar to that seen in distant clusters is still ongoing, at a reduced level, in present-epoch rich clusters. The frequency of such galaxies appears to be enhanced significantly over that seen in field galaxies. Most of the new post-starburst galaxies are disk galaxies; three E galaxies in one cluster and one in another cluster have current star formation. We also find evidence in the spatial and kinematic structure of several of the clusters that subclusters have recently passe...

  17. Extending the Nearby Galaxy Heritage with WISE: First Results from the WISE Enhanced Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Jarrett, T H; Tsai, C W; Petty, S; Cluver, M; Assef, Roberto J; Benford, D; Blain, A; Bridge, C; Donoso, E; Eisenhardt, P; Koribalski, B; Lake, S; Neill, James D; Seibert, M; Sheth, K; Stanford, S; Wright, E

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at mid-infrared wavelengths 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 microns. The mission was primarily designed to extract point sources, leaving resolved and extended sources unexplored. We have begun a dedicated WISE Enhanced Resolution Galaxy Atlas (WERGA) project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalogue. Here we demonstrate the first results of the project for a sample of 17 galaxies, chosen to be of large angular size, diverse morphology, color, stellar mass and star formation. It includes many well-studied galaxies, such as M51, M81, M83, M87, M101, IC342. Photometry and surface brightness decomposition is carried out after special super-resolution processing, achieving spatial fidelity similar to that of Spitzer-IRAC. We present WISE, Spitzer and GALEX photometric and characterization measurements, combining the measurements to study the global properties. We derive star formation rates using the ...

  18. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies II. Implications for Understanding Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, V; Szeifert, A K T; Tolstoy, Eline

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of numerous elements in these low mass stars with a range of ages (1-15Gyr old). This means that we can effectively measure the chemical evolution of these galaxies WITH TIME. Our results show a significant spread in metallicity with age, but an overall trend consistent with what might be expected from a closed (or perhaps leaky) box chemical evolution scenario over the last 10-15Gyr. We notice that each of these galaxies show broadly similar abundance patterns for all elements measured. This suggests a fairly uniform progression of chemical evolution with time, despite quite a large range of star formation histories. It seems likely that these galaxies had similar initial conditions, and evolve in a similar manner with star formation occurring at a uniformly low rate, even if at different times. With our ...

  19. Dark Matter Searches with Cherenkov Telescopes: Nearby Dwarf Galaxies or Local Galaxy Clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Conde, Miguel A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IAC, La Laguna /Laguna U., Tenerife; Cannoni, Mirco; /Huelva U.; Zandanel, Fabio; /IAA, Granada; Gomez, Mario E.; /Huelva U.; Prada, Francisco; /IAA, Granada

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  20. Dark matter searches with Cherenkov telescopes: nearby dwarf galaxies or local galaxy clusters?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Cannoni, Mirco; Gómez, Mario E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Zandanel, Fabio; Prada, Francisco, E-mail: masc@stanford.edu, E-mail: mirco.cannoni@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: fabio@iaa.es, E-mail: mario.gomez@dfa.uhu.es, E-mail: fprada@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18008, Granada (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we compare dwarf galaxies and galaxy clusters in order to elucidate which object class is the best target for gamma-ray DM searches with imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). We have built a mixed dwarfs+clusters sample containing some of the most promising nearby dwarf galaxies (Draco, Ursa Minor, Wilman 1 and Segue 1) and local galaxy clusters (Perseus, Coma, Ophiuchus, Virgo, Fornax, NGC 5813 and NGC 5846), and then compute their DM annihilation flux profiles by making use of the latest modeling of their DM density profiles. We also include in our calculations the effect of DM substructure. Willman 1 appears as the best candidate in the sample. However, its mass modeling is still rather uncertain, so probably other candidates with less uncertainties and quite similar fluxes, namely Ursa Minor and Segue 1, might be better options. As for galaxy clusters, Virgo represents the one with the highest flux. However, its large spatial extension can be a serious handicap for IACT observations and posterior data analysis. Yet, other local galaxy cluster candidates with more moderate emission regions, such as Perseus, may represent good alternatives. After comparing dwarfs and clusters, we found that the former exhibit annihilation flux profiles that, at the center, are roughly one order of magnitude higher than those of clusters, although galaxy clusters can yield similar, or even higher, integrated fluxes for the whole object once substructure is taken into account. Even when any of these objects are strictly point-like according to the properties of their annihilation signals, we conclude that dwarf galaxies are best suited for observational strategies based on the search of point-like sources, while galaxy clusters represent best targets for analyses that can deal with rather extended emissions. Finally, we study the detection prospects for present and future IACTs in the framework of the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. We

  1. Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO: The MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, David R.; MaNGA Team

    2014-01-01

    MaNGA is a new survey that will begin in August 2014 as part of SDSS-IV with the aim of obtaining integral-field spectroscopy for an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. MaNGA's key goals are to understand the "life cycle" of present day galaxies from imprinted clues of their birth and assembly, through their ongoing growth via star formation and merging, to their death from quenching at late times. To achieve these goals, MaNGA will channel the impressive capabilities of the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs in a fundamentally new direction by marshaling the unique power of 2D spectroscopy. MaNGA will deploy 17 pluggable Integral Field Units (IFUs) made by grouping fibers into hexagonal bundles ranging from 19 to 127 fibers each. The spectra obtained by MaNGA will cover the wavelength range 3600-10,000 Angstroms (with a velocity resolution of ~ 60 km/s) and will characterize the internal composition and the dynamical state of a sample of 10,000 galaxies with stellar masses greater than 10^9 Msun and an average redshift of z ~ 0.03. Such IFU observations enable a leap forward because they provide an added dimension to the information available for each galaxy. MaNGA will provide two-dimensional maps of stellar velocity and velocity dispersion, mean stellar age and star formation history, stellar metallicity, element abundance ratio, stellar mass surface density, ionized gas velocity, ionized gas metallicity, star formation rate, and dust extinction for a statistically powerful sample. This legacy dataset will address urgent questions in our understanding of galaxy formation, including 1) The formation history of galaxy subcomponents, including the disk, bulge, and dark matter halo, 2) The nature of present-day galaxy growth via merging and gas accretion, and 3) The processes responsible for terminating star formation in galaxies. Finally, MaNGA will also play a vital role in the coming era of advanced IFU instrumentation, serving as the low-z anchor for

  2. Nuclei of nearby disk galaxies .1. A Hubble Space Telescope imaging survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, AC; Illingworth, GD; MacKenty, JW; Franx, M

    We present deconvolved images of the central regions of 20 nearby disk galaxies, obtained with the original Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. The galaxies span a range in Hubble type from SO to Sm. We have measured surface brightness profiles, and inverted these to estimate

  3. Direct imaging of haloes and truncations in face-on nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapen, Johan; Peters, Stephan; van der Kruit, Piet; Trujillo, Ignacio; Fliri, Juergen; Cisternas, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    We use ultra-deep imaging from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and co-added SDSS/Stripe82 imaging allows us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r‧-magnitudes/arcsec2 and thus reach into the ve

  4. Constraints on decaying dark matter from Fermi observations of nearby galaxies and clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Astronomy and Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jeltema, Tesla E., E-mail: greentee01@gmail.com, E-mail: tesla@ucolick.org, E-mail: profumo@scipp.ucsc.edu [UCO/Lick Observatories, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results put strong constraints on the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong limits as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous constraints in some cases.

  5. Constraints on Decaying Dark Matter from Fermi Observations of Nearby Galaxies and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Dugger, Leanna; Profumo, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of Fermi gamma-ray observations (primarily non-detections) of selected nearby galaxies, including dwarf spheroidals, and of clusters of galaxies on decaying dark matter models. We show that the fact that galaxy clusters do not shine in gamma rays puts the most stringent limits available to-date on the lifetime of dark matter particles for a wide range of particle masses and decay final states. In particular, our results rule out the possibility of ascribing to decaying dark matter both the increasing positron fraction reported by PAMELA and the high-energy feature in the electron-positron spectrum measured by Fermi. Observations of nearby dwarf galaxies and of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) do not provide as strong constraints as those from galaxy clusters, while still improving on previous limits in some cases.

  6. Nearby galaxies as pointers to a better theory of cosmic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J E; Nusser, Adi

    2010-06-01

    The great advances in the network of cosmological tests show that the relativistic Big Bang theory is a good description of our expanding Universe. However, the properties of nearby galaxies that can be observed in greatest detail suggest that a better theory would describe a mechanism by which matter is more rapidly gathered into galaxies and groups of galaxies. This more rapid growth occurs in some theoretical ideas now under discussion.

  7. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Gordon, K D; Hanson, H M; Armus, L; Bendo, G J; Bianchi, L; Block, M; Boissier, S; Boselli, A; Buckalew, B A; Buat, V; Burgarella, D; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Li, A; Madore, B F; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Roussel, H; Smith, J D T; Sosey, M L; Thilker, D A; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant in...

  8. VLA-ANGST: A high-resolution HI Survey of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Juergen; Warren, Steven R; Skillman, Evan D; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Walter, Fabian; de Blok, W J G; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    We present the "Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)." VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km/s) and spatial (~6") resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (HI) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic HST survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D\\lesssim4 Mpc). VLA-ANGST provides VLA HI observations of the sub-sample of ANGST galaxies with recent star formation that are observable from the northern hemisphere and that were not observed in the "The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey" (THINGS). The overarching scientific goal of VLA-ANGST is to investigate fundamental characteristics of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) of dwarf galaxies. Here we describe the VLA observations, the data reduction, and the final VLA-ANGST data products. We pre...

  9. The redshift-space two-point correlation functions of galaxies and groups in the Nearby Optical Galaxy sample

    CERN Document Server

    Giuricin, G; Girardi, M; Mezzetti, M; Marinoni, C; Giuricin, Giuliano; Samurovic, Srdjan; Girardi, Marisa; Mezzetti, Marino; Marinoni, Christian

    2001-01-01

    We use the two-point correlation function in redshift space, $\\xi(s)$, to study the clustering of the galaxies and groups of the Nearby Optical Galaxy (NOG) sample, which is a nearly all-sky, complete, magnitude-limited sample of $\\sim$7000 bright and nearby optical galaxies. The correlation function of galaxies is well described by a power law, $\\xi(s)=(s/s_0)^{-\\gamma}$, with slope $\\gamma\\sim1.5$ and $s_0\\sim6.4 h^{-1}$Mpc (on scales $2.7 - 12 h^{-1}$Mpc), in agreement with previous results of several redshift surveys of optical galaxies. We confirm the existence of morphological segregation between early- and late-type galaxies and, in particular, we find a gradual decreasing of the strength of clustering from the S0 galaxies to the late-type spirals, on intermediate scales. Furthermore, luminous galaxies turn out to be more clustered than dim galaxies. The luminosity segregation, which is significant for both early- and late-type objects, starts to become appreciable only for galaxies brighter than $M_B\\...

  10. Planck early results. XVI. The Planck view of nearby galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucher, M.; Delabrouille, J.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Theall-sky coverage of the Planck Early Release Compact Source Catalogue (ERCSC) provides an unsurpassed survey of galaxies at submillimetre (submm) wavelengths, representing a major improvement in the numbers of galaxies detected, as well as the range of far-IR/submm wavelengths over which they ...

  11. The Halos and Environments of Nearby Galaxies (HERON) Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rich, R Michael; Bullock, James; Burkert, Andreas; Collins, Michelle; de Groot, Laura; Kennefick, Julia; Koch, Andreas; Longstaff, Francis; Sales, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We have used dedicated 0.7m telescopes in California and Israel to image the halos of ~200 galaxies in the Local Volume to 29 mag/sq arcsec, the sample mainly drawn from the 2MASS Large Galaxy Atlas (LGA). We supplement the LGA sample with dwarf galaxies and more distant giant ellipticals. Low surface brightness halos exceeding 50 kpc in diameter are found only in galaxies more luminous than L* and classic interaction signatures are relatively infrequent. Halo diameter is correlated with total galaxy luminosity. Extended low surface brightness halos are present even in galaxies as faint as M_V=-18. Edge-on galaxies with boxy bulges tend to lack extended spheroidal halos, while those with large classical bulges exhibit extended round halos, supporting the notions that boxy or barlike bulges originate from disks. Most face-on spiral galaxies present features that appear to be irregular extensions of spiral arms, although rare cases show smooth boundaries with no sign of star formation. Although we serendipitous...

  12. The Dwarf Galaxy Population in Nearby Groups. The data

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, E R; Infante, L; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Oliveira, Claudia M. de; Infante, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    We used V and I CCD photometry to search for low-surface brightness dwarf galaxies (LSBD) in the central ( 22.5 V mag/arcsec^2, h > 1.5 arcsec, and diameters larger than 1.2 h^-1 kpc. Twenty of the eighty galaxies are extended LSB galaxies that were detected only on smoothed images, after masking all high surface brightness objects. The completeness in the detection is ~80% for galaxies with V<=20 and 22.5galaxies in smoothed images instead. The detected LSBD galaxies are highly concentrated towards the center of the four groups in the inner 250 h^-1 kpc. The best fit power-law slope of the surface density distribution is, on average, beta ~ -1.5 (R < 250 h^-1 kpc), in agreement with the values found for satellites dwarfs around isolated E/S0 galaxies and in X-ray groups. The LSBD galaxies in the Mv-mu0 plane does not show a clear c...

  13. New Low Surface Brightness Dwarf Galaxies Detected Around Nearby Spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, I D; Zilch, T; Blauensteiner, M; Elvov, M; Hochleitner, P; Hubl, B; Kerschhuber, G; Küppers, S; Neyer, F; Pölzl, R; Remmel, P; Schneider, O; Sparenberg, R; Trulson, U; Willems, G; Ziegler, H

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a survey of low surface brightness (LSB) satellite galaxies around the Local Volume massive spirals using long exposures with small amateur telescopes. We identified 27 low and very low surface brightness objects around the galaxies NGC,672, 891, 1156, 2683, 3344, 4258, 4618, 4631, and 5457 situated within 10 Mpc from us, and found nothing new around NGC,2903, 3239, 4214, and 5585. Assuming that the dwarf candidates are the satellites of the neighboring luminous galaxies, their absolute magnitudes are in the range of -8.6 > M_B > -13.3, their effective diameters are 0.4-4.7 kpc, and the average surface brightness is 26.1 mag/sq arcsec. The mean linear projected separation of the satellite candidates from the host galaxies is 73 kpc. Our spectroscopic observations of two LSB dwarfs with the Russian 6-meter telescope confirm their physical connection to the host galaxies NGC,891 and NGC,2683.

  14. Accretion phenomena in nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, F.; Tosi, M.; Aloisi, A.; Bellazzini, M.; Buzzoni, A.; Cignoni, M.; Ciotti, L.; Cusano, F.; Nipoti, C.; Sacchi, E.; Paris, D.; Romano, D.

    2017-03-01

    We present two pilot studies for the search and characterization of accretion events in star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our strategy consists of two complementary approaches: i) the direct search for stellar substructures around dwarf galaxies through deep wide-field imaging, and ii) the characterization of the chemical properties in these systems up to large galacto-centric distances. We show our results for two star-forming dwarf galaxies, the starburst irregular NGC 4449, and the extremely metal-poor dwarf DDO 68.

  15. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - III: Comparison with Hydrodynamical Simulations of Circumgalactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Q Daniel

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of circumgalactic coronae provide a valuable means by which to test galaxy formation theories. Two primary mechanisms are thought to be responsible for the establishment of such coronae: accretion of intergalactic gas (IGM) and/or galactic feedback. In this paper, we first compare our Chandra sample of galactic coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies to an analytical model considering only the accretion of IGM. We confirm the existing conclusion that this pure accretion model substantially over-predicts the coronal emission. We then select 30 field galaxies from our original sample, and correct their coronal luminosities to uniformly compare them to deep X-ray measurements of several massive disc galaxies from the literature, as well as to a comparable sample of simulated galaxies drawn from the Galaxies-Intergalactic Medium Interaction Calculation (GIMIC). These simulations explicitly model both accretion and SNe feedback and yield galaxies exhibit X-ray properties in broad agre...

  16. TANGO I: ISM in nearby radio galaxies. Molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Flaquer, Breezy Ocana; Combes, Francoise; Lim, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Powerful radio-AGN are hosted by massive elliptical galaxies which are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless gas is needed in the very center to feed the nuclear activity. We aim to study the molecular gas properties (mass, kinematics, distribution, origin) in such objects, and to compare them with results of other known samples. We have performed at the IRAM-30m telescope a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission in the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio continuum fluxes. The main result of our survey is the very low content in molecular gas of such galaxies compared to spiral or FIR-selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, including detections and upper limits, is 2.2x10^8 Msun. If separated into FR-I and FR-II types, a difference in H_2 masses between them is found. The median value of FR-I galaxies is about 1.9x10^8 and higher for FR-II galaxies, about 4.5x10^8 Msun but this is very probably entirely due to a Ma...

  17. Tracing rejuvenation events in nearby S0 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Antonietta; Rampazzo, Roberto; Thilker, David A; Annibali, Francesca; Bressan, Alessandro; Buson, Lucio Maria

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of characterizing rejuvenation processes in early-type galaxies, we analyzed five barred S0 galaxies showing prominent outer ring in ultraviolet (UV) imaging. We analyzed GALEX far- (FUV) and near- (NUV) UV and optical data using stellar population models and estimated the age and the stellar mass of the entire galaxies and of the UV-bright ring structures. Outer rings consist of young (<200 Myr old) stellar populations, accounting for up to 70% of the FUV flux but containing only a few % of the total stellar mass. Integrated photometry of the whole galaxies places four of these objects on the green valley, indicating a globally evolving nature. We suggest such galaxy evolution is likely driven by bar induced instabilities, i.e. inner secular evolution, that conveys gas to the nucleus and to the outer rings. At the same time, HI observations of NGC 1533 and NGC 2962 suggest external gas re-fueling can play a role in the rejuvenation processes of such galaxies.

  18. Discrete X-Ray Source Populations and Star Formation History in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezas, Andreas; Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This program aims in understanding the connection between the discrete X-ray source populations observed in nearby galaxies and the history of star-formation in these galaxies. The ultimate goal is to use this knowledge in order to constrain X-ray binary evolution channels. For this reason although the program is primarily observational it has a significant modeling component. During the second year of this study we focused on detailed studies of the Antennae galaxies and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We also performed the initial analysis of the 5 galaxies forming a starburst-age sequence.

  19. An Ultraviolet-to-Radio Broadband Spectral Atlas of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, D. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gordon, K. D.; Hanson, H. M.; Armus, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Bianchi, L.; Block, M.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; Buckalew, B. A.; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Calzetti, D.; Cannon, J. M.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Helou, G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Jarrett, T. H.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Leitherer, C.; Li, A.; Madore, B. F.; Martin, D. C.; Meyer, M. J.; Murphy, E. J.; Regan, M. W.; Roussel, H.; Smith, J. D. T.; Sosey, M. L.; Thilker, D. A.; Walter, F.

    2007-02-01

    The ultraviolet-to-radio continuum spectral energy distributions are presented for all 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). A principal component analysis of the sample shows that most of the sample's spectral variations stem from two underlying components, one representative of a galaxy with a low infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio and one representative of a galaxy with a high infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio. The influence of several parameters on the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio is studied (e.g., optical morphology, disk inclination, far-infrared color, ultraviolet spectral slope, and star formation history). Consistent with our understanding of normal star-forming galaxies, the SINGS sample of galaxies in comparison to more actively star-forming galaxies exhibits a larger dispersion in the infrared-to-ultraviolet versus ultraviolet spectral slope correlation. Early-type galaxies, exhibiting low star formation rates and high optical surface brightnesses, have the most discrepant infrared-to-ultraviolet correlation. These results suggest that the star formation history may be the dominant regulator of the broadband spectral variations between galaxies. Finally, a new discovery shows that the 24 μm morphology can be a useful tool for parameterizing the global dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction in nearby galaxies. The dust emission in dwarf/irregular galaxies is clumpy and warm accompanied by low ultraviolet extinction, while in spiral galaxies there is typically a much larger diffuse component of cooler dust and average ultraviolet extinction. For galaxies with nuclear 24 μm emission, the dust temperature and ultraviolet extinction are relatively high compared to disk galaxies.

  20. TANGO I: Interstellar medium in nearby radio galaxies. Molecular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Leon, S.; Combes, F.; Lim, J.

    2010-07-01

    Context. Powerful radio-AGN are hosted by massive elliptical galaxies that are usually very poor in molecular gas. Nevertheless, gas is needed at their very center to feed the nuclear activity. Aims: We study the molecular gas properties (i.e., mass, kinematics, distribution, origin) of these objects, and compare them with results for other known samples. Methods: At the IRAM-30m telescope, we performed a survey of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the most powerful radio galaxies of the Local Universe, selected only on the basis of their radio continuum fluxes. Results: The main result of our survey is that the molecular gas content of these galaxies is very low compared to spiral or FIR-selected galaxies. The median value of the molecular gas mass, including detections and upper limits, is 2.2 × 108 M⊙. When separated into FR-I and FR-II types, a difference in their H2 masses is found. The median value of FR-I galaxies is about 1.9 × 108 M⊙ and higher for FR-II galaxies, at about 4.5 × 108 M⊙. Which is probably entirely because of a Malmquist bias. Our results contrast with those of previous surveys, whose targets were mainly selected by means of their FIR emission, implying that we measure higher observed masses of molecular gas. Moreover, the shape of CO spectra suggest that a central molecular gas disk exists in 30% of these radio galaxies, a lower rate than in other active galaxy samples. Conclusions: We find a low level of molecular gas in our sample of radio-selected AGNs, indicating that galaxies do not need much molecular gas to host an AGN. The presence of a molecular gas disk in some galaxies and the wide range of molecular gas masses may be indicative of different origins for the gas, which we can not exclude at present (e.g., minor/major mergers, stellar mass loss, or accretion). Appendices and Figure 15 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Magnetic Fields in a Sample of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Van Eck, Cameron; Shukurov, Anvar; Fletcher, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Both observations and modelling of magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas of spiral galaxies are well developed but the theory has been confronted with observations for only a handful of individual galaxies. There is now sufficient data to consider statistical properties of galactic magnetic fields. We have collected data from the literature on the magnetic fields and interstellar media (ISM) of 20 spiral galaxies, and tested for various physically motivated correlations between magnetic field and ISM parameters. Clear correlations emerge between the total magnetic field strength and molecular gas density as well as the star formation rate. The magnetic pitch angle exhibits correlations with the total gas density, the star formation rate and the strength of the axisymmetric component of the mean magnetic field. The total and mean magnetic field strengths exhibit noticeable degree of correlation, suggesting a universal behaviour of the degree of order in galactic magnetic fields. We also compare the p...

  2. Mass-to-light ratios of nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Materne, J

    1980-01-01

    The application of a probability density function gives the possibility of determining groups of galaxies and membership probabilities of the galaxies in a reliable unbiased way. For the five nearest groups so defined, the mean mass-to-light ratio was derived using the concept of negative energy. These groups have a mass-to- light ratio of 16 M/sub (.)//L/sub (.)/. The probability function gives also the possibility of deriving masses of groups in a direct and independent way. (22 refs).

  3. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    2016-06-10

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  4. Quark Nugget Dark Matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, K

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  5. Hα kinematics of nearby galaxies using Fabry-Perot and IFU data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; S4G Team; MUSE-GTO Consortium

    2017-03-01

    I present here analysis of the shapes of the rotation curves of a large sample of nearby spiral galaxies with high angular and spectral resolution Hα (Fabry-Perot GHαFaS) kinematics, and the resulting constraints on their total mass distributions. In particular I discuss how their rotation curve shapes relate to key galaxy properties. Finally I present related results from the MUSE Atlas of Disks (MAD) program, which is dissecting the nearby disk population with IFU spectroscopy at ~100pc resolution.

  6. Spectra of Nearby Galaxies Measured with a New Very Broadband Receiver

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Gopal; Erickson, Neal R; Chung, Aeree; Heyer, Mark H; Yun, Min; Irvine, William M; 10.1017/S1743921308021698

    2008-01-01

    Three-millimeter-wavelength spectra of a number of nearby galaxies have been obtained at the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) using a new, very broadband receiver. This instrument, which we call the Redshift Search Receiver, has an instantaneous bandwidth of 36 GHz and operates from 74 to 110.5 GHz. The receiver has been built at UMass/FCRAO to be part of the initial instrumentation for the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) and is intended primarily for determination of the redshift of distant, dust-obscured galaxies. It is being tested on the FCRAO 14m by measuring the 3mm spectra of a number of nearby galaxies. There are interesting differences in the chemistry of these galaxies.

  7. Studying the Dynamical Properties of 20 Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohamed H; Ismail, H A; Rassem, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    Using SDSS-DR7, we construct a sample of 42382 galaxies with redshifts in the region of 20 galaxy clusters. Using two successive iterative methods, the adaptive kernel method and the spherical infall model, we obtained 3396 galaxies as members belonging to the studied sample. The 2D projected map for the distribution of the clusters members is introduced using the 2D adaptive kernel method to get the clusters centers. The cumulative surface number density profile for each cluster is fitted well with the generalized King model. The core radii of the clusters' sample are found to vary from 0.18 Mpc $\\mbox{h}^{-1}$ (A1459) to 0.47 Mpc $\\mbox{h}^{-1}$ (A2670) with mean value of 0.295 Mpc $\\mbox{h}^{-1}$. The infall velocity profile is determined using two different models, Yahil approximation and Praton model. Yahil approximation is matched with the distribution of galaxies only in the outskirts (infall regions) of many clusters of the sample, while it is not matched with the distribution within the inner core of...

  8. Nearby groups of galaxies in the Hercules-Bootes constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachentsev, I. D.; Kashibadze, O. G.; Karachentseva, V. E.

    2017-04-01

    We consider a sample of 412 galaxies with radial velocities $V_{\\rm LG} sky region of ${\\rm RA}=13^h\\hspace{-0.4em}.\\,0$ ... $19^h\\hspace{-0.4em}.\\,0$, ${\\rm Dec}=+10^{\\circ}$ ... $+40^{\\circ}$ between the Local Void and the Supergalactic plane. One hundred and eighty-one of them have individual distance estimates. Peculiar velocities of the galaxies as a function of Supergalactic latitude SGB show signs of Virgocentric infall at $SGB 60^{\\circ}$. A half of the Hercules-Bootes galaxies belong to 17 groups and 29 pairs, with the richest group around NGC5353. A typical group is characterized by the velocity dispersion of $67$ km s$^{-1}$, the harmonic radius of $182$ kpc, the stellar mass of $4.3 \\times10^{10} M_{\\odot}$ and the virial-to-stellar mass ratio of $32$. The binary galaxies have the mean radial velocity difference of $37$ km s$^{-1}$, the projected separation of $96$ kpc, the mean integral stellar mass of $2.6\\times 10^9 M_{\\odot}$ and the mean virial-to-stellar mass ratio of about $8$. The total dark-matter-to-stellar mass ratio in the considered sky region amounts to $37$ being almost the same as that in the Local Volume.

  9. UVES abundances of stars in nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E; Venn, K; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2002-01-01

    It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a galaxy in possession of a good quantity of gas must want to form stars. It is the details of how and why that baffle us all. The simplest theories either would have this process a carefully self-regulated affair, or one that goes completely out of contr

  10. A NuSTAR survey of nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Stern, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously...

  11. Integrated Properties of Nearby Seyfert Galaxies Measured by 2-D Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junjie; Malkan, Matthew Arnold

    2017-01-01

    We present our measurements of mosaicing long-slit spectra of 12 nearby Seyfert galaxies. We obtained these data cubes at ~6‧‧ spatial resolution using the Kast double spectrograph on the 3-m Shane telescope of Lick Observatory. We have measured the integrated emission lines of [O III], Hβ, Hα, [N II], and [S II]. We compare the relative strength of these lines from the galaxy nucleus with the total emission from the entire galaxy. In classification line ratio diagrams (BPT), the individual galaxy moves from the Seyfert region to the composite/star-forming locus as the effective absorbing aperture grows. This trend means that Seyfert galaxies observed at higher redshifts will become increasingly misclassified. We use our sample to quantify this systematic trend. We also estimate the rates of star formation in the host galaxies based on the emission lines.

  12. Percolation Properties of Nearby Large-Scale Structures: Every Galaxy has a Neighbour

    CERN Document Server

    Fairall, A; Pretorius, M L; Wiehahn, M; McBride, V; de Vaux, G; Woudt, P A; Fairall, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of nearby (cz < 7500 km/s) galaxies has been explored by minimal spanning trees; allowance has been made for the drastic decrease of data with distance. The investigation finds that all galaxies are members of irregular elongated large-scale structures; there are no `field galaxies'. Based on our local large-scale structure, every galaxy appears to have a neighbouring galaxy within <100 km/s (1.4 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc) of redshift space, and thereby all galaxies are found to lie in filaments or tree configurations. Every large-scale structure appears to have a neighbouring large-scale structure within <700 km/s (10 h_{70}^{-1} Mpc), such that large-scale structures interconnect to form a continuous labyrinth.

  13. The Galactic Center compared with nuclei of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2016-01-01

    Understanding our Galactic Center is easier with insights from nearby galactic nuclei. Both the star formation activity in nuclear gas disks, driven by bars and nuclear bars, and the fueling of low-luminosity AGN, followed by feedback of jets, driving molecular outflows, were certainly present in our Galactic Center, which appears now quenched. Comparisons and diagnostics are reviewed, in particular of m=2 and m=1 modes, lopsidedness, different disk orientations, and fossil evidences of activity and feedback.

  14. The Galactic Center compared with nuclei of nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2017-01-01

    Understanding our Galactic Center is easier with insights from nearby galactic nuclei. Both the star formation activity in nuclear gas disks, driven by bars and nuclear bars, and the fueling of low-luminosity AGN, followed by feedback of jets, driving molecular outflows, were certainly present in our Galactic Center, which appears now quenched. Comparisons and diagnostics are reviewed, in particular of m = 2 and m = 1 modes, lopsidedness, different disk orientations, and fossil evidences of activity and feedback.

  15. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M */M ⊙) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  16. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and H{alpha}-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  17. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. III. AN EXTREMELY METAL DEFICIENT GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle A.; Olive, Keith A.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We present KPNO 4 m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an H II region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] {lambda}4363 line and determine a ''direct'' oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 {+-} 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal {alpha} element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the ''delayed release'' hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509{sup +0.0184}{sub -0.0123}, which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 {+-} 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surveys of very low mass galaxies compete well with emission line galaxy surveys for finding XMD galaxies. It is possible that XMD galaxies may be divided into two classes: the relatively rare XMD emission line galaxies which are associated with starbursts triggered by infall of low-metallicity gas and the more common, relatively quiescent XMD galaxies like Leo P, with very low chemical abundances due to their intrinsically small masses.

  18. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Galaxies and the Connection to High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E

    1998-01-01

    It is an obvious statement that all the galaxies we see today in and around our Local Group have been forming and evolving for a significant fraction of the age of the Universe. It is not a great leap of logic to further state that the manner in which they have formed and evolved must be fairly representative of these processes in general. Unless of course we would like to assume that our local region of space is in some way peculiar for which there is no evidence. In other words, if we are able to determine accurate star formation histories for the nearby galaxies back to the ages of the oldest globular clusters then we will also obtain a representative picture of how galaxies have evolved from the earliest times, and predict what nearby galaxies looked like at intermediate and high redshifts. Deep, precision, multi-colour photometry of resolved stellar populations in external galaxies can uniquely determine the star formation histories of nearby galaxies going back many Gyrs. Hubble Space Telescope and high...

  19. Soft X-ray emission of nearby galaxy M81

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏旸; 毕红光; 李启斌

    1997-01-01

    The pointed observations of NGC3077 are analyzed by position sensitive proportional counter (PSPC) on board the ROSAT satellite on 1991-04-18, 1991, finding out that the X-ray emission range of M81 galaxy has, in the softer and more sensitive ROSAT PSPC band (0. 2-2. 4 keV), extended by 40% larger than ever observed by image proportional counter (IPC) on board the Einstein satellite, which shows that M81 galaxy has a larger X-ray corona. And by the aid of the timing analysis, it is concluded that M81 nucleus has no variabilities on time scale of a few minutes; hence the possibility of M81 nucleus having the marginal variability over time scale of about 2 min that Fabbiano (1988) found from the Einstein IPC observation is ruled out.

  20. GALEX UV Color Relations for Nearby Early-Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Donas, J; Rich, R M; Yi, S K; Lee, Y W; Boselli, A; De Paz, A G; Boissier, S; Charlot, S; Salim, S; Bianchi, L; Barlow, T A; Forster, K; Friedman, P G; Heckman, T M; Madore, B F; Martin, D C; Milliard, B; Morrissey, P; Neff, S G; Schiminovich, D; Seibert, M; Small, T; Szalay, A S; Welsh, B Y; Wyder, T K; Donas, Jose; Deharveng, Jean-Michel; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Lee, Young-Wook; Boselli, Alessandro; Paz, Armando Gil de; Boissier, Samuel; Charlot, Stephane; Salim, Samir; Bianchi, Luciana; Barlow, Tom A.; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Heckman, Timothy M.; Madore, Barry F.; Milliard, Bruno; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Szalay, Alex S.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Wyder, Ted K.

    2006-01-01

    We use GALEX/optical photometry to construct color-color relationships for early-type galaxies sorted by morphological type. We have matched objects in the GALEX GR1 public release and the first IR1.1 internal release, with the RC3 early-type galaxies having a morphological type -5.5galaxies with a reliable GALEX pipeline photometry in the far-UV and near-UV bands. This sample is divided into Ellipticals (-5.5

  1. STAR FORMATION AND RELAXATION IN 379 NEARBY GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Wegner, Gary A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We investigate the relationship between star formation (SF) and level of relaxation in a sample of 379 galaxy clusters at z < 0.2. We use data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to measure cluster membership and level of relaxation, and to select star-forming galaxies based on mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer. For galaxies with absolute magnitudes M{sub r} < −19.5, we find an inverse correlation between SF fraction and cluster relaxation: as a cluster becomes less relaxed, its SF fraction increases. Furthermore, in general, the subtracted SF fraction in all unrelaxed clusters (0.117 ± 0.003) is higher than that in all relaxed clusters (0.097 ± 0.005). We verify the validity of our SF calculation methods and membership criteria through analysis of previous work. Our results agree with previous findings that a weak correlation exists between cluster SF and dynamical state, possibly because unrelaxed clusters are less evolved relative to relaxed clusters.

  2. Probing the Central Regions of Nearby Compact Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J; McGregor, P J

    2008-01-01

    K-band spectroscopic observations recorded with NIFS+ALTAIR on Gemini North are used to probe the central arcsec of the compact elliptical galaxies NGC 4486B, NGC 5846A, and M32. The angular resolution of these data is ~0.1 arcsec FWHM. The central stellar contents of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A are similar, in the sense that they occupy the same regions of the (Ca I, 12CO), (Na I, 12CO) and (13CO, 12CO) diagrams. The NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A observations depart from the sequence defined by solar neighborhood giants in the (Na I, 12CO) diagram, in a sense that is consistent with both galaxies having non-solar chemical mixtures. For comparison, the M32 data is consistent with a chemical enrichment history like that in the Galactic disk; M32 could not have formed from the stripping of a larger elliptical galaxy. The behaviour of the near-infrared line indices as a function of radius is also investigated. The radial gradients that are present in NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A at large radii break down or reverse within the ...

  3. MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A SAMPLE OF NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Eck, C. L. [Department of Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Brown, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A., E-mail: c.vaneck@astro.ru.nl, E-mail: jocat@ucalgary.ca, E-mail: anvar.shukurov@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: andrew.fletcher@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    Both observations and modeling of magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas of spiral galaxies are well developed, but the theory has been confronted with observations for only a handful of individual galaxies. There is now sufficient data to consider the statistical properties of galactic magnetic fields. We have collected data from the literature on the magnetic fields and interstellar media of 20 spiral galaxies, and tested for various physically motivated correlations between magnetic field and interstellar medium parameters. Clear correlations emerge between the total magnetic field strength and molecular gas density as well as the star formation rate. The magnetic pitch angle exhibits correlations with the total gas density, the star formation rate, and the strength of the axisymmetric component of the mean magnetic field. The total and mean magnetic field strengths exhibit a noticeable degree of correlation, suggesting a universal behavior of the degree of order in galactic magnetic fields. We also compare the predictions of galactic dynamo theory to observed magnetic field parameters and identify directions in which theory and observations might be usefully developed.

  4. Water vapor in nearby infrared galaxies as probed by Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chentao; Omont, A; Liu, Daizhong; Isaak, K G; Downes, D; van der Werf, P P; Lu, Nanyao

    2013-01-01

    We report the first systematic study of the submillimeter water vapor rotational emission lines in infrared (IR) galaxies based on the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) data of {\\it Herschel} SPIRE. Among the 176 galaxies with publicly available FTS data, 45 have at least one H$_2$O emission line detected. The H$_2$O line luminosities range from $\\sim 1 \\times 10^5$ L$_{\\odot}$ to $\\sim 5 \\times 10^7$ L$_{\\odot}$ while the total IR luminosities (L$_\\mathrm{IR}$) have a similar spread ($\\sim$1-300 $\\times 10^{10}$ L$_{\\odot}$). In addition, emission lines of H$_2$O$^+$ and H$_2^{18}$O are also detected. H$_2$O is found, for most galaxies, to be the strongest molecular emitter after CO in FTS spectra. The luminosity of the five most important H$_2$O lines is near-linearly correlated with L$_\\mathrm{IR}$ no matter strong AGN signature is present or not. However, the luminosity of H$_2$O(2$_{11}-2_{02}$) and H$_2$O(2$_{20}-2_{11}$) appears to increase slightly faster than linear with L$_\\mathrm{IR}$. Although ...

  5. The NGC 672 and NGC 784 Galaxy Groups: Evidence for Galaxy Formation and Growth Along a Nearby Dark Matter Filament

    CERN Document Server

    Zitrin, Adi

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged): We present U, B, V, R, I, H-alpha and NUV photometry of 14 galaxies in the very local Universe (within 10 Mpc that are dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrr), are at low redshift (511-10 Gyr) and one "young" population (<30 Myr) with the recent SF bursts occurring a few to a few 10s of Myr ago, arguing for synchronicity in star formation in these objects. We propose that the ~synchronous star formation in all objects is caused by the accretion of cold gas from intergalactic space onto dark matter haloes arranged along a filament threading the void where these dwarf galaxies reside and point out this galaxy sample as an ideal target to study hierarchical clustering and galaxy formation among very nearby objects.

  6. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tod R.; Faber, S. M.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Baum, William A.; Currie, Douglas G.; Ewald, S. P.; Groth, Edward J.; Hester, J. Jeff; Kelsall, T.

    1991-01-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common.

  7. The core of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 imaged with the HST planetary camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, T.R.; Faber, S.M.; Holtzman, J.A.; Baum, W.A.; Currie, D.G.; Ewald, S.P.; Groth, E.J.; Hester, J.J.; Kelsall, T. (Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA (USA) Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (USA) Washington Univ., Seattle (USA) Maryland Univ., College Park (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Princeton Univ., NJ (USA) California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (USA) NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A brief analysis is presented of images of the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 7457 obtained with the HST Planetary Camera. While the galaxy remains unresolved with the HST, the images reveal that any core most likely has r(c) less than 0.052 arcsec. The light distribution is consistent with a gamma = -1.0 power law inward to the resolution limit, with a possible stellar nucleus with luminosity of 10 million solar. This result represents the first observation outside the Local Group of a galaxy nucleus at this spatial resolution, and it suggests that such small, high surface brightness cores may be common. 20 refs.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical supernova remnants in nearby galaxies (Vucetic+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucetic, M. M.; Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the contribution from SNRs to the total Hα emission used to determine SFRs in a galaxy, we searched the literature for all galaxies that have optically identified SNRs. In total, there are 25 of them (excluding the Milky Way). In following tables we give data for 18 nearby galaxies which have been surveyed for optical supernova remnants (SNRs). In each table we give coordinates, Hα fluxes, diameters and [SII]/Hα emission line ratios for detected SNRs, found in literature. (19 data files).

  9. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  10. Far-infrared colours of nearby late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; Buat, V.; Boquien, M.; Bendo, GJ; Boissier, S.; Eales, S; Gavazzi, G.; Hughes, TM; Pohlen, M.; Smith, MWL; Baes, Maarten; S. Bianchi; Clements, DL

    2012-01-01

    We study the far infrared (60-500 mu m) colours of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey, a K-band selected, volume limited sample of nearby galaxies. The far infrared colours are correlated with each other, with tighter correlations for the indices that are closer in wavelength. We also compare the different colour indices to various tracers of the physical properties of the target galaxies, such as the surface brightness of the ionising and non-ionising stellar radiation, the ...

  11. FIR colours of nearby late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; Buat, V.; Boquien, M.; G.J. Bendo; Boissier, S.; Eales, S; Gavazzi, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; S. Bianchi; Clements, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    We study the far infrared (60-500 $\\mu$m) colours of late-type galaxies in the $Herschel$ Reference Survey, a K-band selected, volume limited sample of nearby galaxies. The far infrared colours are correlated with each other, with tighter correlations for the indices that are closer in wavelength. We also compare the different colour indices to various tracers of the physical properties of the target galaxies, such as the surface brightness of the ionising and non-ionising stellar radiation, ...

  12. Optical observations of Dwingeloo 1, a nearby barred spiral galaxy behind the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loan, AJ; Maddox, SJ; Lahav, O; Balcells, M; KraanKorteweg, RC; Assendorp, R; Almoznino, E; Brosch, N; Goldberg, E; Ofek, EO

    1996-01-01

    We present new optical observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy Dwingeloo 1 (Dw1) obtained with the Isaac Newton, William Herschel and Wise telescopes. Dw1 lies at Galactic coordinates (l=138.degrees 52, b=-0.degrees 11) and it is heavily obscured by dust and gas in the Milky Way. We infer th

  13. The observational distribution of internal velocity dispersions in nearby galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fadda, D; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M; Fadda, Dario; Girardi, Marisa; Giuricin, Giuliano; Mardirossian, Fabio; Mezzetti, Marino

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the internal velocity dispersions of a sample of 172 nearby galaxy clusters (z 800 km/s). We estimate that our distributions is complete for at least a dispersion greater than 650 km/s. In this completeness range a power law fit is in fair agreement with results coming from the X-ray temperature distributions.

  14. Constraining Stellar Feedback: Shock-ionized Gas in Nearby Starburst Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Sungryong; Gallagher, John S; Martin, Crystal L; Conselice, Christopher J; Pellerin, Anne

    2013-01-01

    (abridged) We investigate the properties of feedback-driven shocks in 8 nearby starburst galaxies using narrow-band imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We identify the shock--ionized component via the line diagnostic diagram \\oiii/\\hb vs. \\sii (or \

  15. Infrared Signature of Active Massive Black Holes in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, Francine R; Bianconi, Matteo; Habas, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We have identified 314 nearby galaxies that display the infrared signature of black hole activity. Of these, twelve lie within a distance of 11 Mpc, the nearest being EW Eri located only 50 kpc away. Using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) All-Sky Release Source Catalog, we examine the IR colors of a sample of known nearby dwarf galaxies in order to identify both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) active galactic nuclei in these low-mass systems. We estimate the stellar and black hole masses for our nearby dwarf galaxy sample and find that activity is detected in galaxies with stellar masses from 10^5 to 10^9 M_sun and that this activity is due to black holes with masses in the range 10^2-10^6 M_sun. The black hole masses probed here are several orders of magnitude smaller than previously reported for centrally located massive black holes. We examine the stellar mass versus black hole mass relationship in this low galaxy mass regime, and find that the existing relation extends to these low...

  16. Updated 34-band Photometry for the Sings/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, D. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Turner, J. A.; Armus, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; De Looze, I.; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Helou, G.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.; Rest, A.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Wilson, C. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) and SINGS (Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX, SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO, 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, Spitzer, Herschel, Planck, JCMT, and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  17. The nearby Galaxy structure toward the Vela Gum nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgi, E E; Perren, G I; Vázquez, R A

    2015-01-01

    We report on $UBVI$ photometry and spectroscopy for MK classification purposes carried out in the fields of five open clusters projected against the Vela Gum in the Third Galactic Quadrant of the Galaxy. They are Ruprecht 20, Ruprecht 47, Ruprecht 60, NGC 2660 and NGC 2910. We could improve/confirm the parameters of these objects derived before. The spectroscopic parallax method has been applied to several stars located in the fields of four out of the five clusters to get their distances and reddenings. With this method we found two blue stars in the field of NGC 2910 at distances that make them likely members of Vela OB1 too. Also, projected against the fields of Ruprecht 20 and Ruprecht 47 we have detected other young stars favoring not only the existence of Puppis OB1 and OB2 but conforming a young stellar group at $\\sim1$ kpc from the Sun and extending for more than 6 kpc outward the Galaxy. If this is the case, there is a thickening of the thin Galactic disk of more than 300 pc at just 2-3 kpc from the ...

  18. Properties and short-time evolution of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprikov, A

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the results of processing of data of observations which had been carried out with the VLBA during 10 last years. All the data have been retrieved from archive of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (USA NRAO, Socorro, New Mexico). Particularly, we examine data of VLBA observational sessions titled BK068, BL111, BL137, BL149, and BD086. Objects of our interest are near galaxies with z < 0.02. The radio maps of compact structure around the active galactic nuclei (AGN) reconstructed for two such galaxies (NGC315 and 3C274) in U frequency band (15 GHz) are presented. Some parameters of these sources are shown in Table 1. We have to perform the careful amplitude and phase calibration for all the data. Particularly, a correction of the delay caused by the Earth atmosphere has been made because it is necessary in this frequency range. Bright quasars close to the target sources (for instance, J0136+4751 and 3C279 correspondingly) are used as atmosphere calibrators. Secondly, the Multi Frequency Syn...

  19. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  20. NGC 1277: A MASSIVE COMPACT RELIC GALAXY IN THE NEARBY UNIVERSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205-La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Balcells, Marc [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Canary Islands (Spain); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia, E-mail: trujillo@iac.es [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-10

    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} of stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (≲0.1%) may have survived untouched until today. Searches for such relic galaxies, useful windows to explore the early universe, have been inconclusive to date: galaxies with masses and sizes like those observed at high redshift (M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}; R{sub e} ≲ 1.5 kpc) have been found in the local universe, but their stars are far too young for the galaxy to be a relic galaxy. This paper explores the first case of a nearby galaxy, NGC 1277 (at a distance of 73 Mpc in the Perseus galaxy cluster), which fulfills many criteria to be considered a relic galaxy. Using deep optical spectroscopy, we derive the star formation history along the structure of the galaxy: the stellar populations are uniformly old (>10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H] = 0.20 ± 0.04 with a smooth decline toward the outer regions) and α-enriched ([α/Fe] = 0.4 ± 0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of the stars in this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (V {sub rot} ∼ 300 km s{sup –1}) and has a large central velocity dispersion (σ > 300 km s{sup –1}). NGC 1277 allows the exploration in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, and initial mass function as they were at ∼10-12 Gyr ago when the first massive galaxies were built.

  1. Spectroscopic observations of southern nearby galaxies. I. NGC 2442

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaja, E.; Agüero, E.; Paolantonio, S.

    1999-04-01

    The galaxy NGC 2442 was observed with a REOSC spectrograph, installed in the 2.15 m CASLEO telescope, in order to derive galactic parameters from the observed optical lines and to compare them with the results of radioastronomical observations made in the continuum, at 843 MHz, with the MOST and in the CO lines with the SEST telescope. Recent publications allowed us to extend the comparison to results from interferometric observations of Hα and H I 21 cm lines and of the continuum at 1415 MHz. The long slit observations were made placing the 5farcm 8 slit at six different positions on the optical image of the galaxy. The emission line intensity ratios at the nuclear region indicate that NGC 2442 is a LINER. The electron temperature and volume density are Te ~ 14 000 K and Ne ~ 530 cm(-3) , respectively. In contrast, a spectrum of a region 87arcsec to the NE shows the typical characteristics of a H Ii region. In this case Te ~ 6,500 K and Ne ~ 10 cm(-3) . Good correlations between the distributions of intensities, velocity fields and rotation curves have been found for the optical and radio lines. It is shown that the three intensity peaks along the line at PA = 40degr were not resolved by the observations at radio frequencies. The steep central rotation curve seen in CO has been confirmed and improved showing the existence of a disc or a ring, with a radius of 12.5 arcsec, rotating at 216/sin(i) km s(-1). Two velocity components in three optical spectra obtained in the nuclear region, have been related to two small Hα regions close to the nucleus and to the central ring. Asymmetries in the distributions of the emitting sources and irregularities in their velocity fields indicate the need of modelling the galaxy before any dynamical study is attempted. Based on observations made in the Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas de la Republica Argentina and the National

  2. A NuSTAR SURVEY OF NEARBY ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Stacy H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Ptak, Andrew [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, Stephen E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, W. Niel; Luo, Bin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Gandhi, Poshak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Koss, Michael [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), Chandra, and XMM-Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120–5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189–2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these borderline sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high-energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric luminosities. They have lower ratios of unabsorbed 2–10 keV to bolometric luminosity, and unabsorbed 2–10 keV to mid-IR [O iv] line luminosity than do Seyfert 1 galaxies. We identify IRAS 08572+3915 as another candidate intrinsically X-ray weak source, similar to Mrk 231. We speculate that the X-ray weakness of IRAS 08572+3915 is related to its powerful outflow observed at other wavelengths.

  3. VLA-ANGST: A HIGH-RESOLUTION H I SURVEY OF NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Stilp, Adrienne M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Warren, Steven R.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Walter, Fabian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Blok, W. J. G. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Koribalski, Baerbel [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); West, Andrew A., E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: warren@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: walter@mpia.de, E-mail: blok@astron.nl, E-mail: Baerbel.Koribalski@csiro.au, E-mail: aawest@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present the 'Very Large Array survey of Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury galaxies (VLA-ANGST)'. VLA-ANGST is a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Large Program consisting of high spectral (0.6-2.6 km s{sup -1}) and spatial ({approx}6'') resolution observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (H I) emission toward 35 nearby dwarf galaxies from the ANGST survey. ANGST is a systematic Hubble Space Telescope survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D {approx}< 4 Mpc). VLA-ANGST provides VLA H I observations of the sub-sample of ANGST galaxies with recent star formation that are observable from the northern hemisphere and that were not observed in the 'The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey' (THINGS). The overarching scientific goal of VLA-ANGST is to investigate fundamental characteristics of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) of dwarf galaxies. Here we describe the VLA observations, the data reduction, and the final VLA-ANGST data products. We present an atlas of the integrated H I maps, the intensity-weighted velocity fields, the second moment maps as a measure for the velocity dispersion of the H I, individual channel maps, and integrated H I spectra for each VLA-ANGST galaxy. We closely follow the observational setup and data reduction of THINGS to achieve comparable sensitivity and angular resolution. A major difference between VLA-ANGST and THINGS, however, is the high velocity resolution of the VLA-ANGST observations (0.65 and 1.3 km s{sup -1} for the majority of the galaxies). The VLA-ANGST data products are made publicly available through a dedicated Web site (https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/vla-angst). With available star formation histories from resolved stellar populations and lower resolution ancillary observations from the far-infrared to the ultraviolet, VLA-ANGST will enable detailed studies of the

  4. Dust evolution processes constrained by extinction curves in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Kuan-Chou; Michałowski, Michał J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction curves, especially those in the Milky Way (MW), the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), have provided us with a clue to the dust properties in the nearby Universe. We examine whether or not these extinction curves can be explained by well known dust evolution processes. We treat the dust production in stellar ejecta, destruction in supernova shocks, dust growth by accretion and coagulation, and dust disruption by shattering. To make a survey of the large parameter space possible, we simplify the treatment of the grain size distribution evolution by adopting the `two-size approximation', in which we divide the grain population into small ($\\lesssim 0.03~\\mu$m) and large ($\\gtrsim 0.03~\\mu$m) grains. It is confirmed that the MW extinction curve can be reproduced in reasonable ranges for the time-scale of the above processes with a silicate-graphite mixture. This indicates that the MW extinction curve is a natural consequence of the dust evolution through the above proc...

  5. Large-scale HI in nearby radio galaxies : segregation in neutral gas content with radio source size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Moorsel, G.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a study of neutral hydrogen ( HI) in a complete sample of nearby non-cluster radio galaxies. We find that radio galaxies with large amounts of extended HI (M-HI >= 109 M-circle dot) all have a compact radio source. The host galaxies of the more extended radio sources, all of Fa

  6. The star cluster - field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies. II. Field star and cluster formation histories and their relation

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Villa, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have started to cast doubt on the assumption that most stars are formed in clusters. Observational studies of field stars and star cluster systems in nearby galaxies can lead to better constraints on the fraction of stars forming in clusters. We aim to constrain the amount of star formation happening in long-lived clusters for four galaxies through the homogeneous study of field stars and star clusters. Using HST/ACS-WFPC2 images of the galaxies NGC45, NGC1313, NGC5236 and NGC7793, we estimate star formation histories by means of the synthetic CMD method. Masses and ages of star clusters are estimated using simple stellar population model fitting. Comparing observed and modeled luminosity functions we estimate cluster formation rates. By randomly sampling the stellar IMF, we construct artificial star clusters and quantify how stochastic effects influence cluster detection, integrated colors and age estimates. Star formation rates appear to be constant over the past 10-100 Myr. The number of clu...

  7. A NuSTAR Survey of Nearby Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teng, Stacy H; Stern, Daniel; Ptak, Andrew; Alexander, D M; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Stephen E; Brandt, W Niel; Christensen, Finn E; Comastri, Andrea; Craig, William W; Farrah, Duncan; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Hickox, Ryan C; Koss, Michael; Luo, Bin; Treister, Ezequiel; Zhang, William W

    2015-01-01

    We present a NuSTAR, Chandra, and XMM--Newton survey of nine of the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The unprecedented sensitivity of NuSTAR at energies above 10 keV enables spectral modeling with far better precision than was previously possible. Six of the nine sources observed were detected sufficiently well by NuSTAR to model in detail their broadband X-ray spectra, and recover the levels of obscuration and intrinsic X-ray luminosities. Only one source (IRAS 13120--5453) has a spectrum consistent with a Compton--thick AGN, but we cannot rule out that a second source (Arp 220) harbors an extremely highly obscured AGN as well. Variability in column density (reduction by a factor of a few compared to older observations) is seen in IRAS 05189--2524 and Mrk 273, altering the classification of these border-line sources from Compton-thick to Compton-thin. The ULIRGs in our sample have surprisingly low observed fluxes in high energy (>10 keV) X-rays, especially compared to their bolometric lumino...

  8. ALFALFA Discovery of the Nearby Gas-Rich Dwarf Galaxy Leo~P. III. An Extremely Metal Deficient Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Evan D; Berg, Danielle A; Pogge, Richard W; Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Aver, Erik; Olive, Keith A; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Adams, Elizabeth A K; McQuinn, Kristen B W; Rhode, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    We present KPNO 4-m and LBT/MODS spectroscopic observations of an HII region in the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy Leo P discovered recently in the Arecibo ALFALFA survey. In both observations, we are able to accurately measure the temperature sensitive [O III] 4363 Angstrom line and determine a "direct" oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.17 +/- 0.04. Thus, Leo P is an extremely metal deficient (XMD) galaxy, and, indeed, one of the most metal deficient star-forming galaxies ever observed. For its estimated luminosity, Leo P is consistent with the relationship between luminosity and oxygen abundance seen in nearby dwarf galaxies. Leo P shows normal alpha element abundance ratios (Ne/O, S/O, and Ar/O) when compared to other XMD galaxies, but elevated N/O, consistent with the "delayed release" hypothesis for N/O abundances. We derive a helium mass fraction of 0.2509 +0.0184 -0.0123 which compares well with the WMAP + BBN prediction of 0.2483 +/- 0.0002 for the primordial helium abundance. We suggest that surve...

  9. Determining Star Formation Timescale and Pattern Speed in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Egusa, Fumi; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Komugi, Shinya

    2009-01-01

    We present a revised method for simultaneous determination of the pattern speed and star formation timescale of spiral galaxies, its application, and results for CO and Ha images of nearby spiral galaxies. Out of 13 galaxies, we were able to derive the 2 parameters for 5 galaxies. We categorize them as "C" galaxies, and find (1) The corotation radius is close to the edge of the CO data, and is about half of the optical radius for 3 galaxies. (2) The star formation timescale is roughly consistent with the free-fall time of typical molecular clouds, which indicates that the gravitational instability is the dominant mechanism triggering star formation in spiral arms. (3) The timescale is found to be almost independent of surface density of molecular gas, metallicity, or spiral arm strengths. The number of "C" galaxies and the quality of CO data, however, are not enough to confirm these relationships. We also find that 2 other galaxies show no offsets between CO and Ha, although their arms are clearly traced, and...

  10. A tidal disruption event in the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy F01004-2237

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadhunter, C.; Spence, R.; Rose, M.; Mullaney, J.; Crowther, P.

    2017-03-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs), in which stars are gravitationally disrupted as they pass close to the supermassive black holes in the centres of galaxies 1 , are potentially important probes of strong gravity and accretion physics. Most TDEs have been discovered in large-area monitoring surveys of many thousands of galaxies, and a relatively low rate of one event every 104-105 years per galaxy has been deduced 2-4 . However, given the selection effects inherent in such surveys, considerable uncertainties remain about the conditions that favour TDEs. Here we report the detection of unusually strong and broad helium emission lines following a luminous optical flare in the nucleus of the nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy F01004-2237. This particular combination of variabi­lity and post-flare emission line spectrum is unlike any known supernova or active galactic nucleus. The most plausible explanation is a TDE — the first detected in a galaxy with an ongoing massive starburst. The fact that this event has been detected in repeat spectroscopic observations of a sample of 15 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies over a period of just 10 years suggests a much higher rate of TDEs in starburst galaxies than in the general galaxy population.

  11. The Impact of Molecular Gas on Mass Models of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, B. S.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Walter, F.; Leroy, A.; Carignan, C.

    2016-04-01

    We present CO velocity fields and rotation curves for a sample of nearby galaxies, based on data from HERACLES. We combine our data with THINGS, SINGS, and KINGFISH results to provide a comprehensive sample of mass models of disk galaxies inclusive of molecular gas. We compare the kinematics of the molecular (CO from HERACLES) and atomic (H i from THINGS) gas distributions to determine the extent to which CO may be used to probe the dynamics in the inner part of galaxies. In general, we find good agreement between the CO and H i kinematics, with small differences in the inner part of some galaxies. We add the contribution of the molecular gas to the mass models in our galaxies by using two different conversion factors αCO to convert CO luminosity to molecular gas mass surface density—the constant Milky Way value and the radially varying profiles determined in recent work based on THINGS, HERACLES, and KINGFISH data. We study the relative effect that the addition of the molecular gas has on the halo rotation curves for Navarro-Frenk-White and the observationally motivated pseudo-isothermal halos. The contribution of the molecular gas varies for galaxies in our sample—for those galaxies where there is a substantial molecular gas content, using different values of αCO can result in significant differences to the relative contribution of the molecular gas and hence the shape of the dark matter halo rotation curves in the central regions of galaxies.

  12. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). Combining GALEX UV data with optical and near infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Halpha-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from SDSS for stellar masses log(M_*/M_Sun)>8.5 where the relation is well-defined. The star-formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, thou...

  13. Structure, dynamical impact and origin of magnetic fields in nearby galaxies in the SKA era

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, Rainer; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Ferrière, Katia; Fletcher, Andrew; Heald, George; Heesen, Volker; Horellou, Cathy; Krause, Marita; Lou, Yu-Qing; Mao, Sui Ann; Paladino, Rosita; Schinnerer, Eva; Sokoloff, Dmitry; Stil, Jeroen; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields are an important ingredient of the interstellar medium (ISM). Besides their importance for star formation, they govern the transport of cosmic rays, relevant to the launch and regulation of galactic outflows and winds, which in turn are pivotal in shaping the structure of halo magnetic fields. Mapping the small-scale structure of interstellar magnetic fields in many nearby galaxies is crucial to understand the interaction between gas and magnetic fields, in particular how gas flows are affected. Elucidation of the magnetic role in, e.g., triggering star formation, forming and stabilising spiral arms, driving outflows, gas heating by reconnection and magnetising the intergalactic medium has the potential to revolutionise our physical picture of the ISM and galaxy evolution in general. Radio polarisation observations in the very nearest galaxies at high frequencies (>= 3 GHz) and with high spatial resolution (<= 5") hold the key here. The galaxy survey with SKA1 that we propose will also be a...

  14. Cool dust heating and temperature mixing in nearby star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Bianchi, S; Gordon, K D; Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Helou, G; Hinz, J L; Kennicutt, R C; Roussel, H; Wilson, C D; Bolatto, A; Boquien, M; Croxall, K V; Galametz, M; de Paz, A Gil; Koda, J; Munoz-Mateos, J C; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Vigroux, L; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    Physical conditions of the interstellar medium in galaxies are closely linked to the ambient radiation field and the heating of dust grains. In order to characterize dust properties in galaxies over a wide range of physical conditions, we present here the radial surface brightness profiles of the entire sample of 61 galaxies from Key Insights into Nearby Galaxies: Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH). The main goal of our work is the characterization of the grain emissivities, dust temperatures, and interstellar radiation fields responsible for heating the dust. After fitting the dust and stellar radial profiles with exponential functions, we fit the far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) in each annular region with single-temperature modified black bodies using both variable (MBBV) and fixed (MBBF) emissivity indices beta, as well as with physically motivated dust models. Results show that while most SED parameters decrease with radius, the emissivity index beta also decreases with radius in...

  15. Booms and Busts: the Burstiness of Star Formation in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    In this review I summarise recent advances in our understanding of the importance of starburst events to the evolutionary histories of nearby galaxies. Ongoing bursts are easily diagnosed in emission-line surveys, but assessing the timing and intensity of fossil bursts requires more effort, usually demanding color-magnitude diagrams or spectroscopy of individual stars. For ages older than ~1 Gyr, this type of observation is currently limited to the Local Group and its immediate surroundings. However, if the Local Volume is representative of the Universe as a whole, then studies of the age and metallicity distributions of star clusters and resolved stellar populations should give statistical clues as to the frequency and importance of bursts to the histories of galaxies in general. Based on starburst statistics in the literature and synthetic colour-magnitude diagram studies of Local Group galaxies, I attempt to distinguish between systemic starbursts that strongly impact galaxy evolution and stochastic bursts...

  16. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  17. Hubble Residuals of Nearby SN Ia Are Correlated with Host Galaxy Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Hicken, Malcolm; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Burke, David L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2010-05-03

    From Sloan Digital Sky Survey u{prime} g{prime} r{prime} i{prime} z{prime} imaging, we estimate the stellar masses of the host galaxies of 70 low redshift SN Ia (0.015 < z < 0.08) from the hosts absolute luminosities and mass-to-light ratios. These nearby SN were discovered largely by searches targeting luminous galaxies, and we find that their host galaxies are substantially more massive than the hosts of SN discovered by the flux-limited Supernova Legacy Survey. Testing four separate light curve fitters, we detect {approx}2.5{sigma} correlations of Hubble residuals with both host galaxy size and stellar mass, such that SN Ia occurring in physically larger, more massive hosts are {approx}10% brighter after light curve correction. The Hubble residual is the deviation of the inferred distance modulus to the SN, calculated from its apparent luminosity and light curve properties, away from the expected value at the SN redshift. Marginalizing over linear trends in Hubble residuals with light curve parameters shows that the correlations cannot be attributed to a light curve-dependent calibration error. Combining 180 higher-redshift ESSENCE, SNLS, and HigherZ SN with 30 nearby SN whose host masses are less than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} n a cosmology fit yields 1 + w = 0.22{sub -0.108}{sup +0.152}, while a combination where the 30 nearby SN instead have host masses greater than 10{sup 10.8} M{circle_dot} yields 1 + w = ?0.03{sub -0.143}{sup +0.217}. Progenitor metallicity, stellar population age, and dust extinction correlate with galaxy mass and may be responsible for these systematic effects. Host galaxy measurements will yield improved distances to SN Ia.

  18. Integral Field Spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies. I. Sample, Observations and Data Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Marmol-Queralto, E; Marino, R A; Mast, D; Viironen, K; de Paz, A Gil; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Vilchez, J M

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) is a powerful approach for the study of nearby galaxies since it enables a detailed analysis of their resolved physical properties. Here we present the sample of nearby galaxies selected to exploit the two dimensional information provided by the IFS. Methods: We observed a sample of 48 galaxies from the Local Universe with the PPAK Integral Field Spectroscopy unit (IFU), of the PMAS spectrograph, mounted at the 3.5m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, Spain). Two different setups were used during these studies (low -V300- and medium -V600- resolution mode) covering a spectral range of around 3700-7000 Angs. We developed a full automatic pipeline for the data reduction, that includes an analysis of the quality of the final data products. We applied a decoupling method to obtain the ionised gas and stellar content of these galaxies, and to derive the main physical properties of the galaxies. To asses the accuracy in the measurements of the different parameters, ...

  19. Testing the Presence of Multiple Photometric Components in Nearby Early-type Galaxies using SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Semyeong; Greene, Jenny E.; Lackner, Claire N.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate two-dimensional image decomposition of nearby, morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs). We are motivated by recent observational evidence of significant size growth of quiescent galaxies and theoretical development advocating a two-phase formation scenario for ETGs. We find that a significant fraction of nearby ETGs show changes in isophotal shape that require multi-component models. The characteristic sizes of the inner and outer component are ∼3 and ∼15 kpc. The inner component lies on the mass–size relation of ETGs at z ∼ 0.25–0.75, while the outer component tends to be more elliptical and hints at a stochastic buildup process. We find real physical differences between single- and double-component ETGs, with double-component galaxies being younger and more metal-rich. The fraction of double-component ETGs increases with increasing σ and decreases in denser environments. We hypothesize that double-component systems were able to accrete gas and small galaxies until later times, boosting their central densities, building up their outer parts, and lowering their typical central ages. In contrast, the oldest galaxies, perhaps due to residing in richer environments, have no remaining hints of their last accretion episode.

  20. HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER PHOTOMETRY FOR THE KINGFISH SAMPLE OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Aniano, G.; Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. L.; Montiel, E. J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Krause, O.; Groves, B. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Roussel, H. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Appleton, P. N. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Armus, L.; Beirao, P. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Brandl, B. R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Calzetti, D.; Crocker, A. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Croxall, K. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hao, C.-N., E-mail: ddale@uwyo.edu [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); and others

    2012-01-20

    New far-infrared and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500 {mu}m emission shows evidence for a submillimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photodissociation regions is found to be (21 {+-} 4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine and Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust temperatures inherent to any galaxy. The discrepancy is largest for galaxies exhibiting the coolest far-infrared colors.

  1. Finding {\\eta} Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer: I. Candidate Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Kochanek, C S

    2012-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as {\\eta} Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of {\\eta} Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of 7 nearby (= 40 M_sun star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude.

  2. The Fine-Scale Structure of the neutral Interstellar Medium in nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bagetakos, I; Walter, F; de Blok, W J G; Usero, A; Leroy, A K; Rich, J W; Kennicutt, R C

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of HI holes detected in 20 galaxies that are part of "The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey" (THINGS). We detected more than 1000 holes in total in the sampled galaxies. Where they can be measured, their sizes range from about 100 pc (our resolution limit) to about 2 kpc, their expansion velocities range from 4 to 36 km/s, and their ages are estimated to range between 3 and 150 Myr. The holes are found throughout the disks of the galaxies, out to the edge of the HI; 23% of the holes fall outside R25. We find that shear limits the age of holes in spirals (shear is less important in dwarf galaxies) which explains why HI holes in dwarfs are rounder, on average than in spirals. Shear, which is particularly strong in the inner part of spiral galaxies, also explains why we find that holes outside R25 are larger and older. We derive the scale height of the HI disk as a function of galactocentric radius and find that the disk flares up in all galaxies. We proceed to derive the surface a...

  3. SKA studies of nearby galaxies: star-formation, accretion processes and molecular gas across all environments

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, R J; Perez-Torres, M A; Richards, A M S; Aalto, S; Alberdi, A; Argo, M K; van Bemmel, I; Conway, J E; Dickinson, C; Fenech, D M; Gray, M D; Klockner, H-R; Murphy, E J; Muxlow, T W B; Peel, M; Rushton, A P; Schinnerer, E

    2014-01-01

    The SKA will be a transformational instrument in the study of our local Universe. In particular, by virtue of its high sensitivity (both to point sources and diffuse low surface brightness emission), angular resolution and the frequency ranges covered, the SKA will undertake a very wide range of astrophysical research in the field of nearby galaxies. By surveying vast numbers of nearby galaxies of all types with $\\mu$Jy sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolutions at radio wavelengths, the SKA will provide the cornerstone of our understanding of star-formation and accretion activity in the local Universe. In this chapter we outline the key continuum and molecular line science areas where the SKA, both during phase-1 and when it becomes the full SKA, will have a significant scientific impact.

  4. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Singh, V; Bagchi, J; Chandra, C H Ishwara; Hota, A; Konar, C; Wadadekar, Y; Shastri, P; Das, M; Baliyan, K; Nath, B B; Pandey-Pommier, M

    2016-01-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  5. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with Square Kilometre Array

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Kharb; D. V. Lal; V. Singh; J. Bagchi; C. H. Ishwara Chandra; A. Hota; C. Konar; Y. Wadadekar; P. Shastri; M. Das; K. Baliyan; B. B. Nath; M. Pandey-Pommier

    2016-12-01

    We present detailed science cases that a large fraction of the Indian AGN community is interested in pursuing with the upcoming Square Kilometre Array (SKA). These interests range from understanding low luminosity active galactic nuclei in the nearby Universe to powerful radio galaxies at high redshifts. Important unresolved science questions in AGN physics are discussed. Ongoing low-frequency surveys with the SKA pathfinder telescope GMRT, are highlighted.

  6. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VII: H\\alpha{} imaging and massive star formation properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Wilson, C D; Barmby, P; Azimlu, M; Courteau, S

    2012-01-01

    We present H\\alpha{} fluxes, star formation rates (SFRs) and equivalent widths (EWs) for a sample of 156 nearby galaxies observed in the 12CO J=3-2 line as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey. These are derived from images and values in the literature and from new H\\alpha{} images for 72 galaxies which we publish here. We describe the sample, observations and procedures to extract the H\\alpha{} fluxes and related quantities. We discuss the SFR properties of our sample and confirm the well-known correlation with galaxy luminosity, albeit with high dispersion. Our SFRs range from 0.1 to 11 Msun yr-1 with a median SFR value for the complete sample of 0.2 Msun yr-1. This median values is somewhat lower than similar published measurements, which we attribute, in part, to our sample being HI-selected and, thus, not biased towards high SFRs as has frequently been the case in previous studies. Additionally, we calculate internal absorptions for the H\\alpha{} line, A(H\\alpha{}), whi...

  7. Resolving the extended stellar halos of nearby galaxies: the wide-field PISCeS survey

    CERN Document Server

    Crnojević, D; Caldwell, N; Guhathakurta, P; McLeod, B; Seth, A; Simon, J D; Strader, J; Toloba, E

    2015-01-01

    In the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we investigate the resolved stellar halos of two nearby galaxies (the elliptical Centaurus A and the spiral Sculptor, D $\\sim3.7$ Mpc) out to a projected galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey has led to the discovery of $\\sim$20 faint satellites to date, plus prominent streams and substructures in two environments that are substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical and the loose Sculptor group of galaxies. These discoveries clearly attest to the importance of past and ongoing accretion processes in shaping the halos of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented $M_V<-8$. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended halos of Sculptor, Centaurus A, and their dwarf satellites provides key constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation a...

  8. Resolving the extended stellar halos of nearby galaxies: the wide-field PISCeS survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Caldwell, N.; Guhathakurta, P.; McLeod, B.; Seth, A.; Simon, J. D.; Strader, J.; Toloba, E.

    2016-08-01

    In the wide-field Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor (PISCeS), we investigate the resolved stellar halos of two nearby galaxies (the elliptical Centaurus A and the spiral Sculptor, D ~ 3.7 Mpc) out to a projected galactocentric radius of 150 kpc with Magellan/Megacam. The survey has led to the discovery of ~20 faint satellites to date, plus prominent streams and substructures in two environments that are substantially different from the Local Group, i.e. the Centaurus A group dominated by an elliptical and the loose Sculptor group of galaxies. These discoveries clearly attest to the importance of past and ongoing accretion processes in shaping the halos of these nearby galaxies, and provide the first census of their satellite systems down to an unprecedented MV < -8. The detailed characterization of the stellar content, shape and gradients in the extended halos of Sculptor, Centaurus A, and their dwarf satellites provides key constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.

  9. Observational Constraints on the Molecular Gas Content in Nearby Starburst Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, Kristen B W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Dolphin, Andrew E; Cannon, John M; Holtzman, Jon; Weisz, Daniel R; Williams, Benjamin F

    2012-01-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in nineteen nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming a SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high HI surface densities (~10^2-10^3 Msun pc^-2), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H_2 in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in HI surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations app...

  10. Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas in a small sample of nearby edge-on galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossa, J

    2000-01-01

    We present narrowband H-alpha imaging data of a small survey of nearby edge-on spiral galaxies, aiming at the detection of `extraplanar' diffuse ionized gas (DIG). A few of our studied edge-on spirals show signs of disk-halo interaction (DHI), where extended line emission far above the galactic plane of these galaxies is detected. In some cases an extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) layer is discovered, e.g., NGC4634, NGC 3044, while other galaxies show only filamentary features reaching into the halo (e.g., IC 2531) and some galaxies show no sign of eDIG at all. The extraplanar distances of the DIG layer in our narrowband H-alpha images reach values of z<= 2 kpc above the galactic plane. The derived star formation rates (SFRs) from the H-alpha flux of the studied galaxies range from 0.05-0.7 M_{sun}/yr, neglecting a correction for internal absorption. The variation of the SFR values among our sample galaxies reflects the diversity of star formation within this sample. A diagnostic diagram is introduced...

  11. X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of AGN in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E

    2016-01-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observations of eight optically selected broad-line AGN candidates in nearby dwarf galaxies ($z<0.055$). Including archival Chandra observations of three additional sources, our sample contains all ten galaxies from Reines et al. (2013) with both broad H$\\alpha$ emission and narrow-line AGN ratios (6 AGNs, 4 Composites), as well as one low-metallicity dwarf galaxy with broad H$\\alpha$ and narrow-line ratios characteristic of star formation. All eleven galaxies are detected in X-rays. Nuclear X-ray luminosities range from $L_{0.5-7 \\rm{keV}}\\approx5\\times10^{39}$ to $1\\times10^{42}$ $\\rm{erg}\\rm{s^{-1}}$. In all cases except for the star forming galaxy, the nuclear X-ray luminosities are significantly higher than would be expected from X-ray binaries, providing strong confirmation that AGN and composite dwarf galaxies do indeed host actively accreting BHs. Using our estimated BH masses (which range from $\\sim7\\times10^{4}-1\\times10^{6}~M_{\\...

  12. 13CO/C18O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schinnerer, Eva; Schruba, Andreas; Schuster, Karl; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven

    2017-02-01

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure 13CO(1-0)/C18O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of 12CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved 13CO/C18O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean 13CO/C18O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the 13CO/C18O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  13. The interstellar medium and star formation in nearby galaxies. Ludwig Biermann Award Lecture 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, F.; Cormier, D.; Schmidt, T.

    In this overview article we present some of the key projects we pursue in our Emmy Noether group. Our work is focused on nearby galaxies, where we use multi-wavelength, state-of-the-art survey data to probe distribution, abundance and properties of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM) on [Si II] kpc scales. We study the average, radial distributions of atomic (H I) and molecular hydrogen (H2) across the disks of spiral galaxies and assess local (on 1 kpc scales) correlations between H I, H2 and star formation rate (SFR) surface densities across the inner, optical disks of our sample of [Si II] 30 spiral galaxies. The short H2 depletion times ([Si II] 2 Gyr) we find raises the question of if and how star formation is refueled in galactic disks. We look for such signatures of radial gas flows in our H I data and find compelling evidence at least in one case. We extend and compare our gas-SFR studies to the outer disks of galaxies, where conditions change significantly in the ISM, e.g., low metallicity and dust abundance. We focus on star formation at low-metallicity further with detailed ISM studies in dwarf galaxies, where we combine spectroscopic observations in the infrared with detailed modelling to learn about composition and detailed physical properties of the ISM. Of particular interest is the question of what drives large scale star formation in galaxies at low metallicity.

  14. The Study of Nebular Emission on Nearby Spiral Galaxies in the IFU Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fabián Rosales-Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of wide-field emission-line surveys based on integral field units (IFU is allowing us to obtain spatially resolved information of the gas-phase emission in nearby late-type galaxies, based on large samples of HII regions and full two-dimensional coverage. These observations are allowing us to discover and characterise abundance differentials between galactic substructures and new scaling relations with global physical properties. Here I review some highlights of our current studies employing this technique: (1 the case study of NGC 628, the largest galaxy ever sampled with an IFU; (2 a statistical approach to the abundance gradients of spiral galaxies, which indicates a universal radial gradient for oxygen abundance; and (3 the discovery of a new scaling relation of HII regions in spiral galaxies, the local mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies. The observational properties and constrains found in local galaxies using this new technique will allow us to interpret the gas-phase abundance of analogue high-z systems.

  15. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Survey Design and First Results

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A; Heiderman, Amanda; Evans, Neal J; Jogee, Shardha; Bosch, Remco van den; Marinova, Irina; Weinzirl, Tim; Yoachim, Peter; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Hao, Lei; MacQueen, Phillip J; Shen, Juntai; Hill, Gary J; Kormendy, John

    2010-01-01

    VENGA is a large-scale extragalactic IFU survey, which maps the bulges, bars and large parts of the outer disks of 32 nearby normal spiral galaxies. The targets are chosen to span a wide range in Hubble types, star formation activities, morphologies, and inclinations, at the same time of having vast available multi-wavelength coverage from the far-UV to the mid-IR, and available CO and 21cm mapping. The VENGA dataset will provide 2D maps of the SFR, stellar and gas kinematics, chemical abundances, ISM density and ionization states, dust extinction and stellar populations for these 32 galaxies. The uniqueness of the VIRUS-P large field of view permits these large-scale mappings to be performed. VENGA will allow us to correlate all these important quantities throughout the different environments present in galactic disks, allowing the conduction of a large number of studies in star formation, structure assembly, galactic feedback and ISM in galaxies.

  16. The star cluster - field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies I. Data analysis techniques and application to NGC 4395

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Villa, E

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that a large fraction of stars are initially born in clusters. However, a large fraction of these disrupt on short timescales and the stars end up belonging to the field. Understanding this process is of paramount importance if we wish to constrain the star formation histories of external galaxies using star clusters. We attempt to understand the relation between field stars and star clusters by simultaneously studying both in a number of nearby galaxies. As a pilot study, we present results for the late-type spiral NGC 4395 using HST/ACS and HST/WFPC2 images. Different detection criteria were used to distinguish point sources (star candidates) and extended objects (star cluster candidates). Using a synthetic CMD method, we estimated the star formation history. Using simple stellar population model fitting, we calculated the mass and age of the cluster candidates. The field star formation rate appears to have been roughly constant, or to have possibly increased by up to about a factor ...

  17. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey IV. Velocity Dispersions in the Molecular Interstellar Medium in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Irwin, J; Knapen, J H; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Attewell, D; Bendo, G J; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Clements, D L; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Mortier, A M J; Parkin, T J; Petitpas, G; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of large-area CO J=3-2 maps from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope for 12 nearby spiral galaxies reveals low velocity dispersions in the molecular component of the interstellar medium. The three lowest luminosity galaxies show a relatively flat velocity dispersion as a function of radius while the remaining nine galaxies show a central peak with a radial fall-off within 0.2-0.4 r(25). Correcting for the average contribution due to the internal velocitydispersions of a population of giant molecular clouds, the average cloud-cloud velocity dispersion across the galactic disks is 6.1 +/- 1.0 km/s (standard deviation 2.9 km/s), in reasonable agreement with previous measurements for the Galaxy andM33. The cloud-cloud velocity dispersion derived from the CO data is on average two times smaller than the HI velocity dispersion measured in the same galaxies. The low cloud-cloudvelocity dispersion implies that the molecular gas is the critical component determining the stability of the galactic disk against...

  18. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups. III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Antonietta; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (V < 3000 km/s) with a multi-wavelength approach. We analyze GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging and SDSS u,g,r,i,z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically-confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40\\% are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 rese...

  19. OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE MOLECULAR GAS CONTENT IN NEARBY STARBURST DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Holtzman, Jon, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Department 4500, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Using star formation histories derived from optically resolved stellar populations in 19 nearby starburst dwarf galaxies observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we measure the stellar mass surface densities of stars newly formed in the bursts. By assuming a star formation efficiency (SFE), we then calculate the inferred gas surface densities present at the onset of the starbursts. Assuming an SFE of 1%, as is often assumed in normal star-forming galaxies, and assuming that the gas was purely atomic, translates to very high H I surface densities ({approx}10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}), which are much higher than have been observed in dwarf galaxies. This implies either higher values of SFE in these dwarf starburst galaxies or the presence of significant amounts of H{sub 2} in dwarfs (or both). Raising the assumed SFEs to 10% or greater (in line with observations of more massive starbursts associated with merging galaxies), still results in H I surface densities higher than observed in 10 galaxies. Thus, these observations appear to require that a significant fraction of the gas in these dwarf starbursts galaxies was in the molecular form at the onset of the bursts. Our results imply molecular gas column densities in the range 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} cm{sup -2} for the sample. In the galaxies where CO observations have been made, these densities correspond to values of the CO-H{sub 2} conversion factor (X{sub CO}) in the range >(3-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (K km s{sup -1}){sup -1}, or up to 40 Multiplication-Sign greater than Galactic X{sub CO} values.

  20. THE IMPACT OF MOLECULAR GAS ON MASS MODELS OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, B. S.; Blok, W. J. G. de [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Walter, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carignan, C., E-mail: frank@astron.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2016-04-15

    We present CO velocity fields and rotation curves for a sample of nearby galaxies, based on data from HERACLES. We combine our data with THINGS, SINGS, and KINGFISH results to provide a comprehensive sample of mass models of disk galaxies inclusive of molecular gas. We compare the kinematics of the molecular (CO from HERACLES) and atomic (H i from THINGS) gas distributions to determine the extent to which CO may be used to probe the dynamics in the inner part of galaxies. In general, we find good agreement between the CO and H i kinematics, with small differences in the inner part of some galaxies. We add the contribution of the molecular gas to the mass models in our galaxies by using two different conversion factors α{sub CO} to convert CO luminosity to molecular gas mass surface density—the constant Milky Way value and the radially varying profiles determined in recent work based on THINGS, HERACLES, and KINGFISH data. We study the relative effect that the addition of the molecular gas has on the halo rotation curves for Navarro–Frenk–White and the observationally motivated pseudo-isothermal halos. The contribution of the molecular gas varies for galaxies in our sample—for those galaxies where there is a substantial molecular gas content, using different values of α{sub CO} can result in significant differences to the relative contribution of the molecular gas and hence the shape of the dark matter halo rotation curves in the central regions of galaxies.

  1. NEARBY CLUMPY, GAS RICH, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: LOCAL ANALOGS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT CLUMPY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, C. A. [Natural Sciences Department, Jeffords Science Center, Castleton State College, Castleton, VT 05735 (United States); Pisano, D. J.; Rabidoux, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, 135 Willey Street, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Low, M.-M. Mac [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Kreckel, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Guzmán, R., E-mail: catherine.garland@castleton.edu, E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: krabidou@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org, E-mail: kreckel@mpia.de, E-mail: guzman@astro.ufl.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) have enhanced star formation rates (SFRs) and compact morphologies. We combine Sloan Digital Sky Survey data with H i data of 29 LCBGs at redshift z ∼ 0 to understand their nature. We find that local LCBGs have high atomic gas fractions (∼50%) and SFRs per stellar mass consistent with some high-redshift star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Many local LCBGs also have clumpy morphologies, with clumps distributed across their disks. Although rare, these galaxies appear to be similar to the clumpy SFGs commonly observed at z ∼ 1–3. Local LCBGs separate into three groups: (1) interacting galaxies (∼20%); (2) clumpy spirals (∼40%); and (3) non-clumpy, non-spirals with regular shapes and smaller effective radii and stellar masses (∼40%). It seems that the method of building up a high gas fraction, which then triggers star formation, is not the same for all local LCBGs. This may lead to a dichotomy in galaxy characteristics. We consider possible gas delivery scenarios and suggest that clumpy spirals, preferentially located in clusters and with companions, are smoothly accreting gas from tidally disrupted companions and/or intracluster gas enriched by stripped satellites. Conversely, as non-clumpy galaxies are preferentially located in the field and tend to be isolated, we suggest clumpy, cold streams, which destroy galaxy disks and prevent clump formation, as a likely gas delivery mechanism for these systems. Other possibilities include smooth cold streams, a series of minor mergers, or major interactions.

  2. HST/ACS Lyman alpha imaging of the nearby starburst ESO338-IG04

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, M; Mas-Hesse, J M; Kunth, D; Leitherer, C; Petrosian, A

    2005-01-01

    ESO338-IG04 is a well known, local, luminous Blue Compact Galaxy. It has a complex morphology and contains a central young starburst with compact young star clusters. The galaxy was imaged using HST/ACS in the Lyman alpha line and continuum. Using the Starburst99 synthetic spectra and other imaging data from HST/WFPC2 we developed a technique that allows us to make the first photometrically valid continuum subtraction for the LYa line. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the models of LYa escape being regulated by kinematical properties of the interstellar medium. The line-only image shows LYa in both emission and absorption. Notably, emission is seen from central bright young clusters and is in spatial agreement with the features present in a longslit spectrum taken with HST/STIS. Diffuse LYa emission regions are seen surrounding the central starburst where photons escape after one or more resonant scatterings in HI. These regions dominate the total LYa output. Photometry reveals a total LYa flux o...

  3. The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation of Nearby, Low-Mass Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steven Ray

    This thesis presents four different studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) and stellar content of ˜40 nearby (D ≲ 4 Mpc), low-mass galaxies. We aim to address two fundamental questions: "How do stellar processes effect the ISM in low-mass galaxies?" and "What are the local gas conditions which lead to molecular cloud formation?". Much of the data presented here come from our survey the "Very Large Array - Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury" (VLA-ANGST). VLA-ANGST is a targeted atomic hydrogen (H I) emission line survey directed towards 35 low-mass galaxies selected from the ANGST Hubble Space Telescope (HST) galaxy sample of the nearby universe. The VLA-ANGST project is the largest survey of its kind, demanding nearly 600 hours of VLA observing time. This unprecedented amount of observing time gives us data which has long lasting legacy value for its wealth of high resolution and high sensitivity information on the H I gas content and dynamics in a large sample of nearby, low-mass galaxies. H I data from the VLA-ANGST project will be used to explore the interactions between the gas and stellar content as well as trace the underlying dark matter distribution. Combining the H I and HST data with other tracers of recent star formation (e.g., emission processes from far ultraviolet star light, dust in the infrared, and carbon monoxide in the submillimeter) provides a comprehensive census of each galaxy, useful for understanding their evolution. We investigate the role of multiple generations of star formation in the formation of large, kiloparsec scale cavities observed in the global H I distributions of five nearby, low mass galaxies. The small gravitational potential wells of some low-mass galaxies allow the outflow of energy from stellar processes (e.g., winds, supernovae, etc.) to help shape their gas distributions. We find that stellar processes produce ample energy (at least an order of magnitude or more) to have been the dominant

  4. Identification and multi-filter photometry of HII regions from nearby galaxies with J-PLUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroño-García, R.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Muniesa, D.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Cenarro, A. J.; J-PLUS, T.

    2017-03-01

    The Javalambre Photometric Local Universe Survey (J-PLUS) has already started the data acquisition phase at the Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) in Teruel, Spain. Benefiting from the large field of view (2 deg^2) and the 12 filters set of the T80Cam at the T80/JAST telescope, we aim to study the properties of HII regions in nearby galaxies (z J-PLUS bands using as reference the Hα+NII detection image. (5) Constructs the photo-spectra for each identified HII region. We demonstrate the capabilities of this method by comparing synthetic aperture photometry from SDSS spectra with the Hα flux measured with J-PLUS data. Such comparison can be found in the poster by Vilella-Rojo et al. Once the pipeline is implemented, we will generate a catalog of nearby HII regions at zJ-PLUS. With this catalog, we will study the impact of environment in the 2D star formation properties of nearby galaxies, taking advantage of the unprecedented large contiguous area that J-PLUS will offer.

  5. A Pilot Survey of Stellar Tidal Streams in Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; Gabany, R. Jay; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Rix, Hans-Walter; Majewski, Steven R.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Pohlen, Michael

    Within the hierarchical framework for galaxy formation, merging and tidal interactions are expected to shape large galaxies to this day. While major mergers are quite rare at present, minor mergers and satellite disruptions-which result in stellar streams-should be common, and are indeed seen in both the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. As a pilot study, we have carried out ultra-deep, wide-field imaging of some spiral galaxies in the Local Volume, which has revealed external views of such stellar tidal streams at unprecedented detail, with data taken at small robotic telescopes (0.1-0.5m) that provide exquisite surface brightness sensitivity. The goal of this project is to undertake the first systematic and comprehensive imaging survey of stellar tidal streams, from a sample of˜50 nearby Milky Way-like spiral galaxies within 15Mpc, that features a surface brightness sensitivity of˜30mag/arcsec2. The survey will result in estimates of the incidence, size/geometry and stellar luminosity/mass distribution of such streams. This will not only put our Milky Way and M31 in context but, for the first time, also provide an extensive statistical basis for comparison with state-of-the-art, self-consistent cosmological simulations of this phenomenon.

  6. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), I. Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Gehrz, Robert D; Gordon, Karl D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; Meixner, Margaret; Skillman, Evan; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, George; van Loon, Jacco Th; Zijlstra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (-2.7 75% complete at the tip of the Red Giant Branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally-pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in 8 of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  7. The frequency and properties of young tidal dwarf galaxies in nearby gas-rich groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lee-Waddell, K; Chandra, P; Patra, N; Cuillandre, J -C; Wang, J; Haynes, M P; Cannon, J; Stierwalt, S; Sick, J; Giovanelli, R

    2016-01-01

    We present high-resolution Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI observations and deep Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) optical imaging of two galaxy groups: NGC 4725/47 and NGC 3166/9. These data are part of a multi-wavelength unbiased survey of the gas-rich dwarf galaxy populations in three nearby interacting galaxy groups. The NGC 4725/47 group hosts two tidal knots and one dIrr. Both tidal knots are located within a prominent HI tidal tail, appear to have sufficient mass (M_gas~10^8 M_sol) to evolve into long-lived tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) and are fairly young in age. The NGC 3166/9 group contains a TDG candidate, AGC 208457, at least three dIrrs and four HI knots. Deep CFHT imaging confirms that the optical component of AGC 208457 is bluer -- with a 0.28 mag g-r colour -- and a few Gyr younger than its purported parent galaxies. Combining the results for these groups with those from the NGC 871/6/7 group reported earlier, we find that the HI properties, estimated stellar ages and baryonic con...

  8. Tracing the Baryon Cycle within Nearby Galaxies with a next-generation VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepley, Amanda A.; Leroy, Adam; Murphy, Eric J.; ngVLA Baryon Cycle Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies over cosmic time is shaped by the cycling of baryons through these systems, namely the inflow of atomic gas, the formation of molecular structures, the birth of stars, and the expulsion of gas due to associated feedback processes. The best way to study this cycle in detail are observations of nearby galaxies. These systems provide a complete picture of baryon cycling over a wide range of astrophysical conditions. In the next decade, higher resolution/sensitivity observations of such galaxies will fundamentally improve our knowledge of galaxy formation and evolution, allowing us to better interpret higher redshift observations of sources that were rapidly evolving at epochs soon after the Big Bang. In particular, the centimeter-to-millimeter part of the spectrum provides critical diagnostics for each of the key baryon cycling processes and access to almost all phases of gas in galaxies: cool and cold gas (via emission and absorption lines), ionized gas (via free-free continuum and recombination lines), cosmic rays and hot gas (via synchrotron emission and the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect). This poster highlights a number of key science problems in this area whose solutions require a next-generation radio-mm interferometer such as the next-generation VLA.

  9. The Impact of Molecular Gas on Mass Models of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Bradley S; Walter, F; Leroy, A; Carignan, C

    2015-01-01

    We present CO velocity fields and rotation curves for a sample of nearby galaxies, based on data from the HERACLES survey. We combine our data with literature THINGS, SINGS and KINGFISH results to provide a comprehensive sample of mass models of disk galaxies inclusive of molecular gas. We compare the kinematics of the molecular (CO from HERACLES) and atomic (${\\rm H{\\scriptstyle I}}$ from THINGS) gas distributions to determine the extent to which CO may be used to probe the dynamics in the inner part of galaxies. In general, we find good agreement between the CO and ${\\rm H{\\scriptstyle I}}$ kinematics with small differences in the inner part of some galaxies. We add the contribution of the molecular gas to the mass models in our galaxies by using two different conversion factors $\\mathrm{\\alpha_{CO}}$ to convert CO luminosity to molecular gas mass surface density - the constant Milky Way value and the radially varying profiles determined in recent work based on THINGS, HERACLES and KINGFISH data. We study t...

  10. Mid-UV HST Imaging of Nearby Late-Type, Irregular, and Peculiar Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, V. A.; Windhorst, R. A.; Chiarenza, C. A. T.; Odewahn, S. C.; Conselice, C. J.; MacKenty, J.; de Jong, R. S.; de Grijs, R.; Eskridge, P. B.; Frogel, J. A.; Gallagher, J. S.; Kobulnicky, H.; Hibbard, J. E.; Matthews, L. D.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2000-12-01

    Distant galaxies observed by HST appear to have primarily late-type, irregular, or peculiar morphologies. However, because of their high redshift they are observed in their restframe mid-UV. Nearby galaxies can look dramatically different in the rest-frame mid- and far-UV. We must therefore ask if these high redshift morphologies are due to real evolutionary effects or band-pass shifting and surface brightness dimming at high redshift. To address this, we have conducted a survey with HST of 37 nearby galaxies of various Hubble types and inclinations in two mid-UV bands. Most of these galaxies have supporting ground based data in UBVRJHK. A comparison of the photometric properties of these galaxies in these different band-passes will lead to a better ability to separate true evolutionary effects from the morphological K-correction. We will present and discuss preliminary results from the HST survey and ground-based observations in UBVR. Our preliminary results suggest that the late-types imaged so far are a heterogeneous mixture. More than half of the few irregulars/peculiars/mergers show a mid-UV F300W morphology that is similar to I-band F814W, but with important differences due to recognizable dust-lanes blocking out UV light, star-formation ``ridges,'' and hot stars or star-clusters that are mostly visible in F300W but not in F814W. Others yield significantly different classifications in F300W and F814W. We acknowledge NASA grant GO-8645.01-99A from STScI and the NASA Space Grant. This project is based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  11. Hydrogen fluoride toward luminous nearby galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monje, R. R.; Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125-4700 (United States); Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Falgarone, E. [LERMA/LRA, Ecole Normale Supérieure and Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Güsten, R., E-mail: raquel@caltech.edu [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in two luminous nearby galaxies, NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H{sub 2}){sub out} ∼ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} and an outflow rate as large as M-dot ∼6.4 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile are compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of ≤1.2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, inside an inner radius of ≤200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central active galactic nucleus is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow may be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF J = 1-0 line is seen to provide an important probe of the kinematics of absorbing material along the sight-line to nearby galaxies with bright dust continuum and a promising new tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies.

  12. H{\\alpha} to FUV ratios in resolved star forming region populations of nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hermanowicz, Maciej T; Eldridge, John J

    2013-01-01

    We present a new study of H{\\alpha}/FUV flux ratios of star forming regions within a sample of nearby spiral galaxies. We search for evidence of the existence of a cluster mass dependent truncation in the underlying stellar initial mass function (IMF). We use an automated approach to identification of extended objects based on the SExtractor algorithm to catalogue resolved Hii regions within a set of nearby spiral galaxies. Corrections due to dust attenuation effects are applied to avoid artificially boosted H{\\alpha}/FUV values. We use the BPASS stellar population synthesis code of Eldridge & Stanway (2009) to create a benchmark population of star forming regions to act as a reference for our observations. Based on those models, we identify a zone of parameter space populated by regions that cannot be obtained with a cluster mass dependent truncation in the stellar IMF imposed. We find that the investigated galaxies display small subpopulations of star forming regions falling within our zone of interest,...

  13. Rotational Dynamics and Star Formation in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5238

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, John M; Teich, Yaron G; Ball, Catherine; Banovetz, John; Brock, Annika; Eisner, Brian A; Fitzgibbon, Kathleen; Miazzo, Masao; Nizami, Asra; Reilly, Bridget; Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Singer, Quinton

    2016-01-01

    We present new HI spectral line images of the nearby low-mass galaxy NGC 5238, acquired with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Located at a distance of 4.51+/-0.04 Mpc, NGC 5238 is an actively star-forming galaxy with widespread H-alpha and UV continuum emission. The source is included in many ongoing and recent nearby galaxy surveys, but until this work the spatially resolved qualities of its neutral interstellar medium have remained unstudied. Our HI images resolve the disk on physical scales of ~400 pc, allowing us to undertake a detailed comparative study of the gaseous and stellar components. The HI disk is asymmetric in the outer regions, and the areas of high HI mass surface density display a crescent-shaped morphology that is slightly offset from the center of the stellar populations. The HI column density exceeds 10^21 cm^-2 in much of the disk. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality of dense HI gas and sites of ongoing star formation as traced by far-UV and H-alpha emission. The neutral ga...

  14. Herschel Far-Infrared and Sub-millimeter Photometry for the KINGFISH Sample of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dale, D A; Engelbracht, C W; Hinz, J L; Krause, O; Montiel, E J; Roussel, H; Appleton, P N; Armus, L; Beirao, P; Bolatto, A D; Brandl, B R; Calzetti, D; Crocker, A F; Croxall, K V; Draine, B T; Galametz, M; Gordon, K D; Groves, B A; Hao, C -N; Helou, G; Hunt, L K; Johnson, B D; Kennicutt, R C; Koda, J; Leroy, A K; Li, Y; Meidt, S E; Miller, A E; Murphy, E J; Rahman, N; Rix, H -W; Sandstrom, K M; Sauvage, M; Schinnerer, E; Skibba, R A; Smith, J -D T; Tabatabaei, F S; Walter, F; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M G; Zibetti, S

    2011-01-01

    New far-infrared and sub-millimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially-integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500um emission shows evidence for a sub-millimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photo-dissociation regions is found to be (21+/-4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine & Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust tempera...

  15. 2XMM ultraluminous X-ray source candidates in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Roberts, T. P.; Mateos, S.; Heard, V.

    2011-09-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are some of the most enigmatic X-ray bright sources known to date. It is generally accepted that they cannot host black holes as large as those associated with active galaxies, but they appear to be significantly more luminous than their better understood Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) cousins, while displaying an intriguing combination of differences and similarities with them. Through studying large, representative samples of these sources we may hope to enhance our understanding of them. To this end, we derive a large catalogue of 650 X-ray detections of 470 ULX candidates, located in 238 nearby galaxies, by cross-correlating the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The presented dedicated catalogue offers a significant improvement over those previously published in terms of both the number and the contribution of background contaminants, e.g. distant quasars, which we estimate to be at most 24 per cent, but more likely ˜17 per cent. To undertake population studies, we define a 'complete' sub-sample of sources compiled from observations of galaxies with sensitivity limits below 1039 erg s-1. The luminosity function of this sample is consistent with a simple power law of form N(>LX) ∝ L-0.96 ± 0.11X. Although we do not find any statistical requirement for a cut-off luminosity of Lc˜ 1040 erg s-1, as has been reported previously, we are not able to rule out its presence. Also, we find that the number of ULXs per unit galaxy mass, Su, decreases with increasing galaxy mass for ULXs associated with spiral galaxies, and is well modelled with a power law of form Su ∝ M-0.64 ± 0.07. This is in broad agreement with previous results, and is likely to be a consequence of the decrease in specific star formation and increase in metallicity with increasing spiral galaxy mass. Su is consistent with being constant with galaxy mass for sources associated with elliptical galaxies, implying this

  16. The flaring HI disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer, B.; Nehlig, F.; Ibata, R.

    2015-01-01

    New deep VLA D array HI observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model HI data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80 degrees; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution ...

  17. SDSS1133: An Unusually Persistent Transient in a Nearby Dwarf Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Hung, Chao Ling; Veilleux, Sylvain; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Schawinski, Kevin; Stern, Daniel; Smith, Nathan; Li, Yanxia; Man, Allison; Filippenko, Alexei V; Mauerhan, Jon C; Stanek, Kris; Sanders, David

    2014-01-01

    We have discovered an unusual source offset by 0.8 kpc from a nearby dwarf galaxy while performing a survey to detect recoiling black holes. The object, SDSS J113323.97+550415.8, exhibits broad emission lines and strong variability. While originally classified as a supernova (SN) because of its nondetection in 2005, we detect it in recent and past observations over 63 yr. Using high-resolution adaptive optics observations, we constrain the source emission region to be 10 yr), larger than that of unusually luminous supernovae such as SN 1988Z, suggesting one of the most extreme episodes of pre-SN mass loss ever discovered.

  18. Carbon abundances and radial gradients in NGC300 and other nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cipriano, L Toribio San; Esteban, C

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results of deep echelle spectrophotometry of a sample of HII regions along the disk of the Scd galaxy NGC300 obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the aim of detect and measure very faint OII and CII permitted lines. We focus this study on the C and O abundances obtained from faint optical recombination lines (ORLs) instead of the most commonly used collisionally excited lines (CELs). We have derived the ionic abundances of C++ from the CII 4267 angstrom RL and O++ from the multiplet 1 of OII around 4649 angstrom in several objects. Finally, we have computed the radial gradients of C/H, O/H and C/O ratios in NGC300 from RLs, which has allowed the comparison with similar data obtained by our group in other nearby spiral galaxies.

  19. Multi-Wavelength Observations of the Supernova Remnant Populations in the Nearby Spiral Galaxies IC 342 and NGC 4258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Thomas; Chomiuk, L.; Grimes, C. K.; Staggs, W. D.; Tussey, J. M.; Laine, S.; Schlegel, E.

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are intimately tied to many crucial processes associated with the interstellar medium of galaxies, such as the acceleration of cosmic-ray particles and the deposition of vast amounts of kinetic energy and chemically-enriched material. Well-known observational challenges in the study of SNRs located in the Milky Way Galaxy (for example, formidable extinction along Galactic lines of sight and considerable uncertainties in the distances to these sources) have motivated searches for SNRs in nearby galaxies at such characteristic wavelengths as X-ray, optical and radio. These searches have revealed a considerable number of SNRs and led to new insights into their properties, but the SNR populations in only a handful of nearby galaxies have been adequately surveyed at multiple wavelengths. To help remedy this situation, we are conducting a multi-wavelength study of the SNR population of selected nearby galaxies. To illustrate our work, we present the results of studies of the SNR population in two nearby spiral galaxies, IC 342 and NGC 4258. Our results draw upon the analysis of pointed archival radio and X-ray observations of these two galaxies. Initial results will be presented and discussed.

  20. Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV: Mapping the Milky Way, Nearby Galaxies, and the Distant Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Michael R.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Abolfathi, Bela; Albareti, Franco D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Almeida, Andres; Alonso-García, Javier; Anders, Friedrich; Anderson, Scott F.; Andrews, Brett; Aquino-Ortíz, Erik; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Argudo-Fernández, Maria; Armengaud, Eric; Aubourg, Eric; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Bailey, Stephen; Barger, Kathleen A.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge; Bartosz, Curtis; Bates, Dominic; Baumgarten, Falk; Bautista, Julian; Beaton, Rachael; Beers, Timothy C.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bender, Chad F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Beutler, Florian; Bird, Jonathan C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blomqvist, Michael; Bolton, Adam S.; Boquien, Médéric; Borissova, Jura; van den Bosch, Remco; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, William N.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Burgasser, Adam J.; Burtin, Etienne; Busca, Nicolás G.; Cappellari, Michele; Delgado Carigi, Maria Leticia; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carnero Rosell, Aurelio; Carrera, Ricardo; Chanover, Nancy J.; Cherinka, Brian; Cheung, Edmond; Gómez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Chiappini, Cristina; Doohyun Choi, Peter; Chojnowski, Drew; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Chung, Haeun; Cirolini, Rafael Fernando; Clerc, Nicolas; Cohen, Roger E.; Comparat, Johan; da Costa, Luiz; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Covey, Kevin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Garrido Cuadra, Daniel; Cunha, Katia; Damke, Guillermo J.; Darling, Jeremy; Davies, Roger; Dawson, Kyle; de la Macorra, Axel; Dell'Agli, Flavia; De Lee, Nathan; Delubac, Timothée; Di Mille, Francesco; Diamond-Stanic, Aleks; Cano-Díaz, Mariana; Donor, John; José Downes, Juan; Drory, Niv; du Mas des Bourboux, Hélion; Duckworth, Christopher J.; Dwelly, Tom; Dyer, Jamie; Ebelke, Garrett; Eigenbrot, Arthur D.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Emsellem, Eric; Eracleous, Mike; Escoffier, Stephanie; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Fernandez-Trincado, J. G.; Feuillet, Diane K.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Fredrickson, Alexander; Freischlad, Gordon; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fuentes, Carla E.; Galbany, Lluís; Garcia-Dias, R.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Gaulme, Patrick; Geisler, Doug; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Goddard, Daniel; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Grabowski, Kathleen; Green, Paul J.; Grier, Catherine J.; Gunn, James E.; Guo, Hong; Guy, Julien; Hagen, Alex; Hahn, ChangHoon; Hall, Matthew; Harding, Paul; Hasselquist, Sten; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Fred; Gonzalez Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Holtzman, Jon A.; Holzer, Parker H.; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Hutchinson, Timothy A.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ibarra-Medel, Héctor J.; da Silva Ilha, Gabriele; Ivans, Inese I.; Ivory, KeShawn; Jackson, Kelly; Jensen, Trey W.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jones, Amy; Jönsson, Henrik; Jullo, Eric; Kamble, Vikrant; Kinemuchi, Karen; Kirkby, David; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Klaene, Mark; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Lacerna, Ivan; Lane, Richard R.; Lang, Dustin; Law, David R.; Lazarz, Daniel; Lee, Youngbae; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Liang, Fu-Heng; Li, Cheng; Li, Hongyu; Lian, Jianhui; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Bertran de Lis, Sara; Liu, Chao; de Icaza Lizaola, Miguel Angel C.; Long, Dan; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; MacDonald, Nicholas K.; Deconto Machado, Alice; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Geimba Maia, Marcio Antonio; Maiolino, Roberto; Majewski, Steven R.; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Manchado, Arturo; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; Marques-Chaves, Rui; Masseron, Thomas; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDermid, Richard M.; McGrath, Brianne; McGreer, Ian D.; Medina Peña, Nicolás; Melendez, Matthew; Merloni, Andrea; Merrifield, Michael R.; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Meza, Andres; Minchev, Ivan; Minniti, Dante; Miyaji, Takamitsu; More, Surhud; Mulchaey, John; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Muna, Demitri; Munoz, Ricardo R.; Myers, Adam D.; Nair, Preethi; Nandra, Kirpal; Correa do Nascimento, Janaina; Negrete, Alenka; Ness, Melissa; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; Nitschelm, Christian; Ntelis, Pierros; O'Connell, Julia E.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Oravetz, Audrey; Oravetz, Daniel; Pace, Zach; Padilla, Nelson; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Alonso Palicio, Pedro; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Parikh, Taniya; Pâris, Isabelle; Park, Changbom; Patten, Alim Y.; Peirani, Sebastien; Pellejero-Ibanez, Marcos; Penny, Samantha; Percival, Will J.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Petitjean, Patrick; Pieri, Matthew M.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Pisani, Alice; Poleski, Radosław; Prada, Francisco; Prakash, Abhishek; Queiroz, Anna Bárbara de Andrade; Raddick, M. Jordan; Raichoor, Anand; Barboza Rembold, Sandro; Richstein, Hannah; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Riffel, Rogério; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Rodríguez-Torres, Sergio; Roman-Lopes, A.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Rosado, Margarita; Ross, Ashley J.; Rossi, Graziano; Ruan, John; Ruggeri, Rossana; Rykoff, Eli S.; Salazar-Albornoz, Salvador; Salvato, Mara; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Aguado, D. S.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Santana, Felipe A.; Santiago, Basílio Xavier; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; da Silva Schimoia, Jaderson; Schlafly, Edward F.; Schlegel, David J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Schuster, William J.; Schwope, Axel; Seo, Hee-Jong; Shao, Zhengyi; Shen, Shiyin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shull, Michael; Simon, Joshua D.; Skinner, Danielle; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smith, Verne V.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Sobreira, Flavia; Somers, Garrett; Souto, Diogo; Stark, David V.; Stassun, Keivan; Stauffer, Fritz; Steinmetz, Matthias; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Streblyanska, Alina; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Suárez, Genaro; Sun, Jing; Suzuki, Nao; Szigeti, Laszlo; Taghizadeh-Popp, Manuchehr; Tang, Baitian; Tao, Charling; Tayar, Jamie; Tembe, Mita; Teske, Johanna; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tissera, Patricia; Tojeiro, Rita; Hernandez Toledo, Hector; de la Torre, Sylvain; Tremonti, Christy; Troup, Nicholas W.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Martinez Valpuesta, Inma; Vargas-González, Jaime; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana; Vazquez, Jose Alberto; Villanova, Sandro; Vivek, M.; Vogt, Nicole; Wake, David; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Yuting; Weaver, Benjamin Alan; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Weinberg, David H.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Whelan, David G.; Wild, Vivienne; Wilson, John; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Wylezalek, Dominika; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Yang, Meng; Ybarra, Jason E.; Yèche, Christophe; Zakamska, Nadia; Zamora, Olga; Zarrouk, Pauline; Zasowski, Gail; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Zheng, Zheng; Zheng, Zheng; Zhou, Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Zhu, Guangtun B.; Zoccali, Manuela; Zou, Hu

    2017-07-01

    We describe the Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV (SDSS-IV), a project encompassing three major spectroscopic programs. The Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment 2 (APOGEE-2) is observing hundreds of thousands of Milky Way stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratios in the near-infrared. The Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey is obtaining spatially resolved spectroscopy for thousands of nearby galaxies (median z˜ 0.03). The extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) is mapping the galaxy, quasar, and neutral gas distributions between z˜ 0.6 and 3.5 to constrain cosmology using baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortions, and the shape of the power spectrum. Within eBOSS, we are conducting two major subprograms: the SPectroscopic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS), investigating X-ray AGNs and galaxies in X-ray clusters, and the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS), obtaining spectra of variable sources. All programs use the 2.5 m Sloan Foundation Telescope at the Apache Point Observatory; observations there began in Summer 2014. APOGEE-2 also operates a second near-infrared spectrograph at the 2.5 m du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, with observations beginning in early 2017. Observations at both facilities are scheduled to continue through 2020. In keeping with previous SDSS policy, SDSS-IV provides regularly scheduled public data releases; the first one, Data Release 13, was made available in 2016 July.

  1. The nuclear and integrated far-infrared emission of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    García-González, J; Hernán-Caballero, A; Pereira-Santaella, M; Ramos-Almeida, C; Pulido, J A Acosta; Díaz-Santos, T; Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Ichikawa, K; López-Rodríguez, E; Povic, M; Roche, P F; Sánchez-Portal, M

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) $70-500\\,\\mu$m imaging observations obtained with Herschel/PACS and SPIRE of 33 nearby (median distance of 30 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) catalogue. We obtain the FIR nuclear ($r=1\\,$kpc and $r=2\\,$kpc) and integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We estimate the unresolved nuclear emission at 70 $\\mu$m and we fit the nuclear and integrated FIR SEDs with a grey body model. We find that the integrated FIR emission of the RSA Seyferts in our sample is dominated by emission from the host galaxy, with dust properties similar to those of normal galaxies (non AGN). We use four criteria to select galaxies whose nuclear $70\\,\\mu$m emission has a significant AGN contribution: (1) elevated 70/160 $\\mu$m flux ratios, (2)spatially resolved, high dust temperature gradient, (3) $70\\,\\mu$m excess emission with respect to the fit of the FIR SEDs with a grey body, and (4) excess of nuclear SFR obtained from $70\\,\\mu$m over SFR from mid-infrared indicators. 16...

  2. Magnetism in Nearby Galaxies, Prospects with the SKA, and Synergies with the E-ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R

    2010-01-01

    Radio synchrotron emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation are powerful tools to study the strength and structure of interstellar magnetic fields. In the Milky Way, Faraday rotation of the polarized emission from pulsars and background sources indicate that the regular field follows the spiral arms and has one reversal inside the solar radius, but the overall field structure in our Galaxy is still unclear. In nearby galaxies, ordered fields with spiral structure exist in grand-design, barred and flocculent galaxies. The strongest ordered fields (10-15 \\muG) are found in interarm regions. Faraday rotation of the diffuse polarized radio emission from the disks of spiral galaxies sometimes reveals large-scale patterns, which are signatures of regular fields generated by a mean-field dynamo. - The SKA and its precursor telescopes will open a new era in the observation of cosmic magnetic fields and help to understand their origin. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures (RM) towards a dense grid of...

  3. A UV study of nearby luminous infrared galaxies: star formation histories and the role of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Kaviraj, S

    2008-01-01

    We employ UV and optical photometry, from the GALEX and SDSS surveys respectively, to study the star formation histories of 561 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) in the nearby Universe. A small fraction (~4%) of these galaxies have spheroidal or near-spheroidal morphologies and could be progenitors of elliptical galaxies. The remaining galaxies are morphologically late-type or ongoing mergers. 61% of the LIRGs do not show signs of interactions, while the remaining objects are either interacting (~18%) or show post-merger morphologies (~19%). The (SSP-weighted) average age of the underlying stellar populations in these objects is typically 5-9 Gyrs, with a mean value of ~6.8 Gyrs. ~60% of the LIRG population began their recent star formation (RSF) episode within the last Gyr, while the remaining objects began their RSF episodes 1 to 3 Gyrs in the past. Up to 35% of the stellar mass in the remnant forms in these episodes - the mean value is ~15%. The (decay) timescales of the star formation are typically a few...

  4. Connecting Gas Dynamics and Star Formation Histories in Nearby Galaxies: The VLA-ANGST Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Juergen; Dalcanton, Julianne; Walter, Fabian; Stilp, Adrienne; Koribalski, Baerbel; West, Andrew; Warren, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, HST revolutionized the field of star formation in nearby galaxies. Due to its high angular resolution it has now become possible to construct star formation histories of individual stellar populations on scales of a few arcseconds spanning a range of up to ~600 Myr. This method will be applied to the ANGST galaxies, a large HST volume limited survey to map galaxies up to distances of 3.5-4.0 Mpc (excluding the Local Group). The ANGST sample is currently followed--up by high, ~6'' resolution VLA observations of neutral, atomic hydrogen (HI) in the context of VLA-ANGST, an approved Large VLA Project. The VLA resolution is well matched to that of the spatially resolved star formation history maps. The combination of ANGST and VLA-ANGST data will provide a new, promising approach to study essential fields of galaxy evolution such as the triggering of star formation, the feedback of massive stars into the interstellar medium, and the structure and dynamics of the interstellar medium.

  5. The Effect of Structure and Star Formation on the Gas Content of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Toby; Cortese, Luca; Kilborn, Virginia; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the main HI-to-stellar mass ratio (gas fraction) scaling relations, taking advantage of the HI spectral stacking technique to understand the dependence of gas content on the structural and star formation properties of nearby galaxies. This work uses a volume-limited, multi-wavelength sample of ~25,000 galaxies, selected according to stellar mass (10^9 M_sol < M_* < 10^11.5 M_sol) and redshift (0.02 < z < 0.05) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and with HI data from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. We bin according to multiple parameters of galaxies spanning the full gas-poor to -rich regime in order to disentangle the dominance of different components and processes in influencing gas content. For the first time, we show that the scaling relations of gas fraction with stellar mass and stellar surface density are primarily driven by a combination of the underlying galaxy bimodality in specific star formation rate and the integrated Kennicutt-Schmidt law. Finally, we produce tentative...

  6. Revised Mass-to-Light Ratios For Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Yutong; Courteau, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the cluster stellar mass-to-light (M*/L) ratio and cumulative stellar masses, derived on a galaxy-by-galaxy basis, for 12 massive (M500 ~ 10^14 - 10^15 Msun), nearby clusters with available optical imaging data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10 and X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our method involves a statistical cluster membership using both photometric and spectroscopic redshifts when available to maximize completeness whilst minimizing contamination effects. We show that different methods of estimating the stellar mass-to-light ratio from observed photometry result in systematic discrepancies in the total stellar masses and average mass-to-light ratios of cluster galaxies. Nonetheless, all conversion methodologies point to a lack of correlation between M*/Li and total cluster mass, even though low-mass groups contain relatively more blue galaxies. We also find no statistically significant correlation between M*/Li and the fraction of blu...

  7. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Paris Diderot Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Baltay, C. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06250-8121 (United States); Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (France); and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  8. SMT CO (2-1) Observations of Nearby Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We present CO $J$=2-1 observations towards 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and WISE catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope. Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-$M_{\\rm *}$ galaxies. The scaling-relations between molecular gas, atomic gas and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV$- r$ and WISE color W3$-$W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show that (1). In the galaxies with stellar mass $M_{\\rm *}$ $\\leqslant 10^{10}$ $M_{\\odot}$, HI fraction ($f_{\\rm HI}$ $\\equiv$ $M_{\\rm HI}$/$M_{\\rm *}$) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while H$_2$ gas fraction ($f_{\\rm H_2}$ $\\equiv$ $M_{\\rm H_2}$/$M_{\\rm *}$) remain nearly unchanged. (2). Comparing with $f_{\\rm H_2}$, $f_{\\rm HI}$ correlates better with both $M_{\\rm *}$ and NUV$- r$. (3). A new parameter, WISE color W3$-$W2 (12\\,$\\mu$m$-$4.6\\,$\\mu$m) is introduced, which is similar to NUV$- r$ in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3$-$W2 has a tighter anti-corr...

  9. A Chandra Archival Survey of the X-ray Source Populations of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgard, Roy E.; Wright, Simon; Fonseca, Gloria; Santini, Anthony; Fritze, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    We present results of a volume-limited Chandra archival survey of the X-ray point sources populations of nearby galaxies. We define our sample to include all observations of at least 5 ks of any galaxy within 15 Mpc. The complete sample is in excess of 15000 individual point sources, approximately half of which are contained with the D25 ellipses of galaxies. We present spectral and temporal analyses of this sample, from which we can cleanly define the parameter spaces in color, variability, and luminosity occupied by different classes of sources (e.g., LMXBs vs. HMXBs). For all sources, we perform detailed spatial modeling, spectral fitting, multiband X-ray photometry, and multimodal timing analyses. We further discuss source classes as a function of host galaxy morphology, star formation rate, stellar mass distribution, optical extent, interaction history, and metallicity. Finally, we discuss incompleteness in the sample, and what observations can be conducted in the following years to fill the gap.

  10. Ultra deep sub-kpc view of nearby massive compact galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Ferre-Mateu, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Using Gemini North telescope ultra deep and high resolution (sub-kpc) K-band adaptive optics imaging of a sample of 4 nearby (z~0.15) massive (~10^{11}M_{sun}) compact (R<1.5 kpc) galaxies, we have explored the structural properties of these rare objects with an unprecedented detail. Our surface brightness profiles expand over 12 magnitudes in range, allowing us to explore the presence of any faint extended envelope on these objects down to stellar mass densities ~10^{6} M_{sun}/kpc^{2} at radial distances of ~15 kpc. We find no evidence for any extended faint tail altering the compactness of these galaxies. Our objects are elongated, resembling visually S0 galaxies and have a central stellar mass density well above the stellar mass densities of objects with similar stellar mass but normal size in the present universe. If these massive compact objects will eventually transform into normal size galaxies, the processes driving this size growth will have to migrate around 2-3x10^{10}M_{sun} stellar mass from ...

  11. X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of AGNs in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Reines, Amy E.; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E.

    2017-02-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observations of eight optically selected broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates in nearby dwarf galaxies (z formation. All 11 galaxies are detected in X-rays. Nuclear X-ray luminosities range from L 0.5–7keV ≈ 5 × 1039 to 1 × 1042 ergs‑1. In all cases except for the star-forming galaxy, the nuclear X-ray luminosities are significantly higher than would be expected from X-ray binaries, providing strong confirmation that AGNs and composite dwarf galaxies do indeed host actively accreting black holes (BHs). Using our estimated BH masses (which range from ∼7 × 104 to 1 × 106 M ⊙), we find inferred Eddington fractions ranging from ∼0.1% to 50%, i.e., comparable to massive broad-line quasars at higher redshift. We use the HST imaging to determine the ratio of UV to X-ray emission for these AGNs, finding that they appear to be less X-ray luminous with respect to their UV emission than more massive quasars (i.e., α OX values an average of 0.36 lower than expected based on the relation between α OX and 2500 Å luminosity). Finally, we discuss our results in the context of different accretion models onto nuclear BHs.

  12. The star cluster - field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies. II. Field star and cluster formation histories and their relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Villa, E.; Larsen, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    Context. Recent studies have started to cast doubt on the assumption that most stars are formed in clusters. Observational studies of field stars and star cluster systems in nearby galaxies can lead to better constraints on the fraction of stars forming in clusters. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of star formation in galaxies, and galaxy evolution in general. Aims: We aim to constrain the amount of star formation happening in long-lived clusters for four galaxies through the homogeneous, simultaneous study of field stars and star clusters. Methods: Using HST/ACS and HST/WFPC2 images of the galaxies NGC 45, NGC 1313, NGC 5236, and NGC 7793, we estimate star formation histories by means of the synthetic CMD method. Masses and ages of star clusters are estimated using simple stellar population model fitting. Comparing observed and modeled luminosity functions, we estimate cluster formation rates. By randomly sampling the stellar initial mass function (SIMF), we construct artificial star clusters and quantify how stochastic effects influence cluster detection, integrated colors, and age estimates. Results: Star formation rates appear to be constant over the past 107 - 108 years within the fields covered by our observations. The number of clusters identified per galaxy varies, with a few detected massive clusters (M ≥ 105 M⊙) and a few older than 1 Gyr. Among our sample of galaxies, NGC 5236 and NGC 1313 show high star and cluster formation rates, while NGC 7793 and NGC 45 show lower values. We find that stochastic sampling of the SIMF has a strong impact on the estimation of ages, colors, and completeness for clusters with masses ≤ 103 - 104 M⊙, while the effect is less pronounced for high masses. Stochasticity also makes size measurements highly uncertain at young ages (τ ≲ 108 yr), making it difficult to distinguish between clusters and stars based on sizes. Conclusions: The ratio of star formation happening in clusters (Γ) compared to

  13. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AGN in nearby low-mass galaxies (Sartori+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, L. F.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Koss, M.; Shirazi, M.; Oh, K.

    2016-07-01

    We assembled a sample of nearby dwarf galaxies in the SDSS DR7 (Abazajian et al., 2009ApJS..182..543A) starting from the OSSY catalogue (Oh-Sarzi-Schawinski-Yi; Oh et al., 2011ApJS..195...13O). The OSSY catalogue provides line measurements for the entire spectral atlas from SDSS DR7 with redshift zsearched for AGN in the nearby dwarf galaxy sample by applying three AGN selection techniques: 1. classical BPT selection (optical emission line diagnostic) based on the separation lines defined by Kewley et al. (2001ApJ...556..121K), Kauffmann et al. (2003MNRAS.346.1055K) and Schawinski et al. (2007MNRAS.382.1415S); 2. the emission line diagnostic based on HeII λ4686 described by Shirazi & Brinchmann (2012MNRAS.421.1043S) (in the following Shirazi HeII diagram); and 3. the mid-IR colour criteria described by Stern et al. (2012ApJ...753...30S) and Jarrett et al. (2011ApJ...735..112J). (7 data files).

  15. A Survey of the Molecular ISM Properties of Nearby Galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    CERN Document Server

    Kamenetzky, J; Glenn, J; Maloney, P R; Conley, A

    2014-01-01

    The 12CO J=4-3 to J=13-12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by 12CO J=1-0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full 12CO spectral line energy distributions from J=1-0 to J=13-12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [CI], [CII], [NII] and H2 lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component which dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and 12CO luminosity are 60 +/- 30, 0.11 +/- 0.02, and 15.6 +/- 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are < 120 throughout the sample. The 12CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 $\\times 10^{-4}$ LFIR on average....

  16. Analysis of the spatial distribution of stars, gas and dust in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    I summarize the main result of my thesis, which was awarded the Spanish Astronomical Society Award for the best thesis in Astronomy defended in 2010. This thesis was supervised by Armando Gil de Paz and Jaime Zamorano at Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In this work we quantified how the physical properties of stars, gas and dust vary with radius in nearby galactic disks, and used that information to infer the past assembly and evolution of galaxies. To do so we made use of spatially-resolved multi-wavelength images of nearby galaxies, all the way from the far-UV to the far-IR and radio. By comparing extinction- corrected profiles in the UV, optical and IR with models of disk evolution, we concluded that the current stellar population gradients are consistent with an inside-out growth of disks of ˜ 25% since z ˜ 1. We also found that the dust-to-gas ratio decreases with radius, and is tightly correlated with the local gas metallicity, which is again consistent with an inside-out assembly of disks. We measured the fraction of the dust mass which is in the form of PAHs at different radii. The resulting trend agrees with certain models of dust evolution, in which the abundance of PAHs is primarily determined by a delayed injection of carbon into the ISM by AGB stars.

  17. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey I. Star Forming Molecular Gas in Virgo Cluster Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Bendo, G; Brinks, E; Clements, D; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Mortier, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sinukoff, E; Spekkens, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Van der Werf, P P; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2008-01-01

    We present large-area maps of the CO J=3-2 emission obtained at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope for four spiral galaxies in the Virgo Cluster. We combine these data with published CO J=1-0, 24 micron, and Halpha images to measure the CO line ratios, molecular gas masses, and instantaneous gas depletion times. For three galaxies in our sample (NGC 4254, NGC4321, and NGC 4569), we obtain molecular gas masses of 7E8-3E9 Msun and disk-averaged instantaneous gas depletion times of 1.1-1.7 Gyr. We argue that the CO J=3-2 line is a better tracer of the dense star forming molecular gas than the CO J=1-0 line, as it shows a better correlation with the star formation rate surface density both within and between galaxies. NGC 4254 appears to have a larger star formation efficiency(smaller gas depletion time), perhaps because it is on its first passage through the Virgo Cluster. NGC 4569 shows a large-scale gradient in the gas properties traced by the CO J=3-2/J=1-0 line ratio, which suggests that its interaction with ...

  18. The abundance and spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    van der Burg, Remco F J; Hoekstra, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations have highlighted a significant population of faint but large (r_eff>1.5 kpc) galaxies in the Coma cluster. The origin of these Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) remains puzzling, as the interpretation of these observational results has been hindered by the subjective selection of UDGs, and the limited study of only the Coma (and some examples in the Virgo-) cluster. In this paper we extend the study of UDGs using eight clusters in the redshift range 0.044galaxies. We find that the abundance of the UDGs we can detect increases with cluster mass, reaching ~200 in typical haloes of M200~10^15 Msun. The cluster UDGs have colours consistent with the cluster red sequence, and have a steep size distribution that declines as n ~ r_eff^-3.4. Their radial distribution is significantly st...

  19. Mass profiles and galaxy orbits in nearby galaxy clusters from the analysis of the projected phase-space

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, Radoslaw

    2010-01-01

    We analyze kinematic data of 41 nearby (z<0.1) relaxed galaxy clusters in terms of the projected phase-space density using a phenomenological, fully anisotropic model of the distribution function. We apply the Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach to place constraints on total mass distribution approximated by the universal NFW profile and the profile of the anisotropy of galaxy orbits. We find the normalization of the mean mass-concentration relation is c=6.9_{-0.7}^{+0.6} at the virial mass M_v=5x10^{14}M_sun. Assuming a one-to-one correspondence between sigma_8 and the normalization of the mass-concentration relation in the framework of the concordance model we estimate the normalization of the linear power spectrum to be sigma_8=0.91_{-0.08}^{+0.07}. Our constraints on the parameters of the mass profile are compared with estimates from other methods. We show that galaxy orbits are isotropic at the cluster centres (with the mean ratio of the radial-to-tangential velocity dispersions sigma_r/sigma_theta=0.97...

  20. Spatially-resolved SFR in nearby disk galaxies using IFS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pascual, S.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.

    2017-03-01

    Exploring the spatial distribution of the star formation rate (SFR) in nearby galaxies is essential to understand their evolution through cosmic time. With this aim in mind, we use a representative sample that contains a variety of morphological types, the CALIFA Integral Field Spectroscopy (IFS) sample. Previous to this work, we have verified that our extinction-corrected Hα measurements successfully reproduce the values derived from other SFR tracers such as Hα obs + IR or UV obs + IR (Catalán-Torrecilla et al. 2015). Now, we go one step further applying 2-dimensional photometric decompositions (Méndez-Abreu et al. (2008), Méndez-Abreu et al. (2014)) over these datacubes. This method allows us to obtain the amount of SFR in the central part (bulge or nuclear source), the bar and the disk, separately. First, we determine the light coming from each component as the ratio between the luminosity in every component (bulge, bar or disk) and the total luminosity of the galaxy. Then, for each galaxy we multiply the IFS datacubes by these previous factors to recover the luminosity in each component. Finally, we derive the spectrum associated to each galaxy component integrating the spatial information in the weighted datacube using an elliptical aperture covering the whole galaxy. 2D photometric decomposition applied over 3D datacubes will give us a more detailed understanding of the role that disks play in more massive galaxies. Knowing if the disks in more massive SF galaxies have on average a lower or higher level of star formation activity and how these results are affected by the presence of nuclear bars are still open questions that we can now solve. We describe the behavior of these components in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram. In particular, we highlight the role of the disks and their contribution to both the integrated SFR for the whole galaxy and the SFR in the disk at different stellar masses in the SFR vs. stellar mass diagram together with their

  1. KINGFISH -- Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel: Survey Description and Image Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, R C; Aniano, G; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Beirao, P; Bolatto, A D; Brandl, B; Crocker, A; Croxall, K; Dale, D A; Meyer, J Dononvan; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Galametz, M; Gordon, K D; Groves, B; Hao, C -N; Helou, G; Hinz, J; Hunt, L K; Johnson, B; Koda, J; Krause, O; Leroy, A K; Li, Y; Meidt, S; Montiel, E; Murphy, E J; Rahman, N; Rix, H -W; Roussel, H; Sandstrom, K; Sauvage, M; Schinnerer, E; Skibba, R; Smith, J -D T; Srinivasan, S; Vigroux, L; Walter, F; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M; Zibetti, S

    2011-01-01

    The KINGFISH project (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) is an imaging and spectroscopic survey of 61 nearby (d < 30 Mpc) galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of galaxy properties and local interstellar medium (ISM) environments found in the nearby Universe. Its broad goals are to characterize the ISM of present-day galaxies, the heating and cooling of their gaseous and dust components, and to better understand the physical processes linking star formation and the ISM. KINGFISH is a direct descendant of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), which produced complete Spitzer imaging and spectroscopic mapping and a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength ancillary observations for the sample. The Herschel imaging consists of complete maps for the galaxies at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 microns. The spectal line imaging of the principal atomic ISM cooling lines ([OI]63um, [OIII]88um, [NII]122,205um, and [CII]158um) covers the subregions in the centers and di...

  2. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: Target Selection of Nearby Stars and Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Howard; Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Lebofsky, Matt; Price, Danny C.; MacMahon, David; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Hickish, Jack; Werthimer, Dan; Sheikh, Sofia; Hellbourg, Greg; Enriquez, J. Emilio

    2017-05-01

    We present the target selection for the Breakthrough Listen search for extraterrestrial intelligence during the first year of observations at the Green Bank Telescope, Parkes Telescope, and Automated Planet Finder. On the way to observing 1,000,000 nearby stars in search of technological signals, we present three main sets of objects we plan to observe in addition to a smaller sample of exotica. We chose the 60 nearest stars, all within 5.1 pc from the Sun. Such nearby stars offer the potential to observe faint radio signals from transmitters that have a power similar to those on Earth. We add a list of 1649 stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog that span the Hertzprung-Russell diagram, including all spectral types along the main sequence, subgiants, and giant stars. This sample offers diversity and inclusion of all stellar types, but with thoughtful limits and due attention to main sequence stars. Our targets also include 123 nearby galaxies composed of a “morphological-type-complete” sample of the nearest spirals, ellipticals, dwarf spherioidals, and irregulars. While their great distances hamper the detection of technological electromagnetic radiation, galaxies offer the opportunity to observe billions of stars simultaneously and to sample the bright end of the technological luminosity function. We will also use the Green Bank and Parkes telescopes to survey the plane and central bulge of the Milky Way. Finally, the complete target list includes several classes of exotica, including white dwarfs, brown dwarfs, black holes, neutron stars, and asteroids in our solar system.

  3. A Search for Stellar Dust Production in Leo P, a Nearby Analog of High Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha; McDonald, Iain; McQuinn, Kristen; Skillman, Evan; Sonneborn, George; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The origin of dust in the early Universe is a matter of debate. One of the main potential dust contributors are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and several studies have been devoted to investigating whether and how AGB dust production changes in metal-poor environments. Of particular interest are the most massive AGB stars (8-10 Msun), which can in principle enter the dust-producing phase systems reachable in the infrared and to the short lifetimes of these stars. The recently discovered galaxy Leo P provides an irresistible opportunity to search for these massive AGB stars: Leo P is a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy, it is nearby enough for resolved star photometry with Spitzer, and its interstellar medium is 0.4 dex more metal-poor than any other accessible star-forming galaxy. Models predict ~3 massive AGB stars may be present in Leo P, and optical HST observations reveal 7 candidates. We propose to use Spitzer to determine whether these stars are dusty, providing valuable constraints to the dust contribution from AGB stars up to at least redshift 3.2, or 11.7 Gyr ago, when massive spheroidals and Galactic globular clusters were still forming. This is a gain of 2.8 Gyr compared to other accessible galaxies. We also request 1 orbit of joint HST time to confirm whether the AGB candidates in Leo P are indeed massive AGB stars belonging to the galaxy. These observations will provide information crucial for potential JWST followup spectroscopy.

  4. A DEEPER LOOK AT FAINT Hα EMISSION IN NEARBY DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Janice C.; Hilbert, Bryan [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); McDonald, Michael, E-mail: jlee@stsci.edu [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    We present deep Hα imaging of three nearby dwarf galaxies, carefully selected to optimize observations with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan 6.5 m telescope. An effective bandpass of ∼13 Å is used, and the images reach 3σ flux limits of ∼8 × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, which is about an order of magnitude lower than standard narrowband observations obtained by the most recent generation of local Hα galaxy surveys. The observations were originally motivated by the finding that the Hα/FUV flux ratio of galaxies systematically declines as global galactic properties such as the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass decrease. The three dwarf galaxies selected for study have SFRs that, when calculated from their Hα luminosities using standard conversion recipes, are ∼50% of those based on the FUV. Follow-up studies of many of the potential causes for the trends in the Hα/FUV flux ratio have been performed, but the possibility that previous observations have missed a non-negligible fraction of faint ionized emission in dwarf galaxies has not been investigated. The MMTF observations reveal both diffuse and structured Hα emission (filaments, shells, possible single-star H ii regions) spanning extents up to 2.5 times larger relative to previous observations. However, only up to an additional ∼5% of Hα flux is captured, which does not account for the trends in the Hα/FUV ratio. Beyond investigation of the Hα/FUV ratio, the impact of the newly detected extended flux on our understanding of star formation, the properties of H ii regions, and the propagation of ionizing photons warrant further investigation.

  5. Gemini NIFS survey of feeding and feedback processes in nearby active galaxies - I. Stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogemar A.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Dahmer-Hahn, Luis G.; Diniz, Marlon R.; Schönell, Astor J.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2017-09-01

    We use the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the stellar kinematics of the inner few hundred parsecs of a sample of 16 nearby Seyfert galaxies, at a spatial resolution of tens of parsecs and spectral resolution of 40 km s- 1. We find that the line-of-sight (LOS) velocity fields for most galaxies are well reproduced by rotating disc models. The kinematic position angle (PA) derived for the LOS velocity field is consistent with the large-scale photometric PA. The residual velocities are correlated with the hard X-ray luminosity, suggesting that more luminous active galactic nuclei have a larger impact in the surrounding stellar dynamics. The central velocity dispersion values are usually higher than the rotation velocity amplitude, what we attribute to the strong contribution of bulge kinematics in these inner regions. For 50 per cent of the galaxies, we find an inverse correlation between the velocities and the h3 Gauss-Hermitte moment, implying red wings in the blueshifted side and blue wings in the redshifted side of the velocity field, attributed to the movement of the bulge stars lagging the rotation. Two of the 16 galaxies (NGC 5899 and Mrk 1066) show an S-shape zero velocity line, attributed to the gravitational potential of a nuclear bar. Velocity dispersion (σ) maps show rings of low-σ values (˜50-80 km s- 1) for four objects and `patches' of low σ for six galaxies at 150-250 pc from the nucleus, attributed to young/ intermediate age stellar populations.

  6. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J. [Also at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. (United States); Rangwala, N. [Visiting Scientist, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center. (United States); Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A., E-mail: jkamenetzky@as.arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado at Boulder, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  7. A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of seven nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, I.; D'Avanzo, P.; Campana, S.; Branchesi, M.; Bernardini, M. G.; Della Valle, M.; Mannucci, F.; Melandri, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Focused on the study of transient sources, time domain astronomy today is one of the most active and growing areas of research in astronomy. Most of the present and planned surveys aimed at carrying out time domain studies work in the optical band and founded their searching strategies on fixed cadences. Although nothing similar currently exists in the X-ray and ultraviolet (UV) bands, the Swift satellite is certainly the most appropriate available instrument to carry out such surveys. Aims: We aimed to detect a supernova (SN) shock breakout (SBO) in nearby galaxies. The SBO marks the first escape of radiation from the blast wave that breaks through the photosphere of the star and launches the SN ejecta. The detection of an SBO is a diagnostic for the radius of the progenitor star and the ratio of explosion energy to ejecta mass. It also allows us to determine the onset of the explosion with an accuracy of a few hours to a few seconds. Methods: Using the XRT and UVOT instruments onboard the Swift satellite, we carried out a weekly cadenced, six-month monitoring of seven nearby galaxies: NGC 1084, NGC 2207/IC 2163, NGC 2770, NGC 4303/M 61, NGC 3147, NGC 3690, and NGC 6754. We searched for variable or transient sources in the collected data. These galaxies were selected because they are close (distance ≤50 Mpc), small enough to fit in the Swift/UVOT field of view, and are hosts of at least three SNe in the past 20 yr. Results: We found no evidence for an SN SBO event. Five objects located within the light of the sample galaxies were found to be variable in the X-ray and/or in the UV. These include mainly background active galactic nucleus and unresolved ULX in NGC 3690. In addition to these objects, we found two variable Galactic sources: the known nova CP Draconis (which experienced an outburst during our monitoring) and an uncatalogued eclipsing binary. Conclusions: Despite the lack of SBO detections, the results of our explorative study encourage the

  8. The flaring HI disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Ibata, R

    2015-01-01

    New deep VLA D array HI observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model HI data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80 degrees; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution of the gas disk; (iii) a slight warp in inclination; (iv) an exponential flare; and (v) a low surface-density gas ring. The slope of NGC 2683's flare is comparable, but somewhat steeper than those of other spiral galaxies. NGC 2683's maximum height of the flare is also comparable to those of other galaxies. On the other hand, a saturation of the flare is only observed in NGC 2683. Based on the comparison between the high resolution model and observations, we exclude the existence of an extended atomic gas halo around the ...

  9. Old and Young X-ray Point Source Populations in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colbert, E; Ptak, A; Strickland, D K

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed 1441 Chandra X-ray point sources in 32 nearby galaxies. The total point-source X-ray luminosity L_XP is well correlated with B, K, and FIR+UV luminosities of spiral host galaxies, and with the B and K luminosities for ellipticals. This suggests an intimate connection between L_XP and both the old and young stellar populations, for which K and FIR+UV luminosities are proxies for the galaxy mass M and star-formation rate SFR. We derive proportionality constants 1.3E29 erg/s/Msol and 0.7E39 erg/s/(Msol/yr), which can be used to estimate the old and young components from M and SFR, respectively. The cumulative X-ray luminosity functions for the point sources have quite different slopes for the spirals (gamma ~= 0.5-0.8) and ellipticals (gamma ~= 1.4), implying *the most luminous point sources dominate L_XP* for the spirals. Most of the point sources have X-ray colors that are consistent with either LMXBs or Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs a.k.a. IXOs) and we rule out classical HMXBs (e.g. neutron-st...

  10. Determining the Co-Rotation Radius of Nearby Spiral Galaxies Using Spiral Arm Overlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Pour Imani, Hamed; Shields, Douglas W.; Eufrasio, Rafael; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Monson, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Density wave theory, originally proposed by C.C. Lin and Frank Shu (Lin & Shu 1964), views the spiral arm structures in spiral galaxies as density waves that propagates through the galactic disk. Resonances within orbits create standing wave patterns of density waves that we observe as spiral arms. The theory predicts the existence of a radius known as the co-rotation radius in which the spiral arm pattern speed matches the velocities of the stars within the disk. We introduce a novel way of determining the co-rotation radius, based on an image overlaying technique, which involves tracing the arms of spiral galaxies on images observed from different wavelengths. For the purpose of this study, 12 nearby galaxies were analyzed from four different wavelengths using pitch angle measurements from a previous study (Hamed et al. 2016). We used optical wavelength images (B-Band,440 nm), two infrared wavelength (Infrared; 3.6 µm and 8 µm) Spitzer Space Telescope images and ultraviolet images from GALEX. The results were verified by checking against results compiled from the literature.

  11. Nearby Galaxies in the 2micron All Sky Survey I. K-band Luminosity Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Devereux, Nick; Ashby, M L N; Willmer, C N A; Hriljac, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Differential K-band luminosity functions (LFs) are presented for a complete sample of 1613 nearby bright galaxies segregated by visible morphology. The LF for late-type spirals follows a power law that rises towards low luminosities whereas the LFs for ellipticals, lenticulars and bulge-dominated spirals are peaked and decline toward both higher and lower luminosities. Each morphological type (E, S0, S0/a-Sab, Sb-Sbc, Sc-Scd) contributes approximately equally to the overall K-band luminosity density of galaxies in the local universe. Type averaged bulge/disk ratios are used to subtract the disk component leading to the prediction that the K-band LF for bulges is bimodal with ellipticals dominating the high luminosity peak, comprising 60% of the bulge luminosity density in the local universe with the remaining 40% contributed by lenticulars and the bulges of spirals. Overall, bulges contribute 30% of the galaxy luminosity density at K in the local universe with spiral disks making up the remainder. If bulge lu...

  12. 2XMM Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidates in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Walton, D J; Mateos, S; Heard, V

    2011-01-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) are some of the most enigmatic X-ray bright sources known to date. It is generally accepted that they cannot host black holes as large as those associated with active galaxies, but they appear to be significantly more luminous than their better understood Galactic X-ray binary (XRB) cousins, while displaying an intriguing combination of differences and similarities with them. Through studying large, representative samples of these sources we may hope to enhance our understanding of them. To this end, we derive a large catalogue of 650 X-ray detections of 470 ULX candidates, located in 238 nearby galaxies, by cross correlating the 2XMM Serendipitous Survey with the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The presented dedicated catalogue offers a significant improvement over those previously published both in terms of number and the contribution of background contaminants, e.g. distant quasars, which we estimate to be at most 24 per cent, but more likely ~17 per cent. T...

  13. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly Inclined Disc Galaxies - II: Correlation Analysis of Galactic Coronal Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2013-01-01

    X-ray observations provide a key tool for exploring the properties of galactic coronae and their formation processes. In an earlier paper, we have presented a Chandra data analysis of the coronae of 53 nearby highly-inclined disc galaxies. Here we study the correlation of the X-ray measurements with other galaxy properties and compare the results with those obtained for elliptical galaxies. A good correlation is present between the coronal luminosity Lx and the SFR. But we find a better correlation between Lx and the total SN mechanical energy input rate (ESN), including the expected contribution from core collapsed (CC) and Ia SNe. The X-ray radiation efficiency (eta=Lx/ESN) has a mean value of ~0.4% with an rms of ~0.5dex. eta further correlates with MTF/M* (MTF is the baryon mass measured from the rotation velocity and the Tully-Fisher relation, M* is the stellar mass measured from the K-band luminosity) and the CC SN rate surface density (FSN, in units of SN/yr/kpc^2), which can be characterized as: eta=0...

  14. Ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Jimmy A; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Lin, Dacheng; Speegle, Tyler; Prado, Ian; Mildebrath, David; Strader, Jay; Liu, Jifeng; Miller, Jon M

    2016-01-01

    An X-ray flaring source was found near the galaxy NGC 4697. Two flares were seen, separated by four years. The flux increased by a factor of 90 on a timescale of about one minute. Both flares were very brief. There is no optical counterpart at the position of the flares, but if the source was at the distance of NGC 4697, the luminosities were 10^39 erg/s. Here we report the results of a search of archival X-ray data for 70 nearby galaxies looking for similar such flares. We found two flaring sources in globular clusters or ultra-compact dwarf companions of parent elliptical galaxies. One source flared once to a peak luminosity of 9 x 10^40 erg/s, while the other flared five times to 10^40 erg/s. All of the flare rise times were <1 minute, and they then decayed over about an hour. When not flaring, the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron star or black hole X-ray binaries, but they are located in old stellar populations, unlike the magnetars, anomalous X-ray pulsars or soft gamma repeaters that hav...

  15. A search for HI absorption in nearby radio galaxies using HIPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, J R; Meekin, A M

    2014-01-01

    Using archival data from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) we have searched for 21 cm-line absorption in 204 nearby radio and star-forming galaxies with continuum flux densities greater than $S_{1.4} \\approx 250$ mJy within the redshift range $0 < cz < 12\\,000$ km s$^{-1}$. By applying a detection method based on Bayesian model comparison, we successfully detect and model absorption against the radio-loud nuclei of four galaxies, of which the Seyfert 2 galaxy 2MASX J130804201-2422581 was previously unknown. All four detections were achieved against compact radio sources, which include three active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a nuclear starburst, exhibiting high dust and molecular gas content. Our results are consistent with the detection rate achieved by the recent ALFALFA HI absorption pilot survey by Darling et al. and we predict that the full ALFALFA survey should yield more than 3-4 times as many detections as we have achieved here. Furthermore, we predict that future all-sky surveys on the SKA p...

  16. Far-UV to mid-IR properties of nearby radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    de Ruiter, Hans R; Fanti, Roberto; Fanti, Carla

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether the far-UV continuum of nearby radio galaxies reveals evidence for the presence of star forming or non-stellar components. If a UV excess due to an extra radiation component exists we compare this with other properties such as radio power, optical spectral type and the strength of the emission lines. We also discuss the possible correlation between the ultra-violet flux, IR properties and central black hole mass. We use two sampes of low luminosity radio galaxies with comparable redshifts ($z < 0.2$). Spectral Energy Distributions are constructed using a number of on-line databases: GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE. The parameter $XUV$ is introduced, which measures the excess slope of the UV continuum between 4500 and 2000 \\AA, with respect to the UV radiation produced by the underlying old galaxy component. We find that the UV excess is usually small or absent in low luminosity sources, but sets in abruptly at the transition radio power above which we find mostly FRII sources. $XUV$ beh...

  17. The \\HI column density power spectrum of six nearby spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Prasun

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to determine the power spectrum of \\HI column density fluctuations using radio-interferometric observations of 21-cm emission from the ISM of galaxies. We have used this to estimate the power spectra of six nearly face on nearby spiral galaxies. Earlier work has shown that these power spectra are well fitted by power laws with slopes around -1.6 across length-scales $\\sim 1 \\, {\\rm kpc}$ to $\\sim 10 \\, {\\rm kpc}$, the amplitude however was undetermined. In the present work we have determined the amplitude of the \\HI column density power spectrum. We find that the \\HI column density $N_{\\rm HI}$ expressed in units of $10^{20} \\, {\\rm cm}^{-2}$ has mean square fluctuations in the range $\\sim 0.03$ to $\\sim 20$. The amplitude of the power spectrum is found to be tightly correlated with the \\HI mass fraction of the galaxies. The physical process responsible for these scale-invariant fluctuations is, however, at present not known.

  18. A time domain experiment with Swift: monitoring of seven nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Andreoni, Igor; Campana, Sergio; Branchesi, Marica; Bernardini, Maria Grazia; Della Valle, Massimo; Mannucci, Filippo; Melandri, Andrea; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to detect a supernova (SN) shock breakout (SBO) with observations in time domain. The SBO marks the first escape of radiation from the blast wave that breaks through the photosphere of the star and launches the SN ejecta, and peaks in the ultraviolet and soft X-ray bands. The detection of a SBO allows determining the onset of the explosion with an accuracy from a few hours to a few seconds. Using the XRT and UVOT instruments onboard the Swift satellite we carried out a weekly cadenced, six months lasting monitoring of seven nearby (distance <50 Mpc) galaxies, namely NGC1084, NGC2207/IC2163, NGC2770, NGC4303/M61, NGC3147, NGC3690, NGC6754. We searched for variable/transient sources in the collected data. We found no evidence for a SN SBO event, but we discovered five objects located within the light of the sample galaxies that are variable in the X-ray and/or in the UV. Our sample galaxies are within the Universe volume that will be reached by the forthcoming advanced gravitational waves (GW) detec...

  19. Kinematics of Interstellar Gas in Nearby UV-selected Galaxies Measured with HST STIS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C. M.; Martin, C. L.; Chandar, R.; Leitherer, C.; Heckman, T. M.; Oey, M. S.

    2006-08-01

    We measure Doppler shifts of interstellar absorption lines in HST STIS spectra of individual star clusters in nearby UV-selected galaxies. Values for systemic velocities, which are needed to quantify outflow speeds, are taken from the literature and verified with stellar lines. We detect outflowing gas in 8 of 17 galaxies via low-ionization lines (e.g., C II, Si II, Al II), which trace cold and/or warm gas. The starbursts in our sample are intermediate in luminosity (and mass) to dwarf galaxies and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and we confirm that their outflow speeds (ranging from -100 to nearly -520 km s-1, with an accuracy of ~80 km s-1) are intermediate to those previously measured in dwarf starbursts and LIRGs. We do not detect the outflow in high-ionization lines (such as C IV or Si IV); higher quality data will be needed to empirically establish how velocities vary with the ionization state of the outflow. We do verify that the low-ionization UV lines and optical Na I doublet give roughly consistent outflow velocities, solidifying an important link between studies of galactic winds at low and high redshift. To obtain a higher signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), we create a local average composite spectrum and compare it to the high-z Lyman break composite spectrum. It is surprising that the low-ionization lines show similar outflow velocities in the two samples. We attribute this to a combination of weighting toward higher luminosities in the local composite, as well as both samples being, on average, brighter than the ``turnover'' luminosity in the v-SFR relation. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-9036.

  20. Calculation of Velocity Dispersion of the Nearby Galaxies Using Different Stellar Template Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalovic, A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the central velocity dispersion measurements of the nearby galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS. Using the sample from the paper by Ho et al. 2009, we have selected 23 galaxies for which we calculate the velocity dispersion. We have used the Penalized Pixel-Fitting code(Cappellari and Emsellem2004 to measure the velocity dispersion throughout the four chosen spectral regions: (3800,4568{AA}, (4568,5336{AA}, (5336,6104and (6104,6872{AA}. In all these regions, we have separately calculated dispersions and corresponding errors. We found that the measured values may vary with the change of spectral region, but, if weighted properly with the measure of the goodness of the fit, the final results will be shifted coloser to those for the best fitting regions. We have also tested how the use of different spectral libraries (Miles, Valdes and Elodie databases influences measurements and we showed that they do not affect measurements much. However, Elodie stellar library introduces the smallest errors in the velocity dispersion and it is the most stable throughout all four spectral regions. For these reasons it should be used preferentially when dealing with the SDSS spectra. We compare the results with the above mentioned paper and find a reasonable agreement. The agreement with the dispersions available in the HyperLeda database is very poor. The best agreement is obtained with SDSS measurements. We believe that our measurements are useful since SDSS velocity dispersions measurements are not available for many galaxies and the method of calculation of the velocity dispersion outlined in this work enables calculation of velocity dispersion for any galaxy. Of course, spectra with signal-to-noise ratio below 20 should be taken with caution.

  1. Discrete X-Ray Source Populations and Star-Formation History in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezas, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This program aims in understanding the connection between the discrete X-ray source populations observed in nearby galaxies and the history of star-formation in these galaxies. The ultimate goal is to use this knowledge in order to constrain X-ray binary evolution channels. For this reason although the program is primarily observational it has a significant modeling component. During the first year of this study we focused on the definition of a pilot sample of galaxies with well know star-formation histories. A small part of this sample has already been observed and we performed initial analysis of the data. However, the majority of the objects in our sample either have not been observed at all, or the detection limit of the existing observations is not low enough to probe the bulk of their young X-ray binary populations. For this reason we successfully proposed for additional Chandra observations of three targets in Cycle-5. These observations are currently being performed. The analysis of the (limited) archival data for this sample indicated that the X-ray luminosity functions (XLF) of the discrete sources in these galaxies may not have the same shape as is widely suggested. However, any solid conclusions are hampered by the small number of detected sources. For this reason during the second year of this study, we will try to extend the sample in order to include more objects in each evolutionary stage. In addition we are completing the analysis of the Chandra monitoring observations of the Antennae galaxies. The results from this work, apart from important clues on the nature of the most luminous sources (Ultra-luminous X-ray sources; ULXs) provide evidence that source spectral and/or temporal variability does not significantly affect the shape of their X-ray luminosity functions. This is particularly important for comparisons between the XLFs of different galaxies and comparisons with predictions from theoretical models. Results from this work have been

  2. Galaxy Secular Mass Flow Rate Determination Using the Potential-Density Phase Shift Approach: Application to Six Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Using the potential-density phase shift approach developed by the present authors in earlier publications, we estimate the magnitude of radial mass accretion/excretion rates across the disks of six nearby spiral galaxies having a range of Hubble types. Our goal is to examine these rates in the context of bulge building and secular morphological evolution along the Hubble sequence. Stellar surface density maps of the sample galaxies are derived from SINGS 3.6um and SDSS i-band images. Corresponding molecular and atomic gas surface densities are derived from published CO(1-0) and HI interferometric observations of the BIMA SONG, THINGS, and VIVA surveys. The mass flow rate calculations utilize a volume-type torque integral to calculate the angular momentum exchange rate between the basic state disk matter and density wave modes. The potential-density phase shift approach yields angular momentum transport rates several times higher than those estimated using the Lynden-Bell and Kalnajs (1972) approach. The curre...

  3. New insights into the X-ray properties of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, L P; Colbert, E J M; Levan, A J; Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Zezas, A

    2008-01-01

    We present some preliminary results from new Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672. It shows dramatic nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation activity, including starburst regions located near each end of its strong bar, both of which host ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). With the new high-spatial-resolution Chandra imaging, we show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a faint ($L(X)~10^39 erg/s), hard central X-ray source surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear starburst ring that dominates the X-ray emission in the region. The central source may represent low-level AGN activity, or alternatively the emission from X-ray binaries associated with star-formation in the nucleus.

  4. 511 keV Line Emission from Nearby Spherical Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lawson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then we should expect a similar spectral feature associated with nearby dwarf galaxies which are dark matter dominated. It has recently been argued [1] that the absence of such a signal excludes a dark matter explanation as the major source for the galactic 511 keV line. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued, however, that this type of interaction is not subject to the strong dark matter annihilation constraints presented in [1].

  5. Optical Polarimetry of the Jets of Nearby Radio Galaxies: I. The Data

    CERN Document Server

    Perlman, E S; Georganopoulos, M; Sparks, W B; Biretta, J A; O'Dea, C P; Baum, S A; Birkinshaw, M; Worrall, D M; Dulwich, F; Jester, S; Martel, A; Capetti, A; Leahy, J P; Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.; Dea, Christopher P. O'; Baum, Stefi A.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Dulwich, Fred; Jester, Sebastian; Martel, Andre; Capetti, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    We present an overview of new HST imaging polarimetry of six nearby radio galaxies with optical jets. These observations triple the number of extragalactic jets with subarcsecond-resolution optical polarimetry. We discuss the polarization characteristics and optical morphology of each jet. We find evidence of high optical polarization, averaging 20%, but reaching upwards of $\\sim 50%$ in some objects, confirming that the optical emission is synchrotron, and that the components of the magnetic fields perpendicular to the line of sight are well ordered. We find a wide range of polarization morphologies, with each jet having a somewhat different relationship between total intensity and polarized flux and the polarization position angle. We find two trends in all of these jets. First, jet ``edges'' are very often associated with high fractional optical polarizations, as also found in earlier radio observations of these and other radio jets. In these regions, the magnetic field vectors appear to track the jet dire...

  6. ASCA Observations of a Nearby and Massive Galaxy Cluster Abell 3627

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, T; Kaneda, H; Makishima, K; Tashiro, M; Tanaka, Y; Böhringer, H

    1998-01-01

    The results obtained from the ASCA observations of the cluster of galaxies Abell 3627 are presented. This cluster, located behind the Milky way, was recently found to be a nearby, X-ray bright and very rich cluster. Pointed observations onto the central region of the cluster gave a gas temperature of substructure elongated to south-east of the cluster center gave a significantly lower temperature of $\\sim 5$ keV. The 2--10 keV luminosity within a radius of 40' (1.1 Mpc) is estimated to be $3.7 \\times 10^{44} erg/s$. The X-ray data imply a cluster mass of about $4\\times 10^{14}$ $M_\\odot$ within 40'.

  7. Investigating the relation between CO (3-2) and far-infrared luminosities for nearby merging galaxies using ASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiyama, Tomonari; Iono, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Saito, Toshiki; Ando, Misaki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Takuji; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Komugi, Shinya; Muto, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    We present the new single-dish CO (3-2) emission data obtained toward 19 early-stage and 7 late-stage nearby merging galaxies using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Combining with the single-dish and interferometric data of galaxies observed in previous studies, we investigate the relation between the CO (3-2) luminosity (L^' }_CO(3-2)) and the far-infrared luminosity (LFIR) in a sample of 29 early-stage and 31 late-stage merging galaxies, and 28 nearby isolated spiral galaxies. We find that normal isolated spiral galaxies and merging galaxies have different slopes (α) in the log L^' }_CO(3-2)-log LFIR plane (α ˜ 0.79 for spirals and ˜1.12 for mergers). The large slope (α > 1) for merging galaxies can be interpreted as evidence for increasing star formation efficiency (SFE = L_FIR/L^' }_CO(3-2)) as a function of LFIR. Comparing our results with sub-kpc-scale local star formation and global starburst activity in the high-z universe, we find deviations from the linear relationship in the log L^' }_CO(3-2)-log LFIR plane for the late-stage mergers and high-z star-forming galaxies. Finally, we find that the average SFE gradually increases from isolated galaxies to merging galaxies and to high-z submillimeter galaxies/quasi-stellar objects. By comparing our findings with results from numerical simulations, we suggest that: (1) inefficient starbursts triggered by disk-wide dense clumps occur in the early stage of interaction, and (2) efficient starbursts triggered by central concentration of gas occur in the final stage. A systematic high spatial resolution survey of diffuse- and dense-gas tracers is the key to confirming this scenario.

  8. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. I

    CERN Document Server

    Vucetic, M M; Urosevic, D; Dobardzic, A; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 2.5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.

  9. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey: far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, Jacopo; S. Bianchi; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, GJ; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, Maarten; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, JI; De Looze, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 mu m integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 mu m wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and...

  10. Mapping the cold dust temperatures and masses of nearby Kingfish galaxies with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Albrecht, M; Aniano, G; Armus, L; Bertoldi, F; Calzetti, D; Crocker, A F; Croxall, K V; Dale, D A; Meyer, J Donovan; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Hinz, J L; Roussel, H; Skibba, R A; Tabatabaei, F S; Walter, F; Weiss, A; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M G

    2012-01-01

    Taking advantage of the sensitivity and angular resolution of the Herschel Space Observatory at far-infrared and submm wavelengths, we aim to characterize the physical properties of cold dust within nearby galaxies and study the robustness of the parameters we derive using different modified blackbody models. For a pilot subsample of the KINGFISH program, we perform 2 temperature fits of the Spitzer and Herschel photometric data (24 to 500um), with a warm and a cold component, globally and in each resolution element.At global scales, we observe ranges of values for beta_c(0.8 to 2.5) and Tc(19.1 to 25.1K).We compute maps of our parameters with beta fixed or free to test the robustness of the temperature and dust surface density maps we deduce. When the emissivity is fixed, we observe temperature gradients as a function of radius.When the emissivity is fitted as a free parameter, barred galaxies tend to have uniform fitted emissivities.Gathering resolved elements in a Tc-beta_c diagram underlines an anti-corre...

  11. Black Holes and Neutron Stars in Nearby Galaxies: Insights with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulic, Neven; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Wik, Daniel R.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Lehmer, Bret

    2017-08-01

    There are a handful of diagnostics that permit determination of compact object identity in X-ray binaries (XRBs), and most of these are confined to bright Galactic sources for which a large number of photons can be gathered. We report on recent work using sensitive hard X-ray constraints to separate black holes from neutron stars in external galaxies with NuSTAR. Determining the ratio of XRBs that are black holes or neutron stars in different galactic environments reveals critical clues about the formation and evolution of binary systems. We analyze a NuSTAR-selected sample of ≈10 nearby galaxies within 5 Mpc that represent a range of star formation rates (0.1 - 10 M⊙ yr-1) and stellar masses (109-11 M⊙). Using color-color and color-intensity diagnostics we classify sources by their accretion states and compact object types. We analyze the 12-25 keV X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of our sample scaled by specific star formation rate and compare with the 0.5-8 keV analogues. Our diagnostic methods allow us to produce black hole-only and neutron star-only extragalactic XLFs for the first time.

  12. A Low-Mass Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy UGC 06728

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Seals, James; Garcia, Karen; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; Peters, Wesley; Anderson, Matthew D; Jones, Jeremy; Lester, Kathryn; Machuca, Camilo; Parks, J Robert; Pope, Crystal L; Revalski, Mitchell; Roberts, Caroline A; Saylor, Dicy; Sevrinsky, R Andrew; Turner, Clay

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation mapping campaign for UGC 06728, a nearby low-luminosity Seyfert 1 in a late-type galaxy. Nightly monitoring in the spring of 2015 allowed us to determine an H$\\beta$ time delay of $\\tau = 1.4 \\pm 0.8$ days. Combined with the width of the variable H$\\beta$ line profile, we determine a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm BH} = (7.1 \\pm 4.0) \\times 10^5$ M$_{\\odot}$. We also constrain the bulge stellar velocity dispersion from higher-resolution long slit spectroscopy along the galaxy minor axis and find $\\sigma_{\\star} = 51.6 \\pm 4.9$ km s$^{-1}$. The measurements presented here are in good agreement with both the $R_{\\rm BLR} - L$ relationship and the $M_{\\rm BH}-\\sigma_{\\star}$ relationship for AGNs. Combined with a previously published spin measurement, our mass determination for UGC 06728 makes it the lowest-mass black hole that has been fully characterized, and thus an important object to help anchor the low-mass end of black hole evolutionary models.

  13. Spitzer mid-infrared point sources in the fields of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, S J

    2016-01-01

    We present $Spitzer$ IRAC mid-infrared point source catalogs for mosaics covering the fields of the nearby ($\\lesssim$4 Mpc) galaxies NGC 55, NGC 253, NGC 2366, NGC 4214, and NGC 5253. We detect a total of 20159 sources in these five fields. Point spread function photometry was performed on sources detected in both $Spitzer$ IRAC 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m bands at greater than 3$\\sigma$ above background. These data were then supplemented by aperture photometry in the IRAC 5.8 $\\mu$m and 8.0 $\\mu$m bands conducted at the positions of the shorter wavelength sources. For sources with no detected object in the longer wavelengths, we estimated magnitude limits based on the local sky background. The individual galaxy point source breakdown is the following: NGC 55, 8746 sources; NGC 253, 9001 sources; NGC 2366, 505 sources; NGC 4214, 1185 sources; NGC 5253, 722 sources. The completeness limits of the full catalog vary with bandpass and were found to be $m_{3.6}=18.0$, $m_{4.5}=17.5$, $m_{5.8}=17.0$, and $m_{8.0}=16...

  14. Reverberation Measurements of the Inner Radius of the Dust Torus in Nearby Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, M; Kobayashi, Y; Minezaki, T; Enya, K; Tomita, H; Aoki, T; Koshida, S; Peterson, B A

    2006-01-01

    The most intense monitoring observations yet made in the optical (UBV) and near-infrared (JHK) wave bands were carried out for nearby Seyfert1 galaxies of NGC 5548, NGC 4051, NGC 3227, and NGC 7469. Over three years of observations with MAGNUM telescope since early 2001, clear time-delayed response of the K-band flux variations to the V-band flux variations was detected for all of these galaxies. Their H-K color temperature was estimated to be 1500-1800 K from the observed flux variation gradients, which supports a view that the bulk of the K flux should originate in the thermal radiation of hot dust that surrounds the central engine. Cross-correlation analysis was performed to quantify the lag time corresponding to the light-travel distance of the hot dust region from the central engine. The measured lag time is 47-53 days for NGC 5548, 11-18 days for NGC 4051, about 20 days for NGC 3227, and 65-87 days for NGC 7469. We found that the lag time is tightly correlated with the optical luminosity as expected fro...

  15. An Atlas of Hubble Space Telescope Spectra and Images of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M. A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Axon, D.; Scarlata, C.; Atkinson, J.; Batcheldor, D.; Binney, J.; Capetti, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Dressel, L.; Gerssen, J.; Macchetto, D.; Maciejewski, W.; Marconi, A.; Merrifield, M.; Ruiz, M.; Sparks, W.; Stiavelli, M.; Tsvetanov, Z.; van der Marel, R.

    2003-08-01

    We have observed 54 nearby spiral galaxies with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain optical long-slit spectra of nuclear gas disks and STIS optical (~R band) images of the central 5''×5'' of the galaxies. These spectra are being used to determine the velocity field of nuclear disks and hence to detect the presence of central massive black holes. Here we present the spectra for the successful observations. Dust obscuration can be significant at optical wavelengths, and so we also combine the STIS images with archival Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer H-band images to produce color maps to investigate the morphology of gas and dust in the central regions. We find a great variety in the different morphologies, from smooth distributions to well-defined nuclear spirals and dust lanes. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  16. The EFIGI catalogue of 4458 nearby galaxies with morphology II. Statistical properties along the Hubble sequence

    CERN Document Server

    de Lapparent, Valérie; Bertin, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The EFIGI catalogue of 4458 galaxies provides a reference database of the morphological properties of nearby galaxies, with 16 shape attributes describing their various dynamical components, their texture and environment, and with a dense sampling of all Hubble types. This catalogue allows us to derive a quantitative description of the Hubble Sequence in terms of the specific morphological features of the various types. The variations of the EFIGI morphological attributes with type confirm that the Hubble sequence is a decreasing sequence of bulge-to-total ratio and an increasing sequence of disk contribution to the total flux. There is nevertheless a large dispersion of approximately 5 types for a given bulge-to-total ratio, due to the fact that the Hubble sequence is primarily based on the strength and pitch angle of the spiral arms, independently from the bulge-to-total ratio. The grand spiral design is also related to a steep decrease in visible dust from types Sb to Sbc-Sc. In contrast, the scattered and...

  17. Central Mass Profiles of the Nearby Cool-core Galaxy Clusters Hydra A and A478

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, N; Tamura, T; Fujita, Y; Takizawa, M; Matsushita, K; Fukazawa, Y; Futamase, T; Kawaharada, M; Miyazaki, S; Mochizuki, Y; Nakazawa, K; Ohashi, T; Ota, N; Sasaki, T; Sato, K; Tam, S I

    2015-01-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A ($z=0.0538$) and A478 ($z=0.0881$), of which brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is well described either by a single Navarro--Frenk--White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of two uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host halo mass is well constrained by data. We perform a joint analysis of weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs.We find that the central mass profile ($r<300$ kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement wi...

  18. Diverse Stellar Haloes in Nearby Milky Way-Mass Disc Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Bell, Eric F; de Jong, Roelof S; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J; Holwerda, Benne W

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly-inclined Milky Way-mass disc galaxies using HST data from the GHOSTS survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of between $-2$ and $-3.7$ and a diversity of stellar halo masses of $1-6\\times 10^{9}M_{\\odot}$, or $2-14\\%$ of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power law fit is $0.05-0.1$ dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios $c/a$ at $\\sim 25$ kpc between $0.4-0.75$. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the Milky Way and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities...

  19. The Emission by Dust and Stars of Nearby Galaxies in the Herschel KINGFISH Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Skibba, Ramin A; Dale, Daniel; Hinz, Joannah; Zibetti, Stefano; Crocker, Alison; Groves, Brent; Hunt, Leslie; Johnson, Benjamin D; Meidt, Sharon; Murphy, Eric J; Appleton, Philip; Armus, Lee; Bolatto, Alberto; Brandl, Bernhard; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin; Galametz, Maud; Gordon, Karl D; Kennicutt, Robert C; Koda, Jin; Krause, Oliver; Montiel, Edward; Rix, Hans-Walter; Roussel, Helene; Sandstrom, Karin; Sauvage, Marc; Schinnerer, Eva; Smith, J D; Walter, Fabian; Wilson, Christine D; Wolfire, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Using new far-infrared imaging from the Herschel Space Observatory with ancillary data from ultraviolet to submillimeter wavelengths, we estimate the total emission from dust and stars of 62 nearby galaxies in the KINGFISH survey in a way that is as empirical and model-independent as possible. We collect and exploit these data in order to measure from the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) precisely how much stellar radiation is intercepted and re-radiated by dust, and how this quantity varies with galaxy properties. By including SPIRE data, we are more sensitive to emission from cold dust grains than previous analyses at shorter wavelengths, allowing for more accurate estimates of dust temperatures and masses. The dust/stellar flux ratio, which we measure by integrating the SEDs, has a range of nearly three decades. The inclusion of SPIRE data shows that estimates based on data not reaching these far-IR wavelengths are biased low. We find that the dust/stellar flux ratio varies with morphology and total IR...

  20. The Young Stellar Population of the Nearby Late-Type Galaxy NGC 1311

    CERN Document Server

    Eskridge, Paul B; Mager, Violet A; Jansen, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    We have extracted PSF-fitted stellar photometry from near-ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared images, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, of the nearby (D ~ 5.5 Mpc) SBm galaxy NGC 1311. The ultraviolet and optical data reveal a population of hot main sequence stars with ages of 2-10 Myr. We also find populations of blue supergiants with ages between 10 and 40 Myr and red supergiants with ages between 10 and 100 Myr. Our near-infrared data shows evidence of star formation going back ~1 Gyr, in agreement with previous work. Fits to isochrones indicate a metallicity of Z ~ 0.004. The ratio of blue to red supergiants is consistent with this metallicity. This indicates that NGC 1311 follows the well-known luminosity-metallicity relation for late-type dwarf galaxies. About half of the hot main sequence stars and blue supergiants are found in two regions in the inner part of NGC 1311. These two regions are each about 200 pc across, and thus have crossing times roughly equal to the 10 Myr age we find for th...

  1. A Low-mass Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy UGC 06728

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Batiste, Merida; Seals, James; Garcia, Karen; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peters, Wesley; Anderson, Matthew D.; Jones, Jeremy; Lester, Kathryn; Machuca, Camilo; Parks, J. Robert; Pope, Crystal L.; Revalski, Mitchell; Roberts, Caroline A.; Saylor, Dicy; Sevrinsky, R. Andrew; Turner, Clay

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a recent reverberation mapping campaign for UGC 06728, a nearby low-luminosity Seyfert 1 in a late-type galaxy. Nightly monitoring in the spring of 2015 allowed us to determine an Hβ time delay of τ =1.4+/- 0.8 days. Combined with the width of the variable Hβ line profile, we determine a black hole mass of {M}{BH}=(7.1+/- 4.0)× {10}5 {M}⊙ . We also constrain the bulge stellar velocity dispersion from higher-resolution long-slit spectroscopy along the galaxy minor axis and find {σ }\\star =51.6+/- 4.9 km s-1. The measurements presented here are in good agreement with both the {R}{BLR}{--}L relationship and the {M}{BH}{--}{σ }\\star relationship for active galactic nuclei. Combined with a previously published spin measurement, our mass determination for UGC 06728 makes it the lowest-mass black hole that has been fully characterized, and thus an important object to help anchor the low-mass end of black hole evolutionary models.

  2. Modelling CO emission from hydrodynamic simulations of nearby spirals, starbursting mergers, and high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bournaud, F; Weiss, A; Renaud, F; Mastropietro, C; Teyssier, R

    2014-01-01

    We model the intensity of emission lines from the CO molecule, based on hydrodynamic simulations of spirals, mergers, and high-redshift galaxies with very high resolutions (3pc and 10^3 Msun) and detailed models for the phase-space structure of the interstellar gas including shock heating, stellar feedback processes and galactic winds. The simulations are analyzed with a Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) model to compute the local emission in various molecular lines in each resolution element, radiation transfer and opacity effects, and the intensity emerging from galaxies, to generate synthetic spectra for various transitions of the CO molecule. This model reproduces the known properties of CO spectra and CO-to-H2 conversion factors in nearby spirals and starbursting major mergers. The high excitation of CO lines in mergers is dominated by an excess of high-density gas, and the high turbulent velocities and compression that create this dense gas excess result in broad linewidths and low CO intensity-to-H2 mass r...

  3. WINGS: a WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey. I - Optical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fasano, G; Varela, J; D'Onofrio, M; Poggianti, B M; Moles, M; Pignatelli, E; Bettoni, D; Kjaergaard, P; Rizzi, L; Couch, W; Dressler, A

    2005-01-01

    This is the first paper of a series that will present data and scientific results from the WINGS project, a wide-field, multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic survey of galaxies in 77 nearby clusters. The sample was extracted from the ROSAT catalogs of X-Ray emitting clusters with constraints on the redshift (0.0420). The global goal of the WINGS project is the systematic study of the local cosmic variance of the cluster population and of the cluster galaxies as a function of cluster properties and local environment. This data collection will allow to define a local, Zero-Point reference to gauge the cosmic evolution when compared to more distant clusters. The core of the project consists of wide-field optical imaging of the selected clusters in the B and V bands. We have also completed a multi-fiber, medium resolution spectroscopic survey for 51 of the clusters in the master sample. The imaging and spectroscopy data were collected using respectively the WFC@INT and WYFFOS@WHT in the northern hemisphere, a...

  4. Host Galaxy Properties and Hubble Residuals of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, M J; Antilogus, P; Aragon, C; Bailey, S; Baltay, C; Bongard, S; Buton, C; Canto, A; Cellier-Holzem, F; Chotard, N; Copin, Y; Fakhouri, H K; Gangler, E; Guy, J; Hsiao, E Y; Kerschhaggl, M; Kim, A G; Kowalski, M; Loken, S; Nugent, P; Paech, K; Pain, R; Pecontal, E; Pereira, R; Perlmutter, S; Rabinowitz, D; Rigault, M; Runge, K; Scalzo, R; Smadja, G; Tao, C; Thomas, R C; Weaver, B A; Wu, C

    2013-01-01

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star-formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-AGN) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low and high mass hosts is 0.077 +- 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 <= log(M_*/M_Sun) <= 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored i...

  5. The Rise of SN 2014J in the Nearby Galaxy M 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.Goobar; Johansson, J.; Amanullah, R.; Cao, Y.; Perley, D.A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Ferreti, R.; Nugent, P. E.; Harris, C.; Cenko, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M 82. Given its proximity, it offers the best opportunity to date to study a thermonuclear supernova over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical, near-IR and mid-IR observations on the rising lightcurve, orchestrated by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), show that SN 2014J is a spectroscopically normal Type Ia supernova, albeit exhibiting high-velocity features in its spectrum and heavily reddened by dust in the host galaxy. Our earliest detections start just hours after the fitted time of explosion. We use high-resolution optical spectroscopy to analyze the dense intervening material and do not detect any evolution in the resolved absorption features during the lightcurve rise. Similarly to other highly reddened Type Ia supernovae, a low value of total-to-selective extinction, R (sub V) less than or approximately equal to 2, provides the best match to our observations. We also study pre-explosion optical and near-IR images from HST with special emphasis on the sources nearest to the SN location.

  6. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies : An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very

  7. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very

  8. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A.; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic stru

  9. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A.; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic

  10. The star cluster - field star connection in nearby spiral galaxies. II. Field star and cluster formation histories and their relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva-Villa, E.; Larsen, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Context. Recent studies have started to cast doubt on the assumption that most stars are formed in clusters. Observational studies of field stars and star cluster systems in nearby galaxies can lead to better constraints on the fraction of stars forming in clusters. Ultimately this may lead to a bet

  11. Investigating the Relation between CO (3-2) and Far Infrared Luminosities for Nearby Merging Galaxies Using ASTE

    CERN Document Server

    Michiyama, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Saito, Toshiki; Ando, Misaki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Takuji; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kikuchi, Kenichi; Komugi, Shinya; Muto, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    We present the new single dish CO (3-2) emission data obtained toward 19 early stage and 7 late stage nearby merging galaxies using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). Combining with the single dish and interferometric data of galaxies observed in previous studies, we investigate the relation between the CO (3-2) luminosity (L'CO(3-2)) and the far Infrared luminosity (LFIR) in a sample of 29 early stage and 31 late stage merging galaxies, and 28 nearby isolated spiral galaxies. We find that normal isolated spiral galaxies and merging galaxies have different slopes (alpha) in the log L'CO(3-2) - log LFIR plane (alpha ~ 0.79 for spirals and ~ 1.12 for mergers). The large slope (alpha > 1) for merging galaxies can be interpreted as an evidence for increasing Star Formation Efficiency (SFE=LFIR/L'CO(3-2)) as a function of LFIR. Comparing our results with sub-kpc scale local star formation and global star-burst activity in the high-z Universe, we find deviations from the linear relationship in t...

  12. PACS photometry of the Herschel Reference Survey - far-infrared/submillimetre colours as tracers of dust properties in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, L.; Fritz, J.; Bianchi, S.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Boquien, M.; Roussel, H.; Baes, M.; Buat, V.; Clemens, M.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Davies, J. I.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S. A.; Fuller, C.; Hunt, L. K.; Madden, S.; Munoz-Mateos, J.; Pappalardo, C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Sauvage, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    We present Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm integrated photometry for the 323 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS), a K-band, volume-limited sample of galaxies in the local Universe. Once combined with the Herschel/SPIRE observations already available, these data make the HRS the largest representative sample of nearby galaxies with homogeneous coverage across the 100-500 μm wavelength range. In this paper, we take advantage of this unique data set to investigate the properties and shape of the far-infrared/submillimetre spectral energy distribution in nearby galaxies. We show that, in the stellar mass range covered by the HRS (8 ≲ log (M*/M⊙) ≲ 12), the far-infrared/submillimetre colours are inconsistent with a single modified blackbody having the same dust emissivity index β for all galaxies. In particular, either β decreases or multiple temperature components are needed, when moving from metal-rich/gas-poor to metal-poor/gas-rich galaxies. We thus investigate how the dust temperature and mass obtained from a single modified blackbody depend on the assumptions made on β. We show that, while the correlations between dust temperature, galaxy structure and star formation rate are strongly model dependent, the dust mass scaling relations are much more reliable, and variations of β only change the strength of the observed trends.

  13. Finding η Car Analogs in Nearby Galaxies Using Spitzer. I. Candidate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The late-stage evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass loss, which may be dominated by poorly understood eruptive mass ejections. Understanding this population is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. We utilize Spitzer IRAC images of seven nearby (lsim 4 Mpc) galaxies to search for such analogs. We find 34 candidates with a flat or rising mid-IR spectral energy distributions toward longer mid-infrared wavelengths that emit >105 L ⊙ in the IRAC bands (3.6 to 8.0 μm) and are not known to be background sources. Based on our estimates for the expected number of background sources, we expect that follow-up observations will show that most of these candidates are not dust enshrouded massive stars, with an expectation of only 6 ± 6 surviving candidates. Since we would detect true analogs of η Car for roughly 200 years post-eruption, this implies that the rate of eruptions like η Car is less than the core-collapse supernova rate. It is possible, however, that every M > 40 M ⊙ star undergoes such eruptions given our initial results. In Paper II we will characterize the candidates through further analysis and follow-up observations, and there is no barrier to increasing the galaxy sample by an order of magnitude. The primary limitation of the present search is that Spitzer's resolution limits us to the shorter wavelength IRAC bands. With the James Webb Space Telescope, such surveys can be carried out at the far more optimal wavelengths of 10-30 μm, allowing identification of η Car analogs for millennia rather than centuries post-eruption.

  14. Morphological studies of the galaxy populations in distant "Butcher-Oemler" clusters with HST. II. AC103, AC118 and AC114 at z=0.31

    CERN Document Server

    Couch, W J; Smail, I; Ellis, Richard S; Sharples, R M

    1997-01-01

    We present new results of a program to study the detailed morphologies of galaxies in intermediate redshift clusters and hence understand the physical origin of the enhanced star formation in these environments at earlier epochs. Deep, high resolution imagery has been obtained of 3 rich clusters, AC103,AC118 & AC114 at z=0.31, using the WFPC2 on HST. For AC103 & AC118, single pointings covering a central 0.5x0.5Mpc have been obtained; for AC114, 4 pointings covering a 1.2x0.7Mpc area have been obtained, allowing the more outer regions of a distant cluster to be studied. Hubble types plus evidence for dynamical interactions and/or structural abnormalities have been determined visually for all galaxies down to R=22.25 in AC103 & AC118 and R=23.0 in AC114.We find the numbers of spirals (Sa-Sdm) in our clusters to be up to 4x higher than that seen in present-day clusters; only in the virialised core of our most massive regular cluster, AC114, do we see morphological fractions approaching those of the ...

  15. Bridging the Gap from Galactic to Extragalactic: Star Formation and Giant Molecular Clouds within the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The questions surrounding the origins of stars are of key importance in astrophysics across a huge range in physical scales. However, until recently, investigations have been restricted to either detailed studies targeting a few nearby regions in the Milky Way, or kpc- or larger-scale studies of entire galaxies. Between these two scales lies a crucial gap in understanding. In this thesis work, I have taken steps in bridging this gap between Galactic and extragalactic star formation. I will present the results of a campaign of observations and modeling targeting the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. Using an extensive suite of multi-wavelength data I have characterized the star formation activity and molecular gas in a large sample of star-forming regions within this galaxy. Additionally, I have assembled an extensive (300 clouds) and high resolution (10 pc) catalog of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) based on ALMA CO observations. This unprecedented look at the population of GMCs in a nearby spiral galaxy reveals an astonishing range of morphologies and properties in the Molecular Gas as well as providing a key testbed for comparison with GMCs in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. The GMCs in NGC 300 appear to have similar global properties and show scaling relations consistent with those seen in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the star formation rate appears to correlate with the mass of molecular gas with approximately 250 Gyr depletion time, extending the relation discovered in the Milky Way linearly to larger scales. These results suggest a level of universality in the star formation process within spiral galaxy disks like our own Milky Way.

  16. SUB-MILLIMETER TELESCOPE CO (2-1) OBSERVATIONS OF NEARBY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xue-Jian; Gu, Qiusheng [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Zhong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS 66, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junzhi [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Yu, E-mail: xjjiang@nju.edu.cn [The UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-20

    We present CO J = 2-1 observations toward 32 nearby gas-rich star-forming galaxies selected from the ALFALFA and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, using the Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT). Our sample is selected to be dominated by intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies. The scaling relations between molecular gas, atomic gas, and galactic properties (stellar mass, NUV – r, and WISE color W3 – W2) are examined and discussed. Our results show the following. (1) In the galaxies with stellar mass M {sub *} ≤10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, the H I fraction (f {sub H} {sub I} ≡ M {sub H} {sub I}/M {sub *}) is significantly higher than that of more massive galaxies, while the H{sub 2} gas fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}} ≡ M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub *}) remains nearly unchanged. (2) Compared to f{sub H{sub 2}}, f {sub H} {sub I} correlates better with both M {sub *} and NUV – r. (3) A new parameter, WISE color W3 – W2 (12-4.6 μm), is introduced, which is similar to NUV – r in tracing star formation activity, and we find that W3 – W2 has a tighter anti-correlation with log f{sub H{sub 2}} than the anti-correlation of (NUV – r)-f {sub H} {sub I}, (NUV – r)-f{sub H{sub 2}}, and (W3 – W2)-f {sub H} {sub I}. This indicates that W3 – W2 can trace the H{sub 2} fraction in galaxies. For the gas ratio M{sub H{sub 2}}/M {sub H} {sub I} , only in the intermediate-M {sub *} galaxies it appears to depend on M {sub *} and NUV – r. We find a tight correlation between the molecular gas mass M{sub H{sub 2}} and 12 μm (W3) luminosities (L {sub 12} {sub μm}), and the slope is close to unity (1.03 ± 0.06) for the SMT sample. This correlation may reflect that the cold gas and dust are well mixed on a global galactic scale. Using the all-sky 12 μm (W3) data available in WISE, this correlation can be used to estimate CO flux for molecular gas observations and can even predict H{sub 2} mass for star-forming galaxies.

  17. The Heating of Mid-Infrared Dust in the Nearby Galaxy M33: A Testbed for Tracing Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Calapa, M; Draine, B T; Boquien, M; Kramer, C; Xilouris, M; Verley, S; Braine, J; Relaño-Pastor, M; van der Werf, P; Israel, F; Hermelo, I; Albrecht, M

    2014-01-01

    Because the 8 {\\mu}m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission has been found to correlate with other well-known star formation tracers, it has widely been used as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. There are, however, studies that challenge the accuracy and reliability of the 8 {\\mu}m emission as a SFR tracer. Our study, part of the Herschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES) open time key program, aims at addressing this issue by analyzing the infrared emission from the nearby spiral galaxy M33 at the high spatial scale of 75 pc. Combining data from the Herschel Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope we find that the 8 {\\mu}m emission is better correlated with the 250 {\\mu}m emission, which traces cold interstellar gas, than with the 24 {\\mu}m emission. The L(8)/L(24) ratio is highly depressed in 24 {\\mu}m luminous regions, which correlate with known HII regions. We also compare our results with the dust emission models by Draine & Li (2007). We confirm that the depression of 8 {\\mu}m PAH e...

  18. SBS 0335-052, A Probable Nearby Young Dwarf Galaxy: Evidence Pro and Con

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri I.; Lipovetsky, Valentin A.; Chaffee, Frederic H.; Foltz, Craig B.; Guseva, Natalia G.; Kniazev, Alexei Y.

    1997-02-01

    first burst of star formation. However, we find that the observed equivalent width of Hβ emission in the extended envelope is 2-3 times lower than the value expected in the case of pure gaseous emission. Furthermore, we find that the widths of Hγ and Hβ are narrower than the instrumental profiles; this could be explained by the presence of underlying stellar absorption from A stars. These findings suggest that, along with the young (~107 yr) blue stellar clusters in the center of the galaxy, an older stellar population of age ~108 yr may be present in the extended envelope of SBS 0335-052 having a total mass of ~107 M⊙, 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the neutral gas mass but comparable with the total mass of stars in blue young stellar clusters observed in the center of the galaxy. We conclude that SBS 0335-052 is a young nearby dwarf galaxy with age ~108 yr. Spectroscopic observations presented herein were obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope, a facility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  19. SDSS1133: an unusually persistent transient in a nearby dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Blecha, Laura; Mushotzky, Richard; Hung, Chao Ling; Veilleux, Sylvain; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Schawinski, Kevin; Stern, Daniel; Smith, Nathan; Li, Yanxia; Man, Allison; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Stanek, Kris; Sanders, David

    2014-11-01

    While performing a survey to detect recoiling supermassive black holes, we have identified an unusual source having a projected offset of 800 pc from a nearby dwarf galaxy. The object, SDSS J113323.97+550415.8, exhibits broad emission lines and strong variability. While originally classified as a supernova (SN) because of its non-detection in 2005, we detect it in recent and past observations over 63 yr and find over a magnitude of rebrightening in the last 2 yr. Using high-resolution adaptive optics observations, we constrain the source emission region to be ≲12 pc and find a disturbed host-galaxy morphology indicative of recent merger activity. Observations taken over more than a decade show narrow [O III] lines, constant ultraviolet emission, broad Balmer lines, a constant putative black hole mass over a decade of observations despite changes in the continuum, and optical emission-line diagnostics consistent with an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, the optical spectra exhibit blueshifted absorption, and eventually narrow Fe II and [Ca II] emission, each of which is rarely found in AGN spectra. While this peculiar source displays many of the observational properties expected of a potential black hole recoil candidate, some of the properties could also be explained by a luminous blue variable star (LBV) erupting for decades since 1950, followed by a Type IIn SN in 2001. Interpreted as an LBV followed by an SN analogous to SN 2009ip, the multidecade LBV eruptions would be the longest ever observed, and the broad Hα emission would be the most luminous ever observed at late times (>10 yr), larger than that of unusually luminous SNe such as SN 1988Z, suggesting one of the most extreme episodes of pre-SN mass-loss ever discovered.

  20. WINGS: a WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey. I. Optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, G.; Marmo, C.; Varela, J.; D'Onofrio, M.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moles, M.; Pignatelli, E.; Bettoni, D.; Kjærgaard, P.; Rizzi, L.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first paper of a series that will present data and scientific results from the WINGS project, a wide-field, multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopic survey of galaxies in 77 nearby clusters. The sample was extracted from the ROSAT catalogs of X-Ray emitting clusters, with constraints on the redshift (0.04definition of a local, "zero-point" reference against which to gauge the cosmic evolution when compared to more distant clusters. The core of the project consists of wide-field optical imaging of the selected clusters in the B and V bands. We have also completed a multi-fiber, medium-resolution spectroscopic survey for 51 of the clusters in the master sample. The imaging and spectroscopy data were collected using, respectively, the WFC@INT and WYFFOS@WHT in the northern hemisphere, and the WFI@MPG and 2dF@AAT in the southern hemisphere. In addition, a NIR (J, K) survey of ˜50 clusters and an Hα+U survey of some 10 clusters are presently ongoing with the WFCAM@UKIRT and WFC@INT, respectively, while a very-wide-field optical survey has also been programmed with OmegaCam@VST. In this paper we briefly outline the global objectives and the main characteristics of the WINGS project. Moreover, the observing strategy and the data reduction of the optical imaging survey (WINGS-OPT) are presented. We have achieved a photometric accuracy of ˜0.025 mag, reaching completeness to V˜ 23.5. Field size and resolution (FWHM) span the absolute intervals (1.6-2.7) Mpc and (0.7-1.7) kpc, respectively, depending on the redshift and on the seeing. This allows the planned studies to obtain a valuable description of the local properties of clusters and galaxies in clusters.

  1. Central mass profiles of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters Hydra A and A478

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, N.; Umetsu, K.; Tamura, T.; Fujita, Y.; Takizawa, M.; Matsushita, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Futamase, T.; Kawaharada, M.; Miyazaki, S.; Mochizuki, Y.; Nakazawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ota, N.; Sasaki, T.; Sato, K.; Tam, S. I.

    2016-03-01

    We perform a weak-lensing study of the nearby cool-core galaxy clusters, Hydra A (z = 0.0538) and A478 (z = 0.0881), of which the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) host the powerful activities of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For each cluster, the observed tangential shear profile is described well by either a single Navarro-Frenk-White model or a two-component model including the BCG as an unresolved point mass. For A478, we determine the BCG and its host-halo masses from a joint fit to weak-lensing and stellar photometry measurements. We find that the choice of initial mass functions (IMFs) can introduce a factor of 2 uncertainty in the BCG mass, whereas the BCG host-halo mass is constrained well by data. We perform a joint analysis of the weak-lensing and stellar kinematics data available for the Hydra A cluster, which allows us to constrain the central mass profile without assuming specific IMFs. We find that the central mass profile (r < 300 kpc) determined from the joint analysis is in excellent agreement with those from independent measurements, including dynamical masses estimated from the cold gas disc component, X-ray hydrostatic total mass estimates, and the central stellar mass estimated with the Salpeter IMF. The observed dark matter fraction around the BCG for Hydra A is found to be smaller than those predicted by adiabatic contraction models, suggesting the importance of other physical processes, such as AGN feedback and/or dissipationless mergers.

  2. A Census of Broad-Line Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies: Coeval Star Formation and Rapid Black Hole Growth

    CERN Document Server

    Trump, Jonathan R; Fang, Jerome J; Faber, S M; Koo, David C; Kocevski, Dale D

    2012-01-01

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used to dis- entangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid superm...

  3. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka

    2007-01-01

    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  4. Ten Years of Nearby Galaxies Investigation with the Multi-Pupil Spectrograph of the 6m Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Silchenko, O K

    2002-01-01

    We describe the history and results of our study of early-type disk galaxies with the Multi-Pupil Spectrograph of the 6m telescope (MPFS). With the new data we confirm the discovery of chemically distinct nuclei reported in 1992; now such nuclei are found in two dozens galaxies. The structure of chemically distinct features formed probably in secondary nuclear star-formation bursts seems to be complex and closely related to an appearance of separate circumnuclear disks. As by-product, we have also found inner polar gaseous disks in 4 non-interacting, regular spiral galaxies; this phenomenon may be related to bulge or bar triaxiality. Some preliminary statistical conclusions on stellar population properties in the nuclei and in the bulges of nearby S0 galaxies are given.

  5. Hydrogen Fluoride toward Luminous Nearby Galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    CERN Document Server

    Monje, R R; Falgarone, E; Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Phillips, T G; Güsten, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride, HF, in two luminous nearby galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H$_2$)$_{out}$ $\\sim$ 1 $\\times$ 10$^7$ M$_\\odot$ and an outflow rate as large as \\.{M} $\\sim$ 6.4 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile is compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of $\\le$ 1.2 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, inside a inner radius of $\\le$ 200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central AGN is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow can be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF $J = 1-0$ ...

  6. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: II. SN environmental metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; Walcher, C J; Sánchez, S F; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Badenes, C; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; Marino, R A; Mollá, M; Meidt, S; Pérez, E; van de Ven, G; Vílchez, J M

    2016-01-01

    The metallicity of a supernova (SN) progenitor, together with its mass, is one of the main parameters that rules their outcome. We present a metallicity study of 115 nearby SN host galaxies (0.00510 dex) by targeted searches. We also found no evidence that the metallicity at the SN location differs from the average metallicity at the GCD of the SNe. By extending our SN sample with published metallicities at the SN location, we studied the metallicity distributions for all SN subtypes split into SN discovered in targeted and untargeted searches. We confirm a bias toward higher host masses and metallicities in the targeted searches. Combining data from targeted and untargeted searches we found a sequence from higher to lower local metallicity: SN Ia, Ic, and II show the highest metallicity, which is significantly higher than SN Ib, IIb, and Ic-BL. Our results support the picture of SN Ib resulting from binary progenitors and, at least part of, SN Ic being the result of single massive stars stripped of their out...

  7. Spatially Resolved Chemistry in Nearby Galaxies I. The Center of IC 342

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, D S; Meier, David S.; Turner, Jean L.

    2004-01-01

    We have imaged emission from the millimeter lines of eight molecules--C2H, C34S, N2H+, CH3OH, HNCO, HNC, HC3N, and SO--in the central half kpc of the nearby spiral galaxy IC 342. The 5" (~50 pc) resolution images were made with OVRO. Using these maps we obtain a picture of the chemistry within the nuclear region on the sizescales of individual GMCs. Bright emission is detected from all but SO. There are marked differences in morphology for the different molecules. A principal component analysis is performed to quantify similarities and differences among the images. This analysis reveals that while all molecules are to zeroth order correlated, that is, they are all found in dense molecular clouds, there are three distinct groups of molecules distinguished by the location of their emission within the nuclear region. N2H+, C18O, HNC and HCN are widespread and bright, good overall tracers of dense molecular gas. C2H and C34S, tracers of PDR chemistry, originate exclusively from the central 50-100 pc region, where...

  8. Herschel-SPIRE-Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342

    CERN Document Server

    Rigopoulou, D; Swinyard, B M; Virdee, J; Croxall, K V; Hopwood, R H B; Lim, T; Magdis, G E; Pearson, C P; Pellegrini, E; Polehampton, E; Smith, J-D

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 with the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer. The spectral range afforded by SPIRE, 196-671 microns, allows us to access a number of 12CO lines from J=4--3 to J=13--12 with the highest J transitions observed for the first time. In addition we present measurements of 13CO, [CI] and [NII]. We use a radiative transfer code coupled with Bayesian likelihood analysis to model and constrain the temperature, density and column density of the gas. We find two 12CO components, one at 35 K and one at 400 K with CO column densities of 6.3x10^{17} cm^{-2} and 0.4x10^{17} cm^{-2} and CO gas masses of 1.26x10^{7} Msolar and 0.15x10^{7} Msolar, for the cold and warm components, respectively. The inclusion of the high-J 12CO line observations, indicate the existence of a much warmer gas component (~400 K) confirming earlier findings from H_{2} rotational line analysis from ISO and Spitzer. The mass of the warm gas i...

  9. Discovery of Five Candidate Analogs for $\\eta\\,$Carinae in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K Z; Kochanek, C S; Sonneborn, G

    2015-01-01

    The late-stage evolution of very massive stars such as $\\eta\\,$Carinae may be dominated by poorly understood episodic mass ejections which may later lead to superluminous supernovae. However, as long as $\\eta\\,$Car is one of a kind, it is nearly impossible to quantitatively evaluate these possibilities. Here we announce the discovery of five objects in the nearby ($\\sim4-8\\,$Mpc) massive star-forming galaxies M$51$, M$83$, M$101$ and NGC$6946$ that have optical through mid-infrared photometric properties consistent with the hitherto unique $\\eta\\,$Car. We identified these $L_{bol}\\simeq3-8\\times10^{6}\\,L_\\odot$ objects through a systematic search of archival Spitzer and HST data. Their Spitzer mid-infrared spectral energy distributions rise steeply in the $3.6-8\\,\\mu$m bands, then turn over between $8$ and $24\\,\\mu$m, indicating the presence of warm ($\\sim400-600\\,$K) circumstellar dust. Their optical counterparts or flux limits from deep HST images are $\\sim1.5-2\\,$dex fainter than their mid-IR peaks and req...

  10. ALMA Multi-line Imaging of the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David S; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin A; Zschaechner, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ($\\sim$50 pc) imaging of molecular gas species in the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on observations taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). A total of 50 molecular lines are detected over a 13 GHz bandwidth imaged in the 3 mm band. Unambiguous identifications are assigned for 27 lines. Based on the measured high CO/C$^{17}$O isotopic line ratio ($\\gtrsim$350), we show that $^{12}$CO(1-0) has moderate optical depths. A comparison of the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ with their $^{13}$C-substituted isotopologues shows that the HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) lines have optical depths at least comparable to CO(1-0). H$^{13}$CN/H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ (and H$^{13}$CN/HN$^{13}$C) line ratios provide tighter constraints on dense gas properties in this starburst. SiO has elevated abundances across the nucleus. HNCO has the most distinctive morphology of all the bright lines, with its global luminosity dominated by the outer parts of the central re...

  11. Dissecting the origin of the submillimeter emission in nearby galaxies with Herschel and LABOCA

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Kennicutt, R; Aniano, G; Bertoldi, F; Calzetti, D; Croxall, K V; Dale, D; Draine, B; Engelbracht, C; Gordon, K; Hinz, J; Hunt, L K; Kirkpatrick, A; Murphy, E; Roussel, H; Skibba, R A; Walter, F; Weiss, A; Wilson, C D

    2014-01-01

    We model the infrared to submillimeter spectral energy distribution of 11 nearby galaxies of the KINGFISH sample using Spitzer and Herschel data and compare model extrapolations at 870um (using different fitting techniques) with LABOCA 870um observations. We investigate how the differences between predictions and observations vary with model assumptions or environment. At global scales, we find that modified blackbody models using realistic cold emissivity indices (beta_c=2 or 1.5) are able to reproduce the 870um observed emission within the uncertainties for most of the sample. Low values (beta_c<1.3) would be required in NGC0337, NGC1512 and NGC7793. At local scales, we observe a systematic 870um excess when using beta_=2.0. The beta_c=1.5 or the Draine and Li (2007) models can reconcile predictions with observations in part of the disks. Some of the remaining excesses occur towards the centres and can be partly or fully accounted for by non-dust contributions such as CO(3-2) or, to a lesser extent, free...

  12. The Star Formation Efficiency in Nearby Galaxies: Measuring Where Gas Forms Stars Effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; Brinks, Elias; Bigiel, Frank; De Blok, W J G; Madore, Barry; Thornley, M D

    2008-01-01

    We measure the star formation efficiency (SFE), the star formation rate per unit gas, in 23 nearby galaxies and compare it to expectations from proposed star formation laws and thresholds. We use HI maps from THINGS and derive H2 maps from HERACLES and BIMA SONG CO. We estimate the star formation rate by combining GALEX FUV maps and SINGS 24 micron maps, infer stellar surface density profiles from SINGS 3.6 micron data, and use kinematics from THINGS. We measure the SFE as a function of: the free-fall and orbital timescales; midplane gas pressure; stability of the gas disk to collapse (including the effects of stars); the ability of perturbations to grow despite shear; and the ability of a cold phase to form. In spirals, the SFE of H2 alone is nearly constant at 5.25 +/- 2.5 x 10^(-10) yr^(-1) (equivalent to an H2 depletion time of 1.9x10^9 yr) as a function of all of these variables at our 800 pc resolution. Where the ISM is mostly HI, on the other hand, the SFE decreases with increasing radius in both spira...

  13. Tracing the evolution of nearby early-type galaxies in low density environments. The Ultraviolet view from GALEX

    CERN Document Server

    Rampazzo, R; Marino, A; Bianchi, L; Bressan, A; Buson, L M; Clemens, M; Panuzzo, P; Zeilinger, W W; 10.1007/s10509-010-0586-5

    2011-01-01

    We detected recent star formation in nearby early-type galaxies located in low density environments, with GALEX Ultraviolet (UV) imaging. Signatures of star formation may be present in the nucleus and in outer rings/arm like structures. Our study suggests that such star formation may be induced by different triggering mechanisms, such as the inner secular evolution driven by bars, and minor accretion phenomena. We investigate the nature of the (FUV-NUV) color vs. Mg2 correlation, and suggest that it relates to "downsizing" in galaxy formation.

  14. Large-scale HI in nearby radio galaxies (II): the nature of classical low-power radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Struve, C; Oosterloo, T A; van Moorsel, G; Tadhunter, C N; van der Hulst, J M; Brogt, E; Holt, J; Mirabal, N

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of solving the long-standing question as to what triggers various types of Active Galactic Nuclei involves a thorough understanding of the overall properties and formation history of their host galaxies. This is the second in a series of papers that systematically study the large-scale properties of cold neutral hydrogen (HI) gas in nearby radio galaxies. The main goal is to investigate the importance of gas-rich galaxy mergers and interactions among radio-loud AGN. In this paper we present results of a complete sample of classical low-power radio galaxies. We find that extended Fanaroff & Riley type-I radio sources are generally not associated with gas-rich galaxy mergers or ongoing violent interactions, but occur in early-type galaxies without large (> 10^8 M_sun) amounts of extended neutral hydrogen gas. In contrast, enormous discs/rings of HI gas (with sizes up to 190 kpc and masses up to 2 x 10^10 M_sun) are detected around the host galaxies of a significant fraction of the compac...

  15. Stellar populations in dwarf galaxies: A review of the contribution of HST to our understanding of the nearby universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline

    This review aims to give an overview of the contribution of the Hubble Space Telescope to our understanding of the detailed properties of Local Group dwarf galaxies and their older stellar populations. The exquisite stable high spatial resolution combined with photometric accuracy of images from the Hubble Space Telescope have allowed us to probe further back into the history of star formation of a large variety of different galaxy types with widely differing star formation properties. It has allowed us to extend our studies out to the edges of the Local Group and beyond with greater accuracy than ever before. We have learned several important things about dwarf galaxy evolution from these studies. Firstly we have found that no two galaxies have identical star formation histories; some galaxies may superficially look the same today, but they have invariably followed different paths to this point. Now that we have managed to probe deep into the star formation history of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group it is obvious that there are a number of similarities with the global properties of dwarf elliptical/spheroidal type galaxies, which were previously thought to be quite distinct. The elliptical/spheroidals tend to have one or more discrete episodes of star formation through-out their history and dwarf irregulars are characterized by quasi-continuous star-formation. The previous strong dichotomy between these two classes has been weakened by these new results and may stem from the differences in the environment in which these similar mass galaxies were born into or have inhabited for most of their lives. The more detailed is our understanding of star formation processes and their effect on galaxy evolution in the nearby Universe the better we will understand the results from studies of the integrated light of galaxies in the high-redshift Universe.

  16. The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G): Stellar Masses, Sizes and Radial Profiles for 2352 Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Regan, Michael; Kim, Taehyun; Laine, Jarkko; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; de Paz, Armando Gil; Comeron, Sebastien; Hinz, Joannah; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E; Bosma, Albert; Bouquin, Alexandre Y K; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis; Zaritsky, Dennis; Gadotti, Dimitri; Madore, Barry; Holwerda, Benne; Menendez-Delmestre, Karin; Knapen, Johan H; Meidt, Sharon; Querejeta, Miguel; Mizusawa, Trisha; Seibert, Mark; Laine, Seppo; Courtois, Helene

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) is a volume, magnitude, and size-limited survey of 2352 nearby galaxies with deep imaging at 3.6 and 4.5um. In this paper we describe our surface photometry pipeline and showcase the associated data products that we have released to the community. We also identify the physical mechanisms leading to different levels of central stellar mass concentration for galaxies with the same total stellar mass. Finally, we derive the local stellar mass-size relation at 3.6um for galaxies of different morphologies. Our radial profiles reach stellar mass surface densities below 1 Msun pc-2. Given the negligible impact of dust and the almost constant mass-to-light ratio at these wavelengths, these profiles constitute an accurate inventory of the radial distribution of stellar mass in nearby galaxies. From these profiles we have also derived global properties such as asymptotic magnitudes (and the corresponding stellar masses), isophotal sizes and shapes, and concentra...

  17. Spectral Analysis, Synthesis, & Energy Distributions of Nearby E+A Galaxies Using SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Olivia A.; Anderson, Miguel Ricardo; Wally, Muhammad; James, Olivia; Falcone, Julia; Liu, Allen; Wallack, Nicole; Liu, Charles; SDSS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing data from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) Survey (MaNGA Product Launch-4, or MPL-4), of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV), we identified nine post-starburst (E+A) systems that lie within the Green Valley transition zone. We identify the E+A galaxies by their SDSS single fiber spectrum and u-r color, then confirmed their classification as post-starburst by coding/plotting methods and spectral synthesis codes (FIREFLY and PIPE3D), as well as with their Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) from 0.15 µm to 22 µm, using GALEX, SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE data. We produced maps of gaussian-fitted fluxes, equivalent widths, stellar velocities, metallicities and age. We also produced spectral line ratio diagrams to classify regions of stellar populations of the galaxies. We found that our sample of E+As retain their post-starburst properties across the entire galaxy, not just at their center. We detected matching a trend line in the ultraviolet and optical bands, consistent with the expected SEDs for an E+A galaxy, and also through the J, H and Ks bands, except for one object. We classified one of the nine galaxies as a luminous infrared galaxy, unusual for a post-starburst object. Our group seeks to further study stellar population properties, spectral energy distributions and quenching properties in E+A galaxies, and investigate their role in galaxy evolution as a whole. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement #SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island. This work was also supported by grants to The American Museum of Natural History, and the CUNY College of Staten Island through from National Science Foundation.

  18. DISCOVERY OF FIVE CANDIDATE ANALOGS FOR η CARINAE IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Rubab [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MC 665, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Adams, Scott M.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-12-20

    The late-stage evolution of very massive stars such as η Carinae may be dominated by episodic mass ejections that may later lead to Type II superluminous supernova (SLSN-II; e.g., SN 2006gy). However, as long as η Car is one of a kind, it is nearly impossible to quantitatively evaluate these possibilities. Here, we announce the discovery of five objects in the nearby (∼4–8 Mpc) massive star-forming galaxies M51, M83, M101, and NGC 6946 that have optical through mid-infrared (mid-IR) photometric properties consistent with the hitherto unique η Car. The Spitzer mid-IR spectral energy distributions of these L{sub bol} ≃ 3–8 × 10{sup 6} L{sub ⊙} objects rise steeply in the 3.6–8 μm bands and then turn over between 8 and 24 μm, indicating the presence of warm (∼400–600 K) circumstellar dust. Their optical counterparts in HST images are ∼1.5–2 dex fainter than their mid-IR peaks and require the presence of ∼5–10 M{sub ⊙} of obscuring material. Our finding implies that the rate of η Car–like events is a fraction f = 0.094 (0.040 < f < 0.21 at 90% confidence) of the core-collapse supernova (ccSN) rate. If there is only one eruption mechanism and Type II superluminous supernovae are due to ccSNe occurring inside these dense shells, then the ejection mechanism is likely associated with the onset of carbon burning (∼10{sup 3}–10{sup 4} years), which is also consistent with the apparent ages of massive Galactic shells.

  19. XMM-Newton Archival Study of the ULX Population in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Reynolds, christopher S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of an archival XMM-Newton study of the bright X-ray point sources (L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 38 erg per second)) in 32 nearby galaxies. From our list of approximately 100 point sources, we attempt to determine if there is a low-state counterpart to the Ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) population, searching for a soft-hard state dichotomy similar to that known for Galactic X-ray binaries and testing the specific predictions of the IMBH hypothesis. To this end, we searched for low-state objects, which we defined as objects within our sample which had a spectrum well fit by a simple absorbed power law, and high-state objects, which we defined as objects better fit by a combined blackbody and a power law. Assuming that low-state)) objects accrete at approximately 10% of the Eddington luminosity (Done & Gierlinski 2003) and that high-state objects accrete near the Eddington luminosity we further divided our sample of sources into low and high state ULX sources. We classify 16 sources as low-state ULXs and 26 objects as high-state ULXs. As in Galactic black hole systems, the spectral indices, GAMMA, of the lowstate objects, as well as the luminosities, tend to be lower than those of the high-state objects. The observed range of blackbody temperatures for the high state is 0.1-1 keV, with the most luminous systems tending toward the lowest temperatures. We therefore divide our high-state ULXs into candidate IMBHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 0.1 keV) and candidate stellar mass BHs (with blackbody temperatures of approximately 1.0 keV). A subset of the candidate stellar mass BHs have spectra that are well-fit by a Comptonization model, a property similar of Galactic BHs radiating in the very-high state near the Eddington limit.

  20. Probing dark matter decay and annihilation with Fermi LAT observations of nearby galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Vertongen, Gilles [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Galaxy clusters are promising targets for indirect dark matter searches. Gamma-ray signatures from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles inside these clusters could be observable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on three years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, we analyze the flux coming from eight nearby clusters individually as well as in a combined likelihood analysis. Concentrating mostly on signals from dark matter decay, we take into account uncertainties of the cluster masses as determined by X-ray observations and model the cluster emission with extended sources. We do not find significant emission from any of the considered clusters and present limits on the dark matter lifetime and annihilation cross-section. We compare our lifetime limits derived from cluster observations with the limits that can be obtained from the extragalactic gamma-ray background, and find that in case of hadronic decay the cluster limits become competitive at dark matter masses below a few hundred GeV. Finally, we show that in presence of dark matter substructures down to 10{sup -6} solar masses the limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section could improve by a factor of a few hundred, possibly going down to the thermal cross-section of 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} for dark matter masses

  1. Weak lensing and spectroscopic analysis of the nearby dissociative merging galaxy cluster Abell 3376

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Oliveira, R.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Machado, R. E. G.; Capelato, H. V.; Laganá, T. F.; Durret, F.; Bagchi, J.

    2017-07-01

    The galaxy cluster Abell 3376 is a nearby (\\bar{z}=0.046) dissociative merging cluster surrounded by two prominent radio relics and showing an X-ray comet-like morphology. The merger system is comprised of the subclusters A3376W and A3376E. Based on new deep multiwavelength large-field images and published redshifts, we bring new insights about the history of this merger. Despite the difficulty of applying the weak lensing technique at such low redshift, we successfully recovered the mass distribution in the cluster field. Moreover, with the application of a two-body model, we have addressed the dynamics of this merging system. We have found the individual masses of M_{200}^W=3.0_{-1.7}^{+1.3}× 10^{14} M⊙ and M_{200}^E=0.9_{-0.8}^{+0.5}× 10^{14} M⊙. The cometary-shaped X-ray distribution shows only one peak spatially coincident with both eastern BCG and the A3376E mass peak whereas the gas content of A3376W seems to be stripped out. Our data allowed us to confirm the existence of a third subcluster located at the north, 1147 ± 62 kpc apart from the neighbour subcluster A3376E and having a mass M_{200}^N=1.4_{-1.0}^{+0.7}× 10^{14} M⊙. From our dynamical analysis, we found the merging is taking place very close to the plane of the sky, with the merger axis just 10° ± 11° from it. The application of a two-body analysis code showed that the merging cluster is seen 0.9_{-0.3}^{+0.2} Gyr after the pericentric passage and it is currently going to the point of maximum separation between the subclusters.

  2. Probing dark matter decay and annihilation with Fermi LAT observations of nearby galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaoyuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatories; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Vertongen, Gilles [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Galaxy clusters are promising targets for indirect dark matter searches. Gamma-ray signatures from the decay or annihilation of dark matter particles inside these clusters could be observable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on three years of Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, we analyze the flux coming from eight nearby clusters individually as well as in a combined likelihood analysis. Concentrating mostly on signals from dark matter decay, we take into account uncertainties of the cluster masses as determined by X-ray observations and model the cluster emission with extended sources. We do not find significant emission from any of the considered clusters and present limits on the dark matter lifetime and annihilation cross-section. We compare our lifetime limits derived from cluster observations with the limits that can be obtained from the extragalactic gamma-ray background, and find that in case of hadronic decay the cluster limits become competitive at dark matter masses below a few hundred GeV. Finally, we show that in presence of dark matter substructures down to 10{sup -6} solar masses the limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section could improve by a factor of a few hundred, possibly going down to the thermal cross-section of 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} for dark matter masses

  3. Near-infrared spectroscopy of nearby Seyfert galaxies: Is there evidence for the shock excitation in narrow-line regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Terao, Koki; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Matsuoka, Kenta; Toba, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    One of the unsettled, important problems in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is the major ionization mechanism of gas clouds in their narrow-line regions (NLRs). In order to investigate this issue, we present our $J$-band spectroscopic observations for a sample of 26 nearby Seyfert galaxies. In our study, we use the flux ratio of the following two forbidden emission lines, [Fe II]1.257$\\mu$m and [P II]1.188$\\mu$m because it is known that this ratio is sensitive to the ionization mechanism. We obtain the [Fe II]/[P II] flux ratio or its lower limit for 19 objects. In addition to our data, we compile this flux ratio (or its lower limit) of 23 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the literature. Based on the collected data, we find that three Seyfert galaxies show very large lower limits of [Fe II]/[P II] flux ratios ($\\gtrsim$10); NGC 2782, 5005, and Mrk 463. It is thus suggested that the contribution of the fast shock in the gas excitation is significantly large for them. However, more than half of Seyfert galaxies in ou...

  4. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Survey Design, Data Processing, and Spectral Analysis Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Luo, Rongxin; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Hao, Lei; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Yoachim, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data-cubes have 5.6'' FWHM spatial resolution, ~5A FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600A-6800A range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to ~0.7 R_25. These data-cubes can be used to produce 2D maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data-cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are de...

  5. Extragalactic archeology with the GHOSTS Survey I. - Age-resolved disk structure of nearby low-mass galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Streich, David; Bailin, Jeremy; Bell, Eric F; Holwerda, Benne W; Minchev, Ivan; Monachesi, Antonela; Radburn-Smith, David J

    2016-01-01

    We study the individual evolution histories of three nearby low-mass edge-on galaxies (IC 5052, NGC4244, and NGC5023). Using resolved stellar populations, we constructed star count density maps for populations of different ages and analyzed the change of structural parameters with stellar age within each galaxy. We do not detect a separate thick disk in any of the three galaxies, even though our observations cover a wider range in equivalent surface brightness than any integrated light study. While scale heights increase with age, each population can be well described by a single disk. Two of the galaxies contain a very weak additional component, which we identify as the faint halo. The mass of these faint halos is lower than 1% of the mass of the disk. The three galaxies show low vertical heating rates, which are much lower than the heating rate of the Milky Way. This indicates that heating agents, such as giant molecular clouds and spiral structure, are weak in low-mass galaxies. All populations in the thre...

  6. Chandra Survey of Nearby Highly-Inclined Disk Galaxies I: X-ray Measurements of Galactic Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematical analysis of the Chandra observations of 53 nearby highly-inclined (i>60 degree) disk galaxies to study the coronae around them. This sample covers a broad range of galaxy properties: e.g., about three orders of magnitude in the SFR and more than two orders of magnitude in the stellar mass. The Chandra observations of the diffuse soft X-ray emission from 20 of these galaxies are presented for the first time. The data are reduced in a uniform manner, including the excision/subtraction of both resolved and unresolved stellar contributions. Various coronal properties, such as the scale height and luminosity, are characterized for all the sample galaxies. For galaxies with high enough counting statistics, we also examine the thermal and chemical states of the coronal gas. We note on galaxies with distinct multi-wavelength characteristics which may affect the coronal properties. The uniformly processed images, spectra, and brightness profiles, as well as the inferred hot gas parameters, fo...

  7. Spatially Resolved Stellar Populations Of Nearby Post-Starburst Galaxies In SDSS-IV MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Charles; Betances, Ashley; Bonilla, Alaina Marie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Migliore, Christina; Goddard, Daniel; Masters, Karen; SDSS-IV MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    We have selected five galaxies in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) project of the latest generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) identified as post-starburst (E+A) systems, in the transition between "blue cloud" and "red sequence" galaxies. We measure the equivalent widths of the Balmer series, D4000 break, and metal lines across each galaxy, and produce maps of the stellar age, stellar mass, and metallicities of each galaxy using FIREFLY, a full spectral analysis code. We have found that the measured properties of the galaxies overall generally matches well with single-aperture SDSS spectra from which the original post-starburst identifications were made. The variation in the spatial distributions of the stellar populations, in particular the A-stars, give us insight into the details of the transitional E+A quenching phase. This work was supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation via the SDSS-IV Faculty and Student Team (FAST) initiative, ARC Agreement No. SSP483 to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  8. Search for gamma-ray line feature from a group of nearby Galaxy clusters with Fermi LAT Pass 8 data

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Feng, Lei; Liang, En-Wei; Chang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the universe and may be suitable targets for indirect dark matter searches. With 85 months of Fermi-LAT Pass 8 publicly available data, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in the directions of 16 nearby Galaxy Clusters with an unbinned likelihood analysis. No statistically/globally significant $\\gamma-$ray line feature is identified and a weak signal may present at $\\sim 42$ GeV. The 95\\% confidence level upper limits on the velocity-averaged cross section of dark matter particles annihilating into double $\\gamma-$rays (i.e., $\\langle \\sigma v \\rangle_{\\chi\\chi\\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma}$) are derived. Unless very optimistic boost factors of dark matter annihilation in these Galaxy Clusters have been assumed, such constraints are much weaker than the bounds set by the Galactic $\\gamma-$ray data.

  9. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Survey Design, Data Processing, and Spectral Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J., II; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Luo, Rongxin; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Hao, Lei; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Yoachim, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data cubes have 5.''6 FWHM spatial resolution, ~5 Å FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600 Å-6800 Å range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to ~0.7R 25. These data cubes can be used to produce two-dimensional maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are described, as well as the construction of the data cube, our spectral fitting method, and the fitting of the stellar and ionized gas velocity fields. We also propose a new method to measure the inclination of nearly face-on systems based on the matching of the stellar and gas rotation curves using asymmetric drift corrections. VENGA will measure relevant physical parameters across different environments within these galaxies, allowing a series of studies on star formation, structure assembly, stellar populations, chemical evolution, galactic feedback, nuclear activity, and the properties of the interstellar medium in massive disk galaxies.

  10. OVERVIEW OF THE SDSS-IV MaNGA SURVEY: MAPPING NEARBY GALAXIES AT APACHE POINT OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundy, Kevin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Bershady, Matthew A.; Wake, David A.; Tremonti, Christy; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Drory, Niv [McDonald Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); MacDonald, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Weijmans, Anne-Marie [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Avila-Reese, Vladimir [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Badenes, Carles [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 OHara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, Jésus [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Belfiore, Francesco [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); and others

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ∼ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å{sup –1} per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec{sup –2}, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  11. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A.; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Nichol, Robert C.; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12'' (19 fibers) to 32'' (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 Å at R ~ 2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (Å-1 per 2'' fiber) at 23 AB mag arcsec-2, which is typical for the outskirts of MaNGA galaxies. Targets are selected with M * >~ 109 M ⊙ using SDSS-I redshifts and i-band luminosity to achieve uniform radial coverage in terms of the effective radius, an approximately flat distribution in stellar mass, and a sample spanning a wide range of environments. Analysis of our prototype observations demonstrates MaNGA's ability to probe gas ionization, shed light on recent star formation and quenching, enable dynamical modeling, decompose constituent components, and map the composition of stellar populations. MaNGA's spatially resolved spectra will enable an unprecedented study of the astrophysics of nearby galaxies in the coming 6 yr.

  12. The Green Bank Telescope Maps the Dense, Star-Forming Gas in the Nearby Starburst Galaxy M82

    CERN Document Server

    Kepley, Amanda A; Frayer, David; Usero, Antonio; Marvil, Josh; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies show that dense molecular gas correlates with recent star formation, suggesting that the formation of this gas phase may help regulate star formation. A key test of this idea requires wide-area, high-resolution maps of dense molecular gas in galaxies to explore how local physical conditions drive dense gas formation, but these observations have been limited because of the faintness of dense gas tracers like HCN and HCO+. Here we demonstrate the power of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope -- the largest single-dish millimeter radio telescope -- for mapping dense gas in galaxies by presenting the most sensitive maps yet of HCN and HCO+ in the starburst galaxy M82. The HCN and HCO+ in the disk of this galaxy correlates with both recent star formation and more diffuse molecular gas and shows kinematics consistent with a rotating torus. The HCO+ emission extending to the north and south of the disk is coincident with the outflow previously identified in CO and...

  13. Sleeping Giants? - X-ray search for low-luminosity AGN candidates in nearby optically bright galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kalcheva, Ivayla E

    2014-01-01

    In this Master's project, the X-ray nuclear properties of a sample of bright nearby galaxies are explored. This is done by matching their comprehensive optical spectroscopic classification to the latest available XMM-Newton catalogue - 3XMM-DR4. The good coverage (approx. 38 per cent) ensures that a statistically representative sample is investigated. All nuclear and morphological subsets found within the original sample of 486 galaxies are encompassed, but early-type galaxies and galaxies with optical features characteristic for active galactic nuclei (AGN) are favoured. The results from the investigation of the properties of our cross-matched sample are overall consistent with the presence of a large fraction of X-ray - detected low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN). The X-ray - detected galaxies within our HII and transition-LINER subsets are of particular interest, as they could harbour LLAGN missed by optical spectroscopic selection. The properties of these nuclei are explored by X-ray spectral fitting of available...

  14. Near-infrared Spectroscopy of Nearby Seyfert Galaxies: Is There Evidence for Shock Excitation in Narrow-line Regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, K.; Nagao, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Yanagisawa, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Toba, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2016-12-01

    One of the important unsettled problems regarding active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is the major ionization mechanism of gas clouds in AGN narrow-line regions (NLRs). In order to investigate this issue, we present our J-band spectroscopic observations of a sample of 26 nearby Seyfert galaxies. In our study, we use the flux ratio of the following two forbidden emission lines, [Fe ii]1.257 μm and [P ii]1.188 μm, because it is known that this ratio is sensitive to the ionization mechanism. We obtain the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratio or its lower limit for 19 objects. In addition to our data, we compile this flux ratio (or its lower limit) for 23 nearby Seyfert galaxies from the literature. Based on the collected data, we find that three Seyfert galaxies show very large lower limits of the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratios (≳10): NGC 2782, NGC 5005, and Mrk 463. It is thus suggested that the contribution of the fast shock in the gas excitation is significantly large for them. However, more than half of the Seyfert galaxies in our sample show moderate [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratios (∼2), which is consistent with pure photoionization by power-law ionizing continuum emission. We also find that the [Fe ii]/[P ii] flux ratio shows no clear correlation with the radio loudness, suggesting that the radio jet is not the primary origin of shocks in NLRs of Seyfert galaxies.

  15. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey : VIII. CO data and the LCO(3-2)-LFIR correlation in the SINGS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C. D.; Warren, B. E.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Attewell, D.; Bendo, G. J.; Butner, H. M.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Golding, J.; Heesen, V.; Irwin, J.; Leech, J.; Matthews, H. E.; Mühle, S.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Sinukoff, E.; Shorten, K.; Tan, B. K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A.; Vaccari, M.; Wiegert, T.; Zhu, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Alexander, P.; Azimlu, M.; Barmby, P.; Brar, R.; Bridge, C.; Brinks, E.; Brooks, S.; Coppin, K.; Côté, S.; Côté, P.; Courteau, S.; Davies, J.; Eales, S.; Fich, M.; Hudson, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Knapen, J. H.; Page, M.; Parkin, T. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Seaquist, E. R.; Spekkens, K.; Tanvir, N.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van der Werf, P.; Vlahakis, C.; Webb, T. M.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an H I-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection and the observing strategy. We also present a

  16. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyuz, A.; Avdan, H. [Department of Physics, University of Cukurova, 01330 Adana (Turkey); Kayaci, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Erciyes, Kayseri (Turkey); Ozel, M. E. [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Cag University, 33800 Yenice, Tarsus, Mersin (Turkey); Sonbas, E. [Department of Physics, University of Ad Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I yaman, 02040 Ad Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I yaman (Turkey); Balman, S., E-mail: aakyuz@cu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D{sub 25} regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of {approx}2-5 during a time interval of {approx}2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  17. Star Formation On Sub-kpc Scale Triggered By Non-linear Processes In Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Momose, Rieko; Kennicutt, Robert C; Egusa, Fumi; Calzetti, Daniela; Liu, Guilin; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Okumura, Sachiko K; Scoville, Nick Z; Sawada, Tsuyoshi; Kuno, Nario

    2013-01-01

    We report a super-linear correlation for the star formation law based on new CO($J$=1-0) data from the CARMA and NOBEYAMA Nearby-galaxies (CANON) CO survey. The sample includes 10 nearby spiral galaxies, in which structures at sub-kpc scales are spatially resolved. Combined with the star formation rate surface density traced by H$\\alpha$ and 24 $\\mu$m images, CO($J$=1-0) data provide a super-linear slope of $N$ = 1.3. The slope becomes even steeper ($N$ = 1.8) when the diffuse stellar and dust background emission is subtracted from the H$\\alpha$ and 24 $\\mu$m images. In contrast to the recent results with CO($J$=2-1) that found a constant star formation efficiency (SFE) in many spiral galaxies, these results suggest that the SFE is not independent of environment, but increases with molecular gas surface density. We suggest that the excitation of CO($J$=2-1) is likely enhanced in the regions with higher star formation and does not linearly trace the molecular gas mass. In addition, the diffuse emission contami...

  18. The discovery of seven extremely low surface brightness galaxies in the field of the nearby spiral galaxy M101

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Dwarf satellite galaxies are a key probe of dark matter and of galaxy formation on small scales and of the dark matter halo masses of their central galaxies. They have very low surface brightness, which makes it difficult to identify and study them outside of the Local Group. We used a low surface brightness-optimized telescope, the Dragonfly Telephoto Array, to search for dwarf galaxies in the field of the massive spiral galaxy M101. We identify seven large, low surface brightness objects in this field, with effective radii of \\(10 - 30\\) arcseconds and central surface brightnesses of \\(\\mu_{g} \\sim 25.5 - 27.5\\) mag arcsec\\(^{-2}\\). Given their large apparent sizes and low surface brightnesses, these objects would likely be missed by standard galaxy searches in deep fields. Assuming the galaxies are dwarf satellites of M101, their absolute magnitudes are in the range \\(-11.6 \\lesssim M_{V} \\lesssim -9.3\\) and their effective radii are \\(350\\) pc \\(-\\) \\(1.3\\) kpc. Their radial surface brightness profiles ar...

  19. Environmental Effects on the Metal Enrichment of Low Mass Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Vasiliki; Iglesias-Paramo, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the chemical history of low-mass star-forming (SF) galaxies in the local Universe clusters Coma, A1367, A779, and A634. The aim of this work is to search for the imprint of the environment on the chemical evolution of these galaxies. Galaxy chemical evolution is linked to the star formation history (SFH), as well as to the gas interchange with the environment, and low-mass galaxies are well known to be vulnerable systems to environmental processes affecting both these parameters. For our study we have used spectra from the SDSS-III DR8. We have examined the mass-metallicity relation of cluster galaxies finding well defined sequences. The slope of these sequences, for galaxies in low-mass clusters and galaxies at large cluster-centric distances, follows the predictions of recent hydrodynamic models. A flattening of this slope has been observed for galaxies located in the core of the two more massive clusters of the sample, principally in Coma, suggesting that the imprint of the cluster e...

  20. An extensive catalogue of early-type galaxies in the nearby universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dabringhausen, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 1715 early-type galaxies from the literature, spanning the luminosity range from faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies to giant elliptical galaxies. The aim of this catalogue is to be one of the most comprehensive and publicly available collections of data on early-type galaxies. The emphasis in this catalogue lies on dwarf elliptical galaxies, for which some samples with detailed data have been published recently. For almost all of the early-type galaxies included in it, this catalogue contains data on their locations, distances, redshifts, half-light radii, the masses of their stellar populations and apparent magnitudes in various passbands. Data on metallicity and various colours are available for a majority of the galaxies presented here, including many of the rather faint early-type galaxies in the Local group. The data on magnitudes, colours, metallicities and masses of the stellar populations is supplemented with entries that are based on fits to data from simple stellar population ...

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Nearby early-type galaxies catalog (Dabringhausen+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabringhausen, J.; Fellhauer, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present a catalogue of 1715 early-type galaxies from the literature, spanning the luminosity range from faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies to giant elliptical galaxies. The aim of this catalogue is to be one of the most comprehensive and publicly available collections of data on early-type galaxies. The emphasis in this catalogue lies on dwarf elliptical galaxies, for which some samples with detailed data have been published recently. For almost all of the early-type galaxies included in it, this catalogue contains data on their locations, distances, redshifts, half-light radii, the masses of their stellar populations and apparent magnitudes in various passbands. Data on metallicity and various colours are available for a majority of the galaxies presented here. The data on magnitudes, colours, metallicities and masses of the stellar populations is supplemented with entries that are based on fits to data from simple stellar population models and existing data from observations. Also, some simple transformations have been applied to the data on magnitudes, colours and metallicities in this catalog, in order to increase the homogeneity of this data. Estimates on the Sersic profiles, internal velocity dispersions, maximum rotational velocities, dynamical masses and ages are listed for several hundreds of the galaxies in this catalogue. Finally, each quantity listed in this catalogue is accompanied with information on its source, so that users of this catalogue can easily exclude data that they do not consider as reliable enough for their purposes. (10 data files).

  2. Identifying old Tidal Dwarf Galaxies in Simulations and in the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Duc, P A; Masset, F; Bournaud, Frederic; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Masset, Frederic

    2004-01-01

    Most Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) so-far discussed in the literature may be considered as young ones or even newborns, as they are still physically linked to their parent galaxies by an umbilical cord: the tidal tail at the tip of which they are usually observed. Old Tidal Dwarf Galaxies, completely detached from their progenitors, are still to be found. Using N--body numerical simulations, we have shown that tidal objects as massive as 10^9 solar masses may be formed in interacting systems and survive for more than one Gyr. Old TDGs should hence exist in the Universe. They may be identified looking at a peculiarity of their "genetic identity card": a relatively high abundance in heavy elements, inherited from their parent galaxies. Finally, using this technique, we revisit the dwarf galaxies in the local Universe trying to find arguments pro and con a tidal origin.

  3. The Local Group as a time machine: studying the high-redshift Universe with nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Johnson, Benjamin D; Bullock, James S; Conroy, Charlie; Fitts, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We infer the UV luminosities of Local Group galaxies at early cosmic times ($z \\sim 2$ and $z \\sim 7$) by combining stellar population synthesis modeling with star formation histories derived from deep color-magnitude diagrams constructed from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Our analysis provides a basis for understanding high-$z$ galaxies - including those that may be unobservable even with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) - in the context of familiar, well-studied objects in the very low-$z$ Universe. We find that, at the epoch of reionization, all Local Group dwarfs were less luminous than the faintest galaxies detectable in deep HST observations of blank fields. We predict that JWST will observe $z \\sim 7$ progenitors of galaxies similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud today; however, the HST Frontier Fields initiative may already be observing such galaxies, highlighting the power of gravitational lensing. Consensus reionization models require an extrapolation of the observed blank-field lum...

  4. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies - IV. New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Li, Jiangtao; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2016-04-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic discs and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disc galaxies. We first measure the star-forming galactic disc sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that (1) the specific 0.5-2 keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a sub-linear fashion: on average, LX/LK∝(SFR/M*)Γ with Γ = 0.29 ± 0.12; (2) the efficiency of the emission LX/SFR decreases with increasing surface SFR (ISFR; Γ = -0.44 ± 0.12); and (3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with ISFR (Γ = 0.08 ± 0.04). These results, somewhat surprising and anti-intuitive, suggest that (i) the linear correlation between LX and SFR, as commonly presented, is largely due to the correlation of these two parameters with galaxy mass; (ii) much of the mechanical energy from stellar feedback likely drives global outflows with little X-ray cooling and with a mass-loading efficiency decreasing fast with increasing ISFR (Γ ≲ -0.5); (iii) these outflows heat and inflate the medium around the galactic disks of massive galaxies, reducing its radiative cooling rate, whereas for relatively low-mass galaxies, the energy in the outflows is probably dissipated in regions far away from the galactic discs.

  5. SDSS-IV MaNGA: environmental dependence of stellar age and metallicity gradients in nearby galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Wang, Huiyuan; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Mo, Houjun; Goddard, Daniel; Bundy, Kevin; Li, Hongyu; Nair, Preethi; Lin, Lihwai; Long, R. J.; Riffel, Rogério; Thomas, Daniel; Masters, Karen; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel R.; Zhang, Kai; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Malanushenko, Olena

    2017-03-01

    We present a study on the stellar age and metallicity distributions for 1105 galaxies using the STARLIGHT software on MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) integral field spectra. We derive age and metallicity gradients by fitting straight lines to the radial profiles, and explore their correlations with total stellar mass M*, NUV - r colour and environments, as identified by both the large-scale structure (LSS) type and the local density. We find that the mean age and metallicity gradients are close to zero but slightly negative, which is consistent with the inside-out formation scenario. Within our sample, we find that both the age and metallicity gradients show weak or no correlation with either the LSS type or local density environment. In addition, we also study the environmental dependence of age and metallicity values at the effective radii. The age and metallicity values are highly correlated with M* and NUV - r and are also dependent on LSS type as well as local density. Low-mass galaxies tend to be younger and have lower metallicity in low-density environments while high-mass galaxies are less affected by environment.

  6. HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185

    CERN Document Server

    Geha, M; Grocholski, A; Dolphin, A; van der Marel, R P; Guhathakurta, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope ACS observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The resulting F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located ~1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While our ACS pointings in both dEs show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age in NGC 147 is ~ 4 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyrs ago (z~5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 field more than12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr. Star formation ceased in both ACS fields at least 3 Gyr ago. Previous observations ...

  7. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. VII. Elliptical galaxy scaling laws from direct observational mass measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J.; Wayth, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample of 53 massive early-type strong gravitational lens galaxies with well-measured redshifts (ranging from z = 0.06 to 0.36) and stellar velocity dispersions (between 175 and 400 km s(-1)) from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey to derive numerous empirical scaling relations. The ratio be

  8. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey X. Environmental Effects on the Molecular Gas and Star Formation Properties of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Angus; Golding, J; Warren, B E; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Knapen, J H; Sanchez-Gallego, J R; Barmby, P; Bendo, G J; Rosolowsky, E; van der Werf, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the molecular gas properties in a sample of 98 HI - flux selected spiral galaxies within $\\sim25$ Mpc, using the CO $J=3-2$ line observed with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We use the technique of survival analysis to incorporate galaxies with CO upper limits into our results. Comparing the group and Virgo samples, we find a larger mean H$_{2}$ mass in the Virgo galaxies, despite their lower mean HI mass. This leads to a significantly higher H$_{2}$ to HI ratio for Virgo galaxies. Combining our data with complementary H$\\alpha$ star formation rate measurements, Virgo galaxies have longer molecular gas depletion times compared to group galaxies, due to their higher H$_{2}$ masses and lower star formation rates. We suggest that the longer depletion times may be a result of heating processes in the cluster environment or differences in the turbulent pressure. From the full sample, we find that the molecular gas depletion time has a positive correlation with the stellar mass, indicative...

  9. Far Infrared Spectroscopy of the Nearby Analogues of High-Redshift Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    We propose far infrared emission line spectroscopy of a sample of 23 local star-forming galaxies, drawn from the Lyman alpha Reference Sample (LARS), for which we have unrivalled high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy from HST, and 21cm HI observations from VLA+GMRT. Moreover the galaxies are selected as the close analogues of the high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies and Spitzer+Herschel selected galaxies found in extragalactic deep fields. The science goal of LARS is to determine what governs the escape of Lyman alpha (Lya) photons from galaxies, and thereby aid interpretation of high-z observations where Lya is the most used spectral probe. However given its clean selection and multiwavelength nature, LARS can equally well improve our understanding of FIR line observations of high-z galaxies. The target emission lines in this proposal are [CII], [OI], and [OIII] at 158, 63, and 88 micron, respectively. The motivations are that these lines: 1. are of increasing interest at high-z as new sensitive submm/radio interferometers come online 2. are proposed quantitative tracers of star formation rates, but their utility must be proven in appropriately analogous well-studied galaxies 3. when combined with models of photodissociation regions, enable estimates of the density and mass of PDR gas and provide vital constraints on our Lya radiative transfer models of galaxies. 4. provide uniquely robust estimates of nebular extinction and metallicity when combined with our optical IFU data. Astrophysical applications are many, especially when combined with the array of existing data. Specifically they will provide vital constraints on ISM structure, that are required for understanding the emission of the cosmologically vital Lya emission line. Moreover, SFR calibrations will be tested in star forming environments that resemble those of early galaxies and the legacy value of the sample is hard to overstate.

  10. Spatially-resolved stellar populations of nearby galaxies in multi-filter surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Roman, Izaskun; Cenarro, A. Javier; Díaz-García, Luis A.; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Varela, Jesús; J-PLUS Team

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a new technique using a novel approach to analyze unresolved stellar populations of spatially-resolved galaxies based on large sky multi-filter surveys. We have successfully applied this technique to 42 early-type galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey. In agreement with some previous work, we find the gradients of early-type galaxies to be on average slightly positive in age and negative in metallicity at large radii (R > Reff). These mildly negative metallicity gradients support a merging scenario. The positive/flat age gradients could support a more uniformly distributed star formation or even secondary burst triggered by mergers.

  11. The origin of gas in the Extended Narrow Line Region of nearby Seyfert galaxies.I. NGC 7212

    CERN Document Server

    Cracco, V; Di Mille, F; Vaona, L; Frassati, A; Smirnova, A A; La Mura, G; Moiseev, A V; Rafanelli, P

    2011-01-01

    The Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is a region of highly ionized gas with a size of few up to 15-20 kpc. When it shows a conical or bi-conical shape with the apexes pointing towards the active nucleus, this region is also called ionization cones. The ionization cones are an evidence of the Unified Model that predicts an anisotropic escape of ionizing photons from the nucleus confined to a cone by a dusty torus. Many details about the complex structure of the ENLR still remain unveiled, as for example the origin of the ionized gas. Here we present new results of a study of the physical and kinematical properties of the circumnuclear gas in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7212. Medium and high resolution integral field spectra and broad-band photometric data were collected and analysed in the frame of an observational campaign of nearby Seyfert galaxies, aiming to handle the complicated issue of the origin of the gas in the ENLR. This work is based on: (i) analysis of gas phy...

  12. Overview of the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Bundy, Kevin; Law, David R; Yan, Renbin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Wake, David A; Cherinka, Brian; Sánchez-Gallego, José R; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Thomas, Daniel; Tremonti, Christy; Masters, Karen; Coccato, Lodovico; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Badenes, Carles; Falcón-Barroso, Jésus; Belfiore, Francesco; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Blanton, Michael R; Brownstein, Joel R; Byler, Nell; Cappellari, Michele; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A; Emsellem, Eric; Etherington, James; Frinchaboy, Peter M; Fu, Hai; Gunn, James E; Harding, Paul; Johnston, Evelyn J; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kinemuchi, Karen; Klaene, Mark A; Knapen, Johan H; Leauthaud, Alexie; Li, Cheng; Lin, Lihwai; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Mao, Shude; Maraston, Claudia; McDermid, Richard M; Merrifield, Michael R; Nichol, Robert C; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Parejko, John K; Sanchez, Sebastian F; Schlegel, David; Simmons, Audrey; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Thanjavur, Karun; Thompson, Benjamin A; Tinker, Jeremy L; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Westfall, Kyle B; Wilkinson, David; Wright, Shelley; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2014-01-01

    We present an overview of a new integral field spectroscopic survey called MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV) that began on 2014 July 1. MaNGA will investigate the internal kinematic structure and composition of gas and stars in an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. We summarize essential characteristics of the instrument and survey design in the context of MaNGA's key science goals and present prototype observations to demonstrate MaNGA's scientific potential. MaNGA employs dithered observations with 17 fiber-bundle integral field units that vary in diameter from 12" (19 fibers) to 32" (127 fibers). Two dual-channel spectrographs provide simultaneous wavelength coverage over 3600-10300 A at R~2000. With a typical integration time of 3 hr, MaNGA reaches a target r-band signal-to-noise ratio of 4-8 (per A, per 2" fiber) at 23 AB mag per sq. arcsec, which is typical for the outskirts of ...

  13. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W., E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  14. Kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas in nearby luminous infrared interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Font, Joan; Rosado, Margarita; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Borlaff, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    We have observed three luminous infrared galaxy systems (LIRGS) which are pairs of interacting galaxies, with the Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-Perot system (GH$\\alpha$FaS) mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, and combined the observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of these systems in CO emission to compare the physical properties of the star formation regions and the molecular gas clouds, and specifically the internal kinematics of the star forming regions. We identified 88 star forming regions in the H$\\alpha$ emission data-cubes, and 27 molecular cloud complexes in the CO emission data-cubes. The surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas are significantly higher in these systems than in non-interacting galaxies and the Galaxy, and are closer to the surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas of extreme star forming galaxies at higher redshifts. The large values of the velocity dis...

  15. A statistical study of H i gas in nearby narrow-line AGN-hosting galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yi-Nan; Wu, Hong, E-mail: zyn@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback could suppress on going star formation in host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) H i survey, the dependence of the H i mass (M{sub H} {sub i}), stellar mass (M{sub *}), and H i-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}) on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is not any evidence to indicate that the AGN activity could increase or decrease either M{sub H} {sub i} or M{sub H} {sub i}/M{sub *}. The position of the cold neutral gas cannot be fixed accurately based only on available H i data, due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN hostings are more easily detected by an H i survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with low cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted must be solved by future hypotheses and observations.

  16. Spiral structure in nearby galaxies I. Sample, data analysis, and overview of results

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, S; Clarke, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper, the first of two, introduces an observational study of spiral structure in galaxies chosen from the SINGS survey. Near infrared (NIR) and optical data are used to produce mass surface density maps, and from these the morphology of the disc is examined. The aim of this work is to characterise the prevalence of spiral structure in this sample and, in the cases where a clear spiral pattern is found, include the findings in a comparative study (reported in paper II). A two-armed (`grand design') spiral pattern is found in approximately half the galaxies studied, including all those that are designated as grand design in the optical, but also including some, but not all, optically flocculent galaxies. It is found that the level of non-axisymmetric structure in the galaxies' mass distributions is only modestly higher in those galaxies that are classified as `grand design' compared with those that are not, implying that non-grand design galaxies possess significant power in higher order modes. There is n...

  17. Interstellar Medium Oxygen Abundances of Dwarf Irregular Galaxies in Centaurus A and Nearby Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Henry; Grebel, E K; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11481.x

    2008-01-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopy of 35 H II regions from eight dwarf galaxies in the Centaurus A group. [O III]4363 A is detected in ESO272-G025 and ESO324-G024, and direct oxygen abundances of 12+log(O/H) = 7.76 +/- 0.09 and 7.94 +/- 0.11 are derived, respectively. For the remaining galaxies, abundances are derived using common bright-line methods. To compare the influence of group environments on dwarf galaxies, we have also gathered data for additional dwarf irregular galaxies from the Cen A and the Sculptor groups from the literature. We have examined possible relationships between oxygen abundance, gas fraction, effective chemical yield, and tidal indices. Despite large positive tidal indices for a number of Cen A dwarfs in the present sample, there is no clear separation between galaxies with positive tidal indices and galaxies with negative tidal indices in the luminosity-metallicity, metallicity-gas fraction, and metallicity-tidal index diagrams. The H I surface mass density decreases with i...

  18. A Statistical Study of H I Gas in Nearby Narrow-Line AGN-Hosting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi-Nan

    2015-01-01

    As a quenching mechanism, AGN feedback could suppress on-going star formation in their host galaxies. On the basis of a sample of galaxies selected from ALFALFA HI survey, the dependence of their HI mass M[HI], stellar mass M[*] & HI-to-stellar mass ratio M[HI]/M[*] on various tracers of AGN activity are presented and analyzed in this paper. Almost all the AGN-hostings in this sample are gas-rich galaxies, and there is no any evidence to be shown to indicate that the AGN activity could increase/decrease either M[HI] or M[HI]/M[*]. The cold neutral gas can not be fixed positions accurately just based on available HI data due to the large beam size of ALFALFA survey. In addition, even though AGN-hostings are more easily detected by HI survey compared with absorption line galaxies, these two types of galaxies show similar star formation history. If an AGN-hosting would ultimately evolve into an old red galaxy with few cold gas, then when and how the gas has been exhausted have to be solved by future hypothes...

  19. Kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas in nearby luminous infrared interacting galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John; Font, Joan; Rosado, Margarita; Camps-Fariña, Artemi; Borlaff, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have observed three luminous infrared galaxy systems which are pairs of interacting galaxies, with the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot system mounted on the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, and combined the observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations of these systems in CO emission to compare the physical properties of the star formation regions and the molecular gas clouds, and specifically the internal kinematics of the star-forming regions. We identified 88 star-forming regions in the Hα emission data cubes, and 27 molecular cloud complexes in the CO emission data cubes. The surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas are significantly higher in these systems than in non-interacting galaxies and the Galaxy, and are closer to the surface densities of the star formation rate and the molecular gas of extreme star-forming galaxies at higher redshifts. The large values of the velocity dispersion also show the enhanced gas surface density. The H II regions are situated on the SFR - σv envelope, and so are also in virial equilibrium. Since the virial parameter decreases with the surface densities of both the star formation rate and the molecular gas, we claim that the clouds presented here are gravitationally dominated rather than being in equilibrium with the external pressure.

  20. Modelling galaxy spectra in presence of interstellar dust-III. From nearby galaxies to the distant Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cassarà, Letizia P; Chiosi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Improving upon the standard evolutionary population synthesis (EPS) technique, we present spectrophotometric models of galaxies whose morphology goes from spherical structures to discs, properly accounting for the effect of dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). These models enclose three main physical components: the diffuse ISM composed by gas and dust, the complexes of molecular clouds (MCs) where active star formation occurs and the stars of any age and chemical composition. These models are based on robust evolutionary chemical models that provide the total amount of gas and stars present at any age and that are adjusted in order to match the gross properties of galaxies of different morphological type. We have employed the results for the properties of the ISM presented in Piovan, Tantalo & Chiosi (2006a) and the single stellar populations calculated by Cassar\\`a et al. (2013) to derive the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies going from pure bulge to discs passing through a number of co...

  1. Alfalfa discovery of the nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy Leo P. IV. Distance measurement from LBT optical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: rhode@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H I and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with both active star formation and an underlying older population, as well as an extremely low oxygen abundance. Here, we measure the distance to Leo P by applying the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) distance method to photometry of the resolved stellar population from new Large Binocular Telescope V and I band imaging. We measure a distance modulus of 26.19{sub −0.50}{sup +0.17} mag corresponding to a distance of 1.72{sub −0.40}{sup +0.14} Mpc. Although our photometry reaches 3 mag below the TRGB, the sparseness of the red giant branch yields higher uncertainties on the lower limit of the distance. Leo P is outside the Local Group with a distance and velocity consistent with the local Hubble flow. While located in a very low-density environment, Leo P lies within ∼0.5 Mpc of a loose association of dwarf galaxies which include NGC 3109, Antlia, Sextans A, and Sextans B, and 1.1 Mpc away from its next nearest neighbor, Leo A. Leo P is one of the lowest metallicity star-forming galaxies known in the nearby universe, comparable in metallicity to I Zw 18 and DDO 68, but with stellar characteristics similar to dwarf spheriodals (dSphs) in the Local Volume such as Carina, Sextans, and Leo II. Given its physical properties and isolation, Leo P may provide an evolutionary link between gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and dSphs that have fallen into a Local Group environment and been stripped of their gas.

  2. The radio properties of composite liner/H II galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, ME; Barthel, PD; Ho, LC

    2002-01-01

    Arcsecond-resolution VLA observations newly obtained as well as published of 40 nearby galaxies are discussed, completing a study of the radio properties of a magnitude-limited sample of nearby galaxies of the composite LINER/H II type. Our results reveal an overall detection rate of at least 25% ac

  3. Optical depth estimates and effective critical densities of dense gas tracers in the inner parts of nearby galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Donaire, M. J.; Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Cormier, D.; Gallagher, M.; Usero, A.; Bolatto, A.; Colombo, D.; García-Burillo, S.; Hughes, A.; Kramer, C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Meier, D. S.; Murphy, E.; Pety, J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schinnerer, E.; Schruba, A.; Tomičić, N.; Zschaechner, L.

    2017-04-01

    High critical density molecular lines like HCN (1-0) or HCO+ (1-0) represent our best tool to study currently star-forming, dense molecular gas at extragalactic distances. The optical depth of these lines is a key ingredient to estimate the effective density required to excite emission. However, constraints on this quantity are even scarcer in the literature than measurements of the high-density tracers themselves. Here, we combine new observations of HCN, HCO+ and HNC (1-0) and their optically thin isotopologues H13CN, H13CO+ and HN13C (1-0) to measure isotopologue line ratios. We use IRAM 30-m observations from the large programme EMPIRE and new Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array observations, which together target six nearby star-forming galaxies. Using spectral stacking techniques, we calculate or place strong upper limits on the HCN/H13CN, HCO+/H13CO+ and HNC/HN13C line ratios in the inner parts of these galaxies. Under simple assumptions, we use these to estimate the optical depths of HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) to be τ ∼ 2-11 in the active, inner regions of our targets. The critical densities are consequently lowered to values between 5 and 20 × 105 cm-3, 1 and 3 × 105 cm-3 and 9 × 104 cm-3 for HCN, HCO+ and HNC, respectively. We study the impact of having different beam-filling factors, η, on these estimates and find that the effective critical densities decrease by a factor of η _{12}/η _{13} τ_{12}. A comparison to existing work in NGC 5194 and NGC 253 shows the HCN/H13CN and HCO+/H13CO+ ratios in agreement with our measurements within the uncertainties. The same is true for studies in other environments such as the Galactic Centre or nuclear regions of active galactic nucleus dominated nearby galaxies.

  4. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING). III. The Dependence of Atomic and Molecular Gas Surface Densities on Galaxy Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Tony; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Blitz, Leo; Rosolowsky, Erik; Bigiel, Frank; Fisher, David B; Ott, Jürgen; Rahman, Nurur; Vogel, Stuart N; Walter, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the correlation between CO and HI emission in 18 nearby galaxies from the CARMA Survey Toward IR-Bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) at sub-kpc and kpc scales. Our sample, spanning a wide range in stellar mass and metallicity, reveals evidence for a metallicity dependence of the HI column density measured in regions exhibiting CO emission. Such a dependence is predicted by the equilibrium model of McKee & Krumholz, which balances H_2 formation and dissociation. The observed HI column density is often smaller than predicted by the model, an effect we attribute to unresolved clumping, although values close to the model prediction are also seen. We do not observe HI column densities much larger than predicted, as might be expected were there a diffuse HI component that did not contribute to H_2 shielding. We also find that the H_2 column density inferred from CO correlates strongly with the stellar surface density, suggesting that the local supply of molecular gas is tightly regulated by the stella...

  5. Chandra survey of nearby highly inclined disk galaxies -- IV: New insights into the working of stellar feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q Daniel; Jiang, Xiaochuan; Fang, Taotao

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy evolution is regulated by the interplay between galactic disks and their surrounding medium. We study this interplay by examining how the galactic coronal emission efficiency of stellar feedback depends on the (surface and specific) star formation rates (SFRs) and other parameters for a sample of 52 Chandra-observed nearby highly inclined disk galaxies. We first measure the star forming galactic disk sizes, as well as the SFRs of these galaxies, using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, and then show that 1) the specific 0.5-2~keV luminosity of the coronal emission correlates with the specific SFR in a {\\sl sub-linear} fashion: on average, $L_X/L_K \\propto (SFR/M_*)^{\\Gamma}$ with $\\Gamma =0.29\\pm0.12$; 2) the efficiency of the emission $ L_X/SFR$ decreases with increasing surface SFR ($I_{SFR}$; $\\Gamma = -0.44\\pm0.12$); and 3) the characteristic temperature of the X-ray-emitting plasma weakly correlates with $I_{SFR}$ ($\\Gamma = 0.08\\pm0.04$). These results, somewhat surprising and ant...

  6. The BaLROG project - I. Quantifying the influence of bars on the kinematics of nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Seidel, M K; Martínez-Valpuesta, I; Díaz-García, S; Laurikainen, E; Salo, H; Knapen, J H

    2015-01-01

    We present the BaLROG (Bars in Low Redshift Optical Galaxies) sample of 16 morphologically distinct barred spirals to characterise observationally the influence of bars on nearby galaxies. Each galaxy is a mosaic of several pointings observed with the IFU spectrograph SAURON leading to a tenfold sharper spatial resolution (~100 pc) compared to ongoing IFU surveys. In this paper we focus on the kinematic properties. We calculate the bar strength Qb from classical torque analysis using 3.6 {\\mu}m Spitzer (S4G) images, but also develop a new method based solely on the kinematics. A correlation between the two measurements is found and backed up by N-body simulations, verifying the measurement of Qb . We find that bar strengths from ionised gas kinematics are ~2.5 larger than those measured from stellar kinematics and that stronger bars have enhanced influence on inner kinematic features. We detect that stellar angular momentum "dips" at 0.2$\\pm$0.1 bar lengths and half of our sample exhibits an anti-correlation ...

  7. Nearby supernova host galaxies from the CALIFA Survey: I. Sample, data analysis, and correlation to star-forming regions

    CERN Document Server

    Galbany, L; Mourão, A M; Rodrigues, M; Flores, H; García-Benito, R; Mast, D; Mendoza, M A; Sánchez, S F; Badenes, C; Barrera-Ballesteros, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Falcón-Barroso, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Gomes, J M; Delgado, R M González; Kehrig, C; Lyubenova, M; López-Sánchez, A R; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A; Marino, R A; Meidt, S; Mollá, M; Papaderos, P; Pérez-Torres, M A; Rosales-Ortega, F F; van de Ven, G

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We use optical IFS of nearby SN host galaxies provided by the CALIFA Survey with the goal of finding correlations in the environmental parameters at the location of different SN types. We recover the sequence in association of different SN types to the star-forming regions by using several indicators of the ongoing and recent SF related to both the ionized gas and the stellar populations. While the total ongoing SF is on average the same for the three SN types, SNe Ibc/IIb tend to happen closer to star-forming regions and occur in higher SF density locations compared to SNe II and SNe~Ia, the latter showing the weakest correlation. SNe~Ia host galaxies have on average masses that are $\\sim$0.3-0.8~dex higher than CC SNe hosts due to a larger fraction of old stellar populations in the SNe~Ia hosts. Using the recent SN~Ia delay-time distribution and the SFHs of the galaxies, we show that the SN~Ia hosts in our sample should presently produce a factor 2 more SNe~Ia than the CC~SN hosts. Since both typ...

  8. Optical Luminosities and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Nearby Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M

    1999-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 105 clusters having virial mass homogeneously estimated and for which galaxy magnitudes are available with a well defined high degree of completeness. In particular, we consider a subsample of 89 clusters with B_j band galaxy magnitudes taken from the COSMOS/UKST Southern Sky Object Catalogue. We compute cluster luminosities L_{B_j} within several clustercentric distances and within the virialization radius R_{vir}. In particular, we use the luminosity function and background counts estimated by Lumsden et al. (1997) on the Edinburgh/Durham Southern Galaxy Catalogue. We analyze the effect of several uncertainties connected to photometric data, fore/background removal, and extrapolation below the completeness limit of the photometry, in order to assess the robustness of our cluster luminosity estimates. We draw our results on the relations between luminosity and dynamical quantities from the COSMOS sample by considering mass and luminosities determined within the virialization radius. We...

  9. HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, M.; Weisz, D.; Grocholski, A.; Dolphin, A.; van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ˜1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ˜4-5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ˜ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  10. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XII. Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon; Jordán, Andrés; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    2016-10-01

    Diffuse star clusters (DSCs) are old and dynamically hot stellar systems that have lower surface brightness and more extended morphology than globular clusters (GCs). Using the images from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/ACS Fornax Cluster Survey, we find that 12 out of 43 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Fornax Cluster host significant numbers of DSCs. Together with literature data from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, where 18 out of 100 ETGs were found to host DSCs, we systematically study the relationship of DSCs with GCs and their host galaxy environment. Two DSC hosts are post-merger galaxies, with most of the other hosts either having low mass or showing clear disk components. We find that while the number ratio of DSCs to GCs is nearly constant in massive galaxies, the DSC-to-GC ratio becomes systematically higher in lower-mass hosts. This suggests that DSCs may be more efficient at forming (or surviving) in low-density environments. DSC hosts are not special either in their position in the cluster or in the galactic color-magnitude diagram. Why some disk and low-mass galaxies host DSCs while others do not is still a puzzle, however. The mean ages of DSC hosts and nonhosts are similar at similar masses, implying that formation efficiency rather than survival is the reason behind different DSC number fractions in ETGs.

  11. The RINGS Survey: High-Resolution H-alpha Velocity Fields of Nearby Spiral Galaxies with the SALT Fabry-Perot

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Carl J; Williams, T B; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained high-spatial-resolution spectrophotometric data on several nearby spiral galaxies with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) Fabry-P\\'erot interferometer on the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) as a part of the RSS Imaging spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS). We have successfully reduced two tracks of Fabry-P\\'erot data for the galaxy NGC 2280 to produce a velocity field of the H-alpha line of excited hydrogen. We have modeled these data with the DiskFit modeling software and found these models to be in excellent agreement both with previous measurements in the literature and with our lower-resolution HI velocity field of the same galaxy. Despite this good agreement, small regions exist where the difference between the H-alpha and HI velocities is larger than would be expected from typical dispersions. We investigate these regions of high velocity difference and offer possible explanations for their existence.

  12. The Star Formation Rate - Dense Gas Relation in the Nuclei of Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between the star formation rate (SFR) and dense molecular gas mass in the nuclei of galaxies. To do this, we utilize the observed 850 micron luminosity as a proxy for the infrared luminosity and SFR, and correlate this with the observed CO (J=3-2) luminosity. We find tentative evidence that the LIR-CO (J=3-2) index is similar to the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) index (N ~ 1.5) in the central ~1.7 kpc of galaxies, and flattens to a roughly linear index when including emission from the entire galaxy. This result may imply that the volumetric Schmidt relation is the underlying driver behind the observed SFR-dense gas correlations, and provides tentative confirmation for recent numerical models. While the data exclude the possibility of a constant LIR-CO (J=3-2) index for both galaxy nuclei and global measurements at the ~80% confidence level, the considerable error bars cannot preclude alternative interpretations.

  13. VLT/UVES abundances in four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies. I. Nucleosynthesis and abundance ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetrone, M; Venn, KA; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, [No Value; Kaufer, A

    2003-01-01

    We have used the Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) on Kueyen (UT2) of the Very Large Telescope to take spectra of 15 individual red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina, and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph's). We measure the abundances of alpha-, iron peak, first s-process, second s-pr

  14. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies : An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). I. Introduction to the Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new survey to map the radio continuum halos of a sample of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz in all polarization products. The survey is exploiting the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array) in a varie

  15. Too Young to Shine? Chandra analysis of X-ray emission in nearby primordial galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara; Henry, Alaina L.; Yukita, Mihoko; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Lehmer, Bret; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The 2—10 keV X-ray emission in star-forming galaxies traces the population of high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and is a function of both the star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity, according to several studies. Theoretical studies predict that stars retain more mass over their lifetimes due to weaker stellar winds in lower metallicity environments, and therefore, produce more luminous and numerous HMXBs. We present Chandra analysis for a local sample of primordial galaxies, Hα emitters (HAEs). Our selection is based on large Hα equivalent widths (EW(Hα)>500Å, suggestive of bursts of star formation within 6 Myr), SFR >1 M⊙/yr and low metallicities (Z extreme youth (young stellar age) of the galaxies, where HMXBs may not have fully formed. Our investigation of HMXB formation as a function of stellar age, metallicity and SFR offers important refinements to the X-ray emission from the first galaxies and on predictions of black hole binaries, which are precursors of gravitational wave sources.

  16. Star Formation in Nearby Early-Type Galaxies: The Radio Continuum Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nyland, Kristina; Wrobel, Joan M; Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Alatalo, Katherine; Morganti, Raffaella; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P T; McDermid, Richard M; Crocker, Alison F; Oosterloo, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We present a 1.4 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) study of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the volume- and magnitude-limited ATLAS-3D survey. The radio morphologies of these ETGs at a resolution of 5" are diverse and include sources that are compact on sub-kpc scales, resolved structures similar to those seen in star-forming spiral galaxies, and kpc-scale radio jets/lobes associated with active nuclei. We compare the 1.4 GHz, molecular gas, and infrared (IR) properties of these ETGs. The most CO-rich ATLAS-3D ETGs have radio luminosities consistent with extrapolations from H_2-mass-derived star formation rates from studies of late-type galaxies. These ETGs also follow the radio-IR correlation. However, ETGs with lower molecular gas masses tend to have less radio emission relative to their CO and IR emission compared to spirals. The fraction of galaxies in our sample with high IR-radio ratios is much higher than in previous studies, and cannot be explained by a systematic underestimation o...

  17. The Pa{\\alpha} Luminosity Function of HII Regions in Nearby Galaxies from HST/NICMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Kennicutt, Robert C; Schinnerer, Eva; Sofue, Yoshiaki; Komugi, Shinya; Egusa, Fumi; Scoville, Nicholas Z

    2013-01-01

    The HII region luminosity function (LF) is an important tool for deriving the birthrates and mass distribution of OB associations, and is an excellent tracer of the newly formed massive stars and associations. To date, extensive work (predominantly in H{\\alpha}) has been done from the ground, which is hindered by dust extinction and the severe blending of adjacent (spatially or in projection) HII regions. Reliably measuring the properties of HII regions requires a linear resolution <40 pc, but analyses satisfying this requirement have been done only in a handful of galaxies, so far. As the first space-based work using a galaxy sample, we have selected 12 galaxies from our HST NICMOS Pa{\\alpha} survey and studied the luminosity function and size distribution of HII regions both in individual galaxies and cumulatively, using a virtually extinction-free tracer of the ionizing photon rate. The high angular resolution and low sensitivity to diffuse emission of NICMOS also offer an advantage over ground-based im...

  18. Infall of nearby galaxies into the Virgo cluster as traced with HST

    CERN Document Server

    Karachentsev, Igor D; Wu, Po-Feng; Shaya, Edward J; Dolphin, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    We measured the Tip of the Red Giant Branch distances to nine galaxies in the direction to the Virgo cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. These distances put seven galaxies: GR 34, UGC 7512, NGC 4517, IC 3583, NGC 4600, VCC 2037 and KDG 215 in front of the Virgo, and two galaxies: IC 3023, KDG 177 likely inside the cluster. Distances and radial velocities of the galaxies situated between us and the Virgo core clearly exhibit the infall phenomenon toward the cluster. In the case of spherically symmetric radial infall we estimate the radius of the "zero-velocity surface" to be (7.2+-0.7) Mpc that yields the total mass of the Virgo cluster to be (8.0+-2.3) X 10^{14} M_sun in good agreement with its virial mass estimates. We conclude that the Virgo outskirts does not contain significant amounts of dark matter beyond its virial radius.

  19. Infall of nearby galaxies into the Virgo cluster as traced with Hubble space telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karachentsev, Igor D. [Special Astrophysical Observatory RAS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation); Tully, R. Brent; Wu, Po-Feng [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shaya, Edward J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: ikar@sao.ru [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We measured the tip of the red giant branch distances to nine galaxies in the direction to the Virgo cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope. These distances put seven galaxies (GR 34, UGC 7512, NGC 4517, IC 3583, NGC 4600, VCC 2037, and KDG 215) in front of Virgo and two galaxies (IC 3023 and KDG 177) likely inside the cluster. Distances and radial velocities of the galaxies situated between us and the Virgo core clearly exhibit the infall phenomenon toward the cluster. In the case of spherically symmetric radial infall, we estimate the radius of the 'zero-velocity surface' to be (7.2 ± 0.7) Mpc, which yields a total mass of the Virgo cluster of (8.0 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 14} M {sub ☉}, in good agreement with its virial mass estimates. We conclude that the Virgo outskirts do not contain significant amounts of dark matter beyond their virial radius.

  20. Dark energy in six nearby galaxy flows: Synthetic phase diagrams and self-similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Kanter, A. A.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    Outward flows of galaxies are observed around groups of galaxies on spatial scales of about 1 Mpc, and around galaxy clusters on scales of 10 Mpc. Using recent data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have constructed two synthetic velocity-distance phase diagrams: one for four flows on galaxy-group scales and the other for two flows on cluster scales. It has been shown that, in both cases, the antigravity produced by the cosmic dark-energy background is stronger than the gravity produced by the matter in the outflow volume. The antigravity accelerates the flows and introduces a phase attractor that is common to all scales, corresponding to a linear velocity-distance relation (the local Hubble law). As a result, the bundle of outflow trajectories mostly follow the trajectory of the attractor. A comparison of the two diagrams reveals the universal self-similar nature of the outflows: their gross phase structure in dimensionless variables is essentially independent of their physical spatial scales, which differ by approximately a factor of 10 in the two diagrams.

  1. Ionized Gas Velocities from Multi-slit Spectroscopy for Nearby, Edge-on Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Catharine J.; Walterbos, R. A.; Rand, R. J.; Heald, G.; HALOGAS Team, [Unknown

    Extra-planar (EP) gas in several spiral galaxies shows a decrease in rotational velocity with increasing height above the disk. The majority of this EP gas likely originates from disk-halo cycling driven by star formation in the disk via galactic fountains, which predict a lagging EP component.

  2. LEGUS: A Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey of Nearby Galaxies with HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice C.; Calzetti, D.; Adamo, A.; Aloisi, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C. A.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Da Silva, R. L.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Gouliermis, D.; Grebel, E.; Herrero-Davo`, A.; Hilbert, B.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R.; Kim, H.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D. J.; Martin, C. D.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Walterbos, R. A.; Whitmore, B. C.; Wofford, A.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce LEGUS, a Hubble Space Telescope program which will provide a critical missing piece in our efforts to solve the star formation puzzle: a robust characterization of the links between star formation on two fundamental scales, those of individual young stars, stellar clusters and associations over parsec scales, and of galaxy disks over kiloparsec scales. As a 154-orbit Treasury survey, LEGUS has begun obtaining NUV,U,B,V,I imaging of 50 star-forming galaxies, at distances of 4-12 Mpc. The dataset is guaranteed to have exceptional legacy value, as the targets have been carefully selected to uniformly sample a full range of global galaxy properties, as well as have the largest suites of multi-wavelength ancillary data available. The high-resolution HST NUV and U imaging are key for deriving accurate recent (formation histories from resolved massive stars, along with the ages and masses for complete samples of star clusters and associations in each galaxy. We present an overview of the sample, the observations, and provide a first look at the science that the LEGUS team is pursuing. A companion poster presents the status of the program, and a more detailed description of the extensive data products being developed which will seed community science, and provide a foundation for studies of star formation with ALMA and JWST.

  3. Star formation in nearby early-type galaxies: the radio continuum perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M.; Wrobel, Joan M.; Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Alatalo, Katherine; Morganti, Raffaella; Duc, Pierre-Alain; de Zeeuw, P. T.; McDermid, Richard M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Oosterloo, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We present a 1.4 GHz Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) study of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey. The radio morphologies of these ETGs at a resolution of θFWHM ≈ 5 arcsec include sources that are compact on sub-kpc scales, resolved structures similar to those seen i

  4. Surface photometry and radial color gradients of nearby luminous early-type galaxies in SDSS Stripe 82

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Zhou Jiang; Song Huang; Qiu-Sheng Gu

    2011-01-01

    We make use of the images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 (Stripe 82) to present an analysis of r band surface brightness profiles and radial color gradients (g-r, u-r) in our sample of 111 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). Thanks to the Stripe 82 images, each of which is co-added from about 50 single frames, we are able to pay special attention to the low-surface-brightness areas (LSB areas) of the galaxies. The LSB areas affect the Sérsic fittings and concentration indices by making both of the indices less than the typical values for ETGs. In the Sérsic fits to all the surface brightness profiles, we found some Sérsic indices that range from 1.5 to 2.5,much smaller than those of typical de Vaucouleur profiles and relatively close to those of exponential disks, and some others much larger than four but still with accurate fitting. Two galaxies cannot be fitted with a single Sérsic profile, but once we try double Sérsic profiles, the fittings are improved: one with a profile relatively close to the de Vaucouleur law in the inner area and a profile relatively close to an exponential law in the LSB area, the other with a nice fitting in the inner area but still having a failed fitting in the outer area. About 60% of the sample has negative color gradients (red-core) within 1.5Re, much more than the approximately 10% positive ones (bluecore) within the same radius. However, taking into account the LSB areas, we find that the color gradients are not necessarily monotonic: about one third of the red-core (or blue-core) galaxies have positive (or negative) color gradients in the outer areas.So LSB areas not only make ETGs' Sérsic profiles deviate from de Vaucouleur ones and shift to the disk end, but also reveal that quite a number of ETGs have opposite color gradients in inner and outer areas. These outcomes remind us of the necessity of double-Sérsic fitting. These LSB phenomena may be interpreted by mergers and thus have different metallicity

  5. Hubble Space Telescope study of resolved red giant stars in the outer halos of nearby dwarf starburst galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryś, Agnieszka; van der Marel, Roeland P; Aloisi, Alessandra; Annibali, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    [abridged] Aims. We observed the outer parts of NGC 1569 and NGC 4449, two of the closest and strongest dwarf starburst galaxies in the local universe, to characterize their stellar density and populations, and obtain new insights into the structure, formation, and evolution of starburst galaxies and galaxy halos. Methods. We obtained HST/WFPC2 images between 5 and 8 scale radii from the center, along the intermediate and minor axes. We performed point-source photometry to determine color magnitude diagrams of I vs. V-I. We compared the results at different radii, including also our prior HST/ACS results for more centrally located fields. Results. We detect stars in the RGB and TP-AGB (carbon star) phases in all outer fields, but not younger stars such as those present at smaller radii. The RGB star density profile is well fit by either a de Vaucouleurs profile or a power-law profile, but has more stars at large radii than a single exponential. To within the uncertainties, there are no radial gradients in the...

  6. First survey of Wolf-Rayet star populations over the full extension of nearby galaxies observed with CALIFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Caballero, D.; Díaz, A. I.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Kehrig, C.; García-Benito, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; Galbany, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; González Delgado, R. M.; van de Ven, G.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The search of extragalactic regions with conspicuous presence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars outside the Local Group is challenging task owing to the difficulty in detecting their faint spectral features. In this exploratory work, we develop a methodology to perform an automated search of WR signatures through a pixel-by-pixel analysis of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data belonging to the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, CALIFA. This procedure has been applied to a sample of nearby galaxies spanning a wide range of physical, morphological, and environmental properties. This technique allowed us to build the first catalogue of regions rich in WR stars with spatially resolved information, and enabled us to study the properties of these complexes in a two-dimensional (2D) context. The detection technique is based on the identification of the blue WR bump (around He iiλ4686 Å, mainly associated with nitrogen-rich WR stars; WN) and the red WR bump (around C ivλ5808 Å, mainly associated with carbon-rich WR stars; WC) using a pixel-by-pixel analysis that maximizes the number of independent regions within a given galaxy. We identified 44 WR-rich regions with blue bumps distributed in 25 out of a total of 558 galaxies. The red WR bump was identified only in 5 of those regions. Most of the WR regions are located within one effective radius from the galaxy centre, and around one-third are located within ~1 kpc or less from the centre. We found that the majority of the galaxies hosting WR populations in our sample are involved in some kind of interaction process. Half of the host galaxies share some properties with gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts where WR stars, such as potential candidates to the progenitors of GRBs, are found. We also compared the WR properties derived from the CALIFA data with stellar population synthesis models, and confirm that simple star models are generally not able to reproduce the observations. We conclude that other effects, such as

  7. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-forming Galaxy IC 2163

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencson, Jacob E.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E.; Monson, Andrew J.; Masci, Frank J.; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E.; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D.; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D.; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2017-03-01

    SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey—SPIRITS—is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous (M [4.5] = ‑17.1 ± 0.4 mag, Vega) and reddest ([3.6] ‑ [4.5] = 3.0 ± 0.2 mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 (D ≈ 35.5 Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad (≈8400 km s‑1), double-peaked emission line of He i at 1.083 μm, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of ≈200 days. Assuming an A V = 2.2 mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The NIR light curves, however, show some minor discrepancies when compared with SN 2011dh, and the extreme [3.6]–[4.5] color has not been previously observed for any SN IIb. Another luminous (M 4.5 = ‑16.1 ± 0.4 mag) event, SPIRITS 14buu, was serendipitously discovered in the same galaxy. The source displays an optical plateau lasting ≳80 days, and we suggest a scenario similar to the low-luminosity Type IIP SN 2005cs obscured by A V ≈ 1.5 mag. Other classes of IR-luminous transients can likely be ruled out in both cases. If both events are indeed SNe, this may suggest that ≳18% of nearby core-collapse SNe are missed by currently operating optical surveys.

  8. Herschel photometric observations of the nearby low metallicity irregular galaxy NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Hony, S; Sauvage, M; Pohlen, M; Bendo, G J; Auld, R; Baes, M; Barlow, M J; Bock, J J; Boselli, A; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Cortese, L; Davies, J I; Dwek, E; Eales, S A; Elbaz, D; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Gomez, H L; Griffin, M; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Sacchi, N; Schulz, B; Schirm, M R P; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J A; Sundar, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wilson, C D; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present the first Herschel PACS and SPIRE images of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC6822 observed from 70 to 500 mu and clearly resolve the HII regions with PACS and SPIRE. We find that the ratio 250/500 is dependent on the 24 mu surface brightness in NGC6822, which would locally link the heating processes of the coldest phases of dust in the ISM to the star formation activity. We model the SEDs of some regions HII regions and less active regions across the galaxy and find that the SEDs of HII regions show warmer ranges of dust temperatures. We derive very high dust masses when graphite is used in our model to describe carbon dust. Using amorphous carbon, instead, requires less dust mass to account for submm emission due to its lower emissivity properties. This indicates that SED models including Herschel constraints may require different dust properties than commonly used.

  9. GeV emission from the nearby radio galaxy Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekumar, P; Hartman, R C; Nolan, P L; Thompson, D J

    1999-01-01

    EGRET has detected 67 sources associated with active galactic nuclei. With the exception of radio galaxy Cen A, all are classified as belonging to the blazar class of active galactic nuclei. The cumulative exposure from multiple EGRET observations has provided the first clear detection of Centaurus A. Unlike the \\gr blazars seen by EGRET which are believed to exhibit near-alignment of the central jet along the line-of-sight, Cen A provides the first evidence for $>$100 MeV emission from a source with a confirmed large-inclination jet. Although the high-energy emission represents a lower luminosity than most EGRET blazars, with the advent of new more sensitive instruments such as GLAST and VERITAS, the detection of off-axis high-energy emission from more distant radio galaxies is an exciting possibility.

  10. Precise Masses of Black Holes in the Nuclei of Nearby Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braatz, James A., III; Kuo, C.; Greene, J.; Condon, J.; Schenker, M.; Reid, M.; Impellizzeri, V.; Henkel, C.; Zaw, I.; Lo, K. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Most elliptical and bulged spiral galaxies contain a nuclear black hole having a mass that correlates with the bulge velocity dispersion (σ). This M-σ relation suggests there is a strong link between the formation of the nuclear black hole and the formation of its host galaxy. The relationship, however, is poorly constrained for low-mass (measurements. In addition, optically measured BH masses can be uncertain by a factor of a few. Water vapor masers in the nuclei of AGN can trace the rotation curve of gas directly in the black hole's sphere of influence, and provide precise black hole masses (uncertainty measurements of black hole masses. Here we present recent VLBI maser maps and black hole masses measured as part of this program.

  11. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquej, P. [Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Villafranca del Castillo, E-28850, Madrid (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), C/Vía Láctea, E-38205, La Laguna (Spain); Hönig, S. F. [UCSB Department of Physics, Broida Hall 2015H, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Roche, P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 North A' ohoku, HI 96720 (United States); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Packham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star-formation rate (SFR) and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate, M-dot {sub BH}) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas-forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (∼0.''4-0.''8) mid-infrared (8-13 μm) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalog. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of ∼65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and we used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 μm PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are, on average, five times lower than those measured in circumnuclear regions of 600 pc in size (median value). However, the projected nuclear SFR densities (median value of 22 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) are a factor of 20 higher than those measured on circumnuclear scales. This indicates that the SF activity per unit area in the central ∼65 pc region of Seyfert galaxies is much higher than at larger distances from their nuclei. We studied the connection between the nuclear SFR and M-dot {sub BH} and showed that numerical simulations reproduce our observed relation fairly well.

  12. Nuclear star formation activity and black hole accretion in nearby Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Hönig, S F; Caballero, A Hernán; Roche, P F; Almeida, C Ramos; Mason, R E; Díaz-Santos, T; Levenson, N A; Aretxaga, I; Espinosa, J M Rodríguez; Packham, C

    2013-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational works indicate the presence of a correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the active galactic nuclei (AGN) luminosity (and, therefore, the black hole accretion rate) of Seyfert galaxies. This suggests a physical connection between the gas forming stars on kpc scales and the gas on sub-pc scales that is feeding the black hole. We compiled the largest sample of Seyfert galaxies to date with high angular resolution (0.4-0.8 arcsec) mid-infrared (8-13 micron) spectroscopy. The sample includes 29 Seyfert galaxies drawn from the AGN Revised Shapley-Ames catalogue. At a median distance of 33 Mpc, our data allow us to probe nuclear regions on scales of 65 pc (median value). We found no general evidence of suppression of the 11.3 micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the vicinity of these AGN, and used this feature as a proxy for the SFR. We detected the 11.3 micron PAH feature in the nuclear spectra of 45% of our sample. The derived nuclear SFRs are...

  13. Toward the Distribution of Orbital Parameters of Nearby Major Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi Karvani, Seyed Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis project our goal is to measure the initial conditions of a sample of ~20 local disk-disk major galaxy mergers. Measuring the orbital parameters is possible by findingthe most similar galaxy merger simulation to the morphology and kinematics of the data.We have developed an automated modeling method based on the Identikit software package,which also estimates the uncertainty of the measured initial conditions. We tested our modeling method using an independent set of GADGET simulations, and we acquired reliable results onprograde merger systems. We observed the Hα kinematics of our sample using SparsePak IFU on the WIYN telescope at KPNO, and DIS on the 3.5m telescope at APO. For the few merger systems in our sample with archival HI data available, we compare the use of HI vs Hα as the kinematic tracer. This work lays the ground-work for the analysis of larger statistical samples of mergers from on-going IFU galaxy survey such as MaNGA.

  14. Integral field spectroscopy of a sample of nearby galaxies: II. Properties of the H ii regions

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, S F; Marino, R A; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Vilchez, J M; Kennicutt, R C; Diaz, A I; Mast, D; Monreal-Ibero, A; Garcia-Benito, R; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Perez, E; Delgado, R Gonzalez; Husemann, B; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Fernandes, R Cid; Kehrig, C; Walcher, C J; de Paz, A Gil; Ellis, S

    2012-01-01

    In this work we analyze the spectroscopic properties of a large number of H ii regions, \\sim2600, located in 38 galaxies. The sample of galaxies has been assembled from the face-on spirals in the PINGS survey and a sample described in M\\'armol-Queralt\\'o (2011, henceforth Paper I). All the galaxies were observed using Integral Field Spectroscopy with a similar setup, covering their optical extension up to \\sim2.4 effective radii within a wavelength range from \\sim3700 to \\sim6900{\\AA}. We develop a new automatic procedure to detect H ii regions, based on the contrast of the H{\\alpha} intensity maps. Once detected, the procedure provides us with the integrated spectra of each individual segmented region. A well-tested automatic decoupling procedure has been applied to remove the underlying stellar population, deriving the main proper- ties of the strongest emission lines in the considered wavelength range (covering from [O ii] {\\lambda}3727 to [S ii] {\\lambda}6731). A final catalogue of the spectroscopic prope...

  15. Identifying the chemistry of the dust around AGB stars in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny

    2016-01-01

    Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are significant contributors to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies. It is therefore essential to constrain the AGB contribution to the dust budget in galaxies. Recent estimates of the total dust injection rate to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC; Riebel et al. 2012, Boyer et al. 2012, Srinivasan et al. in prep) have used data from the Spitzer Space Telescope SAGE (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution; Meixner et al. 2006) and SAGE-SMC (Gordon et al. 2011) surveys. When sorted by dust chemistry, the data allow for a comparison of O-rich and carbonaceous dust-production rates. In the LMC, for instance, the rate of dust production from carbon stars is about two and a half times that from oxygen-rich AGBs. A reliable determination of the fractional contributions of the two types of dust would serve as input to models of chemical evolution. However, the Spitzer IRAC photometric bands do not sufficiently probe the characteri...

  16. Bottom-heavy initial mass function in a nearby compact L*-galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Läsker, Ronald; van de Ven, Glenn; Ferreras, Ignacio; La Barbera, Francesco; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    We present orbit-based dynamical models and stellar population analysis of galaxy SDSS J151741.75-004217.6, a low-redshift (z=0.116) early-type galaxy (ETG) which, for its moderate luminosity, has an exceptionally high velocity dispersion. We aim to determine the central black hole mass (M_bh), the i-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, and the low-mass slope of the initial mass function (IMF). Combining constraints from HST imaging and longslit kinematic data with those from fitting the SDSS spectrum with stellar populations models of varying IMF, we show that this galaxy has a large fraction of low-mass stars, significantly higher than implied even by a Salpeter IMF. We exclude a Chabrier/Kroupa as well as a unimodal (i.e. single-segment) IMF, while a bimodal (low-mass tapered) shape is consistent with the dynamical constraints. Thereby, our study demonstrates that a very bottom-heavy IMF can exist even in an L* ETG. We place an upper limit of ~10^{10.5}M_sun on M_bh, which still leaves open the possibility of...

  17. The ACS Fornax Cluster Survey. XII. Diffuse Star Clusters in Early-type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yiqing; Lim, Sungsoon; Jordán, Andrés; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Pattarakijwanich, Petchara

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse star clusters (DSCs) are old and dynamically hot stellar systems that have lower surface brightness and more extended morphology than globular clusters (GCs). Using the images from HST/ACS Fornax Cluster Survey, we find that 12 out of 43 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Fornax cluster host significant numbers of DSCs. Together with literature data from the HST/ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, where 18 out of 100 ETGs were found to host DSCs, we systematically study the relationship of DSCs with GCs, and their host galaxy environment. Two DSC hosts are post-merger galaxies, with most of the other hosts either having low mass or showing clear disk components. We find that while the number ratio of DSCs to GCs is nearly constant in massive galaxies, the DSC-to-GC ratio becomes systematically higher in lower mass hosts. This suggests that DSCs may be more efficient at forming (or surviving) in low density environments. DSC hosts are not special either in their position in the cluster, or in the galactic color-m...

  18. Mortality and dust expulsion in early phases of stellar clusters. Evidence from NIR photometry of nearby, spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grosboel, P

    2013-01-01

    It is often argued that young stellar clusters suffer a significant infant mortality that is partly related to the expulsion of dust and gas in their early phases caused by radiation pressure from hot stars and supernovae. Near-infrared (J-K)-Mk diagrams of young stellar clusters in nearby spiral galaxies show a bi-modal distribution that is consistent with a fast decline of their intrinsic extinction at an early epoch. The distinct features in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) and the fast change of colors for the youngest clusters allow us to place constraints on their early evolutionary phases, including the time scale for the decreasing extinction caused for instance by gas and dust expulsion. Monte Carlo simulations of cluster populations were performed using the power-law distribution function g(M, t) ~ M^a t^gam. Integrated colors were computed from Starburst99 models. The simulated near-infrared CMD were compared with those observed for six grand-design, spiral galaxies using statistical goodness-of-...

  19. SN 2011dh: DISCOVERY OF A TYPE IIb SUPERNOVA FROM A COMPACT PROGENITOR IN THE NEARBY GALAXY M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Sternberg, Assaf; Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Ofek, Eran O.; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Li, Weidong; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Poznanski, Dovi [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [Department of Physics (Astrophysics), University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gorbikov, Evgeny, E-mail: iair.arcavi@weizmann.ac.il [The Wise Observatory and the Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, the Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); and others

    2011-12-15

    On 2011 May 31 UT a supernova (SN) exploded in the nearby galaxy M51 (the Whirlpool Galaxy). We discovered this event using small telescopes equipped with CCD cameras and also detected it with the Palomar Transient Factory survey, rapidly confirming it to be a Type II SN. Here, we present multi-color ultraviolet through infrared photometry which is used to calculate the bolometric luminosity and a series of spectra. Our early-time observations indicate that SN 2011dh resulted from the explosion of a relatively compact progenitor star. Rapid shock-breakout cooling leads to relatively low temperatures in early-time spectra, compared to explosions of red supergiant stars, as well as a rapid early light curve decline. Optical spectra of SN 2011dh are dominated by H lines out to day 10 after explosion, after which He I lines develop. This SN is likely a member of the cIIb (compact IIb) class, with progenitor radius larger than that of SN 2008ax and smaller than the eIIb (extended IIb) SN 1993J progenitor. Our data imply that the object identified in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images at the SN location is possibly a companion to the progenitor or a blended source, and not the progenitor star itself, as its radius ({approx}10{sup 13} cm) would be highly inconsistent with constraints from our post-explosion spectra.

  20. Using the Ca II Triplet to Trace Abundance Variations in Individual Red Giant Branch stars in Three Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E; Cole, A A; Pasquini, L; Gilmozzi, R; Gallagher, J S; Tolstoy, Eline; Irwin, Michael J.; Cole, Andrew A.

    2001-01-01

    Spectroscopic abundance determinations for stars spanning a Hubble time in age are necessary in order to unambiguously determine the evolutionary histories of galaxies. Using FORS1 in Multi-Object Spectroscopy mode on ANTU (UT1) at the ESO-VLT on Paranal we obtained near infrared spectra from which we measured the equivalent widths of the two strongest Ca II triplet lines to determine metal abundances for a sample of Red Giant Branch stars, selected from ESO-NTT optical (I, V-I) photometry of three nearby, Local Group, galaxies: the Sculptor Dwarf Spheroidal, the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal and the Dwarf Irregular NGC 6822. The summed equivalent width of the two strongest lines in the Ca II triplet absorption line feature, centered at 8500A, can be readily converted into an [Fe/H] abundance using the previously established calibrations by Armandroff & Da Costa (1991) and Rutledge, Hesser & Stetson (1997). We measured metallicities for 37 stars in Sculptor, 32 stars in Fornax, and 23 stars in NGC 6822, yie...

  1. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VI: The distribution of gas and star formation in M81

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Heiner, J S; Wilson, C D; Warren, B E; Allen, R J; Azimlu, M; Barmby, P; Bendo, G J; Comerón, S; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vlahakis, C; van der Werf, P

    2010-01-01

    We present a first complete 12 CO J=3-2 map of M81, observed as part of the Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey being carried out at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We detect 9 regions of significant CO emission located at different positions within the spiral arms, and confirm that the global CO emission in the galaxy is low. We combine these data with a new H-alpha map obtained using the Isaac Newton Telescope and archival HI, 24 microns and FUV images to uncover a correlation between the molecular gas and star forming regions in M81. For the nine regions detected in CO J=3-2, we combine our CO J=3-2 data with existing CO J=1-0 data to calculate line ratios. We find that the ratio J=(3-2)/(1-0) is in agreement with the range of typical values found in the literature (0.2-0.8). Making reasonable assumptions, this allows us to constrain the hydrogen density to the range (10^3-10^4) cm^{-3}. We also estimated the amount of hydrogen produced in photo-dissociation regions near the locations where CO J=3-2 was detec...

  2. Enormous disc of cool gas surrounding the nearby powerful radio galaxy NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Oosterloo, T A; Holt, J; Tadhunter, C N; Van der Hulst, J M; Ojha, R; Sadler, E M

    2008-01-01

    We present the detection of an enormous disc of cool neutral hydrogen (HI) gas surrounding the S0 galaxy NGC 612, which hosts one of the nearest powerful radio sources (PKS 0131-36). Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we detect M_HI = 1.8 x 10^9 M_sun of HI emission-line gas that is distributed in a 140 kpc wide disc-like structure along the optical disc and dust-lane of NGC 612. The bulk of the gas in the disc appears to be settled in regular rotation with a total velocity range of 850 km/s, although asymmetries in this disc indicate that perturbations are being exerted on part of the gas, possibly by a number of nearby companions. The HI disc in NGC 612 suggests that the total mass enclosed by the system is M_enc ~ 2.9 x 10^12 sin^-2(i) M_sun, implying that this early-type galaxy contains a massive dark matter halo. We also discuss an earlier study by Holt et al. that revealed the presence of a prominent young stellar population at various locations throughout the disc of NGC 612, indicating that ...

  3. A multi-wavelength study of Supernova Remnants in six nearby galaxies. II. New optically selected Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Leonidaki, I; Zezas, A

    2012-01-01

    We present results from a study of optically emitting Supernova Remnants (SNRs) in six nearby galaxies (NGC 2403, NGC 3077, NGC 4214, NGC 4395, NGC 4449 and NGC 5204) based on deep narrow band H{\\alpha} and [SII] images as well as spectroscopic observations. The SNR classification was based on the detected sources that fulfill the well-established emission line flux criterion of [SII]/H{\\alpha} > 0.4. This study revealed ~400 photometric SNRs down to a limiting H{\\alpha} flux of 10^(-15) erg sec^(-1) cm^(-2). Spectroscopic observations confirmed the shock-excited nature of 56 out of the 96 sources with ([SII]/H{\\alpha})$_{phot}$> 0.3 (our limit for an SNR classification) for which we obtained spectra. 11 more sources were spectroscopically identified as SNRs although their photometric [SII]/H{\\alpha} ratio was below 0.3. We discuss the properties of the optically-detected SNRs in our sample for different types of galaxies and hence different environments, in order to address their connection with the surround...

  4. Mid-infrared dust in two nearby radio galaxies, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, B Duah; Jarrett, T; Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Most radio galaxies are hosted by giant gas-poor ellipticals, but some contain significant amounts of dust, which is likely to be of external origin. In order to characterize the mid-IR properties of two of the most nearby and brightest merger-remnant radio galaxies of the Southern hemisphere, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36), we used observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron and Spitzer mid-infrared spectra. By applying a resolution-enhancement technique, new WISE images were produced at angular resolutions ranging from 2.6" to 5.5". Global measurements were performed in the four WISE bands, and stellar masses and star-formation rates were estimated using published scaling relations. Two methods were used to uncover the distribution of dust, one relying on two-dimensional fits to the 3.4 micron images to model the starlight, and the other one using a simple scaling and subtraction of the 3.4 micron images to estimate the stellar...

  5. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : III. Structural parameters of galaxies using single Sersic fits star

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Guzmán, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Graham, Alister W.; Hammer, Derek; Karick, Arna M.; Lucey, John R.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Valentijn, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalogue of structural parameters for 8814 galaxies in the 25 fields of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Coma Treasury Survey. Parameters from Sersic fits to the two-dimensional surface brightness distributions are given for all galaxies from our published Coma photometric catalogue with

  6. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - III. Structural parameters of galaxies using single Sérsic fits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyos, Carlos; den Brok, Mark; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Guzmán, Rafael; Peletier, Reynier; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Graham, Alister W.; Hammer, Derek; Karick, Arna M.; Lucey, John R.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Valentijn, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    We present a catalogue of structural parameters for 8814 galaxies in the 25 fields of the Hubble Space Telescope/ACS Coma Treasury Survey. Parameters from Sérsic fits to the two-dimensional surface brightness distributions are given for all galaxies from our published Coma photometric catalogue with

  7. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  8. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A large spectroscopically selected sample of massive early-type lens galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, AS; Burles, S; Koopmans, LVE; Treu, T; Moustakas, LA

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple

  9. The interaction between radio lobes and hot gas in the nearby radio galaxies 3C285 and 3C442A

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Worrall, D M; Croston, J H; Evans, D A; Birkinshaw, M; Murray, S S

    2007-01-01

    We present Chandra observations of two nearby radio galaxies in group environments, 3C285 and 3C442A. The host galaxies of both sources are involved in mergers with nearby massive galaxies, and the hot gas in the systems is extended along lines joining the interacting galaxies. Both sources show strong evidence for interactions between the radio lobes and the asymmetrical hot gas. We argue that the structure in the hot gas is independent of the existence of the radio lobes in these systems, and argue that hot gas shaped by an ongoing massive galaxy merger may play an important role in the dynamics of radio lobes in other objects. For 3C442A, our observations show that gas is being driven out of both members of the host interacting galaxy pair, and the implied constraints on galaxy velocities are consistent with mildly supersonic motions with respect to the group-scale hot gas. The previously known filamentary radio structure in the center of 3C442A may be a result of the interaction between hot gas expelled f...

  10. ESTIMATING THE STAR FORMATION RATE AT 1 kpc SCALES IN NEARBY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [National Radio Astronomy Observtory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); De Blok, W. J. G. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Boissier, Samuel [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite de Provence, CNRS (UMR6110), 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Bolatto, Alberto [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Madore, Barry; Murphy, Eric [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    Using combinations of H{alpha}, ultraviolet (UV), and infrared (IR) emission, we estimate the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, {Sigma}{sub SFR}, at 1 kpc resolution for 30 disk galaxies that are targets of the IRAM HERACLES CO survey. We present a new physically motivated IR spectral-energy-distribution-based approach to account for possible contributions to 24 {mu}m emission not associated with recent star formation. Considering a variety of 'reference' SFRs from the literature, we revisit the calibration of the 24 {mu}m term in hybrid (UV+IR or H{alpha}+IR) tracers. We show that the overall calibration of this term remains uncertain at the factor of two level because of the lack of wide-field, robust reference SFR estimates. Within this uncertainty, published calibrations represent a reasonable starting point for 1 kpc-wide areas of star-forming disk galaxies, but we re-derive and refine the calibration of the IR term in these tracers to match our resolution and approach to 24 {mu}m emission. We compare a large suite of {Sigma}{sub SFR} estimates and find that above {Sigma}{sub SFR} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} the systematic differences among tracers are less than a factor of two across two orders of magnitude dynamic range. We caution that methodology and data both become serious issues below this level. We note from simple model considerations that when focusing on a part of a galaxy dominated by a single stellar population, the intrinsic uncertainty in H{alpha}- and FUV-based SFRs is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.5 dex.

  11. Fast neutral outflows in nearby radio galaxies: a major source of feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T; Holt, J; Emonts, B; Morganti, Raffaella; Tadhunter, Clive; Oosterloo, Tom; Holt, Joanna; Emonts, Bjorn

    2007-01-01

    Fast (~1000 km/s) outflows of neutral gas (from 21-cm HI absorption) are detected in strong radio sources. The outflows occur, at least in some cases, at distances from the radio core that range between few hundred parsecs and kpc. These HI outflows likely originate from the interaction between radio jets and the dense surrounding medium. The estimated mass outflow rates are comparable to those of moderate starburst-driven superwinds. The impact on the evolution of the host galaxies is discussed.

  12. Fast Neutral Outflows in Nearby Radio Galaxies: A Major Source of Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Oosterloo, T.; Holt, J.; Emonts, B.

    2007-10-01

    Fast (˜ 1000 km/s) outflows of neutral gas (from 21-cm HI absorption) are detected in strong radio sources. The outflows occur, at least in some cases, at distances from the radio core that range between few hundred parsecs and kpc. These HI outflows likely originate from the interaction between radio jets and the dense surrounding medium. The estimated mass outflow rates are comparable to those of moderate starburst-driven superwinds. The impact on the evolution of the host galaxies is discussed.

  13. Properties of the giant HII regions and bar in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5430

    CERN Document Server

    Brière, É; Spekkens, K

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of the bar on the evolution of spiral galaxies, we measure the properties of giant HII regions and the bar in the SB(s)b galaxy NGC5430. We use two complementary data sets, both obtained at the Observatoire du Mont-M\\'egantic: a hyperspectral data cube from the imaging Fourier transform spectrograph SpIOMM, and high-resolution spectra across the bar from a long-slit spectrograph. We flux-calibrate SpIOMM spectra for the first time, and produce H{\\alpha} and [NII]{\\lambda}6584\\r{A} intensity maps from which we identify 51 giant HII regions in the spiral arms and bar. We evaluate the type of activity, the oxygen abundance and the age of the young populations contained in these giant HII regions and in the bar. Thus, we confirm that NGC5430 does not harbour a strong AGN, and that its Wolf-Rayet knot shows a pure HII region nature. We find no variation in abundance or age between the bar and spiral arms, nor as a function of galactocentric radius. These results are consist...

  14. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies I. Nucleosynthesis and Abundance Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Shetrone, M; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, V; Kaufer, A

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We measure the abundances of alpha, iron peak, s and r-process elements. No dSph giants in our sample show the deep mixing abundance pattern seen in nearly all globular clusters. At a given metallicity, the dSph giants exhibit lower [el/Fe] abundance ratios for the alpha elements than stars in the Galactic halo. This can be caused by a slow star formation rate and contribution from Type Ia SN, and/or a small star formation event (low total mass) and mass dependent Type II SN yields. Differences in the even-Z [el/Fe] ratios between these galaxies, as well as differences in the evolution of the s&r-process elements are interpreted in terms of their star formation histories. Comparison of the dSph abundances with those of the Galactic halo reveals some consistencies. In particular, we find stars that mimic the abundance pattern found by Nissen & Shuster (1997) for metal-rich,...

  15. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). I. INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Benjamin, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, 800 West Main Street, Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); English, Jayanne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Johnson, Megan [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Greenbank, WV 24944 (United States); Li, Jiang-Tao [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Porter, Troy A. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Saikia, D. J. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Walterbos, Rene, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    We introduce a new survey to map the radio continuum halos of a sample of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz in all polarization products. The survey is exploiting the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array) in a variety of array configurations (B, C, and D) in order to compile the most comprehensive data set yet obtained for the study of radio halo properties. This is the first survey of radio halos to include all polarization products. In this first paper, we outline the scientific motivation of the survey, the specific science goals, and the expected improvements in noise levels and spatial coverage from the survey. Our goals include investigating the physical conditions and origin of halos, characterizing cosmic-ray transport and wind speed, measuring Faraday rotation and mapping the magnetic field, probing the in-disk and extraplanar far-infrared-radio continuum relation, and reconciling non-thermal radio emission with high-energy gamma-ray models. The sample size allows us to search for correlations between radio halos and other properties, including environment, star formation rate, and the presence of active galactic nuclei. In a companion paper (Paper II) we outline the data reduction steps and present the first results of the survey for the galaxy, NGC 4631.

  16. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). I. Introduction to the Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-08-01

    We introduce a new survey to map the radio continuum halos of a sample of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz in all polarization products. The survey is exploiting the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array) in a variety of array configurations (B, C, and D) in order to compile the most comprehensive data set yet obtained for the study of radio halo properties. This is the first survey of radio halos to include all polarization products. In this first paper, we outline the scientific motivation of the survey, the specific science goals, and the expected improvements in noise levels and spatial coverage from the survey. Our goals include investigating the physical conditions and origin of halos, characterizing cosmic-ray transport and wind speed, measuring Faraday rotation and mapping the magnetic field, probing the in-disk and extraplanar far-infrared-radio continuum relation, and reconciling non-thermal radio emission with high-energy gamma-ray models. The sample size allows us to search for correlations between radio halos and other properties, including environment, star formation rate, and the presence of active galactic nuclei. In a companion paper (Paper II) we outline the data reduction steps and present the first results of the survey for the galaxy, NGC 4631.

  17. The Nuclear Structure in Nearby Luminous Infrared Galaxies: HST NICMOS Imaging of the GOALS Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Haan, S; Armus, L; Evans, A S; Howell, J H; Mazzarella, J M; Kim, D C; Vavilkin, T; Inami, H; Sanders, D B; Petric, A; Bridge, C R; Melbourne, J L; Charmandaris, V; Diaz-Santos, T; Murphy, E J; U, V; Stierwalt, S; Marshall, J A

    2010-01-01

    We present results of Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS H-band imaging of 73 of most luminous (i.e., log[L_IR/L_0]>11.4) Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). This dataset combines multi-wavelength imaging and spectroscopic data from space (Spitzer, HST, GALEX, and Chandra) and ground-based telescopes. In this paper we use the high-resolution near-infrared data to recover nuclear structure that is obscured by dust at optical wavelengths and measure the evolution in this structure along the merger sequence. A large fraction of all galaxies in our sample possess double nuclei (~63%) or show evidence for triple nuclei (~6%). Half of these double nuclei are not visible in the HST B-band images due to dust obscuration. The majority of interacting LIRGs have remaining merger timescales of 0.3 to 1.3 Gyrs, based on the projected nuclear separations and the mass ratio of nuclei. We find that the bulge luminosity surface density increases significantly along the merger sequence ...

  18. Blue Supergiant X-Ray Binaries in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy IC 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna; Prestwich, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In young starburst galaxies, the X-ray population is expected to be dominated by the relics of the most massive and short-lived stars, black hole and neutron-star high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). In the closest such galaxy, IC 10, we have made a multi-wavelength census of these objects. Employing a novel statistical correlation technique, we have matched our list of 110 X-ray point sources, derived from a decade of Chandra observations, against published photometric data. We report an 8σ correlation between the celestial coordinates of the two catalogs, with 42 X-ray sources having an optical counterpart. Applying an optical color–magnitude selection to isolate blue supergiant (SG) stars in IC 10, we find 16 matches. Both cases show a statistically significant overabundance versus the expectation value for chance alignments. The blue objects also exhibit systematically higher {f}x/{f}v ratios than other stars in the same magnitude range. Blue SG-XRBs include a major class of progenitors of double-degenerate binaries, hence their numbers are an important factor in modeling the rate of gravitational-wave sources. We suggest that the anomalous features of the IC 10 stellar population are explained if the age of the IC 10 starburst is close to the time of the peak of interaction for massive binaries.

  19. A nearby GRB host galaxy: VLT/X-shooter observations of HG 031203

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, N G; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C; 10.1051/0004-6361/201116765

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) occur in galaxies of generally low metallicity. We aim at a spectroscopic analysis of HG 031203, the host galaxy of a LRGB burst, to obtain its properties. Based on VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range 3200-24000A, we use standard direct methods to evaluate physical conditions and element abundances. The resolving power of the instrument also allowed us to trace the kinematics of the ionised gas. We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12+logO/H=8.20+/-0.03. The observed fluxes of hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hbeta)=1.67. We produce the CLOUDY photoionisation HII region model that reproduces observed emission-line fluxes of different ions in the optical range. This model also predicts emission-line fluxes in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) ranges that agree well with the observed ones. This implies that the star-forming re...

  20. The Atlas3D project -- XXXI. Nuclear radio emission in nearby early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nyland, Kristina; Wrobel, Joan M; Sarzi, Marc; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a high-resolution, 5 GHz, Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array study of the nuclear radio emission in a representative subset of the Atlas3D survey of early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that 51 +/- 4% of the ETGs in our sample contain nuclear radio emission with luminosities as low as 10^18 W/Hz. Most of the nuclear radio sources have compact (< 25-110 pc) morphologies, although < 10% display multi-component core+jet or extended jet/lobe structures. Based on the radio continuum properties, as well as optical emission line diagnostics and the nuclear X-ray properties, we conclude that the majority of the central 5 GHz sources detected in the Atlas3D galaxies are associated with the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). However, even at sub-arcsecond spatial resolution, the nuclear radio emission in some cases appears to arise from low-level nuclear star formation rather than an AGN, particularly when molecular gas and a young central stellar population is present. This is in...

  1. Estimating the Star Formation Rate at 1 kpc Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; de Blok, W J G; Boissier, Samuel; Bolatto, Alberto; Brinks, Elias; Madore, Barry; Munoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Murphy, Eric; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Using combinations of H\\alpha, ultraviolet (UV), and infrared (IR) emission, we estimate the star formation rate (SFR) surface density, \\Sigma_SFR, at 1 kpc resolution for 30 disk galaxies that are targets of the IRAM HERACLES CO survey. We present a new physically-motivated IR spectral energy distribution-based approach to account for possible contributions to 24\\mum emission not associated with recent star formation. Considering a variety of "reference" SFRs from the literature, we revisit the calibration of the 24\\mum term in hybrid (UV+IR or H\\alpha+IR) tracers. We show that the overall calibration of this term remains uncertain at the factor of two level because of the lack of wide-field, robust reference SFR estimates. Within this uncertainty, published calibrations represent a reasonable starting point for 1 kpc-wide areas of star-forming disk galaxies but we re-derive and refine the calibration of the IR term in these tracers to match our resolution and approach to 24\\mum emission. We compare a large ...

  2. The MASSIVE Survey V.: The X-ray halos of the most massive early-type galaxies in the nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Goulding, Andy D; Ma, Chung-Pei; Veale, Melanie; Bogdan, Akos; Nyland, Kristina; Blakeslee, John P; McConnell, Nicholas J; Thomas, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the physical properties of local elliptical galaxies (e.g., gas temperatures, halo masses, stellar kinematics) are shedding new light on galaxy formation. Here we present the hot X-ray gas properties of 33 early-type systems within the MASSIVE galaxy survey sample that have archival Chandra X-ray observations. Through careful X-ray spectral modeling, we derive X-ray luminosities (L_X) and plasma temperatures (T_gas) for the diffuse gas components in these galaxies. We combine the MASSIVE sample with 41 galaxies from the ATLAS^3D survey to investigate the X-ray and optical properties of a statistically significant sample of nearby early-type galaxies across a wide-range of environments. We deduce that all early-type galaxies (independent of galaxy mass and rotational support) follow a universal scaling law such that L_X~T_gas^4.5. When X-ray measurements are performed consistently in apertures set by the galaxy stellar content, the wide-scale environment does not contribute to the intrinsic scatter ...

  3. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. XII. The Luminosity Function of Globular Clusters in Early Type Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, A; Côté, P; Ferrarese, L; Peng, E W; Mei, S; Villegas, D; Merritt, D; Tonry, J L; West, M J; Jordan, Andres; Laughlin, Dean E. Mc; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Peng, Eric W.; Mei, Simona; Villegas, Daniela; Merritt, David; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the luminosity function of the globular clusters (GCs) belonging to the early-type galaxies observed in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We have obtained estimates for a Gaussian representation of the GC luminosity function (GCLF) for 89 galaxies. We have also fit the GCLFs with an "evolved Schechter function", which is meant to reflect the preferential depletion of low-mass GCs, primarily by evaporation due to two-body relaxation, from an initial Schechter mass function similar to that of young massive clusters. We find a significant trend of the GCLF dispersion with galaxy luminosity, in the sense that smaller galaxies have narrower GCLFs. We show that this narrowing of the GCLF in a Gaussian description is driven by a steepening of the GC mass function above the turnover mass, as one moves to smaller host galaxies. We argue that this behavior at the high-mass end of the GC mass function is most likely a consequence of systematic variations of the initial cluster mass function. The GCLF turnover mas...

  4. Submillimetric study of nearby galaxies: A tool for new extragalactic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villicana Pedraza, Ilhuiyolitzin; Guesten, Rolf; Armijos Abendaño, Jairo; Carreto, Francisco; Martin, Sergio; Martin-Pintado, Jesus; Requena-Torres, Miguel; Perez-Beaupuits, Juan Pablo

    2016-07-01

    We present the first submillimetre line survey of extragalactic sources carried out by APEX, the results were presented inside of Villicana-Pedraza phd thesis in 2015. The surveys cover the 0.8 mm atmospheric window toward NGC253, NGC4945 and Arp220. We found HCN, C2H, CN, CS, C34S, HCO+, HNC, CO, N2H+, CH3OH are presents in all the sources, while 13CO,C18O and C17O, HNCO, H2CO, H2CS, SO, NO, SO2 were detected toward NGC253 and NGC4945, 13CN, *CO+, OCS, H2S in Arp220, 13CS, NH2CN, SiO in NGC253, and c-C3H2 in NGC4945 were detected. Column densities and rotation temperatures have been determinate using the Local Thermodinamical Equilibrium(LTE) line profile simulation and fitting in the MADCUBA IJ software. The differences found in the 32S/34S and 18O/17O ratios between the GC and the starburst galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest that the gas is less processed in the latter than in the GC. The high 18O/17O ratios in the galaxies NGC 4945 and NGC 253 suggest also material less processed in the nuclei of these galaxies than in the GC. This is consistent with the claim that 17O is a more representative primary product than 18O in stellar nucleosynthesis (Wilson and Rood 1994); Also, we did a Multitransitions study of H3O+ at 307GHz, 364GHz, 388GHz and 396GHz. From our non-LTE analysis of H3O+ in NGC253 with RADEX we found that the collisional excitation cannot explain the observed intensity of the ortho 396 GHz line. Excitation by radiation from the dust in the Far-IR can roughly explain the observations if the H2 densities are relatively low. From the derived H3O+ column densities we conclude that the chemistry of this molecule is dominated by ionization produce by the starburst in NGC253 (UV radiation from the O stars) and Arp 220 (cosmic rays from the supernovae) and likely from the AGN in NGC4549 (X-rays ); We report, for the first time, the tentative detection of the molecular ion HCNH+ (precursor of HCN and HNC) toward a galaxy, NGC4945, the abundance is much

  5. \\textit{Spitzer} Point Source Catalogs of $\\sim300,000$ Stars in Seven Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K Z; Sonneborn, G

    2015-01-01

    We present \\textit{Spitzer} IRAC $3.6-8\\,\\micron$ and MIPS $24\\,\\micron$ point source catalogs for seven galaxies: NGC\\,$6822$, M\\,$33$, NGC\\,$300$, NGC\\,$2403$, M\\,$81$, NGC\\,$0247$, and NGC\\,$7793$. The catalogs contain a total of $\\sim300,000$ sources with $>3\\sigma$ detections at both $3.6\\,\\micron$ and $4.5\\,\\micron$. The source lists become incomplete near $m_{3.6}=m_{4.5}\\simeq18$. We complement the $3.6\\,\\micron$ and $4.5\\,\\micron$ fluxes with $5.8\\,\\micron$, $8.0\\,\\micron$ and $24\\,\\micron$ fluxes or $3\\sigma$ upper limits using a combination of PSF and aperture photometry. This catalog is a resource as an archive for studying mid-infrared transients and for planning observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  6. The stellar spectral features of nearby galaxies in the near infrared: tracers of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, Rogério; Mason, Rachel E.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Rodríguez-Ardila, Alberto; Ho, Luis C.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Lira, Paulina; Gonzalez Martin, Omaira; Ruschel-Dutra, Daniel; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Flohic, Helene; McDermid, Richard M.; Ramos Almeida, Cristina; Thanjavur, Karun; Winge, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    We analyse the stellar absorption features in high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the nuclear region of 12 nearby galaxies, mostly spirals. The features detected in some or all of the galaxies in this sample are the TiO (0.843 and 0.886 μm), VO (1.048 μm), CN (1.1 and 1.4 μm), H2O (1.4 and 1.9 μm) and CO (1.6 and 2.3 μm) bands. The C2 (1.17 and 1.76 μm) bands are generally weak or absent, although C2 (1.76 μm) may be weakly present in the mean galaxy spectrum. A deep feature near 0.93 μm, likely caused by CN, TiO and/or ZrO, is also detected in all objects. Fitting a combination of stellar spectra to the mean spectrum shows that the absorption features are produced by evolved stars: cool giants and supergiant stars in the early- or thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (E-AGB or TP-AGB) phases. The high luminosity of TP-AGB stars, and the appearance of VO and ZrO features in the data, suggest that TP-AGB stars dominate these spectral features. However, a contribution from other evolved stars is also likely. Comparison with evolutionary population synthesis models shows that models based on empirical libraries that predict relatively strong NIR features provide a more accurate description of the data. However, none of the models tested accurately reproduces all of the features observed in the spectra. To do so, the models will need to not only improve the treatment of TP-AGB stars, but also include good quality spectra of red giant and E-AGB stars. The uninterrupted wavelength coverage, high S/N and quantity of features we present here will provide a benchmark for the next generation of models aiming to explain and predict the NIR properties of galaxies.

  7. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121, Bonn (Germany); Benjamin, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, 800 West Main St., Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); English, Jayanne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Johnson, Megan [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Greenbank, WV 24944 (United States); Li, Jiang-Tao [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Porter, Troy A. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Saikia, D. J. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Walterbos, Rene, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  8. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VIII. CO data and the L(CO3-2)-L(FIR) correlation in the SINGS sample

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Attewell, D; Bendo, G J; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Golding, J; Heesen, V; Irwin, J; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muhle, S; Mortier, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sanchez-Gallego, J R; Sinukoff, E; Shorten, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M; Alexander, D M; Alexander, P; Azimlu, M; Barmby, P; Borys, C; Brar, R; Bridge, C; Brinks, E; Brooks, S; Coppin, K; Cote, S; Cote, P; Courteau, S; Davies, J; Eales, S; Fich, M; Hudson, M; Hughes, D H; Ivison, R J; Knapen, J H; Page, M; Parkin, T J; Pope, A; Rigopoulou, D; Rosolowsky, E; Seaquist, E R; Spekkens, K; Tanvir, N; van der Hulst, J M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Webb, T M; Weferling, B; White, G J

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an HI-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection, and the observing strategy. We also present an atlas and analysis of the CO J=3-2 maps for the 47 galaxies in the NGLS which are also part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We find a wide range of molecular gas mass fractions in the galaxies in this sample and explore the correlation of the far-infrared luminosity, which traces star formation, with the CO luminosity, which traces the molecular gas mass. By comparing the NGLS data with merging galaxies at low and high redshift which have also been observed in the CO J=3-2 line, we show that the correlation of far-infrared and CO luminosity shows a significant trend with luminosity. This trend is consistent with a molecular gas depletion time which is more than an order of magnitude faster in the ...

  9. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  10. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Landt, H.; Butler, N. R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  11. Simultaneous Chandra and RXTE Observations of the nearby bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejski, Grzegorz

    2003-01-30

    We analyze recent simultaneous Chandra/RXTE observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4945. The unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra means we are able to separate the spectra of the nucleus, starburst and superwind regions, while the RXTE data extend the spectrum to higher energies. The extreme absorbing column of N{sub H} {approx} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} means that the nucleus is only seen directly above 8-10 keV, while the lower energy spectrum from the nuclear region in Chandra is dominated by reflection. By contrast, the superwind is dominated by emission from hot plasma, but the starburst region contains both hot plasma and reaction signatures. To form a reflected spectrum requires that the starburst region contains clumps of cool, optically thick material, perhaps star forming cores, which are irradiated by 7-10 keV photons from the nucleus. Since photons of this energy are obscured along the line sight then this confirms the result of Madejski et al. (2000) that the extreme absorption material is disk-like rather than a torus. However, the IR/optical limits on the lack of high excitation emission lines show that by contrast the lower energy photons from the nucleus are obscured in all directions. We discuss the complex absorption structure revealed by these observations, and propose an overall source geometry in which the nucleus is completely embedded in material with N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}.

  12. Nearby early-type galaxies with ionized gas VI. The Spitzer-IRS view

    CERN Document Server

    Panuzzo, P; Bressan, A; Vega, O; Annibali, F; Buson, L M; Clemens, M S; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present low resolution Spitzer-IRS spectra of 40 ETGs, selected from a sample of 65 ETGs showing emission lines in their optical spectra. We homogeneously extract the mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, and after the proper subtraction of a "passive" ETG template, we derive the intensity of the ionic and molecular lines and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission features. We use MIR diagnostic diagrams to investigate the powering mechanisms of the ionized gas. The mid-infrared spectra of early-type galaxies show a variety of spectral characteristics. We empirically sub-divide the sample into five classes of spectra with common characteristics. Class-0, accounting for 20% of the sample, are purely passive ETGs with neither emission lines nor PAH features. Class-1 show emission lines but no PAH features, and account for 17.5% of the sample. Class-2, in which 50% of the ETGs are found, as well as having emission lines, show PAH features with unusual ratios, e.g. 7.7 {\\mu}m/11.3 {\\mu}m \\leq 2.3. Class-3 objec...

  13. The nuclear X-ray emission of nearby early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, S

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear hard X-ray luminosities (Lx,nuc) for a sample of 112 early type galaxies within a distance of 67 Mpc are used to investigate their relationship with the central galactic black hole mass Mbh, the inner galactic structure (using the parameters describing its cuspiness), the age of the stellar population in the central galactic region, the hot gas content and the core radio luminosity. Lx,nuc ranges from 10^{38} to 10^{42} erg/s, and the Eddington ratio Lx,nuc/Ledd from 10^{-9} to 10^{-4}. Lx,nuc increases on average with the galactic luminosity Lb and Mbh, with a wide variation by up to 4 orders of magnitude at any fixed Lb>6x10^9 Lb,sun or Mbh>10^7 Msun. This large range should reflect a large variation of the mass accretion rate \\dotMbh. On the circumnuclear scale, \\dotMbh at fixed Lb (or Mbh) could vary due to differences in the fuel production rate from the stellar mass return linked to the inner galactic structure; however, \\dotMbh should vary with cuspiness by a factor exceeding a few only in hot ...

  14. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies -- an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) -- I: Introduction to the Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith; Benjamin, R A; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E J; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A; Rand, Richard J; Saikia, D J; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A W; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new survey to map the radio continuum halos of a sample of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz in all polarization products. The survey is exploiting the new wide bandwidth capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e. the Expanded Very Large Array, or EVLA) in a variety of array configurations (B, C, and D) in order to compile the most comprehensive data set yet obtained for the study of radio halo properties. This is the first survey of radio halos to include all polarization products. In this first paper, we outline the scientific motivation of the survey, the specific science goals, and the expected improvements in noise levels and spatial coverage from the survey. Our goals include investigating the physical conditions and origin of halos, characterizing cosmic ray transport and wind speed, measuring Faraday rotation and mapping the magnetic field, probing the in-disk and extraplanar far-infrared - radio continuum relation, and reconciling non-thermal radio emission...

  15. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): The Xco Gradient in NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A; Evans, Neal J; Jogee, Shardha; Bolatto, Alberto; Leroy, Adam K; Song, Mimi; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Gebhardt, Karl; Heiderman, Amanda; Marinova, Irina; Vogel, Stuart; Weinzirl, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We measure the radial profile of the 12CO(1-0) to H_2 conversion factor (Xco) in NGC 628. The H\\alpha emission from the VENGA integral field spectroscopy is used to map the star formation rate surface density (\\Sigma_{SFR}). We estimate the molecular gas surface density (\\Sigma_{H2}) from \\Sigma_{SFR} by inverting the molecular star formation law (SFL), and compare it to the CO intensity to measure Xco. We study the impact of systematic uncertainties by changing the slope of the SFL, using different SFR tracers (H\\alpha vs. far-UV plus 24\\mu m), and CO maps from different telescopes (single-dish and interferometers). The observed Xco profile is robust against these systematics, drops by a factor of 2 from R~7 kpc to the center of the galaxy, and is well fit by a gradient \\Delta log(Xco)=0.06\\pm0.02 dex kpc^-1. We study how changes in Xco follow changes in metallicity, gas density, and ionization parameter. Theoretical models show that the gradient in Xco can be explained by a combination of decreasing metalli...

  16. Three-micron spectra of AGB stars and supergiants in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; Van Loon, J T; Yamamura, I; Markwick, A J; Whitelock, P A; Woods, P M; Marshall, J R; Feast, M W; Waters, L B F M

    2005-01-01

    The dependence of stellar molecular bands on the metallicity is studied using infrared L-band spectra of AGB stars (both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich) and M-type supergiants in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) and in the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. The spectra cover SiO bands for oxygen-rich stars, and acetylene (C2H2), CH and HCN bands for carbon-rich AGB stars. The equivalent width of acetylene is found to be high even at low metallicity. The high C2H2 abundance can be explained with a high carbon-to-oxygen (C/O) ratio for lower metallicity carbon stars. In contrast, the HCN equivalent width is low: fewer than half of the extra-galactic carbon stars show the 3.5micron HCN band, and only a few LMC stars show high HCN equivalent width. HCN abundances are limited by both nitrogen and carbon elemental abundances. The amount of synthesized nitrogen depends on the initial mass, and stars with high luminosity (i.e. high initial mass) could have a high HCN abundance. CH bands are found in...

  17. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): The X CO Gradient in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Guillermo A.; Schruba, Andreas; Evans, Neal J., II; Jogee, Shardha; Bolatto, Alberto; Leroy, Adam K.; Song, Mimi; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Gebhardt, Karl; Heiderman, Amanda; Marinova, Irina; Vogel, Stuart; Weinzirl, Tim

    2013-02-01

    We measure the radial profile of the 12CO(1-0) to H2 conversion factor (X CO) in NGC 628. The Hα emission from the VENGA integral field spectroscopy is used to map the star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR). We estimate the molecular gas surface density (ΣH2) from ΣSFR by inverting the molecular star formation law (SFL), and compare it to the CO intensity to measure X CO. We study the impact of systematic uncertainties by changing the slope of the SFL, using different SFR tracers (Hα versus far-UV plus 24 μm), and CO maps from different telescopes (single-dish and interferometers). The observed X CO profile is robust against these systematics, drops by a factor of two from R ~ 7 kpc to the center of the galaxy, and is well fit by a gradient Δlog(X CO) = 0.06 ± 0.02 dex kpc-1. We study how changes in X CO follow changes in metallicity, gas density, and ionization parameter. Theoretical models show that the gradient in X CO can be explained by a combination of decreasing metallicity, and decreasing ΣH2 with radius. Photoelectric heating from the local UV radiation field appears to contribute to the decrease of X CO in higher density regions. Our results show that galactic environment plays an important role at setting the physical conditions in star-forming regions, in particular the chemistry of carbon in molecular complexes, and the radiative transfer of CO emission. We caution against adopting a single X CO value when large changes in gas surface density or metallicity are present.

  18. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and H$\\alpha$ filters. II - Detection of 16 Optically-Identified Supernova Remnant Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Vucetic, M M; Pavlovic, M Z; Pannuti, T G; Petrov, N; Goker, U D; Ercan, E N

    2015-01-01

    We present the detection of 16 optical supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. The candidates were detected by applying [SII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio criterion on observations made with the 2 m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper, we report the coordinates, diameters, H$\\alpha$ and [SII] fluxes for 16 SNRs detected in two fields of view in the IC342 galaxy. Also, we estimate that the contamination of total H$\\alpha$ flux from SNRs in the observed portion of IC342 is 1.4%. This would represent the fractional error when the star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy is derived from the total galaxy's H$\\alpha$ emission.

  19. The structure and dynamics of the AC114 galaxy cluster revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Proust, Dominique; Saviane, Ivo; Ivanov, Valentin D; Bresolin, Fabio; Salzer, John J; Capelato, Hugo V

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamical analysis of the galaxy cluster AC114 based on a catalogue of 524 velocities. Of these, 169 (32%) are newly obtained at ESO (Chile) with the VLT and the VIMOS spectrograph. Data on individual galaxies are presented and the accuracy of the measured velocities is discussed. Dynamical properties of the cluster are derived. We obtain an improved mean redshift value z= 0.31665 +/- 0.0008 and velocity dispersion \\sigma= 1893+73-82 \\kms. A large velocity dispersion within the core radius and the shape of the infall pattern suggests that this part of the cluster is in a radial phase of relaxation with a very elongated radial filament spanning 12000 \\kms. A radial foreground structure is detected within the central 0.5/h Mpc radius, recognizable as a redshift group at the same central redshift value. We analyze the color distribution for this archetype Butcher-Oemler galaxy cluster and identify the separate red and blue galaxy sequences. The latter subset contains 44% of confirmed members of the ...

  20. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 μJy beam-1 at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is \\bar{\\alpha }_{1.5 \\,GHz} =-0.84+/- 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for internal

  1. 12CO, 13CO and C18O observations along the major axes of nearby bright infrared galaxies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Hua Tan; Yu Gao; Zhi-Yu Zhang; Xiao-Yang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We present simultaneous observations of 12CO, 13CO and C18O J=1-0 emission in 11 nearby (cz < 1000km s-1) bright infrared galaxies. Both 12CO and 13CO are detected in the centers of all the galaxies, except for 13CO in NGC 3031.We have also detected C18O, CSJ=2-1 and HCO+J=1-0 emission in the nuclear regions of M82 and M51. These are the first systematical extragalactic detections of 12CO and its isotopes from the PMO 14 m telescope. We have conducted half-beam-spaced mapping of M82 over an area of 4′ × 2.5′ and major axis mapping of NGC 3627, NGC 3628, NGC 4631 and M51. The radial distributions of 12CO and 13CO in NGC 3627, NGC 3628 and M51 can be well fitted by an exponential profile.The 12CO/13CO intensity ratio, R, decreases monotonically with the galactocentric radius in all mapped sources. The average R in the center and disk of the galaxies are 9.9±3.0 and 5.6± 1.9, respectively, much lower than the peculiar R(~24) found in the center of M82. The intensity ratios of 13CO/C18O, 13CO/HCO+ and 13CO/CS (either our or literature data) show little variation with galactocentric radius, in sharp contrast with the greatly varied R. This supports the notion that the observed gradient in R could be the result of the variations of the physical conditions across the disks. The H2 column density derived from C18O shows that the Galactic standard conversion factor (X-factor) overestimates the amount of the molecular gas in M82 by a factor of ~2.5. These observations suggest that the X-factor in active star-forming regions (i.e., nuclear regions) should be lower than that in normal star-forming disks and the gradient in R can be used to trace the variations of the X-factor.

  2. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, G W; Piffaretti, R; Böhringer, H; Ponman, T J; Croston, J H; Voit, G M; Borgani, S; Bower, R G

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS). The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R_1000 in all systems and out to R_500 in 13 systems. Compared to theoretical expectations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy that is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R_500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R_500. The dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions is linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by a factor of two and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. Parameterising the profiles with a power law plus consta...

  3. A 15.65-solar-mass black hole in an eclipsing binary in the nearby spiral galaxy M 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Jerome A; McClintock, Jeffrey E; Narayan, Ramesh; Bailyn, Charles D; Hartman, Joel D; Macri, Lucas; Liu, Jiefeng; Pietsch, Wolfgang; Remillard, Ronald A; Shporer, Avi; Mazeh, Tsevi

    2007-10-18

    Stellar-mass black holes are found in X-ray-emitting binary systems, where their mass can be determined from the dynamics of their companion stars. Models of stellar evolution have difficulty producing black holes in close binaries with masses more than ten times that of the Sun (>10; ref. 4), which is consistent with the fact that the most massive stellar black holes known so far all have masses within one standard deviation of 10. Here we report a mass of (15.65 +/- 1.45) for the black hole in the recently discovered system M 33 X-7, which is located in the nearby galaxy Messier 33 (M 33) and is the only known black hole that is in an eclipsing binary. To produce such a massive black hole, the progenitor star must have retained much of its outer envelope until after helium fusion in the core was completed. On the other hand, in order for the black hole to be in its present 3.45-day orbit about its (70.0 +/- 6.9) companion, there must have been a 'common envelope' phase of evolution in which a significant amount of mass was lost from the system. We find that the common envelope phase could not have occurred in M 33 X-7 unless the amount of mass lost from the progenitor during its evolution was an order of magnitude less than what is usually assumed in evolutionary models of massive stars.

  4. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-Forming Galaxy IC 2163

    CERN Document Server

    Jencson, Jacob E; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E; Monson, Andrew J; Masci, Frank J; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A; Simcoe, Robert A; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SPIRITS---SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey---is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ($M_{[4.5]} = -17.1\\pm0.4$ mag, Vega) and red ($[3.6] - [4.5] = 3.0 \\pm 0.2$ mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ($D\\approx35.5$ Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad ($\\approx 8400$ km s$^{-1}$), double-peaked emission line of He I at $1.083 \\mu$m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of $\\approx 200$ days. Assuming $A_V = 2.2$ mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The IR light curves and the extreme $[3.6]-[4.5]$ color cannot be explained using only a standard extinction l...

  5. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor and Dust-to-Gas Ratio on Kiloparsec Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandstrom, K M; Walter, F; Bolatto, A D; Croxall, K V; Draine, B T; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M; Calzetti, D; Kennicutt, R C; Aniano, G; Meyer, J Donovan; Usero, A; Bigiel, F; Brinks, E; de Blok, W J G; Crocker, A; Dale, D; Engelbracht, C W; Galametz, M; Groves, B; Hunt, L K; Koda, J; Kreckel, K; Linz, H; Meidt, S; Pellegrini, E; Rix, H -W; Roussel, H; Schinnerer, E; Schruba, A; Schuster, K -F; Skibba, R; van der Laan, T; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Brandl, B; Gordon, K; Hinz, J; Krause, O; Montiel, E; Sauvage, M; Schmiedeke, A; Smith, J D T; Vigroux, L

    2012-01-01

    We present maps of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (alpha_co) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies with ~kiloparsec spatial resolution. We have simultaneously solved for alpha_co and DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kpc scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO integrated intensity and HI column density to solve for both alpha_co and DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, 12CO J=(2-1) maps from the IRAM 30m large program HERACLES and HI 21-cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our alpha_co results on the more typically used 12CO J=(1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not effect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions ...

  6. Serendipity observations of far infrared cirrus emission in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: Analysis of far-infrared correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Caroline; Boulanger, Francois; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 microns at high galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 microns and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of far infrared observations at small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend can not be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or ...

  7. The inner $\\sim$ 40 pc Radial Distribution of the Star formation Rate for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy M51

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Li-Ling; He, Zhi-Cheng; Bian, Wei-Hao

    2015-01-01

    We investigate spatially resolved specific star formation rate (SSFR) in the inner $\\sim$ 40 pc for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194) by analyzing spectra obtained with the \\emph{Hubble Space Telescope (HST)} Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). We present 24 radial spectra measured along the STIS long slit in M51, extending $\\sim 1\\arcsec$ from the nucleus (i.e., -41.5 pc to 39.4 pc). By the simple stellar population synthesis, the stellar contributions in these radial optical spectra are modeled. Excluding some regions with zero young flux fraction near the center (from -6 pc to 2 pc), we find that the mean flux fraction of young stellar populations (younger than 24.5 Myr) is about 9 \\%, the mean mass fraction is about 0.09\\%. The young stellar populations are not required in the center inner $\\sim$ 8 pc in M51, suggesting a possible SSFR suppression in the circumnuclear region ($\\sim$ 10 pc) from the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The radial distribution of SSFR in M51 is not sy...

  8. The spatially-resolved correlation between [NII] 205 {\\mu}m line emission and the 24 {\\mu}m continuum in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, T M; Schirm, M R P; Parkin, T J; Wu, R; De Looze, I; Wilson, C D; Viaene, S; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Cormier, D; Ibar, E; Karczewski, O Ł; Lu, N; Spinoglio, L

    2016-01-01

    A correlation between the 24 {\\mu}m continuum and the [NII] 205 {\\mu}m line emission may arise if both quantities trace the star formation activity on spatially-resolved scales within a galaxy, yet has so far only been observed in the nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 891. We therefore assess whether the [NII] 205 - 24 {\\mu}m emission correlation has some physical origin or is merely an artefact of line-of-sight projection effects in an edge-on disc. We search for the presence of a correlation in Herschel and Spitzer observations of two nearby face-on galaxies, M51 and M83, and the interacting Antennae galaxies NGC 4038 and 4039. We show that not only is this empirical relationship also observed in face-on galaxies, but also that the correlation appears to be governed by the star formation rate (SFR). Both the nuclear starburst in M83 and the merger-induced star formation in NGC 4038/9 exhibit less [NII] emission per unit SFR surface density than the normal star-forming discs. These regions of intense star for...

  9. Chandra ACIS Survey of X-ray Point Sources in Nearby Galaxies. II. X-ray Luminosity Functions and Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Song; Liu, Jifeng; Bregman, Joel N

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recently completed {\\it Chandra}/ACIS survey of X-ray point sources in nearby galaxies, we study the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for X-ray point sources in different types of galaxies and the statistical properties of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Uniform procedures are developed to compute the detection threshold, to estimate the foreground/background contamination, and to calculate the XLFs for individual galaxies and groups of galaxies, resulting in an XLF library for 343 galaxies of different types. With the large number of surveyed galaxies, we have studied the XLFs and ULX properties across different host galaxy types, and confirm with good statistics that the XLF slope flattens from lenticular ($\\alpha\\sim1.50\\pm0.07$) to elliptical ($\\sim1.21\\pm0.02$), to spirals ($\\sim0.80\\pm0.02$), to peculiars ($\\sim0.55\\pm0.30$), and to irregulars ($\\sim0.26\\pm0.10$). The XLF break dividing the neutron star and black hole binaries is also confirmed, albeit at quite different break luminosi...

  10. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING): I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma, Kana

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J=1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' x 5' or 20.8 kpc x 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20" (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J=1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J=1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J=1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J=2-1)/12CO(J=1-0) ($R_{2-1/1-0}$) and 13CO(J=1-0)/12CO(J=1-0) ($R_{13/12}$), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and archival 12CO(J=2-1) spectra with velocity-axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged $R_{2-1/1-0}$ and $R_{13/12}$ with high significance for all the regions...

  11. CARMA Survey Toward Infrared-bright Nearby Galaxies (STING) II: Molecular Gas Star Formation Law and Depletion Time Across the Blue Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Nurur; Xue, Rui; Wong, Tony; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Bigiel, Frank; Rosolowsky, Erik; Fisher, David B; Vogel, Stuart N; Blitz, Leo; West, Andrew A; Ott, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relationship between molecular gas and current star formation rate surface density at sub-kpc and kpc scales in a sample of 14 nearby star-forming galaxies. Measuring the relationship in the bright, high molecular gas surface density ($\\Shtwo\\gtrsim$20 \\msunpc) regions of the disks to minimize the contribution from diffuse extended emission, we find an approximately linear relation between molecular gas and star formation rate surface density, $\

  12. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. VII. Elliptical Galaxy Scaling Laws from Direct Observational Mass Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, Adam S; Koopmans, Leon V E; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A; Burles, Scott; Schlegel, David J; Wayth, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We use a sample of 53 massive early-type strong gravitational lens galaxies with well-measured redshifts (ranging from z=0.06 to 0.36) and stellar velocity dispersions (between 175 and 400 km/s) from the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey to derive numerous empirical scaling relations. The ratio between central stellar velocity dispersion and isothermal lens-model velocity dispersion is nearly unity within errors. The SLACS lenses define a fundamental plane (FP) that is consistent with the FP of the general population of early-type galaxies. We measure the relationship between strong-lensing mass M_lens within one-half effective radius (R_e/2) and the dimensional mass variable M_dim = G^-1 sigma_e2^2 R_e/2 to be log_10 [M_lens/10^11 M_Sun] = (1.03 +/- 0.04) log_10 [M_dim/10^11 M_Sun] + (0.54 +/- 0.02) (where sigma_e2 is the projected stellar velocity dispersion within R_e/2). The near-unity slope indicates that the mass-dynamical structure of massive elliptical galaxies is independent of mass, and that the "tilt" ...

  13. Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies in Abell 1689: a photometric study with the ACS

    CERN Document Server

    Mieske, S; Benítez, N; Coe, D; Blakeslee, J P; Zekser, K; Ford, H; Broadhurst, T J; Illingworth, G D; Hartig, G F; Clampin, M; Ardila, D R; Bartko, F; Bouwens, R J; Brown, R A; Burrows, C J; Cheng, E S; Cross, N J G; Feldman, P D; Franx, M; Golimowski, D A; Goto, T; Gronwall, C; Holden, B; Homeier, N; Kimble, R A; Krist, J E; Lesser, M P; Martel, A R; Menanteau, F; Meurer, G R; Miley, G K; Postman, M; Rosati, P; Sirianni, M; Sparks, W B; Tran, H D; Tsvetanov, Z I; White, R L; Zheng, W

    2004-01-01

    The properties of Ultra Compact Dwarf (UCD) galaxy candidates in Abell 1689 (z=0.183) are investigated, based on deep high resolution ACS images. A UCD candidate has to be unresolved, have i26.8 mag, the radial and luminosity distribution of the UCD candidates can be explained well by Abell 1689's globular cluster (GC) system. For i<26.8 mag, there is an overpopulation of 15 +/- 5 UCD candidates with respect to the GC luminosity function. For i<26 mag, the radial distribution of UCD candidates is more consistent with the dwarf galaxy population than with the GC system of Abell 1689. The UCD candidates follow a color-magnitude trend with a slope similar to that of Abell 1689's genuine dwarf galaxy population, but shifted fainter by about 2-3 mag. Two of the three brightest UCD candidates (M_V ~ -17 mag) are slightly resolved. At the distance of Abell 1689, these two objects would have King-profile core radii of ~35 pc and r_eff ~300 pc, implying luminosities and sizes 2-3 times those of M32's bulge. Addi...

  14. Gas entropy in a representative sample of nearby X-ray galaxy clusters (REXCESS): relationship to gas mass fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, G. W.; Arnaud, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Böhringer, H.; Ponman, T. J.; Croston, J. H.; Voit, G. M.; Borgani, S.; Bower, R. G.

    2010-02-01

    We examine the radial entropy distribution and its scaling using 31 nearby galaxy clusters from the representative XMM-Newton cluster structure survey (REXCESS), a sample in the temperature range 2-9 keV selected in X-ray luminosity only, with no bias toward any particular morphological type. The entropy profiles are robustly measured at least out to R1000 in all systems and out to R500 in thirteen systems. Compared to theoretical expectations from non-radiative cosmological simulations, the observed distributions show a radial and mass-dependent excess entropy, such that the excess is greater and extends to larger radii in lower mass systems. At R500, the mass dependence and entropy excess are both negligible within the large observational and theoretical uncertainties. Mirroring this behaviour, the scaling of gas entropy is shallower than self-similar in the inner regions, but steepens with radius, becoming consistent with self-similar at R500. There is a large dispersion in scaled entropy in the inner regions, apparently linked to the presence of cool cores and dynamical activity; at larger radii the dispersion decreases by approximately a factor of two to 30 per cent, and the dichotomy between subsamples disappears. There are two peaks in the distribution of both inner slope and, after parameterising the profiles with a power law plus constant model, in central entropy K0. However, we are unable to distinguish between a bimodal or a left-skewed distribution of K0 with the present data. The distribution of outer slopes is unimodal with a median value of 0.98, and there is a clear correlation of outer slope with temperature. Renormalising the dimensionless entropy profiles by the gas mass fraction profile fgas (cool core.

  15. The Atlas3D project -- I. A volume-limited sample of 260 nearby early-type galaxies: science goals and selection criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M; Scott, Nicholas; Kleijn, G A Verdoes; Young, Lisa M; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The Atlas3D project is a multi-wavelength survey combined with a theoretical modeling effort. The observations span from the radio to the millimeter and optical, and provide multi-colour imaging, two-dimensional kinematics of the atomic (HI), molecular (CO) and ionized gas (Hbeta, [OIII] and [NI]), together with the kinematics and population of the stars (Hbeta, Fe5015 and Mgb), for a carefully selected, volume-limited (1.16*10^5 Mpc^3) sample of 260 early-type (elliptical E and lenticular S0) galaxies (ETGs). The models include semi-analytic, N-body binary mergers and cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Here we present the science goals for the project and introduce the galaxy sample and the selection criteria. The sample consists of nearby (D6*10^9 M_Sun). We analyze possible selection biases and we conclude that the parent sample is essentially complete and statistically representative of the nearby galaxy population. We present the size-luminosity relation for the spirals and ETGs and show that ...

  16. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), II. Discovery of Metal-poor Dusty AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, P; Bonanos, A Z; Gehrz, R D; Gordon, K D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, E; Lennon, D; Marengo, M; McDonald, I; Meixner, M; Skillman, E; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, G; van Loon, J Th; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called "extreme" or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5]>0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -1.5 and 12 are in galaxies with [Fe/H] < -2.0, making them the most metal-poor dust-producing AGB stars known. We compare these identifications to those in the literature and find that most are newly discovered large-amplitude variables, with the exception of approximately 30 stars in NGC 185 and NGC 147, one star in IC 1613, and one star in Phoenix. The chemical abundances of the x-AGB variables are unknown, but the low metallicities suggest that they are more likely to be carbon-rich than oxygen-rich and comparisons with existing optical and near-IR photometry confirms tha...

  17. Search for a gamma-ray line feature from a group of nearby galaxy clusters with Fermi LAT Pass 8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yun-Feng; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Lei, Shi-Jun; Feng, Lei; Liang, En-Wei; Chang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe and may be suitable targets for indirect dark matter searches. With 85 months of Fermi LAT Pass 8 publicly available data, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in the direction of 16 nearby galaxy clusters with an unbinned likelihood analysis. No statistically or globally significant γ -ray line feature is identified and a tentative line signal may present at ˜43 GeV . The 95% confidence level upper limits on the velocity-averaged cross section of dark matter particles annihilating into double γ rays (i.e., ⟨σ v ⟩χχ →γ γ) are derived. Unless very optimistic boost factors of dark matter annihilation in these galaxy clusters have been assumed, such constraints are much weaker than the bounds set by the Galactic γ -ray data.

  18. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE NUCLEI OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Monica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Mei, Simona [Department of Physics University of Paris Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); West, Michael J., E-mail: turnerm@uvic.ca [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Fornax Cluster Survey is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image 43 early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster, using the F475W and F850LP bandpasses of the ACS. We employ both one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques to characterize the properties of the stellar nuclei in these galaxies, defined as the central 'luminosity excesses', relative to a Sersic model fitted to the underlying host. We find 72% {+-} 13% of our sample (31 galaxies) to be nucleated, with only three of the nuclei offset by more than 0.''5 from their galaxy photocenter, and with the majority of nuclei having colors bluer than their hosts. The nuclei are observed to be larger, and brighter, than typical Fornax globular clusters and to follow different structural scaling relations. A comparison of our results to those from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey reveals striking similarities in the properties of the nuclei belonging to these different environments. We briefly review a variety of proposed formation models and conclude that, for the low-mass galaxies in our sample, the most important mechanism for nucleus growth is probably infall of star clusters through dynamical friction, while for higher mass galaxies, gas accretion triggered by mergers, accretions, and tidal torques is likely to dominate, with the relative importance of these two processes varying smoothly as a function of galaxy mass. Some intermediate-mass galaxies in our sample show a complexity in their inner structure that may be the signature of the 'hybrid nuclei' that arose through parallel formation channels.

  19. Stellar Populations in Dwarf Galaxies A Review of the Contribution of HST to our Understanding of the Nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E

    2000-01-01

    This review aims to give an overview of the contribution of the Hubble Space Telescope to our understanding of the detailed properties of Local Group dwarf galaxies and their older stellar populations. The exquisite stable high spatial resolution combined with photometric accuracy of images from the Hubble Space Telescope have allowed us to probe further back into the history of star formation of a large variety of different galaxy types with widely differing star formation properties. We have learnt several important things about dwarf galaxy evolution from these studies. Firstly we have found that no two galaxies have identical star formation histories; some galaxies may superficially look the same today, but they have invariably followed different paths to this point. Now that we have managed to probe deep into the star formation history of dwarf irregular galaxies in the Local Group it is obvious that there are a number of similarities with the global properties of dwarf elliptical/spheroidal type galaxie...

  20. UV-IR color profiles of the outer regions of 2K nearby S4G galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquin, Alexandre Y. K.; Gil de Paz, Armando

    2017-03-01

    We present our new, spatially-resolved, photometry in FUV and NUV from images obtained by GALEX, and IRAC1 (3.6 μm) photometry obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. We analyzed the surface brightness profiles μFUV, μNUV, μ[3.6], as well as the radial evolution of the (FUV-NUV), (FUV - [3.6]), and (NUV - [3.6]) colors in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structures in Galaxies (S4G) galaxies (d populated by late-type star forming galaxies and quiescent early-type galaxies respectively. While most disk becomes radially bluer for GBS galaxies, and stay constant for GRS galaxies, a large fraction ( > 50%) of intermediary GALEX Green Valley (GGV) galaxies' outer disks are becoming redder. An outside-in quenching mechanism such as environmentally-related mechanisms such as starvation or ram-pressure-stripping could explain our results.

  1. The selective effect of environment on the atomic and molecular gas-to-dust ratio of nearby galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Cortese, L; Boselli, A; Catinella, B; Ciesla, L; Hughes, T M; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; de Looze, I; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Viaene, S

    2016-01-01

    We combine dust, atomic (HI) and molecular (H$_{2}$) hydrogen mass measurements for 176 galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey to investigate the effect of environment on the gas-to-dust mass ($M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$) ratio of nearby galaxies. We find that, at fixed stellar mass, the average $M_{\\rm gas}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio varies by no more than a factor of $\\sim$2 when moving from field to cluster galaxies, with Virgo galaxies being slightly more dust rich (per unit of gas) than isolated systems. Remarkably, once the molecular and atomic hydrogen phases are investigated separately, we find that \\hi-deficient galaxies have at the same time lower $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio but higher $M_{\\rm H_{2}}/M_{\\rm dust}$ ratio than \\hi-normal systems. In other words, they are poorer in atomic but richer in molecular hydrogen if normalized to their dust content. By comparing our findings with the predictions of theoretical models, we show that the opposite behavior observed in the $M_{\\rm HI}/M_{\\rm dust}$ a...

  2. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zmzhou@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  3. Feedback and Brightest Cluster Galaxy Formation: ACS Observations of the Radio Galaxy TN J1338-1942 at z = 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirm, Andrew W.; Overzier, R. A.; Miley, G. K.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Clampin, M.; De Breuck, C.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C.; Hartig, G. F.; Homeier, N.; Illingworth, G. D.; Martel, A. R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Venemans, B.; Ardila, D. R.; Bartko, F.; Benítez, N.; Bouwens, R. J.; Bradley, L. D.; Broadhurst, T. J.; Brown, R. A.; Burrows, C. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cross, N. J. G.; Feldman, P. D.; Franx, M.; Golimowski, D. A.; Goto, T.; Gronwall, C.; Holden, B.; Infante, L.; Kimble, R. A.; Krist, J. E.; Lesser, M. P.; Mei, S.; Menanteau, F.; Meurer, G. R.; Motta, V.; Postman, M.; Rosati, P.; Sirianni, M.; Sparks, W. B.; Tran, H. D.; Tsvetanov, Z. I.; White, R. L.; Zheng, W.

    2005-09-01

    We present deep optical imaging of the z=4.1 radio galaxy TN J1338-1942, obtained using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based near-infrared imaging data from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio galaxy is known to reside within a large galaxy overdensity (both in physical extent and density contrast). There is good evidence that this ``protocluster'' region is the progenitor of a present-day rich galaxy cluster. TN J1338 is the dominant galaxy in the protocluster in terms of size and luminosity (in both the optical and near-infrared) and therefore seems destined to evolve into the brightest cluster galaxy. The high spatial resolution ACS images reveal several kiloparsec-scale features within and around the radio galaxy. The continuum light is aligned with the radio axis and is resolved into two clumps in the i775 and z850 bands. These components have luminosities ~109 Lsolar and sizes of a few kpc. The estimated nebular continuum, scattered light, synchrotron- and inverse Compton-scattering contributions to the aligned continuum light are only a few percent of the observed total, indicating that the observed flux is likely dominated by forming stars. The estimated star formation rate for the whole radio galaxy is ~200 Msolar yr-1. A simple model in which the jet has triggered star formation in these continuum knots is consistent with the available data. A striking, but small, linear feature is evident in the z850 aligned light and may be indicative of a large-scale shock associated with the advance of the radio jet. The rest of the aligned light also seems morphologically consistent with star formation induced by shocks associated with the radio source, as seen in other high-z radio galaxies (e.g., 4C 41.17). An unusual feature is seen in Lyα emission. A wedge-shaped extension emanates from the radio galaxy perpendicularly to the radio axis. This ``wedge

  4. SYSTEMATIC VARIATIONS IN CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ICE ABUNDANCE RATIOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES FOUND WITH AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, M.; Kaneda, H.; Ishihara, D.; Oyabu, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, T. [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shimonishi, T. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Suzuki, T., E-mail: yamagishi@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    We report CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios in seven nearby star-forming galaxies based on the AKARI near-infrared (2.5–5.0 μm) spectra. The CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios show clear variations between 0.05 and 0.2 with the averaged value of 0.14 ± 0.01. The previous study on M82 revealed that the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios strongly correlate with the intensity ratios of the hydrogen recombination Brα line to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) 3.3 μm feature. In the present study, however, we find no correlation for the seven galaxies as a whole due to systematic differences in the relation between CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance and Brα/PAH 3.3 μm intensity ratios from galaxy to galaxy. This result suggests that there is another parameter that determines the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios in a galaxy in addition to the Brα/PAH 3.3 μm ratios. We find that the CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios positively correlate with the specific star formation rates of the galaxies. From these results, we conclude that CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice abundance ratios tend to be high in young star-forming galaxies.

  5. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  6. The ACS LCID project VII: the blue stragglers population in the isolated dSph galaxies Cetus and Tucana

    CERN Document Server

    Monelli, M; Mapelli, M; Bernard, E J; Aparicio, A; Skillman, E D; Stetson, P B; Gallart, C; Hidalgo, S L; Mayer, L; Tolstoy, E

    2011-01-01

    We present the first investigation of the Blue Straggler star (BSS) population in two isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies of the Local Group, Cetus and Tucana. Deep HST/ACS photometry allowed us to identify samples of 940 and 1214 candidates, respectively. The analysis of the star formation histories of the two galaxies suggests that both host a population of BSSs. Specifically, if the BSS candidates are interpreted as young main sequence stars, they do not conform to their galaxy's age-metallicity relationship. The analysis of the luminosity function and the radial distributions support this conclusion, and suggest a non-collisional mechanism for the BSS formation, from the evolution of primordial binaries. This scenario is also supported by the results of new dynamical simulations presented here. Both galaxies coincide with the relationship between the BSS frequency and the absolute visual magnitude Mv found by Momany et al (2007). If this relationship is confirmed by larger sample, then it could be a valuab...

  7. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING). I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma-Matsui, Kana

    2016-10-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J = 1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' × 5' or 20.8 kpc × 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20″ (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J = 1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J = 1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J = 1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J = 2-1)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R2-1/1-0) and 13CO(J = 1-0)/12CO(J = 1-0) (R13/12), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J = 1-0), 13CO(J = 1-0), and archival 12CO(J = 2-1) spectra with velocity axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 with high significance for all the regions. We found that both R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 differ according to the regions, which reflects the difference in the physical properties of molecular gas, i.e., density (n_H_2) and kinetic temperature (TK). We determined n_H_2 and TK using R2-1/1-0 and R13/12 based on the large velocity gradient approximation. The derived n_H_2 ranges from ˜1000 cm-3 (in the bar, bar-ends, and spiral arms) to 3700 cm-3 (at the center) and the derived TK ranges from 10 K (in the bar and spiral arms) to 30 K (at the center). We examined the dependence of star formation efficiencies (SFEs) on n_H_2 and TK, and found a positive correlation between SFE and n_H_2 with correlation coefficient for the least-squares power-law fit R2 of 0.50. This suggests that molecular gas density governs the spatial variations in SFEs.

  8. The Asymptotic Giant Branch and the Tip of the Red Giant Branch as Probes of Star Formation History: The Nearby Dwarf Irregular Galaxy KKH 98

    OpenAIRE

    Melbourne, J; Williams, B.; Dalcanton, J.; Ammons, S. M.; Max, C.; Koo, D.C.; Girardi, Leo; Dolphin, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the red giant branch (RGB) as probes of the star formation history (SFH) of the nearby (D=2.5 Mpc) dwarf irregular galaxy, KKH 98. Near-infrared (IR) Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (AO) images resolve 592 IR bright stars reaching over 1 magnitude below the Tip of the Red Giant Branch. Significantly deeper optical (F475W and F814W) Hubble Space Telescope images of the same field contain over 2500 stars, reaching to the ...

  9. Implications of Halo Inside-out Growth on the X-Ray Properties of Nearby Galaxy Systems within the Preheating Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, J M; Gonzalez-Casado, G; Salvador-Solé, E; Solanes, Jose M.; Manrique, Alberto; Gonzalez-Casado, Guillermo; Salvador-Sole, Eduard

    2005-01-01

    We present an entirely analytic model for a preheated, polytropic intergalactic medium in hydrostatic equilibrium within a NFW dark halo potential in which the evolution of the halo structure between major merger events proceeds inside-out by accretion. This model is used to explain, within a standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmogony, the observed X-ray properties of nearby relaxed, non-cooling flow groups and clusters of galaxies. We find that our preferred solution to the equilibrium equations produces scaling relations in excellent agreement with observations, while simultaneously accounting for the typical structural characteristics of the distribution of the diffuse baryons. In the class of preheating models, ours stands out because it offers a unified description of the intrahalo medium for galaxy systems with total masses above $\\sm 2\\times 10^{13}$\\msun, does not produce baryonic configurations with large isentropic cores, and reproduces faithfully the observed behavior of the gas entropy at large radii. All th...

  10. Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Analysis of Spatially-Resolved Star-Formation in Nearby Galaxy Groups and Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Rose; Collova, Natasha; Spicer, Sandy; Whalen, Kelly; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Haynes, Martha P.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team, we are conducting a survey of the gas and star-formation properties of galaxies in 36 groups and clusters in the local universe. The galaxies in our sample span a large range of galactic environments, from the centers of galaxy groups and clusters to the surrounding infall regions. One goal of the project is to map the spatial distribution of star-formation; the relative extent of the star-forming and stellar disks provides important information about the internal and external processes that deplete gas and thus drive galaxy evolution. We obtained wide-field H-alpha observations with the WIYN 0.9m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory for galaxies in the vicinity of the MKW11 and NRGb004 galaxy groups and the Abell 1367 cluster. We present a preliminary analysis of the relative size of the star-forming and stellar disks as a function of galaxy morphology and local galaxy density, and we calculate gas depletion times using star-formation rates and HI gas mass. We will combine these results with those from other UAT members to determine if and how environmentally-driven gas depletion varies with the mass and X-ray properties of the host group or cluster. This work has supported by NSF grants AST-0847430, AST-1211005 and AST-1637339.

  11. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTiNGS). II. DISCOVERY OF METAL-POOR DUSTY AGB STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA-European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-10

    The DUSTiNGS survey (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer) is a 3.6 and 4.5 μm imaging survey of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. Using two epochs, spaced approximately six months apart, we identify a total of 526 dusty variable AGB stars (sometimes called ''extreme'' or x-AGB stars; [3.6]-[4.5] > 0.1 mag). Of these, 111 are in