Sample records for acridines

  1. Hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and acridine

    Reiff, Jr., E. K.


    The hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline and of acridine was studied in a batch autoclave reactor between 342 and 353/sup 0/C and between 500 and 2000 psig. The several commercial hydrotreating catalysts examined decreased in activity in the following order for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation: Ni--Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Ni--W/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Ni--W/SiO/sub 2/--Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and Co--Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The total nitrogen removal rate for quinoline was slightly greater than that for acridine and both followed pseudo first-order kinetics over a conversion range of 0 to 50%. Hydrogenation and cracking steps were both kinetically limiting. Nitrogen-containing reaction products for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation were 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroquinoline, decahydroquinoline and o-propylaniline. At 342/sup 0/C and 500 psig quinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the disappearance of the lumped group of quinoline plus 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline followed pseudo first-order kinetics. Sixteen nitrogen-containing reaction products were found for acridine hydrodenitrogenation, including 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine, 1,2,3,4,9,10,13,14-octahydroacridine, sym-octahydroacridine, perhydroacridine, and o-(methylenecyclohexane)aniline. The hydrogenolysis step for both quinoline and acridine appears to be through hydrogenated forms of these compounds. This is supported by bond strength arguments.

  2. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar


    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  3. DNA-binding antitumor agents: from pyrimido[5,6,1-de]acridines to other intriguing classes of acridine derivatives.

    Antonini, Ippolito


    In the field of antitumor DNA-binding agents, the class of acridine derivatives play an important role either as number of compounds or as importance of their anticancer properties. We have synthesized a number of acridine derivatives as potential antitumor drugs, in which the chromophore is fully or partially constituted by acridine or by 9-acridone ring systems: from the pyrimido[5,6,1-de]acridines, to the pyrimido[4,5,6-kl]acridines, the bis(amine-functionalized) 9-acridone-4-carboxamides, the bis(amine-functionalized) acridine-4-carboxamides, and the pyrazolo[3,4,5-kl]acridine-5-carboxamides. In the present revue we will describe the rational design, the synthesis, and the salient biological characteristics of these classes of acridine derivatives.

  4. Clinical results with acridine orange using a novel confocal laparoscope

    Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Rouse, Andrew R.; Hatch, Kenneth D.; Gmitro, Arthur F.


    We previously reported on the development of a multi-spectral confocal laparoscope for clinical imaging. In this paper we present current results using the system to image ovaries with a new laparoscope design using the contrast agent acridine orange. This new laparoscope integrates computer controlled systems for focus, depth scans, and localized contrast agent delivery. Precise axial position control is accomplished with tiny stepper motors integrated inside the laparoscope handle. Ergonomic handle controls allow for data acquisition, deliver of contrast agents, and adjustment of imaging depth during procedures by the surgeon. We have approval to use acridine orange in our clinical trials to image ovaries in vivo during oophorectomies. We present in vivo results using both acridine orange and fluorescein as the topically administered contrast agent.

  5. Reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy in oral cytodiagnosis

    Nilima Prakash


    Full Text Available Context and Aims: The oral cavity is the most predominant location in the head and neck region for primary malignant epithelial tumors. Oral cancer is estimated to be the sixth most common malignancy. Early recognition is imperative for successful treatment and good prognosis. Exfoliative cytology is a simple and reasonably effective technique for rapid initial evaluation of a suspicious oral lesion. The present study was conducted to determine the reliability of acridine orange fluorescence microscopy for cytodiagnosis as a more rapid and easier method for the final evaluation of the cytological specimen. Materials and Methods: Smears were collected from 20 individuals with oral lesions suspicious of malignancy, oral lesions not suggestive of malignancy and normal buccal mucosa. One smear was stained with Papanicolaou stain and another one with acridine orange stain. The differences in the study group and control group were compared by means of the χ2 (Chi-square test. The results were considered statistically significant whenever P was <0.05. Results: The acridine orange fluorescence stain reliably demonstrated malignant cells based on the differential fluorescence - a cytochemical criterion. The efficacy of the stain was higher than the conventional Papanicolaou stain in screening of oral lesions suspicious of malignancy. However, the acridine orange fluorescence stain did not differentiate effectively between malignant cells and rapidly proliferating cells, as the technique is based on the nucleic acid content. Conclusion: The fluorescent acridine orange method can be used reliably for the screening of carcinomas and it is especially helpful in the follow-up detection of recurrent carcinoma in previously treated cases.

  6. Antitumor polycyclic acridines. 7. Synthesis and biological properties of DNA affinic tetra- and pentacyclic acridines.

    Stanslas, J; Hagan, D J; Ellis, M J; Turner, C; Carmichael, J; Ward, W; Hammonds, T R; Stevens, M F


    New synthetic routes to a series of tetra- and pentacyclic acridines related in structure to marine natural products are reported. The novel water-soluble agent dihydroindolizino[7,6,5-kl]acridinium chloride 14 has inhibitory activity in a panel of non-small-cell lung and breast tumor cell lines exceeding that of m-AMSA. The salt inhibited the release of minicircle products of kDNA confirming that disorganization of topoisomerase II partly underlies the activity of the compound. COMPARE analysis of the NCI mean graph profile of compound 14 at the GI(50) level corroborates this conclusion with Pearson correlation coefficients (>0.6) to clinical agents of the topoisomerase II class: however, this correlation was not seen at the LC(50) level. The inhibitory action of 14 on Saccharomyces cerevisiae transfected with human topoisomerase II isoforms showed a 3-fold selectivity against the IIalpha isoform over the IIbeta isoform. Unlike m-AMSA, 14 is not susceptible to P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux and retains activity in lung cells with derived resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor etoposide.

  7. Interactions of hypericin with a model mutagen - Acridine orange analyzed by light absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Pietrzak, Monika; Szabelski, Mariusz; Kasparek, Adam; Wieczorek, Zbigniew


    The present study was designed to estimate the ability of hypericin to interact with a model mutagen - acridine orange. The hetero-association of hypericin and acridine orange was investigated with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy methods in aqueous solution of DMSO. The data indicate that hypericin forms complexes with acridine orange and that the association constants are relatively high and depend on DMSO concentration. The absorption spectra of the hypericin - acridine orange complexes were examined as well. Owing to its ability to interact with flat aromatic compounds, hypericin may potentially be used as an interceptor molecule.

  8. Optically enhanced nuclear cross polarization in acridine-doped fluorene

    Oshiro, C.M.


    The objective of this work has been to create large polarizations of the dilute /sup 13/C nuclei in the solid state. The idea was to create /sup 1/H polarizations larger than Boltzmann and to use the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy cross polarization technique to then transfer this large polarization to the /sup 13/C spin system. Optical Nuclear Polarization (ONP) of acridine-doped fluorene single crystals was studied. In addition, ONP of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene was studied. In general, many compounds do not crystallize easily or do not form large crystals suitable for NMR experiments. Powdered, amorphous and randomly dispersed samples are generally far more readily available than single crystals. One objective of this work has been to (first) create large /sup 1/H polarizations. Although large optical proton polarizations in single crystals have been reported previously, optically generated polarizations in powdered samples have not been reported. For these reasons, ONP studies of powdered samples of the acridine-doped fluorene were also undertaken. Using ONP in combination with the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment, large /sup 13/C polarizations have been created in fluorene single crystals. These large /sup 13/C polarizations have permitted the determination of the seven incongruent chemical shielding tensors of the fluorene molecule. Part 2 of this thesis describes the proton enhanced nuclear induction spectroscopy experiment. Part 3 describes the ONP experiment. Part 4 is a description of the experimental set-up. Part 5 describes the data analysis for the determination of the chemical shielding tensors. Part 6 presents the results of the ONP experiments performed in this work and the chemical shielding tensors determined.

  9. Covalent functionalization of graphene oxide by 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine and its derivatives

    Yi Si Feng; Jing Jing Ma; Xin Yan Lin; Jia Song Zhang; Peng Lv; Hua Jian Xu; Lin Bao Luo


    Graphene/acridine (G-Acr) hybrid structures were synthesized through covalent functionalization of graphene oxide with 9-(4-aminophenyl)acridine (APA) and its derivatives.The G-Acr hybrids were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry,thermal gravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy.X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms that the binding energies of APA and its derivatives shifted to higher values,revealing pronounced charge transfer at the interface of graphene and organic molecules.


    Lewis, P A


    The development or ripening of the oocyst of the coccidium of the rabbit is prevented by acridine hydrochloride provided that the cysts are exposed to the action of the chemical before development has started. After sporoblasts are formed acridine does not prevent further development. Many other substances, some of them known to be active against certain protozoan parasites, have no influence on the ripening of the oocysts of the coccidium.

  11. A quantitative model for using acridine orange as a transmembrane pH gradient probe.

    Clerc, S; Barenholz, Y


    Monitoring the acidification of the internal space of membrane vesicles by proton pumps can be achieved easily with optical probes. Transmembrane pH gradients cause a blue-shift in the absorbance spectrum and the quenching of the fluorescence of the cationic dye acridine orange. It has been postulated that these changes are caused by accumulation and aggregation of the dye inside the vesicles. We tested this hypothesis using liposomes with transmembrane concentration gradients of ammonium sulfate as model system. Fluorescence intensity of acridine orange solutions incubated with liposomes was affected by magnitude of the gradient, volume trapped by vesicles, and temperature. These experimental data were compared to a theoretical model describing the accumulation of acridine orange monomers in the vesicles according to the inside-to-outside ratio of proton concentrations, and the intravesicular formation of sandwich-like piles of acridine orange cations. This theoretical model predicted quantitatively the relationship between the transmembrane pH gradients and spectral changes of acridine orange. Therefore, adequate characterization of aggregation of dye in the lumen of biological vesicles provides the theoretical basis for using acridine orange as an optical probe to quantify transmembrane pH gradients.

  12. Proton-transfer reactions of acridine in water-containing ionic-liquid-rich mixtures.

    Kumar, Vinod; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth


    To assess the potential of ionic liquids (ILs) as a solubilizing media that facilitates proton-transfer reactions, acridine prototropism is investigated using UV/Vis molecular absorbance as well as steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence with different ILs in the presence of a small amount of dilute acid or base. It is found that protonation and deprotonation of acridine, when dissolved in different ILs, can be triggered by the addition of a small amount of dilute aqueous HCl and NaOH, respectively, in both the ground and excited states, irrespective of the identity of the IL. However, the amount of dilute acid/base needed to protonate/deprotonate acridine dissolved in different ILs is found to vary from one IL to another. Steady-state fluorescence measurements also imply the presence of interactions between the acidic proton(s) of IL cation and excited acridine. The interconversion of neutral and protonated acridine, as well as the presence of a weakly fluorescent complex between excited acridine and the acidic proton(s) of the IL cation, is further corroborated by the parameters recovered from the fitting of the excited-state intensity-decay data. It is established that ILs as solubilizing media readily support facile proton transfer in both ground and excited states.

  13. Photocatalytic water splitting with acridine dyes: Guidelines from computational chemistry

    Liu, Xiaojun; Karsili, Tolga N. V.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.; Domcke, Wolfgang


    The photocatalytic splitting of water into Hrad and OHrad radicals in hydrogen-bonded chromophore-water complexes has been explored with computational methods for the chromophores acridine orange (AO) and benzacridine (BA). These dyes are strong absorbers within the range of the solar spectrum. It is shown that low-lying charge-transfer excited states exist in the hydrogen-bonded AOsbnd H2O and BAsbnd H2O complexes which drive the transfer of a proton from water to the chromophore, which results in AOHradsbnd OHrad or BAHradsbnd OHrad biradicals. The AOHrad and BAHrad radicals possess bright ππ∗ excited states with vertical excitation energies near 3.0 eV which are predissociated by a low-lying repulsive πσ∗ state. The conical intersections of the πσ∗ state with the ππ∗ excited states and the ground state provide a mechanism for the photodetachment of the H-atom by a second photon. Our results indicate that AO and BA are promising chromophores for water splitting with visible light.

  14. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacteremia in Adults Using Acridine Orange Stained Buffy Coat Smears

    Mark Miller


    Full Text Available The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0. Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12% yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was 16%, specificity 88%, and positive predictive value 13%. There was no statistically significant difference in performance of the test among patients who had fever greater than 39°C and/or shock. The low sensitivity and specificity of the test makes it unsuitable as a means of rapid screening for adults with suspected bacteremia.

  15. Early detection of positive blood cultures by the acridine orange staining technique.

    Tierney, B M; Henry, N K; Washington, J A


    Staining 2,205 macroscopically negative blood cultures with acridine orange after 6 to 17 h of inoculation and incubation was as sensitive as an early subculture in detecting positive blood cultures. Of the 179 positive blood cultures, 30 (16.8%) were detected by acridine orange alone, 19 (10.6%) were detected by early subculture alone, 84 (46.9%) were detected by both techniques, and 46 (25.7%) were not detected by either method. The latter group includes cultures that became positive after ...

  16. Synthesis and G-Quadruplex-Binding Properties of Defined Acridine Oligomers

    Rubén Ferreira


    Full Text Available The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K. Log K were found to be in the order of 4–6.

  17. New spiro-acridines: DNA interaction, antiproliferative activity and inhibition of human DNA topoisomerases.

    Almeida, Sinara Mônica Vitalino de; Lafayette, Elizabeth Almeida; Silva, Willams Leal; Lima Serafim, Vanessa de; Menezes, Thais Meira; Neves, Jorge Luiz; Ruiz, Ana Lucia Tasca Gois; Carvalho, João Ernesto de; Moura, Ricardo Olímpio de; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Carvalho Júnior, Luiz Bezerra de; Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves de


    Two new spiro-acridines were synthesized by introducing cyano-N-acylhydrazone between the acridine and phenyl rings followed by spontaneous cyclization. The final compounds (E)-1'-(benzylideneamino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-01) and (E)-1'-((4-methoxybenzylidene)amino)-5'-oxo-1',5'-dihydro-10H-spiro[acridine-9,2'-pyrrole]-4'-carbonitrile (AMTAC-02) were evaluated for their interactions with calf thymus DNA, antiproliferative and human topoisomerase I and IIα inhibitory activities. Both compounds presented ability to bind DNA. The binding constant determined by UV-vis spectroscopy was found to be 10(4)M(-1). Antiproliferative assay demonstrated that AMTAC-01 and AMTAC-02 were most active against prostate and melanoma tumor cell lines, respectively. The compound did not present Topo I inhibitory activity. However, both derivatives displayed topoisomerase IIα inhibitory activity comparable to amsacrine, and AMTAC-02 was more potent than AMTAC-01 with methoxy substituent group on phenyl ring. This study demonstrates that the new derivatives are promising molecules with topoisomerase IIα inhibitory and antiproliferative activities.

  18. Synthesis, spectral characterization and larvicidal activity of acridin-1(2H)-one analogues

    Subashini, R.; Bharathi, A.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rajakumar, G.; Abdul Rahuman, A.; Gullanki, Pavan Kumar

    Acridin-1(2H)-one analogue of 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-2-[(pyridine-2yl) methylene] acridin-1(2H)-one, 5 was prepared by using 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenylacridin-1(2H)-one, 3 and picolinaldehyde, 4 in the presence of KOH at room temperature. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy of larvicidal and repellent activity of synthesized 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues such as compounds 3 and 5 against the early fourth instar larvae of filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex gelidus (Diptera: Culicidae). The compound exhibited high larvicidal effects at 50 mg/L against both the mosquitoes with LC50 values of 25.02 mg/L (r2 = 0.998) and 26.40 mg/L (r2 = 0.988) against C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus, respectively. The 7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-9-phenyl-acridin-1(2H)-one analogues that are reported for the first time to our best of knowledge can be better explored for the control of mosquito population. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, C. quinquefasciatus and C. gelidus.

  19. Synthesis, DNA Binding, and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Acridine-Thiosemicarbazone Derivatives

    Sinara Mônica Vitalino de Almeida


    Full Text Available In this work, the acridine nucleus was used as a lead-compound for structural modification by adding different substituted thiosemicarbazide moieties. Eight new (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide derivatives (3a–h were synthesized, their antiproliferative activities were evaluated, and DNA binding properties were performed with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both hyperchromic and hypochromic effects, as well as red or blue shifts were demonstrated by addition of ctDNA to the derivatives. The calculated binding constants ranged from 1.74 × 104 to 1.0 × 106 M−1 and quenching constants from −0.2 × 104 to 2.18 × 104 M−1 indicating high affinity to ctDNA base pairs. The most efficient compound in binding to ctDNA in vitro was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N- (4-chlorophenyl hydrazinecarbothioamide (3f, while the most active compound in antiproliferative assay was (Z-2-(acridin-9-ylmethylene-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide (3a. There was no correlation between DNA-binding and in vitro antiproliferative activity, but the results suggest that DNA binding can be involved in the biological activity mechanism. This study may guide the choice of the size and shape of the intercalating part of the ligand and the strategic selection of substituents that increase DNA-binding or antiproliferative properties.

  20. Structural considerations on acridine/acridinium derivatives: Synthesis, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and computational studies

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Serdiuk, Illia E.; Zadykowicz, Beata


    This article describes a detailed study of the molecular packing and intermolecular interactions in crystals of four derivatives of acridine, i.e. 9-methyl-, 9-ethyl, 9-bromomethyl- and 9-piperidineacridine (1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively) and three 10-methylacridinium salts containing the trifluoromethanesulphonate anion and 9-vinyl-, 9-bromomethyl, and 9-phenyl-10-methylacridinium cations (5, 6 and 7, respectively). The crystal structures of all of the compounds are stabilized by long-range electrostatic interactions, as well as by a network of short-range C-HṡṡṡO (in hydrates and salts 3 and 5-7, respectively), C-Hṡṡṡπ, π-π, C-Fṡṡṡπ and S-Oṡṡṡπ (in salts 5-7) interactions. Hirshfeld surface analysis shows that various intermolecular contacts play an important role in the crystal packing, graphically exhibiting the differences in spatial arrangements of the acridine/acridinium derivatives under scrutiny here. Additionally, computational methods have been used to compare the intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures of the investigated compounds. Computations have confirmed the great contribution of dispersive interactions for crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted acridine and electrostatic interactions for the crystal lattice stability in the case of 9-substituted 10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulphonates. The value of crystal lattice energy and the electrostatic contribution in the crystal lattice energy of monohydrated acridine derivatives have confirmed that these compounds have behave as acridinium derivatives.

  1. Synthesis of new acridines and hydrazones derived from cyclic beta-diketone for cytotoxic and antiviral evaluation.

    el-Sabbagh, Osama I; Rady, Hanaa M


    Cyclic beta-diketone namely, dimedone was utilized to prepare different chemical entities whether cyclic such as acridines, thiadiazole and triazole or acyclic systems as hydrazide, hydrazones, thiosemicarbazide and semicarbazide. The structures of the novel compounds were determined using elemental analyses and various spectroscopic methods. Most acyclic derivatives especially semicarbazide 19, hydrazide 9 and thiosemicarbazide 16 showed a higher in vitro cytotoxic activity against hepatoma cell line (HepG2) than the cyclized acridine derivatives. The antiviral activity of the new compounds against Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) using the plague infectivity reduction assay revealed that the acridine 4 and the hydrazone 12 were more active than the reference drug amantadine.

  2. Acridine orange staining as a replacement for subculturing of false-positive blood cultures with the BACTEC NR 660.

    Hunter, J.S.


    Despite the customization of growth index thresholds within individual laboratories, use of the BACTEC NR 660 automated blood culture system results in a number of false-positive cultures. The results of Gram staining, acridine orange staining, and subculturing to agar media were evaluated on 210 false-positive blood cultures over a 6-month period. Inclusion of acridine orange staining in the routine workup of false-positive blood cultures can eliminate the need for subculturing.

  3. Nonlinear phenomena of acridine orange in inorganic glasses at nanosecond scale

    Gaponenko, S. V.; Gribkovskii, V. P.; Zimin, L. G.; Lebed, V. Yu.; Malinovskii, I. E.; Graham, S.; Klingshirn, C.; Eyal, M.; Brusilovsky, D.; Reisfeld, R.


    Nonlinear optical behavior of acridine orange dye has been studied in lead-tin-flouride glass. We found that this material possess nonlinear saturable absorption and power-dependent lifetimes, both on nanosecond time scale. This short response is explained by an efficient S-T transfer induced by the heavy atoms of the glass. The glass has a good potential as a nonlinear material on a nanosecond time scale.

  4. Solvent-free preparation of co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin

    Braga, Dario, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Grepioni, Fabrizia; Maini, Lucia; Mazzeo, Paolo P.; Rubini, Katia [Dipartimento di Chimica ' G.Ciamician' , Universita degli studi di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy)


    Co-crystals of phenazine and acridine with vanillin have been obtained by solvent-free reaction or thermal treatment of the solid reactants: their structures, thermal behaviour and eutectic formation have been investigated via single crystal X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), variable temperature X-ray powder diffraction and hot-stage microscopy (HSM). Polymorph screening of the reagents has also been carried out.

  5. [Study on the inclusion behavior of p-sulphonatocalix[4]arene with acridine by spectrofluorometric titrations].

    Zhou, Yun-You; Lu, Qin; Liu, Chun; She, Shi-Ke; Yang, Xu-Lai; Wang, Lun


    p-sulphonatocalix[4] arene (1) was prepared according to the literature, and spectrofluorometric titrations were performed to investigate the inclusion behavior of (1) and acridine in citrate buffer solution (pH 5.92, 0.1 mol x L(-1)) at different temperatures. It was found that in definite concentration range, the emission peak of acridine exhibited a slight red shift and th fluorescence intensity decreased when (1) was added. They form stable host-guest complex, and the stoichiometry of the inclusion complex is 1 : 1. The stability constants of the inclusion complex at 15.0 degrees C, 20.0, 25.0 and 30.0 degrees C were determined as 3.08 x 10(5), 4.45 x 10(4), 2.58 x 10(4) and 8.90 x 10(3), respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of inclusion process, deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, were determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process. It was found that the stability constants descended when temperature rose. The most probable pattern of the inclusion complex between (1) and acridine was proposed as: acridine partially goes into the cavity of (1), and the protonated N atom and the negatively charged sulphonyl group bond firmly owing to strong electrostatic interaction. With the main contribution of electrostatic interaction and the assistance of Van de Waals and hydrophobic interaction, the host and the guest molecules form 1 : 1 supramolecular complex.

  6. Basicities of some 9-substituted acridine-4-carboxamides: A density functional theory (DFT) calculation

    Raghab Parajuli; C Medhi


    Acid-base properties of drugs are important in understanding the behaviour of these compounds under physiological condition. In order to understand such behaviour the proton affinities of acridine 4-carboxamides with substitution (R) at the 9-position are theoretically studied, and considered for the basic sites of both the heterocyclic ring as well as side chain nitrogens. In 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide, the -NH2 group is observed to be an additional basic site. The heterocyclic nitrogen of substituted carboxamides (R = -NH2, -O-methyl, -O-ethyl, and -O-phenyl) is more basic than the side chain nitrogen, however, side chain nitrogen corresponds to more basic site for some carboxamides (R = -OH and -Cl) and the -NH2 group represents the least basic site of 9-amino acridine 4-carboxamide. In addition to presenting the basicities of these drugs an indication of another hydrogen-bond between heterocyclic ring N and carboxamide chain O is observed. The difference of basicities with substituents at 9-position are very narrow and carboxamides with substituents at 9-position are found to be suitable for studying intramolecular H-bonds between the heterocyclic N and carboxamide O. The resultant stabilization of a configuration due to such H-bonding is determined.

  7. The role of ultraviolet-adaptation of a marine diatom in photoenhanced toxicity of acridine.

    Wiegman, Saskia; Barranguet, Christiane; Spijkerman, Elly; Kraak, Michiel Harm Steven; Admiraal, Wim


    Cultures of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were grown under laboratory light with a different fraction of ultraviolet radiation (UV) to study the potential role of photoadaptation in determining the sensitivity to photoenhanced toxicity of acridine. In short-term experiments, a higher acridine concentration was needed to inhibit the photosynthetic electron flux, monitored with chlorophyll a fluorescence, in algae exposed to fluorescent light (low UV) than to mercury light (high UV), consistent with the expected role of UV. The two types of light in long-term exposures led to changes in the pigment composition and photosystem I (PS I) to photosystem II (PS II) stoichiometry to optimize the utilization of fluorescent and mercury light. Despite the adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus to a small fraction of UV, long-term exposure to mercury light did show a constant sensitivity of the photosynthetic efficiency of P. tricornutum to the phototoxic acridine. It is concluded that the prime receptor of photoenhanced toxicity may be unrelated to the photosynthetic machinery.

  8. DNA binding, anti-tumour activity and reactivity toward cell thiols of acridin-9-ylalkenoic derivatives

    O Salem; M Vilkova; J Plsikova; A Grolmusova; M Burikova; M Prokaiova; H Paulikova; J Imrich; M Kozurkova


    In this paper, we describe the synthesis, biochemical properties and biological activity of a series of new 9-substituted acridine derivatives with a reactive alkene moiety: 9-[(E)-2-phenylethenyl] acridine (1) and methyl (2E)-3-(acridin-9-yl)-prop-2-enoate (2). The interaction of derivatives 1 and 2 with calf thymus DNA was investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The binding constants K were estimated as being in the range of 1.9 to 7.1 × 105 M−1, and the percentage of hypochromism was found to be 40–57% (from spectral titration). UV-Vis, fluorescence, and CD measurements indicate that the compounds were effective DNA-intercalating agents. Electrophoretic separation proved that ligands 1 and 2 relaxed topoisomerase I at a concentration of 5 M. Ester 2 was shown to have a stronger cytostatic effect on leukemia cell line L1210 than alkene 1. The incubation of ligands 1 and 2 with the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 confirmed their extensive cytotoxic effects, an effect which was particularly pronounced in the case of ligand 2. Cytotoxicity tests against A2780 cells demonstrate that a conjugate of compound 2 with -cysteine (3) is less cytotoxic than compound 2, especially at concentrations greater than 10 M.

  9. "Long-range" metal-ligand cooperation in H2 activation and ammonia-promoted hydride transfer with a ruthenium-acridine pincer complex.

    Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Iron, Mark A; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David


    The acridine-based pincer complex 1 exhibits an unprecedented mode of metal-ligand cooperation involving a "long-range" interaction between the distal acridine C9 position and the metal center. Reaction of 1 with H(2)/KOH results in H(2) splitting between the Ru center and C9 with concomitant dearomatization of the acridine moiety. DFT calculations show that this process involves the formation of a Ru dihydride intermediate bearing a bent acridine ligand in which C9 is in close proximity to a hydride ligand followed by through-space hydride transfer. Ammonia induces transfer of a hydride from the Ru center of 1 to C9 of the flexible acridine pincer ligand, forming an unusual dearomatized fac-acridine PNP complex.

  10. Acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc): A New Photochemically Removable Protecting Group for Alcohols

    WANG Hong-Bo; TANG Wen-Jian; YU Jing-Yu; SONG Qin-Hua


    Synthesis and photochemistry of acridin-9-ylmethoxycarbonyl (Amoc) as a new photochemically removable protecting group for alcohols were described. Three carbonates of alcohols 1-3 were synthesized through condensation of 9-hydroxymethylacridine and chloroformates of alcohols, including benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol and one galactose derivative. The photolysis of protected alcohols can efficiently release the corresponding alcohol in the efficiencies (Qu1ε) of 100-200 (quantum yield Qu1=0.011-0.023, and molar absorptivity ε=9.1 × 103-9.8 × 103 mol-1·L·cm-1) under 360 nm light.

  11. Alcohol amination with ammonia catalyzed by an acridine-based ruthenium pincer complex: a mechanistic study.

    Ye, Xuan; Plessow, Philipp N; Brinks, Marion K; Schelwies, Mathias; Schaub, Thomas; Rominger, Frank; Paciello, Rocco; Limbach, Michael; Hofmann, Peter


    The mechanistic course of the amination of alcohols with ammonia catalyzed by a structurally modified congener of Milstein's well-defined acridine-based PNP-pincer Ru complex has been investigated both experimentally and by DFT calculations. Several key Ru intermediates have been isolated and characterized. The detailed analysis of a series of possible catalytic pathways (e.g., with and without metal-ligand cooperation, inner- and outer-sphere mechanisms) leads us to conclude that the most favorable pathway for this catalyst does not require metal-ligand cooperation.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of acridine dyes using anatase and rutile TiO2.

    Zubieta, C E; Messina, P V; Schulz, P C


    The adsorption and photodegradation of acridine orange (AO) and acriflavine (AF) dyes on two mesoporous titania crystalline phases, anatase and rutile, were experimentally studied. Anatase and rutile were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, electron scanning and transmission microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The adsorption capacity of rutile was higher than that of anatase, while the reverse is observed for photodegradation of both dyes. The adsorption of AF on both adsorbents was higher than that of AO, which was related with the smaller size of AF molecules compared with those of AO, therefore the access of AF to the adsorption sites is favored.

  13. Damage by Visible Light to the Acridine Orange-DNA Complex

    Freifelder, David; Davison, Peter F.; Geiduschek, E. Peter


    Salmon DNA has been irradiated with visible light in the presence of acridine orange. If the dye is bound to the DNA, there results: (a) a decrease in sedimentation coefficient, (b) a lowering of viscosity, and (c) a decrease in the thermal denaturation temperature. CsCl banding experiments show that the first two effects reflect depolymerization of the DNA. Depolymerization apparently occurs by single-strand scission although some double-strand scission is not excluded. The destabilization of secondary structure results probably from chemical attack on the components of the individual strands. PMID:13701685

  14. Fluorescence enhancement of acridine orange in a water solution by Au nanoparticles


    The surface enhanced fluorescence effect of acridine orange fluorophore in the proximity of Au nanoparticles has been investigated experimentally in the system of aqueous solution.Significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity was observed when the system was excited with 532 nm or 442 nm CW lasers.The influence of the distances between neighboring Au particles as well as that between the fluorophore molecules and the Au surface were explored experimentally.The results demonstrated that a compact distribution of metallic particles was able to produce stronger fluorescence enhancement.Proper separation between the fluorophore molecules and the metal surface was favorable for a better enhancement.

  15. Interaction and sonodynamic damage activity of acridine red (AD-R) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Chen, Dandan; Xie, Jinhui; Wu, Qiong; Fan, Ping; Wang, Jun, E-mail:


    The sonodynamic therapy (SDT) has become an attractive antitumor treatment method in recent years, but the selection of sonosensitizer, mechanism of damage biomolecule and kind of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during sonodynamic process have not been investigated in detail. In this paper, the acridine red (AD-R), as a sonosensitizer, combining with ultrasonic irradiation to damage bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated. At first, the interaction of AD-R to BSA molecules in aqueous solution was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. As judged from the experimental results, the quenching mechanism of BSA fluorescence belongs to a static process. Synchronous fluorescence spectra demonstrate that the binding and damage sites to BSA molecules are mainly on the tryptophan residues. The generation and kind of generated ROS were also estimated by the method of oxidation and extraction photometry. This paper may offer some valuable references for the study of the sonodynamic activity and application of AD-R in SDT for tumor treatment. - Highlights: ●Acridine red (AD-R) is used to study interaction with BSA. ●Spectroscopy is used to study sonodynamic damage activity of AD-R to BSA. ●Generation of ROS caused by AD-R under ultrasonic irradiation was determined.

  16. Attenuation of acridine mutagen ICR-191--DNA interactions and DNA damage by the mutagen interceptor chlorophyllin.

    Pietrzak, Monika; Halicka, H Dorota; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew


    We have investigated the ability of chlorophyllin (CHL) to interact with acridine mutagen ICR-191 (2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-(2-chloroethyl)aminopropylamino)acridine) and also its ability to decrease binding of ICR-191 to DNA in a simple three-component competition system: CHL-ICR-DNA. Our data indicate a strong association of ICR-191 with CHL, stronger even than the association of ICR-191 with DNA. Calculations based on the measured affinity data show that a two- to three-fold excess of CHL reduces by about two-fold the concentration of the mutagen-DNA complex. We also exposed human leukemic HL-60 cells to ICR-191 in the absence and presence of CHL and measured the mutagen-induced DNA damage. The extent of DNA damage was assessed by analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation. While ICR-191 induced significant increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (gammaH2AX), particularly in DNA replicating cells, this increase was totally abolished in the cells treated with ICR-191 in the presence of CHL.

  17. Evaluation of chromatin condensation in human spermatozoa: a flow cytometric assay using acridine orange staining.

    Golan, R; Shochat, L; Weissenberg, R; Soffer, Y; Marcus, Z; Oschry, Y; Lewin, L M


    The quality of sperm chromatin is an important factor in fertilization and is especially critical where one spermatozoon is artificially selected for fertilizing an egg (as in intracytoplasmic sperm injection). In this study, flow cytometry after staining of human spermatozoa with Acridine Orange was used to study chromatin structure. A method is described for estimating the percentage of cells in a human sperm sample that have completed epididymal maturation in regard to chromatin condensation. Of the 121 samples of the semen that were examined, nine contained a higher percentage of hypocondensed spermatozoa and six samples contained elevated amounts of hypercondensed spermatozoa. In addition to aberrancies in chromatin condensation other defects showed up as satellite populations of spermatozoa with higher than normal ratios of red/green fluorescence after Acridine Orange staining. Such defects were found in 15 semen samples. The use of swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation methods was shown to improve the percentage of spermatozoa with normal chromatin structure in some samples with poor initial quality.

  18. Fluorescence energy transfer between Acridine Orange and Safranine T and its application in the determination of DNA.

    Cao, Y; He, X; Gao, Z; Peng, L


    The fluorescence energy transfer (FET) between Acridine Orange and Safranine T, two intercalators of DNA, was studied in this paper. The FET efficiency between Acridine Orange and Safranine T is higher and the critical distance, R(0), is longer in the intercalated state than in the free one. A new method for the determination of calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) was presented. The linear range of the calibration curve is (0 approximately 1.1)x10(-5) mol l(-1) in bases for ctDNA, and the limit of detection is 2.6x10(-7) mol l(-1).

  19. Synthesis and biological activity of ester derivatives of mycophenolic acid and acridines/acridones as potential immunosuppressive agents.

    Cholewinski, Grzegorz; Iwaszkiewicz-Grzes, Dorota; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Dzierzbicka, Krystyna


    Improved derivatives of mycophenolic acid (MPA) are necessary to reduce the frequency of adverse effects, this drug exerts in treated patients. In this study, MPA was coupled with N-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)-9-acridone-4-carboxamides or N-(ω-hydroxyalkyl)acridine-4-carboxamides to give respective ester conjugates upon Yamaguchi protocol. This esterification required protection of phenol group in MPA. Designed conjugates revealed higher potency in vitro than parent MPA. Acridine derivatives were more active than acridone analogs and length of the alkyl linker between MPA and heterocyclic units influenced the observed cytotoxicity. Derivatives 2b, 2d, 3a, 3b displayed the most promising immunosuppressive activity.

  20. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    D Shyam Prasad Reddy


    Full Text Available Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology. The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr

  1. The Crystal Structure and Behavior of Fenamic Acid-Acridine Complex Under High Pressure.

    Jerzykiewicz, Lucjan; Sroka, Adam; Majerz, Irena


    The crystal structure of fenamic acid-acridine complex is determined by X-ray diffraction. The strong OHN hydrogen bond linking the complex components and other interactions responsible for packing of the molecules into a crystal are investigated within the Quantum Theory of Atom in Molecule theory. The crystal structure is compared with the structure optimized at B3LYP/6-311++G** level and with the theoretical structures optimized under systematically changed pressure. Analysis of the lattice constants, hydrogen bond lengths, and angles of the inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bond under compression is performed. The structural transformation observed at 5 GPa is connected with a change in the intermolecular OHN hydrogen bond. The proton shifts to acceptor and a new interaction in the crystal appears.

  2. Modulation of acridine mutagen ICR191 intercalation to DNA by methylxanthines--analysis with mathematical models.

    Gołuński, Grzegorz; Woziwodzka, Anna; Iermak, Ievgeniia; Rychłowski, Michał; Piosik, Jacek


    Caffeine (CAF) and other methylxanthines (MTX) may interact directly with several aromatic, intercalating ligands through mixed stacking aggregation. Formation of such stacking hetero-complexes may decrease their free form concentration and, in consequence, diminish their biological activity, which is often related to their direct interaction with DNA. In this paper interactions of acridine mutagen (ICR191) with DNA in the presence of three MTX: caffeine (CAF), pentoxifylline (PTX) and theophylline (TH) are investigated. Several mathematical models are used to calculate all association constant values and every component concentration in each analyzed mixture. Model McGhee-von Hippel is used to analyze ligand-DNA interaction, and model Zdunek et al.--to analyze ligand-MTX interactions. Finally, two distinct mathematical models are employed to analyze three-component mixture containing ligand, MTX and DNA molecules. The first model describes possible interactions of ligand with DNA and MTX, and rejects direct MTX interactions with DNA. The second model describes all interactions mentioned above and, additionally, allows MTX to interact directly with DNA. Results obtained using these models are similar. However, correspondence of theoretical results to experimental data is better for the first model than the second one. In this paper possible interactions of ICR191 with eukaryotic cell chromatin are also analyzed, showing that CAF reduces acridine mutagen potential to interact directly with cell chromatin. Additionally, it is demonstrated that MTX inhibit mutagenic activity of ICR191 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, biological activity of ICR191-MTX mixtures corresponds with concentration of free mutagen form calculated using appropriate mathematical model.

  3. Direct Urease Test and Acridine Orange Staining on Bactec Blood Culture for Rapid Presumptive Diagnosis of Brucellosis

    P Maleknejad


    Full Text Available Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in Iran and human brucellosis is endemic in all parts of the country. Growth of Brucella is slow and blood culture of these bacteria by use of classical methods is time-consuming. Furthermore, in endemic area culture is required for definitive diagnosis. In the present study, direct urease test and acridine orange staining were tried on the BACTEC blood culture broths for early presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Blood cultures were attempted in 102 seropositive patients. In the forty one blood cultures positive for Brucella, coccobacilli were seen in broth smears stained with acridine orange stain, and also were urease test positive, thus providing presumptive identification of Brucella growth. Urease test was negative and bacteria were not seen in the broth smears of the remaining 61 broths negative for Brucella growth. Because of simplicity, reliability and reproducibility, these tests can be routinely incorporated in the laboratory for diagnosis of brucellosis.

  4. Quinacrine and 9-amino acridine inhibit B-Z and B-H(l) form DNA conformational transitions.

    Das, Suman; Kundu, Suprabhat; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha


    The interaction of quinacrine and 9-amino acridine with right-handed B-form, left-handed Z-form, and left-handed protonated (H(L))-form structures of polydG-me(5)dC was investigated by circular dichroism and absorption spectral analysis. Both the compounds bind strongly to the B-form structure and convert the Z-form and H(L)-form back to the bound right-handed form. Circular dichroic data revealed that the conformation at the binding site is right-handed even though adjacent regions of the polynucleotide may have left-handed conformation. The rate and extent of B-form-to-Z-form transition were decreased in the presence of these compounds. Scatchard analysis revealed that both quinacrine and 9-amino acridine bind strongly to the polynucleotide in the B-form in a noncooperative manner, in sharp contrast to the highly cooperative binding to the Z-form and H(L)-form. Results indicated that the cooperative binding of these drugs with the Z-form and the H(L)-forms was associated with a sequential conversion of the polynucleotide from a left-handed to a bound right-handed conformation. Experimental data enabled the calculation of the number of base pairs of Z-form (7-8 with quinacrine and 9-amino acridine) and H(L)-form (4 and 25, respectively, with quinacrine and 9-amino acridine) that adopt a right-handed conformation for each bound ligand. As these compounds are known to bind preferentially to alternating guanine--cytosine sequences, which are capable of easily undergoing the B-to-Z or B-to-H(L) transition, these effects may be important in understanding their biological activities.

  5. Evaluation of new iodinated acridine derivatives for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma using 125I, an Auger electron emitter.

    Gardette, Maryline; Papon, Janine; Bonnet, Mathilde; Desbois, Nicolas; Labarre, Pierre; Wu, Ting-Dee; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Guerquin-Kern, Jean-Luc; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Moins, Nicole


    The increasing incidence of melanoma and the lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form have led to an urgent need for new specific therapies. Several iodobenzamides or analogs are known to possess specific affinity for melanoma tissue. New heteroaromatic derivatives have been designed with a cytotoxic moiety and termed DNA intercalating agents. These compounds could be applied in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I, which emits Auger electrons and gives high-energy, localized irradiation. Two iodinated acridine derivatives have been reported to present an in vivo kinetic profile conducive to application in targeted radionuclide therapy. The aim of the present study was to perform a preclinical evaluation of these compounds. The DNA intercalating property was confirmed for both compounds. After radiolabeling with (125)I, the two compounds induced in vitro a significant radiotoxicity to B16F0 melanoma cells. Nevertheless, the acridine compound appeared more radiotoxic than the acridone compound. While cellular uptake was similar for both compounds, SIMS analysis and in vitro protocol showed a stronger affinity for melanin with acridone derivative, which was able to induce a predominant scavenging process in the melanosome and restrict access to the nucleus. In conclusion, the acridine derivative with a higher nuclear localization appeared a better candidate for application in targeted radionuclide therapy using (125)I.

  6. Influence of fluorescence of bacteria stained with acridine orange on the enumeration of microorganisms in raw milk.

    Rapposch, S; Zangerl, P; Ginzinger, W


    The staining of gram-positive and gram-negative cultures with acridine orange in metabolically active and inactive states was investigated using a Bactoscan, direct epifluorescent filter technique (DEFT), and standard plate count as the reference method. The evaluation of the bacterial cultures in the Bactoscan revealed a linear relationship between Bactoscan counts (pulses) and the quantity of pure culture suspension used. But the proper detection of bacteria with the fluorescence optic methods was dependent on the type of microorganism and the physiological state of the cells. The Bactoscan and DEFT underestimated the bacterial counts of gram-negative cultures as compared with standard plate counting. When stained with acridine orange, metabolically active bacteria showed more orange fluorescence and a lower percentage of green fluorescent cells as compared with inactive bacteria. Bactoscan pulse height analysis (PHA) diagrams, graphs of the detected pulses and their intensity, showed low pulses of inactive bacteria. Many of these weak pulses were eliminated from counting because of their faint fluorescent staining. In contrast, PHA diagrams of metabolically active microorganisms showed bright staining and, therefore, high pulses. A complete count of these bacteria was possible. These investigations point out that discrepancies between the fluorescence optical counting methods and the standard plate count depend strongly on the staining of the cultures with acridine orange and, therefore, on the type of microorganism and the metabolic state of the cells measured.

  7. Unexpected regiospecific formation and DNA binding of new 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones

    Ján Imrich; Danica Sabolová; Mária Vilková; Júlia Kudláčová


    New 3-(acridin-9-yl)methyl-2-substituted imino-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were regiospecifically synthesized from unstable (acridin-9-yl)methyl thioureas and methyl bromoacetate (MBA) or bromoacetyl bromide (BAB). Unexpected formation of only one thiazolidinone regioisomer with both the reagents was due to a new mechanism involving a transient spiro 9,10-dihydroacridine intermediate. These results are in contrast with the reactions of acridin-9-yl thioureas with MBA/BAB that afforded two different thiazolidinone regioisomers with these reagents. UV-vis titrations, CD spectra, and fluorescence quenching have shown that new products intercalated into calf thymus (CT) DNA, and displaced ethidium bromide (EB) from a CT DNA–EB complex. Intrinsic binding constants, , and Stern-Volmer constants, , were found in the range 0.79✕105 – 2.85✕105 M−1 and 17950 – 3360M−1, respectively. The strongest binding affinity was found for an electrondonated 2-(4-methoxyphenylimino) thiazolidinone. Additional evidence for DNA intercalation was obtained from thermal denaturation studies. Gel electrophoresis has proven that thiazolidinone products nicked the supercoiled plasmid DNA in 5.0 M concentration.

  8. Structural relaxation of acridine orange dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Nandi, Somen; Halder, Ritaban; Jana, Biman; Bhattacharyya, Kankan


    Structural relaxation of the acridine orange (AO) dimer in bulk water and inside a single live lung cell is studied using time resolved confocal microscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The emission maxima ( λem max ˜ 630 nm) of AO in a lung cancer cell (A549) and a non-cancer lung fibroblast cell (WI38) suggest that AO exists as a dimer inside the cell. Time-dependent red shift in emission maximum indicates dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer (in the excited state) with a time constant of 500-600 ps, both in bulk water and inside the cell. We have calculated the equilibrium relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer in the ground state using MD simulations and found a slow component of time scale ˜350 ps. The intra- and inter-molecular components of the total relaxation dynamics of the AO dimer reveal the presence of a slow component of the order of a few hundred picoseconds. Upon restricting intra-molecular dye dynamics by harmonic constraint between AO monomers, the slow component vanishes. Combining the experimental observations and MD simulation results, we ascribe the slow component of the dynamic relaxation of the AO dimer to the structural relaxation, namely, fluctuations in the distance between the two monomers and associated fluctuation in the number of water molecules.

  9. Enhanced fluorescence quenching in an acridine orange - alizarin red system through matrine and its analytical application

    Wei, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiaojun; Gong, Qi; Wang, Lisheng; Zhou, Shiwu


    This study shows that alizarin red (AR) only slightly quenched fluorescence for acridine orange (AO) in an AR/AO mixed solution at pH = 5-6. The reduced fluorescent signal was closely and linearly associated with the level of MT added to the system, which is the basis for a new quantitative MT assay method using the fluorescence quenching reaction in the AO-AR system. The results show that under optimal conditions, this method had a 14.9-43.5 mg L-1 linear detection range with a 1.38 mg L-1 detection limit and 1.24% precision. In addition, this method was used to determine the MT levels in the commercially available MT-containing pesticides and suppositories, which showed a 96.6-103% recovery. Therefore, this method has multiple advantages, including simple and fast operation, high accuracy and low cost. Moreover, herein, we investigated the underlying mechanism in-depth using an ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopic technique.

  10. Flow cytometry reticulocyte counting using acridine orange: validation of a new protocol

    Karina Augusta Viana


    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, the reticulocyte counting is a challenge for clinical laboratories in Brazil, mainly for the ordinary ones, which still use the manual method. This method has some limitations, since it consists of a laborious method, time consuming, with low accuracy. Objectives: This study has developed and evaluated the performance of a New Laboratory Protocol for flow cytometry (FC reticulocytes counting using acridine orange (AO as dye, aiming to standardize a more precise, easy, fast implementation, and low cost protocol. After standardization of the New Protocol (FC/AO, it was compared with the manual method. The results were analyzed according to the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS, now known as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, to evaluate the interchangeability of methods in linear regression analysis and paired t test, besides other quality control tests. Conclusion: Based on these results concerning to the correlation between the methods and the tests related to quality control, we can admit that FC/AO for reticulocyte counting shows undeniable advantages when compared to the preexisting manual method.

  11. Conjugation with Acridines Turns Nuclear Localization Sequence into Highly Active Antimicrobial Peptide

    Zhang Wei


    Full Text Available The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria creates an urgent need for alternative antibiotics with new mechanisms of action. In this study, we synthesized a novel type of antimicrobial agent, Acr3-NLS, by conjugating hydrophobic acridines to the N-terminus of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS, a short cationic peptide. To further improve the antimicrobial activity of our agent, dimeric (Acr3-NLS2 was simultaneously synthesized by joining two monomeric Acr3-NLS together via a disulfide linker. Our results show that Acr3-NLS and especially (Acr3-NLS2 display significant antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria compared to that of the NLS. Subsequently, the results derived from the study on the mechanism of action demonstrate that Acr3-NLS and (Acr3-NLS2 can kill bacteria by membrane disruption and DNA binding. The double targets–cell membrane and intracellular DNA–will reduce the risk of bacteria developing resistance to Acr3-NLS and (Acr3-NLS2. Overall, this study provides a novel strategy to design highly effective antimicrobial agents with a dual mode of action for infection treatment.

  12. Diagnosis of malaria by acridine orange fluorescent microscopy in an endemic area of Venezuela

    Irene Bosch


    Full Text Available Fluorescent (acridine orange microscopical examination of capillary centrifuged blood (quantitative buffy coat [QBC®] analysis and Giemsa stained thick blood smears (GTS were compared for diagnosis of malaria in blood specimens from adults living in malaria transmission areas of the States of Bolivar and Amazonas in southeastern and south Venezuela, respectively. Of a total of 198 GTS examined, 95 subjects (48% showed parasitaemia. Among the 95 blood films with a positive GTS, 94 were judged positive by the QBC. However, positive QBC tubes were found in 29 out of 103 blood specimens with a negative GTS. Thus, relative to a GTS standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the QBC-test was 99.2% and 72%, respectively. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum could not be distinguished with certainty. It is confirmed that the QBC offers many advantages compared with the standard diagnosis of malaria parasites, specifically in the speed of staining and ease of interpretation. However, in places where P. falciparum and P. vivax occur, species and stage differentiation should be confirmed with the GTS.

  13. Linear sweep polarographic determination of nucleic acids using acridine orange as a bioprobe



    Full Text Available The interaction of acridine orange (AO with double-stranded (ds DNA in aqueous solution was investigated by linear sweep polarography (LSP on a dropping mercury working electrode (DME. In pH 2.5 Britton–Robinson (B–R buffer solution, AO had a sensitive linear sweep polarographic reductive peak at –0.89 V (vs. SCE, which could be greatly inhibited by the addition of dsDNA, with a positive shift of the peak potential. Based on the decrease of the reductive peak current, a new quantitative electrochemical determination method for dsDNA was developed with a linear range of 2.0−20.0 mg l-1 and the linear regression equation: ΔIp” (nA = 111.90 C (mg l-1+125.32 (n = 9, γ = 0.997. The influences of commonly co-existing substances, such as metal ions, amino acid, etc., on the determination were also investigated. The method is sensitive, rapid and simple with good selectivity. The new proposed method was further applied to the detection of RNA and three synthetic samples containing dsDNA with satisfactory results. The binding number and the equilibrium constant between dsDNA and AO were calculated by an electrochemical method.

  14. Kinetics and Adsorption Isotherms Studies of Acridine Orange Dye from Aqueous Solution by Activated Charcoal

    *N. Qamar


    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of charcoal as low coast and effective adsorbent for acridine orange (a cationic dye from aqueous solution at room temperature. Effect of initial pH (2-8, shaking time (5min. - 1hour, adsorbent dose (0.1gm- 0.9gm and dye concentration (37mg/30ml-185mg/30ml were investigated. Results demonstrated that charcoal act as good adsorbent for the removal AO where 99.15% of the dye was adsorbed within 30 minutes. For the maximum dye removal efficiency (100%, optimum conditions were obtained at pH 8 (99.24%, adsorbent dose of 0.9g and dye concentration of 185 mg with charcoal. Kinetics of adsorption was investigated as well as Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to describe equilibrium studies. The Langmuir adsorption isotherms models and pseudo second order kinetics fitted the experimental data best with high regression coefficient R2. The results of the present studies points to the potential of charcoal as an effective adsorbent for the removal of dye from contaminated water sources.

  15. Rapid Diagnosis of Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti Filariasis by an Acridine Orange/Microhematocrit Tube Technique


    cyte monophenol oxida uviN in mos- thme laboratory biology and mai nance of-ti-des quitoescexposed to microfil ac ofiof’ aria mm. fri vilfofus. Mosquito...h aaie r detected in samples diluted to alevel ofappr-dmately 18;Rcmne l,18) h aaie r 50/mI. K \\/i )’c cl stained by the acridine orange dye and can...Ridley, Department of ratory Medicin, College of teninary Medicine; *Division of Biology and ji~epartment of Anatomy anid Phys , College of Veterinary

  16. Graphene oxide adsorption enhanced by in situ reduction with sodium hydrosulfite to remove acridine orange from aqueous solution.

    Sun, Ling; Yu, Hongwen; Fugetsu, Bunshi


    Graphene oxide (GO) is a highly effective adsorbent, and its absorbing capability is further enhanced through its in situ reduction with sodium hydrosulfite as the reductant. Acridine orange is the selected target to eliminate with GO as the adsorbent. Under identical conditions, GO without the in situ reduction showed a maximum adsorption capacity of 1.4 g g(-1), and GO with the in situ reduction provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 3.3 g g(-1). Sodium hydrosulfite converts carbonyl groups on GO into hydroxyl groups, which function as the key sites for the adsorption enhancement.

  17. Photoabsorption of Acridine Yellow and Proflavin Bound to Human Serum Albumin Studied by Means of Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Dynamics

    Aidas, Kestutis; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob


    Attempting to unravel mechanisms in optical probing of proteins, we have performed pilot calculations of two cationic chromophores—acridine yellow and proflavin—located at different binding sites within human serum albumin, including the two primary drug binding sites as well as a heme binding site....... The computational scheme adopted involves classical molecular dynamics simulations of the ligands bound to the protein and subsequent linear response polarizable embedding density functional theory calculations of the excitation energies. A polarizable embedding potential consisting of point charges fitted...

  18. Effect of cyclic AMP and acridine orange on the enzymatic reduction of usnic acid in the lichen Usnea aurantiaco-atra (Jacq. Bory

    C. Vicente


    Full Text Available A fluorescence-detection HPLC procedure has been applied to identify and quantify acridine orange in lichen samples. The dye accumulates in thalli of the lichen Usnea aurantiaco-atra and, in part, it is recovered from protamine-precipitated nucleic acids extracted from the samples. A supply of exogenous cyclic AMP reverses the uptake of acridine orange by thallus samples and its binding to nucleic acids. The dye impedes neither the loss of endogenously-produced cyclic AMP by thallus samples nor inhibits the uptake of that exogenously supplied. However, part of the endogenously produced cyclic AMP is secreted to the incubation medium in which phosphodiesterase activity has never been detected. Since the synthesis of D-usnic acid: NAD+(H oxido-reductase is impeded by acridine orange, oxidative catabolism of usnic acid is inhibited in thalli floated on the dye. Cyclic AMP reverses this effect.

  19. Theoretically Predicted Descriptors Based Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Study of the Activity of Acridines Against B-16 Melanoma

    Bahjat A. Saeed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The probability of success and reducing time and coast in drug discovery process could be increased on the basis of QSAR techniques. The study involves the QSAR investigation of 20 bioactive acridines that have activity against Approach: Molecular descriptors, total energy, van der Waals volume, molecular volume, HOMO energy, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, polarizability, refractivity, bond angle of C8-N9-C2 and bond length of C14-N6 were calculated. Initial geometry optimizations were carried out with RM1 Hamiltonian. Lowest energy conformers were subjected to single point calculations by DFT method. Several models for the prediction of biological activity have been drawn up by using the multiple regression technique. Results: Four models with R2 ranges from 0.88-0.93 were predicted. A model with hepta-parametric equation with R2 0.93 was used to predict the biological activities, the agreement between the observed and the predicted values was up to 93%. Conclusion: The biological activity of the studied acridines can be modeled with quantum chemical molecular descriptors.

  20. One-pot Synthesis of 14-Aryl-1,6,7,1 4-tetrahydrodibenzo-[a,i]acridine-1,6-dione in Ionic Liquid

    LI Yuling; XU Xiaoping; SHI Daqing; JI Shunjun


    14-Aryl-1,6,7,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,i]acridine-l,6-diones have been synthesized in ionic liquid [bmim]BF4 (bmim=1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) at room temperature.Particularly valuable features of this method include high yields of products,recyclable reaction media,broad substrate scope,short reaction time and operational simplicity.

  1. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction mechanisms of safranin T with herring sperm DNA using acridine orange as a fluorescence probe.

    Long, Jun; Wang, Xing-ming; Xu, Dong-ling; Ding, Li-sheng


    Under the condition of physiological pH environment (pH = 7.40), the interactions of safranin T (ST) with herring sperm DNA were studied by means of spectral methods using acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe. The spectroscopic characteristics of DNA-AO in the case of ST (along with the increase of concentration) were observed in an aqueous medium. The binding constants for ST stranded DNA and competitive bindings of ST interacting with DNA-AO systems were examined by fluorescence spectra, and the binding mechanism of ST with DNA was researched via viscosity measurements. All the testimony manifested that bonding modes between ST and DNA were evidenced to be intercalative binding and electrostatic binding, and the combining constant of ST with DNA was obtained. The binding of ST to DNA was driven by entropy and enthalpy through the calculated thermodynamic parameters (Δr Hm (Ө), Δr Sm and Δr Gm (Ө)).

  2. In-depth validation of acridine orange staining for flow cytometric parasite and reticulocyte enumeration in an experimental model using Plasmodium berghei

    Hein-Kristensen, L; Wiese, L; Kurtzhals, J A L;


    Flow cytometry is potentially an effective method for counting malaria parasites, but inconsistent results have hampered its routine use in rodent models. A published two-channel method using acridine orange offers clear discrimination between the infected and uninfected erythrocytes. However, pr...... nucleic acid content in immature uninfected reticulocytes. Our data confirms that though flow cytometry is a promising analytical tool in malaria research, care should still be taken when analysing samples from anemic or chronically infected animals....

  3. Synthesis of a new class of strongly fluorescent heterocyclic compounds: 3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles

    Sahraei, Robabeh [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pordel, Mehdi, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behmadi, Hossein; Razavi, Bahareh [Department of Chemistry, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The synthesis, spectral characterization and fluorescence studies of some novel substituted 8-chloro-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles are presented. The nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen in 5-nitrobenzimidazole derivatives occurs upon reaction with 2-(4-chlorophenyl) acetonitrile under basic conditions and proceeds with concomitant cyclisation. This sequence offers a one-pot synthesis of new fluorescent heterocyclic compounds, 8-chloro-3-alkyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles. The fluorescence of all compounds was intense and fluorescence quantum yields were very high (>0.85) for all of them. -- Highlights: ► A facile method to synthesis of new 3H-imidazo[4,5–a]acridine-11-carbonitriles is presented. ► The spectral and photophysical properties of these new compounds are investigated. ► The fluorescence of all compounds was intense and fluorescence quantum yields were very high for all of them.

  4. Inhibition of RNA recruitment and replication of an RNA virus by acridine derivatives with known anti-prion activities.

    Zsuzsanna Sasvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ and quinacrine (QC, which are active against prion-based diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses.

  5. Sensitive and selective turn-on fluorescence method for cetyltrimethylammonium bromide determination based on acridine orange-polystyrene sulfonate complex.

    Li, Na; Hao, Xia; Kang, Bei Hua; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun


    This work proposed a rapid and novel fluorescence-sensing system using a complex of acridine orange (AO) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) to sensitively recognize and monitor cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in an aqueous medium. AO can interact with PSS and a complex is formed via electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction. The fluorescence of AO is greatly quenched after the introduction of PSS. Upon its subsequent addition, CTAB can interact and form a complex with PSS because the electrostatic attraction between CTAB and PSS is much stronger than that between AO and PSS, which results in significant fluorescence recovery. Interestingly, the proposed method can be applied for the discrimination and detection of surfactants with different hydrocarbon chain lengths due to their different binding affinity toward PSS. The detection limit for CTAB is as low as 0.2 µg/mL and the linear range is from 0.5 to 3.5 µg/mL. Moreover, we applied the sensor to the successful detection of CTAB in water samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 32P-postlabelling analysis of dibenz[a,j]acridine-DNA adducts in mice: identification of proximate metabolites.

    Talaska, G; Roh, J; Schamer, M; Reilman, R; Xue, W; Warshawsky, D


    N-Heterocyclic polynuclear aromatics are widely-occurring environmental pollutants formed during the pyrolysis of nitrogen-containing organic chemicals. Dibenz[a,j]acridine (DBA), a member of this class, has been shown to be a skin carcinogen in mice. We undertook studies to determine the organ distribution of DBA-DNA adducts and to identify the DBA metabolites which lead to the formation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in vivo. DBA and its metabolites, trans-DBA-1,2-dihydrodiol (DBA-1,2-DHD) trans-DBA-3,4-dihydrodiol (DBA-3,4-DHD) and trans-DBA-5,6-dihydrodiol (DBA-5,6-DHD), were topically applied on mice. DNA was isolated using enzyme-solvent extraction methods, and analyzed for carcinogen-DNA adducts using 32P-postlabelling. In skin, DBA produced two distinct adducts (Adducts 1 and 2). The same two adducts were seen when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied. In addition, the total adduct level elicited by DBA-3,4-DHD was twice that of the parent compound. Two adducts (Adducts 3 and 4) were also seen in mouse skin when DBA-5,6-DHD was applied, but these differed chromatographically from adducts seen with DBA. However, when DBA-3,4-DHD was applied and analyzed using sensitive nuclease P1 32P-postlabelling, all four adducts could be detected. These results suggest that the major route of DBA activation to DNA-binding species in skin is through formation of DBA-3,4-DHD and subsequent metabolism of this compound to a bay-region diol-epoxide. However, we postulate that another activation pathway may proceed through a bis-dihydrodiol-epoxide.

  7. Synthesis of modified maghemite nanoparticles and its application for removal of Acridine Orange from aqueous solutions by using Box-Behnken design

    Bagheban Shahri, Fatemeh; Niazi, Ali, E-mail:


    In this study, sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated maghemite nanoparticles (SDS-coated γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs), was used for removal of cationic dye Acridine Orange from water samples. The γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to examine their size and magnetic moment. The adsorption experiments were performed using the batch system. The prepared magnetic adsorbent was well dispersed in water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. Four most important operating variables including initial pH of the solution, dosage of adsorbent, concentration of dye and contact time was studied and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), involving Box-Behnken design matrix. Twenty-seven experiments were performed to investigate the effect of these parameters on removal of the dye. The results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others. Also, experimental parameters were optimized and chose the best conditions by determination of effective factors. The optimized conditions for dye removal were at initial pH 5.1 0.8 g L{sup −1} of adsorbent, 30.0 mg L{sup −1} dye and 43 min adsorption time. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for Acridine Orange was 285.82 mg g{sup −1}. - Highlights: • Synthesis of maghemite as magnetic nanoparticle by co-precipitation. • Simple and fast removal of Acridine Orange by MMNPs. • Effect of parameters are optimized by Box-Behnken design.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives as new c-KIT promoter G-quadruplex binding ligands.

    Guo, Qian-Liang; Su, Hua-Fei; Wang, Ning; Liao, Sheng-Rong; Lu, Yu-Ting; Ou, Tian-Miao; Tan, Jia-Heng; Li, Ding; Huang, Zhi-Shu


    It has been shown that treatment of cancer cells with c-KIT G-quadruplex binding ligands can reduce their c-KIT expression levels thus inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis. Herein, a series of new 7-substituted-5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine derivatives were designed and synthesized. Subsequent biophysical evaluation demonstrated that the derivatives could effectively bind to and stabilize c-KIT G-quadruplex with good selectivity against duplex DNA. It was found that 12-N-methylated derivatives with a positive charge introduced at 12-position of 5,6-dihydrobenzo[c]acridine ring had similar binding affinity but lower stabilizing ability to c-KIT G-quadruplex DNA, compared with those of nonmethylated derivatives. Further molecular modeling studies showed possible binding modes of G-quadruplex with the ligands. RT-PCR assay and Western blot showed that compound 2b suppressed transcription and translation of c-KIT gene in K562 cells, which was consistent with the property of an effective G-quadruplex binding ligand targeting c-KIT oncogene promoter. Further biological evaluation showed that compound 2b could induce apoptosis through activation of the caspase-3 cascade pathway.

  9. Design, Synthesis, Fluorescence Properties and Antibacterial Activities of New 8-Chloro-3-Alkyl-3H-Pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-Carbonitriles

    Rahmani, Zeynab; Pordel, Mehdi; Davoodnia, Abolghasem [Islamic Azad Univ., Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The treatment of alkylated nitro derivatives of indazole with 2-(4-chlorophenyl)acetonitrile under basic conditions gave the new 8-chloro-3-alkyl-3H-pyrazolo[4,3-a]acridine-11-carbonitriles via the nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen which proceeds at room temperature with concomitant cyclisation in fairly good yields. The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectral data. Fluorescence experimental results of all newly synthesized compounds revealed remarkable photoluminescence properties and strong green fluorescence properties. Also, the new compounds exhibited potent antibacterial activity and their antibacterial activity (MIC) against Gram positive (Staphylococcuse aureus methicillin resistant S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and negative bacterial (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) species were determined.

  10. Associated electron and proton transfer between Acridine and Triethylamine in AOT reverse micelles probed by laser flash photolysis with magnetic field

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita


    Laser flash photolysis with magnetic field (MF ˜0.08 T) has been used to study interaction between Acridine (Acr) and Triethylamine (TEA) in reverse micelles with w0 = 2.5-40. Dynamic protonation equilibrium exists between 3Acr and 3AcrH +. The intermediates indicate excited-state proton transfer (PT) between 3AcrH + and TEA. However, application of MF highlights the formation of geminate radical ion pairs (RIPs) with triplet spin-correlation, a signature of latent photoinduced electron transfer between 3AcrH + and TEA co-exists with PT. Magnetic field effect (MFE) is prominent for smaller w0 showing importance of optimum separation between RIP to maximize MFE, whereas PT remains unaltered.

  11. Novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone analogs induce endoreduplication in the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS.

    Chai, Hongbo; Hazawa, Masaharu; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo


    The cytotoxicity of novel acridine-based N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) analogs was investigated on the human oral squamous carcinoma cell line SAS. One analog induced G2/M phase arrest at 5.3-10.6 µM and induced polyploidy at a higher dose (21.2 µM). Importantly, treatment of SAS cells with a combination of the AHL analog and the Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, prevented mitosis and induced polyploidy. The AHL analog synergized with X-irradiation to inhibit clonogenic survival of SAS cells; however, its radiosensitizing effects were relative to not X-irradiation-induced apoptosis but mitotic failure following enhanced expression of Aurora A and B. These results suggest that the active AHL analog showed growth-suppressive and radiosensitizing effects, which involve polyploidy followed by G2/M accumulation and atypical cell death in the SAS cell line.

  12. Blood culture gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity-based antimicrobial therapy of bloodstream infection in patients with trauma

    Behera B


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the simple practice of Gram stain, acridine orange stain and direct sensitivity determination of positive blood culture bottles could be used to guide early and appropriate treatment in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. The study also aimed to evaluate the error in interpreting antimicrobial sensitivity by direct method when compared to standard method and find out if specific antibiotic-organism combination had more discrepancies. Findings from consecutive episodes of blood stream infection at an Apex Trauma centre over a 12-month period are summarized. Materials and Methods: A total of 509 consecutive positive blood cultures were subjected to Gram staining. AO staining was done in BacT/ALERT-positive Gram-stain negative blood cultures. Direct sensitivity was performed from 369 blood culture broths, showing single type of growth in Gram and acridine orange staining. Results of direct sensitivity were compared to conventional sensitivity for errors. Results: No ′very major′ discrepancy was found in this study. About 5.2 and 1.8% minor error rates were noted in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively, while comparing the two methods. Most of the discrepancies in gram-negative bacteria were noted in β lactam - β lactamase inhibitor combinations. Direct sensitivity testing was not reliable for reporting of methicillin and vancomycin resistance in Staphylococci. Conclusions: Gram stain result together with direct sensitivity testing is required for optimizing initial antimicrobial therapy in trauma patients with clinical suspicion of sepsis. Gram staining and AO staining proved particularly helpful in the early detection of candidaemia.

  13. Microbial quality of lamb carcasses during processing and the acridine orange direct count technique (a modified DEFT) for rapid enumeration of total viable counts.

    Sierra, M L; Sheridan, J J; McGuire, L


    This study was designed to set up a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) system for sheep slaughtering operations at four different plants in Ireland and to determine the differences between plants in terms of microbial contamination. A single carcass area, the abdomen, was examined by swabbing and a microbiological profile was determined at different stages along the slaughter line. The level of contamination was assessed from the total bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and Listeria spp. For the total counts, a modified direct epifluorescent filter technique (acridine orange direct count technique (AODC)) was developed and tested. No significant differences were found among plants in the levels of bacterial contamination. This was observed for all groups of organisms. The rapid direct technique (AODC) was found to be very successful. A correlation coefficient of 0.87 was obtained for this method and the standard plate count. Each test could be carried out in about 10-15 min and could be used to predict the standard plate count.

  14. Evaluation of Acridine Orange Derivatives as DNA-Targeted Radiopharmaceuticals for Auger Therapy: Influence of the Radionuclide and Distance to DNA

    Pereira, Edgar; Do Quental, Letícia; Palma, Elisa; Oliveira, Maria Cristina; Mendes, Filipa; Raposinho, Paula; Correia, Isabel; Lavrado, João; di Maria, Salvatore; Belchior, Ana; Vaz, Pedro; Santos, Isabel; Paulo, António


    A new family of 99mTc(I)- tricarbonyl complexes and 125I-heteroaromatic compounds bearing an acridine orange (AO) DNA targeting unit was evaluated for Auger therapy. Characterization of the DNA interaction, performed with the non-radioactive Re and 127I congeners, confirmed that all compounds act as DNA intercalators. Both classes of compounds induce double strand breaks (DSB) in plasmid DNA but the extent of DNA damage is strongly dependent on the linker between the Auger emitter (99mTc or 125I) and the AO moiety. The in vitro evaluation was complemented with molecular docking studies and Monte Carlo simulations of the energy deposited at the nanometric scale, which corroborated the experimental data. Two of the tested compounds, 125I-C5 and 99mTc-C3, place the corresponding radionuclide at similar distances to DNA and produce comparable DSB yields in plasmid and cellular DNA. These results provide the first evidence that 99mTc can induce DNA damage with similar efficiency to that of 125I, when both are positioned at comparable distances to the double helix. Furthermore, the high nuclear retention of 99mTc-C3 in tumoral cells suggests that 99mTc-labelled AO derivatives are more promising for the design of Auger-emitting radiopharmaceuticals than the 125I-labelled congeners.

  15. 吖啶橙指示荧光分析法测定双酚A%Spectrofluorimetric Determination of Bisphenol A with Acridine Orange as Indicator

    杜凌云; 包玉红; 王术皓


    A new spectrofluorimetric method has been developed for the determination of bisphenol A based on the inhibitory effect of bisphenol A on redox reaction between hydroxyl radical and acridine orange in acidic media. This method is simple, fast, and its linear range is 1. 0 to 100 ng/mL with the detection limit of 0. 21 ng/mL. The proposed method was applied to the determination of bisphenol A in plastic bag with satisfactory results.%基于在酸性介质中,双酚A对羟自由基与吖啶橙的氧化还原反应的阻抑作用,建立了测定双酚A的荧光分析新方法.该方法简单,快速,线性范围为1.0~100 ng/mL,检出限为0.21 ng/mL.将其用于塑料制品中双酚A的测定,结果满意.

  16. A Novel Fluorescence Probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine for Nitric Oxide Determination

    DING Liyun; YUAN Fang; HUANG Lanfen; HUANG Jun; LIU Xiaofang; LIANG Bing


    A novel fluorescent probe 9-(4-(1,2-diamine)benzene-N1-phenyl)acridine (DABPA) was synthesized for the detection of nitric oxide (NO) and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and EI-MS spectroscopy. Based on a photoelectron transfer mechanism, the fluorescence intensities of DABPA were investigated with the different concentrations of NO. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the fluorescence intensity of DABPA had a good linear relationship (R2=0.9977) with NO concentration in the range from 1×10-7 to 1.5×10-6 mol/L with a detection limit of 1×10-8 mol/L. The cytotoxicity induced by DABPA was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay for biological application. Furthermore, the probe DABPA had also been successfully applied to real-time image NO produced in PC12 cells in the presence of L-arginine.

  17. Radioadaptive response in human B- and CD8{sup +} T-lymphocytes as measured by the acridine orange stained micronuclei technique

    Kim, H.S.; Choi, J.M.; Yang, K.H.; Kim, C.S.; Lim, Y.K.; Kim, C.S. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Corporation, Radiation Health Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Woon, J.H. [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Anyang (Korea)


    To investigate (1) the radiosensitive of B- versus T- lymphocytes and (2) the possible application of their sensitivity for adaptive response after treating with an adapting plus a challenge dose. In the present experiments, micronucleus analysis was performed in B- and CD8{sup +} matured T-lymphocytes of eight healthy volunteers exposed to {gamma}-rays. The number of radio-induced micronuclei was significantly higher in B-lymphocytes compared to T-lymphocytes in the dose range from 10 to 100cGy. To investigate adaptive response, whole blood samples were irradiated in vitro with a pretreatment dose of 1cGy {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-irradiation. Six hours after their initiation, groups of cultures were subsequently exposed to a challenge dose of 100cGy {gamma}-irradiation. Following stimulation with PHA and PWM for T- and B-lymphocyte cultivation, lymphocytes were fixed at 72 hours and stained with acridine orange dye. B-lymphocytes exhibited a greater induction of adaptive response than those of CD8{sup +} matured T-lymphocytes, and when pretreated with 1cGy significantly fewer micronuclei induced by the challenge dose of 100cGy {gamma}-irradiation. The results suggest that the lower dose pretreatments are able to induce a significantly higher adaptive response in human B-lymphocytes, and this adaptive response may result from the DNA repair mechanism, which may lead to less residual damage. (author)

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of low levels arsenic species in beverages after ion-pairing vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction with acridine red.

    Altunay, Nail; Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk


    A new, low-cost, micellar-sensitive and selective spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of inorganic arsenic (As) species in beverage samples. Vortex-assisted cloud-point extraction (VA-CPE) was used for the efficient pre-concentration of As(V) in the selected samples. The method is based on selective and sensitive ion-pairing of As(V) with acridine red (ARH(+)) in the presence of pyrogallol and sequential extraction into the micellar phase of Triton X-45 at pH 6.0. Under the optimised conditions, the calibration curve was highly linear in the range of 0.8-280 µg l(-1) for As(V). The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.25 and 0.83 µg l(-1), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace As in the pre-treated and digested samples under microwave and ultrasonic power. As(V) and total As levels in the samples were spectrophotometrically determined after pre-concentration with VA-CPE at 494 nm before and after oxidation with acidic KMnO4. The As(III) levels were calculated from the difference between As(V) and total As levels. The accuracy of the method was demonstrated by analysis of two certified reference materials (CRMs) where the measured values for As were statistically within the 95% confidence limit for the certified values.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Acridine-4-Formamide Derivatives%吖啶-4-甲酰胺衍生物的合成与表征



    吖啶类衍生物作为生物大分子探针具有广阔应用前景。本文以4-羧基吖啶酮为母体,在4位上引入N-(2-二甲氨基)乙基,并进一步在9位引入α-丙氨酸或N-(2-二甲氨基)乙基,合成了3种吖啶-4-甲酰胺衍生物:N-(2-二甲氨基)乙基-9-氯吖啶-4-甲酰胺(NCAF)、9-[(N-2-二甲氨乙基)吖啶-4-甲酰胺]-α-丙氨酸(NAFA)及4,9-二[N-(2-二甲氨基)乙基]-9-吖啶胺-4-甲酰胺(DNAF)。通过质谱、核磁共振谱对产物进行了表征。%Acridine derivatives as biomacromolecule probes had broad application prospects.Using 4-carboxy-acridone as a parent body,N-(2-dimethylamino) ethyl on 4 site was introduced,on this basis,alanine or N-(2-dimethylamino) ethyl on 9 site,N-(2-dimethylamino) e

  20. Short communication. Evaluation of a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide to assess the plasma membrane integrity of ram sperm

    J. L. Yániz


    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop a semiautomatic computer assisted methodology to evaluate the membrane integrity of ram spermatozoa using a commercial kit based on acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI labelling and ImageJ software. The study was divided into two experiments. In the first trial, the new computer-assisted method was validated by mixing fresh semen samples with different volumes of freeze killed spermatozoa to determine proportions of damaged spermatozoa in the final samples. The proportion of damaged spermatozoa in each sample determined by the automated procedure where highly correlated (R2=0.97, p<0.001 with the predicted theoretical values. In the second trial, the new method was compared with a previously validated method of membrane integrity assessment based on phase-contrast/propidium iodide (PH/PI methodology. Measurements by AO/PI were, on average, 4.0% larger than measurements by PH/PI (SD=7.02% and 1.79% smaller than measurements of sperm motility determined by CASA (SD=4.83. The AO/PI method was also more repeatable than the PH/PI. The double staining methodology coupled with the routine for image analysis allowing automatic determination of sperm membrane integrity means a reduction in processing time of 75% compared to the previously developed method using a single fluorochrome (3 vs 12 min on average if the incubation period was included. This facilitates its use when a large number of samples are analysed. Our results validate the new computer assisted method for assessing sperm membrane integrity in sheep. The new method developed, in addition to being a free tool, allows quick automatic determination of sperm viability, which facilitates its use in routine semen analysis.

  1. Statistical optimization and artificial neural network modeling for acridine orange dye degradation using in-situ synthesized polymer capped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Dhiman, Nitesh; Markandeya; Singh, Amrita; Verma, Neeraj K; Ajaria, Nidhi; Patnaik, Satyakam


    ZnO NPs were synthesized by a prudent green chemistry approach in presence of polyacrylamide grafted guar gum polymer (pAAm-g-GG) to ensure uniform morphology, and functionality and appraised for their ability to degrade photocatalytically Acridine Orange (AO) dye. These ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NPs were thoroughly characterized by various spectroscopic, XRD and electron microscopic techniques. The relative quantity of ZnO NPs in polymeric matrix has been estimated by spectro-analytical procedure; AAS and TGA analysis. The impact of process parameters viz. NP's dose, contact time and AO dye concentration on percentage photocatalytic degradation of AO dyes were evaluated using multivariate optimizing tools, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) involving Box-Behnken Design (BBD) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Congruity of the BBD statistical model was implied by R(2) value 0.9786 and F-value 35.48. At RSM predicted optimal condition viz. ZnO@pAAm-g-GG NP's dose of 0.2g/L, contact time of 210min and AO dye concentration 10mg/L, a maximum of 98% dye degradation was obtained. ANOVA indicated appropriateness of the model for dye degradation owing to "Prob.>F" less than 0.05 for variable parameters. We further, employed three layers feed forward ANN model for validating the BBD process parameters and suitability of our chosen model. The evaluation of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (ANN1) and Gradient Descent with adaptive learning rate (ANN2) model employed to scrutinize the best method and found experimental values of AO dye degradation were in close to those with predicated value of ANN 2 modeling with minimum error.

  2. Microwave assisted synthesis of novel Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines bearing the tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinoline moiety and their antimicrobial activity assess

    Niraj K. Ladani; Divyesh C. Mungra; Manish P. Patel; Ranjan G. Patel


    Microwave assisted efficient Hantzsch reaction via four-component coupling reactions of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline-4-carbal-dehyde, dimedone/cyclohexane-l,3-dione, ethyl/methyl acetoacetate and ammonium acetate was described as the preparation of tetrazolo [l,5-a]quinoline based 1,4-dihydropyridines, acridine-l,8-diones and polyhydroquinolines. The process presented here is simple, rapid, environmentally welcoming and high yielding. All the derivatives were subjected to an in vitro antimicrobial screening against a representative panel of bacteria and fungi and results worth further investigations.

  3. Antigenotoxic and Apoptotic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenol Extracts on Hexavalent Chromium-Induced DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood of CD-1 Mice: Analysis with Differential Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide Staining

    María del Carmen García-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the modulating effects of green tea polyphenols on genotoxic damage and apoptotic activity induced by hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI] in CD-1 mice. Animals were divided into the following groups: (i injected with vehicle; (ii treated with green tea polyphenols (30 mg/kg via gavage; (iii injected with CrO3 (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally; (iv treated with green tea polyphenols in addition to CrO3. Genotoxic damage was evaluated by examining micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCEs obtained from peripheral blood at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Induction of apoptosis and cell viability were assessed by differential acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining. Treatment of green tea polyphenols led to no significant changes in the MN-PCEs. However, CrO3 treatment significantly increased MN-PCEs at 24 and 48 h after injection. Green tea polyphenols treatment prior to CrO3 injection led to a decrease in MN-PCEs compared to the group treated with CrO3 only. The average of apoptotic cells was increased at 48 h after treatment compared to control mice, suggesting that apoptosis could contribute to eliminate the DNA damaged cells induced by Cr (VI. Our findings support the proposed protective effects of green tea polyphenols against the genotoxic damage induced by Cr (VI.

  4. Determination of Dopamine Based on Acridine Orange-Graphene Oxide Fluorescence Quenching Method%吖啶橙-氧化石墨烯荧光猝灭法测定多巴胺



    Determination of trace dopamine has important significance on physiology, disease diagnosis and pharmaceuticals quality. In acid medium and surfactant, the fluorescence intensity of acridine orange could be quenched in the presence of graphene oxide. However, when dopamine was added into the system solution, the fluorescence intensity of the system was increased and the increasing fluorescence intensity was proportional to the amount of dopamine. Based on this, a novel method for the determination of dopamine was developed. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05-12.0μmol/L. The linear regression equation was △IF= 3.9 +57.8c(μmol/L) (r =0. 993 3)and the detection limit was 2. 9 nmol/L. The method showed high sensitivity, and was successfully applied in the determination of dopamine in real samples with satisfactory results.%在酸性介质中氧化石墨烯对吖啶橙的荧光发生猝灭作用,此时加入适量多巴胺,则导致体系的荧光强度增强,且增强程度与多巴胺的加入量成正比.据此建立了吖啶橙-氧化石墨烯荧光光度法测定多巴胺的方法.多巴胺的质量浓度在0.05~12.0μmol/L范围内呈线性,线性方程为ΔIF=3.9+57.8c(μmoL/L),相关系数r=0.993 3;检出限为2.9 nmol/L.该方法具有良好的选择性,应用于实际样品的测定,结果满意.

  5. Study on Interaction between Apigenin and Herring Sperm DNA by Acridine Orange as a Fluorescence Probe%吖啶橙为荧光探针研究芹菜素与DNA的相互作用

    尚永辉; 李华; 孙家娟; 刘彬


    在pH值为7.40的Tris-HC1缓冲溶液中,采用吸收光谱法、荧光光谱法以及粘度法研究了芹菜素(Ap)与鲱鱼精DNA(fsDNA)的相互作用.研究表明,Ap与fsDNA相互作用生成了结合比nAp:nDNA=2:1的复合物,温度300 K和310 K的结合常数Kb分别为1.068×104 L·m01-1和1.137×104 L·mol-1;300 K温度下Ap与DNA相互作用的△rHm为1.899×103 J·mol-1,△rSm为83.475 J·mo1-1·K-1,△rGm为-2.306×104 J·mo1-1,表明两者的结合过程为熵驱动反应.粘度测定结果进一步确定实验条件下Ap与fsDNA的作用方式为插入模式.%The interaction of apigenin with herring sperm DNA was studied with acridine orange as a fluorescence probe. The fluorescence spectra indicated that a kind of compound of apigenin and herring sperm DNA was formed at pH = 7. 40. The binary compound ratio was napigenin:nDNA = 2:1; the binding constants of apigenin with herring sperm DNA compound were 1. 068×104 L·mol-1 (300 K) and 1. 137× 104L·mol-1 (310 K) respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of the interaction were calculated as follows:△rHm = l. 899× 103 J·mol-1,△rSm = 83. 475 J·mol-1·K-1, △rGm =-2. 306×104 J·mol-1 at the 300 K. The interaction of apigenin with DNA was also studied through method of viscosity. The results confirmed that the intercalation model was the major mode of the interaction between apigenin and herring sperm DNA, and the binding of apigenin with herring sperm DNA was an entropy-driven reaction.

  6. 中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与比较%Application and comparison of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells

    翟晓峰; 施文; 李国兴; 孙永强; 赵文静; 钱红燕; 李静; 陈橼; 何向锋


    We aimed to investigate the application and value of neutral red, acridine orange, or PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies in the detection of lysosomes in B16F10 cells. Firstly, we labeled the lysosomes of B16F10 cells with neutral red, acridine orange, and PE labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibodies respectively and detect the labeled lysosomes by optical and fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the distribution and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly observed in optical microscope through the staining of neutral red, and the cytoplasm and lysosome could be stained in green and red respectively by acridine orange, but the quenching of red fluorescence in lysosome was so fast that the detection window was too narrow. The location and numbers of lysosomes in B16F10 cells could be clearly revealed with red fluorescence after the application of PE-labeled anti-LAMP-2 antibody, and the relative location of lysosomes and nucleus could be presented directly along with DAPI staining. In conclusion, the neutral red, acridine orange and PE labeled LAMP-2 antibody staining have their own advantage and characteristics in the detection of lysosomes. The choice of the effective lysosomes detection method should be based on the aim of study.%目的 探讨中性红、吖啶橙及PE标记的LAMP-2抗体在小鼠黑色素瘤B16F10细胞溶酶体检测中的应用与价值.方法 分别用中性红、吖啶橙和PE标记的LAMP-2抗体标记B16F10细胞溶酶体,通过光学和荧光显微镜进行检测.结果 中性红染色法能够在光镜下清晰显示溶酶体在细胞中的分布与数量,并能够反应溶酶体的功能;吖啶橙能够同时将细胞质和溶酶体分别用绿色和红色荧光标示出来,但溶酶体的红色荧光淬灭很快,观测窗口较窄;PE标记的LAMP-2抗体能够将溶酶体在细胞内的位置和数量清晰以红色荧光呈现出来,配合DAPI染色,可以直观显示溶酶体同细胞核

  7. Synthesis of 14-aryl-1,6,7,14-tetrahydrodibenzo [a,i]acridine-1,6-diones in PEG 600%PEG600反应介质中合成14-芳基-1,6,7,14-四氢二苯并[a,i]吖啶-1,6-二酮

    梁一川; 史亚南; 杜百祥; 李玉玲


    在室温条件下以PEG 600为反应介质,三组分一锅法高效地合成了14-芳基-1,6,7,14-四氢二苯并[a,i]吖啶-1,6-二酮.该方法具有反应时间短、产率高、污染小、操作简单等优点.作为反应介质的PEG可以回收使用.%A facile one pot synthesis of 14-aryl-1,6,7,14-tetrahydrodibenzo[a,i]acridine-1,6-diones is accomplished via a three-component reaction in PEG 600 at room temperature.This method has the advantage of short reaction time,good yields,less pollution and simple reaction conditions.The PEG can be recovered and reused.

  8. 吖啶红-碘化钾体系共振光散射法测定水中痕量铅%Resonance light scattering method for the determination of trace lead in aqueous solution with acridine red-potassium iodide

    尹纪成; 王小凤; 王永生


    在20 mmol/L的硫酸溶液中,铅(Ⅱ)与过量的碘化钾形成[PbI4]2-配阴离子,再与碱性阳离子染料吖啶红形成离子缔合物,产生稳定增强的共振光散射,其最大RLS波长位于420 nm处,在5.16×10-8-8.0×10-7 mol/L范围内,Pb(Ⅱ)浓度与RLS强度△I成正比,检出限为1.55×10-8 mol/L.该方法灵敏、反应条件温和、易操作,适用于环境水样中铅的测定.%A sensitive resonance light scattering ( RLS) method for the determination of lead has been de-veloped based on the interaction of lead with an excess potassium iodide to form [ PbI4 ]2- complex, and then the [PbI4]2- reacts with acridine red to form an ion-association complex in a 20 mmol/L H2SO4 so-lution. The RLS intensity at λmax 420 nm is proportional to the concentration of Pb (Ⅱ) in the range of 5. 16×10-8~8.0×10-7 mol/L,and the detection limit for Pb(Ⅱ) is 1.55×10-8 mol/L. The method has good sensitivity, mild reaction conditions and easy operation, and is suitable for the determination of lead in environmental water samples.

  9. Study on the Interaction between CdTe Quantum Dot-Acridine Orange-Calf Thymus DNA by Fluorescence Reversible Control%荧光可逆调控研究CdTe量子点-吖啶橙-小牛胸腺DNA的相互作用及分析应用

    龚会平; 刘绍璞; 殷鹏飞; 闫曙光; 范小青; 何佑秋


    水相合成了谷胱甘肽(GSH)修饰的CdTe量子点(QDs).在PH=7.4的Tris-HCl缓冲溶液中,吖啶橙(AO)通过静电引力吸附到GSH-CdTe QDs的表面,与GSH-CdTe QDs形成了基态复合物,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光猝灭.在GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系中加入小牛胸腺DNA(ctDNA),ctDNA诱导AO从GSH-CdTe QDs表面脱落嵌入其双螺旋结构中,导致GSH-CdTe QDs的荧光恢复.根据GSH-CdTe QDs荧光的猝灭和恢复,实现了量子点荧光的可逆调控.ctDNA引起GSH-CdTe QDs-AO体系荧光恢复强度与ctDNA浓度成良好的线性关系,检出限为0.13 ng mL-1,据此提出了简便快捷、准确、高灵敏测定ctDNA的新方法.还结合共振瑞利散射(RRS)光谱、吸收光谱和原子力显微镜照片研究了GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA三者之间的相互作用,对相互作用机理进行了讨论并提出了相应的作用模型.%Glutathione(GSH)-capped CdTe quantum dots(GSH-CdTe QDs) were synthesized in aqueous solution.In pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer medium,acridine orange(AO) was adsorbed to the surfaces of GSH-CdTe QDs via electrostatic attraction and formed ground state complex,which resulted in the quenching of the fluorescence of GSH-CdTe QDs.Adding ctDNA to GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system leaded to the fluorescence intensity of GSH-CdTe QDs recover,which can be explained by that the addition of ctDNA to the system induced AO to dissociate from the surface of GSH-CdTe QDs and embed into its double helix structure.According to the fluorescence quencher and restoration for GSH-CdTe QDs,fluorescence reversible control of QDs was realized.The fluorescence intensity change of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO system aroused by the addition of ctDNA was proportional to the ctDNA concentration in a certain range,and its detection limit was 0.13 ngomL-1.Based on it,the simple,rapid,accurate and sensitive methods had been proposed to determine ctDNA.The interaction of GSH-CdTe QDs-AO-ctDNA was studied by resonance Rayleigh scattering

  10. 5,12-Dihydroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dithione dimethylacetamide disolvate

    Senju, Takatoshi; Hoki, Tomonori; Mizuguchi, Jin


    The title compound, C20H12N2S2·2C4H9NO, is a solvated centrosymmetric pigment molecule (DTQ) connected to two dimethylacetamide (DMA) molecules through N-HO hydrogen bonds. One DTQ molecule is surrounded by six DMA molecules in the crystal structure.

  11. Microwave assisted synthesis, characterization and evaluation for their antimicrobial activities of some novel pyrazole substituted 9-anilino acridine derivatives

    Rajagopal Kalirajan


    Full Text Available Objective: The paper focuses on the microwave synthesis of a new series of 9-anilinoacridine derivatives 4a-g, 5a-g, and 6a-g. Materials and methods: The compounds were confirmed by physical and analytical data. The synthesized compounds when screened for in vitro anti-microbial activity showed promising activity for many compounds. The in vitro anti-microbial activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against some bacteria and fungi strains. Results and Discussions: The results suggested that, the products 4a-g, 5a-g, and 6a-g exhibited good inhibitory effect against most of the tested organisms. Especially, 4b, 5a, 5d, 6b, and 6e were shown to be most effective against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli at the concentration of 25 μg/ml and Candida albicans at the concentration of 50 μg/ml.

  12. The monoclinic form of 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b] acridine-7,14-dithione dimethylacetamide disolvate

    Hoki, T.; Senju, T.; Mizuguchi, Jin


    The title compound, C(20)H(10)Cl(2)N(2)S(2)(.)2C(4)H(9)NO, is a dimethylacetamide (DMA) disolvate of DTQ-Cl, which is a thionated derivative of a 2,9-dichloroquinacridone pigment. The compound shows polymorphism and this paper reports the monoclinic form ( space group P2(1)/c, Z = 4). Two DMA molecules are hydrogen bonded via their O atoms to the NH group of DTQ-Cl. The molecular planes of the two DMA molecules are asymmetrically twisted with respect to the DTQ-Cl skeleton by 11.65 (8) and 31...

  13. 2,9-Dichloroquino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14(5H,12H)-dithione dimethylformamide disolvate

    Senju, T.; Hoki, T.; Mizuguchi, Jin


    The title compound, C(20)H(10)Cl(2)N(2)S(2)center dot 2C(3)H(7)NO, is a dimethylformamide (DMF) disolvate of DTQ-Cl, which is a thionated pigment derivative of 2,9-dichloroquinacridone. The DTQ-Cl molecule is centrosymmetric and entirely planar. Two DMF molecules are hydrogen-bonded to DTQ-Cl, through the NH group of DTQ-Cl and the O atom of DMF. The molecular plane of DMF is twisted with respect to the skeleton of DTQ-Cl by 21.4 (1)degrees.

  14. The triclinic form of 2,9-dichloro-5,12-dihydroquino[2,3-b] acridine-7,14-dithione dimethylacetamide disolvate

    Senju, T.; Hoki, T.; Mizuguchi, Jin


    The title compound, C(20)H(10)Cl(2)N(2)S(2)(.)2C(4)H(9)NO, is a dimethylacetamide (DMA) disolvate of DTQ-Cl, which is a thionated derivative of a 2,9-dichloroquinacridone pigment. The compound shows polymorphism and this paper reports the triclinic form (space group P (1) over bar, Z = 1). The DTQ-Cl molecule is centrosymmetric and planar, while the DMA molecule is orientationally disordered. Two symmetry-related DMA molecules are hydrogen bonded via their O atoms to the NH groups of DTQ-Cl. ...


    陈鸿琪; 李光源



  16. Injurious Effects of Acridine on Spodoptera Frugiperda 9 Cells and Autographa Californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus%吖啶橙对草地贪夜蛾sf9细胞和AcMNPV病毒的损伤效应

    邓平建; 房师松; 李喜梅; 倪惠波; 王叶元; 林健荣


    背景与目的:探索吖啶橙对昆虫细胞的遗传损伤.材料与方法:用不同浓度的吖啶橙处理草地贪夜蛾Sf9细胞、AcMNPV病毒,观察其对细胞生长发育,微核发生率,AcMNPV感染力的影响.结果:sf9细胞经5μg/ml的吖啶橙处理后,细胞分裂生长速度减慢,细胞表面粗糙,微核发生率为10.4‰,10 μg/ml时可引起细胞膜破碎或死亡,微核发生率为22‰,出现三核,多核甚至核裂现象.当AcMNPV经吖啶橙处理后再感染sf9细胞,AcMNPV可在细胞内增殖,形成多角体,并出现一些类似三角形或四角形的异常多角体.结论:用一定剂量的吖啶橙处理草地贪夜蛾sf9细胞和AcMNPV病毒,可对细胞产生损伤和引起AcMNPV发生异常多角体.


    王欢; 张萍; 王晓玲



  18. Fluorescent Analysis of DNA-Research of DNA on Acridine orange (AO)-Safranine (ST) Energy Troursfer%DNA的荧光分析--DNA对吖啶橙(AO)-藏红T(ST)能量转移影响的研究




  19. In vitro mutagenicity testing. I. Kermide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent. [Ames Salmonella assay system used

    Wang, S.Y.; Smith, D.M.


    Five compounds, Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, Sylgard 184 curing agent, benzo(a)pyrene, and acridine orange were tested for in vitro mutagenicity using the Ames Salmonella assay system. Kerimide 601 resin, Sylgard 184 encapsulating resin, and Sylgard 184 curing agent were not mutagenic under the described experimental conditions, while benzo(a)pyrene and acridine orange were both mutagenic.

  20. Bile canalicular cationic dye secretion as a model for P-glycoprotein mediated transport.

    Thalhammer, T; Stapf, V; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J


    This study explores properties of P-glycoprotein dependent membrane transport in rat liver with the use of acridine orange as the substrate. We studied the biliary secretion of the dye, its binding to canalicular membrane P-glycoprotein, and effects of the inhibitor cyclosporin A: acridine orange is excreted into bile together with less hydrophobic and glucuronidated metabolites. Cyclosporin A inhibited both the secretion of acridine orange and of its metabolites. In TR- animals, a rat strain that is deficient of the canalicular multi-specific organic anion transport system, non-metabolized acridine orange is the predominant species in bile and its secretion is also inhibited by cyclosporin A. Binding of acridine orange to liver P-glycoprotein was analyzed by photoaffinity labeling with azidopine, a substrate of P-glycoprotein dependent transport in multi-drug resistant tumor cells. Labeling of the immunoprecipitated P-glycoprotein was inhibited by acridine orange, verapamil, and by cyclosporin A. The results show that biliary secretion of acridine orange is highly analogous to P-glycoprotein mediated membrane drug transport in tumor cells that exhibit multi-drug resistance.

  1. 9-(4-Bromophenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C21H15BrNO2+·CF3SO3−, the cations form inversion dimers through π–π interactions between the acridine ring systems. These dimers are further linked by C—H...π and C—Br...π interactions. The cations and anions are connected by multidirectional C—H...O and C—F...π interactions. The acridine and benzene ring systems are oriented at 10.8 (1°. The carboxyl group is twisted at an angle of 85.2 (1° relative to the acridine skeleton. The mean planes of adjacent acridine units are parallel or almost parallel [inclined at an angle of 1.4 (1°] in the crystal structure.

  2. A spectroscopic study of interaction of cationic dyes with heparin

    R. Nandini


    Full Text Available The interaction of two cationic dyes namely, acridine orange and pinacyanol chloride with an anionic polyelectrolyte, heparin, has been investigated by spectrophotometric method.The polymer induced metachromasy in the dyes resulting in the shift of the absorption maxima of the dyes towards shorter wavelengths. The stability of the complexes formed between acridine orange and heparin was found to be lesser than that formed between pinacyanol chloride and heparin. This fact was further confirmed by reversal studies using alcohols, urea and surfactants. The interaction of acridine orange with heparin has also been investigated fluorimetrically.The interaction parameters revealed that binding between acridine orange and heparin arises due to electrostatic interaction while that between pinacyanol chloride and heparin is found to involve both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces. The effect of the structure of the dye in inducing metachromasy has also been discussed.

  3. Synthesis, DNA Binding and Topoisomerase I Inhibition Activity of Thiazacridine and Imidazacridine Derivatives

    Elizabeth Almeida Lafayette


    Full Text Available Thiazacridine and imidazacridine derivatives have shown promising results as tumors suppressors in some cancer cell lines. For a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds, binding studies of 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-3-amino-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-thiazolidin-4-one, 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-imidazolidin-4-one and 3-acridin-9-ylmethyl-thiazolidin-2,4-dione with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA by electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy were performed. The binding constants ranged from 1.46 × 104 to 6.01 × 104 M−1. UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism measurements indicated that the compounds interact effectively with ctDNA, both by intercalation or external binding. They demonstrated inhibitory activities to human topoisomerase I, except for 5-acridin-9-ylmethylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one. These results provide insight into the DNA binding mechanism of imidazacridines and thiazacridines.

  4. Organic dyes removal using magnetically modified rye straw

    Baldikova, Eva, E-mail: [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic)


    Rye straw, a very low-cost material, was employed as a biosorbent for two organic water-soluble dyes belonging to different dye classes, namely acridine orange (acridine group) and methyl green (triarylmethane group). The adsorption properties were tested for native and citric acid–NaOH modified rye straw, both in nonmagnetic and magnetic versions. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 2 h and the adsorption isotherms data were analyzed using the Langmuir model. The highest values of maximum adsorption capacities were 208.3 mg/g for acridine orange and 384.6 mg/g for methyl green. - Highlights: • Rye derivatives can be considered as efficient adsorbents for organic dyes. • Magnetic modification of straw by microwave-synthesized magnetic iron oxides. • Citric acid–NaOH modification increased the maximum adsorption capacities.

  5. 9-(4-Chlorophenoxycarbonyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C21H15ClNO2+·CF3SO3−, adjacent cations are linked through C—H...π and π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.987 (2 Å], and neighboring cations and anions via C—H...O and C—F...π interactions. The acridine ring system and benzene ring are oriented at a dihedral angle of 1.0 (1° while the carboxyl group is twisted at an angle of 85.0 (1° relative to the acridine skeleton. The mean planes of adjacent acridine units are either parallel or inclined at an angle of 78.2 (1° in the crystal structure.

  6. 10-Methyl-9-[2-(propan-2-ylphenoxycarbonyl]acridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available In the crystal of the title compound, C24H22NO2+·CF3SO3−, adjacent cations and anions are connected through C—H...O, C—H...F and S–O...π interactions, while neighboring cations via π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.962 (2 Å]. The acridine and benzene ring systems are oriented at a dihedral angle of 14.6 (1°. The carboxyl group is twisted at an angle of 87.6 (1° relative to the acridine skeleton. The mean planes of adjacent acridine units are parallel or inclined at an angle of 13.4 (1° in the crystal structure.

  7. 9-Benzyl-10-methylacridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C21H18N+·CF3OS3−, the cations form inversion dimers through π–π interactions between the acridine ring systems. These dimers are further linked by C—H...π interactions. The cations and anions are connected by C—H...O, C—F...π and S—O...π interactions. The acridine and benzene ring systems are oriented at a dihedral angle of 76.8 (1°with respect to each other. The acridine moieties are either parallel or inclined at an angle of 62.4 (1° in the crystal structure.

  8. Time-resolved fluorescence of cationic dyes covalently bound to poly(methacrylic acid) in rigid media

    Paulo Moises de Oliveira, Hueder [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Gehlen, Marcelo Henrique [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Atactic poly(methacrylic acid) labeled with acridine and Nile blue (NB) were studied by photophysical techniques in bulk solid state and in solution-cast films over different surfaces (glass, ITO, and polymethylmethacrylate). In the systems with both dyes, energy transfer from acridine to NB occurs with an efficiency depending on the type of substrate (solid or film). The films are more disordered fluorescent rigid media than the bulk chromophoric or bichromophoric polymers, and this effect is ascribed to inhomogeneous distribution of the dyes in the film. This effect enhances dye bimolecular interactions and increases the energy transfer rates between acridine donor and NB acceptor. Bimodal distributions of donor fluorescence lifetimes are observed.

  9. Effects and uptake of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snails (Helix aspersa).

    Sverdrup, Line Emilie; De Vaufleury, Annette; Hartnik, Thomas; Hagen, Snorre B; Loibner, Andreas Paul; Jensen, John


    The International Standardization Organization recently launched a soil toxicity test with snails (Helix aspersa). We assessed the sensitivity of this test for seven polycyclic aromatic compounds. Control animals had 100% survival and low variability for growth measurements. Maximum exposure concentrations of 2800 mg/kg (4000 mg/kg for acridine) had no effect on survival. Similarly, growth (biomass and shell size) was not affected by pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, carbazole, phenanthrene, or acridine, whereas dibenzothiophene gave a 10% effect concentration of 1600 mg/kg. Measured internal concentrations of carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and acridine increased with increasing soil concentrations, but biota-soil accumulation factors were low (0.002-0.1). Compared to previously tested organisms, with all being exposed in the same soil type and under similar test conditions, the H. aspersa test was relatively insensitive to all substances.

  10. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I activity and induction of apoptosis by thiazacridine derivatives

    Barros, Francisco W.A. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Bezerra, Daniel P., E-mail: [Department of Physiology, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Sergipe (Brazil); Ferreira, Paulo M.P. [Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Piauí, Picos, Piauí (Brazil); Cavalcanti, Bruno C. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Silva, Teresinha G.; Pitta, Marina G.R.; Lima, Maria do C.A. de; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan da R. [Department of Antibiotics, Federal, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Pernembuco (Brazil); Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V.; Moraes, Manoel O. [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Burbano, Rommel R. [Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Pará (Brazil); Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A.P. [Biotechnology Center, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pessoa, Cláudia, E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)


    Thiazacridine derivatives (ATZD) are a novel class of cytotoxic agents that combine an acridine and thiazolidine nucleus. In this study, the cytotoxic action of four ATZD were tested in human colon carcinoma HCT-8 cells: (5Z)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-4; (5ZE)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-bromo-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-7; (5Z)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chloro-benzyl) -1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-10; and (5ZE)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione — AC-23. All of the ATZD tested reduced the proliferation of HCT-8 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. There were significant increases in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation without affecting membrane integrity. For morphological analyses, hematoxylin–eosin and acridine orange/ethidium bromide were used to stain HCT-8 cells treated with ATZD, which presented the typical hallmarks of apoptosis. ATZD also induced mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphatidylserine exposure and increased the activation of caspases 3/7 in HCT-8 cells, suggesting that this apoptotic cell death was caspase-dependent. In an assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA topoisomerases 1 and 3, the ATZD showed enhanced activity, suggesting an interaction between ATZD and DNA topoisomerase enzyme activity. In addition, ATZD inhibited DNA topoisomerase I action in a cell-free system. Interestingly, these ATZD did not cause genotoxicity or inhibit the telomerase activity in human lymphocyte cultures at the experimental levels tested. In conclusion, the ATZD inhibited the DNA topoisomerase I activity and induced tumour cell death through apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: ► Thiazacridine derivatives induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cell death. ► Thiazacridine derivatives inhibit DNA topoisomerase I action. ► Thiazacridine derivatives failed to cause genotoxicity on human lymphocytes.

  11. Photoluminescence in anthracene and it's derivatives

    Vyas, Arpita; Mirgane, Nitin A.; Moharil, S. V.; Muley, Aarti Iyer


    The anthracene and it's derivative 9-chloro acridine and Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate have prepared in Poly vinyl alcohol(PVOH). Their photoluminescence properties have studied. The pure anthracene has an emission at 424 and 443nm. The intense peak is observed at 465nm and shoulder at 407nm. The derivatives of anthracene Anthracene-9-ylmethylacetate shows an emission around 440nm for the excitation at 393nm and 9-chloro acridine shows emission around 360nm for the excitation at 290nm. The major problem of this organic material is the stability. The composites prepared in the medium of PVOH are more stable.

  12. Design and synthesis of threading intercalators to target DNA.

    Howell, Lesley A; Gulam, Rosul; Mueller, Anja; O'Connell, Maria A; Searcey, Mark


    Threading intercalators are high affinity DNA binding agents that bind by inserting a chromophore into the duplex and locating one group in each groove. The first threading intercalators that can be conjugated to acids, sulfonic acids and peptides to target them to duplex DNA are described, based upon the well studied acridine-3- or 4-carboxamides. Cellular uptake of the parent acridine is rapid and it can be visualized in the nucleus of cells. Both the parent compounds and their conjugates maintain antitumor activity.

  13. Light-controlled mass formation of aggregates of molecules in organic compounds

    Tariel D.Ebralidze; Nadia A.Ebralidze; Giorgi A.Mumladze; Enriko S.Kitsmarishvili


    During the mass formation of aggregates of molecules in a gelatin film dyed with the mixture of chrysophenine and acridine yellow dyes,photo-reorientation,photo-disorientation,and photo-orientation of the molecules are observed.Based on these observations,the photo-induction of granular aniso tropy may be realized.

  14. Comparison of four diagnostic techniques for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in females attending tertiary care hospital of North India

    Razia Khatoon


    Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common sexually transmitted disease trichomoniasis, which may lead to increased risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus infection and other pelvic inflammatory diseases. Wet mount examination is the most common test for diagnosis, but it has low sensitivity. Acridine orange staining can be used for diagnosis, but it requires special microscopic facility. Culture is considered as the gold standard, but it takes a long time for diagnosis. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a recently introduced rapid method based on immunochromatographic assay of trichomonal protein antigens. Hence, the present study was done to compare these four diagnostic techniques for detection of trichomoniasis in females with vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from 835 female patients and wet mount examination, acridine orange staining, culture in Kupferberg medium, and OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test, were performed. Results: Out of 835 patients included in our study, 68 (8.1% positive cases of trichomoniasis were detected by culture. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test detected 63 (7.5% cases, acridine orange staining detected 53 (6.3% cases, whereas, wet mount examination detected only 45 (5.4% positive cases. OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test performed well and showed high sensitivity and specificity of 88.2% and 99.6%, respectively. Conclusion: As OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test is a point of care test and gave better results than both wet mount examination and acridine orange staining; it can be used as a routine test in peripheral areas lacking laboratory facilities.

  15. Synthesis of [2′-(N-Ethylamino-5′-Alkyl]phenyl-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroacridine-9-Carboxy-2-Sulfone Derivatives by the Proton-Catalyzed Rearrangement of Corresponding Sulfonamides

    Anamika Sharma


    Full Text Available Synthesis of a new series of heteroaryl sulfones 6(a–f in which the heteroaryl part is represented by acridine derivatives has been developed and reported here. The key step of this transformation involves the proton-catalyzed rearrangement of the sulphonamide derivatives 5(a–f to the corresponding sulfones 6(a–f.

  16. One-pot synthesis of novel 1, 8-dioxo-decahydroacridines containing phenol and benzamide moiety and their synthetic uses

    Ali Dorehgiraee; Esmat Tavakolinejad Kermani; Hojatollah Khabazzadeh


    An efficient synthesis of some new 1, 8-dioxo-decahydroacridines is achieved via one-pot, threecomponent condensation of aromatic aldehydes, cyclic diketone, and 4-amino benzamide/4-aminophenol. Reaction of these acridines with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate and triphenylphosphine or cyclohexylisocyanide gives stable phosphorus ylides or 4H-chromene derivatives, respectively, with good yields.




    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes are known to display various functional differences. In this study we present a new method to separate periportal and perivenous cells: after selectively loading zone 1 or zone 3 with the fluorescent label acridine orange in an antegrade or retrograde perfusion,

  18. Dormant barley aleurone shows heterogeneity and a specific cytodifferentiation

    Schuurink, R.C.; Bakhuizen, R.; Libbenga, K.R.; Boulanger, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.


    In response to gibberellic acid, aleurone layers isolated from dormant barley (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Triumph) kernels produced significantly less alpha-amylase than aleurones from non-dormant kernels. Light microscopical investigations using the dye acridine orange as well as electron microscopic

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogenic activities of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and azaarenes originally identified in extracts of river sediments.

    Machala, M; Ciganek, M; Bláha, L; Minksová, K; Vondráck, J


    Reproductive dysfunction in wildlife populations can be a result of environmental contaminants binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or estrogenic receptors. Signaling by both types of receptors can be affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are potential endocrine disruptors. However, our knowledge regarding the effects of oxygenated (oxy)-PAHs and azaarenes on AhR-mediated and estrogenic activities is incomplete. In the present study, we have identified 9-fluorenone, anthrone, anthraquinone, benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, benz[c]acridine, and dibenz[a,h]acridine as prevalent oxy-PAHs and azaarenes found in river sediments. Their concentrations in sediment samples ranged from 2.1 to 165.2 ng g(-1) for oxy-PAHs and up to 27.3 ng g(-1) for azaarenes. Their relative AhR-inducing and estrogenic potencies were quantified in vitro using two cell lines that were stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene system and expressed as induction equivalency factors (IEFs). The only oxy-PAHs with detectable levels of in vitro AhR-mediated activity were benzanthrone and benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione. However, their IEFs were approximately three to four orders of magnitude lower than those of benzo[a]pyrene. On the other hand, azaarenes showed a strong AhR-mediated activity, with dibenzo[a,h]acridine being a far more potent inducer of activity than benzo[a]pyrene. Benzanthrone, benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, anthraquinone, and benz[a]acridine were weak inducers of in vitro estrogenic activity, with IEFs similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Based on concentrations and relative potencies, our results suggest that dibenzo[a,h]acridine can significantly contribute to the overall AhR-mediated activity in river sediments, whereas the remaining compounds do not. No studied compound was found to contribute significantly to estrogen receptor-mediated activity in vitro.

  20. Survival and activity of Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in tropical freshwater

    Muniz, I.; Jimenez, L.; Toranzos, G.A.; Hazen, T.C. [Univ. of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico)


    The survival of Streptococcus facecalis and Escherichia coli was studied in situ in a tropical rain forest watershed using membrane diffusion chambers. Densities were determined by acridine orange direct count and Coulter Counter. Population activity was determined by microautoradiography, cell respiration, and by nucleic acid composition. Densities of S. facecalis and E. coli decreased less than 1 log unit after 105 h as measured by direct count methods. Activity as measured by respiration, acridine orange activity, and microautoradiography indicated that both bacteria remained moderately active during the entire study. After 12 h, E. coli was more active than S. faecalis as measured by nucleic acid composition. E. coli and S. faecalis survived and remained active for more than 5 days. Consequently, both would seem to be unsuitable as indicators of recent fecal contamination in tropical waters.

  1. 9-Phenyl-10H-acridinium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C19H14N+·CF3SO3−, the cations are linked to each other by very weak C—H...π interactions, while the cations and anions are connected by N—H...O, C—H...O and S—O...π interactions. The acridine ring system and the phenyl ring are oriented at an angle of 80.1 (1° with respect to each other. The mean planes of adjacent acridine units are either parallel or inclined at an angle of 35.6 (1°. The trifluoromethanesulfonate anions are disordered over two positions; the site occupancy factors are 0.591 (8 and 0.409 (8.

  2. 2-Methoxy-9-phenoxyacridine

    Damian Trzybiński


    Full Text Available The molecules in the crystal structure of the title compound, C20H15NO2, form inversion dimers connected through the C—H...N and π–π interactions. These dimers are further linked by C—H...π interactions. The methoxy group is nearly coplanar with the acridine ring system [dihedral angle = 4.5 (1°], whereas the phenoxy fragment is nearly perpendicular to it [dihedral angle = 85.0 (1°]. The mean planes of the acridine ring systems are either parallel or inclined at angles of 14.3 (1, 65.4 (1 and 67.3 (1° in the crystal.

  3. Natural compounds in the human diet and their ability to bind mutagens prevents DNA-mutagen intercalation.

    Osowski, Adam; Pietrzak, Monika; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta


    Human diet may contain many mutagenic or carcinogenic aromatic compounds as well as some beneficial physiologically active dietary components, especially plant food phytochemicals, which act as mutagenesis or carcinogenesis inhibitors. This study compared the binding properties of natural compounds in the human diet (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, and resveratrol) with a water-soluble derivative of chlorophyll to bind to acridine orange, a known mutagen. An analysis was conducted to determine which substances were effective binding agents and may thus be useful in prevention of chemical-induced mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Data indicated that in order to bind 50% of the mutagen in a complex, less than twice the concentration of chlorophyllin was needed, the resveratrol concentration was 20-fold higher, while a 1000-fold or even 10,000-fold excess of xanthines were required to bind acridine orange.

  4. Acute effects of the sigma-2 receptor agonist siramesine on lysosomal and extra-lysosomal proteolytic systems in lens epithelial cells

    Jonhede, S.; Petersen, A; Zetterberg, M.; Karlsson, J-O


    Purpose The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of the sigma-2 receptor agonist, siramesine, on morphology, growth, cell death, lysosomal function, and effects on extra-lysosomal proteolytic systems in human lens epithelial cells. Methods Human lens epithelial cells in culture were exposed to siramesine and examined for morphological changes using Nomarski optics or calcein. Lysosomes were evaluated using acridine orange and Magic Red (RR-cresyl violet). Nuclear morphology was...

  5. Transmissible Resistance to Penicillin G, Neomycin, and Chloramphenicol in Rhizobium japonicum1

    Cole, Michael A.; Elkan, Gerald H.


    The genetic basis for resistance to a number of antibiotics was examined in Rhizobium japonicum. Resistance to penicillin G, neomycin, and chloramphenicol appears to be mediated by an extrachromosomal element similar to that found in the Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance to these antibiotics was eliminated from cells by treatment with acridine orange, and resistance to all three antibiotics could be transferred en bloc to Agrobacterium tumefaciens under conditions excluding transformation or transduction as possible genetic mechanisms. PMID:4491197

  6. The new hybrid ceramic beads synthesized from natural minerals and titanium dioxide for the waste water cleaning

    SATA, Akiyoshi; Hirose, Masanao; Kurawaki, Junichi; "KUSUMOTO, Yoshifumi"; HAYAKAWA, Katumitu


    Porous hybrid ceramic beads were synthesized by burning at 1090°C under a reductive atmosphere. They consist of the natural mineral (graphite silica, GS), the pyroclastic deposit “shirasu” and titanium dioxide. They showed the bleaching of the aqueous dyestuff solutions (rhodamin B, acridine orange, methyl orange, methylene blue) and the degradation of a surfactant dodecyltrimethylpyridinium bromide and humic acid. The decolorizing rate of dye stuff was monitored by the absorpt...

  7. DNA-Conjugated Organic Chromophores in DNA Stacking Interactions

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V.; Pedersen, Erik Bjerregaard


    Since the discovery of the intercalation of acridine derivatives into DNA (1961), chemists have synthesized many intercalators tethered to DNA. Advances in the chemical synthesis of modified nucleosides along with progress in oligonucleotide synthesis have made it possible to introduce organic ch...... review presents those efforts in the design of intercalators/organic chromophores as oligonucleotide conjugates that form a foundation for the generation of novel nucleic acid architectures...

  8. The evaluation of a dipstick test for Plasmodium falciparum in mining areas of Venezuela.

    Caraballo, A; Ache, A


    A field trial comparing a dipstick test, an antigen-capture test detecting trophozoite-derived histidine-rich protein-II, and the quantitative buffer coat (QBC) (acridine orange staining technique) assay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum was carried out on a population of 1,398 suspected malaria patients in gold mining areas of Venezuela. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values were higher for the dipstick test than for the acridine orange staining compared with the thick blood smear. The sensitivity for the dipstick method was 86.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 82-90%), the specificity was 99.3% (95% CI = 98.5-99.7%), and the positive predictive value was 97.1% (95% CI = 94-98%) as compared with the thick blood smear. The sensitivity for acridine orange staining was 82.2% (95% CI = 77-86%), the specificity was 98.5% (95% CI = 97.6-99.1%), and the positive predictive value was 94.1% (95% CI = 90-97%); with a P. falciparum asexual parasitemia higher than 21 parasites/microliter, the dipstick was 100% sensitive, when parasitemia was 10-20/microliter, sensitivity was 88%, and when parasitemia was less than 10/microliter, it was only 13.4%. The dipstick assay meets the criteria for an appropriate, rapid, and reliable test for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and has advantages over the acridine orange staining method. Nonetheless, its effectiveness seems limited in areas with low prevalence and among patients with low levels of parasitemia.

  9. The "Internal Leak" as a possible cause in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer.

    Demling, L; Riemann, J F; Schmidt, H; Richter, K


    In cat gastric mucosa stimulated with histamine and damaged by direct application of acetylsalicylic acid, the fluorescent dye acridine orange may be found outside the parietal cell. Normally it is distributed throughout, or bound to the limiting membrane of, the vesicles in the parietal cell. The special properties of this cationic dye in an acid environment, support the hypothesis that a so-called "internal leak" may possibly play an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer.

  10. Protein-free parallel triple-stranded DNA complex formation

    Shchyolkina, A. K.; Timofeev, E. N.; Lysov, Yu. P.; Florentiev, V. L.; Jovin, T. M.; Arndt-Jovin, D. J.


    A 14 nt DNA sequence 5′-AGAATGTGGCAAAG-3′ from the zinc finger repeat of the human KRAB zinc finger protein gene ZNF91 bearing the intercalator 2-methoxy,6-chloro,9-amino acridine (Acr) attached to the sugar–phosphate backbone in various positions has been shown to form a specific triple helix (triplex) with a 16 bp hairpin (intramolecular) or a two-stranded (intermolecular) duplex having the identical sequence in the same (parallel) orientation. Intramolecular targets with the identical sequence in the antiparallel orientation and a non-specific target sequence were tested as controls. Apparent binding constants for formation of the triplex were determined by quantitating electrophoretic band shifts. Binding of the single-stranded oligonucleotide probe sequence to the target led to an increase in the fluorescence anisotropy of acridine. The parallel orientation of the two identical sequence segments was confirmed by measurement of fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the acridine on the 5′-end of the probe strand as donor and BODIPY-Texas Red on the 3′-amino group of either strand of the target duplex as acceptor. There was full protection from OsO4-bipyridine modification of thymines in the probe strand of the triplex, in accordance with the presumed triplex formation, which excluded displacement of the homologous duplex strand by the probe–intercalator conjugate. The implications of these results for the existence of protein-independent parallel triplexes are discussed. PMID:11160932

  11. Quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet and its use to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria

    Mathew, S.; Lim, Y. C.; Kishen, A.


    Phagocytosis is a complex process involving attachment, ingestion and intracellular processing of bacteria by phagocytes. A great difficulty in the evaluation of this process is to differentiate between attachment of the particles to the cell surface and internalization of the particles by the cells. Various techniques have been used to differentiate internalized and surface-attached bacteria in cultured cells, but only a few permit differentiations between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. In this study the quenching of fluorescence by crystal violet on acridine orange stained bacterial biofilm and planktonic bacterial cells is used to differentiate between surface-bound and internalized bacteria within macrophages. Method: One week old Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was grown on perspex and glass substrates in All-Culture medium (nutrient-rich condition) and phosphate buffered saline (nutrient-deprived condition). As model systems, human monocytic (THP-1) and histiocytic (U937) cell lines were used. These cell lines were incubated with the biofilm bacteria for 4 hrs in CO II incubator at 37 °C. The cells and bacteria were stained with acridine orange and quenched with crystal violet to distinguish between surface-bound and internalized bacteria. Results: The presence of green-fluorescing internalized bacteria was detected within the macrophages under the planktonic, nutrient-rich and nutrient-deprived biofilm conditions. All infecting bacteria take up acridine orange and fluoresced green, crystal violet quenched the fluorescence of extra-cellular adhering bacteria so that only fluorescent intracellular bacteria would be visible under fluorescent light microscopy.

  12. Which hydrogen atom of toluene protonates PAH molecules in (+)-mode APPI MS analysis?

    Ahmed, Arif; Ghosh, Manik Kumer; Choi, Myung Chul; Choi, Cheol Ho; Kim, Sunghwan


    A previous study (Ahmed, A. et al., Anal. Chem. 84, 1146-1151( 2012) reported that toluene used as a solvent was the proton source for polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) that were subjected to (+)-mode atmospheric-pressure photoionization. In the current study, the exact position of the hydrogen atom in the toluene molecule (either a methyl hydrogen or an aromatic ring hydrogen) involved in the formation of protonated PAH ions was investigated. Experimental analyses of benzene and anisole demonstrated that although the aromatic hydrogen atom of toluene did not contribute to the formation of protonated anthracene, it did contribute to the formation of protonated acridine. Thermochemical data and quantum mechanical calculations showed that the protonation of anthracene by an aromatic ring hydrogen atom of toluene is endothermic, while protonation by a methyl hydrogen atom is exothermic. However, protonation of acridine by either an aromatic ring hydrogen or a methyl hydrogen atom of toluene is exothermic. The different behavior of acridine and anthracene was attributed to differences in gas-phase basicity. It was concluded that both types of hydrogen in toluene can be used for protonation of PAH compounds, but a methyl hydrogen atom is preferred, especially for non-basic compounds.

  13. Metabolism evaluation of the anticancer candidate AC04 by biomimetic oxidative model and rat liver microsomes.

    Pigatto, Maiara Cássia; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo; Galdino, Suely Lins; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Vessecchi, Ricardo; Assis, Marilda das Dores; dos Santos, Joicy Santamalvina; Dalla Costa, Teresa; Lopes, Norberto Peporine


    Jacobsen reagents, in the presence of monooxygen donors, appear as an alternative to produce metabolites from biological active compounds. This reaction may mimic the oxidation and oxygenation reactions of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes upon various drugs and biologically active compounds. Acridines represent a well-known group of polyaromatic compounds capable of acting as DNA intercalating agents. Viewing to search for new anticancer agents, one promising new acridine, the 5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-methyl-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (AC04) (2), has been studied by our group and the in vitro metabolism was investigated in this work, aiming to advance in the pre-clinical pharmacokinetic investigation. A systematic investigation of the gas-phase reaction, supported by computational chemistry, of the AC04 (2) was studied to help the structure elucidation of possible in vivo metabolites. To confirm the methodology, the oxidized product was obtained in large scale for NMR analysis and the data confirmed the structure. In addition, AC04 (2) was submitted to an in vitro metabolism assay employing rat liver microsomes and also, a pilot study was conducted in rats after AC04 intravenous (i.v.) dosing of 1.5 mg/kg. A single oxidized product was obtained from microsomal metabolism and detected in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis corresponding to the same product formed by Jacobsen-catalyzed reaction. These results indicate that Jacobsen oxidation reactions, combined with in vitro metabolism assays employing isolated microsomes, might replace some in vivo metabolism studies, thus reducing the use of animals in new chemical entities pre-clinical investigation.

  14. Genotoxicity of heterocyclic PAHs in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1.

    Markus Brinkmann

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are, together with their un-substituted analogues, widely distributed throughout all environmental compartments. While fate and effects of homocyclic PAHs are well-understood, there are still data gaps concerning the ecotoxicology of heterocyclic PAHs: Only few publications are available investigating these substances using in vitro bioassays. Here, we present a study focusing on the identification and quantification of clastogenic and aneugenic effects in the micronucleus assay with the fish liver cell line RTL-W1 that was originally derived from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Real concentrations of the test items after incubation without cells were determined to assess chemical losses due to, e.g., sorption or volatilization, by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to show genotoxic effects for six compounds that have not been reported in vertebrate systems before. Out of the tested substances, 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran, benzothiophene, quinoline and 6-methylquinoline did not cause substantial induction of micronuclei in the cell line. Acridine caused the highest absolute induction. Carbazole, acridine and dibenzothiophene were the most potent substances compared with 4-nitroquinoline oxide, a well characterized genotoxicant with high potency used as standard. Dibenzofuran was positive in our investigation and tested negative before in a mammalian system. Chemical losses during incubation ranged from 29.3% (acridine to 91.7% (benzofuran and may be a confounding factor in studies without chemical analyses, leading to an underestimation of the real potency. The relative potency of the investigated substances was high compared with their un-substituted PAH analogues, only the latter being typically monitored as priority or indicator pollutants. Hetero-PAHs are widely distributed in the environment and even more mobile, e.g. in ground water, than homocyclic PAHs due to the higher water

  15. Soluble Flavanthrone Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application to Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Kotwica, Kamil; Bujak, Piotr; Data, Przemyslaw; Krzywiec, Wojciech; Wamil, Damian; Gunka, Piotr A; Skorka, Lukasz; Jaroch, Tomasz; Nowakowski, Robert; Pron, Adam; Monkman, Andrew


    Simple modification of benzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridine-8,16-dione, an old and almost-forgotten vat dye, by reduction of its carbonyl groups and subsequent O-alkylation, yields solution-processable, electroactive, conjugated compounds of the periazaacene type, suitable for the use in organic electronics. Their electrochemically determined ionization potential and electron affinity of about 5.2 and -3.2 eV, respectively, are essentially independent of the length of the alkoxyl substituent and in good agreement with DFT calculations. The crystal structure of 8,16-dioctyloxybenzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridine (FC-8), the most promising compound, was solved. It crystallizes in space group P1‾ and forms π-stacked columns held together in the 3D structure by dispersion forces, mainly between interdigitated alkyl chains. Molecules of FC-8 have a strong tendency to self-organize in monolayers deposited on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface, as observed by STM. 8,16-Dialkoxybenzo[h]benz[5,6]acridino[2,1,9,8-klmna]acridines are highly luminescent, and all have photoluminescence quantum yields of about 80 %. They show efficient electroluminescence, and can be used as guest molecules with a 4,4'-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1'-biphenyl host in guest/host-type organic light-emitting diodes. The best fabricated diodes showed a luminance of about 1900 cd m(-12) , a luminance efficiency of about 3 cd A(-1) , and external quantum efficiencies exceeding 0.9 %.

  16. Interferon-alpha-2b induces autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through Beclin1 pathway

    Jun Zhao; Ming-Li Wang; Zeng Li; Dong-Mei Gao; Yu Cai; Jun Chang; Shi-Ping Wang


    Objective:To determine whether Interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-α2b) can modulate the autophagic response in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Methods:Hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with IFN-α2b. Autophagy was assessed by acridine orange staining, GFP-LC3 dotted assay, transmission electron microscopy and immunoblotting. Results:Acridine orange staining showed that IFN-α2b triggered the accumulation of acidic vesicular and autolysosomes in HepG2 cells. hTe acridine orange HepG2 cell ratios were (4.3±1.0)%, (6.9±1.4)%, and (13.1±2.3)%, respectively, atfer treatment with 100, 1,000, and 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h. A markedly punctate pattern was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h, but only diffuse and weakly lfuorescent GFP-LC3 puncta was observed in control cells. HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h developed autophagosome-like characteristics, including single-or double-membrane vacuoles containing intact and degraded cellular debris. The Beclin1 and LC3-II protein expression was up-regulated by IFN-α2b treatment. Conclusion:Autophagy can be induced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with IFN-α2b in HepG2 cells, and the Beclin1 signaling pathway was stimulated by IFN-α2b.

  17. Use of the Malthus conductance growth analyser to determine numbers of thermophilic streptococci on stainless steel.

    Flint, S H; Brooks, J D; Bremer, P J


    The use of the Malthus conductance growth analyser for the detection of Streptococcus bovis attached to stainless steel surface was evaluated. A comparison between the results from acridine orange epifluorescence direct counts, swab recovery viable count and conductance estimates of attached cell concentrations, based on calibrations for planktonic cells, showed that the conductance results were up to 2 log10 greater than the epifluorescence results and the swab counts. The growth rates of planktonic and attached cells were similar over 16 h using the Malthus technique. This suggests that the Malthus technique detects more attached cells of Strep. bovis than epifluorescence microscopy or swab recovery.

  18. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    Henriksen, Kim; Sørensen, Mette G; Jensen, Vicki K;


    is currently not well understood. We used a battery of ion channel inhibitors, human osteoclasts, and their subcellular compartments to perform an unbiased analysis of the importance of the different ion transporters for acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts. CD14(+) monocytes from human...... peripheral blood were isolated, and mature osteoclasts were generated using RANKL and M-CSF. The human osteoclasts were (1) used for acridine orange assays for evaluation of lysosomal acidification, (2) used for bone resorption assays, (3) used for generation of osteoclasts membranes for acid influx...

  19. Photocatalytic performance of TiO2 immobilized on polystyrene (PS) thin film for mineralization of pollutants


    A new photocatalyst, TiO2 powder immobilized on polystyrene (PS) thin films, was prepared using a novelmethod and its photocatalytic activity on the photodegradation of acridine dye in aqueous solution was tested. By thismethod, the crystal form and grain size of the immobilized TiO2 were well maintained. Compared with TiO2 powder, thephotocatalytic activity of TiO2/PS thin films was not significantly reduced. The catalyst is stable and can be reused severaltimes without the loss of activity, which makes wastewater treatment using this photocatalytic degradation technique of thisway possible in the practical application.

  20. Monocyte functions in diabetes mellitus.

    Geisler, C; Almdal, T; Bennedsen, J; Rhodes, J M; Kølendorf, K


    The aim of this study was to investigate the functions of monocytes obtained from 14 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) compared with those of monocytes from healthy individuals. It was found that the total number of circulating monocytes in the 14 diabetic patients was lower than that from the healthy individuals. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans was decreased in the monocytes from the patients, whereas pinocytosis of acridine and phagocytosis of latex and sheep red blood cells were normal. The chemotactic response towards casein was enhanced. The possible consequences of these findings for the elucidation of concomitant infections in diabetic patients are discussed.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of p53 as a new indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa

    Salvatore Raimondo


    The aim of this study was to assess if a p53 ELISA assay could be a new indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: 103 human semen samples were evaluated using both Acridine Orange test and p53 ELISA and results were compared. Results: A clear correlation between the values measured by two methods was obtained. Conclusions: If this hypothesis will be confirmed by further studies, the p53 ELISA assay could become a new and more precise indicator of DNA damage in human spermatozoa.

  2. Reduction of bacterial growth by a vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Christensen, H.; Jakobsen, I.


    with adhering soil, bulk soil, and soil from unplanted tubes were sampled after 4 weeks. Samples were labelled with [H-3]-thymidine and bacteria in different size classes were measured after staining by acridine orange. The presence of VAM decreased the rate of bacterial DNA synthesis, decreased the bacterial...... plants. At the bottom of the tubes, the [H-3]-thymidine incorporation was significantly higher on root tips of mycorrhizal plants. Correspondingly, the bacterial biovolumes of rods with dimension 0.28-0.40 x 1.1-1.6 mum, from the bulk soil in the center of tubes and from root segments in the center...

  3. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.


    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (uv) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents - butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near uv radiation, or ether - the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of HSV produces no change in plaque development even though this agent is believed to preferentially affect viral DNA.

  4. Lysosome stability during lytic infection by simian virus 40.

    Einck, K H; Norkin, L C


    By 48 h postinfection, 40--80% of SV40-infected CV-1 cells have undergone irreversible injury as indicated by trypan blue staining. Nevertheless, at this time the lysosomes of these cells appear as discrete structures after vital staining with either acridine orange or neutral red. Lysosomes, vitally stained with neutral red at 24 h postinfection, were still intact in cells stained with trypan blue at 48 h. Acid phosphatase activity is localized in discrete cytoplasmic particles at 48 h, as indicated by histochemical staining of both fixed and unfixed cells.

  5. Transport and biodegradation of creosote compounds in clayey till, a field experiment

    Broholm, Kim; Nilsson, B.; Sidle, Roy C.


    The transport and biodegradation of 12 organic compounds toluene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,6-, 3,5-dimethylphenol, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, benzothiophene, dibenzofuran, indole, acridine, and quinoline. were studied at a field site located on the island of Funen, Denmark, where a clayey till 10......-methylnaphthalene, benzothio- phene, and quinoline.. This shows that the organic compounds were attenuated during the downward migration through the till despite the high infiltration rate. The attenuation process may be attributed to biodegradation. q2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Evaluation of sperm chromatin structure in boar semen

    Banaszewska Dorota


    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to evaluate sperm chromatin structure in the semen of insemination boars. Preparations of semen were stained with acridine orange, aniline blue, and chromomycin A3. Abnormal protamination occurred more frequently in young individuals whose sexual development was not yet complete, but may also be an individual trait. This possibility is important to factor into the decision regarding further exploitation of insemination boars. Thus a precise assessment of abnormalities in the protamination process would seem to be expedient as a tool supplementing morphological and molecular evaluation of semen. Disruptions in nucleoprotein structure can be treated as indicators of the biological value of sperm cells.

  7. Cell volume and geometric parameters determination in living cells using confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction



    Authors: David Hevia, Aida Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta Alonso-Gervós, Isabel Quirós-González, Henar M Cimadevilla, Carmen Gómez-Cordovés, Rosa M Sainz & Juan C Mayo ### Abstract The protocol reported here describes a simple, easy, fast and reproducible method aimed to know the geometric parameters of living cells based on confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with 3D reconstruction software. Briefly, the method is based on intrinsic fluorescence properties of acridine orange (AO...

  8. Electric field selective optical data storage using persistent spectral hole burning

    Bogner, U.; Beck, K.; Maier, Max


    The electric field domain is used as a storage dimension in optical data storage by persistent spectral hole burning. The memory locations in the electric field domain are addressed with the voltage applied to the sample consisting of the amorphous polymer polyvinyl-butyral doped with the dye 9-amino acridine. The information is written by burning spectral holes at different electric field strengths with a HeCd laser and read by detecting the presence or absence of holes with weak laser intensity.


    Kecheng Li; Douglas W. Reeve


    A novel methodology for imaging wood pulp fibre surface lignin by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy was developed. Various imaging modes and imaging conditions were explored for quantitative analysis. Acridine Orange was used for labelling lignin and the orthochromatic labelling condition was developed. Withthe thusly established methodology, the distribution of lignin across the fibre wall was clearly imaged. It was found that surface lignin concentration is about 2-4 times higher than bulk lignin concentration, and that high concentration of lignin was also found on the fibre lumen surfaces and pit borders.


    KechengLi; DouglasW.Reeve


    A novel methodology for imaging wood pulp fibre surface lignin by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy was developed. Various imaging modes and imaging conditions were explored for quantitative analysis. Acridine Orange was used for labelling lignin and the orthochromatic labelling condition was developed. With the thusly established methodology, the distribution of lignin across the fibre wall was clearly imaged. It was found that surface lignin concentration is about 2-4 times higher than bulk lignin concentration and that high concentration of lignin was also found on the fibre lumen surfaces and pit borders.

  11. Visualization of ATP release in pancreatic acini in response to cholinergic stimulus. Use of fluorescent probes and confocal microscopy

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Novak, Ivana


    The energy providing substrate ATP can be released from various cells and act extracellularly to regulate the same cells or neighboring cells. However, the pathway for ATP release and the eliciting physiological stimulus are unclear. Recently, we showed that ATP activates P2X and P2Y purinergic...... overlapping with those marked by acridine orange and LysoTracker Red. In functional studies we show that native pancreatic acini release ATP in response to various stimuli but most importantly to cholinergic stimulation, a very likely physiological stimulus in this epithelium. In a close vicinity of acini we...

  12. Structures, reduction potentials and absorption maxima of synthetic dyes of interest in photochemical solar-energy storage studies

    Chan, M.S.; Bolton, J.R.


    The photochemical redox behavior of synthetic dyes is governed by their excitation energies and ground-state redox potentials. The structures, reduction potentials and absorption maxima of 66 water-soluble synthetic dyes have been tabulated in 5 classes, namely, acridines, phenazines, oxazines, thiazines and xanthenes. The relevant references for certain other dyes of current interest to solar energy research are also included. Examples are given of how this table can be used. Solar scientists working with dye-sensitized systems such as photogalvanic cells, pigmented semicondcutors or photochemical production of hydrogen gas should find this compilation useful.

  13. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on the Viability and Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Primary Hepatocytes

    Ribeiro, Deise H. B.; Ferreira, Fabiane L.; da Silva, Valéria N.; Aquino, Simone; Corrêa, Benedito


    The present study evaluated the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) either alone, or in association, on rat primary hepatocyte cultures. Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry after propidium iodine intercalation. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. At the concentrations of AFB1 and FB1 used, the toxins did not decrease cell viability, but did induce apoptosis in a concentration and time-dependent manner. PMID:20480051

  14. 吖啶橙荧光法检测泌尿生殖道分泌道中的沙眼衣原体%Detecting the chlamydia trachomatis from urogenital tract secretion by AOF

    王强武; 苏明权; 李立文; 李哲


    AIM:To explore the value and significance of detecting the chlamydia trachomatis(CT)from urogenital tract samples by the acridine orange fluorescence(AOF).METHODS:110 samples from urogenital tract were detected by AOF.RESULTS:The total positive rate is 49.0%,in which the male are 53.0%(16/30) the female are 45.0%(38/40).CONCLUSION:AOF is combination of fluorescence method and morphologic.It showes the characteristics of easiness and fastness,and can be used in screening the infection of the Chlamydia trachomatis.

  15. “Human Babesiosis”: An Emerging Transfusion Dilemma

    Helieh S. Oz


    Full Text Available Babesiosis, a common disease of animals, can infect humans via vector “tick bite”, particularly in endemic areas. The recent reports of fatal cases in Hepatitis C and postliver transplant patients resulting from transfusion of contaminated blood should alert the medical profession regarding this emerging dilemma in endemic as well as nonendemic areas and the need for accurate blood screening for transfusion. Here, we illustrate different stages of the parasite lifecycle, progression of babesiosis in animal model, some aspects of pathologic outcomes, ongoing therapeutic modalities, and a feasible Acridine Orange fluorescent methodology for the diagnostic evaluation of blood samples.

  16. A fibroblast-associated antigen: Characterization in fibroblasts and immunoreactivity in smooth muscle differentiated stromal cells

    Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Celis, Julio E.; van Deurs, Bo


    Fibroblasts with smooth muscle differentiation are frequently derived from human breast tissue. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry of a fibroblast-associated antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb), 1B10, was analyzed with a view to discriminating smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts...... from vascular smooth muscle cells. The antigen was detected on the cell surface and in cathepsin D-positive and acridine orange-accumulating vesicular compartments of fibroblasts. Ultrastructurally, the antigen was revealed in coated pits and in endosomal and lysosomal structures. 1B10 recognized three...... immunoreactivity was specific to fibroblasts and smooth muscle differentiated fibroblasts within the context of vascular smooth muscle cells....

  17. Removal of biological stains from aqueous solution using a flow-through decontamination procedure.

    Lunn, G; Klausmeyer, P J; Sansone, E B


    Chromatography columns filled with Amberlite XAD-16 were used to decontaminate, using a continuous flow-through procedure, aqueous solutions of the following biological stains: acridine orange, alcian blue 8GX, alizarin red S, azure A, azure B, brilliant blue G, brilliant blue R, Congo red, cresyl violet acetate, crystal violet, eosin B, eosin Y, erythrosin B, ethidium bromide, Giemsa stain, Janus green B, methylene blue, neutral red, nigrosin, orcein, propidium iodide, rose Bengal, safranine O, toluidine blue O, and trypan blue. Adsorption was most efficient for stains of lower molecular weight (removing stains from aqueous solution.

  18. Reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum adducts as a function of DNA sequence.

    Malinge, J M; Leng, M


    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts as a function of nucleic acid sequence. The first part of the paper deals with the formation of these adducts. It is shown that the ternary nucleic acid-cis-platinum-ethidium bromide complexes in which ethidium bromide and nucleotide residues are cross-linked by cis-platinum, are relatively unstable at 37 degrees C. In the presence of acridine, ethidium bromide (but not cis-platin...

  19. Toxicity of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds to red clover (Trifolium pratense), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and mustard (Sinapsis alba).

    Sverdrup, Line E; Krogh, Paul Henning; Nielsen, Torben; Kjaer, Christian; Stenersen, Jørgen


    The effect of eight polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) on the seed emergence and early life-stage growth of three terrestrial plants (Sinapsis alba, Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne) were studied in a greenhouse, using a Danish agricultural soil with an organic carbon content of 1.6%. After three weeks of exposure, seed emergence and seedling weight (fresh weight and dry weight) were determined. Exposure concentrations were verified with chemical analysis. The substances tested were four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (fluoranthene, pyrene, phenanthrene and fluorene), the N-, S-, and O-substituted analogues of fluorene (carbazole, dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran, respectively), and the quinoline representative acridine. Seedling growth was a far more sensitive endpoint than seed emergence for all substances. Concentrations estimated to give a 20% reduction of seedling fresh weight (EC20-values) ranged from 36 to 290 mgkg(-1) for carbazole, 43 to 93 mgkg(-1) for dibenzofuran, 37 to 110 mgkg(-1) for dibenzothiophene, 140 to 650 mgkg(-1) for fluoranthene, 55 to 380 mgkg(-1) for fluorene, 37 to 300 mgkg(-1) for phenanthrene, and 49 to 1300 mgkg(-1) for pyrene. For acridine, no toxicity was observed within the concentration range tested (1-1000 mgkg(-1)). As illustrated by the EC20-values, there was a rather large difference in sensitivity between the species, and T. pratense was the most sensitive of the species tested.

  20. Design, synthesis, in vitro cytotoxic activity evaluation, and apoptosis-induction study of new 9(10H)-acridinone-1,2,3-triazoles.

    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam; Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Pordeli, Mahboobeh; Saeedi, Mina; Ardestani, Sussan Kabudanian; Foroumadi, Alireza; Shafiee, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Tahmineh


    A new series of 9(10H)-acridinone-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell lines. The acridone skeleton was prepared through the Ullman condensation of 2-bromobenzoic acid and anilines. Subsequently, it was functionalized with propargyl bromide. Then, a click reaction of the latter compound and in situ prepared 1-(azidomethyl)-4-methoxybenzene derivatives led to the formation of the desired triazole products. Finally, all products were investigated for their capability to cause cytotoxicity against MCF-7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Among them, 2-methoxy-10-((1-(4-methoxybenzyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)acridin-9(10H)-one 8c exhibited the most potency [Formula: see text] against MCF-7 cells, being more potent than etoposide [Formula: see text]. Also, apoptosis induced by compound 8c was confirmed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining.

  1. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines

    Alireza Golshan


    Full Text Available Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml. Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue ® assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05. The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted.

  2. Genotoxicity of non-covalent interactions: DNA intercalators

    Ferguson, Lynnette R. [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland (New Zealand)], E-mail:; Denny, William A. [Auckland Cancer Society Research Centre, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, University of Auckland (New Zealand)


    This review provides an update on the mutagenicity of intercalating chemicals, as carried out over the last 17 years. The most extensively studied DNA intercalating agents are acridine and its derivatives, that bind reversibly but non-covalently to DNA. These are frameshift mutagens, especially in bacteria and bacteriophage, but do not otherwise show a wide range of mutagenic properties. Di-acridines or di-quinolines may be either mono- or bis-intercalators, depending upon the length of the alkyl chain separating the chromophores. Those which monointercalate appear as either weak frameshift mutagens in bacteria, or as non-mutagens. However, some of the bisintercalators act as 'petite' mutagens in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they may be more likely to target mitochondrial as compared with nuclear DNA. Some of the new methodologies for detecting intercalation suggest this may be a property of a wider range of chemicals than previously recognised. For example, quite a number of flavonoids appear to intercalate into DNA. However, their mutagenic properties may be dominated by the fact that many of them are also able to inhibit topoisomerase II enzymes, and this property implies that they will be potent recombinogens and clastogens. DNA intercalation may serve to position other, chemically reactive molecules, in specific ways on the DNA, leading to a distinctive (and wider) range of mutagenic properties, and possible carcinogenic potential.

  3. Terpenoids Isolated From the Shoot of Plectranthus hadiensis Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells Via the Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway.

    Menon, Darsan B; Gopalakrishnan, V K


    The plant Plectranthus hadiensis is a rich source of many bioactive phytochemicals, especially terpenoids. The terpenoid fraction was isolated and phytochemical characterization was done using GC-MS. The aim of the present study was to find out the antiproliferative activity and the mechanism of cell death induction by the terpenoid fraction on human colon cancer cells (HCT-15). MTT assay was performed with different concentrations of the fraction (10, 20, and 50 µg/mL) to obtain IC50 value for 24 h to induce cell death. The induction of apoptosis were studied by Hoechst staining, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Comet assay, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity assays. The mechanism of apoptosis induction was studied by expression analysis of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and proapoptotic Bax using RT-PCR and also by Western blot analysis of proteins involved in the apoptotic pathway. The terpenoid fraction induced significant morphological changes and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Positive Hoechst staining and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining indicated apoptosis induction by the fraction. DNA fragmentation, which is a characteristic feature of apoptosis, was also observed. Upregulation of caspase-3 activity and proapoptotic Bax, and the downregulation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and COX-2 confirmed that the apoptosis induction was via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  4. An improved layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to generate biointerfaces for platelet adhesion studies: Dynamic LbL

    Lopez, Juan Manuel

    Layer-by-layer self-assembly (LbL) is a technique that generates engineered nano-scale films, coatings, and particles. These nanoscale films have recently been used in multiple biomedical applications. Concurrently, microfabrication methods and advances in microfluidics are being developed and combined to create "Lab-on-a-Chip" technologies. The potential to perform complex biological assays in vitro as a first-line screening technique before moving on to animal models has made the concept of lab on a chip a valuable research tool. Prior studies in the Biofluids Laboratory at Louisiana Tech have used layer-by-layer and in vitro biological assays to study thrombogenesis in a controlled, repeatable, engineered environment. The reliability of these previously established techniques was unsatisfactory for more complex cases such as chemical and shear stress interactions. The work presented in this dissertation was performed to test the principal assumptions behind the established laboratory methodologies, suggest improvements where needed, and test the impact of these improvements on accuracy and repeatability. The assumptions to be tested were: (1) The fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of acridine orange-tagged platelets accurately provide a measure of percent area of surface covered by platelets; (2) fibrinogen coatings can be accurately controlled, interact with platelets, and do not interfere with the ability to quantify platelet adhesion; and (3) the dependence of platelet adhesion on chemical agents, as measured with the modified methods, generally agrees with results obtained from our previous methods and with known responses of platelets that have been documented in the literature. The distribution of fibrinogen on the final LbL surface generated with the standard, static process (s-LbL) was imaged by tagging the fibrinogen with an anti-fibrinogen antibody bound to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). FITC FM images and acridine orange FM images were taken

  5. Ultra-thin porous glass membranes--an innovative material for the immobilization of active species for optical chemosensors.

    Müller, R; Anders, N; Titus, J; Enke, D


    In addition to polymers, porous glasses can be used for the immobilization of indicators, chromoionophores or enzymes. Advantages of these materials include, among others, the photochemical and thermal stability. Porous glass membranes (CPG) based on phase-separated alkali borosilicate glasses with thicknesses of 250-300 μm and dimensions of approximately 9-13 mm² were used in this work. The average pore diameter was found to be between 12 and 112 nm. Initially, the membrane permeability for water was determined. Furthermore, the absorption spectra for the water-soaked membranes were recorded optically. CPG membranes which are pH-sensitive were prepared based on the covalent immobilization of thymol blue and a derivative of styryl acridine. In each case, the absorption spectra of the immobilized indicators are shown. The t90-times vary between 4 and 20 min and were determined for the thermodynamic equilibrium. The influence of the ionic strength on the characteristic curve is discussed and detailed results are given. After the storage time of about 900 days a pH-sensitivity for a CPG membrane styryl acridine derivative sample was still detectable.

  6. Acridone Alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae) and Their Effects on Photosynthesis.

    Arato Ferreira, Pedro H; Dos Santos, Djalma A P; da Silva, Maria Fátima das G F; Vieira, Paulo C; King-Diaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; Veiga, Thiago A M


    Continuing our search for herbicide models based on natural products, we investigated the action mechanisms of five alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Rutaceae): Citrusinine-I (1), glycocitrine-IV (2), 1,3,5-trihydroxy-10-methyl- 2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-9(10H)-acridinone (3), (2R)-2-tert-butyl-3,10-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro[3,2-b]acridin-5(2H)-one (4), and (3R)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-12H-pyrano[2,3-a]acridin-12-one (5) on several photosynthetic activities in an attempt to find new compounds that affect photosynthesis. Through polarographic techniques, the compounds inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled conditions from H2 O to methylviologen (=MV). Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. This approach still suggested that the compounds 4 and 5 had their interaction site located at photosystem I. Studies on fluorescence of chlorophyll a suggested that acridones (1-3) have different modes of interaction and inhibition sites on the photosystem II electron transport chain.

  7. Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structure of Two Acridinedione Derivatives

    Dalbir Kour


    Full Text Available The two acridinedione derivatives 1 [3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-9-(4-methoxyphenyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexahydro-2H,5H-acridine-1,8-dione (C24H29NO3] and 2 [3,3,6,6-tetramethyl-9-(4-methylphenyl-3,4,6,7,9,10-hexa-hydro-2H,5H-acridine-1,8-dione (C24H29NO2] were synthesized and their crystal structures were determined by direct methods. The asymmetric unit of compound 1 contains two independent molecules. The 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP ring adopts boat conformation in both 1 and 2. In 1 the dione rings exist in sofa conformation (for both the crystallographically independent molecules while the corresponding rings in 2 adopt half chair and sofa conformations, respectively. The crystal packing is stabilized by intermolecular N–H⋯O and C–H⋯O interactions in compound 1 and N–H⋯O interactions in compound 2.

  8. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    AK Sarvel


    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigation effect of flavonols antioxidants on DNA damage.

    Ensafi, Ali A; Heydari-Soureshjani, E; Jafari-Asl, M; Rezaei, B; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Aghaee, Elham


    A new electrochemical biosensor was developed to demonstrate the effect of Acridine Orange (AO) on DNA damage. Then, the biosensor was used to check the inhibitors effect of three flavonols antioxidants (myricetin, fisetin and kaempferol) on DNA damage. Acridine Orange (AO) was used as a damaging agent because it shows a high affinity to nucleic acid and stretch of the double helical structure of DNA. Decreasing on the oxidation signals of adenine and guanine (in the DNA) in the presence of AO were used as probes to study the antioxidants power, using DNA-modified screen printed graphene electrode (DNA/SPGE). The results of our study showed that the DNA-biosensor could be suitable biosensor to investigate the inhibitors ability of the flavonols antioxidants on the DNA damage. The linear dependency was detected in the two regions in the ranges of 1.0-15.0 and 15.0-500.0 pmol L(-1). The detection limit was found 0.5 pmol L(-1) and 0.6 pmol L(-1) for guanine and adenine, respectively. To confirm the electrochemical results, Uv-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used too. Finally molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was performed on the structure of DNA in a water box to study any interaction between the antioxidant, AO and DNA.

  10. Transformation Pathways of the Recalcitrant Pharmaceutical Compound Carbamazepine by the White-Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus: Effects of Growth Conditions.

    Golan-Rozen, Naama; Seiwert, Bettina; Riemenschneider, Christina; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Chefetz, Benny; Hadar, Yitzhak


    The widely used anticonvulsant pharmaceutical carbamazepine is recalcitrant in many environmental niches and thus poses a challenge in wastewater treatment. We followed the decomposition of carbamazepine by the white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus in liquid culture compared to solid-state fermentation on lignocellulosic substrate where different enzymatic systems are active. Carbamazepine metabolites were identified using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). In liquid culture, carbamazepine was only transformed to 10,11-epoxy carbamazepine and 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine as a dead-end product. During solid-state fermentation, carbamazepine metabolism resulted in the generation of an additional 22 transformation products, some of which are toxic. Under solid-state-fermentation conditions, 10,11-epoxy carbamazepine was further metabolized via acridine and 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine pathways. The latter was further metabolized via five subpathways. When (14)C-carbonyl-labeled carbamazepine was used as the substrate, (14)C-CO2 release amounted to 17.4% of the initial radioactivity after 63 days of incubation. The proposed pathways were validated using metabolites (10,11-epoxy carbamazepine, 10,11-dihydroxy carbamazepine, and acridine) as primary substrates and following their fate at different time points. This work highlights the effect of growth conditions on the transformation pathways of xenobiotics. A better understanding of the fate of pollutants during bioremediation treatments is important for establishment of such technologies.

  11. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of DNA and DNA-drug complexes

    Todd, A K


    The structure of the brominated oligonucleotide d(ACGTACG(5-BrU)) sub 2 was solved using the multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) technique. The space group was P4 sub 3 2 sub 1 2, with unit cell a=b=43.60A, c=26.27A. This structure was an A-DNA, isomorphous with many other previously solved octomers. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data were collected from crystals of the intercalation complexes N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA), d(CGTACG) sub 2 and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl] 9-aminoacridine-4-carboxamide (9- aminoDACA) and some of their derivatives. An attempt was made to solve the structure of the DACA derivative N-[2-(dimethylamino)butyl]-acridine-4-carboxamide (DACA4) by molecular replacement, using the crystal structure of the daunomycin d(CGTACG) sub 2 complex as a search model. Attempts were made to position the molecule in the unit cell based on an SIR map, knowledge of the symmetry and unit cell dimensions. The structure of the 9-amino-5-bromo DACA - d(CGT(5-BrU)CG) su...

  12. Simultaneous preparation of RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analysis

    Tesfaigzi, J.; Jaramillo, R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Several methods have been developed to quantify RNA synthesis during the progression of the cell cycle. The rate of RNA synthesis can be detected during different stages of the cell cycle by staining cells with agents that intercalate with nucleic acids. For example, following staining of mammalian cells with acridin orange, the green and red fluorescence that correlates with DNA and RNA content, respectively, can be analyzed by flow cytometry. Increase in RNA content during the progression of cells through the cell cycle can be measured after staining with acridin orange. RNA synthesis resulting from the stimulation of quiescent cells with various growth factors has also been demonstrated by labeling cells with bromo-uridine and using the anti-bromo-deoxyuridine antibody. These methods allow measurement of the overall RNA content in cells; however, they do not allow the measurement of the levels of specific mRNAs throughout the cell cycle. Current methods to quantify specific mRNAs generally require the preparation of a large number of cells (5--10 {times} 10{sup 6} cells) to carry out flow cytometric analyses and to isolate RNA for Northern blot analysis or solution hybridization. In this report, the authors describe a method of simultaneously preparing RNA and nuclei for Northern blot and flow cytometric analyses, respectively. The minimum number of nuclei required to obtain flow cytometric data and the effect of conserving nuclei in methanol for several days are also presented.

  13. Integrated scientific data bases review on asulacrine and associated toxicity.

    Afzal, Attia; Sarfraz, Muhammad; Wu, Zimei; Wang, Guangji; Sun, Jianguo


    Asulacrine (ASL), a weakly basic and highly lipophilic drug was synthesized in 1980's in cancer research laboratory of Auckland by modifications to the acridine portion of amsacrine on 3-, 4- and 5-substitution patterns. In contrast to its precursor amsacrine (m-AMSA), ASL was effective not only against leukemia and Lewis lung tumor system but also a wide variety of solid tumor. Its metabolic pathway is not same to amsacrine hence different side effects, hepatotoxicity and excretion was observed. Asulacrine is under phase II clinical trials and has showed promising results but its toxicity especially phlebitis is stumbling block in its clinical implementation. This review is an effort to give a possible clue, based on scientifically proven results, to the researchers to solve the mystery of associated toxicity, phlebitis. Review covers the available literature on asulacrine and other acridine derivatives regarding pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, quantitative structure activity relationship and toxicology via electronic search using scientific databases like PubMed and others. To date, all abstracts and full-text articles were discussed and analyzed. The tabulated comparisons and circuitry mechanism of ASL are the added features of the review which give a complete understanding of hidden aspects of possible route cause of associated toxicity, the phlebitis.

  14. Induction of apoptosis on human hepatocarcinoma cell lines by an alkyl resorcinol isolated from Lithraea molleoides

    Luciana Barbini; Paula Lopez; Julieta Ruffa; Virginia Martino; Graciela Ferraro; Rodolfo Campos; Lucia Cavallaro


    AIM: To study the mechanism of cytotoxicity of a new active 5-alkyl resorcinol [1, 3-dihydroxy-5- (tridec-4', 7'-dienyl) benzene] isolated from Lithraea molleoides leaves on liver tumor cells.METHODS: Human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (HepG2and Hep3B) in culture were treated with inhibitory concentrations, 50% of the compound, for 24 h. The induction of apoptosis was detected in treated cells by analysis of DNA fragmentation, DNA content, and acridine orange and propidium iodide staining.RESULTS: After 24 h of 5-alkyl resorcinol treatment,both cell lines showed: (1) the typical morphological alterations of apoptosis; (2) DNA fragmentation, detected by laddering and appearance of a subG0 population by flow cytometry; and (3) condensed and fragmented nuclei by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining.CONCLUSION: Based on the results, this compound exerts its cytotoxic effect in both hepatocellular cell lines through apoptotic cell death. For Hep3B, cells with mutated p53 and Fas, apoptosis would proceed by p53-or Fas-independent pathways.

  15. Use of the comet assay to measure DNA damage in cells exposed to photosensitizers and gamma radiation

    Pouget, J.-P.; Ravanat, J.-L.; Douki, T.; Richard, M.-J.; Cadet, J.


    We used the comet assay associated with DNA-glycosylases to estimate DNA damage in cells exposed to gamma irradiation or photosensitized either with methylene blue or orange acridine. A calibration performed using irradiation allowed the measurement of the steady-state level and the yield of 8-oxodGuo as well as strand breaks and alkali-labile sites. Nous avons utilisé la méthode des comètes associée à des ADN-glycosylases, pour estimer les dommages de l'ADN dans des cellules après l'exposition à un rayonnement gamma ou après photosensibilisation par le bleu de méthylène ou l'acridine orange. Une calibration de la méthode des comètes a permis de mesurer le niveau basal et les taux de formation de 8-oxodGuo ainsi que le nombre de cassures de brins et de sites alcali labiles.

  16. Cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions of Salvia chorassanica Bunge on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines.

    Golshan, Alireza; Amini, Elaheh; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Jalali, Zahra; Sabouri-Rad, Sarvenaz; Sanjar-Mousavi, Naghmeh; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra


    Because of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer potential, Salvia chorassanica Bunge (Lamiaceae) has been considered as a popular herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Previous studies have shown remarkable cytotoxic properties of the methanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane extract of S. chorassanica on human cervical cancer cells. To seek the therapeutic potentials of S. chorassanica, this study was undertaken to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of various extracts of this plant on human breast MCF-7 and prostate cancer DU 145 cells. The DU 145 cells were exposed to different concentrations of plant extracts (1-200 μg/ml). Cytotoxic activities were examined using alamarBlue(®) assay and apoptosis was assessed by acridine orange/propodium iodide double staining and evaluation of DNA fragmentation by flow cytometry. Our findings indicated that n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts had more cytotoxic activities against DU 145 and MCF-7 cell lines compared with other extracts (P<0.05). The acridine orange/propodium iodide staining showed apoptogenic properties of n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts which was consequently confirmed by flow cytometric histogram that exhibited an increase in sub-G1 peak in treated cells as compared with untreated cancer cell lines. Taken together, these observations demonstrated cytotoxic effects of S. chorassanica extracts on MCF-7 and DU 145 cell lines which is most likely exerted via apoptosis cell death. Therefore, further investigations on S. chorassanica extracts as potential chemotherapeutic agents are warranted.

  17. Reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum adducts as a function of DNA sequence.

    Malinge, J M; Leng, M


    The purpose of this work was to study the chemical reactivity of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts as a function of nucleic acid sequence. The first part of the paper deals with the formation of these adducts. It is shown that the ternary nucleic acid-cis-platinum-ethidium bromide complexes in which ethidium bromide and nucleotide residues are cross-linked by cis-platinum, are relatively unstable at 37 degrees C. In the presence of acridine, ethidium bromide (but not cis-platinum) is slowly released which leads to the formation of monofunctional cis-platinum-nucleic acid adducts. After removal of acridine, the monofunctional adducts react further to become bifunctional. The second part of the paper deals with the kinetics of disappearance of the monofunctional adducts in several polynucleotides but not in poly(dG).poly(dC). When the adducts possess a chloride ligand, the limiting step in the cross-linking is the rate of aquation reaction of the chloride ligand. The rate constants are an order of magnitude larger when the monofunctional adducts do not possess a chloride ligand. In both the cases, the rate constants are apparently independent of the nucleic acid sequence.

  18. Synthesis and Study of Second-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of 3-Substituted-6- (substituted-phenylazo) coumarins

    SONG Hua-Can; WEN Huan; LIANG Dong; SUN Yi-Feng


    @@ It has attracted a lot of attentions to synthesize and investigate the behaviors of organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. [1,2] We have ever reported that acridine derivatives ,[3] 4-substituted-benzylideneoxazol-5(4H)-one[4] and 4,4′-di-styryl-biphenyl derivatives[5] possess good second-order NLO properties. Coumarin derivatives are good organic optical materials and azobenzene derivatives possess a higher second-order nonlinear polarization values, however, there are few reports about the study on the synthetic method, optical behavior, especially,second-order NLO properties of 3-substitued-6-(substituted-phenylazo) coumarin derivatives. Therefore, a series of the following compounds were prepared in order to investigate their NLO behavior.


    Montgomery, Wren; Sephton, Mark A., E-mail: [Impacts and Astromaterials Research Centre, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    The influence of polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs), which have been suggested as contributors to the interstellar IR emission bands, on interstellar emission features is difficult to constrain because their infrared characteristics are strongly similar to those for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). One possible solution is to seek a means of visualizing the presence of PANHs that provides information that is distinct from that for PAHs. Although PANHs and PAHs have similar infrared characteristics in many settings, this relationship may not be universally maintained. We have used in situ high-pressure synchrotron-source Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine that the responses of two representative molecules, acridine and anthracene, differ at high pressures (>ca. 1 GPa). Because there are a number of high-pressure environments that can be remotely observed by infrared spectroscopy, they represent a potential to glimpse the distribution of PANHs across the cosmos.

  20. Aqueous solubility data for pressurized hot water extraction for solid heterocyclic analogs of anthracene, phenanthrene and fluorene.

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal


    We report the aqueous solubilities of phenanthrene and several solid three-ring aromatic heterocycles (phenanthridine, acridine, phenazine, thianthrene, phenothiazine, phenoxathiin, phenoxazine, carbazole, dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene) at temperatures ranging from 313K to the solute melting point and at a pressure of 5MPa. The data were measured by dynamic saturation method using an in-house-assembled apparatus for pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE). The solute from a known mass of the saturated aqueous solution was transferred to an organic solvent (hexane or toluene), and the organic phase was analyzed by GC/MS. In any of the solutes, the GC/MS records did not indicate any noticeable decomposition within the temperature range of the measurements. The resultant solubilities were converted to activity coefficients of the individual solutes in saturated aqueous solutions, and the results are discussed in terms of temperature and type/number of heteroatoms.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of hydrodynamic cell lysing of cancer cells in a high-throughput Circular Multi-Channel Microfiltration device

    Ma, W.


    Microfiltration is an important microfluidic technique suitable for enrichment and isolation of cells. However, cell lysing could occur due to hydrodynamic damage that may be detrimental for medical diagnostics. Therefore, we conducted a systematic study of hydrodynamic cell lysing in a high-throughput Circular Multi-Channel Microfiltration (CMCM) device integrated with a polycarbonate membrane. HeLa cells (cervical cancer cells) were driven into the CMCM at different flow rates. The viability of the cells in the CMCM was examined by fluorescence microscopy using Acridine Orange (AO)/Ethidium Bromide (EB) as a marker for viable/dead cells. A simple analytical cell viability model was derived and a 3D numerical model was constructed to examine the correlation of between cell lysing and applied shear stress under varying flow rate and Reynolds number. The measured cell viability as a function of the shear stress was consistent with theoretical and numerical predictions when accounting for cell size distribution. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Drotaverine - a Concealed Cytostatic!

    Pavel, Ioana Z; Heller, Lucie; Sommerwerk, Sven; Loesche, Anne; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Csuk, René


    Drotaverine (also known as dihydroperparine or No-Spa(®) ) is an antispasmodic drug closely related to papaverin. Drotaverin also acts as a cytostatic compound for several human tumor cell lines and nonmalignant mouse fibroblasts, and EC50 values as low as 3.0 μM were observed in SRB assays for HT-29 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Small structural changes (e.g., aromatization, benzylic oxidation) led to a reduced activity or a complete loss of cytotoxicity. Staining of the cells with acridine orange showed the cell membrane of the dead cells to be still intact, and a slight G1/G0 arrest in the treated cells was observed after 24 h. Extra annexin V-FITC/PI assays and flow cytometry revealed drotaverine mainly to act as a cytostatic and only to a minor extent as cytotoxic agent.

  3. A study of Nigella sativa induced growth inhibition of MCF and HepG2 cell lines: An anti-neoplastic study along with its mechanism of action

    Y Padmanabha Reddy


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the anticancer potential of seeds of Nigella sativa using MCF and HepG2 cell lines along with its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide nuclear staining technique were selected to evaluate anticancer potential and mechanism of action of test extract. Results: Aqueous extract of N.sativa at a test dose of 180 mg and 300 mg was identified to be the best as anticancer agent against MCF and HepG2 cell lines among different solvent test extract where doxorubicin and cisplatin were employed as standard references. Discussion: Further study including separation and characterization of active principles in the aqueous extract shall prove beneficial.

  4. Structurally Diverse π-Extended Conjugated Polycarbo- and Heterocycles through Pd-Catalyzed Autotandem Cascades.

    Barroso, Raquel; Cabal, María-Paz; Badía-Laiño, Rosana; Valdés, Carlos


    The Pd-catalyzed reaction between 2,2'-dibromobiphenyls and related systems with tosylhydrazones gives rise to new π-extended conjugated polycarbo- and heterocycles through an autotandem process involving a cross-coupling reaction followed by an intramolecular Heck cyclization. The reaction shows wide scope regarding both coupling partners. Cyclic and acyclic tosylhydrazones can participate in the process. Additionally, a variety of aromatic and heteroaromatic dibromoderivatives have been employed, leading to an array of diverse scaffolds featuring a fluorene or acridine central nucleus, and containing binaphthyl, thiophene, benzothiophene and indole moieties. The application to appropriate tetrabrominated systems led to greater structural complexity through two consecutive autotandem cascades. The photophysical properties of selected compounds were studied through their absorption and emission spectra. Fluorescence molecules featuring very high quantum yields were identified, showing the potential of this methodology in the development of molecules with interesting optoelectronic properties.

  5. Cellular Composition of the Spleen and Changes in Splenic Lysosomes in the Dynamics of Dyslipidemia in Mice Caused by Repeated Administration of Poloxamer 407.

    Goncharova, N V; Shurlygina, A V; Mel'nikova, E V; Karmatskikh, O L; Avrorov, P A; Loktev, K V; Korolenko, T A


    We studied the effect of dyslipidemia induced by poloxamer 407 (300 mg/kg twice a week for 30 days) on cellular composition of the spleen and splenocyte lysosomes in mice. Changes in blood lipid profile included elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, aterogenic LDL, and triglycerides most pronounced in 24 h after the last poloxamer 407 injection; gradual normalization of lipid profile was observed in 4 days (except triglycerides) and 10 days. The most pronounced changes in the spleen (increase in organ weight and number of cells, inhibition in apoptosis, and reduced accumulation of vital dye acridine orange in lysosomes) were detected on day 4; on day 10, the indices returned to normal. Cathepsin D activity in the spleen also increased at these terms. The relationship between changes in the cellular composition of the spleen and dynamics of serum lipid profile in mice in dyslipidemia caused by repeated administrations of relatively low doses of poloxamer 407 is discussed.

  6.  Distribution and composition of microbial populations in landfill leachate contaminated aquifer (Grindsted, Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, L; Albrechtsen, HJ; Ringelberg, DB


    of the acridine orange direct count method (AODC). Numbers of dominant, specific groups of bacteria and total numbers of protozoa were measured by use of the most probable number method (MPN). Viable biomass estimates were obtained from measures of ATP and ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA......) concentrations. The estimated numbers of total bacteria by direct counts were relatively constant throughout the aquifer, ranging from a low of 4.8 × 106 cells/g dry weight (dw) to a high of 5.3 × 107 cells/g dw. Viable biomass estimates based on PLFA concentrations were one to three orders of magnitude lower...... with the greatest concentrations (up to 4 × 105 cells/g dw) occurring at the border of the landfill and in samples collected from thin lenses of clay and silt with sand streaks. Cell number estimates based on ATP concentrations were also found to be lower than the direct count measurements (

  7. Ion transporters involved in acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts

    Henriksen, K.; Sorensen, M.G.; Jensen, V.K.;


    Osteoclasts possess a large amount of ion transporters, which participate in bone resorption; of these, the vacuolar-adenosine trisphosphatase (V-ATPase) and the chloride-proton antiporter ClC-7 acidify the resorption lacuna. However, whether other ion transporters participate in this process...... is currently not well understood. We used a battery of ion channel inhibitors, human osteoclasts, and their subcellular compartments to perform an unbiased analysis of the importance of the different ion transporters for acidification of the resorption lacuna in osteoclasts. CD14(+) monocytes from human...... peripheral blood were isolated, and mature osteoclasts were generated using RANKL and M-CSF. The human osteoclasts were (1) used for acridine orange assays for evaluation of lysosomal acidification, (2) used for bone resorption assays, (3) used for generation of osteoclasts membranes for acid influx...

  8. Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa.

    Ozakca, Dilek Unal; Silah, Hulya


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fungicide flusilazole on somatic cells of Allium cepa. For evaluation of cytogenetic effects, root meristem cells of A. cepa were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 45 ppm (EC50 concentration) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitotic index and different types of chromosomal abnormalities such as bridges, stickiness and laggards were determined in both control and test groups. Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining and fluorescence microscope was used to determine the stability of chromosome structure. Data obtained from staining process indicated that ratio of necrotic cells significantly increased by the flusilazole presoaking. The RAPD-PCR method was used and the higher doses treated-group (45 ppm) was more distant to the control group compare with others.

  9. Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur


    Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases.

  10. Bringing forward the new generation of alkoxy-thiourea as potential treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Khairul, Wan M.; Goh, Yit-Peng; Daud, Adibah Izzati; Nakisah, M. A.


    Alkoxy substituted thiourea derivatives with general formula of A-ArC(O)NHC(S)NHAr-D which A represents the methoxy group and D denotes -OCnH2n+1 have been successfully synthesised and characterized. In turn, all the synthesised molecules were assayed for anti-amoebic activities towards Acanthamoeba sp to examine the cytotoxicity effect at their IC50 and membrane permeability. As predicted, the findings showed that the synthesised molecules owing promising anti-amoebic activity towards Acanthamoeba sp. To support, the Acridine-orange/Propidium iodide (AOPI) staining result under fluorescence microscopy revealed the treated amoeba cells by these alkoxy thiourea derivatives exhibited loss in their membrane permeability.

  11. Investigation of cytotoxic activity on human cancer cell lines of arborinine and furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens.

    Réthy, Borbála; Zupkó, István; Minorics, Renáta; Hohmann, Judit; Ocsovszki, Imre; Falkay, George


    The cytotoxic effects of a series of furanoacridones isolated from Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae) and of two further acridone alkaloids (arborinine and evoxanthine) were investigated by means of the MTT assay, using the human cell lines HeLa, MCF7 and A431. Arborinine proved best in inhibiting the proliferation of all three cell lines. The cytotoxic potency of the furacridone alkaloids was a function of their lipid solubility, which was determined by means of PAMPA. The capacity of the most effective furanoacridones to induce apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometric cell cycle analysis and by staining with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. This finding was reinforced by determining the apoptosis-regulating factors Bcl-2 and Bax, which were revealed by means of RT-PCR to change dose-dependently. The data presented here indicate that naturally occurring furanoacridones can be regarded as excellent starting structures for the potential development of new anticancer agents.

  12. Spirocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-based organic nanosheets for eco-friendly aqueous processed thin-film non-volatile memory devices.

    Lin, Zong-Qiong; Liang, Jin; Sun, Peng-Ju; Liu, Feng; Tay, Yee-Yan; Yi, Ming-Dong; Peng, Kun; Xia, Xian-Hai; Xie, Ling-Hai; Zhou, Xin-Hui; Zhao, Jian-Feng; Huang, Wei


    Supramolecular steric hindrance designs make pyrene-functionalized spiro[fluorene-9,7'-dibenzo[c,h]acridine]-5'-one (Py-SFDBAO) assemble into 2D nanostructures that facilitate aqueous phase large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform crystalline thin films. Thin-film diodes using aqueous nanosheets as active layers exhibit a non-volatile bistable electrical switching feature with ON/OFF ratios of 6.0 × 10(4) and photoswitching with conductive gains of 10(2) -10(3). Organic nanosheets are potentially key components for eco-friendly aqueous dispersed organic nano-inks in the application of printed and flexible electronics.

  13. Regioselectivity and Tautomerism of Novel Five-Membered Ring Nitrogen Heterocycles Formed via Cyclocondensation of Acylthiosemicarbazides

    Karel D. Klika


    Full Text Available A series of 1-acyl-4-phenyl/(acridin-9-ylthiosemicarbazides 3, including fournew compounds, were prepared in order to study substituent effects on cyclizationreactions with oxalyl chloride (producing imidazolidine-4,5-diones 4, dimethylacetylenedicarboxylate (to give thiazolidin-4-ones 7 and 8 and autocondensation underalkaline conditions (to yield 1,2,4-triazoles 9. A positional isomer, 10 of compound 3f wasalso prepared. Altogether, twenty new compounds characterized and identified by IR, UV,1H, 13C and 2D NMR and quantum chemical calculations are described. The tautomerismof the products and regioselectivity of the reactions were evaluated. Compounds 3f−h,3h·2HCl, 7b,d and 10 were screened for cytotoxic activity against the L1210 leukemia cellline and all compounds, except for 3f, exhibited promising inhibitions of cell growth.

  14. Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts: new ultrastructural findings.

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Lagunes-Guillén, Anel; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Espinosa-Cantellano, Martha; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo


    During Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoite-cysts differentiation, four morphological stages were identified by scanning electron microscopy: trophozoite, precyst, immature cysts, and mature cysts. Fluorescence microscopy reveals the presence of small cumulus of actin in the cytoplasm of precysts after treatment with rhodamine phalloidin. By the contrary, in mature cysts, fluorescence was not observed. However, when excystation was induced, large fluorescent patches were present. By transmission electron microscopy, encysting amebas showed small cytoplasmic vesicles containing fibrillar material, surrounded by a narrow area of thin fibrils. Similar appearance was observed in pseudopods and phagocytic invaginations. In addition, large aggregates of rod-shape elements, similar to the chromatoid bodies, described in other amebas, were present in the cytoplasm. These cysts presented large areas with orange fluorescence after treatment with acridine orange.

  15. The electronic spectra of protonated PANH molecules

    Noble, J A; Jouvet, C


    Aims. This study was designed to examine the viability of protonated nitrogen-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (H+PANHs) as candidates for the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs). Methods. We obtained the electronic spectra of two protonated PANH cations, protonated acridine and phenanthridine, using parent ion photo-fragment spectroscopy and generated theoretical electronic spectra using ab initio calculations. Results. We show that the spectra of the two species studied here do not correspond to known DIBs. However, based on the general properties derived from the spectra of these small protonated nitrogen-substituted PAHs, we propose that larger H+PANH cations represent good candidates for DIB carriers due to the expected positions of their electronic transitions in the UV-visible and their narrow spectral bands.

  16. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI.

    Chazotte, Brad


    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  17. Deoxyamphimedine, a Pyridoacridine Alkaloid, Damages DNA via the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species

    Chris M. Ireland


    Full Text Available Marine pyridoacridines are a class of aromatic chemicals that share an 11H-pyrido[4,3,2-mn]acridine skeleton. Pyridoacridine alkaloids display diverse biological activities including cytotoxicity, fungicidal and bactericidal properties, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and topoisomerase inhibition. These activities are often dependent on slight modifications to the pyridoacridine skeleton. Here we demonstrate that while structurally similar to neoamphimedine and amphimedine, the biological activity of deoxyamphimedine differs greatly. Deoxyamphimedine damages DNA in vitro independent of topoisomerase enzymes through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Its activity was decreased in low oxygen, with the removal of a reducing agent and in the presence of anti-oxidants. Deoxyamphimedine also showed enhanced toxicity in cells sensitive to single or double strand DNA breaks, consistent with the in vitro activity.

  18. Investigation of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing effects of estragole isolated from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

    Villarini, Milena; Pagiotti, Rita; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Vannini, Samuele; Levorato, Sara; Moretti, Massimo


    The present study was undertaken to evaluate, in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line, the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of estragole (1), contained in the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and suspected to induce hepatic tumors in susceptible strains of mice. Toward this end, an MTT cytotoxicity assay, a trypan blue dye exclusion test, a double-staining (acridine orange and DAPI) fluorescence viability assay, a single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay, a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) assay, and a DNA fragmentation analysis were conducted. In terms of potential genotoxic effects, the comet assay indicated that estragole (1) was not able to induce DNA damage nor apoptosis under the experimental conditions used.


    A. V. RUSU


    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of the cryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for a rapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as sperm concentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtle abnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, it seems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interfere with the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known. Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motility analysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine Orange Test and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences in spermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor.

  20. Effect of the Vacuolation of Helicobacter Pylori


    Cytotoxic test in vitro combined with cytochemical stain, fluorescent stain, transmission electronmicrograph was used to study the vacuolated effect by helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) (Toxin+) and its pathological mechanism. 78.26 % patients with peptic ulcer associated with H.pylori was infected with H.pylori (Toxin+), while 42.86 % patients with gastritis was infected with H.pylori (Toxin+). It was positive in vacuole with acridine orange and acid phosphatase stain. Transmission electronmicrograph of vacuole revealed the presence of abounding membrane. There was a closed relationship between infection with H.pylori (Toxin+) and peptic ulcer disease. The vacuole induced by H.pylori (Toxin+) was autophagosome, which was pathological phenomenon induced by toxin.

  1. Surface modification of low cost carbons for their application in the environmental protection

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Parra, J. B.; Ania, C. O.; Pis, J. J.


    In this work, the CO 2 capture capacity of a series of activated carbons derived from recycled polyethylene terephtalate (PET) was tested, facing two problems at the same time: minimising plastic waste and developing an adsorbent for CO 2 capture. The PET raw material, obtained from post-consumer soft-drink bottles, was chemically activated with KOH. In addition, a series of nitrogen-enriched activated carbons was obtained by mixing the raw material with different nitrogen compounds (i.e., acridine, carbazole and urea). The influence of temperature on the CO 2 capture capacity of the adsorbents was evaluated in a thermogravimetric system. The CO 2 uptake was also related to the chemical and textural characteristics of the samples.

  2. Toxic effects of nine polycyclic aromatic compounds on Enchytraeus crypticus in artificial soil in relation to their properties.

    Kobetičová, Klára; Simek, Zdeněk; Brezovský, Jan; Hofman, Jakub


    The aim of this study was to compare the toxic effects of selected two- and three-ringed PAHs (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene) and their N-heterocyclic analogs with one (quinoline, acridine, and phenanthridine) or two (quinoxaline, phenazine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) nitrogen atoms on the survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus crypticus in artificial soil. Toxicity of compounds was recalculated to soil pore-water concentrations using the data of chemical analyses of 0.01 M CaCl(2) extracts of spiked soils. When toxicity was based on molar concentrations in pore water (μmol/L), it significantly increased with increasing K(ow) value. This relationship indicates nonpolar narcosis as the general toxicity mechanism of the tested compounds. In addition, significant correlation between the toxicity of PACs and their ionization potential has been identified by multidimensional QSAR models.

  3. Energy transfer mechanisms in photobiological reactions. Final report, 1 April 1960--31 March 1979. [Photodynamic processes in selected biomolecules

    Spikes, J.D.


    This project was concerned primarily with studies of the mechanisms of the sensitized photooxidation of selected biomolecules using a variety of phtosensitizers. Such reactions are often termed photodynamic processes. In particular we have carried out steady-state kinetic studies, flash photolysis and spectral studies, and product formation studies of the sensitized photooxidation of the five susceptible amino acids (cycteine, histidine, methonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine) and their derivatives, as well as purines and pyrimidines. A number of studies were also carried out on the mechanisms of the photodynamic inactivation of enzymes (trypsin, ribonuclease, lysozyme). Mechanism of photosensitization were studied using a variety of sensitizers including flavins, porphyrins, and a number of synthetic dyes (substituted fluoresceins, acridines, thyazines).

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of sodium benzoate, a food preservative, with calf thymus DNA.

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi


    The interaction between sodium benzoate (SB) and calf thymus DNA in simulated physiological buffer (pH 7.4) using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, was investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. An expanded UV-Vis spectral data matrix was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The equilibrium concentration profiles and the pure spectra for SB, DNA and DNA-SB complex from the high overlapping composite response were simultaneously obtained. The results indicated that SB could bind to DNA, and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a vital role in the binding process. Moreover, SB was able to quench the fluorescence of DNA-AO complex through a static procedure. The quenching observed was indicative of an intercalative mode of interaction between SB and DNA, which was supported by melting studies, viscosity measurements and CD analysis.

  5. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    Shekhah, Osama


    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1 film was functionalized by non-covalent modification via post-synthetic exchange of different probe molecules, such as acridine yellow, methylene blue, and Nile red. In addition, encapsulation of a porphyrin moiety was achieved via in situ synthesis and construction of the rho-ZMOF. Adsorption kinetics of volatile organic compounds on rho-ZMOF-1 thin films was also investigated. This study suggests that rho-ZMOF-1 thin films can be regarded as a promising platform for various applications such as sensing and catalysis. This journal is

  6. Carbamazepine degradation by photolysis and titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    Im, Jong-Kwon; Son, Hyun-Seok; Kang, Young-Min; Zoh, Kyung-Duk


    We investigated the degradation of carbamazepine by photolysis/ultraviolet (UV)-C only and titanium dioxide photocatalysis. The degradation of carbamazepine by UV-only and titanium-dioxide-only (adsorption) reactions were inefficient, however, complete degradation of carbamazepine was observed by titanium dioxide photocatalysis within 30 min. The rate of degradation increased as initial carbamazepine concentration decreased, and the removal kinetics fit well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The addition of methanol, a radical scavenger, decreased carbamazepine removal, suggesting that the hydroxide radical played an important role during carbamazepine degradation. The addition of oxygen during titanium dioxide photocatalysis accelerated hydroxide radical production, thus improving mineralization activity. The photocatalytic degradation was more efficient at a higher pH, whereas the removal of carbamazepine and acridine (a major intermediate) were more efficient under aerobic conditions. The mineralization of carbamazepine during photocatalysis produced various ionic by-products such as ammonium and nitrate by way of nitrogen dioxide.

  7. Antimutagenicity of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork.

    Krizková, L; Lopes, M H; Polónyi, J; Belicová, A; Dobias, J; Ebringer, L


    The possible protective effect of a suberin extract from Quercus suber cork on acridine orange (AO)-, ofloxacin- and UV radiation-induced mutagenicity (bleaching activity) in Euglena gracilis was examined. To our knowledge, the present results are the first attempt to analyse suberin in relation to mutagenicity of some chemicals. Suberin exhibits a significant dose-dependent protective effect against AO-induced mutagenicity and the concentration of 500 micrograms/ml completely eliminates the Euglena-bleaching activity of AO. The mutagenicity of ofloxacin is also significantly reduced in the presence of suberin (125, 250 and 500 micrograms/ml). However, the moderate protective effect of suberin on UV radiation-induced mutagenicity was observed only at concentrations 500 and 1000 micrograms/ml. Our data shows that suberin extract from Q. suber cork possess antimutagenic properties and can be included in the group of natural antimutagens acting in a desmutagenic manner.

  8. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar


    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications.

  9. Alpha-particle-induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Nikezic, D. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)


    Dechorionaed embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio, at 1.5 h post-fertilization (hpf) were irradiated with alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 mum were used as support substrates for holding the embryos and recorded alpha-particle hit positions, and thus enabled calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryos. The irradiated embryos were subsequently incubated with naive (unirradiated) embryos in such a way that the irradiated and naive embryos were spatially separated but the medium was shared. Acridine orange was used to perform in vital staining to show cell deaths in the naive embryos at 24 hpf. Our results gave evidence in supporting the existence of alpha-particle-induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos in vivo, and a general positive correlation between the cell death signals in the naive embryos and the alpha-particle dose absorbed by the irradiated embryos.

  10. The "interceptor" properties of chlorophyllin measured within the three-component system: intercalator-DNA-chlorophyllin.

    Pietrzak, Monika; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Wieczorek, Jolanta; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew


    In aqueous solutions, in the presence of double-stranded DNA, chlorophyllin (CHL) forms complexes with each of the three DNA intercalators: acridine orange (AO), quinacrine mustard (QM), and doxorubicin (DOX). The evidence for these interactions was obtained by measurement changes in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of the mixtures containing DNA and intercalators during titration with CHL. A model of simple competition between DNA and CHL for the intercalator was used to define the measured interactions. The concentrations of the complexes estimated based on this model were consistent with the concentrations obtained by actual measurement of the absorption spectra. The present data provide further support for the role of chlorophyllin as an "interceptor" that may neutralize biological activity of aromatic compounds including mutagens and antitumor drugs.

  11. [Substrate-inhibitory analysis of monoamine oxidase from hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus].

    Basova, I N; Iagodina, O V


    Study of the substrate-inhibitory specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) of hepatopancreas of the octopus Bathypolypus arcticus revealed distinctive peculiarities of catalytic properties of this enzyme. The studied enzyme, on one hand, like the classic MAO of homoiothermal animals, is able to deaminate tyramine, serotonin, benzylamine, tryptamine, beta-phenylethylamine, while, on the other hand, deaminates histamine and does not deaminate putrescine--classic substrates of diamine oxidase (DAO). Results of the substrate-inhibitory analysis with use of chlorgiline and deprenyl are indirect proofs of the existence in the octopus hepatopancreas of one molecular MAO form. Semicarbazide and pyronine G turned out to be weak irreversible inhibitors, four derivatives of acridine--irreversible inhibitors of the intermediate effectiveness with respect to the octopus hepatopancreas MAO; specificity of action of inhibitors at deamination of different substrates was equal.

  12. Library of UV-Vis-NIR reflectance spectra of modern organic dyes from historic pattern-card coloured papers.

    Montagner, Cristina; Bacci, Mauro; Bracci, Susanna; Freeman, Rachel; Picollo, Marcello


    An accurate characterisation of the organic dyes used in artworks, especially those made of paper, is an important factor in designing safe conservation treatments. In the case of synthetic organic dyes used in modern works of art, for example, one frequently encountered difficulty is that some of these dyes are not still commercially available. Recognizing this problem, the authors of this paper present the results of an analysis of UV-Vis-NIR fibre optic reflectance spectra of 82 samples of dyed paper prepared with 41 dyes. The samples come from a historic book, The Dyeing of Paper in the Pulp, which was published by Interessen-Gemeinschaft (I.G.) Farbenindustrie in 1925. The dyes used in the paper pulp belong to the azo compounds, acridine, anthraquinone, azine, diphenylmethane, indigoid, methine, nitro, quinoline, thiazine, triphenylmethane, sulphur and xanthene classes.


    M. ZĂHAN


    Full Text Available Nowadays, sperm evaluation is mostly used to predict fertility and freezability. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of investigating the effects of thecryogenic agent on boar spermatozoa, by identifying a set of laboratory tests for arapid and efficient evaluation of semen quality. Usual sperm analysis such as spermconcentration, motility and spermatozoa morphology are not able to show subtleabnormalities, which are having a basic role in the fertilizing ability. Moreover, itseems that other sperm characteristics, involved in the fertilizing ability, can interferewith the freezing-thawing processes, being not evaluated or maybe not known.Morphological (microscopic analysis of stained spermatozoa, functional (motilityanalysis and hypo-osmotic swelling test and chromatin integrity (Acridine OrangeTest and Comet Assay analysis were performed aiming to show the differences inspermatozoon integrity and functionality, caused by the cryogenic factor

  14. Reconstruction of 3d Digital Image of Weepingforsythia Pollen

    Liu, Dongwu; Chen, Zhiwei; Xu, Hongzhi; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Lina

    Confocal microscopy, which is a major advance upon normal light microscopy, has been used in a number of scientific fields. By confocal microscopy techniques, cells and tissues can be visualized deeply, and three-dimensional images created. Compared with conventional microscopes, confocal microscope improves the resolution of images by eliminating out-of-focus light. Moreover, confocal microscope has a higher level of sensitivity due to highly sensitive light detectors and the ability to accumulate images captured over time. In present studies, a series of Weeping Forsythia pollen digital images (35 images in total) were acquired with confocal microscope, and the three-dimensional digital image of the pollen reconstructed with confocal microscope. Our results indicate that it's a very easy job to analysis threedimensional digital image of the pollen with confocal microscope and the probe Acridine orange (AO).

  15. Microbial biomass and activity in subsurface sediments from Vejen, Denmark

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Winding, Anne


    of bacteria varied from 0.5 to 1,203 x 103 colony forming units/g dry weight (gdw); total numbers of bacteria acridine orange direct counts (AODC) varied from 1.7 to 147 × 107 cells/gdw; growth rates (incorporation of [3H]-thymidine) varied from 1.4 to 60.7 × 104 cells/(gdw · day); and rate constants...... a single abiotic parameter that could explain the variation of size and activity of the microbial population. The microbial data obtained in these geologically young sediments were compared to literature data from older sediments, and this comparison showed that age and type of geological formation might...... be important for the size and activity of the microbial populations....

  16. The contribution of cytochemistry and electron microscopy to the detection of contaminants in the cell material used for the production of virus vaccines.

    Rau, C; Palade, V; Voiculescu, C; Samoilescu, M

    For the production of virus vaccine it is essential to use cellular material free of contaminants that could reach the final product. It is also important to check initial tissue for possible inherent infections. Studies on primary culture of chick embryo fibroblasts have shown in several cases that cultures which appeared normal by current cytological methods had a strongly positive reaction when investigated by the Feulgen reaction for nuclear DNA and acridine orange method proving intense RNA synthesis. Comparison of electron microscopic (EM) pictures of cell sections with results obtained from negatively stained preparations of identical cell material after pronase digestion have shown the presence of viruses, thus elucidating the nature of the inclusions. The combined approach of the above-mentioned problem by cytochemical and EM methods can usefully enlarge the rage of tests employed for the definition of cell populations acceptable for virus vaccine production.

  17. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and decolorization of synthetic dyes by laccase from white-rot fungus, Trametes polyzona.

    Chairin, Thanunchanok; Nitheranont, Thitinard; Watanabe, Akira; Asada, Yasuhiko; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Lumyong, Saisamorn


    Purified laccase from Trametes polyzona WR710-1 was used as biocatalyst for bisphenol A biodegradation and decolorization of synthetic dyes. Degradation of bisphenol A by laccase with or without redox mediator, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) was studied. The quantitative analysis by HPLC showed that bisphenol A rapidly oxidized by laccase with HBT. Bisphenol A was completely removed within 3 h and 4-isopropenylphenol was found as the oxidative degradation product from bisphenol A when identified by GC-MS. All synthetic dyes used in this experiment, Bromophenol Blue, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Methyl Orange, Relative Black 5, Congo Red, and Acridine Orange were decolorized by Trametes laccase and the percentage of decolorization increased when 2 mM HBT was added in the reaction mixture. This is the first report showing that laccase from T. polyzona is an affective enzyme having high potential for environmental detoxification, bisphenol A degradation and synthetic dye decolorization.

  18. RutheniumII Complexes bearing Fused Polycyclic Ligands: From Fundamental Aspects to Potential Applications

    Ludovic Troian-Gautier


    Full Text Available In this review, we first discuss the photophysics reported in the literature for mononuclear ruthenium complexes bearing ligands with extended aromaticity such as dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (DPPZ, tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]-phenazine (TPPHZ,  tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]acridine (TPAC, 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-b]1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene (PHEHAT 9,11,20,22-tetraaza- tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-l:2''',3'''-n]pentacene (TATPP, etc. Photophysical properties of binuclear and polynuclear complexes based on these extended ligands are then reported. We finally develop the use of binuclear complexes with extended π-systems for applications such as photocatalysis.

  19. Biphasic and triphasic dose responses in zebrafish embryos to low-dose 150 kV X-rays with different levels of hardness.

    Kong, Eva Yi; Cheng, Shuk Han; Yu, Kwan Ngok


    The in vivo low-dose responses of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 150 kV X-rays with different levels of hardness were examined through the number of apoptotic events revealed at 24 h post fertilization by vital dye acridine orange staining. Our results suggested that a triphasic dose response was likely a common phenomenon in living organisms irradiated by X-rays, which comprised an ultra-low-dose inhibition, low-dose stimulation and high-dose inhibition. Our results also suggested that the hormetic zone (or the stimulation zone) was shifted towards lower doses with application of filters. The non-detection of a triphasic dose response in previous experiments could likely be attributed to the use of hard X-rays, which shifted the hormetic zone into an unmonitored ultra-low-dose region. In such cases where the subhormetic zone was missed, a biphasic dose response would be reported instead.

  20. Xanthene and Xanthone Derivatives as G-Quadruplex Stabilizing Ligands

    Alessandro Altieri


    Full Text Available Following previous studies on anthraquinone and acridine-based G-quadruplex ligands, here we present a study of similar aromatic cores, with the specific aim of increasing G-quadruplex binding and selectivity with respect to duplex DNA. Synthesized compounds include two and three-side chain xanthone and xanthene derivatives, as well as a dimeric “bridged” form. ESI and FRET measurements suggest that all the studied molecules are good G-quadruplex ligands, both at telomeres and on G-quadruplex forming sequences of oncogene promoters. The dimeric compound and the three-side chain xanthone derivative have been shown to represent the best compounds emerging from the different series of ligands presented here, having also high selectivity for G-quadruplex structures with respect to duplex DNA. Molecular modeling simulations are in broad agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Melatonin on the Growth of H22 Hepatocarcinoma Cells by Inducing Apoptosis

    泰莉; 王西明; 段秋红; 陈蓓蓓; 何善述


    Summary: Whether melatonin not only inhibits the growth of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells but also induces apoptosis in vitro was assessed. The anti-proliferative effects of melatonin on tumor cells was observed by MTT assay and tumor cells growth curve assay. And the apoptosis of the cells was studied by acridine orange fluorescence assay and flow cytometry. The cell cycle of the tumor cells was also observed by flow cytometry. It was found that melatonin could significantly inhibit the growth of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells. Incubated with melatonin, chromatin condensation of the tumor cells was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Compared with control, the percentage of apoptotic cells was increased, and the proportion of G0/S increased but that of G2/M decreased. It was suggested that melatonin could directly inhibit the growth of H22 hepatocarcinoma cells by inducing apoptosis and extending the length of cell cycle of the tumor cells.

  2. Drug-DNA intercalation: from discovery to the molecular mechanism.

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Sasikala, Wilbee D


    The ability of small molecules to perturb the natural structure and dynamics of nucleic acids is intriguing and has potential applications in cancer therapeutics. Intercalation is a special binding mode where the planar aromatic moiety of a small molecule is inserted between a pair of base pairs, causing structural changes in the DNA and leading to its functional arrest. Enormous progress has been made to understand the nature of the intercalation process since its idealistic conception five decades ago. However, the biological functions were detected even earlier. In this review, we focus mainly on the acridine and anthracycline types of drugs and provide a brief overview of the development in the field through various experimental methods that led to our present understanding of the subject. Subsequently, we discuss the molecular mechanism of the intercalation process, free-energy landscapes, and kinetics that was revealed recently through detailed and rigorous computational studies.

  3. Characterization and formation mechanism of water-insoluble DNA-matrix induced by UV irradiation.

    Yamada, M; Satoh, S; Nomizu, M; Ohkawa, K; Yamamoto, H; Nishi, N


    We have prepared water-insoluble and nuclease resistant DNA-matrixes by UV irradiation. The UV-irradiated DNA-matrix could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as acridine orange (AO) and ethidium bromide (EB), from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant of AO and EB for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 1.0 (+/- 0.2) x 10(5) M-1 and 6.8 (+/- 0.3) x 10(4) M-1, respectively; values consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. In addition, the agarose gel electrophoresis and AFM measurements indicate that DNA matrix forms an intermolecular cross-linking structure with the radical reaction. The UV-irradiated DNA-matrixes have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  4. Biophoton emissions from cell cultures: biochemical evidence for the plasma membrane as the primary source.

    Dotta, Blake T; Buckner, Carly A; Cameron, Dianne; Lafrenie, Robert F; Persinger, Michael A


    Photon emissions were measured at ambient temperature (21°C) in complete darkness once per min from cultures of 10(6) cells during the 12 h following removal from 37°C. The energy of emission was about 10(-20) J/s/cell. Of 8 different cell lines, B16-BL6 (mouse melanoma cells) demonstrated the most conspicuous emission profile. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide indicated the membranes were intact with no indication of (trypan blue) cell necrosis. Treatments with EGF and ionomycin produced rapid early (first 3 h) increases in energy emission while glutamine-free, sodium azide and wortmanin-treated cells showed a general diminishment 3 to 9 h later. The results suggested the most probable origin of the photon emission was the plasma cell membrane. Measures from cells synchronized at the M- and S-phase supported this inference.

  5. Kinetic study of methanol oxidation on Pt2Ru3/C catalyst in the alkaline media



    Full Text Available The interaction of acridine orange (AO with double-stranded (ds The electrochemical oxidation of methanol in NaOH solution was examined on a thin film Pt2Ru3/C electrode. The XRD pattern revealed that the Pt2Ru3 alloy consisted of a solid solution of Ru in Pt and a small amount of Ru or a solid solution of Pt in Ru. It was shown that in alkaline solution, the difference in activity between Pt/C and Pt2Ru3/C is significantly smaller than in acid solution. It is proposed that the reaction follows a quasi bifunctional mechanism. The kinetic parameters indicated that the chemical reaction between adsorbed COad and OHad species could be the rate limiting step.

  6. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V


    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  7. Assessment of human natural killer and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxicity against Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites and brain cysts

    Dannemann, B.R.; Morris, V.A.; Araujo, F.G.; Remington, J.S. (Palo Alto Medical Foundation, CA (USA))


    Because previous work has suggested that NK cells may be important in host resistance against the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii we examined whether human NK cells and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells have activity against trophozoites and cysts of this organism in vitro. A method to radiolabel Toxoplasma trophozoites with 51Cr was developed and direct cytotoxic activity was determined by using modifications of the standard 51Cr release assay. Viability of 51Cr-labeled trophozoites assessed by both methylene blue staining and trypan blue exclusion was greater than 90%. Significantly more 51Cr was released by anti-Toxoplasma antibody and C than by antibody in the absence of C. Incubation of trophozoites with freshly isolated human NK cells or NK cells activated with either rIL-2 or rIFN-alpha did not result in significant release of 51Cr (specific lysis was 0 to 2.3%). In contrast, the average specific lysis of radiolabeled trophozoites by LAK cells was significant. In a series of separate experiments, preincubation of radiolabeled trophozoites with heat-inactivated normal or Toxoplasma antibody-positive human serum increased the cytotoxicity of LAK cells from a mean specific lysis of 15% +/- 4.5 to 39% +/- 8.5, respectively, as assessed by 51Cr release. Because previous work has shown that radioisotope release from parasites may be nonspecific, separate experiments were performed to determine the cytotoxicity of LAK cells against antibody-coated trophozoites by using ethidium bromide-acridine orange staining to assess effector cell damage. LAK cells had a mean specific lysis of 51% against antibody-coated trophozoites by ethidium bromide-acridine orange staining. Preincubation with heat-inactivated Toxoplasma-antibody positive human serum did not increase activity of rIL-2-activated NK cells against 51CR-labeled trophozoites.

  8. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry.

    Langerhuus, S N; Ingvartsen, K L; Bennedsgaard, T W; Røntved, C M


    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identification of bacterial pathogens, although shipment of samples to diagnostic laboratories delays treatment decisions. Due to the lack of fast on-site tests that can identify the causative pathogens, antibiotic treatments are often initiated before bacterial identification. The present study describes a flow cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial cultures (4 gram-negative and 15 gram-positive strains) were analyzed, and biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange florescence intensities were determined for gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Fluorescence cut-off values were established based on receiver operating characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1 and a specificity of 0.74, when classification was based on the previously established cut-off values. However, when receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for the 53 mastitis cases, results indicate that a sensitivity and specificity of 1 could be reached if cut-off values were reduced. This flow cytometry-based technique could potentially provide dairy farmers and attending veterinarians with on-site information on bacterial gram-type and prevent ineffective

  9. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHS) and their Ions

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Hudgin, Douglas; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Alamandola, Louis J.


    In recent years, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have attracted a good deal of attention because of their potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, and their prevalence in our environment. Such species also play a prominent role in the chemistry of life up to and including the very nucleobases from which our DNA is constructed. Surprisingly, these compounds may even be common outside of our terrestrial environment. To wit, it is now widely accepted that polycyclic aromatic materials are abundant in space and represent a major reservoir of organic carbon in the interstellar medium and developing planetary systems. Given that nitrogen is the fourth most abundant chemically reactive element in space (surpassed only by hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen), it is entirely reasonable to suspect that PANHs may represent an important component of that organic reservoir. Motivated by their intrinsic merit and with special attention toward evaluating their exobiological significance, we have initiated a program to study the spectroscopic and chemical properties of P A " s under conditions relevant to extraterrestrial environments. Here we present the first results of that program-infrared spectroscopic measurements on a series of PANH"s in neutral and cationic forms, isolated in inert matrices at cryogenic temperatures.temperatures. The species studied include: 1 -, and 2-azabenz[a]anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 4- azachrysene, dibenz[a,h]acridine, and dibenz[a,J)acridine. The experimental measurements are also compared with theoretical spectra calculated using density functional theory. General spectroscopic trends observed in this series of compounds are discussed and the implications of these results for Astrophysics and Exobiology are considered.

  10. Development of potent autophagy inhibitors that sensitize oncogenic BRAF V600E mutant melanoma tumor cells to vemurafenib.

    Goodall, Megan L; Wang, Tong; Martin, Katie R; Kortus, Matthew G; Kauffman, Audra L; Trent, Jeffrey M; Gately, Stephen; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P


    Autophagy is a dynamic cell survival mechanism by which a double-membrane vesicle, or autophagosome, sequesters portions of the cytosol for delivery to the lysosome for recycling. This process can be inhibited using the antimalarial agent chloroquine (CQ), which impairs lysosomal function and prevents autophagosome turnover. Despite its activity, CQ is a relatively inadequate inhibitor that requires high concentrations to disrupt autophagy, highlighting the need for improved small molecules. To address this, we screened a panel of antimalarial agents for autophagy inhibition and chemically synthesized a novel series of acridine and tetrahydroacridine derivatives. Structure-activity relationship studies of the acridine ring led to the discovery of VATG-027 as a potent autophagy inhibitor with a high cytotoxicity profile. In contrast, the tetrahydroacridine VATG-032 showed remarkably little cytotoxicity while still maintaining autophagy inhibition activity, suggesting that both compounds act as autophagy inhibitors with differential effects on cell viability. Further, knockdown of autophagy-related genes showed no effect on cell viability, demonstrating that the ability to inhibit autophagy is separate from the compound cytotoxicity profiles. Next, we determined that both inhibitors function through lysosomal deacidification mechanisms and ultimately disrupt autophagosome turnover. To evaluate the genetic context in which these lysosomotropic inhibitors may be effective, they were tested in patient-derived melanoma cell lines driven by oncogenic BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B). We discovered that both inhibitors sensitized melanoma cells to the BRAF V600E inhibitor vemurafenib. Overall, these autophagy inhibitors provide a means to effectively block autophagy and have the potential to sensitize mutant BRAF melanomas to first-line therapies.

  11. Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

    Garozzo, A; Timpanaro, R; Stivala, A; Bisignano, G; Castro, A


    Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose; terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, and alfa-terpineol were the main active components. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells. None of the test compounds showed virucidal activity nor any protective action for the MDCK cells. Thus, the effect of TTO and its active components on different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus was studied by adding the test compounds at various times after infection. These experiments revealed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within 2h of infection, indicating an interference with an early step of the viral replicative cycle of influenza virus. The influence of the compound on the virus adsorption step, studied by the infective center assay, indicated that TTO did not interfere with cellular attachment of the virus. TTO did not inhibit influenza virus neuraminidase activity, as shown by the experiment measuring the amount of 4-methylumbelliferone, cleaved by the influenza virus neuraminidase from the fluorogenic substrate 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The effect of TTO on acidification of cellular lysosomes was studied by vital staining with acridine orange using bafilomycin A1 as positive control. The treatment of cells with 0.01% (v/v) of TTO at 37°C for 4h before staining inhibited the acridine orange accumulation in acid cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that TTO could inhibit viral uncoating by an interference with acidification of intralysosomal compartment.


    Eliza Halim


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIndonesia has a potency to produce its own propolis, however the propolis market in Indonesia is dominated by imported product, such as from Brazil. Currently, still there is no reasearch which evaluate bioactive compound and nutrient content of Indonesian Propolis (IP compare with Brazilian Propolis (BP. The objectivesof this study were to analyze bioactive compounds and nutrient contents of IP compared to BP. Bioactive compounds and nutrients content were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrophotometry. The resultsshowed both IP and BP contain fenol, α-amyrin, cylolanost, and pyrimidines. Bioactive compounds which specifically found in IP were eudesmane compound, ethyl acridine, lupeol, friedooleanan; while β amyrin and cinnamic acid compound only found in BP. The nutrient contents of IP were higher than BP except for vitamin A. In conclusion, IP might have potential health benefit, similar to BP.Key words: propolis, bioactive, nutrientABSTRAKIndonesia mempunyai potensi untuk menghasilkan propolis tetapi pemasaran propolis di Indonesia didominasi oleh propolis impor seperti propolis yang berasal Brasil. Sampai saat ini belum ada penelitian yang mengungkapkandungan bioaktif dan zat gizi propolis Indonesia (PI dibandingkan dengan propolis Brasil (PB. Oleh karena itu tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan kajian kandungan bioaktif dan zat gizi (vitamin dan mineral PI dibandingkan dengan PB. Komponen bioaktif dan kandungn gizi dianalisis dengan metode gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Hasil analisis menyatakan bahwa baik PI maupun PB mengandung senyawa fenol, α-amyrin, cylolanost, dan pirimidin. Komponen bioaktif unik yang ditemukan di dalam PI adalah senyawaeudesmane, ethyl acridine, lupeol dan friedooleanan; sedangkan β-amyrin dan senyawa asam sinamat hanya ditemukan di dalam PB. Kandungan zat gizi PI lebih tinggi dari PB kecuali kandungan vitamin A. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa PI kemungkinan mempunyai khasiat untuk

  13. In vitro effects of polyphenols on colorectal cancer cells

    Barbara; Pampaloni; Gaia; Palmini; Carmelo; Mavilia; Roberto; Zonefrati; Annalisa; Tanini; Maria; Luisa; Brand


    AIM:To investigate the effects of quercetin and genistein on colon cancer cell proliferation and their estrogen receptorβ(ERβ)expression.METHODS:Colon cancer cells were stably transfected with a mammalian expression vector to overexpress ERβ(HCT8-β8-expressing cells)or a control vector(HCT8-pSV2neo-expressing cells).The proliferation of these cells was examined after treatment with quercetin or genistein(5-100μmol/L),or 10 nmol/L17β-estradiol(17β-E2).Cell viability was examined by acridine orange staining following treatments for 48 or144 h.Effects of quercetin and genistein on ERβtranscriptional transactivation were examined by luciferase activity in HCT8-β8-expressing cells transiently transfected with a pEREtkLUC reporter vector.In addition,the regulation of ERβtranscription by phytoestrogens and 17β-E2 was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS:Proliferation of HCT8-β8-expressing cells was not reduced low doses(5μmol/L)of quercetin and genistein,while it was reduced at 25-50μmol/L with an effect similar to 10 nmol/L 17β-E2.Treatment with doses of phytoestrogens≥75μmol/L completely blocked cell growth and reduced overall cell counts,however no effects at any dose were observed in HCT8-pSV2neoexpressing cells.These results were supported by viability staining that revealed acridine orange-stained lysosomes with high doses or extended treatment periods.Genistein and quercetin(50μmol/L)significantly increased ER-responsive luciferase activity similar to 10nmol/L 17β-E2(P<0.05).Furthermore,genistein and quercetin(50μmol/L),as well as 10 nmol/L 17β-E2significantly increased ERβmRNA levels in HCT8-β8-expressing cells(P<0.05).In addition,treatment of HCT8-pSV2neo-expressing cells with 50μmol/L quercetin or 10 nmol/L 17β-E2 significantly increased ERβmRNA levels compared to untreated controls(P<0.05),though the absolute levels were much lower than in HCT8-β8-expressing cells.CONCLUSION:The antitumorigenic effects of the

  14. Mutagenicity and tumorigenicity of the four enantiopure bay-region 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxide isomers of dibenz[a,h]anthracene.

    Chang, Richard L; Wood, Alexander W; Huang, Mou Tuan; Xie, Jian Guo; Cui, Xiao Xing; Reuhl, Kenneth R; Boyd, D R; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung Joe; Balani, Suresh K; Yagi, Haruhiko; Jerina, Donald M; Conney, Allan H


    Each enantiomer of the diastereomeric pair of bay-region dibenz[a,h]anthracene 3,4-diol-1,2-epoxides in which the benzylic 4-hydroxyl group and epoxide oxygen are either cis (isomer 1) or trans (isomer 2) were evaluated for mutagenic activity. In strains TA 98 and TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium, the diol epoxide with (1S,2R,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(-)-diol epoxide-1] had the highest mutagenic activity. In Chinese hamster V-79 cells, the diol epoxide with (1R,2S,3S,4R) absolute configuration [(+)-diol epoxide-2] had the highest mutagenic activity. The (1R,2S,3R,4S) diol epoxide [(+)-diol epoxide-1] also had appreciable activity, whereas the other two bay-region diol epoxide enantiomers had very low activity. In tumor studies, the (1R,2S,3S,4R) enantiomer was the only diol epoxide isomer tested that had strong activity as a tumor initiator on mouse skin and in causing lung and liver tumors when injected into newborn mice. This stereoisomer was about one-third as active as the parent hydrocarbon, dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a tumor initiator on mouse skin; it was several-fold more active than dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a lung and liver carcinogen when injected into newborn mice. (-)-(3R,4R)-3β,4α-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-dibenz[a,h]anthracene [(-)-3,4-dihydrodiol] was slightly more active than dibenz[a,h]anthracene as a tumor initiator on mouse skin, whereas (+)-(3S,4S)-3α,4β-dihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-dibenz[a,h]anthracene [(+)-3,4-dihydrodiol] had only very weak activity. The present investigation and previous studies with the corresponding four possible enantiopure bay-region diol epoxide enantiomers/diastereomers of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, dibenz[c,h]acridine, dibenz[a,h]acridine and dibenz[a,h]anthracene indicate that the bay-region diol epoxide enantiomer with [R,S,S,R] absolute stereochemistry has high tumorigenic activity on mouse skin and in newborn mice.

  15. Polimixina B: efeito dose e tempo dependente na nefrotoxicidade in vitro Polymyxin B: dose and time dependent nephrotoxicity effect in vitro

    Luciana Barros de Moura Neiva


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a toxicidade da polimixina B (PmxB em células renais em dosagem e tempos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Células LLC-PK1, cultivadas em placas multiwell de 12 poços, foram divididas nos seguintes grupos: Controle (CTL - células mantidas em meio DMEM suplementado a 5%; G1 - células expostas à concentração de 75mM de PmxB; G2 - células expostas à concentração de 375mM de PmxB. Cada grupo foi avaliado nos tempos de 24, 48 e 72 horas quanto à viabilidade celular (Acridine Orange/Brometo de Etídio e apoptose (Hoechst 33342. RESULTADOS: Os dados demonstraram a viabilidade celular e a apoptose à exposição de três doses de PmxB em três intervalos de tempo, com um aumento significativo da toxicidade à elevação das doses e ao maior tempo de permanência no antibiótico para apoptose. CONCLUSÃO: A citotoxicidade pela PmxB, no modelo de cultivo celular, se mostrou tempo e dose dependente, aumentando com a maior exposição e maior dose de antibiótico.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the toxicity of polymyxin B (PmxB in renal cell in different dosage and times. METHODS: LLC-PK1 cells grown in 12 well multiwell plates were divided into the following groups: Control (CTL - cells maintained in DMEM supplemented with 5%; G1 - cells exposed to concentration of 75µM PmxB G2 - cells exposed to concentration of 375µM PmxB. Each group was assessed at 24,48 and 72 hours as for cell viability (Acridine orange/ethidium bromide and apoptosis (Hoechst 33342. RESULTS: The data demonstrate the cell viability and apoptosis exposure of three doses of PmxB in three time intervals, with a significant increase in toxicity to high doses and longer duration of stay in the antibiotic to apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Cytotoxicity by PmxB in cell culture model, showed to be time and dose dependent, increasing with increased exposure and higher dose of antibiotic.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization, and anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin compound against MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Fani S


    Full Text Available Somayeh Fani,1 Behnam Kamalidehghan,1 Kong Mun Lo,2 Najihah Mohd Hashim,1 Kit May Chow,2 Fatemeh Ahmadipour1 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzylaquatin(IV chloride, (compound C1, was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 2.5±0.50 µg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 µg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the

  17. (13)C and (19)F solid-state NMR and X-ray crystallographic study of halogen-bonded frameworks featuring nitrogen-containing heterocycles.

    Szell, Patrick M J; Gabriel, Shaina A; Gill, Russell D D; Wan, Shirley Y H; Gabidullin, Bulat; Bryce, David L


    Halogen bonding is a noncovalent interaction between the electrophilic region of a halogen (σ-hole) and an electron donor. We report a crystallographic and structural analysis of halogen-bonded compounds by applying a combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) approach. Single-crystal XRD was first used to characterize the halogen-bonded cocrystals formed between two fluorinated halogen-bond donors (1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene and 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene) and several nitrogen-containing heterocycles (acridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine, and hexamethylenetetramine). New structures are reported for the following three cocrystals, all in the P21/c space group: acridine-1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene (1/1), C6F3I3·C13H9N, 1,10-phenanthroline-1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene (1/1), C6F3I3·C12H8N2, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine-1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene (1/1), C6F3I3·C8H12N2. (13)C and (19)F solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is shown to be a convenient method to characterize the structural features of the halogen-bond donor and acceptor, with chemical shifts attributable to cocrystal formation observed in the spectra of both nuclides. Cross polarization (CP) from (19)F to (13)C results in improved spectral sensitivity in characterizing the perfluorinated halogen-bond donor when compared to conventional (1)H CP. Gauge-including projector-augmented wave density functional theory (GIPAW DFT) calculations of magnetic shielding constants, along with optimization of the XRD structures, provide a final set of structures in best agreement with the experimental (13)C and (19)F chemical shifts. Data for carbons bonded to iodine remain outliers due to well-known relativistic effects.

  18. Novel microfilaricidal activity of nanosilver

    Singh SK


    Full Text Available Sunil K Singh1, Kalyan Goswami2, Richa D Sharma2, Maryada VR Reddy2, Debabrata Dash11Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 2Department of Biochemistry, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, IndiaPurpose: The currently available drug repertoire against lymphatic filariasis, a major health hazard in the developing world, is inadequate and is fraught with serious limitations. Thus, the development of an effective antifilarial strategy has become a global research thrust mandated by the World Health Organization. Nanoparticles of silver endowed with antibacterial potency are known to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells. The present study was designed to investigate the possible microfilaricidal efficacy of silver nanoparticles and to establish the validity of apoptotic rationale in antifilarial drug designing.Methods: This report analyzed the effect of nanoparticles of silver as well as gold (size range: 10–15 nm on the microfilariae of Brugia malayi obtained from the lavage of peritoneal cavities of infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus. The study included a microfilarial motility assay, a trypan blue exclusion test, a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase activity study, ethidium bromide/acridine orange differential staining, and transmission, as well as scanning electron microscopic evaluation of ultrastructural changes in microfilariae.Results: The study demonstrates that nanoparticles of silver, but not of gold, elicited significant loss in microfilarial motility. Differential staining of parasites with ethidium bromide and acridine orange, poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase activity in microfilarial lysate, and electron microscopic findings underscored apoptotic death of parasites attributable to nanosilver. In a trypan blue exclusion test, the 50% lethal dose of nanosilver was measured to be 101.2 µM, which was higher than the recorded complete

  19. Clinical applications of in vivo fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Oh, Chilhwan; Park, Sangyong; Kim, Junhyung; Ha, Seunghan; Park, Gyuman; Lee, Gunwoo; Lee, Onseok; Chun, Byungseon; Gweon, Daegab


    Living skin for basic and clinical research can be evaluated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) non-invasively. CLSM imaging system can achieve skin image its native state either "in vivo" or "fresh biopsy (ex vivo)" without fixation, sectioning and staining that is necessary for routine histology. This study examines the potential fluorescent CLSM with a various exogenous fluorescent contrast agent, to provide with more resolution images in skin. In addition, in vivo fluorescent CLSM researchers will be extended a range of potential clinical application. The prototype of our CLSM system has been developed by Prof. Gweon's group. The operating parameters are composed of some units, such as illuminated wavelength 488 nm, argon illumination power up to 20mW on the skin, objective lens, 0.9NA oil immersion, axial resolution 1.0μm, field of view 200μm x 100μm (lateral resolution , 0.3μm). In human volunteer, fluorescein sodium was administrated topically and intradermally. Animal studies were done in GFP transgenic mouse, IRC mouse and pig skin. For imaging of animal skin, fluorescein sodium, acridine orange, and curcumine were used for fluorescein contrast agent. We also used the GFP transgenic mouse for fluorescein CLSM imaging. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. Curcumin is a yellow food dye that has similar fluorescent properties to fluorescein sodium. Acridin Orange can be highlight nuclei in viable keratinocyte. In vivo CLSM of transgenic GFP mouse enable on in vivo, high resolution view of GFP expressing skin tissue. GFP signals are brightest in corneocyte, kertinocyte, hair and eccrine gland. In intact skin, absorption of fluorescein sodium by individual corneocyte and hair. Intradermal administrated the fluorescein sodium, distinct outline of keratinocyte cell border could be seen. In

  20. Induction of cancer cell death by proton beam in tumor hypoxic region

    Lee, Y. M.; Heo, T. R.; Lee, K. B.; Jang, K. H.; Kim, H. N.; Lee, S. H.; Jeong, M. H. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    Proton beam has been applied to treat various tumor patients in clinical studies. However, it is still undefined whether proton radiation can inhibit the blood vessel formation and induce the cell death in vascular endothelial cells in growing organs. The aim of this study are first, to develop an optimal animal model for the observation of blood vessel development with low dose of proton beam and second, to investigate the effect of low dose proton beam on the inhibition of blood vessel formation induced by hypoxic conditions. In this study, flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos were used to directly visualize and determine the inhibition of blood vessels by low dose (1, 2, 5 Gy) of proton beam with spread out Bragg peak (SOBP). And we observed cell death by acridine orange staining at 96 hours post fertilization (hpf) stage of embryos after proton irradiation. We also compared the effects of proton beam with those of gamma-ray. An antioxidant, N-acetyl cystein (NAC) was used to investigate whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in the cell deaths induced by proton irradiation. Irradiated flk-1-GFP transgenic embryos with proton beam irradiation (35 MeV, spread out Bragg peak, SOBP) demonstrated a marked inhibition of embryonic growth and an altered fluorescent blood vessel development in the trunk region. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. Proton beam also significantly increased the cell death rate in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), but pretreatment of N-acetyl cystein (NAC), an antioxidant, recovered the proton-induced cell death rate (p<0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of NAC abrogated the effect of proton beam on the inhibition of trunk vessel development and malformation of trunk truncation. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the

  1. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner


    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  2. Detection of Extermination Effect of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Gypsy Moth Eggs by Fluorescence Probe Technique%紫外线照射灭卵效果的荧光探针技术检测

    李景奎; 戚大伟


    以林木害虫舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar L.)虫卵为试验材料,利用吖啶橙、罗丹明123、Ho33342和碘化丙啶4种荧光探针追踪标记虫卵细胞内部的不同细胞器,研究了紫外线照射对舞毒蛾虫卵的微现影响.研究表明:经过紫外线照射后,吖啶橙标记的虫卵细胞产生红色荧光;罗丹明123标记虫卵细胞荧光强度有所减弱;Ho33342和碘化丙啶标记的虫卵细胞产生大量粉红色荧光,并且,细胞形态发生了改变.紫外线照射导致虫卵细胞大量DNA链断裂,线粒体膜电位差下降,坏死细胞逐渐增多.荧光探针技术体现了物理灭虫的有效性.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the microstructure of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L. ) eggs using fluorescence probes such as acridine orange, rhodanmine123, Ho33342 and Propidium iodide (PI) to trace and mark different organelles in egg cells. Results indicated that, after ultraviolet in'adiation, the egg cells marked with acridine orange gave off red fluorescence; the fluorescence intensity of egg cells marked with rhodamine123 decreased; egg cells marked with Ho33342 and PI gave off a lot of pink fluorescence, and the shape of cells changed. Because of the ultraviolet irradiation,much DNA of egg cells strands broke; electric potential of mitochondria membrane decreased; necrotic cells increased by degrecs. Fluorescence probe technique shows the validity of physical extermination of insects.

  3. New tools in diagnosing catheter-related infections.

    Blot, F; Nitenberg, G; Brun-Buisson, C


    clinical practice in most hospitals using automatic devices for blood cultures positivity detection. Endoluminal brushing of the catheter is considered sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of CRS, but the risk of embolisation or subsequent bacteraemia should be considered. Gram staining and the acridine-orange leucocyte cytospin test on through-catheter blood culture have been proposed for rapid diagnosis of CRS without catheter removal. The technique, which requires 100 microl catheter blood and the use of light and ultraviolet microscopy, is considered simple, rapid (30 min) and inexpensive. In conclusion, diagnostic tools such as paired blood cultures or Gram staining and the acridine-orange leucocyte cytospin test should allow a diagnosis of CRS without catheter removal in cancer patients.

  4. Combined effects of low levels of palmitate on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to THP-1 macrophages.

    Jiang, Qin; Li, Xiyue; Cheng, Shanshan; Gu, Yuxiu; Chen, Gui; Shen, Yuexin; Xie, Yixi; Cao, Yi


    We have recently proposed that the interaction between food components and nanoparticles (NPs) should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of NPs. In the present study, we used THP-1 differentiated macrophages as a model for immune cells and investigated the combined toxicity of low levels of palmitate (PA; 10 or 50μM) and ZnO NPs. The results showed that PA especially at 50μM changed the size, Zeta potential and UV-vis spectra of ZnO NPs, indicating a possible coating effect. Up to 32μg/mL ZnO NPs did not significantly affect mitochondrial activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) or release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but significantly impaired lysosomal function as assessed by neutral red uptake assay and acridine orange staining. The presence of 50μM PA, but not 10μM PA, further promoted the toxic effects of ZnO NPs to lysosomes but did not significantly affect other endpoints. In addition, ZnO NPs dose-dependently increased intracellular Zn ions in THP-1 macrophages, which was not significantly affected by PA. Taken together, the results of the present study showed a combined toxicity of low levels of PA and ZnO NPs especially to lysosomes in THP-1 macrophages.

  5. DNA methylation detection based on difference of base content

    Sato, Shinobu; Ohtsuka, Keiichi; Honda, Satoshi; Sato, Yusuke; Takenaka, Shigeori


    Methylation frequently occurs in cytosines of CpG sites to regulate gene expression. The identification of aberrant methylation of certain genes is important for cancer marker analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the methylation frequency in DNA samples of unknown length and/or concentration. Unmethylated cytosine is known to be converted to thymine following bisulfite treatment and subsequent PCR. For this reason, the AT content in DNA increases with an increasing number of methylation sites. In this study, the fluorescein-carrying bis-acridinyl peptide (FKA) molecule was used for the detection of methylation frequency. FKA contains fluorescein and two acridine moieties, which together allow for the determination of the AT content of double-stranded DNA fragments. Methylated and unmethylated human genomes were subjected to bisulfide treatment and subsequent PCR using primers specific for the CFTR, CDH4, DBC1, and NPY genes. The AT content in the resulting PCR products was estimated by FKA, and AT content estimations were found to be in good agreement with those determined by DNA sequencing. This newly developed method may be useful for determining methylation frequencies of many PCR products by measuring the fluorescence in samples excited at two different wavelengths.

  6. Inhibitory Effects of Mistletoe Alkali on Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Cells

    LI Mei-hua; WANG Yi-shu; ZHOU Hong-lan; LI Ya-juan; QIU Xin-ru; WANG Xue-yao; ZHAO Yu-yang


    Mistletoe alkali plays an important role in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma(SACC) cell proliferation,apoptosis and invasion.Mistletoe alkali shows potent anticaner property.In this paper,immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining were employed to evaluate the expression levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA),Caspase 3,Caspase 8 and Caspase 9.Apoptosis was detected by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining,cell invasion ability was assessed by Boyden Chamber assay.Pretreatment with mistletoe alkali markedly decreased PCNA expression in SACC cells in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.001) and also led to increase the expression of Caspase 3,Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 in SACC cells compared with control group(P<0.001).Number of apoptotic cells increased dramatically in mistletoe alkali group(P<0.001).In Boyden Chamber assay,mistletoe alkali treatment could inhibit SACC cells to penetrate the artificial basement membrane compared with control group(P<0.01).Mistletoe alkali remarkably inhibited the proliferation and invasion of SACC cells and induced the apoptosis of SACC cells.These results provide an insight into the mechanisms of anticancer effects of mistletoe alkali,and highlight the potential clinical application of it.

  7. Characterization of photodynamic and sonodynamic cytotoxicity by fluorescent probes

    Kessel, David


    A variety of porphyrins and related structures can sensitize cells to light; many of these agents can also promote ultrasound-induced cytotoxicity. Subcellular sites of localization sensitizers with a sufficient fluorescence yield can be assessed by fluorescence microscopy, but this becomes difficult when (Phi) F is low. We have explored several indirect procedures for assessing examining loci of photodamage and sonodamage. Damage to lysosomal structures was probed with acridine orange, mitochondria with Rhodamine 123 and the plasma membrane with several diphenylhexatriene (DPH) derivatives. Additional information on alterations in heterogeneity of binding of diphenylhexatriene derivatives to photodamaged cells was provided by a distributed fluorescent lifetime study. Using a sulfonated benzochlorin, which photosensitizes cell-surface loci, we evaluated four DPH derivatives for their sensitivity to membrane damage. Anionic or cationic DPH derivatives were the most sensitive in this regard. Enhanced cytotoxicity associated with ultrasound + porphyrins yielded no detectable effects on mitochondrial or lysosomal structures, and barely detectable changes in membrane interactions with DPH derivatives, suggesting an 'all or none' effect.

  8. Apoptosis induced by diallyl disulfide in human breast cancer cell line MCF.71

    Xiao-yong LEI; Shu-qiong YAO; Xu-yu ZU; Ze-xiang HUANG; Li-juan LIU; Miao ZHONG; Bing-yang ZHU; Sheng- song TANG; Duan-fang LIAO


    Aim:To investigate the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS),a component of garlic,on apoptosis in human mammary cancer cell line (MCF-7) and its mechanisms.Methods:Cytotoxicity was analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays.Morphology of apoptotic cells was detected by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.Apoptotic cells stained with propidium iodide were examined using flow cytometry.Protein levels were detected by Western blot analysis.Results:DADS inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induced the apoptotic ratio to increase rapidly.Cleavage of the caspase-3 and caspase-3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase was observed in MCF-7 cells after 24 h of treatment with DADS.When the MCF-7 cells were signal-regulated kinase (ERK),a mitogen-activated protein kinase,was inhibited after 6 h; court N-terminal kinase (JNK),that is stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK),and p38 mitogen-aetivated protein kinase were activated after 6 h.Conclusion:These results suggest that DADS both inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 cells and induces apoptosis of MCF-7 cells.The mechanisms may include the inhibition of ERK and the activation of the SAPK/JNK and p38 pathways.

  9. Astragalus extract inhibits destruction of gastric cancer cells to mesothelial cells by anti-apoptosis

    Di Na; Fu-Nan Liu; Zhi-Feng Miao; Zong-Min Du; Hui-Mian Xu


    AIM: To determine the inhibitory effect of Astragalus memebranaceushas on gastric cancer cell supernatantinduced apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells. METHODS: Human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) line HMrSV5 was co-incubated with gastric cancer cell supernatant (MKN45) and/or Astragalus memebranaceushas. Morphological changes in gastric cancer cells were observed under phase-contrast microscope. Quantitative cell damage was determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was determined under transmission electron microscope and quantified by detecting acridine orange/ethidium bromide-stained (AO/EB) condensed nuclei under fluorescent microscope or by flow cytometry. Expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were evaluated with immunostaining. RESULTS: Morphological changes and exfoliation occurred and naked areas appeared in cultured HMrSV5 cells 24 h after they were treated with gastric cancer cell supernatant. Cell supernatant from MKN45 gastric cancer cells induced apoptosis of HMrSV5 cells in a time-dependent manner. Obvious morphological changes were observed in cell apoptosis, such as condensation of chromatin, nuclear fragmentations and apoptotic bodies. Astragalus memebranaceus could partly suppress these changes and regulate the expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax in HMrSV5 cells. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer cells induce apoptosis of HPMCs through the supernatant. Astragalus memebranaceushas inhibits this phenomenon and can be used an adjuvant chemothera-peutic agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  10. Depletion of ribosomal protein L8 impairs Drosophila development and is associated with apoptosis


    Ribosomal protein L8 is a component of the 60S subunit of the ribosome and is involved in protein synthesis but its role in Drosophila development is not well understood.We depleted L8 through RNA interference (RNAi) to examine its effects on fly development both in vivo and in vitro.The results demonstrated that L8 RNAi caused embryonic or first-larval lethality,delay of larval development,defects in eye and wing morphology,and dramatically reduced the number of S2 cells.This indicated that L8 plays a crucial role in Drosophila development.Acridine orange staining of the wing discs showed that apoptosis occurred when L8 was depleted,indicating that depletion of L8 is tightly connected to apoptosis.RT-PCR analyses of the transcription level of genes that are known to be key factors in apoptosis (p53,hid,reaper,dark,Dcp-1) and cell cycle regulation (cdc45,MCM3,cyclin B,incenp) in L8-deficient S2 cells,were consistent with their role in apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.These results indicate that depletion of L8 strongly impairs Drosophila development,and that this depletion is associated with cell proliferation arrest and apoptosis,in which p53 may play a central role.

  11. Kaempferol induces autophagy through AMPK and AKT signaling molecules and causes G2/M arrest via downregulation of CDK1/cyclin B in SK-HEP-1 human hepatic cancer cells.

    Huang, Wen-Wen; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Meng-Wei; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Fushiya, Shinji; Tseng, Michael T; Yang, Jai-Sing


    Kaempferol belongs to the flavonoid family and has been used in traditional folk medicine. Here, we investigated the antitumor effects of kaempferol on cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death in SK-HEP-1 human hepatic cancer cells. Kaempferol decreased cell viability as determined by MTT assays and induced a G2/M phase cell cycle arrest in a concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol did not induce DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies or caspase-3 activity in SK-HEP-1 cells as determined by DNA gel electrophoresis, DAPI staining and caspase-3 activity assays, respectively. In contrast, kaempferol is involved in the autophagic process. Double-membrane vacuoles, lysosomal compartments, acidic vesicular organelles and cleavage of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) were observed by transmission electron microscopy, LysoΤracker red staining, GFP-fluorescent LC3 assays and acridine orange staining, respectively. In SK-HEP-1 cells, kaempferol increased the protein levels of p-AMPK, LC3-II, Atg 5, Atg 7, Atg 12 and beclin 1 as well as inhibited the protein levels of CDK1, cyclin B, p-AKT and p-mTOR. Taken together, CDK1/cyclin B expression and the AMPK and AKT signaling pathways contributed to kaempferol-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death in SK-HEP-1 human hepatic cancer cells. These results suggest that kaempferol may be useful for long-term cancer prevention.

  12. Sperm quality improvement after natural anti-oxidant treatment of asthenoteratospermic men with leukocytospermia

    Paola Piomboni; Laura Gambera; Francesca Serafini; Giovanna Campanella; Giuseppe Morgante; Vincenzo De Leo


    Aim: To study the immune-modulating and anti-oxidant effects of beta-glucan, papaya, lactoferrin, and vitamins C and E on sperm characteristics of patients with asthenoteratozoospermia associated with leucocytosis. Methods:Fifty-one patients referred to our Sterility Center for semen analysis were selected. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after patient's treatment with beta-glucan, lactoferrin, papaya, and vitamins C and E. DNA damage was assessed by the acridine orange test and sperm structural characteristics were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Results: After 90 days of treatment, an increase in the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (17.0±5.2 vs. 29.8±6.5) and total progressive motility (19.0±7.8 vs. 34.8±6.8) were detected. Structural sperm characteristics as well as chromatin integrity were also improved after treatment. In terms of leukocyte concentration in seminal fluid, a significant reduction was recorded (2.2±0.9 vs. 0.9±0.2). Conclusion: The treatment of an inflammatory process by the synergic action of immune modulators and anti-oxidants could protect sperm during maturation and migration, leading to improved sperm function.

  13. A novel quinazolinone derivative induces cytochrome c interdependent apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells

    Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available Crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy is budding as one of the novel strategies in the cancer therapeutics. The present study tinted toward the interdependence of autophagy and apoptosis induce by a novel quinazolinone derivative 2,3-dihydro-2-(quinoline-5-yl quinazolin-4(1H-one structure [DQQ] in human leukemia MOLT-4 cells. DQQ induces cytochrome c arbitrated apoptosis and autophagy in MOLT-4 cells. Apoptosis induces by DQQ was confirmed through a battery of assay e.g. cellular and nuclear microscopy, annexin-V assay, cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and immune-expression of cytochrome c, caspases and PARP. Furthermore, acridine orange staining, LC3 immunofluorescence and western blotting of key autophagy proteins revealed the autophagic potential of DQQ. A universal caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK and cytochrome c silencing, strongly inhibited the DQQ induce autophagy and apoptosis. Beclin1 silencing through siRNA partially reversed the cell death, which was not as significant as by cytochrome c silencing. Although, it partially reversed the PARP cleavage induced by DQQ, indicating the role of autophagy in the regulation of apoptosis. The present study first time portrays the negative feedback potential of cytochrome c regulated autophagy and the importance of quinazolinone derivative in discovery of novel anticancer therapeutics.

  14. One-Pot Three-Component Synthesis of Novel Diethyl((2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl(arylaminomethylphosphonate as Potential Anticancer Agents

    Yi-Lin Fang


    Full Text Available With the aim of discovering new anticancer agents, we have designed and synthesized novel α-aminophosphonate derivatives containing a 2-oxoquinoline structure using a convenient one-pot three-component method. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for antitumor activities against the A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell, HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cell, MCF-7 (human breast cancer cell, and U2OS (human osteosarcoma cell cancer cell lines in vitro, employing a standard 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. The results of pharmacological screening indicated that many compounds exhibited moderate to high levels of antitumor activities against the tested cancer cell lines and that most compounds showed more potent inhibitory activities comparable to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU which was used as a positive control. The mechanism of representative compound 4u (diethyl((2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-3-yl(phenyl-aminomethylphosphonate indicated that the compound mainly arrested HeLa cells in S and G2 stages and was accompanied by apoptosis in HeLa cells. This action was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, and flow cytometry.

  15. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer and Laser Fluorescent Analysis of Defects in DNA Double Helix

    Bregadze, Vasil G; Giorgadze, Tamar G; Jaliashvili, Zaza V; Chkhaberidze, Jemal G; Monaselidze, Jamlet R; Khuskivadze, Temur B


    Real time laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy usage for microanalysis of DNA double helix defects is shown. The method is based on Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in intercalator-donor pair (acridine orange as a donor and ethidium bromide as an acceptor). Transition metal ions such as Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), photo- and thermo effects were used to cause double helix defects in DNA. FRET radii were experimentally estimated in background electrolyte solution (0.01 M NaNO3) and proved to be 3.9 +- 0.3 nm and the data are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretically calculated value Ro = 3.5 +- 0.3 nm. Concentration of DNA sites, exposed to Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I) ions, AgNPs impact as well as laser irradiation ({\\lambda} = 457 nm) and temperature, which are applicable for intercalation, were estimated in relative units. FRET method allows to estimate the concentration of double helix areas with high quality stability applicable for intercalation in DNA after it was subjec...

  16. Cytotoxic effect of wine polyphenolic extracts and resveratrol against human carcinoma cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Matić, Ivana; Zizak, Zeljko; Simonović, Mladen; Simonović, Branislav; Godevac, Dejan; Savikin, Katarina; Juranić, Zorica


    Red and white wine polyphenols have been reported to provide substantial health benefits. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of red and white wine polyphenolic extracts and of resveratrol was evaluated against different cancer cell lines--human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361, and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453--and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Qualitative and quantitative compositions of wine polyphenolic extracts obtained by fractional vacuum distillation of corresponding wines were determined using spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis. It was demonstrated that wine polyphenolic extracts and resveratrol exerted higher cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MDA-MB-453 cells in comparison to MDA-MB-361 cells and unstimulated and stimulated PBMCs. Furthermore, white wine polyphenolic extract exhibited a significantly higher antiproliferative action on cancer cell lines than red wine extract. The presence of condensed or fragmented nuclei in HeLa cells, pretreated with extract of white wine and stained with a mixture of acridine orange and ethidium bromide, pointed to the morphological signs of apoptosis. In addition, HeLa cells in late stages of apoptosis or secondary necrosis were also observed. Results from our study suggest that polyphenolic extracts from red and white wine may have anticarcinogenic potential.

  17. Implementation of fluorescence confocal mosaicing microscopy by "early adopter" Mohs surgeons: a review of recent progress

    Jain, Manu; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer


    Confocal mosaicing microscopy (CMM) enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue ex vivo without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. When performed with fluorescence mode using acridine orange (nuclear specific dye) it enhances nuclei-to-dermis contrast that enables detection of all types of BCCs including thin strands of infiltrative basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Thus far, this technique has been mostly validated in research setting for the analysis of BCC tumor margins. Recently, CMM has been adopted and implemented in real clinical settings by some surgeons as an alternative tool to frozen section (FS) during Mohs surgery. In this review article we summarize the development of CMM guided imaging of ex vivo tissues from bench to bedside. We also present its current state of application in routine clinical workflow not only for the assessment of BCC margin but also for other skin cancers such as melanoma, SCC, and some infectious diseases where FS is not routinely performed. Lastly, we also discuss the potential limitations of this technology as well as future developments. As this technology advances further, it may serve as an adjunct to standard histology and enable rapid surgical pathology of skin cancers at the bedside.

  18. Time-domain measurement of fluorescence lifetime variation with pH

    Ryder, Alan G.; Power, Sarah; Glynn, Thomas J.; Morrison, John J.


    Advances in the design and miniaturization of the lasers and electronics required for Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) measurement of fluorescence lifetime have simplified the use of the time domain method. We have assembled a compact portable system that is capable of measuring lifetimes down to approximately 200 ps (with deconvolution) and that can operate at a range of excitation and emission wavelengths. The excitation sources are pulsed LEDs and laser diodes with a maximum pulse rate of 40 MHz and are easily interchanged. Furthermore, the development of violet and blue GaN LEDs and laser diodes is expanding the range of fluorophores available for fluorescence lifetime measurement of ion concentrations. pH sensitive fluorophores have a wide range of biological and clinical applications. The use of fluorescence lifetime rather than intensity to measure pH has a number of advantages including the reduction of effects due to the photobleaching, scattering, and intensity variations in the excitation source. Using our compact TCSPC instrumentation we have measured the dependence of fluorescence lifetimes on pH for a range of dyes in phosphate buffer over the physiologically important range of 6.0 to 8.0. Most dyes exhibit only a small variation in lifetime (pH range; however, acridine exhibits a large variation in lifetime and hence shows promise as a pH indicator.

  19. Application of UV-Vis spectrophotometric process for the assessment of indoloacridines as free radical scavenger.

    Sridharan, Makuteswaran; Prasad, K J Rajendra; Madhumitha, G; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan


    A conventional approach has been used to synthesis Indole fused acridine, 4a-e. In this paper to achieve the target molecule, 4 the reaction was performed via two steps. In step 1, there was a reaction between Carbazolone, 1 and benzophenone, 2 to get dihydroindoloacridine, 3. In step 2, compound, 3 was treated with 5% Palladium/Carbon in the presence of diphenyl ether for 5h to give a dark brown product, 4. The column chromatography was used to purify final product, 4. All the synthesized compounds such as 3 and 4 were characterized by melting point, FTIR, (1)H NMR, and Mass spectra. Further to check the purity of the compounds it was subjected to CHN analyzer. The target molecules such as 3 and 4 were screened for antimicrobial studies against bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia), Salmonella typhi (S. typhi); and fungi like Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus). The obtained results clearly proves that the target molecules shown reasonable activity against K. pneumonia and A. niger. Further the compounds were screened for free radical scavenging activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The free radical scavenging property was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The results were compared with the standard BHT (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene). Compounds, 4a and 4e were shown higher percentage of inhibition when compare to the standard. The result confirms that further research on indoloacridine will leads effective drug to the market.

  20. Chemotactic behavior of deep subsurface bacteria toward carbohydrates, amino acids and a chlorinated alkene

    Lopez de Victoria, G. (Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Biology)


    The chemotactic behavior of deep terrestrial subsurface bacteria toward amino acids, carbohydrates and trichloroethylene was assayed using a modification of the capillary method and bacterial enumeration by acridine orange direct counts. Eleven isolates of bacteria isolated from six different geological formations were investigated. A bimodal response rather than an absolute positive or negative response was observed in most assays. Most of the isolates were positively chemotactic to low concentrations of substrates and were repelled by high concentrations of the same substrate. However, this was not the case for trichloroethylene (TCE) which was mostly an attractant and elicited the highest responses in all the isolates when compared with amino acids and carbohydrates. The movement rates of these isolates in aseptic subsurface sediments in the absence and presence of TCE were also determined using a laboratory model. All of the isolates showed distinct response range, peak, and threshold concentrations when exposed to the same substrates suggesting that they are possibly different species as has been inferred from DNA homology studies. 101 refs., 4 figs., 57 tabs.

  1. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J


    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  2. Synergistic Effect between Cisplatin and Sunitinib Malate on Human Urinary Bladder-Cancer Cell Lines

    Regina Arantes-Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse sunitinib malate in vitro ability to enhance cisplatin cytotoxicity in T24, 5637, and HT1376 human urinary bladder-cancer cell lines. Cells were treated with cisplatin (3, 6, 13, and 18 μM and sunitinib malate (1, 2, 4, 6, and 20 μM, either in isolation or combined, over the course of 72 hours. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, acridine orange, and monodansylcadaverine staining and flow cytometry were performed. The combination index (CI was calculated based on the Chou and Talalay method. In isolation, cisplatin and sunitinib malate statistically (. Autophagy and apoptosis studies showed a greater incidence when the combined treatment was put into use. This hints at the possibility of a new combined therapeutic approach. If confirmed in vivo, this conjugation may provide a means of new perspectives in muscle-invasive urinary bladder cancer treatment.

  3. Inhibition of Dual Specific Oncolytic Adenovirus on Esophageal Cancer via Activation of Caspases by a Mitochondrial-dependent Pathway

    SU Jia-qiang; CHI Bao-rong; LI Xiao; LIU Lei; LIU Li-ming; QI Yan-xin; WANG Zhuo-yue; JIN Ning-yi


    We investigated the anti-tumor effects of dual cancer specific-oncolytic adenovirus Ad-VP on esophageal cancer(EC).The anti-tumor activity of Ad-VP was compared with that of the control recombinant adenoviruses (Ad-GP,Ad-Apoptin,Ad-EGFP) in human esophageal cancer cell EC-109 and human normal liver cell L02 in vitro.In 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assays,the growth of EC-109 cells was slightly inhibited by Ad-GP.Ad-Apoptin and Ad-EGFP.However,Ad-VP induced a significant cytotoxic effect.Infection of EC-109 cells with Ad-VP resulted in a significant induction of apoptosis of them in vitro,detected by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole(DAPI) or acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining.The results of Western blot and flow cytometric assay indicate the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential(△ψm),the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-3,6 and 7 in Ad-VP infiected EC-109 cells.In contrast,all these assays show almost no effects of the recombinant adenoviruses on L02 cells.These results demonstrate that the treatment of tumors with Ad-VP selectively inhibits tumor growth and induces apoptosis of esophageal cancer cells.Ad-VP may provide a novel and powerful strategy for cancer gene therapy.

  4. Anti-tumor Effects of a Recombinant Fowlpox Virus Expressing Apoptin on Human Cervical Carcinoma in Vivo and in Vitro

    ZHU Ji-hong; JIN Ning-yi; LI Xiao; SUN Li-li; ZHANG Mu-chun; KAN Shi-fu; LIU Lei; HUANG Hai-yan; YANG Guo-hua; PIAO Bing-guo


    Apoptin is a chicken anemia virus-derived,p53-independent,bcl-2-insensitive apoptotic protein with the ability to specifically induce apoptosis of various human tumor cells,but not of normal diploid cells.To explore the application of apoptin in tumor gene therapy,we used a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing apoptin protein (vFV-Apoptin) to investigate the anti-tumor effectes of vFV-Apoptin on human cervical carcinoma(HeLa) cells in vivo and in vitro through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay,acridine orage/ethidium bromide(AO/EB) and annexin V staining test,respectively.The results show that vFV-Apoptin inhibites the proliferation of HeLa cells in vitro through inducing the apoptosis of HeLa cells,and the inhibition effect of vFV-Apoptin has a dose-effect and time-effect relationship.The results of animal models show that vFV-Apoptin significantly inhibits tumor growth,extends the lifespan of animals and improves the mean survival.Experimental results indicate that vFV-Apoptin has a potential application in the tumor gene therapy.

  5. Fluorescence histochemical study of the localisation and distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites in the spinal cord and cerebellum of the chicken.

    Bondok, A A; Botros, K G; el-Mohandes, E A


    The distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites has been studied in chicken spinal cord and cerebellum using a fluorescent analogue of propranolol, 9-amino-acridin-propranolol (9-AAP). In the cervical and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, beta-adrenoceptor sites were concentrated on cell bodies of alpha-motor neurons of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral nuclear groups of the ventral horn. In the thoracic region, they were present on cell bodies of the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus (dorsal commissural nucleus). In the dorsal horn, the receptor sites were present mainly on cell bodies of columna dorsalis magnocellularis. Sparse distribution of fluorescence was present in other regions of the gray matter. In the cerebellum, a dense distribution of beta-adrenergic receptor sites was observed on Purkinje cell bodies and their apical dendrites. Sparse distribution of receptor sites was present on fine ramifications of Purkinje cell dendrites in the molecular layer. Receptor sites were absent in the granule cell layer and the white matter. These observations indicate that alpha-motor neurons, preganglionic sympathetic neurons, neurons of columna dorsalis magnocellularis, and Purkinje cells are adrenoceptive, while granule cells are non-adrenoceptive.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of imidazolium ionic liquids: biological effects in fish Channel Catfish Ovary (CCO) cell line.

    Radošević, Kristina; Cvjetko, Marina; Kopjar, Nevenka; Novak, Rudjer; Dumić, Jerka; Srček, Višnja Gaurina


    Increasing interest in the application of ionic liquids as green replacement for volatile organic solvents emphasized the need for the evaluation of their toxic effects at different biological systems in order to reduce the risk for human health and environment. To our knowledge, effects of imidazolium ionic liquids on cellular level of fish cell lines have not been studied yet. The cytotoxicity of imidazolium ionic liquids containing different anions and alkyl chain lengths as the substituent at the cation ring towards the fish CCO cell line was determined by WST-1 proliferation assay. Morphological alterations were examined by fluorescent microscopy using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry analysis was also performed. The results showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity of ionic liquids in CCO cells, related to the type of anion and alkyl chain length, while EC50 values showed moderate to high cytotoxicity of tested imidazolium ionic liquids. Distinct morphological changes observed under fluorescence microscope and data obtained by flow cytometry suggest that the toxicity of imidazolium ionic liquids with longer alkyl chains could be related to necrosis. Results presented in here may be helpful for filling existing gaps of knowledge about ionic liquids toxicity and their impact on aquatic environment.

  7. Apoptosis of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell (CAL-27 induced by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites

    Guoliang ZHANG


    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites on viability of CAL-27 cells and apoptosis in CAL-27 cells. Methods: Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites 1 and 2 (LM1 and LM2 were obtained by culturing Lactobacillus sp. A-2 in reconstituted whey medium and whey-inulin medium; the cultured CAL-27 cells were treated with different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 mg/mL and assayed by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium (MTT method; morphological changes of apoptotic cell were observed under fluorescence microscopy by acridine orange (Ao fluorescent staining; flow cytometry method (FCM and agarose gel electrophoresis were used to detect the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells treated LM1 and LM2. Results: The different concentrations of LM1 and LM2 could restrain the growth of CAL-27 cells, and in a dose-dependent manner; the apoptosis of CAL-27 cells was obviously induced and was time-dependent. Conclusions: Viability of CAL-27 cells was inhibited by Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites; Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites could induce CAL-27 cells apoptosis; study on the bioactive compounds in the Lactobacillus sp. A-2 metabolites and their molecular mechanism is in progress.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of new benzimidazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as potential cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing agents.

    Sharma, Pankaj; Srinivasa Reddy, T; Thummuri, Dinesh; Senwar, Kishna Ram; Praveen Kumar, Niggula; Naidu, V G M; Bhargava, Suresh K; Shankaraiah, Nagula


    A series of new benzimidazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids has been synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic potential against a selected human cancer cell lines of prostate (PC-3 and DU-145), breast (MDA-MB-231), lung (A549) and a normal breast epithelial cells (MCF10A). Among the tested compounds, 11p exhibited promising cytotoxicity with IC50 value of 11.46 ± 1.46 μM on A549 lung cancer cell line and did not show significant toxicity on normal MCF10A cells. Lung cancer cells (A549) have been used to know the mechanism of cell growth inhibition and apoptosis inducing effect with compound 11p. The treatment of A549 cells with 11p showed typical apoptotic morphology like cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and horseshoe shaped nuclei formation. Flow-cytometry analysis revealed the G2/M phase of cell cycle arrest in a dose dependent manner. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested that the cell migration was inhibited through the disruption of F-actin protein. Acridine orange-ethidium bromide (AO-EB), DAPI, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, rhodamine-123 and MitoSOX assays suggested the induction of apoptosis in A549 cells by compound 11p.

  9. Chlorpyrifos is estrogenic and alters embryonic hatching, cell proliferation and apoptosis in zebrafish.

    Yu, Kaimin; Li, Guochao; Feng, Weimin; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Jiayu; Wu, Wei; Xu, Lei; Yan, Yanchun


    The potential interference of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on aquatic animals and humans has drawn wide attention in recent years. Reports have shown that some organophosphorus pesticides were a kind of EDCs, but their effects on fish species are still under research. In present study, flow cytometry data of HEC-1B cell line showed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) could increase cell proliferation index like 17β-estradiol (E2), but the effect of CPF was weaker than of E2 in the same concentration. Moreover, CPF altered the expression pattern of estrogen-responsive gene VTG and ERα in zebrafish embryos. When exposed to CPF at various concentrations (0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00mg/L) for 48h during the embryo stage, compared with controls, the hatching rate of treated groups significantly increased at the same time and the hatching rate of embryos was proportional to CPF concentration. The mRNA expression levels of c-myc, cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2, which are closely related to cell proliferation and cell apoptosis, were disturbed by CPF in zebrafish embryos after exposure treated for 48h. In addition, acridine orange (AO) staining of zebrafish embryos showed that cell apoptosis was appeared in the 0.75, 1.00mg/L CPF treated groups. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study indicated that chlorpyrifos is estrogenic and alters embryonic hatching, cell proliferation and apoptosis in zebrafish.

  10. Influence of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDL) on the viability of osteoblastic cells.

    Brodeur, Mathieu R; Brissette, Louise; Falstrault, Louise; Ouellet, Pascale; Moreau, Robert


    Cardiovascular diseases have recently been noted as potential risk factors for osteoporosis development. Although it is poorly understood how these two pathologies are related, it is a known fact that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL) constitute potential determinants for both of them. The current study investigated the metabolism of OxLDL by osteoblasts and its effect on osteoblastic viability. The results obtained show that OxLDL are internalized but not degraded by osteoblasts while they can selectively transfer their CE to these cells. It is also demonstrated that OxLDL induce proliferation at low concentrations but cell death at high concentrations. This reduction of osteoblast viability was associated with lysosomal membrane damage caused by OxLDL as demonstrated by acridine orange relocalization. Accordingly, chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosomal activity, accentuated cell death induced by OxLDL. Finally, we demonstrate that osteoblasts have the capacity to oxidize LDL and thereby potentially increase the local concentration of OxLDL. Overall, the current study confirms the potential role of OxLDL in the development of osteoporosis given its influence on osteoblastic viability.

  11. Methods of Enumeration of Bacteria in Drinking Water%饮用水中几种细菌计数方法的比较

    鲁巍; 王云; 张晓健


    比较采用不同培养基的平板计数(Plate Counts,PC)方法,以及不同荧光染色剂的显微镜直接计数方法与常规计数方法的差别.研究认为,常规平板计数方法并不能准确反映饮用水中实际存活的细菌数量;吖啶橙直接计数(Acridine Orange Direct Counts,AODC)的结果最高,较常规平板计数方法高出3~4个量级;活细菌直接计数(Direct Viable Counts,DVC)中,DVC-N.A.、DVC-CTC和DVC-BacLight等计数方法的结果较常规平板计数结果高出2~3个量级.以地表水为水源的水厂出水中活细菌数占总细菌数的比例在10%左右.

  12. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.


    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  13. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.


    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  14. Thin layer chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (TLC-IMS).

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud


    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a fast and sensitive analytical method which operates at the atmospheric pressure. To enhance the capability of IMS for the analysis of mixtures, it is often used with preseparation techniques, such as GC or HPLC. Here, we report for the first time the coupling of the thin-layer chromatography and IMS. A variety of coupling schemes were tried that included direct electrospray from the TLC strip tip, indirect electrospray from a needle connected to the TLC strip, introducing the moving solvent into the injection port, and, the simplest way, offline introduction of scratched or cut pieces of strips into the IMS injection port. In this study a special solvent tank was designed and the TLC strip was mounted horizontally where the solvent would flow down. A very small funnel right below the TLC tip collected the solvent and transferred it to a needle via a capillary tubing. Using the TLC-ESI-IMS technique, acceptable separations were achieved for two component mixtures of morphine-papaverine and acridine-papaverine. A special injection port was designed to host the pieces cut off the TLC. The method was successfully used to identify each spot on the TLC by IMS in a few seconds.

  15. Application of laser scanning microscopy for the analysis of oral biofilm dissolution by different endodontic irrigants

    Aldo del Carpio-Perochena


    Full Text Available Background: Multi-specie biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobials due to cellular interactions found in them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the biofilm dissolution effectiveness of different irrigant solutions on biofilms developed on infected dentin in situ. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 bovine dentin specimens infected intraorally (30/group were treated by the following solutions: 2% of chlorhexidine digluconate, 1%, 2.5% and 5.25% of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. The solutions were utilized for 5, 15 and 30 min with 2 experimental volumes 500 μL and 1 mL. All the samples were stained using an acridine orange and the biofilm thickness before (control group and after the experiments were evaluated, utilizing a confocal microscope at ×40. The Mann-Whitney U and the nom-parametric Kruskal-Wallis Dunns tests were utilized to determine the influence of the volume and to perform the comparisons among the groups respectively. The significance level was set at P 0.05. The biofilm dissolution treated with 1% NaOCl was directly proportional to the exposure time (P 0.05. Conclusion: The higher exposure times and concentrations of NaOCl were not sufficient to dissolve 100% of the biofilm. However, all NaOCl solutions were more effective than 2% chlorhexidine digluconate to dissolve organic matter.

  16. Does centrifugation and semen processing with swim up at 37°C yield sperm with better DNA integrity compared to centrifugation and processing at room temperature?

    Deepthi Repalle


    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate whether semen processing at 37°C yield sperm with better DNA integrity compared to centrifugation and processing at room temperature (RT by swim-up method. Settings: This study was done at tertiary care center attached to Reproductive Medicine Unit and Medical College. Design: Prospective pilot study. Patients: Normozoospermic men (n = 50 undergoing diagnostic semen analysis. Materials and Methods: Normozoospermic samples (World Health Organization, 2010 criteria after analysis was divided into two aliquots (0.5 mL each; one was processed at 37°C and the other at RT by swim-up method. DNA fragmentation of both samples post wash was calculated by acridine orange method. Statistical Analysis Used: The values of sperm DNA fragmentation were represented as mean and standard error (mean ± SEM of the mean. Paired t-test was used for calculating the sperm DNA integrity difference between post wash at RT and 37°C. Results: Statistically significant difference was not observed in post wash sperm DNA fragmentation values at 37°C compared to RT. Conclusion: Our data represents that there was no significant difference in sperm DNA fragmentation values of samples processed at 37°C and at RT. Hence, sperm processing at 37°C does not yield sperm with better DNA integrity compared to centrifugation and processing at RT.

  17. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  18. Salinomycin inhibits the growth of colorectal carcinoma by targeting tumor stem cells.

    Zhang, Chen; Tian, Yaping; Song, Feiyu; Fu, Changhao; Han, Bo; Wang, Yi


    Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether antibiotic that has been reported to induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells with specificity for cancer stem cells. However, its anticancer effect in colorectal cancer stem cells has never been reported. In the present study, we examined the ability of salinomycin to induce cell death in the colorectal cancer stem cell line CD44+EpCAM+ HCT-116, and we measured its in vivo tumor inhibition capacity. Salinomycin dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity in the CD44+EpCAM+ HCT-116 cells and inhibited colony formation. Salinomycin treatment was shown to induce apoptosis, as evidenced by nuclear fragmentation, an increase in the proportion of acridine orange/ethidium bromide-positive cells and an increase in the percentage of Annexin V-positive cells. Apoptosis was induced in colorectal cancer stem cells in a caspase-dependent manner, as shown by an increase in the levels of cleaved caspase-3, -8 and -9. JC-1 staining further revealed that salinomycin induced colorectal cancer cell apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, salinomycin treatment of xenograft mice inhibited the growth of tumors derived from the CD44+EpCAM+ HCT-116 cells. The present study demonstrated that the antibiotic salinomycin exerts an anti-colorectal cancer effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting salinomycin as a potential drug for colorectal cancer therapy.

  19. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles.

    Shiri, Mahdi; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Mahboudi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    Diazinon (DZ) is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells) after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, expression of 15 genes associated with cell death/apoptosis in various phenomena was examined after 24 hours of contact with DZ and NPs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared to the individual cases, the group receiving the combination of MgO and Se NPs showed more beneficial effects in reducing the toxicity of DZ. Cotreatment of PaTu cell lines with MgO and Se NPs counteracts the toxicity of DZ on insulin-producing cells.

  20. Isolation of a flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia and its genotoxic potency.

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Yanmis, Derya; Arasoglu, Tulin; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Demirezer, Lutfiye Omur


    Mentha is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is widely used in food, flavor, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it has been found that the use of Mentha as a pharmaceutical source is based on its phytochemical constituents that have far been identified as tannins, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G), a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia (ML). The possible antimutagenic potential of A7G was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate and acridine in an eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and 9-aminoacridine in S. typhimurium TA1537. According to our findings, any concentrations of the A7G used did not show mutagenic activity but exerted strong antimutagenic activities at tested concentrations. The inhibition rates for the Ames test ranged from 27.2% (S. typhimurium TA1535: 0.4 μM/plate) to 91.1% (S. typhimurium TA1537: 0.2 μM/plate) and for the yeast deletion assay from 4% to 57.7%. This genotoxicological study suggests that a flavonoid from ML owing to antimutagenic properties is of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial to industries producing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals products.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of carboranylmethylbenzo[b]acridones as novel agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

    da Silva, A Filipa F; Seixas, Raquel S G R; Silva, Artur M S; Coimbra, Joana; Fernandes, Ana C; Santos, Joana P; Matos, António; Rino, José; Santos, Isabel; Marques, Fernanda


    Herein we present the synthesis and characterization of benzo[b]acridin-12(7H)-ones bearing carboranyl moieties and test their biological effectiveness as boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agents in cancer treatment. The cellular uptake of these novel compounds into the U87 human glioblastoma cells was evaluated by boron analysis (ICP-MS) and by fluorescence imaging (confocal microscopy). The compounds enter the U87 cells exhibiting a similar profile, i.e., preferential accumulation in the cytoskeleton and membranes and a low cytotoxic activity (IC50 values higher than 200 μM). The cytotoxic activity and cellular morphological alterations after neutron irradiation in the Portuguese Research Reactor (6.6 × 10(7) neutrons cm(-2) s(-1), 1 MW) were evaluated by the MTT assay and by electron microscopy (TEM). Post-neutron irradiation revealed that BNCT has a higher cytotoxic effect on the cells. Accumulation of membranous whorls in the cytoplasm of cells treated with one of the compounds correlates well with the cytotoxic effect induced by radiation. Results provide a strong rationale for considering one of these compounds as a lead candidate for a new generation of BNCT agents.

  2. Acalypha indica Linn: Biogenic synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effects against MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells

    C. Krishnaraj


    Full Text Available This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles against MDA-MB-231, human breast cancer cells. Formation of silver and gold nanoparticles was observed within 30 min and the various characterization techniques such as UV–vis spectrophotometer, FE-SEM, TEM and XRD studies were confirmed the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further, MTT, acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation assays were carried out using various concentrations of silver and gold nanoparticles ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. At 100 μg/ml concentration, the plant extract derived nanoparticles exhibited significant cytotoxic effects and the apoptotic features were confirmed through caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation assays. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that biologically synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles might be used to treat breast cancer; however, it necessitates clinical studies to ascertain their potential as anticancer agents.

  3. Cytotoxic assay of endophytic fungus 1.2.11 secondary metabolites from Brucea javanica (L Merr towards cancer cell in vitro

    Pratiwi Sudarmono


    Full Text Available Cytotoxic assay of secondary metabolite endophytic fungus 1.2.11 from Brucea javanica (L Merr has been carried out. Brucea javanica fruit collected from Cianjur was used in this experiment. Cytotoxic assay was done on Raji, NS-1, HeLa and Vero cells. The observation was done for 24 hours and also for 48 hours. IC50 was calculated using the Rich and Muench theory. To observe the working mechanism of cytotoxic process, DNA staining with etidium bromide and acridine orange was conducted. The cytotoxic assay of endophytic fungi 1.2.11 showed an IC50 of 58.35 μg/ml, 88.39 μg/ml on Raji cell,; 162.09 μg/ml, 66.24 μg/ml on NS cell; 361.21 μg/ml, 219.97 μg/ml on HeLa cell; and lastly 1075.18 μg/ml, 656.82 μg/ml on Vero cell after 24 and 48 hour incubation respectively. The results of this study showed that secondary metabolite of endophytic fungus 1.2.11 has selective cytotoxic effect towards cancer cell and also showed that it might cause apoptosis in NS-1cell. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:137-44 Keywords: Brucea javanica (L. Merr, endophytic microbe, Cytotoxic assay, endophytic isolate 1.2.11, apoptosis

  4. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Lichen Species

    Snežana Marković


    Full Text Available The antioxidative, antimicrobial and antiproliferative potentials of the methanol extracts of the lichen species Parmelia sulcata, Flavoparmelia caperata, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea were evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 78.12 to 141.59 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GA/g of extract and the total flavonoid content from 20.14 to 44.43 mg of rutin equivalent (Ru/g of extract. The antioxidant capacities of the lichen extracts were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging. Hypogymnia physodes with the highest phenolic content showed the strongest DPPH radical scavenging effect. Further, the antimicrobial potential of the lichen extracts was determined by a microdilution method on 29 microorganisms, including 15 strains of bacteria, 10 species of filamentous fungi and 4 yeast species. A high antimicrobial activity of all the tested extracts was observed with more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of Gram (+ bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity among lichens was demonstrated by Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea. Finally, the antiproliferative activity of the lichen extracts was explored on the colon cancer adenocarcinoma cell line HCT-116 by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide viability assay and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. The methanol extracts of Hypogymnia physodes and Cladonia foliacea showed a better cytotoxic activity than the other extracts. All lichen species showed the ability to induce apoptosis of HCT-116 cells.

  5. New methods for the diagnosis of Babesia bigemina infection

    S. Morzaria


    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of Babesia bigemina infection, an economically important tick-transmitted protozoan parasite of cattle, is essential in the management of disease control and in epidemiological studies. The currentlyused methods of diagnosis are blood smear examination and serological tests which include agglutination and immunofluorescence tests. These testes have been used the fild but because they lack sensitivity and specificity, never and improved methods of diagnosis are being developed. The quantitative buffy coat (OBC method, using microhaematocrit tubes and acridine orange staining allows rapid and quicker diagnosis of B. bigemina and other blood parasites compared to light microscopic examination of stained smears. Parasite specific monoclonal antibodies have been used in antigen/antibody capture enzymelinked immunosorbent assays with grater sensitivity and specificity than previously described serological tests. Similary, DNA probes, derived from a repetitive sequence of the B. bigemina genome, offer a method of detecting very small numbers of parasites which are undetectable by conventional microscopy. An extrachromosomal DNA element, present in all the tick-borne protozoan parasites so far tested, provides an accurate means of diferentiating mixed parasite populations in infected animals. These improved methods will greatly facilitate epidemiological studies.

  6. Enhancement of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis.

    Zhou, Cunshan; Qian, Lichun; Ma, Haile; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Youzuo; Qu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xia, Wei


    The growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis brought by amygdalin and activated with β-D-glucosidase were tested for cytoactivity in HepG2 cells. The MTT viability assay showed that all samples had effects on HepG2 proliferation in dose and time response manners. IC50 of stand-alone amygdalin and activation with β-D-glucosidase on the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 48 h were 458.10 mg/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic cells were determined by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. With increasing of amygdalin concentration and the incubation time, the apoptotic rate was heightened. Compared with the control, there was significant difference (pamygdalin had no strong anti-HepG2 activity; however the ingredients of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase had a higher and efficient anti-HepG2 activity. It was therefore suggested that this combination strategy may be applicable for treating tumors with a higher activity.

  7. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    Mohammad Rasoul Khazaei


    Full Text Available Objective(s: Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods:In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9 were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml. Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0, 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO–Ethidium Bromide (EB double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P

  8. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induced autophagy in a bovine kidney cell line.

    Fiorito, Filomena; Ciarcia, Roberto; Granato, Giovanna Elvira; Marfe, Gabriella; Iovane, Valentina; Florio, Salvatore; De Martino, Luisa; Pagnini, Ugo


    The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a variety of cultured cells may alter their ability to proliferate and die. In a previous study we demonstrated that TCDD induced proliferation in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells where no signs of apoptosis were observed, but herein, analysis of MDBK cell morphology, in a large number of exposed cells, revealed some alterations, as expanded cytoplasm, an increase of intercellular spaces and many pyknotic nuclei. Hence, the aim of the current study was to elucidate the influences of dioxin on cell proliferation and cell death. We found that dioxin increased proliferation, as well as, activated cell death with autophagy, as we detected by increased amount of LC3-II, an autophagosome marker. Furthermore, formation of acidic vesicular organelles was observed by fluorescence microscopy following staining with the lysosomotropic agent acridine orange. These results were accompanied by down-regulation of telomerase activity, bTERT and c-Myc. Key tumor-suppressor protein p53 and expression of cell cycle inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 were activated after TCDD exposure. These changes occurred with activation of ATM phosphorylation in the presence of a decrease in Mdm2 protein levels. Taken together, these results support the idea that TCDD in MDBK cells, may exert its action, in part, by enhancing cell proliferation, but also by modulating the incidence of induced cell death with autophagy.

  9. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm.F.and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells

    Agung; Endro; Nugroho; Adam; Hermawan; Dyaningtyas; Dewi; Pamungkas; Putri; Anindya; Novika; Edy; Meiyanto


    Objective:To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction(HIF)of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity,cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines.Methods:The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay.Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program.Apoptosis assay was earned out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange.The expression of cleaved-poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase(PARP)on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry.Results:The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells.In addition,combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis.HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase.The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells.Conclusions:Based on this results,HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.However,the molecular mechanism need to be explored further.

  10. Effect of all-trans retinoic acid 0n drug sensitivity and expression of survivin in LoVo cells


    Background All-trans retinoic acid(ATRA)can influence the tumor cell proliferation cycle,and some chemotherapeutic drugs are cycle specific.In this study,we hypothesize that ATRA can enhance chemotherapeutic drug sensitivity by affecting the cell cycle of tumor cells.Methods The cell cycle of LoVo cells was evaluated using flow cytometry(FCM).Cell viability was analyzed using the MTT assay.The morphologic changes in the treated LoVo cells were measured with acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide(EB)staining.Expression of survivin in LoVo cells was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay.Results After LoVo cells were treated with ATRA,the G0/G1 ratio of the tumor cells increased and the cell ratio of Sand G2/M-phase decreased.Viability of the cells decreased significantly after combined treatment with ATRA and 5-fluorouracil(5-FU)or mitomycin c(MMC) and was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy.Expression level of survivin in the tumor cells decreased after ATRA combination treatment.Conclusions ATRA enhances drug sensitivity of the LoVo cell line to cell cycle-specific agents and inhibits the expression of survivin in LoVo cells.The combination of ATRA and 5-FU or MMC promoted cell apoptosis,and the mechanism involved in apoptosis may be related to inhibition of survivin gene expression.

  11. Reliable Screening of Dye Phototoxicity by Using a Caenorhabditis elegans Fast Bioassay.

    Bianchi, Javier Ignacio; Stockert, Juan Carlos; Buzzi, Lucila Ines; Buzz, Lucila Ines; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Simonetta, Sergio Hernán


    Phototoxicity consists in the capability of certain innocuous molecules to become toxic when subjected to suitable illumination. In order to discover new photoactive drugs or characterize phototoxic pollutants, it would be advantageous to use simple biological tests of phototoxicy. In this work, we present a pilot screening of 37 dyes to test for phototoxic effects in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Populations of this nematode were treated with different dyes, and subsequently exposed to 30 min of white light. Behavioral outcomes were quantified by recording the global motility using an infrared tracking device (WMicrotracker). Of the tested compounds, 17 dyes were classified as photoactive, being phloxine B, primuline, eosin Y, acridine orange and rose Bengal the most phototoxic. To assess photoactivity after uptake, compounds were retested after washing them out of the medium before light irradiation. Dye uptake into the worms was also analyzed by staining or fluorescence. All the positive drugs were incorporated by animals and produced phototoxic effects after washing. We also tested the stress response being triggered by the treatments through reporter strains. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response (hsp-4::GFP strain) was activated by 22% of phototoxic dyes, and mitochondrial stress response (hsp-6::GFP strain) was induced by 16% of phototoxic dyes. These results point to a phototoxic perturbation of the protein functionality and an oxidative stress similar to that reported in cell cultures. Our work shows for the first time the feasibility of C. elegans for running phototoxic screenings and underscores its application on photoactive drugs and environmental pollutants assessment.

  12. The photoreduction and photosensitized reduction of dyes bound to a surfactant micellar surface

    Usui, Y.; Saga, K.


    The photochemical reduction of thionine(Th) and Methylene Blue(MB) bound to anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate(SDS) micelles in an aqueous solution was inhibited at the lower concentration range of a reductant anion, EDTA, because of the electrostatic repulsion between the micelles and the reductant. The concentration dependence of EDTA on the quantum yield of photoreduction has shown to be, anomalously a sigmoidal type: this is explained by mechanistic interpretation based on the cooperative effects of the ionic strength and the essential concentration of EDTA. The enhancement effect for the quantum yield of the photoreduction of eosine bound to a cationic micelle by the EDTA anion was conversely observed, because of the electrostatic attraction. When 10-dodecyl) (Acridine Orange) was incorporated into SDS micelles in water containing EDTA and ascorbic acid, and the mixture was excited, the photosensitized reduction reduction of MB bound to the micelles occurred. It was found that the quantum yield of the sensitized reduction depended on the concentration of MB and was larger than the yield on the direct excitation of MB.

  13. Studies on Infectious Mononucleosis

    Joncas, J.; Chagnon, A.; Pavilanis, V.


    Viral studies were carried out on throat swabs, rectal swabs and washed white blood cells from 27 cases of infectious mononucleosis (positive Paul-Bunnell-David-sohn test), and from 22 controls. Four cytopathic agents were isolated in the test group, two of which were readily subcultured for at least three successive passages. Three cytopathic agents were recovered in the control group, two of which have been identified as adenovirus type 5 and adenovirus type 3. The unidentified agents tested so far are sensitive to ether and to pH 3. The results of acridine-orange staining and the immunofluorescence technique, using a conjugated control serum and two conjugated convalescent infectious mononucleosis sera, indicate that the isolated agent or agents in the test group are RNA-type agents with a cytoplasmic cycle of development. The overall results of this study lead the authors to suspect a respiratory syncytial-like myxovirus as the as yet unidentified agent which they recovered. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1bFig. 1cFig. 1dFig. 2aFig. 2bFig. 2cFig. 2dFig. 3aFig. 3bFig. 3cFig. 3dFig. 3eFig. 3f PMID:4952899

  14. Freeze-dried stallion spermatozoa: evaluation of two chelating agents and comparative analysis of three sperm DNA damage assays.

    Olaciregui, M; Luño, V; Martí, J I; Aramayona, J; Gil, L


    During the freeze-drying procedure, sperm DNA might become damaged by both freezing and drying stresses. Sperm DNA status can be detected using well-established assays; however, most techniques are expensive and involve elaborate protocols and equipment. Indirect assessments can provide alternative strategies. The objective of this study was to compare a simple test of DNA status using Diff-Quik (DQ) with two established procedures: acridine orange test (AOT) and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) on freeze-dried (FD) stallion spermatozoa. Ejaculated spermatozoa from three stallions were freeze-dried in basic medium supplemented with two different chelating agents: EGTA or EDTA. After rehydration, the spermatozoa were subjected to DNA damage detection using a SCDt, AOT and DQ stain simultaneously. The results showed that the DNA damage levels in the EGTA group were significantly lower than those in the EDTA group. AOT detected a significantly higher proportion of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA than DQ and SCD. The results of the SCD test and DQ stain exhibited a significant positive correlation for DNA fragmentation (r = 0.528), whereas a negative correlation was observed between SCD, DQ and AOT (r = -0.134 and r = -0.332 respectively). The present study shows that both the SCD test and DQ assay are effective methods for detecting FD stallion sperm DNA fragmentation, whereas using of AOT is questionable.

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of oxindole linked indolyl-pyrimidine derivatives as potential cytotoxic agents.

    Prajapti, Santosh Kumar; Nagarsenkar, Atulya; Guggilapu, Sravanthi Devi; Gupta, Keshav Kumar; Allakonda, Lingesh; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Babu, Bathini Nagendra


    In our endeavor towards the development of effective cytotoxic agents, a series of oxindole linked indolyl-pyrimidine derivatives were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral analysis. All the newly synthesized target compounds were assessed against PA-1 (ovarian), U-87MG (glioblastoma), LnCaP (prostate), and MCF-7 (Breast) cancer cell lines for their cytotoxic potential, with majority of them showing inhibitory activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Significantly, compound 8e was found to be most potent amongst all the tested compounds with an IC50 value of (2.43±0.29μM) on PA-1 cells. The influence of the most active cytotoxic compound 8e on the cell cycle distribution was assessed on the PA-1 cell line, exhibiting a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. Moreover, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and annexin V binding assay confirmed that compound 8e can induce cell apoptosis in PA-1 cells. These preliminary results persuade further investigation on the synthesized compounds aiming to the development of potential cytotoxic agents.

  16. Mechanism and in vivo evaluation :photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of lysine-porphyrin conjugate

    Zengping eXu


    Full Text Available We previously reported lysine-porphyrin conjugate 4i, which had potent photosensitive antibacterial effect on clinical isolated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Escherichia coli (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa bacterial strains. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the mechanism of photodynamic antibacterial chemotherapy of 4i (4i-PACT in vitro and the treatment effect in vivo. Atomic force microscopy (AFM revealed 4i-PACT could effectively destroy bacterial membrane and wall, making the bacterial content leakage, which was confirmed by dual fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB and absorbance at 260 nm, agarose gel electrophoresis indicated 4i-PACT could damage genomic DNA. The results combined AFM and DNA electrophoresis revealed why the bacterial strains had no resistance to 4i-PACT. Wound healing in rat model with mixed bacteria infected wounds showed the efficiency of 4i-PACT was light-dose dependent. These results showed 4i-PACT had promising bactericidal effect both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Enhanced accumulation of curcumin and temozolomide loaded magnetic nanoparticles executes profound cytotoxic effect in glioblastoma spheroid model.

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar


    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly lethal primary brain tumours. Treatment of these malignant gliomas remains ineffective as these are extremely resistant to chemotherapeutic applications. Furthermore, combination therapy for cancer treatment is becoming more popular because it generates synergistic anticancer effects, by reducing individual drug-related toxicity and associated side effects. Currently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) based drug delivery system has attracted much more attention owing to its intrinsic magnetic properties and drug loading capacity. In the present study, MNPs based drug delivery approach for co-delivering of potent chemotherapeutic drugs such as Curcumin (herbal drug) and Temozolomide (DNA methylating agent) has been implemented. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations were evaluated in two-dimensional (2-D) monolayer culture and three-dimensional (3-D) tumour spheroid culture of T-98G cells for understanding the therapeutic discrepancy. The dual drug loaded MNPs formulations demonstrated higher cytotoxic effect than single drug loaded MNPs formulations as compared to their corresponding native drugs in 2-D and 3-D culture. The combination index (CI) analysis revealed synergistic mode of action of dual drug loaded MNPs formulations, which was further confirmed by cell death induction assay mediated by acridine orange (AO)/propidium iodide (PI) staining, illustrating higher efficacy of the formulation towards GBM therapy.

  18. Differences in dispersion of influenza virus lipids and proteins during fusion.

    Lowy, R J; Sarkar, D P; Whitnall, M H; Blumenthal, R


    Digitally enhanced low-light-level fluorescence video microscopy and immunochemical staining were used to examine influenza virus envelope lipid and protein redistribution during pH-induced fusion. Video microscopy was performed using viruses labeled with either the lipid analogue octadecylrhodamine B (R18) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) covalently linked to envelope proteins. Viruses were bound to human red blood cells, and the pattern and intensity of fluorescence were monitored for 30 min while cell-virus complexes were perfused with pH 7.4 or 4.8 media at temperatures either above or below 20 degrees C. R18 showed complete redistribution and dequenching by 30 min at all incubation temperatures, confirming reports that viral fusion occurs at subphysiological temperatures. FITC-labeled protein showed spatial redistribution at 28 degrees C but no change at low temperature. Electron microscopy observations of immunochemical staining of viral proteins confirmed both that protein redistribution at 37 degrees C was slower than R18 and the failure of movement within 30 min at 16 degrees C. Video microscopy monitoring of RNA staining by acridine orange of virus-cell complexes showed redistribution to the RBCs at all temperatures but only after low pH-induced fusion. The results are consistent with differential dispersion of viral components into the RBC and the existence of relatively long-lived barriers to diffusion subsequent to fusion pore formation.

  19. Pyridinoacridine alkaloids of marine origin: NMR and MS spectral data, synthesis, biosynthesis and biological activity

    Louis P. Sandjo


    Full Text Available This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues, which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity.

  20. Transient absorption spectroscopy in biology using the Super-ACO storage ring FEL and the synchrotron radiation combination

    Renault, E; De Ninno, G; Garzella, D; Hirsch, M; Nahon, L; Nutarelli, D


    The Super-ACO storage ring FEL, covering the UV range down to 300 nm with a high average power (300 mW at 350 nm) together with a high stability and long lifetime, is a unique tool for the performance of users applications. We present here the first pump-probe two color experiments on biological species using a storage ring FEL coupled to the synchrotron radiation. The intense UV pulse of the Super-ACO FEL is used to prepare a high initial concentration of chromophores in their first singlet electronic excited state. The nearby bending magnet synchrotron radiation provides, on the other hand a pulsed, white light continuum (UV-IR), naturally synchronized with the FEL pulses and used to probe the photochemical subsequent events and the associated transient species. We have demonstrated the feasibility with a dye molecule (POPOP) observing a two-color effect, signature of excited state absorption and a temporal signature with Acridine. Applications on various chromophores of biological interest are carried out,...

  1. Cardenolide-Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Demonstrates Therapeutic Benefits in Experimental Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Tatjana Mijatovic


    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs are the leading cause of cancer deaths in most developed countries. Targeting heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 expression and function, together with the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP, could overcome the multiple anti-cell death mechanisms evidenced in NSCLCs that are responsible for the failure of currently used chemotherapeutic drugs. Because cardenolides bind to the sodium pump, they affect multiple signaling pathways and thus have a number of marked effects on tumor cell behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo the antitumor effects of a new cardenolide (UNBS1450 on experimental human NSCLCs. UNBS1450 is a potent source of in vivo antitumor activity in the case of paclitaxeland oxaliplatin-resistant subcutaneous human NCIH727 and orthotopic A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vitro UNBS1450-mediated antitumor activity results from the induction of nonapoptotic cell death. UNBS1450 mediates the decrease of Hsp70 at both mRNA and protein levels, and this is at least partly due to UNBS1450-induced downregulation of NFAT5/ TonEBP (a factor responsible for the transcriptional control of Hsp70. These effects were paralleled by the induction of LMP, as evidenced by acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence analysis for cathepsin B accumulation.

  2. Ethylenediamine functionalized-single-walled nanotube (f-SWNT)-assisted in vitro delivery of the oncogene suppressor p53 gene to breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Karmakar, Alokita; Bratton, Stacie M; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ghosh, Anindya; Mahmood, Meena; Xu, Yang; Saeed, Lamya Mohammed; Mustafa, Thikra; Casciano, Dan; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Biris, Alexandru S


    A gene delivery concept based on ethylenediamine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs) using the oncogene suppressor p53 gene as a model gene was successfully tested in vitro in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The f-SWCNTs-p53 complexes were introduced into the cell medium at a concentration of 20 μg mL(-1) and cells were exposed for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Standard ethidium bromide and acridine orange assays were used to detect apoptotic cells and indicated that a significantly larger percentage of the cells (approx 40%) were dead after 72 hours of exposure to f-SWCNTs-p53 as compared to the control cells, which were exposed to only p53 or f-SWCNTs, respectively. To further support the uptake and expression of the genes within the cells, green fluorescent protein-tagged p53, attached to the f-SWCNTs was added to the medium and the complex was observed to be strongly expressed in the cells. Moreover, caspase 3 activity was found to be highly enhanced in cells incubated with the f-SWCNTs-p53 complex, indicating strongly induced apoptosis. This system could be the foundation for novel gene delivery platforms based on the unique structural and morphological properties of multi-functional nanomaterials.

  3. Genotoxicity of different tert-butylcalix[4]crowns.

    Khalil, Ahmad; Maslat, Ahmed; Hafiz, Abeer; Mizyed, Shehadeh; Ashram, Muhammad


    The ability of two calix[4]arene derivatives, namely 25,27-p-tert-butylcalix[4]dithiooxabenzocrown (1) and 25,27-p-tert-butylcalix[4]trithiooxabenzocrown (2), to produce chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells of Allium cepa and micronuclei (MN) in normochromatic erythrocytes (NCE) of Balb/c mice was investigated. NCE are normal mature red blood cells with a full complement of hemoglobin but lack ribosomes. In the first test, the root tips were treated with a series of concentrations of the two test chemicals ranging from 10(-7) to 10(-4) M for 24 or 48 h. Both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the percentage of aberrant cells and reductions in the mitotic index. These effects depended, to some extent, on the duration of the treatment. The most conspicuous chromosomal abnormalities were c-mitosis, chromosome bridges, chromosome breaks, chromosome lags as well as micronuclei and multinuclei. In the second test, acridine orange fluorescent staining was applied to evaluate the incidence of MN in NCE of mice intraperitoneally injected with varying contents of the two test chemicals (0.02-0.08 mg/mouse). The two chemicals induced dose-dependent MN formation as compared to the negative control. The second compound had more pronounced cytogenetic influence than the first one. Mitomycin C (MMC, 14 mg/kg body weight), employed as positive control, produced more obvious effects on the parameters investigated.

  4. Imaging and measuring the rituximab-induced changes of mechanical properties in B-lymphoma cells using atomic force microscopy

    Li, Mi [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xi, Ning, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Wang, Yuechao; Dong, Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tabata, Osamu [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Xiao, Xiubin [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China); Zhang, Weijing, E-mail: [Department of Lymphoma, Affiliated Hospital of Military Medical Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100071 (China)


    Research highlights: {yields} Single B-lymphoma living cells were imaged by AFM with the assistance of microfabricated pillars. {yields} The apoptosis of B-lymphoma cells triggered by rituximab without cross-linking was observed by AO/EB double fluorescent staining. {yields} The B-lymphoma cells became dramatically softer after adding rituximab. -- Abstract: The topography and mechanical properties of single B-lymphoma cells have been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). With the assistance of microfabricated patterned pillars, the surface topography and ultrastructure of single living B-lymphoma cell were visualized by AFM. The apoptosis of B-lymphoma cells induced by rituximab alone was observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) double fluorescent staining. The rituximab-induced changes of mechanical properties in B-lymphoma cells were measured dynamically and the results showed that B-lymphoma cells became dramatically softer after incubation with rituximab. These results can improve our understanding of rituximab'effect and will facilitate the further investigation of the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Development of a simple, sensitive and inexpensive ion-pairing cloud point extraction approach for the determination of trace inorganic arsenic species in spring water, beverage and rice samples by UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    Gürkan, Ramazan; Kır, Ufuk; Altunay, Nail


    The determination of inorganic arsenic species in water, beverages and foods become crucial in recent years, because arsenic species are considered carcinogenic and found at high concentrations in the samples. This communication describes a new cloud-point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of low quantity of arsenic species in the samples, purchased from the local market by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis). The method is based on selective ternary complex of As(V) with acridine orange (AOH(+)) being a versatile fluorescence cationic dye in presence of tartaric acid and polyethylene glycol tert-octylphenyl ether (Triton X-114) at pH 5.0. Under the optimized conditions, a preconcentration factor of 65 and detection limit (3S blank/m) of 1.14 μg L(-1) was obtained from the calibration curve constructed in the range of 4-450 μg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9932 for As(V). The method is validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs).

  6. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on cell viability of chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) irradiated with {sup 60}CO gamma-rays using differential staining technique

    Castro, Marcos P.M. de; Castro, Renato F. de; Okazaki, Kayo; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The objective of present study was to assess the effect of Brazilian propolis (AF-08) on CHO-K1 cells irradiated with {sup 60}Co, through the differential staining technique, using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The cells were pre-incubated with different concentrations of propolis (50, 100 and 200 μg/mL) for 24h and irradiated with 5 Gy, analyzed at 24 and 48h after exposure. This technique is based on the cell capacity to incorporate fluorescent DNA dyes, where the viable (green), apoptotic (orange/yellow) and necrotic (red) cells can be identified through fluorescence microscopy. Digital high-resolution images were acquired from at least 5 visualization fields, and cells were analyzed using ImageJ and Flowing software. This approach permitted to analyze a large number of cells/sample with the time reduction, much easier and faster, proportioning more statistical power of the technique. The treatment with propolis only was not cytotoxic at 24 and 48h, except for the higher concentration of 200 μg/mL associated or not with radiation, increasing apoptotic and mainly necrotic cells (p<0.001). The data showed a promising use of propolis as well as technique used, pointing out that 200 μg/mL of propolis was cytotoxic, but at lower one (50 μg/mL) presented a radioprotective effect in irradiated CHO-K1 cells. (author)

  7. Toxicity effect of silver nanoparticles in brine shrimp Artemia.

    Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Jennifer, Samou Michael; Prabhu, Durai; Chandhirasekar, Devakumar


    The present study revealed the toxic effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in Artemia nauplii and evaluated the mortality rate, hatching percentage, and genotoxic effect in Artemia nauplii/cysts. The AgNPs were commercially purchased and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were spherical in nature and with size range of 30-40 nm. Artemia cysts were collected from salt pan, processed, and hatched in sea water. Artemia nauplii (II instar) were treated using silver nanoparticles of various nanomolar concentrations and LC50 value (10 nM) and mortality rate (24 and 48 hours) was evaluated. Hatching percentage of decapsulated cysts treated with AgNPs was examined. Aggregation of AgNPs in the gut region of nauplii was studied using phase contrast microscope and apoptotic cells in nauplii stained with acridine orange were observed using fluorescence microscope. DNA damage of single cell of nauplii was determined by comet assay. This study showed that as the concentration of AgNPs increased, the mortality rate, aggregation in gut region, apoptotic cells, and DNA damage increased in nauplii, whereas the percentage of hatching in Artemia cysts decreased. Thus this study revealed that the nanomolar concentrations of AgNPs have toxic effect on both Artemia nauplii and cysts.

  8. Calculating the contribution of different binding modes to Quinacrine - DNA complex formation from polarized fluorescence data

    Voloshin, Igor; Karachevtsev, Victor; Zozulya, Victor


    Binding of acridine derivative quinacrine (QA) to chicken erythrocyte DNA was studied by methods of absorption and polarized fluorescent spectroscopy. Measurements were carried out in aqueous buffered solutions (pH 6.9) of different dye concentrations (QA concentration range from $10^{-6}$ till $10^{-4}$ M) and ionic strengths ($Na^{+}$ concentration rang from $10^{-3}$ till 0.15 M) in a wide range of phosphate-to-dye molar ratios ($P/D$). It is established that the minimum of fluorescent titration curve plotted as relative fluorescence intensity $vs$ $P/D$ is conditioned by the competition between the two types of QA binding to DNA which posses by different emission parameters: (i) intercalative one dominating under high $P/D$ values, and (ii) outside electrostatic binding dominating under low $P/D$ values, which is accompanied by the formation of non-fluorescent dye associates on the DNA backbone. Absorption and fluorescent characteristics of complexes formed were determined. The method of calculation of di...

  9. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W


    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds.

  10. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) leaf.

    R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar


    The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 μg/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer.

  11. Detection on emamectin benzoate-induced apoptosis and DNA damage in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cell line.

    Wu, Xiwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chao; Zong, Mimi; Huang, Qingchun; Tao, Liming


    Emamectin benzoate (EMB), an important macrocyclic lactone insecticide that belongs to the avermectin family and possesses excellent potency in controlling pests, is non-carcinogenic and non-mutagenic conducted in rats and mice, but EMB-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in arthropod insect have been seldom reported yet. In the present paper, we quantified the cytotoxicity of EMB through the detections on cell viability, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf-9 cells in vitro. The results showed that EMB caused a concentration- and time-dependent reduction on the viability of Sf-9 cells, and the median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 3.34μM at 72h of exposure. The dual acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed that exposure to EMB induced a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase on cell apoptosis. The alkaline comet assay revealed that EMB induced significant increases on single-strand DNA breaks, and the percentage of γH2AX-positive cells represented a time- and concentration-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks in Sf-9 cells. Interestingly, the similar cytotoxic actions of EMB also went for the human cancerous HeLa cells as a control cell group. Data demonstrated the potential cytotoxic effect of EMB on Sf-9 cells that was significantly greater than the effect of hydrogen peroxide at the same concentrations.

  12. A rapid, efficient, and economic device and method for the isolation and purification of mouse islet cells.

    Zongyi, Yin; Funian, Zou; Hao, Li; Ying, Cheng; Jialin, Zhang; Baifeng, Li


    Rapid, efficient, and economic method for the isolation and purification of islets has been pursued by numerous islet-related researchers. In this study, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of our developed patented method with those of commonly used conventional methods (Ficoll-400, 1077, and handpicking methods). Cell viability was assayed using Trypan blue, cell purity and yield were assayed using diphenylthiocarbazone, and islet function was assayed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-glucose stimulation testing 4 days after cultivation. The results showed that our islet isolation and purification method required 12 ± 3 min, which was significantly shorter than the time required in Ficoll-400, 1077, and HPU groups (34 ± 3, 41 ± 4, and 30 ± 4 min, respectively; P 1000 islets). In summary, the MCT method is a rapid, efficient, and economic method for isolating and purifying murine islet cell clumps. This method overcomes some of the shortcomings of conventional methods, showing a relatively higher quality and yield of islets within a shorter duration at a lower cost. Therefore, the current method provides researchers with an alternative option for islet isolation and should be widely generalized.

  13. Tri-modal confocal mosaics detect residual invasive squamous cell carcinoma in Mohs surgical excisions

    Gareau, Dan; Bar, Anna; Snaveley, Nicholas; Lee, Ken; Chen, Nathaniel; Swanson, Neil; Simpson, Eric; Jacques, Steve


    For rapid, intra-operative pathological margin assessment to guide staged cancer excisions, multimodal confocal mosaic scan image wide surgical margins (approximately 1 cm) with sub-cellular resolution and mimic the appearance of conventional hematoxylin and eosin histopathology (H&E). The goal of this work is to combine three confocal imaging modes: acridine orange fluorescence (AO) for labeling nuclei, eosin fluorescence (Eo) for labeling cytoplasm, and endogenous reflectance (R) for marking collagen and keratin. Absorption contrast is achieved by alternating the excitation wavelength: 488 nm (AO fluorescence) and 532 nm (Eo fluorescence). Superposition and false-coloring of these modes mimics H&E, enabling detection of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The sum of mosaic Eo+R is false-colored pink to mimic the appearance of eosin, while the AO mosaic is false-colored purple to mimic the appearance of hematoxylin in H&E. In this study, mosaics of 10 Mohs surgical excisions containing invasive SCC, and five containing only normal tissue were subdivided for digital presentation equivalent to 4× histology. Of the total 50 SCC and 25 normal sub-mosaics presented, two reviewers made two and three type-2 errors (false positives), respectively. Limitations to precisely mimic H&E included occasional elastin staining by AO. These results suggest that confocal mosaics may effectively guide staged SCC excisions in skin and other tissues.

  14. Metformin protects rat hepatocytes against bile acid-induced apoptosis.

    Titia E Woudenberg-Vrenken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metformin is used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus type II and improves liver function in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Metformin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, the cellular energy sensor that is sensitive to changes in the AMP/ATP-ratio. AMPK is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR. Both AMPK and mTOR are able to modulate cell death. AIM: To evaluate the effects of metformin on hepatocyte cell death. METHODS: Apoptotic cell death was induced in primary rat hepatocytes using either the bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA or TNFα in combination with actinomycin D (actD. AMPK, mTOR and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K/Akt were inhibited using pharmacological inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified by caspase activation, acridine orange staining and Sytox green staining respectively. RESULTS: Metformin dose-dependently reduces GCDCA-induced apoptosis, even when added 2 hours after GCDCA, without increasing necrotic cell death. Metformin does not protect against TNFα/ActD-induced apoptosis. The protective effect of metformin is dependent on an intact PI3-kinase/Akt pathway, but does not require AMPK/mTOR-signaling. Metformin does not inhibit NF-κB activation. CONCLUSION: Metformin protects against bile acid-induced apoptosis and could be considered in the treatment of chronic liver diseases accompanied by inflammation.

  15. Calcium uptake and proton transport by acidocalcisomes of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Peter Rohloff

    Full Text Available Acidocalcisomes are acidic calcium stores found in diverse organisms, being conserved from bacteria to humans. They possess an acidic matrix that contains several cations bound to phosphates, which are mainly present in the form of short and long polyphosphate chains. Their matrix is acidified through the action of proton pumps such as a vacuolar proton ATPase and a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase. Calcium uptake occurs through a Ca(2+/H(+ countertransporting ATPase located in the membrane of the organelle. Acidocalcisomes have been identified in a variety of microorganisms, including Apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium and Eimeria species, and in Toxoplasma gondii. We report the purification and characterization of an acidocalcisome fraction from T. gondii tachyzoites after subcellular fractionation and further discontinuous iodixanol gradient purification. Proton and calcium transport activities in the fraction were characterized by fluorescence microscopy and spectrophotometric methods using acridine orange and arsenazo III, respectively. This work will facilitate the understanding of the function of acidocalcisomes in Apicomplexan parasites, as we can now isolate highly purified fractions that could be used for proteomic analysis to find proteins that may clarify the biogenesis of these organelles.

  16. [Comparative study of intramacrophagic penetration and action on phagocytosis of a macrolide (spiramycin) and a fluoroquinolone (pefloxacin)].

    Desnottes, J F; Diallo, N


    Antibiotic-phagocyte interaction is an important parameter involved in the elimination process of intracellular bacteria. The aim of the present study was to compare, using the same model, the phagocytic uptake and the intracellular activity of a macrolide and a quinolone. Accumulation of spiramycin and pefloxacin by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages (GPpM) was studied by means of a velocity-gradient centrifugation technique and expression of the ratio of the cellular concentration of antibiotic to the extracellular concentration (IC-EC). Three aspects of Staphylococcus aureus (209-P) phagocytosis were studied: 1) the phagocytic capacity (PC), mean number of ingested cocci by GpPM; 2) the phagocytic activity (PA), percentage of phagocyting GpPM with at least one bacterium; 3) the number of intracellular viable bacteria (IVB). Phagocytic capacity and phagocytic activity were determined by fluorescence microscopy using S. aureus stained with acridine orange. Intracellular viable bacteria were quantified by standard colony counts (CFU). The ratios of intracellular to extracellular concentration of pefloxacin and spiramycin are respectively 9 and 23. Pretreatment of guinea-pig peritoneal macrophages with 10 mg/l of each antibiotic does not modify phagocytic capacity and phagocytic activity, but lead to a decrease of intracellular viable bacteria. S. aureus pretreatment with 1/4 the MIC of each antibiotic increased phagocytic capacity and phagocytic activity and decrease intracellular viable bacteria (especially spiramycin).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effect of spiramycin on adhesiveness and phagocytosis of gram-positive cocci.

    Desnottes, J F; Diallo, N; Moret, G


    Three strains of Staphylococcus aureus, serotype 18, Cowan I and serotype 66438, and different species of streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes, Str, mutans, Str. sanguis and Str. faecalis) were tested for their adherence to buccal cells (as measured by interference contrast microscopy) and phagocytosis by rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) (as measured by fluorescence microscopy with a vital fluorochrome, acridine orange). Pretreatment of cocci with serial two-fold dilutions of spiramycin (from 1/2 to 1/1024 the MIC), increased the diameter of bacterial cells and decreased the adherence of staphylococci and streptococci to buccal cells. Exposure of streptococci to 1/4 the MIC of spiramycin led to an increase of the phagocytic capacity of PMNs. Pretreatment of PMNs with a therapeutic concentration (2 mg/l) also stimulated the phagocytosis of streptococci. Action of spiramycin on the phagocytosis of staphylococci varied according to the strain tested. Although in-vitro results cannot be directly compared with in-vivo data, it is of interest that spiramycin decreases adherence of different Gram-positive cocci and enhances phagocytic capacity of PMNs.

  18. Experimental Study of Rat Beta Islet Cells Cultured under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    ChunSONG; Xiu-QingDUAN; XiLI; Li-OuHAN; PingXU; Chun-FangSONG:; Lian-HongJIN


    To observe the effects of simulated microgravity on beta islet cell culture, we have compared the survival rates and the insulin levels of the isolated rat islet cells cultured at micro- and normal gravity conditions. The survival rates of the cells cultured were determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide double-staining on day 3,7 and 14. The morphology of the cells was observed by electron microscopy.Insulin levels were measured by radio immuno assays. Our results show that the cell number cultured underthe microgravity condition is significantly higher than that under the routine condition (P<0.01). Some tubular structure shown by transmission electron microscopy, possibly for the transport of nutrients, were formed intercellularly in the microgravity cultured group on day 7. There were also abundant secretion particles and mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that there were holes formed between each islet, possibly connecting with the nutrient transport tubules. The microgravity cultured group also has higher insulin levels in the media as compared with the control group (P<0.01). Our results indicate that microgravity cultivation of islet cells has advantages over the routine culture methods.

  19. Experimental Study of Rat Beta Islet Cells Cultured under Simulated Microgravity Conditions

    Chun SONG; Xiu-Qing DUAN; Xi LI; Li-Ou HAN; Ping XU; Chun-Fang SONG; Lian-Hong JIN


    To observe the effects of simulated microgravity on beta islet cell culture, we have compared the survival rates and the insulin levels of the isolated rat islet cells cultured at micro- and normal gravity conditions. The survival rates of the cells cultured were determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide double-staining on day 3, 7 and 14. The morphology of the cells was observed by electron microscopy.Insulin levels were measured by radio immuno assays. Our results show that the cell number cultured under the microgravity condition is significantly higher than that under the routine condition (P<0.01). Some tubular structure shown by transmission electron microscopy, possibly for the transport of nutrients, were formed intercellularly in the microgravity cultured group on day 7. There were also abundant secretion particles and mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that there were holes formed between each islet, possibly connecting with the nutrient transport tubules. The microgravity cultured group also has higher insulin levels in the media as compared with the control group(P<0.01). Our results indicate that microgravity cultivation of islet cells has advantages over the routine culture methods.

  20. Etiology and Evaluation of Sperm Chromatin Anomalies

    Marziyeh Tavalaee


    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human sperm chromatin anomalies adversely affect reproductive outcomesand infertile men possess substantially amount of sperm with chromatin anomalies than fertilemen.Routine semen analysis evaluates parameters such as sperm motility and morphology, but doesnot examine the nuclear DNA integrity of spermatozoa. It has been suggested that altered nuclearchromatin structure or damaged DNA in spermatozoa could modify the special cellular functionsof human spermatozoa, and thereby affect the fertility potential. Intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI bypass the barriers to fertilization for such a sperm, then the effect of chromatin anomalies onthe development remains a concern. Therefore, it is essential to develop and use accurate diagnostictests, which may provide better prognostic capabilities than the standard sperm assessments. Thisreview discusses our current understanding of the structure and organization of sperm DNA,the different procedures for assessment of sperm chromatin anomalies including comet assay,Chromomycin A3 (CMA3, sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA, acridine orange test (AOT,terminal TdT-mediated dUTP-nick-end labelling (TUNEL assay, aniline blue and sperm chromatindispersion (SCD test and the impact of chromatin anomalies on reproductive outcome.

  1. Effect of baicalin-copper on the induction of apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma cancer HepG2 cells.

    Li, Xiaoli; Zou, Kaili; Gou, Jing; Du, Qin; Li, Dejuan; He, Xiaoyan; Li, Zhubo


    The medical properties of baicalin have been well known for many years. However, the discovery that baicalin in the presence of metal ions is more effective than baicalin alone changed the course of drug research. The present study was designed to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of apoptosis induced by baicalin-copper in a human hepatoblastoma cancer cell line (HepG2) and in vivo. This study demonstrated that baicalin-copper suppresses the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal injection of baicalin-copper resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth in xenografts in nude mice. Acridine orange staining and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that baicalin-copper induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells and caused cells to arrest in G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, baicalin-copper treatment significantly increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and p38 levels, as well as decreased the expression of caspase-3, p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR (P copper induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

  2. Toxicity of four nitrogen-heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) to soil organisms.

    Kobetičová, K; Bezchlebová, J; Lána, J; Sochová, I; Hofman, J


    The aims of this study were: (i) to investigate the toxicity of N-heterocyclic polyaromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) quinoline, acridine, phenazine, and 1,10-phenanthroline to the soil invertebrates Eisenia fetida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Folsomia candida, and Caenorhabditis elegans, (ii) to compare the toxicity of four NPAHs and the species sensitivity, and (iii) to discuss possible risks of these compounds in soils. Different toxicities were found for the tested NPAHs which might be partially explained by their structure and properties. Effect concentrations expressed as soil pore-water concentrations were related to log K(ow), which indicated narcosis as the most probable mode of toxic action. The species sensitivity decreased in the rank: springtails >enchytraeids=earthworms> nematodes. Predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values were calculated for all tested species giving values from 0.5 to 6.8 mg/kg. It is unlikely that there is a risk for soil organisms in natural soils where lower NPAHs concentrations are expected.

  3. Quantification of the degree of cell spreading of human fibroblasts by semi-automated analysis of the cell perimeter.

    Brugmans, M; Cassiman, J J; Vanderheydt, L; Oosterlinck, A J; Vlietinck, R; Van den Berghe, H


    Cell flattening and spreading on a substratum is of major importance in cellular and developmental biology. To study the mechanisms of cell spreading, quantitative and reproducible measures of the degree of cell spreading must be available. Normal human fibroblasts, spreading on a substratum, were fixed with glutaraldehyde, stained with acridine orange and photographed (X 40) under a fluorescence microscope. The photonegatives (containing 10-30 cells) were scanned with a drum scanner and a complete picture containing 128 gray levels was constructed. Each cell contour was calculated with the use of a local threshold. The image and the superimposed cell contours were displayed on a television screen (16 gray levels) and errors were corrected interactively. With this system the spreading of normal human skin fibroblasts as a function of time could be quantified reproducibly. Compared to surface area or shape, the cell perimeter proved to be a very sensitive parameter of the degree of spreading. By using cell perimeter measurements, differences in the degree of spreading on various substrata could be quantified.

  4. Apoptosis and morphological alterations after UVA irradiation in red blood cells of p53 deficient Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Sayed, Alla El-Din Hamid; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mitani, Hiroshi


    Morphological alterations in red blood cells were described as hematological bioindicators of UVA exposure to investigate the sensitivity to UVA in wild type Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and a p53 deficient mutant. The fewer abnormal red blood cells were observed in the p53 mutant fish under the control conditions. After exposure to different doses of UVA radiation (15min, 30min and 60min/day for 3days), cellular and nuclear alterations in red blood cells were analyzed in the UVA exposed fish compared with non-exposed controls and those alterations included acanthocytes, cell membrane lysis, swollen cells, teardrop-like cell, hemolyzed cells and sickle cells. Those alterations were increased after the UVA exposure both in wild type and the p53 deficient fish. Moreover, apoptosis analyzed by acridine orange assay showed increased number of apoptosis in red blood cells at the higher UVA exposure dose. No micronuclei but nuclear abnormalities as eccentric nucleus, nuclear budding, deformed nucleus, and bilobed nucleus were observed in each group. These results suggested that UVA exposure induced both p53 dependent and independent apoptosis and morphological alterations in red blood cells but less sensitive to UVA than Wild type in medaka fish.

  5. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos


    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  6. An evaluation on the adherence of Candida albicans to different denture- base materials

    Savabi O


    Full Text Available The surface topography of denture base material is an important factor for the"nadhesion of Candida albicans and other microorganisms."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans to four types of denture"nbase materials (Acropars acrylic resin, Meliodent acrylic resin, rough and smooth surfaces of Molloplast B."nMaterials and Methods: Seven blocks of two types of acrylic resins and ten blocks of silicone with one"nrough and one smooth surface were made and incubated in a suspension of Candida albicans. After washing,"nthe blocks were stained with acridine orange and examined under fluorescent microscope. For statistical"nanalysis ANOVA and Duncan tests were used."nResults: It was observed that Candida adhesion to rough surfaces of acrylic resins and silicone was"nsignificantly more than polished surfaces of acrylic resins and smooth silicone (PO.0001. However, no"nstatistical significant difference was found between polished acrylic resins surfaces and smooth silicone."nConclusion: Significant differences in the adherence of Candida to the surfaces of different denture base"nmaterials are due to differences in surface topography, chemical, physical and hydrophobic properties so it is"nrecommended to minimize the roughness and irregularities of denture base.

  7. Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.


    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine or (U-/sup 14/C) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  8. Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable count

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.


    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporating radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-tritium thymidine or (Uranium-Carbon 14) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  9. Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.

    Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua


    Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015 mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48 h and 24 h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity.

  10. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Activities of Methanolic Extracts from Ligustrum vulgare L. as an Individual Treatment and in Combination with Palladium Complex

    Snežana D. Marković


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the growth inhibitory effects of methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of L. vulgare on HCT-116 cells over different time periods and their synergistic effect with a Pd(apox complex. The antiproliferative activity of plant extracts alone or in combination with the Pd(apox complex was determined using MTT cell viability assay, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter of cytotoxicity. Results show that antiproliferative effects of L. vulgare extracts increase with extension of exposure time, with decreasing IC50 values, except for 72 h where the IC50 values for methanolic leaf extract were lower than for the fruit extract. The Pd(apox complex alone had a weak antiproliferative effect, but combination with L. vulgare extracts caused stronger effects with lower IC50 values than with L. vulgare extracts alone. The type of cell death was explored by fluorescence microscopy using the acridin orange/ethidium bromide method. Treatments with plant extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HCT-116 cells and co-treatments with Pd(apox complex caused higher levels of apoptotic cells than treatment with plant extracts alone. The results indicate that L. vulgare is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 cells and which have a substantial synergistic effect with the Pd(apox complex.

  11. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H.; Salomon, Christine E.; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil


    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  12. Atorvastatin Protects Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From TGF-β1-Stimulated Calcification by Inducing Autophagy via Suppression of the β-Catenin Pathway

    Demin Liu


    Full Text Available Background: Arterial calcification is a major event in the progression of atherosclerosis. It is reported that statins exhibit various protective effects against vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC inflammation and proliferation in cardiovascular remodeling. Although statins counteract atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanisms of statins on the calcium release from VSMCs have not been clearly elucidated. Methods: Calcium content of VSMCs was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The expression of proteins involved in cellular transdifferentiation was analyzed by western blot. Cell autophagy was measured by fluorescence microscopic analysis for acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The autophagic inhibitors (3-MA, chloroquine, NH4Cl and bafilomycin A1 and β-catenin inhibitor JW74 were used to assess the effects of atorvastatin on autophagy and the involvement of β-catenin on cell calcification respectively. Furthermore, cell transfection was performed to overexpress β-catenin. Results: In VSMCs, atorvastatin significantly suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1-stimulated calcification, accompanied by the induction of autophagy. Downregulation of autophagy with autophagic inhibitors significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on cell calcification. Moreover, the beneficial effect of atorvastatin on calcification and autophagy was reversed by β-catenin overexpression. Conversely, JW74 supplement enhanced this effect. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that atorvastatin protect VSMC from TGF-β1-stimulated calcification by inducing autophagy through suppression of the β-catenin pathway, identifying autophagy induction might be a therapeutic strategy for use in vascular calcification.

  13. Spectroscopic study of fast-neutron-irradiated chromatin

    Radu, L. [V. Babes National Inst., Dept. of Molecular Genetics, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail:; Gazdaru, D. [Bucharest Univ., Dept. of Biophysics, Physics Faculty, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, B. [H. Hulubei National Inst., Dept. of Cyclotron, Bucharest (Romania)


    The effects produced by fast neutrons (0-100 Gy) on chromatin structure were analyzed by (i) [{sup 1}H]-NMR spectroscopy, (ii) time resolved spectroscopy, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Two types of chromatin were tested: (i) a chromatin from a normal tissue (liver of Wistar rats) and (ii) a chromatin from a tumoral tissue (Guerin limphotrope epithelioma, a rat solid tumor). The fast-neutron action on chromatin determines greater values of the [{sup 1}H]-NMR transverse relaxation time, indicating a more injured structure. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements show that the relative contribution of the excited state lifetime of bound ethidium bromide to chromatin DNA diminishes with increasing irradiation doses. This reflects the damage that occurs in DNA structure: production of single- and double-strand breaks due to sugar and base modifications. By the FRET method, the distance between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled at chromatin was determined. This distance increases upon fast-neutron action. The radiosensitivity of the tumor tissue chromatin seems higher than that of the normal tissue chromatin, probably because of its higher (loose) euchromatin/(compact) heterochromatin ratio. As the values of the physical parameters analyzed are specific for a determined dose, the establishment of these parameters may constitute a criterion for the microdosimetry of chromatin radiolesions produced by fast neutrons. (author)

  14. Effects of fast neutrons on chromatin: dependence on chromatin structure

    Radu, L. [Dept. of Molecular Genetics, V. Babes National Inst., Bd. Timisoara, Bucharest (Romania); Constantinescu, B. [Dept. of Cyclotron, H. Hulubei National Inst., Bucharest (Romania); Gazdaru, D. [Dept. of Biophysics, Physics Faculty, Univ. of Bucharest (Romania)


    The effects of fast neutrons (10-100 Gy) on chromatin extracted from normal (liver of Wistar rats) and tumor (Walker carcinosarcoma maintained on Wistar rats) tissues were compared. The spectroscopic assays used were (i) chromatin intrinsic fluorescence, (ii) time-resolved fluorescence of chromatin-proflavine complexes, and (iii) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between dansyl chloride and acridine orange coupled to chromatin. For both normal and tumor chromatin, the intensity of intrinsic fluorescence specific for acidic and basic proteins decreased with increasing dose. The relative contributions of the excited-state lifetime of proflavine bound to chromatin were reduced upon fast-neutron irradiation, indicating a decrease in the proportion of chromatin DNA available for ligand binding. The Forster energy transfer efficiencies were also modified by irradiation. These effects were larger for chromatin from tumor tissue. In the range 0-100 Gy, fast neutrons induced alterations in DNA and acidic and basic proteins, as well as in global chromatin structure. The radiosensitivity of chromatin extracted from tumor tissue seems to be higher than that of chromatin extracted from normal tissue, probably because of its higher euchromatin (loose)-heterochromatin (compact) ratio. (author)

  15. Docetaxel inhibits SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells growth and induces apoptosis

    Chang-Xin Geng; Zhao-Chong Zeng; Ji-Yao Wang


    AIM: To investigate the in vitro anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) activity of docetaxel against SMMC-7721 HCC cells and its possible mechanism.METHODS: The HCC cells were given different concentrations of docetaxel and their growth was measured by colony forming assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy (acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining, AO/EB), as well as electronic microscopy. The SMMC-7721 HCC cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) were measured after given docetaxel.RESULTS: Docetaxel inhibited the hepatocellular carcinoma cells growth in a concentration dependent manner with IC505×10-10 M. Marked cell apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest were observed after treatment with docetaxel ≥10-8M.Docetaxel promoted SMMC-7721 HCC cells ROS generation and GSH deletion.CONCLUSION: Docetaxel suppressed the growth of SMMC7721 HCC cells in vitro by causing apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest of the human hepatoma cells, and ROS and GSH may play a key role in the inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis.

  16. Development and application of a simultaneous SPE-method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HET) and phenols in aqueous samples from German Rivers and the North Sea.

    Siemers, Anne-Kathrin; Mänz, Jan Sebastian; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Ruck, Wolfgang K L


    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs (NSO-HETs), alkylated PAHs and phenols are known as the prevailing contaminants in groundwater at tar contaminated sites. Besides these local sources, the concentrations and the distribution in particular of NSO-HETs in environmental samples, such as rivers, have received notably less attention. To investigate their occurrence in river basins two sensitive analytical methods for the simultaneous extraction of 86 substances including NSO-HETs, classical EPA-PAHs, alkylated PAHs and phenols were developed: liquid-liquid extraction for the whole water phase and solid phase extraction for the dissolved water phase only. Solely GC-MS or additionally LC-MSMS for fractionated basic nitrogen heterocycles (N-HETs) were used for quantification. Limits of quantification were in the low ngL(-1) range. Concentrations were determined in 29 aqueous samples from 8 relatively large rivers located in Lower Saxony (Germany) and the North Sea. NSO-HETs had comparable or even higher sum concentrations than EPA-PAHs. N-HETs, especially acridine and quinolines with concentrations of up to 20ngL(-1) per substance, were predominant.

  17. Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid with a Highly Active Ruthenium Acriphos Complex in DMSO and DMSO/Water.

    Rohmann, Kai; Kothe, Jens; Haenel, Matthias W; Englert, Ulli; Hölscher, Markus; Leitner, Walter


    The novel [Ru(Acriphos)(PPh3 )(Cl)(PhCO2 )] [1; Acriphos=4,5-bis(diphenylphosphino)acridine] is an excellent precatalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to give formic acid in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and DMSO/H2 O without the need for amine bases as co-reagents. Turnover numbers (TONs) of up to 4200 and turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 260 h(-1) were achieved, thus rendering 1 one of the most active catalysts for CO2 hydrogenations under additive-free conditions reported to date. The thermodynamic stabilization of the reaction product by the reaction medium, through hydrogen bonds between formic acid and clusters of solvent or water, were rationalized by DFT calculations. The relatively low final concentration of formic acid obtained experimentally under catalytic conditions (0.33 mol L(-1) ) was shown to be limited by product-dependent catalyst inhibition rather than thermodynamic limits, and could be overcome by addition of small amounts of acetate buffer, thus leading to a maximum concentration of free formic acid of 1.27 mol L(-1) , which corresponds to optimized values of TON=16×10(3) and TOFavg ≈10(3)  h(-1) .

  18. Inhibition of Autophagy via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway Contributes to the Protection of Ginsenoside Rb1 against Neuronal Death Caused by Ischemic Insults

    Tianfei Luo


    Full Text Available Lethal autophagy is a pathway leading to neuronal death caused by transient global ischemia. In this study, we examined the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1 on ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagic neuronal death and investigated the role of PI3K/Akt. Ischemic neuronal death in vitro was induced by using oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD in SH-SY5Y cells, and transient global ischemia was produced by using two vessels occlusion in rats. Cellular viability of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by MTT assay, and CA1 neuronal death was evaluated by Hematoxylin-eosin staining. Autophagic vacuoles were detected by using both fluorescent microscopy in combination with acridine orange (AO and Monodansylcadaverine (MDC staining and transmission electronic microscopy. Protein levels of LC3II, Beclin1, total Akt and phosphor-Akt at Ser473 were examined by western blotting analysis. GRb1 inhibited both OGD and transient ischemia-induced neuronal death and mitigated OGD-induced autophagic vacuoles in SH-SY5Y cells. By contrast, PI3K inhibitor LY294002 counteracted the protection of GRb1 against neuronal death caused by either OGD or transient ischemia. LY294002 not only mitigated the up-regulated protein level of phosphor Akt at Ser473 caused by GRb1, but also reversed the inhibitory effect of GRb1 on OGD and transient ischemia-induced elevation in protein levels of LC3II and Beclin1.

  19. Use of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Desulfovibrio vulgaris from environmental samples

    Chakraborty, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Joyner, D.C.; Kusel, K.; Singer, M.E.; Sitte, J.; Torok, T.


    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) has proved highly efficient for recovering microorganisms from heterogeneous samples. Current investigation targeted the separation of viable cells of the sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris. Streptavidin-coupled paramagnetic beads and biotin labeled antibodies raised against surface antigens of this microorganism were used to capture D. vulgaris cells in both bioreactor grown laboratory samples and from extremely low-biomass environmental soil and subsurface drilling samples. Initial studies on detection, recovery efficiency and viability for IMS were performed with laboratory grown D. vulgaris cells using various cell densities. Efficiency of cell isolation and recovery (i.e., release of the microbial cells from the beads following separation) was followed by microscopic imaging and acridine orange direct counts (AODC). Excellent recovery efficiency encouraged the use of IMS to capture Desulfovibrio spp. cells from low-biomass environmental samples. The environmental samples were obtained from a radionuclide-contaminated site in Germany and the chromium (VI)-contaminated Hanford site, an ongoing bioremediation project of the U.S. Department of Energy. Field deployable IMS technology may greatly facilitate environmental sampling and bioremediation process monitoring and enable transcriptomics and proteomics/metabolomics-based studies directly on cells collected from the field.

  20. Plasmid-mediated biodegradation of the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate, by Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7.

    Yeldho, Deepthi; Rebello, Sharrel; Jisha, M S


    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, has been used extensively due to its low cost and excellent foaming properties. Fifteen different bacterial isolates capable of degrading SDS were isolated from detergent contaminated soil by enrichment culture technique and the degradation efficiency was assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) assay. The most efficient SDS degrading isolate was selected and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa S7. The selected isolate was found to harbor a single 6-kb plasmid. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, SDS and elevated temperatures of incubation failed to cure the plasmid. The cured derivatives of SDS degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained only when ethidium bromide and elevated temperature (40 °C) were used together. Transformation of E. coli DH5α with plasmid isolated from S7 resulted in subsequent growth of the transformants on minimal salt media with SDS (0.1%) as the sole source of carbon. The SDS degradation ability of S7 and the transformant was found to be similar as assessed by Methylene Blue Active Substance Assay. The antibiotic resistance profiles of S7, competent DH5α and transformant were analyzed and it was noted that the transfer of antibiotic resistance correlated with the transfer of plasmid as well as SDS degrading property.

  1. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Boutin Jean A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  2. Analysis of mitochondria isolated from single cells.

    Johnson, Ryan D; Navratil, Marian; Poe, Bobby G; Xiong, Guohua; Olson, Karen J; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Andreyev, Dmitry; Duffy, Ciarán F; Arriaga, Edgar A


    Bulk studies are not suitable to describe and study cell-to-cell variation, which is of high importance in biological processes such as embryogenesis, tissue differentiation, and disease. Previously, capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) was used to measure the properties of organelles isolated from millions of cells. As such, these bulk measurements reported average properties for the organelles of cell populations. Similar measurements for organelles released from single cells would be highly relevant to describe the subcellular variations among cells. Toward this goal, here we introduce an approach to analyze the mitochondria released from single mammalian cells. Osteosarcoma 143B cells are labeled with either the fluorescent mitochondrion-specific 10-N-nonyl acridine orange (NAO) or via expression of the fluorescent protein DsRed2. Subsequently, a single cell is introduced into the CE-LIF capillary where the organelles are released by a combined treatment of digitonin and trypsin. After this treatment, an electric field is applied and the released organelles electromigrate toward the LIF detector. From an electropherogram, the number of detected events per cell, their individual electrophoretic mobilities, and their individual fluorescence intensities are calculated. The results obtained from DsRed2 labeling, which is retained in intact mitochondria, and NAO labeling, which labels all mitochondria, are the basis for discussion of the strengths and limitations of this single-cell approach.


    A. Nazarian and M. Mousawi


    Full Text Available The broadness application of organophosphorus compounds has abounded the number of its polluted areas. Bioremediation has widely focused on insitu bacterial degradation of organophosphorus residues in the world. Therefore, in this research six numbers of samples from two different sources, soil and water randomly were isolated using different organophosphorus pesticides containing mineral solution without supplementation. More than 100 isolated strains were selected according to their simultaneous optimal growth on mineral medium with organophosphorus and Mac Conkey,s agar. More than 50 percent of them were lost above resistance. The resistant strains were identified by two methods, the biochemical convention and API 20E procedure with positive agreement. The identified strains belonged to Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium species. The maximum tolerant concentrations of different organophosphorus pesticides by these resistant strains were 2.5, 4 and 8 g/L of guthion, methyl parathion and Dimethoate, respectively. The resistance to these pesticides due to organ phosphorous degrading plasmids had the ability to express hydrolytic enzymes. Resistant bacteria lost these plasmids by acridin orange and could translocate to sensitive strains. Thus, certain environmental bacteria could be used as protection tools against antinerve agents.

  4. Changeability of sperm chromatin structure during liquid storage of ovine semen in milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin-based extenders and their relationships to field-fertility.

    Khalifa, Tarek; Lymberopoulos, Aristotelis


    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of semen extender on sperm chromatin structure and to correlate chromatin integrity with field-fertility of preserved ram semen. Ejaculates of at least 2 × 10(9) sperm/ml and 70 % progressive motility were collected using an artificial vagina from Chios rams (n = 11, 4-6 years old), split-diluted to 1 × 10(9) sperm/ml with milk-egg yolk- and soybean lecithin (Ovixcell®)-based extenders, packaged in 0.5-ml straws and examined after 6, 24 and 48 h of storage at 5 ± 1 °C. Evaluation endpoints were computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, fluorescence-based analysis of chromatin structure by chromomycin A3 and acridine orange assays, and 65-day pregnancy rate (PR) of 34- to 36-h preserved semen after intra-cervical insemination of ewes (n = 154) in progestagen-synchronized estrus. Neither extender nor storage time had any influence on incidence of decondensed chromatin. Unlike Ovixcell® extender, deterioration of sperm motility (P egg yolk extender. Sperm motility accounted for 14.4-18.5 % of variations in chromatin integrity (P egg yolk-stored semen. Nevertheless, PR differed between rams (14.3-71.4 %; P egg yolk extender in preserving chromatin stability and motility. Chromatin defects are negatively associated with sperm fertility.

  5. The novel pterostilbene derivative ANK-199 induces autophagic cell death through regulating PI3 kinase class III/beclin 1/Atg‑related proteins in cisplatin‑resistant CAR human oral cancer cells.

    Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chen, Hao-Ping; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Wu, Tian-Shung; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Jai-Sing


    Pterostilbene is an effective chemopreventive agent against multiple types of cancer cells. A novel pterostilbene derivative, ANK-199, was designed and synthesized by our group. Its antitumor activity and mechanism in cisplatin-resistant CAR human oral cancer cells were investigated in this study. Our results show that ANK-199 has an extremely low toxicity in normal oral cell lines. The formation of autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) was observed in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and acridine orange (AO) staining, suggesting that ANK-199 is able to induce autophagic cell death in CAR cells. Neither DNA fragmentation nor DNA condensation was observed, which means that ANK-199-induced cell death is not triggered by apoptosis. In accordance with morphological observation, 3-MA, a specific inhibitor of PI3K kinase class III, can inhibit the autophagic vesicle formation induced by ANK-199. In addition, ANK-199 is also able to enhance the protein levels of autophagic proteins, Atg complex, beclin 1, PI3K class III and LC3-II, and mRNA expression of autophagic genes Atg7, Atg12, beclin 1 and LC3-II in the ANK-199-treated CAR cells. A molecular signaling pathway induced by ANK-199 was therefore summarized. Results presented in this study show that ANK-199 may become a novel therapeutic reagent for the treatment of oral cancer in the near future (patent pending).

  6. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging for personalized brain tumor resection: Current state and future directions

    Evgenii Belykh


    Full Text Available Introduction: Fluorescence-guided surgery is one of the rapidly emerging methods of surgical theranostics. In this review, we summarize current fluorescence techniques used in neurosurgical practice for brain tumor patients, as well as future applications of recent laboratory and translational studies.Methods: Review of the literature.Results: A wide spectrum of fluorophores that have been tested for brain surgery is reviewed. Beginning with a fluorescein sodium application in 1948 by Moore, fluorescence guided brain tumor surgery is either routinely applied in some centers or is under active study in clinical trials. Besides the trinity of commonly used drugs (fluorescein sodium, 5-ALA and ICG, less studied fluorescent stains, such as tetracyclines, cancer-selective alkylphosphocholine analogs, cresyl violet, acridine orange, and acriflavine can be used for rapid tumor detection and pathological tissue examination. Other emerging agents such as activity-based probes and targeted molecular probes that can provide biomolecular specificity for surgical visualization and treatment are reviewed. Furthermore, we review available engineering and optical solutions for fluorescent surgical visualization. Instruments for fluorescent-guided surgery are divided into wide-field imaging systems and hand-held probes. Recent advancements in quantitative fluorescence-guided surgery are discussed.Conclusion: We are standing on the doorstep of the era of marker-assisted tumor management. Innovations in the fields of surgical optics, computer image analysis, and molecular bioengineering are advancing fluorescence-guided tumor resection paradigms, leading to cell-level approaches to visualization and resection of brain tumors.

  7. A cytotoxic meroterpenoid benzoquinone from roots of Cordia globosa.

    Alencar de Menezes, Jane Eire; Lemos, Telma Leda; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Montenegro, Raquel C; Wilke, Diego Veras; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Silveira, Edilberto R


    (1a S*,1b S*,7a S*,8a S*)-4,5-Dimethoxy-1a,7a-dimethyl-1,1a,1b,2,7, 7a,8,8a-octahydrocyclopropa cyclopenta[1,2-b]naphthalene-3,6-dione (1), a new meroterpenoid benzoquinone, and microphyllaquinone (2), a known naphthoquinone, have been isolated from roots of Cordia globosa. Both structure determinations were performed by conventional spectroscopic methods, including inverse detection NMR techniques, and by comparison with data from the literature for related compounds. Compound 1 displayed considerable cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.2 to 5.0 microg/mL. The cytotoxic activity seemed to be related to DNA synthesis inhibition, as revealed by the reduction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and apoptosis induction, as indicated by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and morphological changes after 24 h of incubation on leukemic cells.

  8. Interaction of coumarin with calf thymus DNA: deciphering the mode of binding by in vitro studies.

    Sarwar, Tarique; Rehman, Sayeed Ur; Husain, Mohammed Amir; Ishqi, Hassan Mubarak; Tabish, Mohammad


    DNA is the major target for a wide range of therapeutic substances. Thus, there has been considerable interest in the binding studies of small molecules with DNA. Interaction between small molecules and DNA provides a structural guideline in rational drug designing and in the synthesis of new and improved drugs with enhanced selective activity and greater clinical efficacy. Plant derived polyphenolic compounds have a large number of biological and pharmacological properties. Coumarin is a polyphenolic compound which has been extensively studied for its diverse pharmacological properties. However, its mode of interaction with DNA has not been elucidated. In the present study, we have attempted to ascertain the mode of binding of coumarin with calf thymus DNA (Ct-DNA) through various biophysical techniques. Analysis of UV-visible absorbance spectra and fluorescence spectra indicates the formation of complex between coumarin and Ct-DNA. Several other experiments such as effect of ionic strength, iodide induced quenching, competitive binding assay with ethidium bromide, acridine orange and Hoechst 33258 reflected that coumarin possibly binds to the minor groove of the Ct-DNA. These observations were further supported by CD spectral analysis, viscosity measurements, DNA melting studies and in silico molecular docking.

  9. CpG methylation increases the DNA binding of 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt analogues.

    Kava, Hieronimus W; Murray, Vincent


    This study investigated the effect of CpG methylation on the DNA binding of cisplatin analogues with an attached aminoacridine intercalator. DNA-targeted 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complexes are known to bind at 5'-CpG sequences. Their binding to methylated and non-methylated 5'-CpG sequences was determined and compared with cisplatin. The damage profiles of each platinum compound were quantified via a polymerase stop assay with fluorescently labelled primers and capillary electrophoresis. Methylation at 5'-CpG was shown to significantly increase the binding intensity for the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide compounds, whereas no significant increase was found for cisplatin. 5'-CpG methylation had the largest effect on the 9-ethanolamine-acridine carboxamide Pt complex, followed by the 9-aminoacridine carboxamide Pt complex and the 7-fluoro complex. The methylation state of a cell's genome is important in maintaining normal gene expression, and is often aberrantly altered in cancer cells. An analogue of cisplatin which differentially targets methylated DNA may be able to improve its therapeutic activity, or alter its range of targets and evade the chemoresistance which hampers cisplatin efficacy in clinical use.

  10. Cytotoxic Effects of Newly Synthesized Palladium(II Complexes of Diethyldithiocarbamate on Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines

    Shahram Hadizadeh


    Full Text Available As a part of a drug development program to discover novel therapeutic and more effective palladium (Pd based anticancer drugs, a series of water-soluble Pd complexes have been synthesized by interaction between [Pd (phen(H2O2(NO32] and alkylenebisdithiocarbamate(al-bis-dtc disodium salts. This study was undertaken to examine the possible cytotoxic effect of three novel complexes (0.125–64 µg/mL on human gastric carcinoma (AGS, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (Kyse-30, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cell lines. The cytotoxicity was examined using cell proliferation and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB assay. In order to examine the effects of new Pd(II complexes on cell cycle status, we performed cell cycle analysis. The complexes were found to have completely lethal effects on the cell lines, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values obtained for the cell lines were much lower in comparison with cisplatin. We demonstrated that the three new Pd(II complexes are able to induce G2/M phase arrest in AGS and HepG2; in addition, the Pd(II complexes caused an S phase arrest in Kyse-30 cell line. Our results indicate that newly synthesized Pd(II complexes may provide a novel class of chemopreventive compounds for anticancer therapy.

  11. Effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts on HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo

    Ming-Hua Wang; Min Long; Bao-Yi Zhu; Shu-Hui Yang; Ji-Hong Ren; Hui-Zhong Zhang


    AIM: To observe the effects of sargentgloryvine stem extracts (SSE) on the hepatoma cell line HepG-2 in vitro and in vivo and determine its mechanisms of action.METHODS: Cultured HepG-2 cells treated with SSE were analysed by 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide and clone formation assay.The cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were conducted by flow cytometric, TdT-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods,and protein expression was examined by both reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting.The pathological changes of the tumor cells were observed by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Tumor growth inhibition and side effects were determined in a xenograft mouse model.RESULTS: SSE treatment could not only inhibit HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner but also induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at the S phase. The number of colonies formed by SSEtreated tumor cells was fewer than that of the controls (P 0.05). Systemic administration of SSE could inhibit the HepG-2 xenograft tumor growth with no obvious toxic side effects on normal tissues.CONCLUSION: SSE can induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells in vitro and in vivo through decreasing expression of Bcl-xl and Mcl-1 and increasing expression of Bax.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer for analysis of the quality of a DNA double helix

    Bregadze, V. G.; Melikishvili, Z. G.; Giorgadze, T. G.; Khutsishvili, I. G.; Khuskivadze, T. B.; Jaliashvili, Z. V.; Sigua, K. I.


    The goal of this work is to use the method of the laser-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of electronic excitation in a donor-acceptor pair of intercalators, (acridine orange (AO) as a donor and ethidium bromide (EB) as an acceptor), for the quantitative analysis of the quality of a DNA double helix. This approach obtains a visual picture of the defects of the genetic apparatus of tissue cells, particularly those of skin cells in real time and it can be used for the diagnosis of skin diseases and also in cosmetology. Transition metal (TM) ions such as Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), photo- and thermo effects were used to cause double helix defects in DNA. The concentration of DNA sites after exposure to Cu(II), Cu(I), Ag(I) ions, AgNPs impact, as well as laser irradiation (λ  =  457 nm) and temperature, which are applicable for intercalation, were estimated in relative units. The nanoscale FRET method enables the estimation of the concentration of double helix areas with high stability, applicable for intercalation in DNA after it was subjected to stress effect. It provides the opportunity to compare DNA-s of (1) different origin; (2) with various degrees of damage; (3) being in various functional states.

  13. Characterization of Meiotic Nuclear Degeneration in Paramecium tetraurelia%第四双小核草履虫减数分裂产物的退化特征分析

    高欣; 徐川梅; 杨仙玉


    During the conjugation of Paramecium tetraurelia, one meiotic nucleus which enters the paroral region survives and undergoes mitotic division to form gametic pronuclei, while the remaining seven degenerate. To clarify if these meiotic outcomes degenerate in an apoptotic way, two kinds of vital fluorescence dyes, acridine orange and Hoechst 33342 were used. The observation showed that the degenerating nuclei outside the paroral region stained yellow-orange or greenish which indicates a programmed nuclear degeneration.%通过吖啶橙和Hoechst 33342两种活体荧光染料双染的方法对第四双小核草履虫(Paramecium tetraurelia)接合生殖过程中小核减数分裂产物进行观察,结果发现位于口旁锥外的小核分裂产物呈蓝绿色或黄绿色,表明它们以凋亡的方式发生退化.

  14. Oleanolic acid from Prunella Vulgaris L. induces SPC-A-1 cell line apoptosis via regulation of Bax, Bad and Bcl-2 expression.

    Feng, Liang; Au-Yeung, Wai; Xu, You-Hua; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Quan; Xiang, Ping


    Prunella vulgaris L. (PV) has been used as a herb for chemoprevention of lung cancer. In this study, the main active compound, oleanolic acid (OA) was isolated from an ethanol extract and its chemical structure was identified according to the results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrography (LC-MS). Results for cell viability indictated no notable differences between OA and ethanol extract of PV in lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A-1 cells measured by MTT assay. Consistent concentration-response curves. Fluorescence detection with acridine orange-ethidium bromide was used to evaluate apoptosis of SPC-A-1 cells. OA at 16 and 8 microM group increased significantly the apoptosis rate compared with normal and 1% DMSO groups (p<0.05). In addition, immunocytochemistry assays showed increase in Bax and Bad protein expression while Bcl-2 decreased. Moreover, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was heightened by OA treatment. The results suggest OA induced apoptosis of lung adenocarcinoma cells through down-regulating Bcl-2 expression, and up-regulating Bax and Bad expression.

  15. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Inducing Mechanisms of Curcumin on Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line A2780

    ZHENG Li-duan; TONG Qiang-song; WU Cui-huan


    Objective: To explore the growth inhibition effects and apoptosis inducing mechanisms of curcumin on human ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Methods: After treatment with 10-50 μmol/L curcumin for 6-24 h, the growth activity of A2780 cancer cells were studied by [ 4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyItetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry. Cellular apoptosis was inspected by flow cytometery and acridine orange-ethidium bromide fluorescent staining methods. The fragmentation of cellular chromosome DNA was detected by DNA ladder, the ultrastructural change was observed under a transmission electron microscope,and the protein levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB, P65) and cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3) in ovarian cancer cells were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: After treatment with various concentrations of curcumin, the growth inhibition rates of cancer cells reached 62.05%- 89.24%,with sub-G1 peaks appearing on histogram. Part of the cancer cells showed characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis under fluorescence and electron microscopes, and the rate of apoptosis was 21.5 % -33.5%. The protein expression of NF-κB was decreased, while that of Caspase-3 was increased in a timedependent manner. Conclusion: Curcumin could significantly inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer cells;inducing apoptosis through up-regulating Caspase-3 and down-regulating gene expression of NF-κB is probably one of its molecular mechanisms.

  16. Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum and Combination Induced Apoptosis and p53 Expression in Myeloma and WiDr Cell Lines



    Full Text Available In previous studies, Zingiber officinale, Piper retrofractum, and the combination showed cytotoxic activity, induced apoptosis, and p53 expression of HeLa, T47D, and MCF-7 cell lines. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of Zingiber officinale (ZO, Piper retrofractum (PR, and the combination as well as their effect to p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. The powder of ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination (1:1 were macerated with 96% ethanol for 3 x 24 hours. MTT cytotoxic assay was performed on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Apoptotic cells were stained with ethidium bromide and acridine orange. Imunohistochemical expression of p53 was examined on Myeloma and WiDr cell lines. Doxorubicin was used as positive control in all assays. Results showed that ZO, PR, and ZO + PR combination had cytotoxic activity on Myeloma cells with IC50 of 28, 36, and 55 mg/ml respectively and WiDr cell lines with IC50 of 74, 158, and 64 mg/ml respectively, induced apoptotic activity, and increased p53 expression on Myeloma and WiDr cells. These results suggest that ZO, PR, and their combination induced Myeloma and WiDr cells in apoptosis through p53 expression.

  17. Ca2+-induced phase separation in the membrane of palmitate-containing liposomes and its possible relation to membrane permeabilization.

    Agafonov, Alexey V; Gritsenko, Elena N; Shlyapnikova, Elena A; Kharakoz, Dmitry P; Belosludtseva, Natalia V; Lezhnev, Enrik I; Saris, Nils-Erik L; Mironova, Galina D


    A Ca(2+)-induced phase separation of palmitic acid (PA) in the membrane of azolectin unilamellar liposomes has been demonstrated with the fluorescent membrane probe nonyl acridine orange (NAO). It has been shown that NAO, whose fluorescence in liposomal membranes is quenched in a concentration-dependent way, can be used to monitor changes in the volume of lipid phase. The incorporation of PA into NAO-labeled liposomes increased fluorescence corresponding to the expansion of membrane. After subsequent addition of Ca(2+), fluorescence decreased, which indicated separation of PA/Ca(2+) complexes into distinct membrane domains. The Ca(2+)-induced phase separation of PA was further studied in relation to membrane permeabilization caused by Ca(2+) in the PA-containing liposomes. A supposition was made that the mechanism of PA/Ca(2+)-induced membrane permeabilization relates to the initial stage of Ca(2+)-induced phase separation of PA and can be considered as formation of fast-tightening lipid pores due to chemotropic phase transition in the lipid bilayer.

  18. Luteolin decreases the attachment, invasion and cytotoxicity of UPEC in bladder epithelial cells and inhibits UPEC biofilm formation.

    Shen, Xiao-fei; Ren, Lai-bin; Teng, Yan; Zheng, Shuang; Yang, Xiao-long; Guo, Xiao-juan; Wang, Xin-yuan; Sha, Kai-hui; Li, Na; Xu, Guang-ya; Tian, Han-wen; Wang, Xiao-ying; Liu, Xiao-kang; Li, Jingyu; Huang, Ning


    Urinary tract infection (UTI), primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel treatment strategies. Luteolin, a dietary polyphenolic flavonoid, has been confirmed as a potential antimicrobial agent. Here, we evaluated the sub-MICs of luteolin for potential properties to modulate the UPEC infection. We found that luteolin significantly decreased the attachment and invasion of UPEC J96 or CFT073 in human bladder epithelial cell lines T24. Meanwhile, obvious decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae adhesin fimH gene, lower bacterial surface hydrophobicity and swimming motility, were observed in luteolin-pretreated UPEC. Furthermore, luteolin could attenuate UPEC-induced cytotoxicity in T24 cells, which manifested as decreased activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Simultaneously, the inhibition of luteolin on UPEC-induced cytotoxicity was confirmed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. Finally, the luteolin-pretreated UPEC showed a lower ability of biofilm formation. Collectively, these results indicated that luteolin decreased the attachment and invasion of UPEC in bladder epithelial cells, attenuated UPEC-induced cytotoxicity and biofilm formation via down-regulating the expression of adhesin fimH gene, reducing the bacterial surface hydrophobicity and motility.

  19. Fuzzy logic sensing of G-quadruplex DNA and its cleavage reagents based on reduced graphene oxide.

    Huang, Wei Tao; Zhang, Jian Rong; Xie, Wan Yi; Shi, Yan; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing


    Herein, by combining the merits of nanotechnology and fuzzy logic theory, we develop a simple, label-free, and general strategy based on an organic dye-graphene hybrid system for fluorescence intelligent sensing of G-quadruplexes (G4) formation, hydroxyl radical (HO∙), and Fe(2+) in vitro. By exploiting acridine orange (AO) dyes-graphene as a nanofilter and nanoswitch and the ability of graphene to interact with DNA with different structures, our approach can efficiently distinguish, quantitatively detect target analytes. In vitro assays with G4DNA demonstrated increases in fluorescence intensity of the AO-rGO system with a linear range of 16-338 nM and a detection limit as low as 2.0 nM. The requenched fluorescence of the G4TBA-AO-rGO system has a non-linear response to Fenton reagent. But this requenching reduces the fluorescence intensity in a manner proportional to the logarithm to the base 10 of the concentration of Fenton reagent in the range of 0.1-100 μM and 100-2000 μM, respectively. Furthermore, we develop a novel and intelligent sensing method based on fuzzy logic which mimics human reasoning, solves complex and non-linear problems, and transforms the numerical output into the language description output for potential application in biochemical systems, environmental monitoring systems, and molecular-level fuzzy logic computing system.

  20. Microbial diversity in cold seep sediments from the northern South China Sea

    Yong Zhang


    Full Text Available South China Sea (SCS is the largest Western Pacific marginal sea. However, microbial studies have never been performed in the cold seep sediments in the SCS. In 2004, “SONNE” 177 cruise found two cold seep areas with different water depth in the northern SCS. Haiyang 4 area, where the water depth is around 3000 m, has already been confirmed for active seeping on the seafloor, such as microbial mats, authigenic carbonate crusts and bivalves. We investigated microbial abundance and diversity in a 5.55-m sediment core collected from this cold seep area. An integrated approach was employed including geochemistry and 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses. Here, we show that microbial abundance and diversity along with geochemistry profiles of the sediment core revealed a coupled reaction between sulphate reduction and methane oxidation. Acridine orange direct count results showed that microbial abundance ranges from 105 to 106 cells/g sediment (wet weight. The depth-related variation of the abundance showed the same trend as the methane concentration profile. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of sulphate-reducing bacteria and anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea. The diversity was much higher at the surface, but decreased sharply with depth in response to changes in the geochemical conditions of the sediments, such as methane, sulphate concentration and total organic carbon. Marine Benthic Group B, Chloroflexi and JS1 were predominant phylotypes of the archaeal and bacterial libraries, respectively.

  1. Hesperidin as a preventive resistance agent in MCF-7 breast cancer cells line resistance to doxorubicin

    Rifki Febriansah; Dyaningtyas Dewi PP; Sarmoko; Nunuk Aries Nurulita; Edy Meiyanto; Agung Endro Nugroho


    Objective:To evaluate of hesperidin to overcome resistance of doxorubicin in MCF-7 resistant doxorubicin cells (MCF-7/Dox) in cytotoxicity apoptosis and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression in combination with doxorubicin. Methods:The cytotoxic properties, 50%inhibition concentration (IC50) and its combination with doxorubicin in MCF-7 cell lines resistant to doxorubicin (MCF-7/Dox) cells were determined using MTT assay. Apoptosis induction was examined by double staining assay using ethidium bromide-acridine orange. Immunocytochemistry assay was performed to determine the level and localization of Pgp. Results: Single treatment of hesperidin showed cytotoxic activity on MCF-7/Dox cells with IC50 value of 11 µmol/L. Thus, combination treatment from hesperidin and doxorubicin showed addictive and antagonist effect (CI>1.0). Hesperidin did not increase the apoptotic induction, but decreased the Pgp expressions level when combined with doxorubicin in low concentration. Conclusions: Hesperidin has cytotoxic effect on MCF-7/Dox cells with IC50 of 11 µmol/L. Hesperidin did not increased the apoptotic induction combined with doxorubicin. Co-chemotherapy application of doxorubicin and hesperidin on MCF-7/Dox cells showed synergism effect through inhibition of Pgp expression.

  2. Combinational effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. and doxorubicin chemotherapy on T47D breast cancer cells

    Agung Endro Nugroho; Adam Hermawan; Anindya Novika; Edy Meiyanto


    Objective: To evaluate the effects of n-hexane insoluble fraction (HIF) of Ficus septica leaves in combination with doxorubicin on cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis induction of breast cancer T47D cell lines. Methods: The in vitro drugs-stimulated cytotoxic effects were determined using MTT assay. Analysis of cell cycle distribution was performed using flowcytometer and the data was analyzed using ModFit LT 3.0 program. Apoptosis assay was carried out by double staining method using ethydium bromide-acridin orange. The expression of cleaved-poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) on T47D cell lines was identified using immunocytochemistry. Results:The combination exhibited higher inhibitory effect on cell growth than the single treatment of doxorubicin in T47D cells. In addition, combination of doxorubicin and HIF increased the incidence of cells undergoing apoptosis. HIF could improve doxorubicin cytotoxic effect by changing the accumulation of cell cycle phase from G2/M to G1 phase. The combination also exhibited upregulation of cleaved-PARP in T47D cells. Conclusions: Based on this results, HIF is potential to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. However, the molecular mechanism need to be explored further.

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Arylpiperazine-based novel Phthalimides: Active inducers of testicular germ cell apoptosis



    Understanding of apoptosis or programmed cell death has provided the basis for novel therapeutics that has resulted in rationally designed anticancer strategies. Recently, inducers of apoptosis have been used in cancer therapy. In this work, we describe the role of chiral phthalimides functionalized with piperazines aspotential apoptotic inducers. The listed twenty phthalimides were assessed for their in vitro apoptotic activity against testicular germ cells. All phthalimides showed a significant apoptotic response (∼39 to ∼68%). TUNEL assay and acridine orange fluorescence staining were carried out to investigate the molecular mechanismsresponsible for the cell death. Phthalimides exhibited substantial apoptotic induction following the intrinsic pathway mechanism. Studies advocated that the apoptotic induction was mediated through caspase-9, caspase-3, JNK MAP kinase and tumor suppressor p53, which was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and nuclearcondensation. Besides, the best five phthalimides regarding apoptotic action were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic effects against CAL-72 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Compounds showed efficient killing of cancer cells. This discovery of functionalized phthalimides as apoptotic inducers would be highly valuable in understanding the mechanism of apoptosis at the molecular level and opens up new possibilities for therapeutic strategies.

  4. Subcellular and in-vivo Nano-Endoscopy

    Cheemalapati, Surya Venkatasekhar; Winskas, John; Wang, Hao; Konnaiyan, Karthik; Zhdanov, Arseny; Roth, Alison; Adapa, Swamy Rakesh; Deonarine, Andrew; Noble, Mark; Das, Tuhin; Gatenby, Robert; Westerheide, Sandy D.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Pyayt, Anna


    Analysis of individual cells at the subcellular level is important for understanding diseases and accelerating drug discovery. Nanoscale endoscopes allow minimally invasive probing of individual cell interiors. Several such instruments have been presented previously, but they are either too complex to fabricate or require sophisticated external detectors because of low signal collection efficiency. Here we present a nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted signal for spectral analysis. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations have shown that with an optimized nanoendoscope taper profile, the light emission and collection was localized within ~100 nm. This allows signal detection to be used for nano-photonic sensing of the proximity of fluorophores. Upon insertion into the individual organelles of living cells, the nanoendoscope was fabricated and resultant fluorescent signals collected. This included the signal collection from the nucleus of Acridine orange labelled human fibroblast cells, the nucleus of Hoechst stained live liver cells and the mitochondria of MitoTracker Red labelled MDA-MB-231 cells. The endoscope was also inserted into a live organism, the yellow fluorescent protein producing nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and a fluorescent signal was collected. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of in vivo, local fluorescence signal collection on the sub-organelle level. PMID:27694854

  5. Low-temperature spectra of the analogues of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline as an indication of barrierless ESIPT.

    Deperasińska, Irena; Gryko, Daniel T; Karpiuk, Elena; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław; Makarewicz, Artur; Piechowska, Joanna


    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of two analogues of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (10-HBQ), namely, 1-hydroxy-7-methylbenzo[c]acridine (HMBA) and 4-hydroxybenzo[c]phenanthridine (HBPA), were studied in n-alkane matrices at 5 K. Considerable energy separation between the onsets of the spectra and broadening of the bands was an indication that intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) takes place at such a low temperature. DFT and ab initio methods were used to calculate the electronic transition energies and oscillator strengths and the vibronic structure of the electronic spectra. Shortcomings in our knowledge of the shape of the potential energy surface for ESIPT systems are highlighted in the context of the discussion of the shape of the electronic spectra. The π-expansion of the 10-HBQ chromophore achieved by adding a benzene moiety at various positions adjacent to the pyridine ring led to compounds possessing diverse photophysical properties, ranging from the non-ESIPT strongly fluorescent molecule of 10-hydroxy-1-azaperylene to weakly emitting (or nonemitting) molecules, where ESIPT occurs very efficiently.

  6. Rosiglitazone enhances fluorouracil-induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    Yan-Qin Zhang; Xiao-Qing Tang; Li Sun; Lin Dong; Yong Qin; Hua-Qing Liu; Hong Xia; Jian-Guo Cao


    AIM: To examine whether and how rosiglitazone enhances apoptosis induced by fluorouracil in human colon cancer (HT-29) cells.METHODS: Human colon cancer HT-29 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with fluorouracil and/or rosiglitazone. Proliferation and growth of HT-29 cells were evaluated by MTT assay and trypan blue exclusion methods, respectively. The apoptosis of HT-29 cells was determined by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry using PI fluorescence staining. The expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y (PPARy), Bcl-2 and Bax in HT-29 cells were analyzed by Western blot.RESULTS: Although rosiglitazone at the concentration below 30 umol/L for 72 h exerted almost no inhibitory effect on proliferation and growth of HT-29 cells, it could significantly enhance fluorouracil-induced HT-29 cell proliferation and growth inhibition. Furthermore, 10 umol/L rosilitazone did not induce apoptosis of HT-29 cells but dramatically enhanced fluorouracil-induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells. However, rosiglitazone did not improve apoptosis induced by fluorouracil in HT-29 cells pretreated with GW9662, a PPARy antagonist. Meanwhile, the expression of Bax and PPARy was up-regulated, while the expression of Bcl-2 was down regulated in HT-29 cells treated with rosiglitazone in a time-dependent manner. However, the effect of rosiglitazone on Bcl-2 and Bax was blocked or diminished in the presence of GW9662.CONCLUSION: Rosiglitazone enhances fluorouracil-induced apoptosis of HT-29 cells by activating PPARγ.

  7. Cellular heredity in haploid cultures of somatic cells. Annual progress report, March 1, 1975--March 31, 1976. [UV radiation

    Freed, J.J.


    In experiments with haploid and diploid derivatives from the haploid frog embryo cell line ICR 2A, we have investigated aspects of cell survival, DNA repair and mutant induction after exposure to 254 nm radiation. Survival curves for haploid and diploid cells in random growth or blocked in the Gl phase of the cell cycle were determined; the survival data do not differ sufficiently to permit the use of such comparisons as an index of recessive lethal induction. Studies of the induction of thymine dimers in DNA indicated that the incidence of dimers in DNA from haploid and diploid cells is similar after exposure of the cells to equal doses of ultraviolet. The cells are capable of photoreversing dimers but appear to be deficient in excision repair. In an attempt to examine the effect of the permitted mode of DNA repair on the yield of mutations, we compared the incidence of ouabain-resistant variants among survivors of ultraviolet exposure and of ultraviolet exposure followed by photoreversal. Although the yield of resistant colonies was small, the data suggest that photoreversal lowers the yield of resistant colonies and thus that the induction of this phenotype is related to dimer persistence in DNA. We have also observed by fluorescence microscopy that an acridine mustard mutagen, ICR 191, is preferentially accumulated in cytoplasmic granules having the intracellular distribution pattern of lysosomes. This form of incorporation may be significant in the apparently non-genetic early toxicity of this compound observed in experiments with cultured cells.

  8. A fluorescence-based centrifugal microfluidic system for parallel detection of multiple allergens

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Cheung, K. L.; Kong, S. K.; Suen, Y. K.; Kwan, Y. W.; Li, W. J.; Wong, C. K.


    This paper reports a robust polymer based centrifugal microfluidic analysis system that can provide parallel detection of multiple allergens in vitro. Many commercial food products (milk, bean, pollen, etc.) may introduce allergy to people. A low-cost device for rapid detection of allergens is highly desirable. With this as the objective, we have studied the feasibility of using a rotating disk device incorporating centrifugal microfluidics for performing actuationfree and multi-analyte detection of different allergen species with minimum sample usage and fast response time. Degranulation in basophils or mast cells is an indicator to demonstrate allergic reaction. In this connection, we used acridine orange (AO) to demonstrate degranulation in KU812 human basophils. It was found that the AO was released from granules when cells were stimulated by ionomycin, thus signifying the release of histamine which accounts for allergy symptoms [1-2]. Within this rotating optical platform, major microfluidic components including sample reservoirs, reaction chambers, microchannel and flow-control compartments are integrated into a single bio-compatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The flow sequence and reaction time can be controlled precisely. Sequentially through varying the spinning speed, the disk may perform a variety of steps on sample loading, reaction and detection. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of using centrifugation as a possible immunoassay system in the future.

  9. Blockage of both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of diazinon-induced apoptosis in PaTu cells by magnesium oxide and selenium nanoparticles

    Shiri, Mahdi; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona; Baeeri, Maryam; Rahimifard, Mahban; Mahboudi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad


    Diazinon (DZ) is an organophosphorus insecticide that acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. It is important to note that it can induce oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, diabetic disorders, and cytotoxicity. Magnesium oxide (MgO) and selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) showed promising protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and diabetic disorders. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the possible protective mechanisms of MgO and Se NPs against DZ-induced cytotoxicity in PaTu cell line. Cytotoxicity of DZ, in the presence or absence of effective doses of MgO and Se NPs, was determined in human pancreatic cancer cell line (PaTu cells) after 24 hours of exposure by using mitochondrial activity and mitochondrial membrane potential assays. Then, the insulin, proinsulin, and C-peptide release; caspase-3 and -9 activities; and total thiol molecule levels were assessed. Determination of cell viability, including apoptotic and necrotic cells, was assessed via acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining. Furthermore, expression of 15 genes associated with cell death/apoptosis in various phenomena was examined after 24 hours of contact with DZ and NPs by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Compared to the individual cases, the group receiving the combination of MgO and Se NPs showed more beneficial effects in reducing the toxicity of DZ. Cotreatment of PaTu cell lines with MgO and Se NPs counteracts the toxicity of DZ on insulin-producing cells. PMID:27920530

  10. Development of an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocyclic compounds. application to diesel particulates.

    Sauvain, J J; Vu Duc, T; Huynh, C K


    A new method enabling the determination of 15 priority carcinogenic polyaromatic compounds (PAC) proposed by the US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been developed and applied to diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). The clean-up procedure consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC fractionation on silica phases followed by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatography on a polyvinylbenzene copolymer column. The method gives good recoveries for all PAC studied except dibenzo[a,j]acridine and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, for which recovery values are below 80%. The use of GC-MS ion trap and its capacity to achieve single-ion storage enhanced the sensitivity of the method, enabling the detection of high-molecular-weight PAH in the low ng g(-1) concentration range. Intermediate polarity GC columns, e.g. BPX-50 or equivalent, enabled better separation, when applied to DEP analysis, than the generally used DB-5 apolar phase. This is observed mainly for separation of isomeric compounds belonging to the benzofluoranthene and dibenzopyrene families. The application of this method to DEP sampled from the exhaust of a diesel engine and in confined locations such as a tunnel has shown that all PAH of the NTP list could be detected, except dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. No dibenzacridine or dibenzocarbazole could be detected in such matrices. The method is sufficiently sensitive to be applicable to environmental exposure measurements in occupational health surveys.

  11. Layered double hydroxide of Cd-Al/C for the Mineralization and De-coloration of Dyes in Solar and Visible Light Exposure

    Khan, Shahid Ali; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Asiri, Abdullah M.


    Cd-Al/C layered double hydroxide (Cd-Al/C-LDH) and Cd-Sb/C nanocatalyst are reported here for the de-coloration and mineralization of organic dyes. These catalysts were largely characterized by FESEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR, XPS, PL and DRS. The diffuse reflectance data showed a band gap at 2.92 and 2.983 eV for Cd-Al/C-LDH and Cd-Sb/C respectively. The band gap suggested that both catalysts work well in visible range. The photoluminescence spectra indicated a peak at 623 nm for both the catalysts which further support the effectiveness of the respective catalyst in visible range. Both catalysts also showed good recyclability and durability till 4th cycle. Five dyes, acridine orange (AO), malachite green (MG), crystal violet (CV), congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) were used in this experiment. Various parameters of different light intensity such as visible, ultraviolet, sunlight and dark condition are observed for the de-coloration of these dyes. The de-coloration phenomenon was proceeded through adsorption assisted phot-degradation. The low cost, abundant nature, good recyclability and better dye removal efficiency make these catalysts suitable candidates for the de-coloration and mineralization of organic dyes.

  12. Gold-nanoparticle extraction and reversed-electrode-polarity stacking mode combined to enhance capillary electrophoresis sensitivity for conjugated nucleosides and oligonucleotides containing thioether linkers.

    Bosi, Valentina; Sarti, Elena; Navacchia, Maria Luisa; Perrone, Daniela; Pasti, Luisa; Cavazzini, Alberto; Capobianco, Massimo L


    We present a capillary electrophoresis method for determining two different C8-conjugated deoxyadenosines, and for oligonucleotides containing them, in which a psoralen or an acridine molecule is bonded to the base via a short alkyl chain containing sulfur ethers at both ends. The sensitivity of the micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was increased by using two preconcentration techniques, micro solid-phase extraction (μSPE) followed by reversed-electrode-polarity stacking mode (REPSM). Variables that affect the efficiency of the extraction in μSPE and preconcentration by REPSM, including the type and volume of extraction nanoparticle, concentration, and injection time, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factors obtained were in the range 360-400. The limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 ranged from 2 to 5 nmol L(-1). The relative recoveries of labelled adenosines from water samples were 95-103%. The proposed method provided high enrichment factors and good precision and accuracy with a short analysis time. On the basis of the advantages of simplicity, high selectivity, high sensitivity, and good reproducibility, the proposed method may have great potential for biochemical applications.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide lowers proliferation and induces protective autophagy in colon epithelial cells.

    Ya C Wu

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H(2S is a gaseous bacterial metabolite that reaches high levels in the large intestine. In the present study, the effect of H(2S on the proliferation of normal and cancerous colon epithelial cells was investigated. An immortalized colon epithelial cell line (YAMC and a panel of colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, SW1116, HCT116 were exposed to H(2S at concentrations similar to those found in the human colon. H(2S inhibited normal and cancerous colon epithelial cell proliferation as measured by MTT assay. The anti-mitogenic effect of H(2S was accompanied by G(1-phase cell cycle arrest and the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(Cip. Moreover, exposure to H(2S led to features characteristic of autophagy, including increased formation of LC3B(+ autophagic vacuoles and acidic vesicular organelles as determined by immunofluorescence and acridine orange staining, respectively. Abolition of autophagy by RNA interference targeting Vps34 or Atg7 enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of H(2S. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that H(2S stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and inhibited the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and S6 kinase. Inhibition of AMPK significantly reversed H(2S-induced autophagy and inhibition of cell proliferation. Collectively, we demonstrate that H(2S inhibits colon epithelial cell proliferation and induces protective autophagy via the AMPK pathway.

  14. Ethanol extract of Artemisia sieversiana exhibits anticancer effects and induces apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway involving DNA damage in COLO-205 colon carcinoma cells

    Jun Tang


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to see the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of ethanolic herbal extract of Artemisia sieversiana against three human colon cancer (HT-29, HCT-15 and COLO-205 cells. The cytotoxicity of the extract on these cell lines was evaluated by MTT assay. Phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/ETBR staining was employed to investigate morphological alterations in COLO-205 cells by the herbal extract. Flow cytometry instrument measured the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential loss while as gel electrophoresis measured DNA damage in these cells. The extract at increasing doses exhibited a strong cytotoxic effect in a dose-dependent manner against all the three colon cancer cell lines. The IC50 values of the extract against HT-29, HCT-15 and COLO-205 cancer cells were found to be 52.1, 43.2 and 38.6 µg/mL respectively. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss (ΔΨm and DNA fragmentation events were also observed following extract treatment at increasing doses.

  15. Highly sensitive turn-on fluorescence detection of thrombomodulin based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    Kong, Liyan; Zhu, Jiaming; Wang, Wen; Jin, Lehe; Fu, Yanjiao; Duan, Bohui; Tan, Liang


    As an integral glycoprotein on the surface of endothelial cells, thrombomodulin (TM) has very high affinity for thrombin. TM has been regarded to be a marker of endothelial damage since it can be released during endothelial cell injury. In this work, a highly sensitive fluorescence method for the quantitative detection of TM was developed. TM antibody (Ab) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were bound on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to construct BSA-AuNPs-Ab nanocomposites and they were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The fluorescence of acridine orange (AO) was quenched by the prepared gold nanocomposites based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). In the presence of TM, the fluorescence was turned on due to the effective separation of AO from the surface of gold nanocomposites. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced fluorescence intensity displayed a linear relationship with the logarithm of the TM concentration from 0.1 pg mL- 1 to 5 ng mL- 1 with a low detection limit of 12 fg mL- 1. The release of soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) by the injured HUVEC-C cells in the presence of H2O2 was investigated using the proposed method. The released sTM content in the growth medium was found to be increased with the enhancement of contact time of the cells with H2O2.

  16. Cysteine: A Novel Neural Inducer for Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Malek Soleimani Mehranjani


    Full Text Available Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate into various cell types. Since cysteine has structural similarities to neuronal inducers β-mercaptoethanol and glutathione, we examined its effect on neural induction of rat bone marrow MSCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, cells were treated in a medium containing 1mM cysteine for 24 hours prior to treatment with neuron inducing medium containing 10 mM cysteine for 1, 2 and 3 hours. Cell viability and morphology were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and, Hoechst, propidium iodide and acridine orange staining respectively. Expression of nestin and β-Tubulin III genes, as neural cell-specific markers, was studied reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The data was statistically analyzed using One-Way ANOVA and Tukey’s test and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: After 3 hours of treatment, neuron like morphology with a considerable expression of nestin and β-Tubulin III genes was apparent. The mean cell viability was not significantly different at 1, 2 and 3 hours following induction, compared with the control cells. Conclusion: Cysteine can induce neural features in rat bone marrow MSCs without reducing cell viability. Therefore, it can be considered as a safer alternative to toxic neural inducer agents such as β-mercaptoethanol.

  17. Caffeine-Induced Premature Chromosome Condensation Results in the Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death in Root Meristems of Vicia faba.

    Dorota Rybaczek

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that the activation of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD was a secondary result of caffeine (CF induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC in hydroxyurea-synchronized Vicia faba root meristem cells. Initiation of the apoptotic-like cell degradation pathway seemed to be the result of DNA damage generated by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU [double-stranded breaks (DSBs mostly] and co-treatment with HU/CF [single-stranded breaks (SSBs mainly]. A single chromosome comet assay was successfully used to study different types of DNA damage (neutral variant-DSBs versus alkaline-DSBs or SSBs. The immunocytochemical detection of H2AXS139Ph and PARP-2 were used as markers for DSBs and SSBs, respectively. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide (AO/EB were applied for quantitative immunofluorescence measurements of dead, dying and living cells. Apoptotic-type DNA fragmentation and positive TUNEL reaction finally proved that CF triggers AL-PCD in stressed V. faba root meristem cells. In addition, the results obtained under transmission electron microscopy (TEM further revealed apoptotic-like features at the ultrastructural level of PCC-type cells: (i extensive vacuolization; (ii abnormal chromatin condensation, its marginalization and concomitant degradation; (iii formation of autophagy-like vesicles (iv protoplast shrinkage (v fragmentation of cell nuclei and (vi extensive degeneration of the cells. The results obtained have been discussed with respect to the vacuolar/autolytic type of plant-specific AL-PCD.

  18. Transformation of the antiepileptic drug oxcarbazepine upon different water disinfection processes.

    Li, Zhi; Fenet, Hélène; Gomez, Elena; Chiron, Serge


    Transformation of the pharmaceutical oxcarbazepine (OXC), a keto analogue of carbamazepine (CBZ) was investigated under different water disinfection processes (ozonation, chlorination and UV irradiation) to compare its persistence, toxicity and degradation pathways with those of CBZ. Analysis by LC-ion trap-MS(n) allowed for the identification of up to thirteen transformation products (TPs). The major abundant and persistent TPs (10,11-dihydro-10,11-trans-dihydroxy-carbamazepine (DiOH-CBZ), acridine (ACIN) and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H, 3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD)) were identical to those previously reported during water treatment of CBZ. Only one new compound arising from an intramolecular cyclisation reaction was identified during UV irradiation. OXC reacted quickly with hydroxyl radical and relatively rapidly with free chlorine while slow reaction rates were recorded in presence of ozone and upon UV irradiation. An increase of the acute toxicity of UV irradiated solutions, monitored by a Daphnia magna bioassay, was recorded, probably due to the accumulation of ACIN. The formation of ACIN is of concern due to the carcinogenic properties of this chemical. ACIN was also generated during the direct UV photo transformation of DiOH-CBZ and 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydro-carbamazepine (OH-CBZ), two metabolites of OXC and CBZ widely detected in water resources. Analysis of tap water samples revealed the occurrence at ng/L levels of the major TPs detected under laboratory scale experiments, except ACIN.

  19. Modelling toxicity induced Neurological disorders in Zebrafish

    Benin Joseph


    Full Text Available Neurological disorders have become more common and prevalent. Cellular pathology and behavioural symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases although connected are still a mystery to solve with no complete cure available yet. Central pathways in neurodegeneration involves impaired ubiquitin-proteasome machinery, autophagy and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In the case of neurodevlopmental disorders, environmental toxins and genetic factors are main causative agents. We aim to create a toxicity induced zebrafish model of neurological disease focussing on cognition, movement and hyperactivity disorders. Zebra fish embryos at 48 hr post fertilization were treated with different doses of lead, cholesterol and acetyl choline and by 7 days post fertilization pectoral fin movement, swimming behaviour and touch response were compromised in parallel with apoptosis identified in the brain by acridine orange fluorescent staining. A marked window is observed, therefore promising for a drug screening platform. Further characterization of pathology associated protein expression and specific behavioural studies could render this as a simple promising toxic model for preclinical drug screening.

  20. Mechanism and efficiency of cell death of type II photosensitizers: effect of zinc chelation.

    Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Baptista, Maurício S


    A series of meso-substituted tetra-cationic porphyrins, which have methyl and octyl substituents, was studied in order to understand the effect of zinc chelation and photosensitizer subcellular localization in the mechanism of cell death. Zinc chelation does not change the photophysical properties of the photosensitizers (all molecules studied are type II photosensitizers) but affects considerably the interaction of the porphyrins with membranes, reducing mitochondrial accumulation. The total amount of intracellular reactive species induced by treating cells with photosensitizer and light is similar for zinc-chelated and free-base porphyrins that have the same alkyl substituent. Zinc-chelated porphyrins, which are poorly accumulated in mitochondria, show higher efficiency of cell death with features of apoptosis (higher MTT response compared with trypan blue staining, specific acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, stronger cytochrome c release and larger sub-G1 cell population), whereas nonchelated porphyrins, which are considerably more concentrated in mitochondria, triggered mainly necrotic cell death. We hypothesized that zinc-chelation protects the photoinduced properties of the porphyrins in the mitochondrial environment.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Dehydroabietic Acid Derivatives Conjugated with Acyl-Thiourea Peptide Moiety as Antitumor Agents

    Le Jin


    Full Text Available A series of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA acyl-thiourea derivatives were designed and synthesized as potent antitumor agents. The in vitro pharmacological screening results revealed that the target compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity against HeLa, SK-OV-3 and MGC-803 tumor cell lines, while they showed lower cytotoxicity against HL-7702 normal human river cells. Compound 9n (IC50 = 6.58 ± 1.11 μM exhibited the best antitumor activity against the HeLa cell line and even displayed more potent inhibitory activity than commercial antitumor drug 5-FU (IC50 = 36.58 ± 1.55 μM. The mechanism of representative compound 9n was then studied by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst 33,258 staining, JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential staining, TUNEL assay and flow cytometry, which illustrated that this compound could induce apoptosis in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis indicated that compound 9n mainly arrested HeLa cells in the S phase stage. Further investigation demonstrated that compound 9n induced apoptosis of HeLa cells through a mitochondrial pathway.

  2. Photodynamic treatment of Chaoborus crystallinus larvae with chlorophyllin induces necrosis and apoptosis.

    Wohllebe, Stephanie; Ulbrich, Claudia; Grimm, Daniela; Pietsch, Jessica; Erzinger, Gilmar; Richter, Roland; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter Rolf; Häder, Donat-Peter


    Chlorophyllin kills mosquito larvae (Culex, Aedes) in the aquatic habitat at low concentrations via photodynamic reactions under irradiation. The effects of chlorophyllin were investigated at the cellular level using the transparent larvae of Chaoborus crystallinus as a model system. Their transparency enabled in situ fluorescence investigation, showing that chlorophyllin accumulates in the intestine of the larvae. Uptake of chlorophyllin at room temperature took about 2 h. The fluorescence signal peaked after 5 h of incubation. Chlorophyllin accumulates up to about 15 ng per larvae. The intestine of treated larvae was dissected and stained with several dyes (acridine orange, Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide). Apoptosis and necrosis increased with higher concentrations of chlorophyllin (to a smaller extent in dark controls) and were elevated in irradiated samples. Single cells from treated larvae were isolated and subjected to Annexin V flow cytometry. The fraction of apoptotic and necrotic cells increased significantly at a high chlorophyllin concentration (21.4 mg L(-1)) and under intensive irradiation. The activity of caspases-3, -8 and -9 as well as Bcl-2 and cytochrome c was investigated by means of western blot analysis. The data suggest a possible chlorophyllin concentration-dependent shift of the apoptotic pathway.

  3. Protective effects of rilmenidine and AGN 192403 on oxidative cytotoxicity and mitochondrial inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in astrocytes.

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Park, Yun-Gyu; Chun, Boe-Gwun; Choi, Sang-Hyun


    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are important aspects of pathogenesis, particularly in the brain, which is highly dependent on oxygen, and the protection of astrocytes is essential for neuroprotection. In this context, imidazoline drugs have been reported to be neuroprotective. Our recent study showed that imidazoline drugs, including guanabenz, inhibit the naphthazarin-induced oxidative cytotoxicity associated with lysosomal destabilization. We now report on a study into the protective effects of rilmenidine and AGN 192403, which have affinity for imidazoline-1 receptors, on the cytotoxicity induced by naphthazarin and inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration in astrocytes. Cytotoxicity was measured grossly by LDH release and by measuring changes in lysosomal membrane stability and features of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Naphthazarin-induced cytotoxicity was evidenced by the ordered development of lysosomal acridine orange relocation, decrease in mitochondrial potential, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation, and was inhibited by guanabenz, rilmenidine, and AGN 192403. Antimycin A and rotenone induced mitochondrial dysfunction primarily, and their cytotoxicities were inhibited only by AGN 192403. Rilmenidine and guanabenz may have a lysosomal stabilizing effect, which underlies their protective effects. AGN 192403 might affect the mitochondrial cell death cascades, and had a novel protective effect on the cytotoxicity associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

  4. In-vitro human spermatozoa nuclear decondensation assessed by flow cytometry.

    Samocha-Bone, D; Lewin, L M; Weissenberg, R; Madgar, Y; Soffer, Y; Shochat, L; Golan, R


    The process of sperm chromatin decondensation occurs when a spermatozoon enters an ovum. Protamine disulphide bonds are reduced to SH and the polycationic protamines combine with the polyanionic egg protein, nucleoplasmin, thus being stripped from DNA which then combines with histones. Defective chromatin decondensation will thus prevent further development of the male pronucleus. In this study human sperm samples were incubated in vitro at 28 degrees C (using a medium in which the polyanion, heparin, substitutes for nucleoplasmin and beta-mercaptoethanol for egg glutathione) for 10, 20 and 30 min before stopping the reaction with formalin (to 3.6%). The DNA of the fixed cells was stained with Acridine Orange by a one-step method and subjected to flow cytometry and data analysis, in which a zone characteristic of condensed chromatin is outlined on red-green fluorescence contour plots. After 20 min of incubation 97% of the control spermatozoa that were in the mature window (WIN M) had decondensed and moved out of this region. Defects in sperm decondensation were seen in four semen samples of the 20 that were tested. In cases where spermatozoa fail to produce a fertilized egg the cause may lie with defective chromatin quality, including failure of the sperm chromatin to decondense. The method described here is a simple procedure for detecting sperm samples containing such defective cells.

  5. Association of anatase (TiO2) and microbes: unusual fossilization effect or a potential biosignature?

    Glamoclija, Mihaela; Andrew Steele,; Marc Fries,; Juergen Schieber,; Voytek, Mary A.; Charles S. Cockell,


    We combined microbial paleontology and molecular biology methods to study the Eyreville B drill core from the 35.3-Ma-old Chesapeake Bay impact structure,Virginia, USA. The investigated sample is a pyrite vein collected from the 1353.81-1353.89 m depth interval, located within a section of biotite granite. The granite is a pre-impact rock that was disrupted by the impact event. A search for inorganic (mineral) biosignatures revealed the presence of micron-size rod morphologies of anatase (TiO2) embedded in chlorite coatings on pyrite grains. Neither the Acridine Orange microbial probe nor deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifi cation showed the presence of DNA or ribonucleic acid (RNA) at the location of anatase rods, implying the absence of viable cells in the investigated area. A Nile Red microbial probe revealed the presence of lipids in the rods. Because most of the lipids are resistant over geologic time spans, they are good biomarkers, and they are an indicator of biogenicity for these possibly 35-Ma-old microbial fossils. The mineral assemblage suggests that rod morphologies are associated with low-temperature (<100 °C) hydrothermal alteration that involved aqueous fl uids. The temporal constraints on the anatase fossils are still uncertain because pre-impact alteration of the granite and postimpact heating may have provided identical conditions for anatase precipitation and microbial preservation.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal-derived liquids. Sixth quarterly report, September 21, 1976--December 20, 1976

    Gates, B. C.; Katzer, J. R.; Olson, J. H.; Kwart, H.; Stiles, A. B.


    Two high-pressure flow microreactors continue to function effectively for studies of the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene, methyl-substituted dibenzothiophene and also for studies of the hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline. The hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene has been examined in a flow system in a totally reproducible fashion free from catalyst deactivation for extended periods. The reaction is first-order in dibenzothiophene, and all of the reaction products except H/sub 2/S are sulfur free. A program for determining the kinetics and reaction network of methyl-substituted dibenzothiophenes was started. For example, the rate for hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene is about one-fifth the rate for dibenzothiophene. The hydrocarbon reaction products except H/sub 2/S are sulfur free; therefore, the initial point of attack is concluded to be the C-S bond. The hydrodenitrogenation of quinoline was examined further by replacing white oil with hexadecane; this substitution permits the determination of the nitrogen-free reaction products by gas chromatography. These studies show that the C-N bond is broken after at least the heterocyclic ring and preferably both rings are hydrogenated. The hydrogenolysis reactions are rate limiting for the overall process of nitrogen removal. The hydrodenitrogenation of acridine is slower than that of quinoline. The reaction network shows that the molecule must be hydrogenated before nitrogen removal occurs at a significant rate.

  7. Potential antimutagenic activity of berberine, a constituent of Mahonia aquifolium

    Tóth Jaroslav


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of a study aimed at developing new pharmaceutical products from natural resources, the purpose of this research was twofold: (1 to fractionate crude extracts from the bark of Mahonia aquifolium and (2 to evaluate the strength of the antimutagenic activity of the separate components against one of the common direct-acting chemical mutagens. Methods The antimutagenic potency was evaluated against acridine orange (AO by using Euglena gracilis as an eukaryotic test model, based on the ability of the test compound/fraction to prevent the mutagen-induced damage of chloroplast DNA. Results It was found that the antimutagenicity of the crude Mahonia extract resides in both bis-benzylisoquinoline (BBI and protoberberine alkaloid fractions but only the protoberberine derivatives, jatrorrhizine and berberine, showed significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effect against the AO-induced chloroplast mutagenesis of E. gracilis. Especially berberine elicited, at a very low dose, remarkable suppression of the AO-induced mutagenicity, its antimutagenic potency being almost three orders of magnitude higher when compared to its close analogue, jatrorrhizine. Possible mechanisms of the antimutagenic action are discussed in terms of recent literature data. While the potent antimutagenic activity of the protoberberines most likely results from the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I, the actual mechanism(s for the BBI alkaloids is hard to be identified. Conclusions Taken together, the results indicate that berberine possesses promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that is worth to be investigated further.

  8. The effects of inorganic particles of lunar soil simulant on brain nerve terminals

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy


    The health effects from lunar soil exposure are almost completely unknown, whereas the observations suggest that it can be deleterious to human physiology. It is important that the components of lunar soil may be internalized with lipid fractions of the lung epithelium, which in turn may help ions to overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of JSC-1a Lunar Soil Simulant (LSS) (Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, USA) on rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). We revealed that brain nerve terminals were not indifferent to the exposure to LSS inorganic particles. Using Zetasizer Nanosystem (Malvern Instruments) with helium-neon laser for dynamic light scattering (DLS), the synaptosomal size before and after the addition of LSS was measured and the binding of LSS inorganic particles to nerve terminals was demonstrated. Using potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G, we showed that LSS inorganic particles did not influence the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Acidification of synaptic vesicles of nerve terminals did not change in the presence of LSS inorganic particles that was revealed with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange. However, LSS inorganic particles influenced accumulation of glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, by nerve terminals. Thus, we report that inorganic particles of LSS influence accumulation of glutamate in brain nerve terminals and this fact may have harmful consequences to human physiology, in particular glutamate homeostasis in the mammalian CNS.

  9. Interaction of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with brain nerve terminals and blood platelets

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Sivko, Roman; Borisov, Arseniy


    Nanoparticles of ferric oxide are the components of Lunar and Martian soil simulants. The observations suggest that exposure to Lunar soli simulant can be deleterious to human physiology and the components of lunar soil may be internalized by lung epithelium and may overcome the blood-brain barrier. The study focused on the effects of nanoparticles of ferric oxide on the functional state of rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes) and rabbit blood platelets. Using photon correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrated the binding of nanoparticles of ferric oxide with nerve terminals and platelets. Nanoparticles did not depolarize the plasma membrane of nerve terminals and platelets that was shown by fluorimetry with potential-sensitive fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G. Using pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, we revealed that the acidification of synaptic vesicles of nerve terminals and secretory granules of platelets did not change in the presence of nanoparticles. The initial velocity of uptake of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate was not influenced by nanoparticles of ferric oxide, whereas glutamate binding to nerve terminals was altered. Thus, it was suggested that nanoparticles of ferric oxide might disturb glutamate transport in the mammalian CNS.

  10. Diagnosis of intra vascular catheter-related infection.

    Cicalini, S; Palmieri, F; Noto, P; Boumis, E; Petrosillo, N


    The use of central vascular catheters (CVC) is associated with a substantial number of complications, amongst which infections predominate. A diagnosis of CVC-related infection usually requires catheter removal for culture. Semiquantitative (roll-plate method) and quantitative methods (flush, vortex, centrifugation or sonication methods) are the most reliable diagnostic methodologies requiring catheter removal, because of their greater specificity. The roll-plate method is the simplest and most commonly used technique. This method only samples the external surface of the catheter, and is particularly indicated for recently inserted catheters in which extraluminal colonisation is the primary mechanism of infection. Luminal culture techniques, such as the quantitative methods, may be more relevant for catheters that have been in place for a long period of time. However, in up to 85% of removed CVC the culture is negative, and other diagnostic techniques that do not require catheter removal have been proposed, including paired quantitative blood cultures, endoluminal brushing, and differential time to positivity (DTP) of paired blood cultures. DTP, that compares the time to positivity for qualitative cultures of blood samples simultaneously drawn from the CVC and a peripheral vein, appears to be the most reliable in the routine clinical practice since many hospitals use automatic devices for qualitative blood culture positivity detection. More recently catheter-sparing direct diagnostic methods, which include Gram stain and acridin-orange leucocyte cytospin (AOLC) test, appeared to be especially useful because of the rapidity of results and the ability to distinguish different microorganisms, allowing early targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  11. Trichomonas vaginalis: chromatin and mitotic spindle during mitosis.

    Gómez-Conde, E; Mena-López, R; Hernández-Jaúregui, P; González-Camacho, M; Arroyo, R


    The mitotic phases and the changes that the chromatin and mitotic microtubules undergo during mitosis in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are described. Parasites arrested in the gap 2 phase of the cell cycle by nutrient starvation were induced to mitosis by addition of fresh whole medium. [(3)H] Thymidine labeling of trichomonad parasites for 24 h showed that parasites have at least four synchronic duplications after mitosis induction. Fixed or live and acridine orange (AO)-stained trichomonads analyzed at different times during mitosis by epifluorescence microscopy showed that mitosis took about 45 min and is divided into five stages: prophase, metaphase, early and late anaphase, early and late telophase, and cytokinesis. The AO-stained nucleus of live trichomonads showed green (DNA) and orange (RNA) fluorescence, and the nucleic acid nature was confirmed by DNase and RNase treatment, respectively. The chromatin appeared partially condensed during interphase. At metaphase, it appeared as six condensed chromosomes, as recently reported, which decondensed at anaphase and migrated to the nuclear poles at telophase. In addition, small bundles of microtubules (as hemispindles) were detected only in metaphase with the polyclonal antibody anti-Entamoeba histolytica alpha-tubulin. This antibody showed that the hemispindle and an atractophore-like structure seem to duplicate and polarize during metaphase. In conclusion, T. vaginalis mitosis involves five mitotic phases in which the chromatin undergoes different degrees of condensation, from chromosomes to decondensed chromatin, and two hemispindles that are observed only in the metaphase stage.

  12. Magnetic cobalt ferrite composite as an efficient catalyst for photocatalytic oxidation of carbamazepine.

    He, Yongzhen; Dai, Chaomeng; Zhou, Xuefei


    A magnetic spinel cobalt ferrite nanoparticle composite (CFO) was prepared via an ultrasonication-assisted co-precipitation method. The morphological structure and surface composition of CFO before and after reaction were investigated by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, indicating the consumption of iron oxide during photodegradation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry confirm the preparation of the ferrite nanoparticle composite and its magnetic properties. The prepared CFO was then used for the photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) as an example of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from aqueous solution. The effects of the nanocomposite dosage, contact time, and solution pH on the photodegradation process were investigated. More than 96% of the CBZ was degraded within 100 min at 0.2 g·L(-1) CFO in the presence of UV light. The reactive species for CBZ degradation in the CFO/UV system was identified as hydroxyl radicals by the methanol scavenging method. Combined with the detection of leached iron ions during the process, the CBZ degradation mechanism can be presumed to be heterogeneous and homogeneous photocatalytic degradation in the CFO/UV system. Furthermore, iminostilbene and acridine were detected as intermediate products by GC-MS.

  13. Synthesis and antitumor activity of conjugates of muramyldipeptide or normuramyldipeptide with hydroxyacridine/acridone derivatives.

    Dzierzbicka, Krystyna; Kołodziejczyk, Aleksander M


    A series of MDP (muramyldipeptide) or nor-MDP (normuramyldipeptide) analogues modified at the C-terminus post of the molecule by a formation of an ester bond between the carboxylic group of isoglutamine and the hydroxyl function of the respective derivatives of 4-carboxamide-acridine/9-acridone or 1-nitro-9-hydroxyalkylaminoacridines were synthesized as potential anticancer agents. The compounds O-(1-O-benzyl-N-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-gamma-isoglutaminyl)-9-(ethylamino)-1-nitroacridine ester 3j and O-(1-O-benzyl-N-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-gamma-isoglutaminyl)-9-propylamino-1-nitroacridine ester 3k exhibited high in vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cell lines, prostate cancer and AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL). Analogue 3j was also active in vivo in the hollow fiber assay. Antitumor activity of both compounds were tested in vivo against difference human tumor xenograft, but only analogue 3k showed in vivo activity against sc UACC-62 melanoma in mice.

  14. Identification keys on rattans (Calamus spp. from Central Sulawesi based on anatomical structure of stems



    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain information the anatomical characteristics of 20 rattan species from Central Sulawesi and to use it for anatomical identification of rattan species. The rattan comprised 16 Calamus species, three Daemonorops species and one Korthalsia species. For anatomical observation 10-15 mm pieces of the mature stem from shares of tip do not have frond were processed with polyethilene glycol 2000, cut at 18-32 µm and stained with a combination of acridin-cryzoidin red and astrablue. Cleared preparation were used to observe stegmata, and macerated material was used to measure the length of fibers and vessel elements. Anilin sulfate was used to confirm the existence of lignin. Anatomical characteristics used in identification were shape and will thickening of epidermal cells and the position stomata at epidermal; the arrangement of sub epidermal parenchyma; composition of vascular bundles and their distribution; the shape and arrangement of central ground parenchyma and the occurrence of fiber bundles. The research result indicated that the anatomical character can be compiled to a key identify the rattan at genus and species level.

  15. Inclusion complexation behavior of dyestuff guest molecules by a bridged bis(cyclomaltoheptaose)[bis(beta-cyclodextrin)] with a pyromellitic acid diamide tether.

    Liu, Yu; Li, Li; Zhang, Heng-Yi; Liang, Peng; Wang, Hao


    A novel bridged bis(beta-cyclodextrin) with a pyromellitic acid 2,5-diamide tether (2) has been synthesized by reaction of 6(I)-(2-aminoethyleneamino)-6-deoxycyclomaltoheptaose [mono 6-(2-aminoethyleneamino)-6-deoxy-beta-cyclodextrin] with 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylic dianhydride. Its inclusion complexation behavior with some representative dyestuffs, i.e., Acridine Red (AR), Rhodamine B (RhB), Neutral Red (NR), Brilliant Green (BG), was studied by using UV-absorption, fluorescence, and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Fluorescence titrations have been performed at 25 degrees C in pH 7.2 buffer solution to calculate the binding constants of resulting complexes. These results obtained indicated that bis(beta-cyclodextrin) 2 exhibits the strongly enhanced binding ability with all dye molecules examined compared with natural cyclodextrins. The binding modes of 2 with dye molecules have been deduced by 2D NMR experiments to establish the correlations between molecular conformations and binding constants of inclusion complexation. It is found that the improved binding ability and molecular selectivity of 2 could be attributed to double-cavity cooperative inclusion interaction and the size/shape matching between the host and guest.

  16. Screening of Toxin Mutant of Dickeya zeae and Its Biological Characters

    Jingyi ZHANG; Yutao WANG; Yanchang LI; Qiongguang LIU


    [Objective] This study aimed to screen toxin mutant of Dickeya zeae (Er-winia chrysanthemi pv. zeae) and investigate its biological characters. [Method] We obtained a toxin mutant strain D. zeae Ech7-3-42 by using acridine orange as a mutagenic agent and compared their biological characteristics and virulence between the toxin mutant and wild strain. [Result] There was no significant difference in pectin lyase, protease, cellulase and the production of extracellular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, but significant difference in toxin biological activities and vir-ulence. Ech7-3-42 mutant did not produce toxin, as wel as the loss of virulence on rice and HR on tobacco, but did not lose the ability to soft rot on potato. Mutant strain Ech7-3-42 can infect rice root and then enriched in the root neck and stalk, but it could not cause rice foot rot. Dickeya zeae (wild and mutant strain) could be detected by PCR in the root neck and below the 1-2 cm long stem area, but could not be detected in the leaves. [Conclusion] We believed that toxin may be one of the important factors for D. zeae virulence on rice.

  17. Interaction of cationic dye/surfactants with Klebsiella K18 capsular polysaccharides: Physico-chemical studies

    Nath, Ranendu Kumar, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura-799130 (India); Singh, Th. Charanjit [Department of Chemistry, D.D.M. College, Khowai, Tripura-799 202 (India); Dasgupta, Satwati [Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Tripura-799130 (India); Mitra, Asish [Department of Chemistry, MBB College, Agartala, Tripura-799001 (India); Panda, Amiya Kumar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, P.O. North Bengal University, Dt: Darjeeling, West Bengal-734013 (India)


    Physico-chemical studies on the interaction of capsular polysaccharide (SPS) isolated from Klebsiella K18, with cationic dyes and surfactants have been reported. SPS is an integral component of gram-negative bacteria and having glucuronic acid as the potential anionic site, induced strong metachromasy (blue shift {approx} 110 nm) in the cationic dye pinacyanol chloride (PCYN). Reversal of metachromasy was observed upon addition of co-solvents which provides a qualitative measurement of stability and nature of metachromatic compound associated with PCYN-SPS interaction. Thermodynamic parameters such as association constant, changes in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of dye-polymer interaction, were evaluated which revealed the nature of interaction. Studies on fluorescence quenching of acridine orange (AO) was also performed. The interaction of SPS with cationic and cationic-non-ionic mixed surfactant systems have been studied by turbidimetry, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry and viscosity measurements. The studies could provide an understanding on the effects of the surfactants on binding with the polymer. The binding was found to be electrostatic in origin and also hydrophobic in nature to a certain extent.

  18. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of naringenin-oxime relative to naringenin on normal and cancer cell lines

    Abdurrahim Kocyigit; Ismail Koyuncu; Murat Dikilitas; Fatemeh Bahadori; Baki Turkkan


    Objective: To assess and compare the cytotoxic, genotoxic, apoptotic and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating effects of naringenin (NG) and its new derived compound naringenin-oxime (NG-Ox) on MCF-7, HT-29, PC-12 cancer and L-929 normal cell lines. Methods: The cells were incubated with different doses of NG-Ox and NG (50–1 000 mmol/L) for 24 h. The cell viability was assessed based on ATP cell viability assay. Intracellular accumulation of ROS was determined using the fluorescent probes 2070-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate. Genotoxic effects were evaluated by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) and, the apoptotic effect was evaluated by acridine orange staining at below the IC50 levels. Results: Both NG-Ox and NG exhibited cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects and resulted in increased ROS values in a dose-dependent manner. The effects were more pronounced on cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic effects of NG-Ox were higher than that of NG in all cell lines. Significant correlations were observed be-tween cell viability, DNA damage, apoptosis and ROS, in all cell lines exposed to either NG-Ox or NG. Conclusions: This study showed that both NG-Ox and NG possess cytotoxic, genotoxic and apoptotic activities through the production of ROS on cells, NG-Ox being the more effective one. Therefore, derived compound of NG might be used as antiproliferative agents for the treatment of cancer.

  19. Effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male rats

    Mukhtar Aleem; Varsha Padwal; Jyoti Choudhari; Nafisa Balasinor; Priyanka Parte; Manjeet Gill-Sharma


    Aim: To evaluate the effects of tamoxifen citrate on gene expression during nuclear chromatin condensation in male decondensation, acridine orange (AO) dye uptake, concentration of thiol-groups, levels and/or expression of transition proteins 1, 2 (TP1, TP2), protamine 1 (P1), cyclic AMP response element modulator-τ (CREMτ), androgenbinding protein (ABP) and cyclic adenosine 3', 5' monophosphate (cAMP) were evaluated after 60 days of exposure in adult male rats. Controls received the vehicle. Results: Tamoxifen citrate enhanced the rates of chromatin decondensation, increased AO dye uptake and reduced free thiols in caput epididymal sperms and reduced the levels of TP1, TP2, P1, and CREMτ in the testis, while cAMP was unaffected. P1 deposition was absent in the sperm. The transcripts of TP1, TP2 were increased, of P1 and ABP decreased, while those of CREMτ unaffected in the testis.Conclusion: Tamoxifen citrate reduced caput epididymal sperm chromatin compaction by reducing the testicular levels of proteins TP1, TP2 and P1 and the CREMτ involved in chromatin condensation during spermiogenesis.Tamoxifen citrate affects the expression of these genes at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.


    M. R. Shakibaie ، A. Khosravan ، A. Frahmand ، S. Zare


    Full Text Available In this research, using mutation in the metal resistant bacteria, the bioremediation of the copper and zinc from copper factory effluents was investigated. Wastewater effluents from flocculation and rolling mill sections of a factory in the city of Kerman were collected and used for further experiments. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from soil and effluents surrounding factory and identified by microbiological methods. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for copper (Cu and zinc (Zn were determined by agar dilution method. Those strains that exhibited highest minimum inhibitory concentrations values to the metals (5mM were subjected to 400-3200 mg/L concentrations of the three mutagenic agents, acriflavine, acridine orange and ethidium bromide. After determination of subinhibitory concentrations, the minimum inhibitory concentrations values for copper and zinc metal ions were again determined, which showed more than 10 fold increase in minimum inhibitory concentrations value (10 mM for Cu and 20 mM for Zn with P≤0.05. The atomic absorption spectroscopy of dried biomass obtained from resistant strains after exposure to mutagenic agents revealed that strains 13 accumulate the highest amount of intracellular copper (0.35% Cu/mg dried biomass and strain 10 showed highest accumulation of zinc (0.3% Zn/mg dried biomass respectively with P≤0.05. From above results it was concluded that the treatment of industrial waste containing heavy metals by artificially mutated bacteria may be appropriate solution for effluent disposal problems.

  1. Evaluation of Sperm Quality, Maturation and DNA Integrity in Adult Mice Treated with Sulpiride

    S Salami


    Full Text Available Background: Use of certain antipsychotic drugs has severe effects on fertility in males. Hypothalamus and hypophysial impressions and changes in plasma hormones concentration like prolactin, LH and FSH can affect sperm production. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulpiride on sperm quality, maturation and DNA damage. Methods: Twenty for adult male mice (age: 6-8 weeks were divided into three groups. The treatment group received 40 mg/kg sulpiride solution and the control sham group was given carrier of the drug intraperitoneally (IP daily for 45 days but the control group received nothing. Finally, all the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their cauda epididymis were removed surgically. The excised specimens were placed in 1 ml HTF medium and incubated for 30 min in CO2 incubator to allow the spermatozoa to swim out. Later, sperm count, motility and viability were analyzed. Additionally, sperm chromatin quality and DNA integrity were assessed by aniline blue and acridine orange staining. Results: Significant decrease in sperm motility and count were observed in the treatment group while the number of abnormal sperm increased as compared with the other two groups. Sperm viability and DNA maturation showed significant reduction and the rate of DNA damage increased in comparison with the control sham and the control groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: The study showed that sulpiride has negative effects on sperm parameters in treated animals and in some cases it could cause secondary infertility.

  2. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S


    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  3. The Acetone Extract of Sclerocarya birrea (Anacardiaceae Possesses Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines (MCF-7

    Nicoline Fri Tanih


    Full Text Available Interesting antimicrobial data from the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea, which support its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, have been delineated. The current study was aimed to further study some pharmacological and toxicological properties of the plant to scientifically justify its use. Anticancer activity of water and acetone extracts of S. birrea was evaluated on three different cell lines, HT-29, HeLa, and MCF-7 using the cell titre blue viability assay in 96-well plates. Apoptosis was evaluated using the acridine orange and propidium iodide staining method, while morphological structure of treated cells was examined using SEM. The acetone extract exhibited remarkable antiproliferative activities on MCF-7 cell lines at dose- and time-dependent manners (24 h and 48 h of incubation. The extract also exerted apoptotic programmed cell death in MCF-7 cells with significant effect on the DNA. Morphological examination also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping, condensation, and culminating to budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound fragmentation, as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. The acetone extract of S. birrea possesses antiproliferative and apoptotic potential against MCF-7-treated cells and could be further exploited as a potential lead in anticancer therapy.

  4. Canna edulis leaf extract-mediated preparation of stabilized silver nanoparticles: Characterization, antimicrobial activity, and toxicity studies.

    Otari, S V; Pawar, S H; Patel, Sanjay K S; Singh, Raushan K; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Jai Hyo; Zhang, Liaoyuan; Lee, Jung-Kul


    A novel approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Canna edulis Ker-Gawl. (CELE) under ambient conditions is reported here. The as-prepared AgNPs were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission emission microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform-infra red spectroscopy, energy-dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light scattering. The AgNPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including bacteria and various fungi. The biocompatibility of the AgNPs was analyzed in the L929 cell line using NRU and MTT assays. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was used to determine whether the AgNPs had necrotic or apoptotic effects on L929 cells. The concentration of AgNPs required for 50% inhibition of growth of mammalian cells is far more than that required for inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, CELE is a candidate for eco-friendly, clean, cost-effective, and non-toxic synthesis of AgNPs.

  5. Kinetics of biofilm formation by drinking water isolated Penicillium expansum.

    Simões, Lúcia Chaves; Simões, Manuel; Lima, Nelson


    Current knowledge on drinking water (DW) biofilms has been obtained mainly from studies on bacterial biofilms. Very few reports on filamentous fungi (ff) biofilms are available, although they can contribute to the reduction in DW quality. This study aimed to assess the dynamics of biofilm formation by Penicillium expansum using microtiter plates under static conditions, mimicking water flow behaviour in stagnant regions of drinking water distribution systems. Biofilms were analysed in terms of biomass (crystal violet staining), metabolic activity (resazurin, fluorescein diacetate and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide [MTT]) and morphology (epifluorescence [calcofluor white M2R, FUN-1, FDA and acridine orange] and bright-field microscopies). Biofilm development over time showed the typical sigmoidal curve with noticeable different phases in biofilm formation (induction, exponential, stationary, and sloughing off). The methods used to assess metabolic activity provided similar results. The microscope analysis allowed identification of the involvement of conidia in initial adhesion (4 h), germlings (8 h), initial monolayers (12 h), a monolayer of intertwined hyphae (24 h), mycelial development, hyphal layering and bundling, and development of the mature biofilms (≥48 h). P. expansum grows as a complex, multicellular biofilm in 48 h. The metabolic activity and biomass of the fungal biofilms were shown to increase over time and a correlation between metabolism, biofilm mass and hyphal development was found.

  6. Therapeutic targeting of liver cancer with a recombinant DNA vaccine containing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle disease virus via apoptotic-dependent pathways.

    Chen, Li-Gang; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Zheng, Tang-Hui; Chen, Xu; Li, Ping; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Ren, Jian-Lin


    A total of ~38.6 million mortalities occur due to liver cancer annually, worldwide. Although a variety of therapeutic methods are available, the efficacy of treatment at present is extremely limited due to an increased risk of malignancy and inherently poor prognosis of liver cancer. Gene therapy is considered a promising option, and has shown notable potential for the comprehensive therapy of liver cancer, in keeping with advances that have been made in the development of cancer molecular biology. The present study aimed to investigate the synergistic effects of the abilities of the hemagglutinin neuraminidase protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the pro-apoptotic factor apoptin from chicken anaemia virus, and the interferon-γ inducer interleukin-18 (IL-18) in antagonizing liver cancer. Therefore, a recombinant DNA plasmid expressing the three exogenous genes, VP3, IL-18 and hemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN), was constructed. Flow cytometry, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and analysis of caspase-3 activity were performed in H22 cell lines transfected with the recombinant DNA plasmid. In addition, 6-week-old C57BL/6 mice were used to establish a H22 hepatoma-bearing mouse model. Mice tumor tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. The results of the present study revealed that the recombinant DNA vaccine containing the VP3, IL-18 and HN genes inhibited cell proliferation and induced autophagy via the mitochondrial pathway in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab


    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  8. Evidence of a pro-apoptotic effect of specific antibodies in a bovine macrophage model of infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Jolly, Ana; Lompardía, Silvina; Hajos, Silvia E; Mundo, Silvia L


    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne's disease (JD), a chronic granulomatous enteritis in ruminants. Understanding the protective immune response following infection is crucial to improve the diagnosis and the development of vaccines against this disease. The goal of this work was to assess whether specific antibodies were able to modulate the macrophage response to MAP infection by evaluating apoptosis and TNF-α secretion in an in vitro model. Sera from healthy (n=2), MAP-infected (n=3) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-immunized (n=3) bovines were evaluated. LAM was chosen as immunogen due to its relevant role in mycobacterial pathogenesis. We demonstrated by two different techniques (Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide microscopy and Annexin V/7-Amino-Actinomycin D flow cytometry) that the immune sera from both, MAP-infected and LAM-immunized bovines, significantly increased macrophage apoptosis in infected cultures. Comparable levels of apoptosis were detected when MAP was pre-incubated with purified specific antibodies instead of whole serum. Furthermore, this effect was accompanied by a significantly higher secretion of TNF-α. These results strongly suggest that specific antibodies could limit the impact of MAP on the apoptosis of bovine cells. This work would contribute to elucidate the role of the specific antibody response in bovine JD and its prevention.

  9. High-Efficiency Selective Electron Tunnelling in a Heterostructure Photovoltaic Diode.

    Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Wei; Gu, Chunhui; Chen, Hongliang; Yu, Haomiao; Li, Xinxi; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Lin; Xia, Andong; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Meng, Sheng; Guo, Xuefeng


    A heterostructure photovoltaic diode featuring an all-solid-state TiO2/graphene/dye ternary interface with high-efficiency photogenerated charge separation/transport is described here. Light absorption is accomplished by dye molecules deposited on the outside surface of graphene as photoreceptors to produce photoexcited electron-hole pairs. Unlike conventional photovoltaic conversion, in this heterostructure both photoexcited electrons and holes tunnel along the same direction into graphene, but only electrons display efficient ballistic transport toward the TiO2 transport layer, thus leading to effective photon-to-electricity conversion. On the basis of this ipsilateral selective electron tunnelling (ISET) mechanism, a model monolayer photovoltaic device (PVD) possessing a TiO2/graphene/acridine orange ternary interface showed ∼86.8% interfacial separation/collection efficiency, which guaranteed an ultrahigh absorbed photon-to-current efficiency (APCE, ∼80%). Such an ISET-based PVD may become a fundamental device architecture for photovoltaic solar cells, photoelectric detectors, and other novel optoelectronic applications with obvious advantages, such as high efficiency, easy fabrication, scalability, and universal availability of cost-effective materials.

  10. Protective effects of Rheum tanguticum polysaccharide against hydrogen peroxide-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury

    Lin-Na Liu; Qi-Bing Mei; Li Liu; Feng Zhang; Zhen-Guo Liu; Zhi-Peng Wang; Ru-Tao Wang


    AIM: To describe the effect of Rheum tanguticum polysaccharide (RTP) on hydrogen peroxide-induced human intestinal epithelial cell injury.METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide (100 μmol/L) was introduced to induce human intestinal epithelial cell injury.Cells were pretreated with RTP (30,100,300 μg/mL) for 24 h before exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability was detected by MTr assay and morphological observation.Acridine orange staining and flow cytometry were performed to assess cell apoptosis. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured by spectrophotometry with corresponding assay kits.RESULTS: Following exposure to H2O2, a marked decrease in cell survival and SOD activity, increased production of MDA, LDH leakage and cell apoptosis were found.Pretreatment of the cells with RTP could significantly elevate cell survival, SOD activity and decrease the level of MDA, LDH activity and cell apoptosis.CONCLUSION: RTP may have cytoprotective and antioxidant effects against H2O2-induced intestinal epithelial cell injury by inhibiting cell apoptosis and necrosis. This might be one of the possible mechanisms of RTP for the treatment of ulcerative colitis in rats.

  11. Composition of the Extracellular Matrix of Lymphatic Novel Threadlike Structures: Is It Keratin?

    Hyub Huh


    Full Text Available Background. The lumen of novel threadlike structures (NTSs is enclosed by a single layer of endothelial cells surrounded by extracellular matrix (ECM. We hypothesized that collagen may be a component of the ECM associated with lymphatic NTSs. Methods. Six female New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, and the NTS structures within lymphatic vessels were identified by contrast-enhanced stereomicroscopy or alcian blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens were stained with acridine orange, YOYO-1, and 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI. The structural and molecular composition of the ECM was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and proteomic analysis. Results. The lymph vessel wall was stained red by DiI, and rod-shaped nuclei were stained green by YOYO-1. The area surrounding the NTS was also stained red and contained green rod-shaped nuclei. TEM images showed that the NTS consisted of many ECM fibers and the ECM fibers appeared to be ~100 nm in diameter and had narrowly spaced striated bands. Proteomic analysis of the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM identified 4 proteins: keratin 10, cytokeratin 3, cytokeratin 12, and soluble adenylyl cyclase. Conclusion. The TEM study suggested that the lymphatic NTS-associated ECM did not contain collagen. This was confirmed by proteomic analysis, which showed that keratin was the major component of the ECM.

  12. Self-bioremediation of cork-processing wastewaters by (chloro)phenol-degrading bacteria immobilised onto residual cork particles.

    del Castillo, I; Hernández, P; Lafuente, A; Rodríguez-Llorente, I D; Caviedes, M A; Pajuelo, E


    Cork manufacturing is a traditional industry in Southern Europe, being the main application of this natural product in wine stoppers and insulation. Cork processing begins at boiling the raw material. As a consequence, great volumes of dark wastewaters, with elevated concentrations of chlorophenols, are generated, which must be depurated through costly physicochemical procedures before discarding them into public water courses. This work explores the potential of bacteria, isolated from cork-boiling waters storage ponds, in bioremediation of the same effluent. The bacterial population present in cork-processing wastewaters was analysed by DGGE; low bacterial biodiversity was found. Aerobic bacteria were isolated and investigated for their tolerance against phenol and two chlorophenols. The most tolerant strains were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA. The phenol-degrading capacity was investigated by determining enzyme activities of the phenol-degrading pathway. Moreover, the capacity to form biofilms was analysed in a microtitre plate assay. Finally, the capacity to form biofilms onto the surface of residual small cork particles was evaluated by acridine staining followed by epifluorescence microscopy and by SEM. A low-cost bioremediation system, using phenol-degrading bacteria immobilised onto residual cork particles (a by-product of the industry) is proposed for the remediation of this industrial effluent (self-bioremediation).

  13. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis


    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  14. Preparation and characterization of DNA films induced by UV irradiation.

    Yamada, Masanori; Kato, Kozue; Nomizu, Motoyoshi; Sakairi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Norio


    Large amounts of DNA-enriched materials, such as salmon milts and shellfish gonads, are discarded as industrial waste. We have been able to convert the discarded DNA to a useful material by preparing novel DNA films by UV irradiation. When DNA films were irradiated with UV light, the molecular weight of DNA was greatly increased. The reaction was inhibited by addition of the radical scavenger galvinoxyl suggesting that the DNA polymerization with UV irradiation proceeded by a radical reaction. Although this UV-irradiated DNA film was water-insoluble and resistant to hydrolysis by nuclease, the structure of the DNA film in water was similar to non-irradiated DNA and maintained B-form structure. In addition, the UV-irradiated DNA film could effectively accumulate and condense harmful DNA-intercalating compounds, such as ethidium bromide and acridine orange, from diluted aqueous solutions. The binding constant and exclusion number of ethidium bromide for UV-irradiated DNA were determined to be 6.8 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) M(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively; these values are consisted with reported results for non-irradiated DNA. The UV-irradiated DNA films have potential uses as a biomaterial filter for the removal of harmful DNA intercalating compounds.

  15. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Azaarenes in Runoff from Freshly Applied Coal-Tar-Based Pavement Sealcoat

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.


    Coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT-sealcoat) is extensively applied to asphalt parking lots and driveways in the U.S. and Canada. Toxicity to fish and invertebrates of runoff from pavement to which CT-sealcoat has been freshly applied has been reported, but relatively little is known about how concentrations of chemicals in runoff change in the hours to days following sealcoat application. We measured the concentrations of 16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 azaarenes in 9 samples of simulated runoff from a coal-tar-sealed test plot collected at increasing intervals from 5 hours to 16 weeks following application. Azaarenes, several of which are common constituents in coal-tar pitch, and their oxidized derivatives, azaarones, are an emerging group of little-studied heterocyclic chemicals. Runoff samples were collected by spraying 25 L of a diluted groundwater to 10 m2 on sealed pavement and retrieving the runoff downgradient where the runoff pooled against spill berms. Unfiltered samples were analyzed by GC/MS following liquid-liquid extraction. In the first sample (t=5 hr), phenanthrene had the highest concentration (130 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Concentrations of the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs (2 and 3 ring) decreased during the 16 weeks following application, and concentrations of the higher molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 ring) increased, coincident with an increase in the concentration of suspended particulates. In the final sample (t=16 weeks), fluoranthene had the highest concentration (36 μg/L) among the 16 PAHs. Of the azaarenes measured, concentrations of acridine and carbazole (107 and 750 μg/L, respectively) in the initial sample exceeded those of any of the PAHs measured except phenanthrene; acridine and carbazole concentrations decreased over the 5 weeks to <5% of their initial values. Samples of dried sealcoat were analyzed the day of application and 5 weeks later. Samples were

  16. Effects of Dinotefuran on the Embryonic and Larvae Development and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)%呋虫胺对斑马鱼胚胎 ̄幼鱼生长发育及细胞凋亡的影响

    孙琦; 范咏梅; 赖柯华; 黄伟康


    第三代新烟碱类农药呋虫胺作为超高效、广谱性杀虫剂在水稻、蔬菜和水果上广泛应用,因其水溶性高,对水生生物的毒性不容忽视。本研究以斑马鱼胚胎为对象,参考OECD标准,在胚胎受精后30 min内,采用静态法染毒,观察其24 h、48 h、72 h、96 h的生长发育情况,根据死亡数计算呋虫胺对斑马鱼96 h ̄LC50,采用吖啶橙染色(acridine orange fluorescent, AO ̄F)和原位末端标记法(TUNEL)2种方法,检测其对斑马鱼96 hpf(hour post ̄fertilization, hpf)幼鱼的细胞凋亡情况。结果表明:呋虫胺对斑马鱼胚胎的96 h ̄LC50为10.36 g•L ̄1(95%置信区间为7.76~12.93 g•L ̄1),属于微毒;较高浓度的呋虫胺能使斑马鱼的摆尾数、内心率、孵化率降低,对生长发育有延迟的作用,可导致部分斑马鱼色素褪去,出现心包囊肿、卵黄囊肿和尾部畸形的现象。且随着浓度的升高,在斑马鱼头部、腹部、尾部均有明显的细胞凋亡情况加重,其中以心脏和内耳尤为明显,呈规律的剂量 ̄效应关系。%Dinotefuran, as one of the third ̄generation neonicotinoid insecticide, is highly potent pesticide widely used to control insects on rice, vegetables and fruit field. However, the toxicity of dinotefuran to aquatic organism is still unclear. This study is to explore the effect of dinotefuran on the embryonic and larvae development and ap ̄optosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio). According to OECD guidelines, the 96 h acute toxicity test was conducted using 30 min post ̄fertilization zebrafish by static system, and the treated zebrafish embryonic and larvae development, were observed in 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h respectively. The 96 h ̄LC50 of dinotefuran for adolescent zebrafish was calculated using Karber's method. Then using acridine orange fluorescent (AO ̄F) and TUNEL staining, the apop ̄tosis of 96 hour post ̄fertilization (hpf) zebrafish larvae was tested. The results showed that the

  17. Effect of selenium on the expression of Fas/FasL in T lymphocyte anti-colonic cancer cells%硒对淋巴细胞杀伤大肠癌细胞过程中Fas/FasL表达的影响

    赵任; 郁宝铭; 郑民华; 李东华; 周鸿志; 张国驰; 童善庆


    Objective To observe the effects of selenium on the expression of Fas/FasL in T lymphocyte anti-colonic cancer cells.  Methods Selenocysteine served as an influencing factor, T lymphocyte as an effector and human colonic tumor cell (LoVo cell: human colonic adenocarcinoma) as a target. MTT and acridine orange dying were used to measure LoVo cells apoptosis, and RT-PCR and hybridization techniques used to identify the levels of Fas/FasL and TNF expressed by T cells or target cells after use of selenium or not. Results MTT and acridine orange dying showed that selenium enhanced T lymphocyte anti-tumor function [(25.12±3.91)%,(46.17±3.68)% respectively,(P<0.05)],and induced LoVo cells apoptosis and this effect was [ (18.6±4.1)%, (32.7±2.1)% respectively,(P<0.05)] at the proper concentration (0.5~1.0 mg/L) in time and dose-dependent manners. And the levels of FasL and Fas mRNA expressed by target cells (LoVo cell) and effectors were increased. Conclusion Selenium enhanced T lymphocyte anti-tumor function, which was related to high levels of Fas/FasL expression.%目的 探讨硒对淋巴细胞抗大肠癌过程中凋亡相关基因Fas/FasL表达的影响。方法 以半胱氨酸硒作为影响因素,人T淋巴细胞为效应细胞及人结肠癌细胞(LoVo细胞株)为靶细胞,采用 四甲基偶氮唑蓝 (MTT)比色法、凋亡细胞荧光计数检测凋亡细胞的数量,逆转录-聚合酶链(RT-PCR)反应、原位杂交技术检测,硒对效应细胞杀伤肿瘤细胞过程中Fas/FasL表达的影响。结果 不同浓度的半胱氨酸硒(0.5、1.0 mg/L)作用48 h后, 可增强人T淋巴细胞抗肿瘤活性[分别为(25.12±3.91)%,(46.17±3.68)%,P<0.05],且肿瘤细胞的凋亡比例上升[分别为(18.6±4.1)%, (32.7±2.1)%,P<0.05];能使免疫效应细胞和肿瘤细胞表达FasL和Fas水平增高。结论 硒可提高淋巴细胞的抗肿瘤作

  18. Histopatología cardíaca en los traumatismos torácicos cerrados Myocardial histopathology in the closed chest trauma

    C. Torres Sánchez


    and localized or generalized. We have studied 59 cadavers, 43 males and 16 females, of which 40 died for traumatic causes and other 19 for no traumatic causes. Their ages were between 17 and 90 years old, with an average age of 51,33 years, and the mean postmortem was 13,6 hours (SD 8,7; range 3-59 hours. For this histopathology work, we obtained samples of cardiac tissues from the apex, anterior, lateral and posterior side of the left ventricle, lateral side of the right ventricle and middle side of the interventricle wall, in two different levels of the heart. After fixing and processing of the samples, staining with hematoxylin-eosin and orange acridine were performed. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 10.0. Our results showed the usefulness of hematoxylin-eosin staining for detect the previous myocardial afectation and cronic illness, in the other hand the acridine orange is most usseful to detect ischemic lesions in these locations where the processes of perfusion of the cardiac muscle are going to be more affected acording the previous bibliography.

  19. Toward the design of new DNA G-quadruplex ligands through rational analysis of polymorphism and binding data.

    Artese, Anna; Costa, Giosuè; Distinto, Simona; Moraca, Federica; Ortuso, Francesco; Parrotta, Lucia; Alcaro, Stefano


    Human telomeres play a key role in protecting chromosomal ends from fusion events; they are composed of d(TTAGGG) repeats, ranging in size from 3 to 15 kb. They form G-quadruplex DNA structures, stabilized by G-quartets in the presence of cations, and are involved in several biological processes. In particular, a telomere maintenance mechanism is provided by a specialized enzyme called telomerase, a reverse transcriptase able to add multiple copies of the 5'-GGTTAG-3' motif to the end of the G-strand of the telomere and which is over-expressed in the majority of cancer cells. The central cation has a crucial role in maintaining the stability of the structure. Based on its nature, it can be associated with different topological telomeric quadruplexes, which depend also on the orientation of the DNA strands and the syn/anti conformation of the guanines. Such a polymorphism, confirmed by the different structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), prompted us to apply a computational protocol in order to investigate the conformational properties of a set of known G-quadruplex ligands and their molecular recognition against six different experimental models of the human telomeric sequence d[AG3(T2AG3)3]. The average AutoDock correlation between theoretical and experimental data yielded an r2 value equal to 0.882 among all the studied models. Such a result was always improved with respect to those of the single folds, with the exception of the parallel structure (r2 equal to 0.886), thus suggesting a key role of this G4 conformation in the stacking interaction network. Among the studied binders, a trisubstituted acridine and a dibenzophenanthroline derivative were well recognized by the parallel and the mixed G-quadruplex structures, allowing the identification of specific key contacts with DNA and the further design of more potent or target specific G-quadruplex ligands.

  20. Fluence- and time-dependant lysosomal and mitochondrial damage induced by LS11 PDT characterized with light scattering

    Wilson, Jeremy D.; Foster, Thomas H.


    Light scattering from cells originates from sub-cellular organelles. Our measurements of angularly resolved light scattering have demonstrated that at 633 nm, the dominant scattering centers within EMT6 cells are mitochondria and lysosomes. To assess their specific contributions, we have used photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce organelle-specific perturbations within intact cells. We have developed a coated sphere scattering model for mitochondrial swelling in response to ALA- and Pc 4-PDT, and in the case of Pc 4-PDT we have used this model to map the scattering responses into clonogenic cell survival. More recently, we demonstrated the ability to measure the size, scattering contribution, and refractive index of lysosomes within cells by exploiting the localization and high extinction of the photosensitizer LS11 and an absorbing sphere scattering model. Here we report on time- and fluence-dependant scattering measurements from cells treated with LS11-PDT. LS11-PDT causes rapid lysosomal disruption, as quantified by uptake of acridine orange, and can induce downstream effects including release of mitochondrial cytochrome c preceding the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Reiners et al., Cell Death Differ. 9:934, 2002). Using scattering and these various methods of analysis, we observed that the induction of lysosomal morphology changes requires a fluence significantly higher than that reported for cell killing. At lower fluences, we observe that at 1 h after irradiation there is significant mitochondrial swelling, consistent with the onset of cytochrome c-induced cell death, while the morphology of lysosomes remains unchanged. We also expand on the ideas of lysosomal staining to demonstrate the sensitivity of scattering measurements at different wavelengths to different organelle populations.

  1. Lysosomal and mitochondrial permeabilization mediates zinc(II) cationic phthalocyanine phototoxicity.

    Marino, Julieta; García Vior, María C; Furmento, Verónica A; Blank, Viviana C; Awruch, Josefina; Roguin, Leonor P


    In order to find a novel photosensitizer to be used in photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment, we have previously showed that the cationic zinc(II) phthalocyanine named Pc13, the sulfur-linked dye 2,9(10),16(17),23(24)-tetrakis[(2-trimethylammonium) ethylsulfanyl]phthalocyaninatozinc(II) tetraiodide, exerts a selective phototoxic effect on human nasopharynx KB carcinoma cells and induces an apoptotic response characterized by an increase in the activity of caspase-3. Since the activation of an apoptotic pathway by chemotherapeutic agents contributes to the elimination of malignant cells, in this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor action of Pc13. We found that after light exposure, Pc13 induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are mediating the resultant cytotoxic action on KB cells. ROS led to an early permeabilization of lysosomal membranes as demonstrated by the reduction of lysosome fluorescence with acridine orange and the release of lysosomal proteases to cytosol. Treatment with antioxidants inhibited ROS generation, preserved the integrity of lysosomal membrane and increased cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Lysosome disruption was followed by mitochondrial depolarization, cytosolic release of cytochrome C and caspases activation. Although no change in the total amount of Bax was observed, the translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, the cleavage of the pro-apoptotic protein Bid, together with the decrease of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 indicated the involvement of Bcl-2 family proteins in the induction of the mitochondrial pathway. It was also demonstrated that cathepsin D, but not caspase-8, contributed to Bid cleavage. In conclusion, Pc13-induced cell photodamage is triggered by ROS generation and activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway through the release of lysosomal proteases. In addition, our results also indicated that Pc13 induced

  2. Importance of heterocylic aromatic compounds in monitored natural attenuation for coal tar contaminated aquifers: A review

    Blum, Philipp; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Martus, Peter; Wendel, Thomas; Grathwohl, Peter


    NSO heterocycles (HET) are typical constituents of coal tars. However, HET are not yet routinely monitored, although HET are relatively toxic coal tar constituents. The main objectives of the study is therefore to review previous studies and to analyse HET at coal tar polluted sites in order to assess the relevance of HET as part of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) or any other long-term monitoring programme. Hence, natural attenuation of typical HET (indole, quinoline, carbazole, acridine, methylquinolines, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, methylbenzofurans, dimethylbenzofurans and xanthene) were studied at three different field sites in Germany. Compound-specific plume lengths were determined for all main contaminant groups (BTEX, PAH and HET). The results show that the observed plume lengths are site-specific and are above 250 m, but less than 1000 m. The latter, i.e. the upper limit, however mainly depends on the level of investigation, the considered compound, the lowest measured concentration and/or the achieved compound-specific detection limit and therefore cannot be unequivocally defined. All downstream contaminant plumes exhibited HET concentrations above typical PAH concentrations indicating that some HET are generally persistent towards biodegradation compared to other coal tar constituents, which results in comparatively increased field-derived half-lives of HET. Additionally, this study provides a review on physicochemical and toxicological parameters of HET. For three well investigated sites in Germany, the biodegradation of HET is quantified using the centre line method (CLM) for the evaluation of bulk attenuation rate constants. The results of the present and previous studies suggest that implementation of a comprehensive monitoring programme for heterocyclic aromatic compounds is relevant at sites, if MNA is considered in risk assessment and for remediation.

  3. Spectroscopic studies on the interactions between novel bisnaphthalimide derivatives and calf thymus DNA.

    He, Dongye; Wang, Lili; Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Yongping


    The types of interactions between six novel bisnaphthalimide derivatives (AITHN, BITHN, PITHN, PyITHN, DN6 and DNT6) and calf thymus DNA in a physiological buffer (Tris-HCl buffer solutions, pH=7.4) were investigated using UV-vis spectrophotometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, and a competition experiment, in order to explore the relationships between the linkers of bisnaphthalimide derivatives and their activity. The absorption spectra of the six bisnaphthalimide derivatives with DNA showed a slight red shift and hypochromic effect. DNA quenched the compounds (AITHN, PITHN, PyITHN and DN6) by a static quenching process. Using acridine orange (AO) dye as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was observed in the AO-DNA system with the addition of PITHN, but the maximum emission intensity was elevated for AITHN and DN6 while the other three compounds showed no obvious change. The calculated binding constants of AITHN, PITHN, PyITHN and DN6 with DNA were 2.09×10(5)Lmol(-1), 1.14×10(5)Lmol(-1), 0.95×10(5)Lmol(-1) and 2.39×10(5)Lmol(-1) respectively, and the number of binding sites were 0.618, 0.323, 0.297 and 0.769. Intercalative and electrostatic binding were the two major modes between the six bisnaphthalimide derivatives and calf thymus DNA. The strength of the intercalation was related to the type of linker. Moreover, DN6 and AITHN had the greatest intercalative ability. The electrostatic binding ability of the six compounds was independent of the type of linker present.

  4. Modulation of the genotoxicity of bleomycin by amines through noncovalent DNA interactions and alteration of physiological conditions in yeast

    Hoffmann, George R. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)], E-mail:; Gessner, Gabrielle S.; Hughes, Jennifer F.; Ronan, Matthew V.; Sylvia, Katelyn E.; Willett, Christine J. [Department of Biology, College of the Holy Cross, One College Street, Worcester, MA 01610-2395 (United States)


    The effects of amines on the induction of mitotic gene conversion by bleomycin (BLM) were studied at the trp5 locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7. BLM induces double-strand breaks in DNA and is a potent recombinagen in this assay. The polyamine spermidine causes concentration-dependent protection against the genotoxicity of BLM, reducing the convertant frequency by over 90% under the most protective conditions. Spermine, diethylenetriamine, ethylenediamine, putrescine, and ethylamine were also antigenotoxic in combined treatments with BLM. There was a general correspondence between the protective effect and the number of amino groups, suggesting that more strongly cationic amines tend to be stronger antirecombinagens. Electrostatic association of the amines with DNA probably hinders BLM access to the 4' position of deoxyribose where it generates a free radical. Other amines interact with BLM differently from these unbranched aliphatic amines. The aminothiol cysteamine inhibits the genotoxicity of BLM under hypoxic conditions but increases it under euoxic conditions. In contrast, pargyline potentiates the genotoxicity of BLM under hypoxic conditions but not under euoxic conditions. The antirecombinagenic effect of cysteamine apparently involves DNA binding and depletion of oxygen needed for BLM activity, whereas its potentiation of BLM entails its serving as an electron source for the activation of BLM. Pargyline may enhance BLM indirectly by preventing the depletion of oxygen by monoamine and polyamine oxidase. The planar 9-aminoacridine weakly induces gene conversion in strain D7, but it is strongly synergistic with BLM. Enhancement of BLM activity by this compound and by the related nitroacridine Entozon is apparently mediated by intercalation of the acridine ring system into DNA. Thus, the influence of amines on the genotoxicity of BLM in yeast encompasses antigenotoxic, potentiating, and synergistic interactions. The underlying mechanisms involve

  5. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria.

    Pinto, M J; Rodrigues, S R; Desouza, R; Verenkar, M P


    A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC) was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5%) patients by Leishman's staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9%) cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman's stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field). Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9%) cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314) QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black). The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.

  6. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria

    Pinto M


    Full Text Available A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5% patients by Leishman′s staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9% cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative by the QBC technique, the Leishman′s stained smears did not provide any help in malaria diagnosis. Analysis of the relative quantity of parasites in the specimens, in the QBC method, revealed that 80 out of 89 QBC positive but smear negative cases, had a very low parasite number (less than 10 parasites per QBC field. Although QBC method was superior to the smear for malarial parasite detection, species identification was not possible in 26 (7.9% cases by this technique. In 95.7% (n = 314 QBC positive cases, the buffy coat in the QBC tube appeared pigmented (gray to black. The colour of the buffy coat was therefore considered by us as a predictor of positivity and could be taken as an indicator for a careful and more prolonged search for the parasites. Thus, the QBC technique has its advantages in terms of speed, sensitivity and ease, especially in an endemic area as ours, where the level of parasitaemia is low and more than 70 to 80 smears need to be examined per day. However, the age old Romanowsky stains still appear superior for species identification.

  7. An efficient and cost-effective method for DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil using a newly formulated cell extraction buffer.

    Narayan, Avinash; Jain, Kunal; Shah, Amita R; Madamwar, Datta


    The present study describes the rapid and efficient indirect lysis method for environmental DNA extraction from athalassohaline soil by newly formulated cell extraction buffer. The available methods are mostly based on direct lysis which leads to DNA shearing and co-extraction of extra cellular DNA that influences the community and functional analysis. Moreover, during extraction of DNA by direct lysis from athalassohaline soil, it was observed that, upon addition of poly ethylene glycol (PEG), isopropanol or absolute ethanol for precipitation of DNA, salt precipitates out and affecting DNA yield significantly. Therefore, indirect lysis method was optimized for extraction of environmental DNA from such soil containing high salts and low microbial biomass (CFU 4.3 × 10(4) per gram soil) using newly formulated cell extraction buffer in combination with low and high speed centrifugation. The cell extraction buffer composition and its concentration were optimized and PEG 8000 (1 %; w/v) and 1 M NaCl gave maximum cell mass for DNA extraction. The cell extraction efficiency was assessed with acridine orange staining of soil samples before and after cell extraction. The efficiency, reproducibility and purity of extracted DNA by newly developed procedure were compared with previously recognized methods and kits having different protocols including indirect lysis. The extracted environmental DNA showed better yield (5.6 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) along with high purity ratios. The purity of DNA was validated by assessing its usability in various molecular techniques like restriction enzyme digestion, amplification of 16S rRNA gene using PCR and UV-Visible spectroscopy analysis.

  8. Activation of the intrinsic-apoptotic pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells by genistein- topotecan combination treatments

    Vanessa Hörmann


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in American men. The development of alternative preventative and/or treatment options utilizing a combination of phytochemicals and chemotherapeutic drugs could be an attractive alternative compared to conventional carcinoma treatments. Genistein isoflavone is the primary dietary phytochemical found in soy and has demonstrated anti-tumor activities in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Topotecan Hydrochloride (Hycamtin is an FDA-approved chemotherapy for secondary treatment of lung, ovarian and cervical cancers. The purpose of this study was to detail the potential activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in LNCaP prostate cancer cells through genistein-topotecan combination treatments.Methods: LNCaP cells were cultured in complete RPMI medium in a monolayer (70-80% confluency at 37ºC and 5% CO2. Treatment consisted of single and combination groups of genistein and topotecan for 24 hours. The treated cells were assayed for i growth inhibition through trypan blue exclusion assay and microphotography , ii classification of cellular death through acridine/ ethidium bromide fluorescent staining, and iii activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway through Jc-1: mitochondrial membrane potential assay, cytochrome c release and Bcl-2 protein expression.Results: The overall data indicated that genistein-topotecan combination was significantly more efficacious in reducing the prostate carcinoma’s viability compared to the single treatment options. In all treatment groups, cell death occurred primarily through the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.Conclusion: The combination of topotecan and genistein has the potential to lead to treatment options with equal therapeutic efficiency as traditional chemo- and radiation therapies, but lower cell cytotoxicity and fewer side effects in patients.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of tick-borne African relapsing fevers: latest developments

    Aurélien eFotso Fotso


    Full Text Available In Africa, relapsing fevers caused by ectoparasite-borne Borrelia species are transmitted by ticks, with the exception of Borrelia recurrentis, which is a louse-borne spirochete. These tropical diseases responsible for mild to deadly spirochetemia. Cultured B. crocidurae, B. duttonii and B. hispanica circulate alongside at least six species which have not yet been cultured in vectors. Direct diagnosis is hindered by the use of non-specific laboratory tools. Indeed, microscopic observation of Borrelia spirochaeta in smears of peripheral blood taken from febrile patients lacks sensitivity and specificity. Although best visualised using dark-field microscopy, the organisms can also be detected using Wright-Giemsa or acridine orange stains.. PCR-based detection of specific sequences in total DNA extracted from a specimen can be used to discriminate different relapsing fever Borreliae. In our laboratory, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of B. duttonii/recurrentis and B. crocidurae: Multispacer Sequence Typing accurately identified cultured relapsing fever borreliae and revealed diversity among them. Other molecular typing techniques, such as multilocus sequence analysis of tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, showed the potential risk of human infection in Africa. Recent efforts to culture and sequence relapsing fever borreliae have provided new information for reassessment of the diversity of these bacteria. Recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been reported as a means of identifying cultured borreliae and of identifying both vectors and vectorised pathogens such as detecting relapsing fever borreliae directly in ticks. The lack of a rapid diagnosis test restricts the management of such diseases. We produced monoclonal antibodies against Borrelia crocidurae in order to develop cheap assays for the rapid detection of relapsing fever borreliae. In this paper

  10. Nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

    Hua-Ling Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nestin is expressed in neural progenitor cells (NPC of developing brain. Despite its wide use as an NPC marker, the function of nestin in embryo development is unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As nestin is conserved in zebrafish and its predicted sequence is clustered with the mammalian nestin orthologue, we used zebrafish as a model to investigate its role in embryogenesis. Injection of nestin morpholino (MO into fertilized eggs induced time- and dose-dependent brain and eye developmental defects. Nestin morphants exhibited characteristic morphological changes including small head, small eyes and hydrocephalus. Histological examinations show reduced hind- and mid-brain size, dilated ventricle, poorly organized retina and underdeveloped lens. Injection of control nestin MO did not induce brain or eye changes. Nestin MO injection reduced expression of ascl1b (achaete-scute complex-like 1b, a marker of NPCs, without affecting its distribution. Nestin MO did not influence Elavl3/4 (Embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 3/4 (a neuronal marker, or otx2 (a midbrain neuronal marker, but severely perturbed cranial motor nerve development and axon distribution. To determine whether the developmental defects are due to excessive NPC apoptosis and/or reduced NPC proliferation, we analyzed apoptosis by TUNEL assay and acridine orange staining and proliferation by BrdU incorporation, pcna and mcm5 expressions. Excessive apoptosis was noted in hindbrain and midbrain cells. Apoptotic signals were colocalized with ascl1b. Proliferation markers were not significantly altered by nestin MO. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nestin is essential for zebrafish brain and eye development probably through control of progenitor cell apoptosis.

  11. Matrine induces the hepatic differentiation of WB-F344 rat hepatic progenitor cells and inhibits Jagged 1/HES1 signaling.

    Yang, Zhiyun; Wang, Li; Wang, Xianbo


    Matrine is a Chinese medicine, which is widely utilized for the attenuation of liver injuries and promotion of liver regeneration. It was previously observed that the in vivo administration of matrine promoted oval cell‑mediated liver regeneration in a rat model, suggesting that this compound may affect the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells. The present study aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying this observation and to investigate the effect of matrine on the differentiation of the WB‑F344 rat hepatic progenitor cell line. Matrine was administered to rats, and rat serum was collected. WB‑F344 cells were cultured in the presence or absence of the rat serum for 24‑72 h, and the effects on cell viability and proliferation were assessed using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and a 3‑(4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl) ‑2,5‑diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of albumin (ALB, a hepatocyte marker) and the notch signaling pathway ligand, Jagged 1, were assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and the mRNA transcription of ALB, Jagged 1 and hairy and enhancer of split‑1 (HES1, another notch signaling ligand) were measured using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed that proliferation of the WB‑F344 cells was inhibited by matrine serum in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. Matrine serum downregulated Jagged 1 and HES1, and upregulated ALB, indicating the induction of WB‑F344 cell differentiation. The effects of matrine serum were reversed by supplementing the culture medium with 0.1 mol/l parathyroid hormone, a Notch signaling pathway activator. In conclusion, matrine induced hepatic differentiation of the hepatic progenitor cells, likely by inhibiting the Jagged 1/HES1 signaling pathway.

  12. Anticancer activity of a monobenzyltin complex C1 against MDA-MB-231 cells through induction of Apoptosis and inhibition of breast cancer stem cells

    Fani, Somayeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Lo, Kong Mun; Nigjeh, Siamak Ebrahimi; Keong, Yeap Swee; Dehghan, Firouzeh; Soori, Rahman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chow, Kit May; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Rouhollahi, Elham; Hashim, Najihah Mohd


    In the present study, we examined the cytotoxic effects of Schiff base complex, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, and C1 on MDA-MB-231 cells and derived breast cancer stem cells from MDA-MB-231 cells. The acute toxicity experiment with compound C1 revealed no cytotoxic effects on rats. Fluorescent microscopic studies using Acridine Orange/Propidium Iodide (AO/PI) staining and flow cytometric analysis using an Annexin V probe confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in C1-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Compound C1 triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. The Cellomics High Content Screening (HCS) analysis showed the induction of intrinsic pathways in treated MDA-MB-231 cells, and a luminescence assay revealed significant increases in caspase 9 and 3/7 activity. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis showed that compound C1 induced G0/G1 arrest in treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Real time PCR and western blot analysis revealed the upregulation of the Bax protein and the downregulation of the Bcl-2 and HSP70 proteins. Additionally, this study revealed the suppressive effect of compound C1 against breast CSCs and its ability to inhibit the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate the chemotherapeutic properties of compound C1 against breast cancer cells and derived breast cancer stem cells, suggesting that the anticancer capabilities of this compound should be clinically assessed. PMID:27976692

  13. Microwave-mediated extracellular synthesis of metallic silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using macro-algae (Gracilaria edulis) extracts and its anticancer activity against human PC3 cell lines.

    Priyadharshini, Ramaramesh Indra; Prasannaraj, Govindaraj; Geetha, Natesan; Venkatachalam, Perumal


    A rapid and novel microwave-mediated protocol was established for extracellular synthesis of metallic silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using the extracts of macro-algae Gracilaria edulis (GE) and also examined its anticancer activity against human prostate cancer cell lines (PC3). The formation of silver nanoparticles (GEAgNPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (GEZnONPs) in the reaction mixture was determined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The synthesized Ag and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles were spherical and rod-shaped, respectively. Cell viability assays were carried out to determine the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and ZnONPs against PC3 and normal African monkey kidney (VERO) cell line. The inhibitory concentration values were found to be 39.60, 28.55, 53.99 μg/mL and 68.49, 88.05, 71.98 μg/mL against PC3 cells and Vero cells for AgNPs, ZnONPs, and aqueous G. edulis extracts, respectively, at 48 h incubation period. As evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, the percentage of the apoptotic bodies was found to be 62 and 70 % for AgNPs and ZnONPs, respectively. The present results strongly suggest that the synthesized ZnONPs showed an effective anticancer activity against PC3 cell lines than AgNPs.

  14. Interactions between beta D372 and gamma subunit N-terminus residues gamma K9 and gamma S12 are important to catalytic activity catalyzed by Escherichia coli F1F0-ATP synthase.

    Lowry, David S; Frasch, Wayne D


    Substitution of Escherichia coli F(1)F(0) ATP synthase residues betaD372 or gammaS12 with groups that are unable to form a hydrogen bond at this location decreased ATP synthase-dependent cell growth by 2 orders of magnitude, eliminated the ability of F(1)F(0) to catalyze ATPase-dependent proton pumping in inverted E. coli membranes, caused a 15-20% decrease in the coupling efficiency of the membranes as measured by the extent of succinate-dependent acridine orange fluorescence quenching, but increased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity by about 10%. Substitution of gammaK9 to eliminate the ability to form a salt bridge with betaD372 decreased soluble F(1)-ATPase activity and ATPase-driven proton pumping by 2-fold but had no effect on the proton gradient induced by addition of succinate. Mutations to eliminate the potential to form intersubunit hydrogen bonds and salt bridges between other less highly conserved residues on the gamma subunit N-terminus and the beta subunits had little effect on ATPase or ATP synthase activities. These results suggest that the betaD372-gammaK9 salt bridge contributes significantly to the rate-limiting step in ATP hydrolysis of soluble F(1) while the betaD372-gammaS12 hydrogen bond may serve as a component of an escapement mechanism for ATP synthesis in which alphabetagamma intersubunit interactions provide a means to make substrate binding a prerequisite of proton gradient-driven gamma subunit rotation.

  15. Cyclosporine A prevents ex vivo PCO formation through induction of autophagy-mediated cell death.

    Chandler, Heather L; Gervais, Kristen J; Lutz, Elizabeth A; Curto, Elizabeth M; Matusow, Rachel B; Wilkie, David A; Gemensky-Metzler, Anne J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the Cyclosporine A (CsA) dose and minimum drug delivery time needed to prevent posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in an ex vivo canine model and evaluate the mechanism of CsA-induced cell death. Canine lens epithelial cells (LEC) were treated with CsA and changes in cell migration, proliferation, and density were monitored over time. CsA-treated LEC underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting in the presence or absence of autophagy inhibitors to evaluate the mechanism of cell death. Lens capsules were harvested from canine cadaver eyes for an ex vivo model of PCO. Lens capsules were treated with CsA for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7 days, and subsequently maintained in culture for a total of 28 days in the absence of drug. CsA reduced LEC viability in a dose dependent manner. Morphologically, CsA-treated LEC were swollen, had intact nuclei, lacked peripheral chromatin condensation, and demonstrated prominent vacuolization; TEM revealed autophagosomes. LC3-II protein expression and acridine orange fluorescence increased in CsA-treated cells. A small non-significant induction of cleaved caspase-3 was observed in CsA-treated LEC. Lens capsules treated with 5, 6, or 7 days of 10 μg/mL CsA showed a significant decrease in ex vivo PCO formation; 6 days of drug delivery prevented PCO. This study finds that morphologic changes, formation of acidic vesicles, and increased expression of LC3-II supports the hypothesis that CsA mediates LEC death via autophagy; this is a novel finding in the lens. Induction of CsA-induced apoptosis was minimal. Six days of intracapsular CsA drug delivery prevented ex vivo PCO formation.

  16. Characterization and applications of as-grown {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method

    Rahman, Mohammed M., E-mail:; Jamal, Aslam; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Faisal, Mohd [Najran University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts (Saudi Arabia)


    The production of low-dimensional nanoparticles (NPs) with appropriate surface modification has attracted increasing attention in biological, biochemical, and environmental applications including chemical sensing, photocatalytic degradation, separation, and purification of toxic molecules from the matrices. In this study, iron oxide NPs have been prepared by hydrothermal method using ferric chloride and urea in aqueous medium under alkaline condition (pH 9 {approx} 10). As-grown low-dimensional NPs have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, Field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High-resolution Transmission electron microscopy, and Electron Diffraction System. The uniformity of the NPs size was measured by the scanning electron microscopy, while the single phase of the nanocrystalline {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction technique. As-grown NPs were extensively applied for the photocatalytic degradation of acridine orange (AO) and electrochemical sensing of ammonia in liquid phase. Almost 50% photo-catalytic degradation with AO was observed in the presence of UV sources (250 W) with NPs. {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NP-coated gold electrodes (GE, surface area 0.0216 cm{sup 2}) have enhanced ammonia-sensing performances in their electrical response (I-V characterization) for detecting ammonia in liquid phase. The performances of chemical sensor were investigated, and the results exhibited that the sensitivity, stability, and reproducibility of the sensor improved significantly using {beta}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs on GE surface. The sensitivity was approximately 0.5305 {+-} 0.02 {mu}Acm{sup -2}mM{sup -1}, with a detection limit of 21.8 {+-} 0.1 {mu}M, based on a signal/noise ratio of 3 with short response time.

  17. Selective cytotoxic effect of 1-O-undecylglycerol in human melanoma cells

    Marian Hernández-Colina


    Full Text Available Context: 1-O-alkylglycerols are ether-linked glycerols derived from shark liver oil and found in small amounts in human milk. Previous studies showed antineoplastic activity for this family of compounds, structurally related to alkylphospholipids, but the activity of linear chain synthetic alkylglycerols in cancer cell lines is less documented. Melanoma is a high incidence cancer, highly resistant to potential treatments. Finding new anti-cancer compounds to improve melanoma prognosis is a relevant research issue. Aims: To study the cytotoxic effect of 1-O-undecylglycerol in primary cultured normal fibroblasts and A375 human melanoma cell line. Methods: Cells were treated with different concentrations of 1-O-undecylglycerol and viability assessed by MTT assay. Morphological changes were visualized by DAPI and acridine orange-ethidium bromide staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated, and gene expression of P53 and BcL-2 was semi-quantified. Results: 1-O-undecylglycerol decreased viability of A375 cells and exerted very low cytotoxicity on primary cultured normal fibroblasts. Necrosis appeared in A375 cells but not in fibroblasts, and no apoptotic changes were visualized in DAPI staining experiments. After 24 h fibroblasts and melanoma cells developed mitochondrial potential changes similar to valinomycin. The gene expression of P53 and BcL-2 decreased in treated cells. Conclusions: 1-O-undecylglycerol exhibited selective cytotoxic activity in A375 melanoma cells when compared with primary cultured fibroblast. Its toxicity is mediated by necrosis that may be related with mitochondrial events and decrease in P53 and BcL-2 expression. The results suggest that UDG could be a useful strategy to combine with other chemotherapeutic agents in melanoma treatment.

  18. Interaction of iron nanoparticles with nervous system: an in vitro study.

    Hajsalimi, Gelare; Taheri, Saba; Shahi, Farshad; Attar, Farnoosh; Ahmadi, Hosein; Falahati, Mojtaba


    Nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the interesting and widely studying issues mainly because of their particular physico-chemical features and broad applications in the field of biomedical sciences, such as diagnosis and drug delivery. In this study, the interaction of iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) with Tau protein and PC12 cell, as potential nervous system models, was investigated with a range of techniques including dynamic light scattering, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, [(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium-bromid] assay, and acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) dual staining method. An inverse correlation between Stern and Volmer constant (KSV) and temperature indicated a probable static quenching mechanism occurred between Tau protein and Fe-NPs. The number of binding site (n = 0.86) showed that there is almost one binding site of Fe-NP per protein. The negative values of ∆H (-53.21 kJ/mol) and T∆S (-42.44 kJ/mol) revealed that Fe-NPs interacts with Tau protein with dominate role of hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions and this interaction was spontaneous (∆G = -10.77 kJ/mol). Also, Fe-NPs stabilized the random coil structure of Tau protein. Moreover, Fe-NPs reduced PC12 cells viability by fragmentation of DNA in an apoptotic manner. In conclusion, induced conformational changes of Tau protein and cytotoxicity of PC12 cells by Fe-NP were revealed to be in a concentration and time-dependent manner.

  19. Leptospermum flavescens Constituent-LF1 Causes Cell Death through the Induction of Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    Suerialoasan Navanesan

    Full Text Available Leptospermum flavescens Sm. (Myrtaceae, locally known as 'Senna makki' is a smallish tree that is widespread and recorded to naturally occur in the montane regions above 900 m a.s.l from Burma to Australia. Although the species is recorded to be used traditionally to treat various ailments, there is limited data on biological and chemical investigations of L. flavescens. The aim of the present study was to investigate and understand the ability of L. flavescens in inducing cell death in lung cancer cells. The cytotoxic potentials of the extraction yields (methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate and water extracts as wells as a semi pure fraction, LF1 were evaluated against two human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines (A549 and NCI-H1299 using the MTT assay. LF1 showed the greatest cytotoxic effect against both cell lines with IC50 values of 7.12 ± 0.07 and 9.62 ± 0.50 μg/ml respectively. LF1 treated cells showed a sub-G1 region in the cell cycle analysis and also caused the presence of apoptotic morphologies in cells stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide. Treatment with LF1 manifested an apoptotic population in cells that were evaluated using the Annexin V/ propidium iodide assay. Increasing dosage of LF1 caused a rise in the presence of activated caspase-3 enzymes in treated cells. Blockage of cell cycle progression was also observed in LF1-treated cells. These findings suggest that LF1 induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in treated lung cancer cells. Further studies are being conducted to isolate and identify the active compound as well to better understand the mechanism involved in inducing cell death.

  20. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A


    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property.

  1. Transport and biodegradation of creosote compounds in clayey till, a field experiment

    Broholm, Kim; Nilsson, Bertel; Sidle, Roy C.; Arvin, Erik


    The transport and biodegradation of 12 organic compounds (toluene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,6-, 3,5-dimethylphenol, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, benzothiophene, dibenzofuran, indole, acridine, and quinoline) were studied at a field site located on the island of Funen, Denmark, where a clayey till 10-15 m deep overlies a sandy aquifer. The upper 4.8 m of till is highly fractured and the upper 2.5 m contains numerous root and worm holes. A 1.5-2 m thick sand lens is encountered within the till at a depth of 4.8 m. Sampling points were installed at depths of 2.5 m, 4 m, and in the sand lens (5.5 m) to monitor the downward migration of a chloride tracer and the organic compounds. Water containing organic compounds and chloride was infiltrated into a 4 m×4.8 m basin at a rate of 8.8 m 3 day -1 for 7 days. The mass of naphthalene relative to chloride was 0.39-0.98 for the sampling points located at a depth of 2.5 m, 0.11-0.61 for the sampling points located at a depth of 4 m, and 0-0.02 for the sampling points located in the sand lens. A similar pattern was observed for eight organic compounds for which reliable results were obtained (toluene, phenol, o-cresol, 2,6-, 3,5-dimethylphenol, 1-methylnaphthalene, benzothiophene, and quinoline). This shows that the organic compounds were attenuated during the downward migration through the till despite the high infiltration rate. The attenuation process may be attributed to biodegradation.

  2. Developmental toxicity of cypermethrin in embryo-larval stages of zebrafish.

    Shi, Xiangguo; Gu, Aihua; Ji, Guixiang; Li, Yuan; Di, Jing; Jin, Jing; Hu, Fan; Long, Yan; Xia, Yankai; Lu, Chuncheng; Song, Ling; Wang, Shoulin; Wang, Xinru


    Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid insecticide, is widely used throughout the world in agriculture, forestry, horticulture and homes. Though the neurotoxicity of cypermethrin has been thoroughly studied in adult rodents, little is so far available regarding the developmental toxicity of cypermethrin to fish in early life stages. To explore the potential developmental toxicity of cypermethrin, 4-h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of cypermethrin (0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg L⁻¹) until 96 h. Among a suite of morphological abnormalities, the unique phenotype curvature was observed at concentrations as low as 25 μg L⁻¹. Studies revealed that 400 μg L⁻¹ cypermethrin significantly increased malondialdehyde production. In addition, activity of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly induced in zebrafish larvae in a concentration-dependent manner. To further investigate the toxic effects of cypermethrin on fish, acridine orange (AO) staining was performed at 400 μg L⁻¹ cypermethrin and the result showed notable signs of apoptosis mainly in the nervous system. Cypermethrin also down-regulated ogg1 and increased p53 gene expression as well as the caspase-3 activity. Our results demonstrate that cypermethrin was able to induce oxidative stress and produce apoptosis through the involvement of caspases in zebrafish embryos. In this study, we investigated the developmental toxicity of cypermethrin using zebrafish embryos, which could be helpful in fully understanding the potential mechanisms of cypermethrin exposure during embryogenesis and also suggested that zebrafish could serve as an ideal model for studying developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants.

  3. Nucleolus-like bodies of fully-grown mouse oocytes contain key nucleolar proteins but are impoverished for rRNA.

    Shishova, Kseniya V; Lavrentyeva, Elena A; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Zatsepina, Olga V


    It is well known that fully-grown mammalian oocytes, rather than typical nucleoli, contain prominent but structurally homogenous bodies called "nucleolus-like bodies" (NLBs). NLBs accumulate a vast amount of material, but their biochemical composition and functions remain uncertain. To clarify the composition of the NLB material in mouse GV oocytes, we devised an assay to detect internal oocyte proteins with fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) and applied the fluorescent RNA-binding dye acridine orange to examine whether NLBs contain RNA. Our results unequivocally show that, similarly to typical nucleoli, proteins and RNA are major constituents of transcriptionally active (or non-surrounded) NLBs as well as of transcriptionally silent (or surrounded) NLBs. We also show, by exposing fixed oocytes to a mild proteinase K treatment, that the NLB mass in oocytes of both types contains nucleolar proteins that are involved in all major steps of ribosome biogenesis, including rDNA transcription (UBF), early rRNA processing (fibrillarin), and late rRNA processing (NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23, nucleolin/C23), but none of the nuclear proteins tested, including SC35, NOBOX, topoisomerase II beta, HP1α, and H3. The ribosomal RPL26 protein was detected within the NLBs of NSN-type oocytes but is virtually absent from NLBs of SN-type oocytes. Taking into account that the major class of nucleolar RNA is ribosomal RNA (rRNA), we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes targeting 18S and 28S rRNAs. The results show that, in contrast to active nucleoli, NLBs of fully-grown oocytes are impoverished for the rRNAs, which is consistent with the absence of transcribed ribosomal genes in the NLB mass. Overall, the results of this study suggest that NLBs of fully-grown mammalian oocytes serve for storing major nucleolar proteins but not rRNA.

  4. Effects of Astragalus Polyose on Growth and Development and Consenescence of Zebra Fish%黄芪多糖对斑马鱼生长发育及衰老的影响

    夏广清; 韩晓娟


    Taking Zebra fish as the experimental materials to study the effects of the APS on the growth and develop- ment and consenescence, the experimental results show that when the APS concentration is 0. 125mg/ml - 0.25mg/ml, the zebra fish grow and develop normally, when the concentration is too high, to 0.5mg/ ml, the growth of zebra fish was inhibited ; β- galactosidase staining ( SA - β - gal) and acridine orange (AO) staining results showed that when the concentration of APS at 0.25mg/ml, it can delay the apopto- sis of zebra fish, which play a role in anti -aging.%以斑马鱼为实验材料,研究了黄芪多糖对生长发育及衰老的影响,实验结果表明,当黄芪多糖浓度为0.125mg/ml~0.25mg/ml时,斑马鱼生长发育正常,当浓度过高,达到0.5mg/ml时,斑马鱼生长发育受到抑制;β半乳糖苷酶染色(SA—β—gal)及吖啶橙(AO)的染色结果表明,当黄芪多糖浓度为0.25mg/ml时,可以延缓斑马鱼细胞调亡,从而起到一定的抗衰老作用.

  5. Phagocytic uptake of oxidized heme polymer is highly cytotoxic to macrophages.

    Rohitas Deshmukh

    Full Text Available Apoptosis in macrophages is responsible for immune-depression and pathological effects during malaria. Phagocytosis of PRBC causes induction of apoptosis in macrophages through release of cytosolic factors from infected cells. Heme polymer or β-hematin causes dose-dependent death of macrophages with LC50 of 132 µg/ml and 182 µg/ml respectively. The toxicity of hemin or heme polymer was amplified several folds in the presence of non-toxic concentration of methemoglobin. β-hematin uptake in macrophage through phagocytosis is crucial for enhanced toxicological effects in the presence of methemoglobin. Higher accumulation of β-hematin is observed in macrophages treated with β-hematin along with methemoglobin. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations further confirm accumulation of β-hematin with cellular toxicity. Toxicological potentiation of pro-oxidant molecules toward macrophages depends on generation of H2O2 and independent to release of free iron from pro-oxidant molecules. Methemoglobin oxidizes β-hematin to form oxidized β-hematin (βH* through single electron transfer mechanism. Pre-treatment of reaction mixture with spin-trap Phenyl-N-t-butyl-nitrone dose-dependently reverses the β-hematin toxicity, indicates crucial role of βH* generation with the toxicological potentiation. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and DNA fragmentation analysis indicate that macrophage follows an oxidative stress dependent apoptotic pathway to cause death. In summary, current work highlights mutual co-operation between methemoglobin and different pro-oxidant molecules to enhance toxicity towards macrophages. Hence, methemoglobin peroxidase activity can be probed for subduing cellular toxicity of pro-oxidant molecules and it may in-turn make up for host immune response against the malaria parasite.

  6. Examination of bacteriological status of surface fresh waters using direct and cultivation methods

    Petrović Olga V.


    Full Text Available The number of bacteria in surface waters reflects the current state of waters and their trophicity, and it is the first parameter that is affected by the anthropogenic contamination. Traditionally, quantification of bacteria in waters is performed using the cultivation methods. However, all these methods detect only cultivable bacteria; the results depend on the incubation conditions, and the results are obtained after several days. These deficiencies are solved by using direct methods. This work is the first bacteriological examination of the reservoir Ćelije and its tributaries by using a direct method of quantification. Total of 343 samples of water from the reservoir and its tributaries were processed. In each sample, the count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria was determined using cultivation method was involving involved inoculation of samples on high-nutrient PCA medium and on low-nutrient R2A medium, and incubation for 7 days at room temperature. The total number of bacteria was determined by epifluorescence microscopy technique after filtration of samples previously stained with acridine orange. Using the cultivation methods, the highest number of bacteria was recorded in the river of Blatašnica on R2A medium (56,535 CFU/ml, and lowest in the basin Vodozahvat on PCA medium (1,364 CFU/ml. According to the results from R2A, water belonged to the class of water of poorer quality compared to the results from the PCA. The results obtained by the direct method were correlated with cultivation methods. The significantly highest number of bacteria was obtained by epifluorescence microscopy, and the lowest on PCA medium. If the application of direct method for some reason is not possible, the real results of bacteriological state of surface waters can be obtained by inoculation of samples on R2A medium with adequate incubation conditions.

  7. Ethanol induced mitochondria injury and permeability transition pore opening: Role of mitochondria in alcoholic liver disease

    Ming Yan; Ping Zhu; Hui-Min Liu; Hai-Tao Zhang; Li Liu


    AIM: To observe changes of mitochondria and investigate the effect of ethanol on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and intracellular calcium concentration in hepatocytes by establishing an animal model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).METHODS: Fourty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, the model group (20) was administered alcohol intragastrically plus an Oliver oil diet to establish an ALD model, and the control group (20) was given an equal amount of normal saline. The ultramicrostructural changes of mitochondria were observed under electron microscopy. Mitochondria of liver was extracted, and patency of PTP, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), mitochondrial mass and intracellular calcium concentration of isolated hepacytes were detected by flow cytometry using rhodamine123 (Rh123), Nonyl-Acridine Orange and calcium fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM, respectively.RESULTS: Membrane and cristae were broken or disappeared in mitochondria in different shapes under electron microscopy. Some mitochondria showed U shape or megamitochondrion. In the model group, liver mitochondria PTP was broken, and mitochondria swelled, the absorbance at 450 nm, A540 decreased (0.0136 ± 0.0025 vs 0.0321 ± O.0013,model vs control,P<O.01);mitochondria transmembrane potential (239.4638 ± 12.7263 vs 377.5850 ± 16.8119,P<0.01) was lowered;mitochondrial mass (17.4350 ± 1.9880 vs 31.6738 ± 3.4930,P<0.01);and [Ca2+]i was increased in liver cells (7.0020 ± 0.5008 vs 10.2050 ± 0.4701,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:Chronic alcohol intake might lead to broken mitochondria PTP,decreased mitochondria membrane potential and injury,and elevated intracellular Ca2+ production.Ethanol-induced chondriosome injury may be an important mechanism of alcoholic diseases.

  8. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Protects PC12 cells from LPS-Induced Cell Death Through Nrf2 pathway in PPAR-γ Dependent Manner

    Fariba Khodagholi


    Full Text Available Introduction:The inflammatory response requires a coordinated integration of various signaling pathway including cyclooxygenase (COX.COX catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Among prostaglandins, 15-Deoxy-D12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2,an endogenous ligand of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ,has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory actions.In this study,we investigated whether 15d-PGJ2 as a PPAR-γ ligand could exert neuroprotective effects in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells in PPAR-γ dependent manner. Methods: In our experiment, using PC12 cells, the levels of NF-κB, Nrf2, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, hemeoxygenase (HO-1 and apoptosis factors were determined using Western blot in different groups. Also cell viability was determined by the conventional MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction assay and two staining involved Hoechst staining and Acridine Ordange/Ethidiume Bromide staining respectively. Results: Our results show that NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor and 15d-PGJ2, a natural potent ligand of PPAR-γ, were neuroprotective through modulation of at least three different, but related pathways and molecules, including NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our data showed that 15d-PGJ2 and NS-398 induced Nrf2 signaling pathway and its downstream factors such as HO-1 and γ-GCS, while 15d-PGJ2 and NS-398 decreased NF-κB level. Interestingly, the observed protective effects were mediated through PPAR-γ-dependent mechanisms, as they reversed by GW9662, an irreversible antagonist of PPAR-γ receptor. Discussion: Thus we conclude that 15d-PGJ2 as well as NS-398 exert anti cell death effect in a PPAR-γ dependent mechanisms.

  9. Effect of lumiracoxib on proliferation and apoptosis of human nonsmall cell lung cancer cells in vitro

    HAO Ji-qing; LI Qi; XU Shu-ping; SHEN Yu-xian; SUN Gen-yun


    Background Lumiracoxib is a highly selective cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2)inhibitor with antiinflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic activities comparable with class specific drugs,but with much improved gastrointestinal safety.No studies have examined lumiracoxib for antitumorigenic activity on human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines in vitro or its possible molecular mechanisms.Methods The antiproliferative effect of lumiracoxib alone or combined with docetaxol on A549 and NCI-H460 lines was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Drug-drug interactions were analyzed using the coefficient of drug interaction(CDI)to characterize the interactions as synergism,additivity or antagonism.Morphological changes were observed by acridine orange fluorescent staining.Extent of apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry.Results Lumiracoxib(15-240 μmol/L)has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of A549 and NCI-H460 celllines in concentration- and time-dependent manners with the IC50 values of 2597 μmol/L and 833 pmol/L,respectively.The synergistic effect was prominent when lumiracoxib(15-240 μmol/L)was combined with docetaxol(0.2-2 μmol/L)(CDI <1).Fluorescent staining showed that lumiracoxib could induce apoptosis in A549 and NCI-H460 cells.Lumiracoxib treatment also caused an increase of the sub-G1 fraction in each cell line and resulted in an increase of G0/G1-phase cells and a decrease of S-phase cells.Conclusions Lumiracoxib had antiproliferative effect on the human nonsmall cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 and had a significant synergy with docetaxol,which may be related to apoptotic induction and cell cycle arrest.

  10. Pseudopyronine B: A Potent Antimicrobial and Anticancer Molecule Isolated from a Pseudomonas mosselii.

    Nishanth Kumar, S; Aravind, S R; Jacob, Jubi; Gopinath, Geethu; Lankalapalli, Ravi S; Sreelekha, T T; Dileep Kumar, B S


    In continuation of our search for new bioactive compounds from soil microbes, a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain isolated from paddy field soil of Kuttanad, Kerala, India was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas mosselii through 16S rDNA gene sequencing followed by BLAST analysis and the bioactive metabolites produced were purified by column chromatography (silica gel) and a pure bioactive secondary metabolite was isolated. This bioactive compound was identified as Pseudopyronine B by NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antimicrobial activity especially against Gram-positive bacteria and agriculturally important fungi. MTT assay was used for finding cell proliferation inhibition, and Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antitumor activity against non-small cell lung cancer cell (A549), and mouse melanoma cell (B16F10). The preliminary MTT assay results revealed that Pseudopyronine B recorded both dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the growth of test cancer cell lines. Pseudopyronine B induced apoptotic cell death in cancer cells as evidenced by Acridine orange/ethidium bromide and Hoechst staining, and this was further confirmed by flow cytometry analysis using Annexin V. Cell cycle analysis also supports apoptosis by inducing G2/M accumulation in both A549 and B16F10 cells. Pseudopyronine B treated cells recorded significant up-regulation of caspase 3 activity. Moreover, this compound recorded immunomodulatory activity by enhancing the proliferation of lymphocytes. The production of Pseudopyronine B by P. mosselii and its anticancer activity in A549 and B16F10 cell lines is reported here for the first time. The present study has a substantial influence on the information of Pseudopyronine B from P. mosselii as potential sources of novel drug molecule for the pharmaceutical companies, especially as potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

  11. Pseudopyronine B: a potent antimicrobial and anticancer molecule isolated from a Pseudomonas mosselii strain



    Full Text Available In continuation of our search for new bioactive compounds from soil microbes, a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain isolated from paddy field soil of Kuttanad, Kerala, India was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. This strain was identified as Pseudomonas mosselii through 16S rDNA gene sequencing and the metabolites produced were purified through silica gel column chromatography and a single pure bioactive compound was isolated. The chemical structure of the compound was identified as Pseudopyronine B by NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antimicrobial activity especially against Gram positive bacteria and agriculturally important fungi. MTT assay was used for finding cell proliferation inhibition and Pseudopyronine B recorded significant antitumor activity against non small cell lung cancer cell (A549, and mouse melanoma cell (B16F10. MTT assay results showed that the growth of cancer cells was suppressed by Pseudopyronine B in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide and hoechst stained cells indicated apoptosis induction by Pseudopyronine B and this was further confirmed by flow cytometry analysis using Annexin V. Cell cycle analysis also supports apoptosis by inducing G2/M accumulation in both A549 and B16F10 cells. Up-regulation of caspase 3 activity was also found in cells treated with Pseudopyronine B. Enhancement in the proliferation of lymphocytes suggested immunomodulatory activity of this compound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of Pseudopyronine B from Pseudomonas mosselii and its anticancer activity in A549 and B16F10 cells. This study has a significant contribution to the knowledge of Pseudopyronine B from Pseudomonas mosselii as potential sources of new drugs in the pharmacological industry, especially as potent antimicrobial and anticancer agent.

  12. Antitumor effects of Chi-Shen extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Paeoniae radix on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Sheng HU; Shi-min CHEN; Xiao-kuan LI; Rui QIN; Zhi-nan MEI


    Aim: To investigate the antihepatocellular carcinoma effects of Chi-Shen extract (CSE) from the water-soluble compounds of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Paeoniae radix. Methods: The effect of CSE on the growth of HepG2 cells (hepatocellular carcinoma cell line) was studied by 3-(4,5)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay.Apoptosis were detected through acridine orange (AO) and ethylene dibromide (EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The effect of CSE on the cell cycle of HepG2 cells was studied by the propidium iodide staining method. The activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 was examined by immunoassay kits. The transcription of the Bcl-2 family and p53 was detected by RT-PCR. Results: Our data revealed that CSE strongly induced HepG2 cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CSE-induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic by observing the typical apoptotic morphological change by AO/EB staining and DNA fragmentation assay.The induction of HepG2 cell death was caused by an induction of apoptosis for the sub-G1 proportion increase, the downregulation of Bcl-2, the upregulation of Bax and p53, and the activation of the caspases-3 and -9 pathways. Conclusion:These results clearly demonstrated that CSE was able to inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells and cause apoptosis. Moreover, the anticancer effects of CSE were related to the Bcl-2 family pathway and the activation of caspases-3 and -9 in HepG2 cells.

  13. Microbial community in a geothermal aquifer associated with the subsurface of the Great Artesian Basin, Australia.

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Sugihara, Maki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Patel, Bharat K C; Kato, Kenji; Hanada, Satoshi


    To investigate the biomass and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community inhabiting the deep aquifer of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), geothermal groundwater gushing out from the aquifer was sampled and analyzed. Microbial cells in the groundwater were stained with acridine orange and directly counted by epifluorescence microscopy. Microbial cells were present at a density of 10(8)-10(9) cells per liter of groundwater. Archaeal and bacterial small-subunit rRNA genes (rDNAs) were amplified by PCR with Archaea- and Bacteria-specific primer sets, and clone libraries were constructed separately. A total of 59 clones were analyzed in archaeal and bacterial 16S rDNA libraries, respectively. The archaeal 16S rDNA clones were divided into nine operated taxonomic units (OTUs) by restriction fragment length polymorphism. These OTUs were closely related to the methanogenic genera Methanospirillum and Methanosaeta, the heterotrophic genus Thermoplasma, or miscellaneous crenarchaeota group. More than one-half of the archaeal clones (59% of total 59 clones) were placed beside phylogenetic clusters of methanogens. The majority of the methanogen-related clones (83%) was closely related to a group of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (genus Methanospirillum). The bacterial OTUs branched into seven phylogenetic clusters related to hydrogen-oxidizing thermophiles in the genera Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenophilus, a sulfate-reducing thermophile in the genus Thermodesulfovibrio, chemoheterotropic bacteria in the genera Thermus and Aquaspirillum, or the candidate division OP10. Clones closely related to the thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizers in the genera Hydrogenobacter and Hydrogenophilus were dominant in the bacterial clone library (37% of a total of 59 clones). The dominancy of hydrogen-users strongly suggested that H(2) plays an important role as a primary substrate in the microbial ecosystem of this deep geothermal aquifer.

  14. Tanacetum polycephalum (L. Schultz-Bip. Induces Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis and Inhibits Migration and Invasion in MCF7 Cells

    Hamed Karimian


    Full Text Available Tanacetum polycephalum (L. Schultz-Bip (Mokhaleseh has been traditionally used in the treatment of headaches, migraines, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. The present study aimed to evaluate its anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action using MCF7 as an in vitro model. T. polycephalum leaves were extracted using hexane, chloroform and methanol solvents and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay. Detection of the early apoptotic cells was investigated using acridine orange/propidium iodide staining. An Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the phosphatidylserine externalization as a marker for apoptotic cells. High content screening was applied to analyze the cell membrane permeability, nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and cytochrome c release. Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8, caspase-9 and DNA laddering assays. In addition, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and cell cycle arrest also have been investigated. MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxicity of T. Polycephalum hexane extract (TPHE on MCF7 cells with the IC50 value of 6.42 ± 0.35 µg/mL. Significant increase in chromatin condensation was also observed via fluorescence analysis. Treatment of MCF7 cells with TPHE encouraged apoptosis through reduction of MMP by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax, triggering the cytochrome c leakage from mitochondria to the cytosol. The treated MCF7 cells significantly arrested at G1 phase. The chromatographic analysis elicited that the major active compound in this extract is 8β-hydroxy-4β,15-dihydrozaluzanin C. Taken together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that the hexane extract of T. Polycephalum inhibits the proliferation of MCF7 cells, resulting in the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which was explained to be through the mitochondrial pathway.

  15. The role of apoptosis in MCLR-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos

    Zeng, Cheng [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Sun, Hong [Hubei Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xie, Ping [Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory for Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology of China, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, Jianghua; Zhang, Guirong; Chen, Nan [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yan, Wei, E-mail: [Institute of Agricultural Quality Standards and Testing Technology, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430064 (China); Li, Guangyu, E-mail: [College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Freshwater Aquaculture Collaborative Innovation Center of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    Highlights: • MCLR-induced apoptosis in the heart of developing embryos leads to the growth delay in zebrafish. • MCLR-triggered apoptosis might be induced by ROS. • P53–Bax–Bcl-2 and caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway contribute greatly to MCLR-induced apoptosis. Abstract: We previously demonstrated that cyanobacteria-derived microcystin–leucine–arginine (MCLR) is able to induce developing toxicity, such as malformation, growth delay and also decreased heart rates in zebrafish embryos. However, the molecular mechanisms by which MCLR induces its toxicity during the development of zebrafish remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of apoptosis in MCLR-induced developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of MCLR (0, 0.2, 0.5, 2, and 5.0 mg L⁻¹ for 96 h, at which time reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly induced in the 2 and 5.0 mg L⁻¹ MCLR exposure groups. Acridine orange (AO) staining and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated deoxy-UTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay showed that MCLR exposure resulted in cell apoptosis. To test the apoptotic pathway, the expression pattern of several apoptotic-related genes was examined for the level of enzyme activity, gene and protein expression, respectively. The overall results demonstrate that MCLR induced ROS which consequently triggered apoptosis in the heart of developing zebrafish embryos. Our results also indicate that the p53–Bax–Bcl-2 pathway and the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway play major roles in MCLR-induced apoptosis in the developing embryos.

  16. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani


    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC50 value of 121 µg ml-1, while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml-1 used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis.

  17. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract: study of antioxidant and anticancer activities

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Bhagat, Ekta; Sadras, Sudha Rani, E-mail:, E-mail: [Pondicherry University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences (India)


    The present study reports the biological synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles from Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and their in vitro free radical scavenging efficacy as well as antiproliferative effect in Hep2 cells. The formation of silver (GYAgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (GYAuNPs) was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. The average size of synthesized GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs was found to be 33 and 26 nm, respectively, by DLS particle size analyzer. TEM analysis indicated spherical shape of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs and in EDX analysis they produced strong signal for silver and gold, respectively. Both GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs exhibited strong in vitro free radical quenching ability and their activity was comparable to that of GYLE. The cytotoxic effect of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells was examined by MTT assay in which GYAgNPs displayed an IC{sub 50} value of 121 µg ml{sup −1}, while GYAuNPs produced up to 38 % of inhibition at the maximum concentration of 250 µg ml{sup −1} used in this study. Distinct morphological changes were observed in Hep2 cells following treatment with GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs at 24 h, and orange-colored apoptotic bodies were located by acridine orange and ethidium bromide double-staining technique. Also, there was increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species in treated cells as indicated by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate staining. Further, nuclear changes like chromatin condensation/fragmentation were also observed by propidium iodide and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate staining methods. These findings support that the antiproliferative effects of GYAgNPs and GYAuNPs in Hep2 cells are mediated through induction of apoptosis.

  18. Degradation of bioabsorbable Mg-based alloys: Assessment of the effects of insoluble corrosion products and joint effects of alloying components on mammalian cells

    Grillo, Claudia A.; Alvarez, Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica A., E-mail: [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CCT La Plata-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 1 esq. 47, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    This work is focused on the processes occurring at the bioabsorbable metallic biomaterial/cell interfaces that may lead to toxicity. A critical analysis of the results obtained when degradable metal disks (pure Mg and rare earth-containing alloys (ZEK100 alloys)) are in direct contact with cell culture and those obtained with indirect methods such as the use of metal salts and extracts was made. Viability was assessed by Acridine Orange dye, neutral red and clonogenic assays. The effects of concentration of corrosion products and possible joint effects of the binary and ternary combinations of La, Zn and Mg ions, as constituents of ZEK alloys, were evaluated on a mammalian cell culture. In all cases more detrimental effects were found for pure Mg than for the alloys. Experiments with disks showed that gradual alterations in pH and in the amount of corrosion products were better tolerated by cells and resulted in higher viability than abrupt changes. In addition, viability was dependent on the distance from the source of ions. Experiments with extracts showed that the effect of insoluble degradation products was highly detrimental. Indirect tests with Zn ions revealed that harmful effects may be found at concentrations ≥ 150 μM and at ≥ 100 μM in mixtures with Mg. These mixtures lead to more deleterious effects than single ions. Results highlight the need to develop a battery of tests to evaluate the biocompatibility of bioabsorbable biomaterials. - Highlights: • A metal disk setup is better in simulating in vivo situations than extracts and salts. • The biodegradation process and cell metabolism were interdependent. • Zn (100 μM) and Mg (8.2 × 10{sup 3} μM) mixtures are more toxic than single Zn or Mg. • Insoluble degradation products of Mg showed high negative effect on cell viability.

  19. Sperm FISH and chromatin integrity in spermatozoa from a t(6;10;11) carrier.

    Olszewska, Marta; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Fraczek, Monika; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej


    Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are structurally balanced or unbalanced aberrations involving more than two breakpoints on two or more chromosomes. CCRs can be a potential reason for genomic imbalance in gametes, which leads to a drastic reduction in fertility. In this study, the meiotic segregation pattern, aneuploidy of seven chromosomes uninvolved in the CCR and chromatin integrity were analysed in the ejaculated spermatozoa of a 46,XY,t(6;10;11)(q25.1;q24.3;q23.1)mat carrier with asthenozoospermia and a lack of conception. The frequency of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa was 78.8% with a prevalence of 4:2 segregants of 38.2%, while the prevalence of the adjacent 3:3 mode was 35.3%. Analysis of the aneuploidy of chromosomes 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, X and Y revealed an approximately fivefold increased level in comparison with that of the control group, indicating the presence of an interchromosomal effect. Sperm chromatin integrity status was evaluated using chromomycin A3 and aniline blue staining (deprotamination), acridine orange test and TUNEL assay (sperm DNA fragmentation). No differences were found when comparisons were made with a control group. We suggest that the accumulation of genetically unbalanced spermatozoa, significantly increased sperm aneuploidy level and decreased sperm motility (20%, progressive) were not responsible for the observed lack of reproductive success in the analysed infertile t(6;10;11) carrier. Interestingly, in the case described herein, a high level of sperm chromosomal imbalance appears not to be linked to sperm chromatin integrity status.

  20. Penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm

    LIN Mao-hu; HE Lei; GAO Jie; LIU Yun-xi; SUO Ji-jiang; XING Yu-bin; JIA Ning


    Background The catheter related infection caused by Staphylococcus epiderrnidis biofilm is increasing and difficult to treat by antimicrobial chemotherapy.The properties of biofilms that give rise to antibiotic resistance are only partially understood.This study aimed to elucidate the penetration of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.Methods The penetration ratio of erythromycin through Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and wild isolate S68 was detected by biofilm penetration model at different time points according to the standard regression curve.The RNNDNA ratio and the cell density within the biofilms were observed by confocal laser microscope and transmission electromicroscope,respectively.Results The penetration ratios of erythromycin through the biofilms of 1457,1457-msrA,and S68 after cultivation for 36 hours were 0.93,0.55 and 0.4,respectively.The erythromycin penetration ratio through 1457 biofilm (0.58 after 8 hours)was higher than that through the other two (0.499 and 0.31 after 24 hours).Lower growth rate of the cells in biofilm was shown,with reduction of RNA/DNA proportion observed by confocal laser microscope through acridine orange stain.Compared with the control group observed by transmission electrmicroscope,the cell density of biofilm air face was lower than that of agar face,with more cell debris.Conclusions Erythromycin could penetrate to the Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm,but could not kill the cells thoroughly.The lower growth rate of the cells within biofilm could help decreasing the erythromycin susceptibility.

  1. Study on Natural Milky Flavor Base Obtained by Fermentation with Combined Lactic Acid Bacteria%复合乳酸菌发酵生产天然鲜奶香基的研究

    崔晶晶; 石玲; 陈洁辉; 龙传南; 胡忠


    通过吖啶橙诱变提高乳酸菌的脂肪酶和蛋白酶活性,结合感官评定发酵乳风味,筛选得到了具有产香潜力的7株乳酸菌突变菌.组合各株产香菌共发酵,得到了一个能产生鲜奶香基的菌株组合.该组合在以蔗糖-葡萄糖(2∶1)为碳源、添加0.5%柠檬酸铵的牛乳产香培养基中,42℃条件下连续发酵菌株La2、Lc1和St2 12h,发酵液均质后能作为鲜奶香基直接应用.%Activities of lipase and protease of lactic acid bacteria had been enhanced by mutagenesis with acridine orange. Combining with sensory evaluation of fermented milk, seven mutations which have potential of flavor production were isolated. Milky flavor base was obtained by fermentation with combined various strains of bacteria. The best fermentation condition is sucrose/glucose(2/l) as carbon source, 0.5% ammonium citrate, 42 C as fermentation temperature. Fermenting of strain La2 (Lactococcus lactis subsp. ),Lcl (Lcuconostoc cramoris) and St2 (Streptococcaceae) for 12 hours continuously, the homogenized broth can be added to food directly as a milky flavor base.

  2. The ionization mechanisms in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization and atmospheric pressure laser ionization.

    Kauppila, Tiina J; Kersten, Hendrik; Benter, Thorsten


    A novel, gas-tight API interface for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to study the ionization mechanism in direct and dopant-assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI). Eight analytes (ethylbenzene, bromobenzene, naphthalene, anthracene, benzaldehyde, pyridine, quinolone, and acridine) with varying ionization energies (IEs) and proton affinities (PAs), and four common APPI dopants (toluene, acetone, anisole, and chlorobenzene) were chosen. All the studied compounds were ionized by direct APPI, forming mainly molecular ions. Addition of dopants suppressed the signal of the analytes with IEs above the IE of the dopant. For compounds with suitable IEs or Pas, the dopants increased the ionization efficiency as the analytes could be ionized through dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions, such as charge exchange, proton transfer, and other rather unexpected reactions, such as formation of [M + 77](+) in the presence of chlorobenzene. Experiments with deuterated toluene as the dopant verified that in case of proton transfer, the proton originated from the dopant instead of proton-bound solvent clusters, as in conventional open or non-tight APPI sources. In direct APLI using a 266 nm laser, a narrower range of compounds was ionized than in direct APPI, because of exceedingly high IEs or unfavorable two-photon absorption cross-sections. Introduction of dopants in the APLI system changed the ionization mechanism to similar dopant-mediated gas-phase reactions with the dopant as in APPI, which produced mainly ions of the same form as in APPI, and ionized a wider range of analytes than direct APLI.

  3. Carbenoxolone Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Survivin and Survivin-ΔEx3 Genes Expression in Human Leukemia K562 Cells

    Z. Sanaat


    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood progenitor/stem cells which is characterized by abnormal proliferation of white blood cells. Although anti-cancer drugs induce apoptosis in cancerous cells, drug resistance is the significant problem mainly due to over-expression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs such as survivin. In this content, it has been reported that an anti-inflammatory drug, Carbenoxolone (CBX, could induce apoptosis and growth inhibition in several types of cancerous cells. In the present study, effects of CBX on apoptosis and level of the expression of survivin gene and its ΔEx3 splicing variant have were evaluated in K562 cells.Methods: K562 cells were cultured and treated with different concentrations of CBX (50-300 μM at different time intervals (12-48 hrs. Trypan blue exclusion test was used to evaluate cell viability. Fluorescent microscopy (Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide double staining and DNA fragmentation assay were used to study apoptosis. The expression level of survivin and its ΔEx3 splice variant were studied by RT- PCR.Results and Major Conclusion: It was found that both growth inhibition and apoptosis occurred in K562 cells. In addition, down-regulation of survivin and survin-ΔEx3 were observed, after 2-4 hrs treatment with 150 μM of CBX. However, the expression level of survivin and its ΔEx3 splice variant increased in subsequent time (6-12 hrs nearly to the level of control cells. From the results of this study, it may be concluded that CBX can be considered as a candidate for further studies in CML treatment, especially in the case of drug- resistant leukemia cells.

  4. Antimicrobial nisin acts against saliva derived multi-species biofilms without cytotoxicity to human oral cells

    Shin, Jae M.; Ateia, Islam; Paulus, Jefrey R.; Liu, Hongrui; Fenno, J. Christopher; Rickard, Alexander H.; Kapila, Yvonne L.


    Objectives: Nisin is a lantibiotic widely used for the preservation of food and beverages. Recently, investigators have reported that nisin may have clinical applications for treating bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ultra pure food grade Nisin ZP (>95% purity) on taxonomically diverse bacteria common to the human oral cavity and saliva derived multi-species oral biofilms, and to discern the toxicity of nisin against human cells relevant to the oral cavity. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of taxonomically distinct oral bacteria were determined using agar and broth dilution methods. To assess the effects of nisin on biofilms, two model systems were utilized: a static and a controlled flow microfluidic system. Biofilms were inoculated with pooled human saliva and fed filter-sterilized saliva for 20–22 h at 37°C. Nisin effects on cellular apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent nuclear staining and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays. Results: Nisin inhibited planktonic growth of oral bacteria at low concentrations (2.5–50 μg/ml). Nisin also retarded development of multi-species biofilms at concentrations ≥1 μg/ml. Specifically, under biofilm model conditions, nisin interfered with biofilm development and reduced biofilm biomass and thickness in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of pre-formed biofilms with nisin resulted in dose- and time-dependent disruption of the biofilm architecture along with decreased bacterial viability. Human cells relevant to the oral cavity were unaffected by the treatment of nisin at anti-biofilm concentrations and showed no signs of apoptotic changes unless treated with much higher concentrations (>200 μg/ml). Conclusion: This work highlights the potential therapeutic value of high purity food grade nisin to inhibit the growth of oral bacteria and the development of

  5. Cytotoxicity, Antioxidant and Apoptosis Studies of Quercetin-3-O Glucoside and 4-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-Rhamnopyranosyloxy)-Benzyl Isothiocyanate from Moringa oleifera.

    Maiyo, Fiona C; Moodley, Roshila; Singh, Moganavelli


    Moringa oleifera, from the family Moringaceae, is used as a source of vegetable and herbal medicine and in the treatment of various cancers in many African countries, including Kenya. The present study involved the phytochemical analyses of the crude extracts of M.oleifera and biological activities (antioxidant, cytotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in-vitro) of selected isolated compounds. The compounds isolated from the leaves and seeds of the plant were quercetin-3-O-glucoside (1), 4-(β-D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate (2), lutein (3), and sitosterol (4). Antioxidant activity of compound 1 was significant when compared to that of the control, while compound 2 showed moderate activity. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 were tested in three cell lines, viz. liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and a non-cancer cell line Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293), using the MTT cell viability assay and compared against a standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil. Apoptosis studies were carried out using the acridine orange/ethidium bromide dual staining method. The isolated compounds showed selective in vitro cytotoxic and apoptotic activity against human cancer and non-cancer cell lines, respectively. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco-2 cell line with an IC50 of 79 μg mL(-1) and moderate cytotoxicity against the HepG2 cell line with an IC50 of 150 μg mL(-1), while compound 2 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Caco- 2 and HepG2 cell lines with an IC50 of 45 μg mL(-1) and 60 μg mL(-1), respectively. Comparatively both compounds showed much lower cytotoxicity against the HEK293 cell line with IC50 values of 186 μg mL(-1) and 224 μg mL(-1), respectively.

  6. Singlet oxygen mediated apoptosis by anthrone involving lysosomes and mitochondria at ambient UV exposure

    Mujtaba, Syed Faiz [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pt. B.D.S University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Ashish; Yadav, Neera [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, R.S., E-mail: [Photobiology Division, (CSIR)-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box No. 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh (India); Singh, Gajendra [College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pt. B.D.S University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana (India)


    Highlights: ► Photomodification of anthrone at ambient environmental intensities of UV-radiation. ► Phototoxicity of anthrone through type-II photodynamic reaction by generating {sup 1}O{sub 2}. ► Role of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in anthrone phototoxicity. ► Apototic cell death and involvement of lysosomes and mitochondria. ► Up-regulation of p21 and bax concomitantly down regulation of bcl2 genes expression. -- Abstract: Anthrone a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon which is toxic environmental pollutant comes in the environment through photooxidation of anthracene. We have studied the photomodification of anthrone under environmental conditions. Anthrone generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) like {sup 1}O{sub 2} through Type-II photodynamic reaction. Significant intracellular ROS generation was measured through dichlorohydrofluorescein fluorescence intensity. The generation of {sup 1}O{sub 2} was further substantiated by using specific quencher like sodium azide. UV induced photodegradation of 2-deoxyguanosine and photoperoxidation of linoleic acid accorded the involvement of {sup 1}O{sub 2} in the manifestation of anthrone phototoxicity. Phototoxicity of anthrone was done on human keratinocytes (HaCaT) through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays. Anthrone induced cell cycle arrest (G2/M-phase) and DNA damage in a concentration dependent manner. We found apoptosis as a pattern of cell death which was confirmed through sub-G1 fraction, morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and phosphatidylserine translocation. Mitochondrial depolarization and lysosomal destabilization was parallel to apoptotic process. Our RT-PCR results strongly supports our view point of apoptotic cell death through up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes p21 and Bax, and down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl{sub 2}. Therefore, much attention should be paid to concomitant

  7. Recent advances in small organic molecules as DNA intercalating agents: synthesis, activity, and modeling.

    Rescifina, Antonio; Zagni, Chiara; Varrica, Maria Giulia; Pistarà, Venerando; Corsaro, Antonino


    The interaction of small molecules with DNA plays an essential role in many biological processes. As DNA is often the target for majority of anticancer and antibiotic drugs, study about the interaction of drug and DNA has a key role in pharmacology. Moreover, understanding the interactions of small molecules with DNA is of prime significance in the rational design of more powerful and selective anticancer agents. Two of the most important and promising targets in cancer chemotherapy include DNA alkylating agents and DNA intercalators. For these last the DNA recognition is a critical step in their anti-tumor action and the intercalation is not only one kind of the interactions in DNA recognition but also a pivotal step of several clinically used anti-tumor drugs such as anthracyclines, acridines and anthraquinones. To push clinical cancer therapy, the discovery of new DNA intercalators has been considered a practical approach and a number of intercalators have been recently reported. The intercalative binding properties of such molecules can also be harnessed as diagnostic probes for DNA structure in addition to DNA-directed therapeutics. Moreover, the problem of intercalation site formation in the undistorted B-DNA of different length and sequence is matter of tremendous importance in molecular modeling studies and, nowadays, three models of DNA intercalation targets have been proposed that account for the binding features of intercalators. Finally, despite DNA being an important target for several drugs, most of the docking programs are validated only for proteins and their ligands. Therefore, a default protocol to identify DNA binding modes which uses a modified canonical DNA as receptor is needed.

  8. Pseudolaric acid B induces apoptosis, senescence, and mitotic arrest in human breast cancer MCF-7

    Jing-hua YU; Qiao CUI; Yuan-yuan JIANG; Wei YANG; Shin-ichi TASHIRO; Satoshi ONODERA; Takashi IKEJIMA


    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of pseudolaric acid B (PAB) on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Methods: 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide analysis, morphological changes, acridine orange staining, and agarose gel electrophoresis were applied to detect apoptosis. The percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells was calcu- lated by the lactate dehydrogenase activity-based cytotoxicity assay; senescence associated (SA)-β-galactosidase activity was detected to evaluate senescence; flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide staining was carried out to investi- gate the distribution of cell cycle, and the protein expression was examined by Western blot analysis. Results: During apoptosis, the half maximal inhibitory concentration IC502 was 3.4 and 1.35 μmol/L at 36 and 48 h after PAB treatment, respectively. The MCF-7 cells exposed to PAB showed typical characteristics of apoptosis, including the morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The MCF-7 cells treated with 4 μmol/L PAB for 36 h underwent apoptosis, but not necrosis. The apoptosis induced by PAB was independent of the death receptor pathway. The senescent cells became larger and flatter, and the SA-β-galactosi- dase staining was positive. PAB induced obvious mitotic arrest and it preceded apoptosis and senescence. The expressions of p21 and p53 was upregulated with PAB treatment, and cyclin B 1 was upregulated and transported from the cyto- plasm to nuclei, and sustained stable levels. Conclusion: PAB induced mitotic arrest in the MCF-7 cells and inhibited proliferation through apoptosis and senescence. The apoptosis was independent of the death receptor pathway.

  9. Ethylenediamine functionalized-single-walled nanotube (f-SWNT-assisted in vitro delivery of the oncogene suppressor p53 gene to breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Karmakar A


    Full Text Available Alokita Karmakar2, Stacie M Bratton1, Enkeleda Dervishi2, Anindya Ghosh3, Meena Mahmood2, Yang Xu2, Lamya Mohammed Saeed2, Thikra Mustafa2, Dan Casciano2, Anna Radominska-Pandya1, Alexandru S Biris21Biochemistry Department, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; 2Nanotechnology Center, Applied Science Department; 3Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR, USAAbstract: A gene delivery concept based on ethylenediamine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNTs using the oncogene suppressor p53 gene as a model gene was successfully tested in vitro in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The f-SWCNTs-p53 complexes were introduced into the cell medium at a concentration of 20 µg mL-1 and cells were exposed for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Standard ethidium bromide and acridine orange assays were used to detect apoptotic cells and indicated that a significantly larger percentage of the cells (approx 40% were dead after 72 hours of exposure to f-SWCNTs-p53 as compared to the control cells, which were exposed to only p53 or f-SWCNTs, respectively. To further support the uptake and expression of the genes within the cells, green fluorescent protein-tagged p53, attached to the f-SWCNTs was added to the medium and the complex was observed to be strongly expressed in the cells. Moreover, caspase 3 activity was found to be highly enhanced in cells incubated with the f-SWCNTs-p53 complex, indicating strongly induced apoptosis. This system could be the foundation for novel gene delivery platforms based on the unique structural and morphological properties of multi-functional nanomaterials.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, gene delivery, cancer cells, p53 oncogene suppressor

  10. Anticancer Activity of Certain Herbs and Spices on the Cervical Epithelial Carcinoma (HeLa Cell Line

    Danielle Berrington


    Full Text Available Acetone extracts of selected plant species were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a noncancerous African green monkey kidney (Vero cell line and an adenocarcinoma cervical cancer (HeLa cell line. The plants studied were Origanum vulgare L. (Oregano, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Upright and ground cove rosemary, Lavandula spica L. (Lavender, Laurus nobilis L. (Bay leaf, Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme, Lavandula x intermedia L. (Margaret Roberts Lavender, Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Curly leaved parsley, Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel, and Capsicum annuum L. (Paprika. Antioxidant activity was determined using a quantitative DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay. The rosemary species exhibited effective radical scavenging capacity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 3.48±0.218 μg/mL and 10.84±0.125 μg/mL and vitamin C equivalents of 0.351 g and 1.09 g for McConnell’s Blue and Tuscan Blue, respectively. Cytotoxicity was measured using XTT (Sodium 3′-[1-(phenyl amino-carbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis-[4-methoxy-6-nitro] benzene sulfonic acid hydrate colorimetric assay. Only L. nobilis and O. vulgare exhibited pronounced effects on the HeLa cell line. Dose-dependent studies revealed IC50 of 34.46±0.48 μg/mL and 126.3±1.00 μg/mL on the HeLa cells and on the Vero cells 124.1 μg/mL ± 18.26 and 163.8 μg/mL ± 2.95 for L. nobilis and O. vulgare, respectively. Light (eosin and haematoxylin staining and confocal microscopy (Hoechst 33342, acridine orange, and propidium iodide staining were used to evaluate the cytotoxic mechanism of action for L. nobilis and O. vulgare.

  11. Autophagy blockade sensitizes the anticancer activity of CA-4 via JNK-Bcl-2 pathway

    Li, Yangling; Luo, Peihua; Wang, Jincheng; Dai, Jiabin; Yang, Xiaochun; Wu, Honghai; Yang, Bo, E-mail:; He, Qiaojun, E-mail:


    Combretastatin A-4 (CA-4) has already entered clinical trials of solid tumors over ten years. However, the limited anticancer activity and dose-dependent toxicity restrict its clinical application. Here, we offered convincing evidence that CA-4 induced autophagy in various cancer cells, which was demonstrated by acridine orange staining of intracellular acidic vesicles, the degradation of p62, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and GFP-LC3 punctate fluorescence. Interestingly, CA-4-mediated apoptotic cell death was further potentiated by pretreatment with autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) or small interfering RNAs against the autophagic genes (Atg5 and Beclin 1). The enhanced anticancer activity of CA-4 and 3-MA was further confirmed in the SGC-7901 xenograft tumor model. These findings suggested that CA-4-elicited autophagic response played a protective role that impeded the eventual cell death while autophagy inhibition was expected to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy of CA-4. Meanwhile, CA-4 treatment led to phosphorylation/activation of JNK and JNK-dependent phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Importantly, JNK inhibitor or JNK siRNA inhibited autophagy but promoted CA-4-induced apoptosis, indicating a key requirement of JNK-Bcl-2 pathway in the activation of autophagy by CA-4. We also identified that pretreatment of Bcl-2 inhibitor (ABT-737) could significantly enhance anticancer activity of CA-4 due to inhibition of autophagy. Taken together, our data suggested that the JNK-Bcl-2 pathway was considered as the critical regulator of CA-4-induced protective autophagy and a potential drug target for chemotherapeutic combination. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibition could be a potential for combretastatin A-4 antitumor efficacy. • The JNK-Bcl-2 pathway plays a critical role in CA-4-induced autophagy. • ABT-737 enhances CA-4 anticancer activity due to inhibition of autophagy.

  12. Short-term weightlessness produced by parabolic flight maneuvers altered gene expression patterns in human endothelial cells.

    Grosse, Jirka; Wehland, Markus; Pietsch, Jessica; Ma, Xiao; Ulbrich, Claudia; Schulz, Herbert; Saar, Katrin; Hübner, Norbert; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Braun, Markus; van Loon, Jack; Vagt, Nicole; Infanger, Manfred; Eilles, Christoph; Egli, Marcel; Richter, Peter; Baltz, Theo; Einspanier, Ralf; Sharbati, Soroush; Grimm, Daniela


    This study focused on the effects of short-term microgravity (22 s) on the gene expression and morphology of endothelial cells (ECs) and evaluated gravisensitive signaling elements. ECs were investigated during four German Space Agency (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) parabolic flight campaigns. Hoechst 33342 and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining showed no signs of cell death in ECs after 31 parabolas (P31). Gene array analysis revealed 320 significantly regulated genes after the first parabola (P1) and P31. COL4A5, COL8A1, ITGA6, ITGA10, and ITGB3 mRNAs were down-regulated after P1. EDN1 and TNFRSF12A mRNAs were up-regulated. ADAM19, CARD8, CD40, GSN, PRKCA (all down-regulated after P1), and PRKAA1 (AMPKα1) mRNAs (up-regulated) provide a very early protective mechanism of cell survival induced by 22 s microgravity. The ABL2 gene was significantly up-regulated after P1 and P31, TUBB was slightly induced, but ACTA2 and VIM mRNAs were not changed. β-Tubulin immunofluorescence revealed a cytoplasmic rearrangement. Vibration had no effect. Hypergravity reduced CARD8, NOS3, VASH1, SERPINH1 (all P1), CAV2, ADAM19, TNFRSF12A, CD40, and ITGA6 (P31) mRNAs. These data suggest that microgravity alters the gene expression patterns and the cytoskeleton of ECs very early. Several gravisensitive signaling elements, such as AMPKα1 and integrins, are involved in the reaction of ECs to altered gravity.

  13. Anti-amoebic properties of a Malaysian marine sponge Aaptos sp. on Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Nakisah, M A; Ida Muryany, M Y; Fatimah, H; Nor Fadilah, R; Zalilawati, M R; Khamsah, S; Habsah, M


    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii.

  14. [Male genito-urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and seminal characteristics: use of minocycline].

    Lombardo, F; Gandini, L; Alfano, P; Anticoli-Borza, L; Basile, A; Fabbri, G; Lenzi, A


    The authors evaluated the activity of Minocycline in 30 male patients with urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and alterations of the seminal parameters using three different dosage schedules (100 mg/day for 10 days, 200 mg/day for 10 days and 200 mg/day for 20 days). At baseline, at the end of therapy and one month after clinical and bacteriological parameters and seminal characteristics, including some sperm function tests (acridine orange test to study chromatin heterogeneity; triple staining technique, to study acrosome; swim-up technique, to study the sperm kinetics) were verified. The seminal characteristics were checked again three and six months after the end of the therapy. All the results show that Minocycline is an excellent drug for the treatment of urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis both for its therapeutic efficacy and for the absence of side effects. Although 10 days cycles using 1 cap/day are sufficient to eliminate inflammation and infection, in order to obtain more valid results it is preferable to use the following dosage schedule: 200 mg/day of antibiotic (100 mg twice daily) for 10 days. The results of our trial show that in cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection associated with dispermia (reduced nemaspermic concentration, hypomotility, teratozoospermia, increased number of leucocytes), if the parameters of sperm function are within normal limits, the resolution of the infection is usually followed by a recovery of normozoospermia. Follow-up performed 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment showed an increase in the number of spermatozoa, a percentage increase in their motility, mostly in the progressive motility, and a reduction of the atypical forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Brain distribution and bioavailability of elacridar after different routes of administration in the mouse.

    Sane, Ramola; Agarwal, Sagar; Elmquist, William F


    The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and disposition of elacridar (GF120918; N-(4-(2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl)phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) in plasma and brain after various routes of administration in the mouse. Elacridar is a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein and has been used to examine the influence of these efflux transporters on drug distribution to brain. Friend leukemia virus strain B mice were administered 100 mg/kg elacridar either orally or intraperitoneally. The absolute bioavailability of elacridar after oral or intraperitoneal dosing was determined with respect to an intravenous dose of 2.5 mg/kg. At these doses, the absolute bioavailability was 0.22 for oral administration and 0.01 for intraperitoneal administration. The terminal half-life of elacridar was approximately 4 h after intraperitoneal and intravenous administration and nearly 20 h after oral dosing. The brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp,brain) of elacridar increased as plasma exposure increased, suggesting saturation of the efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier. The Kp,brain after intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral dosing was 0.82, 0.43, and 4.31, respectively. The low aqueous solubility and high lipophilicity of elacridar result in poor oral absorption, most likely dissolution-rate-limited. These results illustrate the importance of the route of administration and the resultant plasma exposure in achieving effective plasma and brain concentrations of elacridar and can be used as a guide for future studies involving elacridar administration and in developing formulation strategies to overcome the poor absorption.

  16. 全色光致聚合物的全息记录特性及应用研究%Research on the Holographic Recording Characteristics and Applications of a Panchromatic Photopolymer

    魏明宾; 李泽仁; 谢棒; 王贵喜; 朱建华


    优选亚甲基蓝、曙红Y、吖啶橙分别作为红敏、绿敏、蓝敏光敏剂,制作出全色光致聚合物全息记录材料.全息记录特性测量表明,该材料在红、绿、蓝三基色激光记录下均具有大于90%的衍射效率和较高的感光灵敏度(70 mJ/cm2).开展了该材料的角度复用、波长复用全息存储实验,在材料的同一位置处分别以不同参物光夹角及不同记录波长成功存储了多幅全息图,且再现图像清晰明亮,相互之间无明显串扰,表明该材料具有良好的全息记录性能及应用价值.%By selecting Methylene blue, Eosin Y and Acridine Orange as red-, green- and blue-sensitive photosensitizers respectively, a water-soluble panchromatic photopolymer is fabricated successfully. This material has high diffraction efficiency (over 90%) and high photosensitivity (~70 mJ/cm2) for three primary color lasers. Angular and wavelength multiplexing holograms are successfully recorded in the same location of the panchromatic photopolymer, the reconstructed multicolor images are clear and bright, and there is no obvious crosstalk between them. The experimental results show that this panchromatic photopolymer material has good holographic recording characteristics and application prospects.

  17. Comparative Study of Domoic Acid and Okadaic Acid Induced - Chromosomal Abnormalities in the CACO-2 Cell Line

    Edmond E. Creppy


    Full Text Available Okadaic Acid (OA the major diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP toxin is known as a tumor promoter and seems likely implicated in the genesis of digestive cancer. Little is known regarding genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of Domoic Acid (DA, the major Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP toxin. Both OA and DA occur in seafood and are of human health concerns. Micronuclei (MN arise from abnormalities in nuclear division during mitosis due to a failure of the mitotic spindle or by complex chromosomal configurations that pose problems during anaphase. In order to evaluate the ability of okadaic acid (OA and domoic acid (DA to induce DNA damage we performed the micronucleus assay using the Caco-2 cell line. To discriminate between a clastogenic or aneugenic effect of OA and DA, the micronucleus assay was conducted by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay using cytochalasin B with Giemsa staining and/or acridine orange staining, in parallel to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a concentrated human pan-centromeric chromosome paint probe. Our results showed that OA and DA significantly increased the frequency of MN in Caco-2 cells. The MN caused by OA are found in mononucleated cells and binucleated cells, whereas those caused by DA are mainly in binucleated cells. The results of FISH analysis showed that OA induced centromere-positive micronuclei and DA increased the percentage of MN without a centromeric signal. In conclusion, both OA and DA bear mutagenic potential as revealed in Caco-2 cells by induction of MN formation. Moreover, OA induced whole chromosome loss suggesting a specific aneugenic potential, whereas DA seems simply clastogenic. At present, one cannot rule out possible DNA damage of intestinal cells if concentrations studied are reached in vivo, since this may happen with concentrations of toxins just below regulatory limits in case of frequent consumption of contaminated shell fishes.

  18. Effect of different disaccharides on the integrity and fertilising ability of freeze-dried boar spermatozoa: a preliminary study.

    Garcia, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Martinez, F; Kershaw-Young, C; de Blas, I


    Freeze-drying spermatozoa is a developing technique that facilitates semen storage and transport. However, freeze-dried sperm exhibits impaired DNA integrity, which is associated with reduced fertilizing ability. Boar spermatozoa were freeze-dried in three different freeze-drying EDTA buffers with trehalose (75mM) and lactose (75mM) (EDTA-TL), (2) with sucrose (75mM) and lactose (75mM) (EDTA-SL) or just lactose (150mM) (EDTA-LL) using two freeze-drying protocols. In experiment 1 a one-step protocol was used and in experiment 2 a two-steps protocol was used. Spermatozoa were stored in1.5 mL cryo-tubes and 1.5 mL glass ampules at both 16 degree C and 25 degree C for 1 month. Successfully freeze-dried spermatozoa were stained with acridine-orange to assess chromatin stability. Freeze-drying was most successful when the 2-step protocol was used (experiment 2). Chromatin stability was greater in samples stored in glass ampules compared to cryo tubes. Chromatin stability was also greater in samples freeze-dried in EDTA-LL compared to EDTA-SL or EDTA-TL buffers. Spermatozoa freeze-dried in EDTA-LL and stored for 14 and 28 days at either 16 degree C or 25 degree C were utilized for ICSI. Two pronuclear formation wasgreatest using spermatozoa stored at 25 degree C (69.23%) and for 28 days (50%). Although 16 degree C spermatozoa samples had better stable chromatin, 25 degree C spermatozoa samples offered better two pronuclear formation results. In conclusion, boar spermatozoa freeze-dried using media containing disaccharides exhibit high chromatin stability and are able to fertilise oocytes following ICSI. Disaccharides may therefore advance the development of freeze-drying techniques for spermatozoa enabling ease of sperm storage and transportation.

  19. The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.

    Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R


    We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men.

  20. Genetic defects of GDF6 in the zebrafish out of sight mutant and in human eye developmental anomalies

    den Hollander Anneke I


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The size of the vertebrate eye and the retina is likely to be controlled at several stages of embryogenesis by mechanisms that affect cell cycle length as well as cell survival. A mutation in the zebrafish out of sight (out locus results in a particularly severe reduction of eye size. The goal of this study is to characterize the outm233 mutant, and to determine whether mutations in the out gene cause microphthalmia in humans. Results In this study, we show that the severe reduction of eye size in the outm233 mutant is caused by a mutation in the zebrafish gdf6a gene. Despite the small eye size, the overall retinal architecture appears largely intact, and immunohistochemical studies confirm that all major cell types are present in outm233 retinae. Subtle cell fate and patterning changes are present predominantly in amacrine interneurons. Acridine orange and TUNEL staining reveal that the levels of apoptosis are abnormally high in outm233 mutant eyes during early neurogenesis. Mutation analysis of the GDF6 gene in 200 patients with microphthalmia revealed amino acid substitutions in four of them. In two patients additional skeletal defects were observed. Conclusions This study confirms the essential role of GDF6 in the regulation of vertebrate eye size. The reduced eye size in the zebrafish outm233 mutant is likely to be caused by a transient wave of apoptosis at the onset of neurogenesis. Amino acid substitutions in GDF6 were detected in 4 (2% of 200 patients with microphthalmia. In two patients different skeletal defects were also observed, suggesting pleitrophic effects of GDF6 variants. Parents carrying these variants are asymptomatic, suggesting that GDF6 sequence alterations are likely to contribute to the phenotype, but are not the sole cause of the disease. Variable expressivity and penetrance suggest a complex non-Mendelian inheritance pattern where other genetic factors may influence the outcome of the phenotype.

  1. Disulfiram attenuates osteoclast differentiation in vitro: a potential antiresorptive agent.

    Hua Ying

    Full Text Available Disulfiram (DSF, a cysteine modifying compound, has long been clinically employed for the treatment of alcohol addiction. Mechanistically, DSF acts as a modulator of MAPK and NF-κB pathways signaling pathways. While these pathways are crucial for osteoclast (OC differentiation, the potential influence of DSF on OC formation and function has not been directly assessed. Here, we explore the pharmacological effects of DSF on OC differentiation, activity and the modulation of osteoclastogenic signaling cascades. We first analyzed cytotoxicity of DSF on bone marrow monocytes isolated from C57BL/6J mice. Upon the establishment of optimal dosage, we conducted osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption assays in the presence or absence of DSF treatment. Luciferase assays in RAW264.7 cells were used to examine the effects of DSF on major transcription factors activation. Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, intracellular acidification and proton influx assays were employed to further dissect the underlying mechanism. DSF treatment dose-dependently inhibited both mouse and human osteoclastogenesis, especially at early stages of differentiation. This inhibition correlated with a decrease in the expression of key osteoclastic marker genes including CtsK, TRAP, DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2 as well as a reduction in bone resorption in vitro. Suppression of OC differentiation was found to be due, at least in part, to the blockade of several key receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL-signaling pathways including ERK, NF-κB and NFATc1. On the other hand, DSF failed to suppress intracellular acidification and proton influx in mouse and human osteoclasts using acridine orange quenching and microsome-based proton transport assays. Our findings indicate that DSF attenuates OC differentiation via the collective suppression of several key RANKL-mediated signaling cascades, thus making it an attractive agent for the treatment of OC

  2. Cytotoxicity and DNA Damage Effect of TGA-capped CdTe Quantum Dots

    LI Yan-bo; ZHANG Hai-xia; GUO Cai-xia; HU Gui-qin; DU Hai-ying; JIN Ming-hua; HUANG Pei-li; SUN Zhi-wei; YANG Wen-sheng


    The cytotoxicity and DNA damage caused by thioglycolic acid(TGA)-capped cadmium telluride(CdTe)quantum dots(QDs)to hepatocyte line HL-7702 were investigated.Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay; DNA damage was detected by single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE); the change of cell cycle progression was examined by propidium iodide(PI)-flow cytometry(FCM);apoptosis was measured by acridine orange/ethidium bromide(AO/EB)assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI-FCM(FITC:fluorescein isothiocyanate).The results show that the cytotoxicity induced by CdTe QDs was increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner; after exposure to QDs for 24 h,as the exposure dose increased,the rate of DNA damage was significantly increased(P<0.05),and the degree of DNA damage was elevated.As the dose of CdTe QDs increased,the percentage of G0/G1 phase cells was significantly decreased(P<0.001),while the percenttages of S and G2/M phases cells were significantly increased(P<0.001).In AO/EB assay,apoptotic cells could be observed under a fluorescence microscope,and apoptotic rate was increased as exposure dose increased.In Annexin V-FITC/PI-FCM assay,the apoptotic rates of CdTe QDs treated groups were significantly increased compared with that of control group(P<0.05).Our studies indicate that CdTe QDs could influence cell viability,and induce DNA damage,the S and G2/M phases arrest and apoptosis of HL-7702.

  3. Influence of water chlorination on the counting of bacteria with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).

    Saby, S; Sibille, I; Mathieu, L; Paquin, J L; Block, J C


    Counting bacteria in drinking water samples by the epifluorescence technique after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining is complicated by the fact that bacterial fluorescence varies with exposure of the cells to sodium hypochlorite. An Escherichia coli laboratory-grown suspension treated with sodium hypochlorite (5 to 15 mg of chlorine liter-1) for 90 min was highly fluorescent after DAPI staining probably due to cell membrane permeation and better and DAPI diffusion. At chlorine concentrations greater than 25 mg liter-1, DAPI-stained bacteria had only a low fluorescence. Stronger chlorine doses altered the DNA structure, preventing the DAPI from complexing with the DNA. When calf thymus DNA was exposed to sodium hypochlorite (from 15 to 50 mg of chlorine liter-1 for 90 min), the DNA lost the ability to complex with DAPI. Exposure to monochloramine did not have a similar effect. Treatment of drinking water with sodium hypochlorite (about 0.5 mg of chlorine liter-1) caused a significant increase in the percentage of poorly fluorescent bacteria, from 5% in unchlorinated waters (40 samples), to 35 to 39% in chlorinated waters (40 samples). The presence of the poorly fluorescent bacteria could explain the underestimation of the real number of bacteria after DAPI staining. Microscopic counting of both poorly and highly fluorescent bacteria is essential under these conditions to obtain the total number of bacteria. A similar effect of chlorination on acridine orange-stained bacteria was observed in treated drinking waters. The presence of the poorly fluorescent bacteria after DAPI staining could be interpreted as a sign of dead cells. PMID:9097452

  4. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist Regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research.

    López-Muñoz, F; García-García, P; Alamo, C


    Before the National Socialist party came to power, the German pharmaceutical industry constituted an international reference as far as the development of new medicines was concerned, having been responsible for synthetic analgesics (phenacetin, phenazones, acetylsalicylic acid), arsphenamine, barbiturates and sulfonamides. The year 1925 saw the founding of I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG), a conglomerate of companies that would monopolize the country's chemical production and come to own all its major pharmaceutical industries. During the World War II, I.G. Farben participated in numerous operations associated with the criminal activities of the Nazi executive, including the use of slave labour in plants built close to concentration camps, such as that at Auschwitz. With regard to medical and pharmacological research projects, I.G. Farben became involved in experimental programmes using patients from the Nazi regime's euthanasia programmes and healthy subjects recruited without their consent from concentration camps, on whom various pharmacological substances were tested, including sulfamide and arsenical derivatives and other preparations whose composition is not precisely known (B-1012, B-1034, 3382 or Rutenol, 3582 or Acridine), generally in relation to the treatment of infectious diseases, such as typhus, erysipelas, scarlet fever or paratyphoid diarrhoea. Furthermore, I.G. Farben played a decisive role in the German army's chemical warfare programme, contributing to the development of the first two neurotoxic substances, later known as 'nerve agents', tabun and sarin. Some of these activities came to light as a result of the one the famous Nuremberg Trials in 1947, which saw 24 executives and scientists from I.G. Farben brought to justice for, among other offences, the use of slave labour in the concentration camps and forced experimentation with drugs on prisoners.

  5. Anti-Amoebic Properties of Carbonyl Thiourea Derivatives

    Maizatul Akma Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Thiourea derivatives display a broad spectrum of applications in chemistry, various industries, medicines and various other fields. Recently, different thiourea derivatives have been synthesized and explored for their anti-microbial properties. In this study, four carbonyl thiourea derivatives were synthesized and characterized, and then further tested for their anti-amoebic properties on two potential pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba, namely A. castellanii (CCAP 1501/2A and A. polyphaga (CCAP 1501/3A. The results indicate that these newly-synthesized thiourea derivatives are active against both Acanthamoeba species. The IC50 values obtained were in the range of 2.39–8.77 µg·mL‑1 (9.47–30.46 µM for A. castellanii and 3.74–9.30 µg·mL‑1 (14.84–31.91 µM for A. polyphaga. Observations on the amoeba morphology indicated that the compounds caused the reduction of the amoeba size, shortening of their acanthopodia structures, and gave no distinct vacuolar and nuclear structures in the amoeba cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence microscopic observation using acridine orange and propidium iodide (AOPI staining revealed that the synthesized compounds induced compromised-membrane in the amoeba cells. The results of this study proved that these new carbonyl thiourea derivatives, especially compounds M1 and M2 provide potent cytotoxic properties toward pathogenic Acanthamoeba to suggest that they can be developed as new anti-amoebic agents for the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

  6. Glucosylceramide modulates endolysosomal pH in Gaucher disease.

    Sillence, Dan J


    GlcCer accumulation causes Gaucher disease where GlcCer breakdown is inhibited due to a hereditary deficiency in glucocerebrosidase. Glycolipids are endocytosed and targeted to the Golgi apparatus in normal cells but in Gaucher disease they are mistargeted to lysosomes. To better understand the role of GlcCer in endocytic sorting RAW macrophages were treated with Conduritol B-epoxide to inhibit GlcCer breakdown. Lipid analysis found increases in GlcCer led to accumulation of both triacylglycerol and cholesterol consistent with increased lysosomal pH. Ratio imaging of macrophages using both acridine orange and lysosensor yellow/blue to measure endolysosomal pH revealed increases in Conduritol B-epoxide treated RAW macrophages and Gaucher patient lymphoblasts. Increased endolysosomal pH was restricted to Gaucher lymphoblasts as no significant increases in pH were seen in Fabry, Krabbe, Tay-Sachs and GM1-gangliosidosis lymphoblasts. Substrate reduction therapy utilises inhibitors of GlcCer synthase to reduce storage in Gaucher disease. The addition of inhibitors of GlcCer synthesis to RAW macrophages also led to increases in cholesterol and triacylglycerol and an endolysosomal pH increase of up to 1 pH unit. GlcCer modulation appears specific since glucosylsphingosine but not galactosylsphingosine reversed the effects of GlcCer depletion. Although no acute effects on glycolipid trafficking were observed using bafilomycin A the results are consistent with a multistep model whereby increases in pH lead to altered trafficking via cholesterol accumulation. GlcCer modulates endolysosomal pH in lymphocytes suggesting an important role in normal lysosomes which may be disrupted in Gaucher disease.

  7. Cinnamomum verum component 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde: a novel antiproliferative drug inducing cell death through targeting both topoisomerase I and II in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells

    Kuen-daw Tsai


    Full Text Available Background: Cinnamomum verum is used to manufacture the spice cinnamon. In addition, the plant has been used as a Chinese herbal medication. Methods: We investigated the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (2-MCA, a constituent of the cortex of the plant, and the molecular biomarkers associated with tumorigenesis in human colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO 205 cells. Specifically, cell viability was evaluated by colorimetric assay; apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry and morphological analysis with bright field, acridine orange, and neutral red stainings, as well as comet assay; topoisomerase I activity was determined by assay based upon DNA relaxation and topoisomerase II by DNA relaxation plus decatentation of kinetoplast DNA; lysosomal vacuolation and volume of acidic compartments (VACs were determined by neutral red staining. Results: The results demonstrate that 2-MCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis as implicated by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm loss, activation of both caspase-3 and -9, increase of annexin V+PI+ cells, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Furthermore, 2-MCA also induced lysosomal vacuolation with elevated VAC, cytotoxicity, and inhibitions of topoisomerase I as well as II activities. Additional study demonstrated the antiproliferative effect of 2-MCA found in a nude mice model. Conclusions: Our data implicate that the antiproliferative activity of 2-MCA in vitro involved downregulation of cell growth markers, both topoisomerase I and II, and upregulation of pro-apoptotic molecules, associated with increased lysosomal vacuolation. In vivo 2-MCA reduced the tumor burden that could have significant clinical impact. Indeed, similar effects were found in other tested cell lines, including human hepatocellular carcinoma SK-Hep-1 and Hep 3B, lung adenocarcinoma A549 and squamous cell carcinoma NCI-H520, and T-lymphoblastic MOLT-3 (results not shown. Our data implicate

  8. Cytotoxicity of Manganese (III) Complex in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cell Line Is Mediated by the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species Followed by Mitochondrial Damage.

    Al-Anbaky, Qudes; Al-Karakooly, Zeiyad; Kilaparty, Surya P; Agrawal, Megha; Albkuri, Yahya M; RanguMagar, Ambar B; Ghosh, Anindya; Ali, Nawab


    Manganese (Mn) complexes are widely studied because of their important catalytic properties in synthetic and biochemical reactions. A Mn (III) complex of an amidoamine ligand was synthesized using a tetradentate amidoamine ligand. In this study, the Mn (III) complex was evaluated for its biological activity by measuring its cytotoxicity in human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). Cytotoxic effects of the Mn (III) complex were determined using established biomarkers in an attempt to delineate the mechanism of action and the utility of the complex as a potential anticancer drug. The Mn (III) complex induces cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner as shown by microculture tetrazolium assay, a measure of cytotoxic cell death. Our results demonstrated that cytotoxic effects were significantly increased at higher concentrations of Mn (III) complex and with longer time of treatment. The IC50 (Inhibitor concentration that results in 50% cell death) value of Mn (III) complex in MCF-7 cells was determined to be 2.5 mmol/L for 24 hours of treatment. In additional experiments, we determined the Mn (III) complex-mediated cell death was due to both apoptotic and nonspecific necrotic cell death mechanisms. This was assessed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining and flow cytometry techniques. The Mn (III) complex produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggering the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase 1 and ultimately damaging the mitochondrial function as is evident by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment of the cells with free radical scavenger, N, N-dimethylthiourea decreased Mn (III) complex-mediated generation of ROS and attenuated apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the Mn (III) complex-mediated MCF-7 cell death utilizes combined mechanism involving apoptosis and necrosis perhaps due to the generation of ROS.

  9. Antimicrobial Nisin Acts Against Saliva Derived Multi-Species Biofilms without Cytotoxicity to Human Oral Cells

    Yvonne Lorraine Kapila


    Full Text Available Objectives: Nisin is a lantibiotic widely used for the preservation of food and beverages. Recently, investigators have reported that nisin may have clinical applications for treating bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ultra pure food grade Nisin ZP (> 95% purity on taxonomically diverse bacteria common to the human oral cavity and saliva derived multi-species oral biofilms, and to discern the toxicity of nisin against human cells relevant to the oral cavity. Methods: The MICs and MBCs of taxonomically distinct oral bacteria were determined using agar and broth dilution methods. To assess the effects of nisin on biofilms, two model systems were utilized: a static and a controlled flow microfluidic system. Biofilms were inoculated with pooled human saliva and fed filter-sterilized saliva for 20-22 h at 37°C. Nisin effects on cellular apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent nuclear staining and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays. Results: Nisin inhibited planktonic growth of oral bacteria at low concentrations (2.5 – 50 μg/ml. Nisin also retarded development of multi-species biofilms at concentrations ≥ 1 μg/ml. Specifically, under biofilm model conditions, nisin interfered with biofilm development and reduced biofilm biomass and thickness in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of pre-formed biofilms with nisin resulted in dose- and time-dependent disruption of the biofilm architecture along with decreased bacterial viability. Human cells relevant to the oral cavity were unaffected by the treatment of nisin at anti-biofilm concentrations and showed no signs of apoptotic changes unless treated with much higher concentrations (> 200 μg/ml. Conclusions: This work highlights the potential therapeutic value of high purity food grade nisin to inhibit the growth of oral bacteria and the development of biofilms relevant to oral diseases.

  10. Potential use of porous titanium-niobium alloy in orthopedic implants: preparation and experimental study of its biocompatibility in vitro.

    Jian Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The improvement of bone ingrowth into prosthesis and enhancement of the combination of the range between the bone and prosthesis are important for long-term stability of artificial joints. They are the focus of research on uncemented artificial joints. Porous materials can be of potential use to solve these problems. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES: This research aims to observe the characteristics of the new porous Ti-25Nb alloy and its biocompatibility in vitro, and to provide basic experimental evidence for the development of new porous prostheses or bone implants for bone tissue regeneration. METHODS: The Ti-25Nb alloys with different porosities were fabricated using powder metallurgy. The alloys were then evaluated based on several characteristics, such as mechanical properties, purity, pore size, and porosity. To evaluate biocompatibility, the specimens were subjected to methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT colorimetric assay, cell adhesion and proliferation assay using acridine staining, scanning electron microscopy, and detection of inflammation factor interleukin-6 (IL-6. RESULTS: The porous Ti-25Nb alloy with interconnected pores had a pore size of 200 µm to 500 µm, which was favorable for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the alloy was similar to that of cortical bone, while with the elastic modulus closer to cancellous bone. MTT assay showed that the alloy had no adverse reaction to rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, with a toxicity level of 0 to 1. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments showed excellent cell growth on the surface and inside the pores of the alloy. According to the IL-6 levels, the alloy did not cause any obvious inflammatory response. CONCLUSION: All porous Ti-25Nb alloys showed good biocompatibility regardless of the percentage of porosity. The basic requirement of clinical orthopedic implants was satisfied, which made the alloy a good prospect for biomedical application. The alloy with 70

  11. The Mutation Breeding of Streptomyces avermilitis%阿维链霉菌的诱变育种

    陈金辉; 郭伟群; 蔡玉娟; 王天科; 王晓芳; 宋渊


    Spores and protoplasts of the original strain Streptomyces avermitilis 76 12 were treated with nitrosoguanidine (NTG), acridine orange, ultraviolet radiation (UV) and LiCl respectively. Then a series of high yield avermectin producing and stable mutants were obtained through mutation and rational selection. The avermection productivity of the mutant N 1 2 was 2.47 times of the original strain. Furthermore, several special mutants were obtained. Mutant strain G 32 produced only "a" avermectins; mutant strain Ave8 had higher lever of avermectin B1a content than original strain; and mutant strain UA G developed bluegreen spores.%以阿维链霉菌(Streptomyces avermitilis)76-12为出发菌株,采用亚硝基胍、吖啶橙、紫外线和氯化锂分别对其孢子和原生质体进行诱变,经抗代谢物理性筛选,获得一系列高产突变株,其中N-1-2高产突变株的发酵单位是出发菌株的2.47倍。实验中同时获得了只产阿维菌素a组分的突变株G-32、Bla组分含量高的Ave8菌株和产蓝绿色孢子的突变株UA-G等。

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria -- overview.

    Bhatt, K M


    Features of the laboratory diagnosis of malaria are described. Microscope equipment is absolutely essential. Clinical symptoms are inadequate for the proper diagnosis of malaria. Screening for malaria involves identification of all cases where high fever is present in endemic areas. Diagnosis is complicated because many people take antimalarial drugs which reduce the chances of detecting malarial parasites. Confirmation should be made before treatment is administered. A thick blood slide can be quickly and cheaply taken without much training of health personnel. The disadvantage of thick stains is the difficulty in identifying "plasmodium" strains. When a thin smear with Giemsa and Leishmanin stain is used, a light infection may be missed. Thin smears require trained personnel and time, which in peak seasons may be impractical. Urinary tract and viral infections may be confused with malaria. Evidence of parasites can be discerned from thick stains. Modern assay techniques are also available. There are enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and immunofluorescent assay techniques (IFAT), which are frequently used in large scale seroepidemiological studies. DNA probes have the limitation of radioisotope handling problems. Acridine orange fluorescent microscopy with capillary centrifuged blood is a technique which improves the viability of Giemsa stain procedures. This technique is desirable because of the sensitivity and speed of diagnosis. The quantitative buddy coat (GBC) technique is superior to Giemsa stained thick blood film in identifying malaria, but it is not reliable with mixed infections. Advanced techniques are not readily available in local settings. The recommendation is to continue use of thick or thin blood film and trained health personnel. Laboratory results must be interpreted in the context of when the flood film was prepared, prior drug administration, and clinical manifestations.

  13. In vivo inhibition of tumor progression by 5 hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone) and 2-(4-hydroxyanilino)-1,4-naphthoquinone (Q7) in combination with ascorbate.

    Ourique, Fabiana; Kviecinski, Maicon R; Zirbel, Guilherme; Castro, Luiza S E P W; Gomes Castro, Allisson Jhonatan; Mena Barreto Silva, Fátima Regina; Valderrama, Jaime A; Rios, David; Benites, Julio; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi


    The purpose of the study was to obtain further in vivo data of antitumor effects and mechanisms triggered by juglone and Q7 in combination with ascorbate. The study was done using Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. Treatments were intraperitoneal every 24 h for 9 days. Control group was treated with excipient. Previous tests selected the doses of juglone and Q7 plus ascorbate (1 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Samples of ascitic fluid were collected to evaluate carbonyl proteins, GSH and activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, GLUT1, proteins driving cell cycle (p53, p16 and cyclin A) and apoptosis (poly-ADP-polymerase PARP, Bax and Bcl-xL) were assessed by western blot. Tumor cells were categorized by the phase of cell cycle using flow cytometry and type of cell death using acridine orange/ethidium bromide. A glucose uptake assessment was performed by liquid scintillation using Ehrlich tumor cells cultured with (14)C-deoxyglucose. Treatments caused increased protein carbonylation and activity of antioxidant enzymes and decreased levels of GSH, HIF-1α, GLUT1 and glucose uptake in tumor cells. They also caused increased number of tumor cells in G1, p53 and p16 activation and decreased cyclin A, but only when combined with ascorbate. Apoptosis was induced mostly when treatments were done with ascorbate, causing PARP and Bax cleavage, and increased Bax/Bcl-xL ratio. Juglone and Q7 in combination with ascorbate caused inhibition of tumor progress in vivo by triggering apoptosis and cell cycle arrest associated with oxidative stress, suppression of HIF-1 and uncoupling of glycolytic metabolism.

  14. p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} deficiency induces mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Kim, Ae Jeong; Jee, Hye Jin; Song, Naree; Kim, Minjee [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Seon-Young [Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medical Genetics, Ajou University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jeanho, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells exhibited an increase in mitochondrial mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expression levels of PGC-1{alpha} and AMPK were upregulated in p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proliferation of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells in galactose medium was significantly impaired. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 may play a role in maintaining proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function. -- Abstract: p21{sup WAF1/CIP1} is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression. However, the role of p21 in mitochondrial function remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of p21 deficiency on mitochondrial function in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We found that there was a significant increase in the mitochondrial mass of p21{sup -/-} HCT116 cells, as measured by 10-N-nonyl-acridine orange staining, as well as an increase in the mitochondrial DNA content. In contrast, p53{sup -/-} cells had a mitochondrial mass comparable to that of wild-type HCT116 cells. In addition, the expression levels of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators PGC-1{alpha} and TFAM and AMPK activity were also elevated in p21{sup -/-} cells, indicating that p21 deficiency induces the rate of mitochondrial biogenesis through the AMPK-PGC-1{alpha} axis. However, the increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in p21{sup -/-} cells did not accompany an increase in the cellular steady-state level of ATP. Furthermore, p21{sup -/-} cells exhibited significant proliferation impairment in galactose medium, suggesting that p21 deficiency induces a defect in the mitochondrial respiratory chain in HCT116 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that the loss of p21 results in an aberrant increase in the mitochondrial mass and in mitochondrial dysfunction in HCT116 cells, indicating that p21 is required to maintain proper mitochondrial mass and respiratory function.

  15. Autophagy as a Survival Mechanism for Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells in Endonuclease G-Mediated Apoptosis

    Masui, Atsushi; Hamada, Masakazu; Kameyama, Hiroyasu; Wakabayashi, Ken; Takasu, Ayako; Imai, Tomoaki; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki


    Safingol, L- threo-dihydrosphingosine, induces cell death in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells through an endonuclease G (endoG) -mediated pathway. We herein determined whether safingol induced apoptosis and autophagy in oral SCC cells. Safingol induced apoptotic cell death in oral SCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In safingol-treated cells, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I was changed to LC3-II and the cytoplasmic expression of LC3, amount of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) stained by acridine orange and autophagic vacuoles were increased, indicating the occurrence of autophagy. An inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), enhanced the suppressive effects of safingol on cell viability, and this was accompanied by an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and extent of nuclear fragmentation. The nuclear translocation of endoG was minimal at a low concentration of safingol, but markedly increased when combined with 3-MA. The suppressive effects of safingol and 3-MA on cell viability were reduced in endoG siRNA- transfected cells. The scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) prevented cell death induced by the combinational treatment, whereas a pretreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk did not. These results indicated that safingol induced apoptosis and autophagy in SCC cells and that the suppression of autophagy by 3-MA enhanced apoptosis. Autophagy supports cell survival, but not cell death in the SCC cell system in which apoptosis occurs in an endoG-mediated manner. PMID:27658240

  16. SMI of Bcl-2 TW-37 is active across a spectrum of B-cell tumors irrespective of their proliferative and differentiation status.

    Al-Katib, Ayad M; Sun, Yuan; Goustin, Anton Scott; Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Chen, Ben; Aboukameel, Amro; Mohammad, Ramzi M


    The Bcl-2 family of proteins is critical to the life and death of malignant B-lymphocytes. Interfering with their activity using small-molecule inhibitors (SMI) is being explored as a new therapeutic strategy for treating B-cell tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of TW-37, a non-peptidic SMI of Bcl-2 against a range spectrum of human B-cell lines, fresh patient samples and animal xenograft models. Multiple cytochemical and molecular approaches such as acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay for apoptosis, co-immunoprecipitation of complexes and western blot analysis, caspase luminescent activity assay and apoptotic DNA fragmentation assay were used to demonstrate the effect of TW-37 on different B-cell lines, patient derived samples, as well as in animal xenograft models. Nanomolar concentrations of TW-37 were able to induce apoptosis in both fresh samples and established cell lines with IC50 in most cases of 165-320 nM. Apoptosis was independent of proliferative status or pathological classification of B-cell tumor. TW-37 was able to block Bim-Bcl-XL and Bim-Mcl-1 heterodimerization and induced apoptosis via activation of caspases -9, -3, PARP and DNA fragmentation. TW-37 administered to tumor-bearing SCID mice led to significant tumor growth inhibition (T/C), tumor growth delay (T-C) and Log10kill, when used at its maximum tolerated dose (40 mg/kg x 3 days) via tail vein. TW-37 failed to induce changes in the Bcl-2 proteins levels suggesting that assessment of baseline Bcl-2 family proteins can be used to predict response to the drug. These findings indicate activity of TW-37 across the spectrum of human B-cell tumors and support the concept of targeting the Bcl-2 system as a therapeutic strategy regardless of the stage of B-cell differentiation.

  17. Molecular recognition of genomic DNA in a condensate with a model surfactant for potential gene-delivery applications.

    Singh, Priya; Choudhury, Susobhan; Chandra, Goutam Kumar; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar


    The functionality of a gene carrying nucleic acid in an artificial gene-delivery system is important for the overall efficiency of the vehicle in vivo. Here, we have studied a well-known artificial gene-delivery system, which is a condensate of calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) with a model cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to investigate the molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate. While dynamic light scattering (DLS) and circular dichroism (CD) reveal structural aspects of the condensate and the constituting DNA respectively, picosecond resolved polarization gated spectroscopy and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) reveal molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate. We have considered ethidium bromide (EB) and crystal violet (CV), which are well known DNA-binding agents through intercalative (specific) and electrostatic (non-specific) interactions, respectively, as model ligands for the molecular recognition studies. A fluorescent cationic surfactant, Nonyl Acridine Orange (NAO) is considered to be a mimic of CTAB in the condensate. The polarization gated fluorescence of NAO at various temperatures has been used to investigate the local microviscosity of the condensate. The excellent spectral overlap of NAO emission and the absorption spectra of both EB and CV allow us to investigate FRET-distances of the ligands with respect to NAO in the condensate at various temperatures and thermal stability of ligand-binding of the genomic DNA. The thermodynamic properties of the molecular recognition have also been explored using Van't Hoff equation. We have also extended our studies to molecular recognition of the genomic DNA in the condensate as dried thin films. This has important implications for its application in bioelectronics.

  18. Binding of 8-methoxypsoralen to DNA in vitro: Monitoring by spectroscopic and chemometrics approaches

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Guowen, E-mail:; Wang, Langhong


    8-Methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) is a naturally occurring furanocoumarin with a variety of biological and pharmacological activities. The binding mechanism of 8-MOP to calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) at physiological pH was investigated by multi-spectroscopic techniques including UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy along with DNA melting studies and viscosity measurements. The multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics approach was introduced to resolve the expanded UV–vis spectral data matrix, and both the pure spectra and the equilibrium concentration profiles for the components (8-MOP, ctDNA and 8-MOP-ctDNA complex) in the system were successfully obtained to monitor the 8-MOP-ctDNA interaction. The results suggested that 8-MOP could bind to ctDNA via intercalation binding as evidenced by significant increases in melting and relative viscosity of ctDNA and competitive study using acridine orange (AO) as a fluorescence probe. The positive values of enthalpy and entropy change suggested that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a predominant role in the binding process. Further, FT-IR and CD spectra analysis indicated that 8-MOP preferentially bound to A–T base pairs with no major perturbation in ctDNA double helix conformation. Moreover, molecular docking was employed to exhibit the specific binding mode of 8-MOP to ctDNA intuitively. - Highlights: • The interaction processes of 8-MOP with ctDNA was monitored by MCR-ALS approach. • The binding mode of 8-MOP to ctDNA was an intercalation. • 8-MOP most likely bound to adenine and thymine base pairs of ctDNA. • Molecular docking illustrated the specific binding.

  19. Omeprazole inhibits proliferation and modulates autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Andrej Udelnow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omeprazole has recently been described as a modulator of tumour chemoresistance, although its underlying molecular mechanisms remain controversial. Since pancreatic tumours are highly chemoresistant, a logical step would be to investigate the pharmacodynamic, morphological and biochemical effects of omeprazole on pancreatic cancer cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dose-effect curves of omeprazole, pantoprazole, gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil and the combinations of omeprazole and 5-fluorouracil or gemcitabine were generated for the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, ASPC-1, Colo357, PancTu-1, Panc1 and Panc89. They revealed that omeprazole inhibited proliferation at probably non-toxic concentrations and reversed the hormesis phenomena of 5-fluorouracil. Electron microscopy showed that omeprazole led to accumulation of phagophores and early autophagosomes in ASPC-1 and MiaPaCa-2 cells. Signal changes indicating inhibited proliferation and programmed cell death were found by proton NMR spectroscopy of both cell lines when treated with omeprazole which was identified intracellularly. Omeprazole modulates the lysosomal transport pathway as shown by Western blot analysis of the expression of LAMP-1, Cathepsin-D and β-COP in lysosome- and Golgi complex containing cell fractions. Acridine orange staining revealed that the pump function of the vATPase was not specifically inhibited by omeprazole. Gene expression of the autophagy-related LC3 gene as well as of Bad, Mdr-1, Atg12 and the vATPase was analysed after treatment of cells with 5-fluorouracil and omeprazole and confirmed the above mentioned results. CONCLUSIONS: We hypothesise that omeprazole interacts with the regulatory functions of the vATPase without inhibiting its pump function. A modulation of the lysosomal transport pathway and autophagy is caused in pancreatic cancer cells leading to programmed cell death. This may circumvent common resistance mechanisms of

  20. Genotoxic Evaluation of Mexican Welders Occupationally Exposed to Welding-Fumes Using the Micronucleus Test on Exfoliated Oral Mucosa Cells: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study.

    Ana Cecilia Jara-Ettinger

    Full Text Available An estimated 800,000 people worldwide are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes. Previous studies show that the exposure to such fumes is associated with damage to genetic material and increased cancer risk. In this study, we evaluate the genotoxic effect of welding-fumes using the Micronucleus Test on oral mucosa cells of Mexican welders.We conducted a cross-sectional, matched case-control study of n = 66 (33 exposed welders, and 33 healthy controls. Buccal mucosa smears were collected and stained with acridine orange, observed under 100x optical amplification with a fluorescence lamp, and a single-blinded observer counted the number of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities per 2,000 observed cells. We compared the frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities, and fitted generalised linear models to investigate the interactions between nuclear abnormalities and the exposure to welding-fumes, while controlling for smoking and age.Binucleated cells and condensed-chromatin cells showed statistically significant differences between cases and controls. The frequency of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities (lobed-nuclei, pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis did not differ significantly between the groups. After adjusting for smoking, the regression results showed that the occurrence of binucleated cells could be predicted by the exposure to welding-fumes plus the presence of tobacco consumption; for the condensed-chromatin cells, our model showed that the exposure to welding-fumes is the only reliable predictor.Our findings suggest that Mexican welders who are occupationally exposed to welding-fumes have increased counts of binucleated and condensed-chromatin cells. Nevertheless, the frequencies of micronuclei and the rest of nuclear abnormalities did not differ between cases and controls. Further studies should shed more light on this subject.