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Sample records for acquired v3 mutation

  1. Clinical significance of acquired somatic mutations in aplastic anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J C W; Mufti, G J

    2016-08-01

    Aplastic anaemia (AA) is frequently associated with other disorders of clonal haemopoiesis such as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and T-large granular lymphocytosis. Certain clones may escape the immune attack within the bone marrow environment and proliferate and attain a survival advantage over normal haemopoietic stem cells, such as trisomy 8, loss of heterozygosity of short arm of chromosome 6 and del13q clones. Recently acquired somatic mutations (SM), excluding PNH clones, have been reported in around 20-25 % of patients with AA, which predispose to a higher risk of later malignant transformation to MDS/acute myeloid leukaemia. Furthermore, certain SM, such as ASXL1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor survival following immunosuppressive therapy, whereas PIGA, BCOR/BCORL1 predict for good response and survival. Further detailed and serial analysis of the immune signature in AA is needed to understand the pathogenetic basis for the presence of clones with SM in a significant proportion of patients.

  2. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-01-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV-positive and -negative individuals with recent HCV. The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from 50 genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. A total of 12% of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non-dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (that is, Resistance variants (resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low-level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00192569.

  3. CACNA1H missense mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter Ca(v)3.2 T-type calcium channel activity and reticular thalamic neuron firing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Blesneac, I.; Pamphlett, R.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 6 (2016), s. 466-477 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ALS * amyotrophic lateral sclerosis * biophysics * CACNA1H * Ca(v)3 * 2 channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  4. Acquired RhD mosaicism identifies fibrotic transformation of thrombopoietin receptor-mutated essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Coward, Rebecca; Albitar, Maher; Udani, Rupa; Jain, Prachi; Koklanaris, Eleftheria; Battiwalla, Minoo; Keel, Siobán; Klein, Harvey G; Barrett, A John; Ito, Sawa

    2017-09-01

    Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity has been described in myeloid malignant progression with an otherwise normal karyotype. A 65-year-old woman with MPL-mutated essential thrombocythemia and progression to myelofibrosis was noted upon routine pretransplant testing to have mixed field reactivity with anti-D and an historic discrepancy in RhD type. The patient had never received transfusions or transplantation. Gel immunoagglutination revealed group A red blood cells and a mixed-field reaction for the D phenotype, with a predominant D-negative population and a small subset of circulating red blood cells carrying the D antigen. Subsequent genomic microarray single nucleotide polymorphism profiling revealed copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1 p36.33-p34.2, a known molecular mechanism underlying fibrotic progression of MPL-mutated essential thrombocythemia. The chromosomal region affected by this copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity encompassed the RHD, RHCE, and MPL genes. We propose a model of chronological molecular events that is supported by RHD zygosity assays in peripheral lymphoid and myeloid-derived cells. Copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity events that lead to clonal selection and myeloid malignant progression may also affect the expression of adjacent unrelated genes, including those encoding for blood group antigens. Detection of mixed-field reactions and investigation of discrepant blood typing results are important for proper transfusion support of these patients and can provide useful surrogate markers of myeloproliferative disease progression. © 2017 AABB.

  5. High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine in Indian children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

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    Sehgal S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In north India the number of paediatric cases with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is on the rise. Most drug combinations used for treatment of AIDS incorporate nevirapine, resistance to which develops very fast if given singly or because of unplanned interruptions. This paper investigates presence of mutations at codon 103 and codon 215 of the HIV pol gene causing resistance to nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT respectively in 25 children with AIDS. Mutations T215Y and K103N were detected by a nested cum amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR and the results were confirmed by direct sequencing in five randomly selected cases. Nineteen patients had received nevirapine containing regimen and six were drug naive. Mutation K103N was observed in 56% (14/25 of the children while mutation T215Y was found in none. Two of the six drug naοve children also showed K103N mutation. Thus, Indian children drug naοve or treated with nevirapine containing regimens show a high rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine which calls for a judicious use of nevirapine both in antenatal and postnatal setting.

  6. Trade-offs with stability modulate innate and mutationally acquired drug-resistance in bacterial dihydrofolate reductase enzymes.

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    Matange, Nishad; Bodkhe, Swapnil; Patel, Maitri; Shah, Pooja

    2018-06-05

    Structural stability is a major constraint on the evolution of protein sequences. However, under strong directional selection, mutations that confer novel phenotypes but compromise structural stability of proteins may be permissible. During the evolution of antibiotic resistance, mutations that confer drug resistance often have pleiotropic effects on the structure and function of antibiotic-target proteins, usually essential metabolic enzymes. In this study, we show that trimethoprim-resistant alleles of dihydrofolate reductase from Escherichia coli (EcDHFR) harbouring the Trp30Gly, Trp30Arg or Trp30Cys mutations are significantly less stable than the wild type making them prone to aggregation and proteolysis. This destabilization is associated with lower expression level resulting in a fitness cost and negative epistasis with other TMP-resistant mutations in EcDHFR. Using structure-based mutational analysis we show that perturbation of critical stabilizing hydrophobic interactions in wild type EcDHFR enzyme explains the phenotypes of Trp30 mutants. Surprisingly, though crucial for the stability of EcDHFR, significant sequence variation is found at this site among bacterial DHFRs. Mutational and computational analyses in EcDHFR as well as in DHFR enzymes from Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis demonstrate that natural variation at this site and its interacting hydrophobic residues, modulates TMP-resistance in other bacterial DHFRs as well, and may explain the different susceptibilities of bacterial pathogens to trimethoprim. Our study demonstrates that trade-offs between structural stability and function can influence innate drug resistance as well as the potential for mutationally acquired drug resistance of an enzyme. ©2018 The Author(s).

  7. Combination therapy of apatinib with icotinib for primary acquired icotinib resistance in patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Pinghui; Cao, Jinlin; Lv, Xiayi; Wang, Luming; Lv, Wang; Hu, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Multi-targeted agents represent the next generation of targeted therapies for solid tumors, and patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may also benefit from their combination with TKI therapy. Third-generation targeted drugs, such as osimertinib, are very expensive, thus a more economical solution is required. The aim of this study was to explore the use of apatinib combined with icotinib therapy for primary acquired resistance to icotinib in three patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations. We achieved favorable oncologic outcomes in all three patients, with progression-free survival of four to six months. Unfortunately, the patients ultimately had to cease combination therapy because of intolerable adverse effects of hand and foot syndrome and oral ulcers. Combination therapy of apatinib with icotinib for primary acquired resistance to icotinib may be an option for patients with advanced pulmonary adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations, but physicians must also be aware of the side effects caused by such therapy. © 2018 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 1p as a molecular event associated with marrow fibrosis in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Elisa; Pietra, Daniela; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bordoni, Roberta; Casetti, Ilaria; Milanesi, Chiara; Sant'Antonio, Emanuela; Ferretti, Virginia; Pancrazzi, Alessandro; Rotunno, Giada; Severgnini, Marco; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Astori, Cesare; Fugazza, Elena; Pascutto, Cristiana; Boveri, Emanuela; Passamonti, Francesco; De Bellis, Gianluca; Vannucchi, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario

    2013-05-23

    We studied mutations of MPL exon 10 in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or primary myelofibrosis (PMF), first investigating a cohort of 892 consecutive patients. MPL mutation scanning was performed on granulocyte genomic DNA by using a high-resolution melt assay, and the mutant allele burden was evaluated by using deep sequencing. Somatic mutations of MPL, all but one involving codon W515, were detected in 26/661 (4%) patients with ET, 10/187 (5%) with PMF, and 7/44 (16%) patients with post-ET myelofibrosis. Comparison of JAK2 (V617F)-mutated and MPL-mutated patients showed only minor phenotypic differences. In an extended group of 62 MPL-mutated patients, the granulocyte mutant allele burden ranged from 1% to 95% and was significantly higher in patients with PMF or post-ET myelofibrosis compared with those with ET. Patients with higher mutation burdens had evidence of acquired copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of chromosome 1p in granulocytes, consistent with a transition from heterozygosity to homozygosity for the MPL mutation in clonal cells. A significant association was found between MPL-mutant allele burden greater than 50% and marrow fibrosis. These observations suggest that acquired CN-LOH of chromosome 1p involving the MPL location may represent a molecular mechanism of fibrotic transformation in MPL-mutated myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  9. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

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    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder.

  10. Detection of T790M, the acquired resistance EGFR mutation, by tumor biopsy versus noninvasive blood-based analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Tilak K.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Heymach, John V.; Riely, Gregory J.; Jänne, Pasi A.; Koch, Walter H.; Sullivan, James P.; Fox, Douglas B.; Maher, Robert; Muzikansky, Alona; Webb, Andrew; Tran, Hai T.; Giri, Uma; Fleisher, Martin; Yu, Helena A.; Wei, Wen; Johnson, Bruce E.; Barber, Thomas A.; Walsh, John R.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Stott, Shannon L.; Kapur, Ravi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Toner, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The T790M gatekeeper mutation in the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is acquired by some EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) as they become resistant to selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). As third generation EGFR TKIs that overcome T790M-associated resistance become available, noninvasive approaches to T790M detection will become critical to guide management. Experimental Design As part of a multi-institutional Stand-Up-To-Cancer collaboration, we performed an exploratory analysis of 40 patients with EGFR-mutant tumors progressing on EGFR TKI therapy. We compared the T790M genotype from tumor biopsies with analysis of simultaneously collected circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Results T790M genotypes were successfully obtained in 30 (75%) tumor biopsies, 28 (70%) CTC samples and 32 (80%) ctDNA samples. The resistance-associated mutation was detected in 47–50% of patients using each of the genotyping assays, with concordance among them ranging from 57–74%. While CTC- and ctDNA-based genotyping were each unsuccessful in 20–30% of cases, the two assays together enabled genotyping in all patients with an available blood sample, and they identified the T790M mutation in 14 (35%) patients in whom the concurrent biopsy was negative or indeterminate. Conclusion Discordant genotypes between tumor biopsy and blood-based analyses may result from technological differences, as well as sampling different tumor cell populations. The use of complementary approaches may provide the most complete assessment of each patient’s cancer, which should be validated in predicting response to T790M-targeted inhibitors. PMID:26446944

  11. An Acquired HER2T798I Gatekeeper Mutation Induces Resistance to Neratinib in a Patient with HER2 Mutant-Driven Breast Cancer.

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    Hanker, Ariella B; Brewer, Monica Red; Sheehan, Jonathan H; Koch, James P; Sliwoski, Gregory R; Nagy, Rebecca; Lanman, Richard; Berger, Michael F; Hyman, David M; Solit, David B; He, Jie; Miller, Vincent; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Cross, Darren; Lovly, Christine M; Meiler, Jens; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-06-01

    We report a HER2 T798I gatekeeper mutation in a patient with HER2 L869R -mutant breast cancer with acquired resistance to neratinib. Laboratory studies suggested that HER2 L869R is a neratinib-sensitive, gain-of-function mutation that upon dimerization with mutant HER3 E928G , also present in the breast cancer, amplifies HER2 signaling. The patient was treated with neratinib and exhibited a sustained partial response. Upon clinical progression, HER2 T798I was detected in plasma tumor cell-free DNA. Structural modeling of this acquired mutation suggested that the increased bulk of isoleucine in HER2 T798I reduces neratinib binding. Neratinib blocked HER2-mediated signaling and growth in cells expressing HER2 L869R but not HER2 L869R/T798I In contrast, afatinib and the osimertinib metabolite AZ5104 strongly suppressed HER2 L869R/T798I -induced signaling and cell growth. Acquisition of HER2 T798I upon development of resistance to neratinib in a breast cancer with an initial activating HER2 mutation suggests HER2 L869R is a driver mutation. HER2 T798I -mediated neratinib resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 inhibitors like afatinib. Significance: We found an acquired HER2 gatekeeper mutation in a patient with HER2 -mutant breast cancer upon clinical progression on neratinib. We speculate that HER2 T798I may arise as a secondary mutation following response to effective HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in other cancers with HER2 -activating mutations. This resistance may be overcome by other irreversible HER2 TKIs, such as afatinib. Cancer Discov; 7(6); 575-85. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 539 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Acquired resistance L747S mutation in an epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-naïve patient: A report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Fumihiro; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Yamazaki, Yohei; Takayasu, Hiromi; Tazawa, Sakiko; Tateno, Hidetsugu; Kato, Eisuke; Wakabayashi, Aya; Fujimori, Mami; Iwasaki, Takuya; Hayashi, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yutaka; Yamashita, Jun; Takeda, Norikazu; Kokubu, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to report cases of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI)-naïve patients carrying a mutation associated with acquired resistance to the drug. Gene alterations in 77 lung carcinoma patients were analyzed by collecting and studying curette lavage fluid at the time of diagnosis. PCRs were performed to amplify mutation hotspot regions in EGFR genes. The PCR products were direct-sequenced and the mutations confirmed by resequencing using different primers. Case 1 was a 78-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with stage IB lung adenocarcinoma who was found to have two EGFR mutations, G719S and L747S. Case 2 was a 73-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with stage IV squamous cell lung carcinoma and bone metastasis who had the EGFR mutation, L747S. Case 3 was an 82-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with hyponatremia due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and stage IIIB small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) who had the EGFR mutation, L747S. Thus, the EGFR mutation L747S associated with acquired EGFR-TKI resistance was detected in two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and one SCLC patient, none of whom had ever received EGFR-TKI. The patients were current smokers with stages at diagnosis ranging from IB to IV, and their initial tumors contained resistant clones carrying L747S. L747S may be associated with primary resistance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report of an EGFR mutation associated with resistance to EGFR-TKI in SCLC patients. The early detection of EGFR-TKI resistance mutations may be beneficial in making treatment decisions for lung carcinoma patients, including those with SCLC.

  13. ANGDelMut – a web-based tool for predicting and analyzing functional loss mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated angiogenin mutations [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2yt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya K Padhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ANGDelMut is a web-based tool for predicting the functional consequences of missense mutations in the angiogenin (ANG protein, which is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Missense mutations in ANG result in loss of either ribonucleolytic activity or nuclear translocation activity or both of these functions, and in turn cause ALS. However, no web-based tools are available to predict whether a newly identified ANG mutation will possibly lead to ALS. More importantly, no web-implemented method is currently available to predict the mechanisms of loss-of-function(s of ANG mutants. In light of this observation, we developed the ANGDelMut web-based tool, which predicts whether an ANG mutation is deleterious or benign. The user selects certain attributes from the input panel, which serves as a query to infer whether a mutant will exhibit loss of ribonucleolytic activity or nuclear translocation activity or whether the overall stability will be affected. The output states whether the mutation is deleterious or benign, and if it is deleterious, gives the possible mechanism(s of loss-of-function. This web-based tool, freely available at http://bioschool.iitd.ernet.in/DelMut/, is the first of its kind to provide a platform for researchers and clinicians, to infer the functional consequences of ANG mutations and correlate their possible association with ALS ahead of experimental findings.

  14. Mutations within ICP4 acquired during in vitro attenuation do not alter virulence of recombinant Marek's disease viruses in vivo

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    Evin Hildebrandt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek's disease (MD is a T-cell lymphoma of chickens caused by the oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV. MD is primarily controlled by live-attenuated vaccines generated by repeated in vitro serial passage. Previous efforts to characterize attenuated MDVs identified numerous mutations, particularly a convergence of high-frequency mutations around amino acids 60–63 within ICP4 (RS1, therefore, ICP4 was considered a candidate gene deserving further characterization. Recombinant MDVs were generated containing a single Q63H mutation or double Q63H + S1630P mutations. Despite the repetitive nature of mutations within ICP4, neither recombinant virus decreased virulence, although one mutant reduced in vivo replication and failed to transmit horizontally. Our results indicate that these mutations are insufficient to reduce disease incidence in infected birds, and suggest that variants in ICP4 do not directly alter virulence, but rather may enhance MDV replication rates in vitro, offering an explanation for the widespread occurrence of ICP4 mutations in a variety of attenuated herpesviruses.

  15. TALEN-mediated genetic tailoring as a tool to analyze the function of acquired mutations in multiple myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, X; Blackburn, P R; Tschumper, R C; Ekker, S C; Jelinek, D F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that is initiated by a number of mutations and the process of disease progression is characterized by further acquisition of mutations. The identification and functional characterization of these myelomagenic mutations is necessary to better understand the underlying pathogenic mechanisms in this disease. Recent advancements in next-generation sequencing have made the identification of most of these mutations a reality. However, the functional characterization of these mutations has been hampered by the lack of proper and efficient tools to dissect these mutations. Here we explored the possible utility of transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) genome engineering technology to tailoring the genome of MM cells. To test this possibility, we targeted the HPRT1 gene and found that TALENs are a very robust and efficient genome-editing tool in MM cells. Using cotransfected green fluorescent protein as an enrichment marker, single-cell subclones with desirable TALEN modifications in the HPRT1 gene were obtained in as little as 3–4 weeks of time. We believe that TALENs will greatly facilitate the functional study of somatic mutations in MM as well as other cancers

  16. Acquired EGFR L718V mutation mediates resistance to osimertinib in non-small cell lung cancer but retains sensitivity to afatinib.

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    Liu, Yutao; Li, Yan; Ou, Qiuxiang; Wu, Xue; Wang, Xiaonan; Shao, Yang W; Ying, Jianming

    2018-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are promising targeted therapies for EGFR-mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, acquired resistance inevitably develops. Comprehensive and dynamic companion genomic diagnosis can gain insights into underlying resistance mechanisms, thereby help oncologists and patients to make informed decision on the potential benefit of the treatment. A 67-year-old male who was initially diagnosed of EGFR L858R-mediated NSCLC received multiple lines of chemotherapy and EGFR TKI therapies after surgery. The EGFR mutational status of individual metastatic lesion was determined by genetic testing of the tumor tissue biopsies using next generation sequencing (NGS) throughout the patient's clinical course. An acquired potentially drug-resistant EGFR mutation was functionally validated in vitro and its sensitivity to different EGFR TKIs was assessed simultaneously. We have identified distinct resistance mechanisms to EGFR blockade in different metastatic lung lesions. Acquired EGFR T790M was first detected that leads to the resistance to the gefitinib treatment. Consequently, osimertinib was administrated and the response lasted until disease progressed. We identified a newly acquired EGFR L718V mutation in one lesion in conjunction with L858R, but not T790M, which showed stable disease on the following erlotinib treatment, while EGFR C797S together with L858R/T790M was detected in the other lesion that continuously progressed. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that EGFR-L858R/L718V confers resistance to osimertinib, but retains sensitivity to the second generation TKI afatinib. We reported that distinct resistance mechanisms could arise in different metastases within the same patient in response to EGFR blockade. We also demonstrated in vitro that EGFR L718V mutation mediates resistance to osimertinib, but retains sensitivity to afatinib. We evidenced that dynamic companion genomic

  17. Meta-analysis of the impact of de novo and acquired EGFR T790M mutations on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving EGFR-TKIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu, Li Sun, Zhi-Cheng Xiong, Xin Sun, Shu-Ling Zhang, Jie-Tao Ma, Cheng-Bo Han Department of Oncology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to explore the influences of pretreatment de novo and posttreatment-acquired epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR T790M mutations in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC who had received tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs.Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database for eligible literature. Data were extracted to assess the hazard ratios (HRs for progression-free survival (PFS, overall survival (OS, and post-progression survival (PPS and the relative ratios (RRs for objective response rate (ORR.Results: This meta-analysis included 22 studies comprising 1,462 patients with NSCLC who harbored activating EGFR mutations and were treated with EGFR-TKIs. Compared to pretreatment T790M mutation-negative NSCLC, pretreatment T790M mutation-positive NSCLC was associated with decreased PFS (HR 2.23, P<0.001 and OS (HR 1.55, P=0.003. A trend toward significance of worsening ORR (RR 0.86, P=0.051 was evident. The acquired T790M mutation was correlated with improved PFS (HR 0.75, P=0.006 and PPS (HR 0.57, P<0.001, compared to patients without the T790M mutation who progressed after EGFR-TKI treatment. There were no significant differences in OS or ORR between patients with acquired T790M mutation-positive and T790M mutation-negative NSCLC. However, in the tumor tissue rebiopsy subgroup, patients with acquired T790M mutation had improved OS (HR 0.60, P<0.001 compared to T790M mutation-negative patients. In the plasma ctDNA subgroup, acquired T790M mutation decreased the OS (HR 1.87, P<0.001.Conclusion: Pretreatment T790M mutation was associated with worse PFS and OS in patients with advanced NSCLC treated with EGFR-TKIs, while acquired T790M mutation was

  18. Equilibrium reconstruction in stellarators: V3FIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.D.; Knowlton, S.F. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States); Hirshman, S.P.; Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lao, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The first section describes a general response function formalism for computing stellarator magnetic diagnostic signals, which is the first step in developing a reconstruction capability. The approach parallels that used in the EFIT two-dimensional (2-D) equilibrium reconstruction code. The second section describes the two codes we have written, V3RFUN and V3POST. V3RFUN computes the response functions for a specified magnetic diagnostic coil, and V3POST uses the response functions calculated by V3RFUN, along with the plasma current information supplied by the equilibrium code VMEC, to compute the expected magnetic diagnostic signals. These two codes are currently being used to design magnetic diagnostic for the NCSX stellarator (at PPPL) and the CTH toroidal hybrid stellarator (at Auburn University). The last section of the paper describes plans for the V3FIT code. (orig.)

  19. [Cetuximab in combination with icotinib overcomes the acquired resistance caused by EGFR T790M mutation in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Lianmin; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Liu, Jun; Chen, Yulong; Wang, Changli

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combination of icotinib and cetuximab on the acquired drug resistance caused by T790M mutation of EGFR in NSCLC, and provide experimental evidence for rational treatment of NSCLC. The effects of these two agents on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and EGFR-dependent signaling were evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, annexin V staining, and Western blotting. The expression of molecular markers of tumor proliferation PCNA and Ki-67 protein was further examined by immunohistochemistry, and the expression of EGFR-signaling-related proteins in tissue sections taken from H1975 tumor xenografts was assessed by Western blot assay. Sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors was detected in human H1975 tumor xenograft in nude mice. The in vitro experiment showed that the proliferative ability of H1975 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, along with the increasing doses of cetuximab and icotinib, and the combination of cetuximab with icotinib resulted in a more pronounced growth inhibition of the H1975 cells. The apoptosis rate of H1975 cells after treatment with 0.5 µmol/L icotinib and 1 µg/ml cetuximab was (22.03 ± 2.41)% and that after treatment with 5 µmol/L icotinib and 10 µg/ml cetuximab was (42.75 ± 2.49)%, both were significantly higher than that after treatment with the same dose of icotinib or cetuximab alone (P icotinib treatment, but (30.8 ± 2.0) mm(3) in the cetuximab treatment group and 0 mm(3) in the cetuximab combined with icotinib group. There was a significantly decreased expression of Ki-67 and PCNA proteins and down-regulation of phosphorylation of EGFR signaling-related proteins in the cetuximab combined with icotinib group. The combination of icotinib with cetuximab can exert synergistic inhibitory effect on the acquired drug resistance caused by T790M mutation of EGFR in NSCLC H1975 cells, interrupts the EGFR-downstream signaling pathway

  20. Functional cooperation between HIF-1α and c-Jun in mediating primary and acquired resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC cells with activating mutation of EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Shuyan; Wang, Guorui; Lu, Yang; Fan, Zhen

    2018-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are important transcription factors regulating expression of genes involved in cell survival. HIF-1α and c-Jun are key components of HIF-1 and AP-1, respectively, and are regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated cell signaling and tumor microenvironmental cues. The roles of HIF-1α and c-Jun in development of resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with activating mutation of EGFR have not been explored. In this study, we investigated the roles of HIF-1α and c-Jun in mediating primary and acquired resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC cells with activating mutation of EGFR. Changes in HIF-1α protein and in total and phosphorylated c-Jun levels in relation to changes in total and phosphorylated EGFR levels before and after gefitinib treatment were measured using Western blot analysis in NSCLC cells sensitive or resistant to gefitinib. The impact of overexpression of a constitutively expressed HIF-1α (HIF-1α/ΔODD) or a constitutively active c-Jun upstream regulator (SEK1 S220E/T224D mutant) on cell response to gefitinib was also examined. The effect of pharmacological inhibition of SEK1-JNK-c-Jun pathway on cell response to gefitinib was evaluated. Downregulation of HIF-1α and total and phosphorylated c-Jun levels correlated with cell inhibitory response to gefitinib better than decrease in phosphorylated EGFR did in NSCLC cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to gefitinib. Overexpression of HIF-1α/ΔODD or SEK1 S220E/T224D mutant conferred resistance to gefitinib. There exists a positive feed-forward regulation loop between HIF-1 and c-Jun. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 sensitized gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cells to gefitinib. HIF-1α and c-Jun functionally cooperate in development of resistance to gefitinib in NSCLC cells. The translational value of inhibiting HIF-1α/c-Jun cooperation in overcoming resistance to EGFR TKI

  1. Worldwide increased prevalence of human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections is well correlated with heterogeneous hypervariable regions (HVRs) of hexon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ezazul; Banik, Urmila; Monwar, Tahmina; Anthony, Leela; Adhikary, Arun Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) respiratory infections occurs worldwide in both children and adults, leading to severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the paediatric age group and especially in neonates. During HAdV infection, neutralizing antibodies are formed against the epitopes located in the hyper variable regions (HVRs) of the hexon protein. These neutralizing antibodies provide protection against reinfection by viruses of the same type. Therefore it is reasonable to speculate that variations of HAdV-3 in the HVRs could impair the immunity acquired by previous infection with a different strain with variation in its HVRs. HAdV-3 has recently become the major agent of acute respiratory infection worldwide, being responsible for 15% to 87% of all adenoviral respiratory infections. However, despite the increased prevalence of HAdV-3 as respiratory pathogen, the diversity of hexon proteins in circulating strains remains unexplored. This study was designed to explore the variation in HVRs of hexon among globally distributed strains of HAdV-3 as well as to discover possible relationship among them, thus possibly shedding light on the cause for the increased prevalence of HAdV-3. In this study, for the first time we analysed the hexon proteins of all 248 available strains of HAdV-3 from the NCBI database and compared them with those of the HAdV-3 prototype (GB stain). We found that the HVRs of HAdV-3 strains circulating worldwide were highly heterogeneous and have been mutating continuously since -their original isolation. Based on their immense heterogeneity, the strains can be categorized into 25 hexon variants (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-25), 4 of which (3Hv-1 to 3Hv-4) comprises 80% of the strains. This heterogeneity may explain why HAdV-3 has become the most prevalent HAdVs type worldwide. The heterogeneity of hexon proteins also shows that the development of a vaccine against HAdV-3 might be challenging. The data on hexon variants provided here may be useful for

  2. Temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma and acquired BRAF mutation in an adolescent with the constitutional 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey C; Donahue, David J; Malik, Saleem I; Dzurik, Yvette B; Braly, Emily Z; Dougherty, Margaret J; Eaton, Katherine W; Biegel, Jaclyn A

    2011-05-01

    DiGeorge syndrome, or velocardiofacial syndrome (DGS/VCFS), is a rare and usually sporadic congenital genetic disorder resulting from a constitutional microdeletion at chromosome 22q11.2. While rare cases of malignancy have been described, likely due to underlying immunodeficiency, central nervous system tumors have not yet been reported. We describe an adolescent boy with DGS/VCFS who developed a temporal lobe pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array studies of the tumor confirmed a constitutional 22q11.21 deletion, and revealed acquired gains, losses and copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity of several chromosomal regions, including a homozygous deletion of the CDKN2A/B locus. The tumor also demonstrated a common V600E mutation in the BRAF oncogene. This is the first reported case of a patient with DiGeorge syndrome developing a CNS tumor of any histology and expands our knowledge about low-grade CNS tumor molecular genetics.

  3. GENIE-V3 concepts document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreton-Smith, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    The GENIE data analysis program is a program used for analysis of data from the ISIS neutron scattering instruments. The current version, GENIE-V2, is now being re-written to provide a much more powerful data analysis system for the next major version of the program, GENIE-V3. The purpose of this ''Concepts Document'' is to establish a frame of reference within which to discuss the development of GENIE-V3. It does not seek to define everything which will be implemented in the new version of the GENIE program. A substantial amount of design effort has been expended to produce a plausible design for the language and operation of GENIE-V3. Having said this, this is in no way a complete specification. Several features (although intended for any working version of GENIE-V3) have not been documented here, hopefully though, nothing material has been left out. To keep this document to a reasonable length, commands which can be written using GENIE-V3 are omitted. (author)

  4. EPrints v3 Demonstration Tutorial 1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The goal of EPrints is to facilitate high quality, high value repositories that support high volumes of daily deposits, for open access, scholarly collections, teaching, data or preservation. EPrints v3, released in January 2007, provided important steps in this direction, improving metadata quality by providing AJAX assistance to depositers, adding new value to repository contents by giving readers the ability to export material to a wide range of applications and services and allowing depositors to import eprints from high quality services like Crossref and PubMed. EPrints consists of a core API plus a suite of plugins that provide all of the user interface and repository functionality. Plugins extend and alter any EPrints facilities, providing a huge increase in scope for open source community development. The most recent plugins to be released provide new features for repository-scale metadata quality management, configuration control and user statistics.

  5. Structure and dynamics of the gp120 V3 loop that confers noncompetitive resistance in R5 HIV-1(JR-FL to maraviroc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhe Yuan

    Full Text Available Maraviroc, an (HIV-1 entry inhibitor, binds to CCR5 and efficiently prevents R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 from using CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry into CD4(+ cells. However, HIV-1 can elude maraviroc by using the drug-bound form of CCR5 as a coreceptor. This property is known as noncompetitive resistance. HIV-1(V3-M5 derived from HIV-1(JR-FLan is a noncompetitive-resistant virus that contains five mutations (I304V/F312W/T314A/E317D/I318V in the gp120 V3 loop alone. To obtain genetic and structural insights into maraviroc resistance in HIV-1, we performed here mutagenesis and computer-assisted structural study. A series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that combinations of V3 mutations are required for HIV-1(JR-FLan to replicate in the presence of 1 µM maraviroc, and that a T199K mutation in the C2 region increases viral fitness in combination with V3 mutations. Molecular dynamic (MD simulations of the gp120 outer domain V3 loop with or without the five mutations showed that the V3 mutations induced (i changes in V3 configuration on the gp120 outer domain, (ii reduction of an anti-parallel β-sheet in the V3 stem region, (iii reduction in fluctuations of the V3 tip and stem regions, and (iv a shift of the fluctuation site at the V3 base region. These results suggest that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 mutations that confer maraviroc resistance alter structure and dynamics of the V3 loop on the gp120 outer domain, and enable interactions between gp120 and the drug-bound form of CCR5.

  6. The HIV-1 V3 domain on field isolates: participation in generation of escape virus in vivo and accessibility to neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Akerblom, L; Heegaard, P M

    1995-01-01

    The V3 domain is highly variable and induces HIV neutralizing antibodies (NA). Here we addressed the issues of 1) the participation of mutations in V3 in generation of neutralization resistant escape virus in vivo and 2) the applicability of synthetic V3 peptides corresponding to field isolates...... patterns against V3 peptides corresponding to sequential primary and escape field isolates, with the strongest reactivity against late isolated escape virus. These observations suggest that the neutralization epitope was influenced by the appearance of mutations. When used as immunogen in rabbits, V3...... to induce neutralizing immune sera. Seven peptides corresponding to the V3 region of primary and escape virus from 3 HIV-1 infected patients were synthesized and used for antibody (Abs) studies and immunizations. The anti-V3 Abs titre in patient serum was generally low against peptides corresponding...

  7. Acquired neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozeron, Pierre; Trocello, Jean-Marc; Kubis, Nathalie

    2013-09-01

    Acquired neuropathies represent most of the neuropathies encountered in clinical practice. Hundreds of causes have been identified even though up to 41% of patients are still classified as idiopathic (Rajabally and Shah in J Neurol 258:1431-1436, 1). Routine evaluation relies on comprehensive medical history taking, clinical examination, nerve conduction studies and laboratory tests. Other investigations such as nerve biopsy or nerve or muscle imaging are performed in specific settings. This review focuses on recent advances in acquired neuropathies.

  8. The HIV-1 V3 domain on field isolates: participation in generation of escape virus in vivo and accessibility to neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Akerblom, L; Heegaard, P M

    1995-01-01

    The V3 domain is highly variable and induces HIV neutralizing antibodies (NA). Here we addressed the issues of 1) the participation of mutations in V3 in generation of neutralization resistant escape virus in vivo and 2) the applicability of synthetic V3 peptides corresponding to field isolates...... to induce neutralizing immune sera. Seven peptides corresponding to the V3 region of primary and escape virus from 3 HIV-1 infected patients were synthesized and used for antibody (Abs) studies and immunizations. The anti-V3 Abs titre in patient serum was generally low against peptides corresponding...... to autologous virus isolated later than the serum sample in contrast to the titre against peptides corresponding to virus isolated earlier than the serum sample. Furthermore, neutralizing anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against V3 peptides from laboratory strains of HIV-1 showed distinct binding...

  9. Main: 1V3H [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1V3H 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Name=Bmy1; Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai... 495 AA, Molecular weight: 56011 Da ATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNAKPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1V3H.jpg ...

  10. Acquired Methemoglobinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Al-Lawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acquired methemoglobinaemia is a relatively rare condition and, therefore infrequently encountered in acute medical practice. Suspicion of the condition may be triggered when the measured PaO2 is ‘out of keeping’ with the oxygen saturations that are discovered with pulse oximetry. We describe two separate cases of acquired methemoglobinaemia secondary to the recreational use of alkyl nitrites (’poppers’. The patients presented at separate times to two different teaching hospitals in London, UK. The similarity of these cases has led the authors to conclude that a raised awareness of this potentially fatal condition, and its association with a widely-available recreational drug, is necessary to ensure a correct and timely diagnosis.

  11. Computational investigation of hydrogen storage on B5V3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chen; Wang, Chong

    2018-05-01

    Based on density functional theory method with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set, the structures, stability and hydrogen storage capacity of B5V3 have been theoretically investigated. It is found that a maximum of seven hydrogen molecules can be adsorbed on B5V3 with gravimetric uptake capacity of 6.39 wt%. The uptake capacity exceeds the target set by the US Department of Energy for vehicular application. Moreover, the average adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 0.60 eV/H2 in the desirable range of reversible hydrogen storage. The kinetic stability of H2 adsorbed on B5V3 01 is confirmed by using gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). The gap value of B5V3 01 (7H2) is 2.81 eV, which indicates the compound with high stability. In addition, the thermochemistry calculation (Gibbs free energy corrected adsorption energy) is used to analyse if the adsorption is favourable or not at different temperatures. It can be found that the Gibbs corrected adsorption energy of B5V3 01 (7H2) is still positive at 400 K at 1 atm. It means that the adsorption of seven hydrogen molecules on B5V3 01 is energetically favourable in a fairly wide temperature range. All the results show that B5V3 01 can be considered as a promising material for hydrogen storage.

  12. V3Si multifilamentary superconductor with high overall Jc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Takao; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Kosuge, Michio; Iijima, Yasuo; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    V 3 Si is one of the A15-type superconducting compounds from which single crystals can be quite easily obtained due to the nature of the equilibrium phase diagram. Thus, the fundamental characteristics of A15 compounds (such as electronic structure and cubic-to-tetragonal structural transformation) have been studied with this compound. V 3 Si is, however, also promising in practical use as an alternative to Nb 3 Sn for high field magnets, since the upper critical field H c2 (4.2 K) is more than 20 T. Although the open-quotes bronze process,close quotes the established commercial process to produce Nb 3 Sn conductors, is also available for V 3 Si, the ternary section of the Cu-V-Si phase diagram indicates two diffusion paths are possible: One from the bronze with low Si content (Si 3 Si, and the other from the bronze with higher Si content to V 3 Si via V 5 Si 3 . The high Si bronze is likely to be advantageous in reducing the bronze volume fraction and hence achieving high overall critical current density J c . This is because the initially formed V 5 Si 3 is eventually converted to V 3 Si as long as the total proportion of V to Si in the composite (overall V/Si molar ratio) is kept around 3. However, long times at high temperatures are necessary for appreciable V 3 Si layer growth, thereby yielding grain growth of V 3 Si and lowering the J c of the V 3 Si compound and the overall J c accordingly. In the present study, in order to improve the overall J c , the authors have realized ∼1μm filament diameter by preparing a double-stacked Cu-8.5at.%Si/V composite. The primary bundle is sheathed with a Ta tube. The Si in the bronze inside the Ta is available only for the diffusion reaction, and the overall V/Si ratios is ∼3

  13. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States) Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States)); Myers, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  14. Contrasting HIV phylogenetic relationships and V3 loop protein similarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Santa Fe Inst., NM (United States); Myers, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    At least five distinct sequence subtypes of HIV-I can be identified from the major centers of the AMS pandemic. While it is too early to tell whether these subtypes are serologically or phenotypically similar or distinct in terms of properties such as pathogenicity and transmissibility, we can begin to investigate their potential for phenotypic divergence at the protein sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV DNA sequences is being widely used to examine lineages of different viral strains as they evolve and spread throughout the globe. We have identified five distinct HIV-1 subtypes (designated A-E), or clades, based on phylogenetic clustering patterns generated from genetic information from both the gag and envelope (env) genes from a spectrum of international isolates. Our initial observations concerning both HIV-1 and HIV-2 sequences indicate that conserved patterns in protein chemistry may indeed exist across distant lineages. Such patterns in V3 loop amino acid chemistry may be indicative of stable lineages or convergence within this highly variable, though functionally and immunologically critical, region. We think that there may be parallels between the apparently stable HIV-2 V3 lineage and the previously mentioned HIV-1 V3 loops which are very similar at the protein level despite being distant by cladistic analysis, and which do not possess the distinctive positively charged residues. Highly conserved V3 loop protein sequences are also encountered in SIVAGMs and CIVs (chimpanzee viral strains), which do not appear to be pathogenic in their wild-caught natural hosts.

  15. Specific heat of V3GaH/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, B.; Stewart, G.R.; Huang, S.Z.; Meng, R.L.; Chu, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Specific-heat measurements have been made on V 3 GaH/sub x/ for x = 0, 0.2, 1.4, and 1.9 in the temperature range 1.2--20 K. In addition to increased lattice parameter and depressed transition temperature with increased hydrogen concentrations, the Debye temperature increases and the electronic density of states drops, both dramatically. Decreased electron-phonon coupling is also indicated with hydrogenation

  16. ITIL V3 service strategy a management guide

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bon, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Management Guides are a concise summary of the 'Foundations of IT Service Management based on ITIL V3'. A quick, portable reference tool to the standards used within the Service Management community. Not only includes the Lifecycle Approach but in addition covers the processes in a separate section as well. What are the key service management processes? What is the 'lifecycle' approach? English version available: June 2008 Dutch, French, Spanish, German available July 2008.

  17. Fermi surface in V3Si from positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, M.; Manuel, A.A.; Jarlborg, T.

    1982-01-01

    The recent work of the Geneva Group on the electronic structure of V 3 Si is briefly reviewed. Accurate self-consistent LMTO calculation leads to a Fermi surface and momentum distribution which is confirmed by high resolution 2-D angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2D-ACPAR). The bandstructure data are combined with phonon data from Junod's specific heat measurements to calculate parameters relevant to superconductivity. (orig.)

  18. Channeling effect studies in V3Si single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.

    1978-01-01

    Angular scans through the [100] and [110] channeling directions in V 3 Si have been performed using elastically scattered He ions for the V-rows and the 28 Si(d,p 8 ) 29 Si reaction for the Si-rows. The amplitude of thermal vibration perpendicular to the V-chains was found to be larger than that at 45 0 to them. The Si atoms however vibrate isotropically. The use of multi-row potentials instead of single-row potentials leads to better overall agreement between measured and calculated critical angles. (Auth.)

  19. Interpretation of the FLL morphology in superconducting V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sekula, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the flux-line lattice (FLL) morphology in V 3 Si using small-angle neutron diffraction have revealed correlations between the symmetries of the FLL and the real crystal, as well as a curious and somewhat complex dependence on the magnitude of the magnetic flux density. At the same time, determinations of the FLL form factor indicate that the low-field (B less than or equal to 1T) FL-FL interaction is quite simple, as evidenced by a London-like behavior, with linear superposition of individual FL microscopic fields. In the London picture the FL core is assumed to be negligibly small, so that the FL-FL interaction depends only on the microscopic fields and supercurrents and is parametrized only by the magnetic field penetration depth lambda. For V 3 Si, this model should be a very good approximation for well-separated flux lines (i.e., at low flux density). Conceptually, it is appealing to envision anisotropic FL interactions as arising from an anisotropic penetration depth lambda (r) in a generalized London model. Presently, the authors have analyzed the observed FLL morphology data using such a phenomenological approach and find the qualitative agreement presented

  20. Ultramap v3 - a Revolution in Aerial Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitinger, B.; Sormann, M.; Zebedin, L.; Schachinger, B.; Hoefler, M.; Tomasi, R.; Lamperter, M.; Gruber, B.; Schiester, G.; Kobald, M.; Unger, M.; Klaus, A.; Bernoegger, S.; Karner, K.; Wiechert, A.; Ponticelli, M.; Gruber, M.

    2012-07-01

    In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs) which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  1. ULTRAMAP V3 – A REVOLUTION IN AERIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Reitinger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, Microsoft has driven innovation in the aerial photogrammetry community. Besides the market leading camera technology, UltraMap has grown to an outstanding photogrammetric workflow system which enables users to effectively work with large digital aerial image blocks in a highly automated way. Best example is the project-based color balancing approach which automatically balances images to a homogeneous block. UltraMap V3 continues innovation, and offers a revolution in terms of ortho processing. A fully automated dense matching module strives for high precision digital surface models (DSMs which are calculated either on CPUs or on GPUs using a distributed processing framework. By applying constrained filtering algorithms, a digital terrain model can be derived which in turn can be used for fully automated traditional ortho texturing. By having the knowledge about the underlying geometry, seamlines can be generated automatically by applying cost functions in order to minimize visual disturbing artifacts. By exploiting the generated DSM information, a DSMOrtho is created using the balanced input images. Again, seamlines are detected automatically resulting in an automatically balanced ortho mosaic. Interactive block-based radiometric adjustments lead to a high quality ortho product based on UltraCam imagery. UltraMap v3 is the first fully integrated and interactive solution for supporting UltraCam images at best in order to deliver DSM and ortho imagery.

  2. Position-specific automated processing of V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data for predicting HIV-1 tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne, Nicolas; Saliou, Adrien; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Dubois, Martine; Cazabat, Michelle; Nicot, Florence; Loiseau, Claire; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Delobel, Pierre

    2015-11-20

    HIV-1 coreceptor usage must be accurately determined before starting CCR5 antagonist-based treatment as the presence of undetected minor CXCR4-using variants can cause subsequent virological failure. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of HIV-1 V3 env allows to detect low levels of CXCR4-using variants that current genotypic approaches miss. However, the computation of the mass of sequence data and the need to identify true minor variants while excluding artifactual sequences generated during amplification and ultra-deep pyrosequencing is rate-limiting. Arbitrary fixed cut-offs below which minor variants are discarded are currently used but the errors generated during ultra-deep pyrosequencing are sequence-dependant rather than random. We have developed an automated processing of HIV-1 V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data that uses biological filters to discard artifactual or non-functional V3 sequences followed by statistical filters to determine position-specific sensitivity thresholds, rather than arbitrary fixed cut-offs. It allows to retain authentic sequences with point mutations at V3 positions of interest and discard artifactual ones with accurate sensitivity thresholds.

  3. Thermal expansion of martensitic A15 superconductors: V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.; Liu, M.; Smith, T.F.

    1995-01-01

    The martensite phase morphology of V 3 Si has been controlled by the application of appropriate stress fields to a single crystal. With this procedure, it is possible to transform the crystal to a single, tetragonal domain, enabling the thermal expansion coefficients for the tetragonal a and c axes to be measured, using high-resolution, capacitance dilatometry. Expansion anomalies were found at low temperatures, well below the superconducting critical temperature, for both the a and c axes. The tetragonality continues increasing on cooling at low temperatures, which, predicted by theory, should have been inhibited by the onset of superconductivity. In addition, anisotropy in thermal expansion is found up to 50 K, which is well above the conventional M s temperature of 21 K. (orig.)

  4. Effect of neutron irradiation on single crystal V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Caton, R.; Cox, D.E.; Guha, A.; Sarachik, M.P.; Smith, F.W.; Testardi, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    We We have investigated the effect of successive neutron irradiation up to a fluence of approximately 2 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , by measurements of heat capacity, susceptibility, resistivity, acoustic velocity and neutron diffraction in a single crystal V 3 Si. We find that for low level doses (phi t greater than or equal to 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 ) (a) the structural transformation is very sensitive, whereas the suerconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, is hardly affected, and (b) except for low temperature heat capacity, most of the other measurements show very little change. For the highest fluence of 2 x 10 19 n/cm 2 used to date, the T/sub c/ dropped to 7.5 K with large changes in the linear heat capacity coefficient, magnetic susceptibility and sound velocity. These results are discussed briefly in this paper

  5. Antiferromagnetic phase of the gapless semiconductor V3Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamer, M. E.; Assaf, B. A.; Sterbinsky, G. E.; Arena, D.; Lewis, L. H.; Saúl, A. A.; Radtke, G.; Heiman, D.

    2015-03-01

    Discovering new antiferromagnetic (AF) compounds is at the forefront of developing future spintronic devices without fringing magnetic fields. The AF gapless semiconducting D 03 phase of V3Al was successfully synthesized via arc-melting and annealing. The AF properties were established through synchrotron measurements of the atom-specific magnetic moments, where the magnetic dichroism reveals large and oppositely oriented moments on individual V atoms. Density functional theory calculations confirmed the stability of a type G antiferromagnetism involving only two-thirds of the V atoms, while the remaining V atoms are nonmagnetic. Magnetization, x-ray diffraction, and transport measurements also support the antiferromagnetism. This archetypal gapless semiconductor may be considered as a cornerstone for future spintronic devices containing AF elements.

  6. Structural phase transition and precursor phenomena in V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Fukase, T.; Toyota, N.; Muto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal dilation experiments on the transforming single crystals V 3 Si indicated that the precursor of the structural transformation at Tsub(m) of about 21 K starts at anomalously high temperatures (proportional70 K) and grows drastically near Tsub(m). This anomaly is also accompanied by the critical increment of electrical resistivity showing a sharp peak at Tsub(m). The application of the uniaxial stress suppresses the resistivity anomaly and makes the superconducting transition width narrower. We propose a model for the precursor phenomena in terms of (1) the directional strain fields (non-cubic) pinned near the defects and (2) the memory effect of orientation of the tetragonal domains born by the defects such as dislocations. (orig.)

  7. Does area V3A predict positions of moving objects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A gradually fading moving object is perceived to disappear at positions beyond its luminance detection threshold, whereas abrupt offsets are usually localised accurately. What role does retinotopic activity in visual cortex play in this motion-induced mislocalization of the endpoint of fading objects? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we localised regions of interest (ROIs in retinotopic maps abutting the trajectory endpoint of a bar moving either towards or away from this position while gradually decreasing or increasing in luminance. Area V3A showed predictive activity, with stronger fMRI responses for motion towards versus away from the ROI. This effect was independent of the change in luminance. In Area V1 we found higher activity for high-contrast onsets and offsets near the ROI, but no significant differences between motion directions. We suggest that perceived final positions of moving objects are based on an interplay of predictive position representations in higher motion-sensitive retinotopic areas and offset transients in primary visual cortex.

  8. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, G. L., E-mail: gtrevisan@igi.cnr.it; Terranova, D. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), corso Stati Uniti 4-35127 Padova (Italy); Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D. [Auburn University, Physics Department, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  9. HIV1 V3 loop hypermutability is enhanced by the guanine usage bias in the part of env gene coding for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    Guanine is the most mutable nucleotide in HIV genes because of frequently occurring G to A transitions, which are caused by cytosine deamination in viral DNA minus strands catalyzed by APOBEC enzymes. Distribution of guanine between three codon positions should influence the probability for G to A mutation to be nonsynonymous (to occur in first or second codon position). We discovered that nucleotide sequences of env genes coding for third variable regions (V3 loops) of gp120 from HIV1 and HIV2 have different kinds of guanine usage biases. In the HIV1 reference strain and 100 additionally analyzed HIV1 strains the guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (2G>1G>3G) should lead to elevated nonsynonymous G to A transitions occurrence rates. In the HIV2 reference strain and 100 other HIV2 strains guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (3G>2G>1G) should protect V3 loops from hypermutability. According to the HIV1 and HIV2 V3 alignment, insertion of the sequence enriched with 2G (21 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV1 predecessor, while insertion of the different sequence enriched with 3G (19 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV2 predecessor. The higher is the level of 3G in the V3 coding region, the lower should be the immune escaping mutation occurrence rates. This hypothesis was tested in this study by comparing the guanine usage in V3 loop coding regions from HIV1 fast and slow progressors. All calculations have been performed by our algorithms "VVK In length", "VVK Dinucleotides" and "VVK Consensus" (www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru).

  10. Development and Evaluation of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) Model v3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have developed new canopy emission algorithms and land use data for BEIS v3.6. Simulations with BEIS v3.4 and BEIS v3.6 in CMAQ v5.0.2 are compared these changes to the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and evaluated the simulations against observati...

  11. Mutation breeding in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutation induction produced a large number of new promising varieties in ornamental species. 37 new mutants of Chrysanthemum and 14 of rose have been developed by mutations and released for commercialisation. The mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimeras in M 1 V 1 , M 1 V 2 , M 1 V 3 generations. The mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and exposure to gamma rays. Comparative analysis of original cultivars and their respective induced mutants on cytomorphological, anatomical and biochemical characters are being carried out for better understanding of the mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of somatic flower colour/shape mutations. Cytological analysis with reference to chromosomal aberrations, chromosome number, ICV, INV and DNA content gave no differences between the original and mutant cultivars. Analysis of florets/petal pigments by TLC and spectrophotometric methods indicated both qualitative and quantitative changes. (author)

  12. V3-independent competitive resistance of a dual-X4 HIV-1 to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Maeda

    Full Text Available A CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 was isolated from a dual-X4 HIV-1 in vitro. The resistant variant displayed competitive resistance to the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100, indicating that the resistant variant had a higher affinity for CXCR4 than that of the wild-type HIV-1. Amino acid sequence analyses revealed that the resistant variant harbored amino acid substitutions in the V2, C2, and C4 regions, but no remarkable changes in the V3 loop. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that the changes in the C2 and C4 regions were principally involved in the reduced sensitivity to AMD3100. Furthermore, the change in the C4 region was associated with increased sensitivity to soluble CD4, and profoundly enhanced the entry efficiency of the virus. Therefore, it is likely that the resistant variant acquired the higher affinity for CD4/CXCR4 by the changes in non-V3 regions. Taken together, a CXCR4 inhibitor-resistant HIV-1 can evolve using a non-V3 pathway.

  13. Molecular determinants of the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120 responsible for controlling cell tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, S C; Griffin, P; Han-Liu, Z; Keys, B; Vekony, M A; Cann, A J

    1994-11-01

    We and others have identified the major determinant of cell tropism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as the V3 loop of glycoprotein gp120. We have conducted a detailed study of two molecularly cloned isolates of HIV-1, HIVJR-CSF and HIVNL4-3, that differ in their tropism for immortalized CD4+ cell lines, by constructing a series of site-directed mutations within the V3 loop of HIVJR-CSF based on the sequence of HIVNL4-3. The phenotypes of these mutants fall into two classes, those which are viable and those which are not. A spontaneous mutant with significantly altered growth properties was also recovered and found to have an additional single amino acid change in the V3 loop sequence. The carboxy-terminal beta-strand part of the V3 loop is the major determinant of cell tropism. However, the results presented here indicate that the functional role of the V3 loop sequences can only be interpreted properly in the context of the original gp120 backbone from which they were derived. These findings show that over-simplistic interpretation of sequence data derived from unknown mixtures of HIV variants in infected persons may be highly misleading.

  14. Acquired bleeding disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B one marrow aplasia ... Laboratory approach to a suspected acquired bleeding disorder. (LER = leuko- .... lymphocytic leukaemia, and lymphoma). ... cells), a bone marrow aspirate and trephine biopsy (BMAT) is not ..... transplantation.

  15. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  16. Laboratory-acquired brucellosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, C.; Knudsen, J.D.; Lebech, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9......Brucellosis is a rare disease in Denmark. We describe one case of laboratory-acquired brucellosis from an index patient to a laboratory technician following exposure to an infected blood culture in a clinical microbiology laboratory Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  17. Specific heat and magnetic susceptibility vs long range order in V3Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Fluekiger, R.; Treyvaud, A.; Muller, J.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique of studying the magnetic susceptibility together with the specific heat and the superconducting transition of typical A15-type compounds in different ordering states enables us to consistently isolate the spin paramagnetism. Satisfactory results are obtained for V 3 Ga and these are compared with data on V 3 Au and Nb 3 (Au-Pt). (author)

  18. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  19. V3 spinal neurons establish a robust and balanced locomotor rhythm during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Narayan, Sujatha; Geiman, Eric; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Velasquez, Tomoko; Shanks, Bayle; Akay, Turgay; Dyck, Jason; Pearson, Keir; Gosgnach, Simon; Fan, Chen-Ming; Goulding, Martyn

    2008-10-09

    A robust and well-organized rhythm is a key feature of many neuronal networks, including those that regulate essential behaviors such as circadian rhythmogenesis, breathing, and locomotion. Here we show that excitatory V3-derived neurons are necessary for a robust and organized locomotor rhythm during walking. When V3-mediated neurotransmission is selectively blocked by the expression of the tetanus toxin light chain subunit (TeNT), the regularity and robustness of the locomotor rhythm is severely perturbed. A similar degeneration in the locomotor rhythm occurs when the excitability of V3-derived neurons is reduced acutely by ligand-induced activation of the allatostatin receptor. The V3-derived neurons additionally function to balance the locomotor output between both halves of the spinal cord, thereby ensuring a symmetrical pattern of locomotor activity during walking. We propose that the V3 neurons establish a regular and balanced motor rhythm by distributing excitatory drive between both halves of the spinal cord.

  20. Precision casting of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy setting

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Hai; Liu Changkui; Huang Dong

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy ingots were prepared using ceramic mold and centrifugal casting. The Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn setting casting, for aeronautic engine, with 1.5 mm in thickness was manufactured. The alloy melting process, precision casting process, and problems in casting application were discussed. Effects of Hot Isostatic Pressing and heat treatment on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy were studied.

  1. p53 mutations promote proteasomal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Moshe; Kotler, Eran

    2016-07-27

    p53 mutations occur very frequently in human cancer. Besides abrogating the tumour suppressive functions of wild-type p53, many of those mutations also acquire oncogenic gain-of-function activities. Augmentation of proteasome activity is now reported as a common gain-of-function mechanism shared by different p53 mutants, which promotes cancer resistance to proteasome inhibitors.

  2. EMAG2v3: Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (2-arc-minute resolution)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EMAG2v3 is a global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. It is a significant update of the previous release...

  3. WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rosmalen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Van Rosmalen, P. (2010, 19 May). WP5 Evaluation: D54-D55 Evaluation Results V2 (V3). Presentation at idSpace Final Review, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands. idSpace-project.

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  5. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besser MW

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin W Besser,1 Stephen G MacDonald2 1Department of Haematology, 2Department of Specialist Haemostasis, The Pathology Partnership, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. Keywords: Clauss fibrinogen assay, fibrinogen antigen, viscoelastic testing, ­gravimetric fibrinogen assay, PT-derived fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen, direct oral anticoagulant, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia

  6. Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pramod

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired hypertirichosis lanuginose developed rapidly in a patient with no detectable malignancy. Soft, fine, downy hair growth was noticed on the face, ears, limbs and trunk. Bilaterally symmetrical vitiliginous macules were present on the ear and preauricular region. This case is reported because of its rarity, absence of any detectable malignancy and development of vitiligo, which to our knowledge has not been reported earlier.

  7. Resistance of Subtype C HIV-1 Strains to Anti-V3 Loop Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Almond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1’s subtype C V3 loop consensus sequence exhibits increased resistance to anti-V3 antibody-mediated neutralization as compared to the subtype B consensus sequence. The dynamic 3D structure of the consensus C V3 loop crown, visualized by ab initio folding, suggested that the resistance derives from structural rigidity and non-β-strand secondary protein structure in the N-terminal strand of the β-hairpin of the V3 loop crown, which is where most known anti-V3 loop antibodies bind. The observation of either rigidity or non-β-strand structure in this region correlated with observed resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization in a series of chimeric pseudovirus (psV mutants. The results suggest the presence of an epitope-independent, neutralization-relevant structural difference in the antibody-targeted region of the V3 loop crown between subtype C and subtype B, a difference that we hypothesize may contribute to the divergent pattern of global spread between these subtypes. As antibodies to a variable loop were recently identified as an inverse correlate of risk for HIV infection, the structure-function relationships discussed in this study may have relevance to HIV vaccine research.

  8. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sterno-costo-clavicular hyperostosis (SCCH) is the most common manifestation of a syndrome, consisting of increased bone metabolism, mostly new bone formation and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue, which we have characterised as the acquired hyperostosis syndrome. In part I we discuss the terminology, radiological appearances, scintigraphy, clinical and laboratory findings, bacteriology, histology, nosology, complications, treatment and differential diagnosis of SCCH. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is regarded as a phaenotype of SCCH, depending on the age. CRMO occurs in children, adolescents and young adults, SCCH predominantly in middleaged and elderly adults. (orig.) [de

  9. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Sucar Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of diseases or skin disorders genetically transmitted and it is characterized by the appearance of bullae, ulcers and skin wounds. It usually appears at birth or in the first months of life. This is a case of a 72-year-old female patient who comes to the dermatology department with skin lesions of 6 months of evolution. A skin biopsy was performed, taking a sample for direct and indirect immunofluorescence. Acquired epidermolysis bullosa of unknown etiology was diagnosed. Treatment was started with low-dose colchicine to increase it later, according to the patient’s tolerance and disease progression.

  10. Biophysical characterization of V3-lipopeptide liposomes influencing HIV-1 infectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizos, Apostolos K.; Baritaki, Stavroula; Tsikalas, Ioannis; Doetschman, David C.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Krambovitis, Elias

    2007-01-01

    The V3-loop of the HIV-1 gp120 alters host cell immune function and modulates infectivity. We investigated biophysical parameters of liposome constructs with embedded lipopeptides from the principle neutralizing domain of the V3-loop and their influence on viral infectivity. Dynamic light scattering measurements showed liposome supramolecular structures with hydrodynamic radius of the order of 900 and 1300 nm for plain and V3-lipopeptide liposomes. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements showed almost identical local microenvironment. The difference in liposome hydrodynamic radius was attributed to the fluctuating ionic environment of the V3-lipopeptide liposomes. In vitro HIV-1 infectivity assays showed that plain liposomes reduced virus production in all cell cultures, probably due to the hydrophobic nature of the aggregates. Liposomes carrying V3-lipopeptides with different cationic potentials restored and even enhanced infectivity (p < 0.05). These results highlight the need for elucidation of the involvement of lipid bilayers as dynamic components in supramolecular structures and in HIV-1 fusion mechanisms

  11. Character of quantum interference on superconducting circuits made of V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.; Prishchepa, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of circuits formed by two parallel superconducting bridge-type contacts made of V 3 Si are studied. The bridges made of V 3 Si films having the 1-30 μm width and 1-2 μm length and the circuits of different areas have been located in a magnetic field perpendicular to the film plane. Current oscillations through the circuit during magnetic field variations have shown themselves through periodic changes in output voltage of the circuit. The attained value of the voltage oscillation amplitude on the parallel bridge-type contacts is 60 μV. For the first time the periodic voltage oscillations are obtained using such circuits during variations of the external magnetic field. The oscillation period is defined by the quantum of magnetic flux. Perspectiveness of V 3 Si for construction of superconducting quantum interference devices is shown [ru

  12. Curcumin improves synaptic plasticity impairment induced by HIV-1gp120 V3 loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-ling Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been shown to significantly improve spatial memory impairment induced by HIV-1 gp120 V3 in rats, but the electrophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using extracellular microelectrode recording techniques, this study confirmed that the gp120 V3 loop could suppress long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region and synaptic plasticity, and that curcumin could antagonize these inhibitory effects. Using a Fura-2/AM calcium ion probe, we found that curcumin resisted the effects of the gp120 V3 loop on hippocampal synaptosomes and decreased Ca 2+ concentration in synaptosomes. This effect of curcumin was identical to nimodipine, suggesting that curcumin improved the inhibitory effects of gp120 on synaptic plasticity, ameliorated damage caused to the central nervous system, and might be a potential neuroprotective drug.

  13. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.R.; Brandt, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb 3 Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb 3 Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V 3 Si. The high-field data for V 3 Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γ/sup trans/ 3 Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same ''kink'' in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V 3 Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb

  14. CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gyun; Park, Hye-Yeon; Lee, C. Justin; Choi, Soonwook; Jo, Seonmi; Choi, Hansol; Kim, Yang-Hann; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Kim, Daesoo

    2010-01-01

    The rhythmic motor pathway activation by pacemaker neurons or circuits in the brain has been proposed as the mechanism for the timing of motor coordination, and the abnormal potentiation of this mechanism may lead to a pathological tremor. Here, we show that the potentiation of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model of essential tremor. After administration of harmaline, 4- to 10-Hz synchronous neuronal activities arose from the IO and then propagated to cerebellar motor circuits in wild-type mice, but those rhythmic activities were absent in mice lacking CaV3.1 gene. Intracellular recordings in brain-stem slices revealed that the CaV3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold oscillation of membrane potentials and failed to trigger 4- to 10-Hz rhythmic burst discharges in the presence of harmaline. In addition, the selective knockdown of CaV3.1 gene in the inferior olive by shRNA efficiently suppressed the harmaline-induced tremor in wild-type mice. A mathematical model constructed based on data obtained from patch-clamping experiments indicated that harmaline could efficiently potentiate CaV3.1 channels by changing voltage-dependent responsiveness in the hyperpolarizing direction. Thus, CaV3.1 is a molecular pacemaker substrate for intrinsic neuronal oscillations of inferior olive neurons, and the potentiation of this mechanism can be considered as a pathological cause of essential tremor. PMID:20498062

  15. Sensitivity of HIV-1 to neutralization by antibodies against O-linked carbohydrate epitopes despite deletion of O-glycosylation signals in the V3 loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Jansson, B; Gram, G J

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that threonine or serine residues in the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120 are glycosylated with the short-chain O-linked oligosaccharides Tn or sialosyl-Tn that function as epitopes for broadly neutralizing carbohydrate specific antibodies. In this study we examined whether mutation....... Additionally, one of these T-A mutants (T308A) also abrogated the signal for N-glycosylation at N306 inside the V3-loop. The mutant clones were compared with the wild type virus as to sensitivity to neutralization with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies specific for the tip of the V3 loop of BRU or for the O......-linked oligosaccharides Tn or sialosyl-Tn. Deletion of the N-linked oligosaccharide at N306 increased the neutralization sensitivity to antibodies specific for the tip of the loop, which indicates that N-linked glycosylation modulates the accessibility to this immunodominant epitope. However, none of the mutants...

  16. KUALITAS SUBYEKTIF SIPUS V3 DAN INFORMASI KELUARANNYA SEBAGAI PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryono Maryono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research entitled "The Subjective Quality of Sipus V3 software and its Information Output as a Support for Decision Making" was motivated by several problems happening during two years in the application of the software. Such automation software is expected to be able to support the success of library services and to produce statistical information for a decision making. The research aims to find out the quality of Sipus V3 software and its statistical information output, and the use of the output for supporting decision making. The research describes the subjective quality of Sipus V3 software, its statistical information output, and the use of the output in decision making process. The research employs a questionnaire method to collect data and its respondents are 44 librarians involving in Sipus V3 and 26 persons working at the information management department responsible for the statistic output of Sipus V3. By using a mean method for each indicator value, the result of the research shows that the high indicator score of Sipus V3 software quality as follows: usability-operability 3,75; efficiency of resources 3,75; efficiency of time behavior 3,68; usability-understandability 3,64; functionality-suitability 3,55; maintainability-stability for the rules of lending period and the number of items borrowed 3,43; reliabilityrecoverability 3,30; and maintainability-stability for holiday/closing days 3,20. In contrast, the low indicator score can be seen in the following: functionality-accuracy 2,84; and reliability-maturity 2,68. Furthermore the indicator score of Sipus V3 statistical information which is high is timeliness 3,31; conciseness 3,23; relevancy 3,15; and completeness 3,15. Whereas the low indicator score is accuracy 2,92. The use of Sipus V3 statistical information is very low, i.e. planning policy of circulation services 2,96; planning policy of collection development 2,88; library planning 2,69; and staffing for circulation

  17. Electrochemical characterization of a LiV3O8-polypyrrole composite as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Fanghua; Liu Li; Yang Zhenhua; Wang Xingyan; Chen Quanqi; Wang Xianyou

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite has been synthesized successfully. → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows better cycling behavior and rate capability than LiV 3 O 8 . → LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite shows lower electrochemical resistance than LiV 3 O 8 . - Abstract: LiV 3 O 8 -Polypyrrole (LiV 3 O 8 -PPy) composite has been chemically synthesized by an oxidative polymerization of pyrrole monomer on the surface of LiV 3 O 8 using ferric chloride as oxidizing agent. The electrochemical properties of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite were systematically investigated using a variety of electrochemical methods. The LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite electrode exhibited better cycling behavior and superior rate capability as compared with the bare LiV 3 O 8 electrode. Cyclic voltammetry corroborated the galvanostatic cycling tests, with the composite cathode material showing better reversibility than bare material. Finally, fitting the impedance results to an equivalent circuit indicated that the enhanced electrochemical performances of LiV 3 O 8 -PPy composite resulted from a facilitated kinetics of interfacial charge transfer in the presence of PPy.

  18. ABQ ThunderBird Cup v3.0 Alpha Worksop: Workshop Analysis 2016.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wellington K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morris, Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilmore, Katrina [Paine College, Augusta, GA (United States); Russ, Joshua [Voorhees College, Denmark, SC (United States); Carter, Aliyah [Norfolk State Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The ThunderBird Cup v3.0 (TBC3) program falls under the Minority Serving Institution Pipeline Program (MSIPP) that aims to establish a world-class workforce development, education and research program that combines the strengths of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and national laboratories to create a K-20 pipeline of students to participate in cybersecurity and related fields.

  19. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Glet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  20. Electrochemical behavior of Li/LiV3O8 secondary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Hyo Rim; Lee, Jae Ha; Kim, Bok Ki; Yoon, Woo Young

    2013-03-01

    Li/LiV3O8 secondary cells with Li-foil and Li-powder anodes were fabricated, and their electrical properties were compared. Using the powder anode, a cell with an initial discharge capacity of 260 mAh g-1 that could be operated for over 100 cycles was obtained. The porous Li-powder electrode was safely synthesized by pressing an emulsion droplet onto an SUS mesh. A threefold increase in the electrical conductivity of the LiV3O8 cathode was achieved by the addition of carbon using a vibration pot mill. Using the powder anode resulted in 80% capacity retention at the 100th cycle, while that using the foil electrode was 46%; the 1.0 Crate/ 0.1 C-rate capacity ratio also increased from 44% to 60%. A cell employing the LiV3O8-carbon composite cathode showed better electrical performance, a capacity retention of 90% after 50 cycles, and an increase in rate capacity ratio. The crystal structure and morphology of the LiV3O8-C composite were investigated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Normal state resistivity of single crystalline V3Si as a function of neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.; Viswanathan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of the normal state resistivity of a neutron damaged single crystal of V 3 Si shows two different regions of behavior: one for T/sub c/ equal to or greater than 10 0 K and another for T/sub c/ equal to or less than 10 0 K

  2. Preparation and electrochemical performance of AgxLi1-xV3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Junli; Jiao Lifang; Yuan Huatang; Liu Li; Wei Xin; Miao Yanli; Yang Lin; Wang Yongmei

    2009-01-01

    We report here the preparation of Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 for use as a cathode material in rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Synthesis was carried out by sol-gel methods and low temperature calcination using V 2 O 5 wet gel, LiOH.H 2 O, and AgNO 3 as raw materials. The product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and its electrochemical behavior as a cathode material was studied by galvanostatic charge-discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and ac impedance techniques. The experimental results show that Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 cathodes have greater initial discharge capacity than undoped cathode. And those Ag-doped LiV 3 O 8 electrodes, especially Ag 0.04 Li 0.96 V 3 O 8 , show the best long-life cycling performance. All of the doped powders show better stability at the 2.6 V plateau efficiency, due to their more stable cell impedance

  3. C112 C123 generated by two particle correlations through v2 and v3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, Ronald S.

    2018-01-31

    Abstract: In this note we consider the three particle correlators C112 and C123 and how they can be generated from a pure two particle correlation by interacting with a v2 and a v3 of the overall system.

  4. Performance of V3-based HIV-1 sero subtyping in HIV endemic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Tavoschi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 serosubtyping based on reactivity to peptides from the V3 region of gp120 is a low-cost and easy to perform procedure often used in geographical areas with high prevalence and incidence of HIV infection. We evaluated the performance of V3-based serotyping on 148 sera from 118 HIV-1-infected individuals living in Uganda, with estimated dates of seroconversion. Of the 148 tested samples, 68 (46.0% specifically reacted with only one of the V3 peptides included in the test (SP, 64 (43.2% did not react with any peptide (NR and 16 (10.8% reacted with two or more peptides (CR. According to the estimated seroconversion date, the large majority of samples collected early after infection belonged to the NR group. These samples had also a low Avidity Index. In contrast, samples collected later after infection belonged mainly to CR and SP groups and had also a higher avidity index. These results indicate that the performance of V3-based assays depends on maturation of HIV-specific immune response and can be significantly lowered when these tests are carried out on specimens collected from recently infected individuals.

  5. V3-serotyping programme evaluated for HIV-1 variation in the Netherlands and Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf F de; Akker R van den; Valk M; Bakker M; Goudsmit J; Loon AM van; VIR; UVA/HRL

    1995-01-01

    To obtain insight into the variation of the HIV-1 V3 neutralization domain of variants circulating in the Netherlands, 126 Dutch, 70 Curacao and 45 African serum samples from HIV-1 infected individuals were screened for antibody reactivity to a set of 16 to 17 mer synthetic peptides, representing

  6. Intercontrole acquiring by Framatome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Framatome group, as the worldwide leader in nuclear power plant construction, has reinforced his competences in nuclear services thanks to the acquiring of the Intercontrole company, specialized in non-destructive testing in nuclear and industrial environments. After a presentation of the functioning principle and of the safety aspects of a PWR reactor, this press dossier presents in a first part the role of nuclear services and in particular of non-destructive testing in nuclear power plants (in-service inspection, regulatory aspects, testing processes). This part is illustrated with some examples of inspection performed on some components of the primary coolant loop (steam generators, reactor vessel, pressurizer, pipes, primary pumps). A second part presents the technical centres and units of Framatome in charge of performing non-destructive inspections, while a third part describes the industrial policy and strategy of the group in this domain (market of nuclear park maintenance in France, in the USA and worldwide, creation of the 'inspection and control' centre of Framatome). A last part presents the activities of the Intercontrole company and of its daughter companies with some examples of actions realized in the nuclear and natural gas domains. (J.S.)

  7. Pediatric acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodack, Marie I

    2010-10-01

    Although pediatric patients are sometimes included in studies about visual problems in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), few studies deal solely with children. Unlike studies dealing with adult patients, in which mechanisms of brain injury are divided into cerebral vascular accident (CVA) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), studies on pediatric patients deal almost exclusively with traumatic brain injury, specifically caused by accidents. Here we report on the vision problems of 4 pediatric patients, ages 3 to 18 years, who were examined in the ophthalmology/optometry clinic at a children's hospital. All patients had an internally caused brain injury and after the initial insult manifested problems in at least one of the following areas: acuity, binocularity, motility (tracking or saccades), accommodation, visual fields, and visual perceptual skills. Pediatric patients can suffer from a variety of oculo-visual problems after the onset of head injury. These patients may or may not be symptomatic and can benefit from optometric intervention. Copyright © 2010 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  9. Ba9V3Se15: a novel compound with spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Min; Wang, Xiancheng; Zhao, Kan; Duan, Lei; Li, Wenmin; Zhao, Jianfa; Cao, Lipeng; Dai, Guangyang; Deng, Zheng; Feng, Shaomin; Zhang, Sijia; Liu, Qingqing; Yang, Yi-feng; Jin, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a novel compound Ba9V3Se15 with one-dimensional (1D) spin chains was synthesized under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. It was systematically characterized via structural, magnetic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. Ba9V3Se15 crystallizes into a hexagonal structure with a space group of P-6c2 (188) and the lattice constants of a  =  b  =  9.5745(7) Å and c  =  18.7814(4) Å. The crystal structure consists of face-sharing octahedral VSe6 chains along c axis, which are trimeric and arranged in a triangular lattice in ab-plane. Ba9V3Se15 is a semiconductor and undergoes complex magnetic transitions. In the zero-field-cooled (ZFC) process with magnetic field of 10 Oe, Ba9V3Se15 sequentially undergoes ferrimagnetic and spin cluster glass transition at 2.5 K and 3.3 K, respectively. When the magnetic field exceeds 50 Oe, only the ferrimagnetic transition can be observed. Above the transition temperature, the specific heat contains a significant magnetic contribution that is proportional to T 1/2. The calculation suggests that the nearest neighbor (NN) intra-chain antiferromagnetic exchange J 1 is much larger than the next nearest neighbor (NNN) intra-chain ferromagnetic exchange J 2. Therefore, Ba9V3Se15 can be regarded as an effective ferromagnetic chains with effective spin-1/2 by the formation of the V(2)(↓) V(1)(↑) V(2)(↓) cluster.

  10. CaV 3.1 and CaV 3.3 account for T-type Ca2+ current in GH3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Mudado

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available T-type Ca2+ channels are important for cell signaling by a variety of cells. We report here the electrophysiological and molecular characteristics of the whole-cell Ca2+ current in GH3 clonal pituitary cells. The current inactivation at 0 mV was described by a single exponential function with a time constant of 18.32 ± 1.87 ms (N = 16. The I-V relationship measured with Ca2+ as a charge carrier was shifted to the left when we applied a conditioning pre-pulse of up to -120 mV, indicating that a low voltage-activated current may be present in GH3 cells. Transient currents were first activated at -50 mV and peaked around -20 mV. The half-maximal voltage activation and the slope factors for the two conditions are -35.02 ± 2.4 and 6.7 ± 0.3 mV (pre-pulse of -120 mV, N = 15, and -27.0 ± 0.97 and 7.5 ± 0.7 mV (pre-pulse of -40 mV, N = 9. The 8-mV shift in the activation mid-point was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The tail currents decayed bi-exponentially suggesting two different T-type Ca2+ channel populations. RT-PCR revealed the presence of a1G (CaV3.1 and a1I (CaV3.3 T-type Ca2+ channel mRNA transcripts.

  11. Study of reticular defects in V3Si (A15 structure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb

    1980-01-01

    The A15 crystal structure is that of superconductive compounds with high critical temperature. This research thesis aims at studying its possible reticular defects. In a first part, the author presents this structure and more particularly its crystallographic properties, reports the indexing of electronic diffraction diagrams (point diagrams and line diagrams of Kikuchi) in the case of V 3 Si. Then, after having described the sample preparation technique, the author reports the study of reticular defects by high voltage electronic microscopy on a raw V 3 Si crystal. The existence of a specific defect is highlighted and the crystallographic study of this defect is reported. It has been performed by means of computer-based simulation of contrast (TWODIS software). Results are then discussed

  12. Thermodynamic study and intrinsic type II superconductivity in the A-15 compound V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Toyota, N.; Noto, K.; Akutsu, K.; Isino, M.; Fukase, T.

    1979-01-01

    The specific heat of a single crystal of the A-15-type compound V 3 Si in the normal, mixed, and superconducting states has been measured from 4 to 30 K in magnetic fieldsup to 50 kOe. The analysis has been performed in a self-consistent way based on the second-order phase transition from the normal to the superconducting state. The thermodynamic critical field and then various physical parameters characterizing the superconducting and normal states are almost consistently derived from the thermodynamcis and the microscopic BCS-GLAG theory. It is confirmed that V 3 Si is an intrinsic type II superconductor with a high intrinsic GL parameter k 0

  13. Vectorization and improvement of nuclear codes. 3. DGR, STREAM V3.1, Cella, GGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Toshiyuki; Eguchi, Norikuni; Watanabe, Hideo; Machida, Masahiko; Yokokawa, Mitsuo; Fujii, Minoru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-01-01

    Four nuclear codes have been vectorized and improved in order to realize the high speed performance on the VP2600 supercomputer at Computing and Information Systems Center of JAERI in the fiscal year 1993. Molecular Dynamics simulation code DGR which simulates the irradiation damage on diamond crystalline, three-dimensional non-steady compressible fluid dynamics code STREAM V3.1, two-dimensional fluid simulation code using Cell Automaton model Cella and Molecular Dynamics code GGR which simulates the irradiation damage on black carbon crystalline have been vectorized and improved, respectively. Speed up ratios by the vectorization to scalar mode on VP2600 show 2.8, 6.8-14.8, 15-16 and 1.23 times for DGR, STREAM V3.1, Cella and GGR, respectively. In this report, we present vectorization techniques, vectorization effects, evaluations of the numerical results and techniques for the improvement. (author).

  14. Comparison of LiV3O8 cathode materials prepared by different methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Keld; Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Lithium trivanadate, LiV3O8, can be prepared in a finely dispersed form by dehydration of aqueous lithium vanadate gels. Two methods of dehydration, both easily adaptable to large-scale production, are described in this work: freeze drying and spray drying. After heat-treatment of the dried gels ...... is demonstrated as well as the electrochemical properties of the vanadium oxide....

  15. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Swinton; Benjamin Scafidi

    2012-01-01

    We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3), offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence ...

  16. KMS fusion system resource accounting and performance measurement system for RSX11M V3. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downward, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Version 3.2 of the KMS FUSION accounting system is aimed at providing the user of RSX11M V3.2 with a versatile tool for measuring the performance of the operating system, tuning the system, and providing sufficient usage statistics so that the system manager can implement chargeback accounting if it is required by the installation. Sufficient hooks are provided so that the intrepid user can expand the system substantially beyond what is currently provided.

  17. Vibrational relaxation of NO+ (v=3,2,1) by various neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobler, W.; Federer, W.; Howorka, F.; Durup-Ferguson, M.; Lindinger, W.

    1983-01-01

    The quenching of state selected NO + (v=3,2,1) by various neutrals has been investigated in a SIFDT in the energy range from thermal to about 1 eV, KEsub(cm). With a few exceptions, the quenching rate coefficients decline with increasing KEsub(cm), indicating complex formation. The quenching rate coefficients increase strongly with increasing polarizability of the neutrals, however the rare gases do not fit into this pattern. (Authors)

  18. Learning-by-Being-Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo Gaetano; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    In horizontal acquisitions, the post-acquisition integration of the R&D function often damages the inventive labor force and results in lower innovative productivity of acquired inventors. In this paper we study post-acquisition integration in terms of R&D team reorganization-i.e., the creation...... of new teams with both inventors of the acquiring and acquired firms-and assess the impact of this integration action in the period that immediately follows the acquisition. Drawing on social identity and self-categorization theories, we argue that R&D team reorganization increases the acquired inventors...

  19. High-field specific heats of A15 V3Si and Nb3Sn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G. R.; Brandt, B. L.

    1984-04-01

    In order to further understand the anomalous behavior of the specific heat of Nb3Sn in an 18-T magnetic field discovered by Stewart, Cort, and Webb [Phys. Rev. B 24, 3841 (1981)], we have performed specific-heat measurements on a different sample of Nb3Sn at lower fields both in the normal and mixed states, as well as measurement to 19 T on both transforming and nontransforming V3Si. The high-field data for V3Si indicate that this material behaves quite normally, and that γtransJunod and Muller [Solid State Commun. 36, 721 (1980)]. Nb3Sn, however, remains anomalous, with both the same "kink" in the normal-state field data as observed by Stewart, Cort, and Webb (although at a slightly higher temperature) and unusual mixed-state behavior. The mixed-state specific heat of the V3Si samples is as expected, based on earlier work on the mixed-state specific heat of V and Nb.

  20. INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook v3.2: Improving the Process for SE Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Douglas Hamelin; David D. Walden; Michael E. Krueger

    2010-07-01

    The INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook is the official INCOSE reference document for understanding systems engineering (SE) methods and conducting SE activities. Over the years, the Handbook has evolved to accommodate advances in the SE discipline and now serves as the basis for the Certified Systems Engineering Professional (CSEP) exam. Due to its evolution, the Handbook had become somewhat disjointed in its treatment and presentation of SE topics and was not aligned with the latest version of International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 15288:2008, Systems and Software Engineering. As a result, numerous inconsistencies were identified that could confuse practitioners and directly impact the probability of success in passing the CSEP exam. Further, INCOSE leadership had previously submitted v3.1 of the Handbook to ISO/IEC for consideration as a Technical Report, but was told that the Handbook would have to be updated to conform with the terminology and structure of new ISO/IEC15288:2008, Systems and software engineering, prior to being considered. The revised INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook v3.2 aligns with the structure and principles of ISO/IEC 15288:2008 and presents the generic SE life-cycle process steps in their entirety, without duplication or redundancy, in a single location within the text. As such, the revised Handbook v3.2 serves as a comprehensive instructional and reference manual for effectively understanding SE processes and conducting SE and better serves certification candidates preparing for the CSEP exam.

  1. The spectrum of mutation produced by low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, Alexander A.; Turner, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Inherited mutations are the basis of evolution and acquired mutations in humans are important in ageing, cancer and possibly various forms of tissue degeneration. Mutations are responsible for many of the long-term effects of radiation. However, sensitive direct detection of mutations in humans has been difficult. The aims of the project were to develop methods for the sensitive enumeration of mutations in DNA, to measure mutation frequencies in a wide variety of tissue types and to quantify the mutational effect of direct oxidative damage produced by radiation, at both high and low doses. The project was successful in developing a sensitive method which could detect mutations directly in the genetic material, DNA at a sensitivity of 1 mutated molecule in 1000000000 unmutated molecules. However a number of methodological problems had to be overcome and lack of ongoing funding made it impossible to fulfill all of the aims of the project

  2. UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurementsV3.01 (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, K; Rozanov, A; Azam, F; Bramstedt, K; Damadeo, R; Eichmann, K-U; Gebhardt, C; Hurst, D; Kraemer, M; Lossow, S; Read, W; Spelten, N; Stiller, G P; Walker, K A; Weber, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2016-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements from August 2002 until April 2012. SCIAMACHY measured the scattered or direct sunlight using different observation geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour at about 10-25 km height from the near-infrared spectral range (1353-1410 nm). These data cover the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), a region in the atmosphere which is of special interest for a variety of dynamical and chemical processes as well as for the radiative forcing. Here, the latest data version of water vapour (V3.01) from SCIAMACHY limb measurements is presented and validated by comparisons with data sets from other satellite and in situ measurements. Considering retrieval tests and the results of these comparisons, the V3.01 data are reliable from about 11 to 23 km and the best results are found in the middle of the profiles between about 14 and 20 km. Above 20 km in the extra tropics V3.01 is drier than all other data sets. Additionally, for altitudes above about 19 km, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profile is not sufficient to resolve signals with a short vertical structure like the tape recorder. Below 14 km, SCIAMACHY water vapour V3.01 is wetter than most collocated data sets, but the high variability of water vapour in the troposphere complicates the comparison. For 14-20 km height, the expected errors from the retrieval and simulations and the mean differences to collocated data sets are usually smaller than 10 % when the resolution of the SCIAMACHY data is taken into account. In general, the temporal changes agree well with collocated data sets except for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, where larger differences are observed. This indicates a possible drift in V3.01 most probably caused by the incomplete treatment of volcanic aerosols in the retrieval. In all other regions a

  3. Clustering of HIV-1 Subtypes Based on gp120 V3 Loop electrostatic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Victoria Aliana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The V3 loop of the glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 plays an important role in viral entry into cells by utilizing as coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4, and is implicated in the phenotypic tropisms of HIV viruses. It has been hypothesized that the interaction between the V3 loop and CCR5 or CXCR4 is mediated by electrostatics. We have performed hierarchical clustering analysis of the spatial distributions of electrostatic potentials and charges of V3 loop structures containing consensus sequences of HIV-1 subtypes. Results Although the majority of consensus sequences have a net charge of +3, the spatial distribution of their electrostatic potentials and charges may be a discriminating factor for binding and infectivity. This is demonstrated by the formation of several small subclusters, within major clusters, which indicates common origin but distinct spatial details of electrostatic properties. Some of this information may be present, in a coarse manner, in clustering of sequences, but the spatial details are largely lost. We show the effect of ionic strength on clustering of electrostatic potentials, information that is not present in clustering of charges or sequences. We also make correlations between clustering of electrostatic potentials and net charge, coreceptor selectivity, global prevalence, and geographic distribution. Finally, we interpret coreceptor selectivity based on the N6X7T8|S8X9 sequence glycosylation motif, the specific positive charge location according to the 11/24/25 rule, and the overall charge and electrostatic potential distribution. Conclusions We propose that in addition to the sequence and the net charge of the V3 loop of each subtype, the spatial distributions of electrostatic potentials and charges may also be important factors for receptor recognition and binding and subsequent viral entry into cells. This implies that the overall electrostatic potential is responsible for long-range recognition of the V3

  4. Clustering of HIV-1 Subtypes Based on gp120 V3 Loop electrostatic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López de Victoria, Aliana; Kieslich, Chris A; Rizos, Apostolos K; Krambovitis, Elias; Morikis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    The V3 loop of the glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1 plays an important role in viral entry into cells by utilizing as coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4, and is implicated in the phenotypic tropisms of HIV viruses. It has been hypothesized that the interaction between the V3 loop and CCR5 or CXCR4 is mediated by electrostatics. We have performed hierarchical clustering analysis of the spatial distributions of electrostatic potentials and charges of V3 loop structures containing consensus sequences of HIV-1 subtypes. Although the majority of consensus sequences have a net charge of +3, the spatial distribution of their electrostatic potentials and charges may be a discriminating factor for binding and infectivity. This is demonstrated by the formation of several small subclusters, within major clusters, which indicates common origin but distinct spatial details of electrostatic properties. Some of this information may be present, in a coarse manner, in clustering of sequences, but the spatial details are largely lost. We show the effect of ionic strength on clustering of electrostatic potentials, information that is not present in clustering of charges or sequences. We also make correlations between clustering of electrostatic potentials and net charge, coreceptor selectivity, global prevalence, and geographic distribution. Finally, we interpret coreceptor selectivity based on the N 6 X 7 T 8 |S 8 X 9 sequence glycosylation motif, the specific positive charge location according to the 11/24/25 rule, and the overall charge and electrostatic potential distribution. We propose that in addition to the sequence and the net charge of the V3 loop of each subtype, the spatial distributions of electrostatic potentials and charges may also be important factors for receptor recognition and binding and subsequent viral entry into cells. This implies that the overall electrostatic potential is responsible for long-range recognition of the V3 loop with coreceptors CCR5/CXCR4, whereas the charge

  5. DEEP IMPACT 9P/TEMPEL ENCOUNTER - REDUCED HRII SPECTRA V3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains calibrated, 1.05- to 4.8-micron spectral images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 the acquired by the High Resolution Infrared Spectrometer (HRII) from 20...

  6. Na-Li-[V3O8] insertion electrodes: Structures and diffusion pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Michael; Hawthorne, Frank C.; Alexander, Malcolm A.; Kutluoglu, Rory A.; Mandaliev, Petre; Halden, Norman M.; Mitchell, Roger H.

    2006-01-01

    The potential insertion-electrode compounds Na 1.2 [V 3 O 8 ] (NaV) and Na 0.7 Li 0.7 [V 3 O 8 ] (NaLiV) were synthesized from mixtures of Na 2 CO 3 , Li 2 CO 3 and V 2 O 5 , which were melted at 750 o and subsequently cooled to room temperature. The structures of NaV and LiV contain sheets of polymerized (VO n ) polyhedra, which are topologically identical to the sheet of polymerized polyhedra in Li 1.2 [V 3 O 8 ] (LiV). Vanadium occurs in three different coordination environments: [2+3] V(1), [2+2+2] V(2) and [1+4+1] V(3). Calculated bond-valence sums indicate that V 4+ occurs preferentially at the V(3) site, which agrees with the general observation that [6]-coordinated V 4+ prefers [1+4+1]-rather than [2+2+2]-coordination. The M-cations Na and Li occur at three distinct sites, M(1), M(2) and M(3) between the vanadate sheets. The M(1)-site is fully occupied and has octahedral coordination. The M(2) sites are partly occupied in NaV and NaLiV, in which they occur in [4]- and [6]-coordination, respectively. Li partly occupies the M(3) site in NaLiV, in which it occurs in [3]-coordination. The M(2) and M(3) sites in NaLiV occur closer to the vanadate sheets than the M(2) sites in NaV and LiV. The shift in these cation positions is a result of the larger distance between the vanadate sheets in NaLiV than in LiV, which forces interstitial Li to move toward one of the vanadate sheets to satisfy its coordination requirements. Bond-valence maps for the interstitial cations Na and Li are presented for NaV, NaLiV and LiV. These maps are used to determine other potential cation positions in the interlayer and to map the regions of the structure where the Na and Li have their bond-valence requirements satisfied. These regions are potential pathways for Na and Li diffusion in these structures, and are used to explain chemical diffusion properties of Na and Li in the Na-Li-[V 3 O 8 ] compounds. - Graphical abstract: Bond-valence map for Li in Na 0.7 Li 0.7 [V 3 O 8 ]. Contour

  7. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  8. Intercomparison of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature v4 and v3b Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Chen, Xianyao

    2018-04-01

    Version 4 (v4) of the Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is compared with its precedent, the widely used version 3b (v3b). The essential upgrades applied to v4 lead to remarkable differences in the characteristics of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly (SSTa) in both the temporal and spatial domains. First, the largest discrepancy of the global mean SSTa values around the 1940s is due to ship-observation corrections made to reconcile observations from buckets and engine intake thermometers. Second, differences in global and regional mean SSTa values between v4 and v3b exhibit a downward trend (around -0.032°C per decade) before the 1940s, an upward trend (around 0.014°C per decade) during the period of 1950-2015, interdecadal oscillation with one peak around the 1980s, and two troughs during the 1960s and 2000s, respectively. This does not derive from treatments of the polar or the other data-void regions, since the difference of the SSTa does not share the common features. Third, the spatial pattern of the ENSO-related variability of v4 exhibits a wider but weaker cold tongue in the tropical region of the Pacific Ocean compared with that of v3b, which could be attributed to differences in gap-filling assumptions since the latter features satellite observations whereas the former features in situ ones. This intercomparison confirms that the structural uncertainty arising from underlying assumptions on the treatment of diverse SST observations even in the same SST product family is the main source of significant SST differences in the temporal domain. Why this uncertainty introduces artificial decadal oscillations remains unknown.

  9. Corrosion of vanadium and V 3Ti 1Si in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konys, J.

    1986-01-01

    A pumped Li loop fabricated from a titanium stabilized Type 316 steel was designed and constructed. At temperatures of about 823 K, experiments over a duration of more than 7500 h were performed. A magnetic trap had to be incorporated just before the flowmeter to avoid the precipitation of magnetic particles. Therefore it was possible to investigate the influence of the magnetic trap on the corrosion behaviour of V in flowing Li. The results are as follows: - The corrosion rate of V is about 14 μm/year and independent of the nitrogen content of Li. The corrosion rate of V 3Ti 1Si depends on the N concentration of Li. At about 30 wppm N in Li a vanadium-titanium-nitride is formed at the surface of the specimens. Hence, a low rate of 4 μm/year can be stated. - Both materials pick-up more N than C from Li, pure vanadium double as much nitrogen as the alloy V 3Ti 1Si. - N diffuses into the bulk of both materials, whilst C is bound near the surface. The hardening at the surface is due to the up-take of N. - The vanadium-carbonitride-, respectively the vanadium-titanium-nitride-layers have a strong influence on the weight loss and the up-take of non-metals. - The magnetic trap reduces the weight loss of vanadium in a significant way. The positive influence of the magnetic trap is supposed to be due to the reduction of the nitrogen content of Li. - The corrosion rates of the alloy V 3Ti 1Si show, that the dissolution due to V loss does not affect the lifetime of the alloy. The comparison with steels and nickle-base-alloys demonstrates the advantages of this material. Nevertheless, the purification of the Li and the control of its nonmetal-levels is indispensable. (orig./HP) [de

  10. SNPchiMp v.3: integrating and standardizing single nucleotide polymorphism data for livestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolazzi, Ezequiel L; Caprera, Andrea; Nazzicari, Nelson; Cozzi, Paolo; Strozzi, Francesco; Lawley, Cindy; Pirani, Ali; Soans, Chandrasen; Brew, Fiona; Jorjani, Hossein; Evans, Gary; Simpson, Barry; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola; Brauning, Rudiger; Williams, John L; Stella, Alessandra

    2015-04-10

    In recent years, the use of genomic information in livestock species for genetic improvement, association studies and many other fields has become routine. In order to accommodate different market requirements in terms of genotyping cost, manufacturers of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays, private companies and international consortia have developed a large number of arrays with different content and different SNP density. The number of currently available SNP arrays differs among species: ranging from one for goats to more than ten for cattle, and the number of arrays available is increasing rapidly. However, there is limited or no effort to standardize and integrate array- specific (e.g. SNP IDs, allele coding) and species-specific (i.e. past and current assemblies) SNP information. Here we present SNPchiMp v.3, a solution to these issues for the six major livestock species (cow, pig, horse, sheep, goat and chicken). Original data was collected directly from SNP array producers and specific international genome consortia, and stored in a MySQL database. The database was then linked to an open-access web tool and to public databases. SNPchiMp v.3 ensures fast access to the database (retrieving within/across SNP array data) and the possibility of annotating SNP array data in a user-friendly fashion. This platform allows easy integration and standardization, and it is aimed at both industry and research. It also enables users to easily link the information available from the array producer with data in public databases, without the need of additional bioinformatics tools or pipelines. In recognition of the open-access use of Ensembl resources, SNPchiMp v.3 was officially credited as an Ensembl E!mpowered tool. Availability at http://bioinformatics.tecnoparco.org/SNPchimp.

  11. Homonymous Central Quadrantanopia Caused by an Extrastriate (V2/V3 Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Lin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal male had complained of right-side blurred vision for 2 months, especially when reading. He had a 10-year history of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. His best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 in each eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed asymmetrical cupping, but a normal disc. Humphrey perimetry showed an upper homonymous para-central quadrantanopic defect. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarction in the left lower calcarine area over the extrastriate (V2/V3 cortical area and a narrowing of the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries due to severe arteriosclerosis.

  12. Degradation of superconductivity in A15 V3Si by explosive compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, G.; Olinger, B.; Newkirk, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    We have found that explosive compression similar to that used to create A15 Nb 3 Si seriously degrades superconductivity in A15 V 3 Si which, before compression, was typical of well-ordered material. Specifically, the midpoint of the bulk superconducting transition is depressed by 1.8 K, the bulk transition width is increased by a factor of 3, and the specific heat γ is decreased by more than 20% compared to the starting material. Implications of these results for the ultimate achievable transition temperature in A15 Nb 3 Si are discussed

  13. Superconductivity in irradiated A-15 compounds at low fluences. I. Neutron-irradiated V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Caton, R.; Pande, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    The behavior of the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/ of single-crystal and polycrystalline V 3 Si was investigated as a function of low-fluence neutron irradiation. It is found that the initial degradation of T/sub c/ is sample-dependent, some specimens showing no degradation in T/sub c/ up to a fluence of 2 x 10 18 n/cm 2 . This and many other earlier observations on low-fluence behavior are explained in terms of a recently proposed model of radiation damage in A-15 compounds

  14. Real structure and selected properties of the superconducting intermetallic compound V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinstueck, K.; Kraemer, U.; Paufler, P.; Ullrich, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Plasticity and electro-plastic effects have been detected at temperatures above 1200 0 C in the intermetallic compound V 3 Si which can not plastically be deformed under normal conditions. The mechanisms of plastic deformation were elucidated. The critical temperature and the critical current density could be altered by plastic deformation. It was found that the mechanisms of plastic deformation as well as the alteration of the critical parameters are dependent on the chemical composition of the intermetallic compound within the range of homogeneity. For measuring such alterations Kossel's interference method was used. Intense plastic deformation of crystals resulted in an influence on the martensite transformation

  15. Sequential acquisition of mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishima, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in next-generation sequencing technologies allows us to discover frequent mutations throughout the coding regions of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), potentially providing us with virtually a complete spectrum of driver mutations in this disease. As shown by many study groups these days, such driver mutations are acquired in a gene-specific fashion. For instance, DDX41 mutations are observed in germline cells long before MDS presentation. In blood samples from healthy elderly individuals, somatic DNMT3A and TET2 mutations are detected as age-related clonal hematopoiesis and are believed to be a risk factor for hematological neoplasms. In MDS, mutations of genes such as NRAS and FLT3, designated as Type-1 genes, may be significantly associated with leukemic evolution. Another type (Type-2) of genes, including RUNX1 and GATA2, are related to progression from low-risk to high-risk MDS. Overall, various driver mutations are sequentially acquired in MDS, at a specific time, in either germline cells, normal hematopoietic cells, or clonal MDS cells.

  16. TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Popat, Kris; Llobet, Lau; Santos, Patricia; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Miao, Yongwu; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, P., Popat, K., Llobet, L., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., Miao, Y., Griffiths, D. & Beauvoir, P. (2009) TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4 This release is composed of three files corresponding to CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI) v3.2-10cv1.4,

  17. Metallurgical processing and properties of multifilamentary V3Ga composite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, D.G.; Weinman, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    Multifilamentary composite wires of V - 6.1 at. percent Ga filaments in a Cu-17.5 at. percent Ga matrix were fabricated. High purity V and Ga were arc melted and cast to form an alloy rod. High purity Cu and Ga were induction melted and also cast as an alloy rod. The alloy rods were reduced in diameter by swaging. The larger diameter Cu - Ga matrix rod was drilled with 19 holes which terminated within the matrix-rod. The holes served as receptacles for 19 V-Ga rods which were inserted into the matrix. The composite assembly was evacuated under high vacuum and sealed by an electron beam weld. The composite was then reduced in diameter through swaging and wire drawing to 0.032-in. dia wire. V 3 Ga layers at the filament/matrix interface were formed through an isothermal solid-state reaction. Growth rates for V 3 Ga are strongly influenced by alloy composition and formation temperature, with more rapid growth occurring in composite wires with higher Ga contents. Improved critical current densities (J/sub c/) resulted from lower formation temperatures, J/sub c/ values of over 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 in a transverse magnetic field of 100 kG were obtained in the multifilamentary composite wire. 9 figs

  18. Experimental characterization of the flux-line lattice in superconducting V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.; Chang, Y.; Kerchner, H.; Larson, B.; Narayan, J.; SeKula, S.

    1983-01-01

    Several microscopic properties of the flux-line lattice (FLL) in three separate single crystals of V 3 Si have been investigated by means of small-angle neutron diffraction. These low-field FLL characterizations have been correlated with the following material and superconducting properties: the real crystal symmetry parallel to the applied magnetic field; the micro-structure as determined by TEM; magnetic irreversibilities in the mixed state; reversible flux-line motion in ac response; martensitic structural transformation observed by X-ray diffraction. The three samples, V 3 Si-MP3, -MP4, and -MP5 possessed different defect structures, and this was manifested foremost in the FLL perfection. At low field (B 0-.5 T, but a highly mosaic, nearly polycrystalline FLL at lower fields. Sample MP4 contained large (500-1000 A) incoherent precipitates, and showed only a polycrystalline FLL at low field. In both MP3 and MP5, distinct anisotropic correlations were observed between the FLL morphology and the real-crystal direction along the applied field. The FLL perfection was strongly dependent on the growth history. The peak width history dependence for two different scattering geometries can be qualitatively modeled by proposed flux-pinning mechanisms. Quantitative comparisons with critical current measurements, however, are not totally reconcilable

  19. Further neuroendocrine evidence of enhanced vasopressin V3 receptor responses in melancholic depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dinan, T G

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In situations of chronic stress vasopressin plays an important role in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of anterior pituitary vasopressin V3 receptors in maintaining the hypercortisolism seen in melancholic depression. METHOD: Fourteen patients with major depression and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy comparison subjects were recruited. Desmopressin (ddAVP) 10 microg was given intravenously and ACTH and cortisol release was monitored for 120 min. RESULTS: The mean +\\/- S.E.M. ACTH response in the depressives was 28.4 +\\/- 4.3 ng\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 18.8 +\\/- 4.9 ng\\/l (P = 0.04). The mean +\\/- S.E.M. cortisol response in the depressives was 261.8 +\\/- 46.5 nmol\\/l and in the healthy subjects was 107.3 +\\/- 26.1 nmol\\/l (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with major depression have augmented ACTH and cortisol responses to desmopressin indicating enhanced V3 responsivity.

  20. Effects of stress on critical current in V3Ga tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Touichi; Terada, R.

    1979-01-01

    For the generation of magnetic field less than 8T NbTi conductors have been used with considerable reliability. For the higher field (which is strongly expected for advanced SCM in near future) compound type superconductors such as Nb 3 Sn or V 3 Ga are to be used. These compound superconducting materials are, however, intrinsically brittle, so that it has been said that considerable degradation cannot be avoided, if they are subjected to certain amount of strain say, --0.1%. This is the main reason that compound superconducting materials have been hesitated to the application to the LARGE magnets. To give a clearer insight to the problem we have studied stress/strain degradation effects on commercially available superconducting V 3 Ga tape using specially designed apparatus by making ''in situ'' experiment, i.e. 1) in liquid He, 2) with external magnetic field, 3) with current in the conductor and 4) with stresses. An interesting and very important results were obtained that the critical current density increases with stress (or strain) at the first stage and degraded drastically after the sample is strained higher than about ''one percent''. (author)

  1. Acquired ichthyosis with hoffman's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyanarayana B

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle aged man presented with features of acquired ichthyosis with Hoffman's syndrome. Laboratory tests support hypothyodism. Myoedema and hypertrophy of muscles were present. Patient was previously treated for Pellagra.

  2. Somatically acquired structural genetic differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magaard Koldby, Kristina; Nygaard, Marianne; Christensen, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    Structural genetic variants like copy number variants (CNVs) comprise a large part of human genetic variation and may be inherited as well as somatically acquired. Recent studies have reported the presence of somatically acquired structural variants in the human genome and it has been suggested t...... with age.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 April 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.34....

  3. Yeasts acquire resistance secondary to antifungal drug treatment by adaptive mutagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quinto-Alemany

    Full Text Available Acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment both by microorganisms and by tumor cells is a major public health concern. Several species of bacteria acquire resistance to various antibiotics through stress-induced responses that have an adaptive mutagenesis effect. So far, adaptive mutagenesis in yeast has only been described when the stress is nutrient deprivation. Here, we hypothesized that adaptive mutagenesis in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans as model organisms would also take place in response to antifungal agents (5-fluorocytosine or flucytosine, 5-FC, and caspofungin, CSP, giving rise to resistance secondary to treatment with these agents. We have developed a clinically relevant model where both yeasts acquire resistance when exposed to these agents. Stressful lifestyle associated mutation (SLAM experiments show that the adaptive mutation frequencies are 20 (S. cerevisiae -5-FC, 600 (C. albicans -5-FC or 1000 (S. cerevisiae--CSP fold higher than the spontaneous mutation frequency, the experimental data for C. albicans -5-FC being in agreement with the clinical data of acquisition of resistance secondary to treatment. The spectrum of mutations in the S. cerevisiae -5-FC model differs between spontaneous and acquired, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that generate them are different. Remarkably, in the acquired mutations, an ectopic intrachromosomal recombination with an 87% homologous gene takes place with a high frequency. In conclusion, we present here a clinically relevant adaptive mutation model that fulfils the conditions reported previously.

  4. Microplasticity and fracture in a Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeeh, B.M.; Rokhlin, S.I.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    1996-01-01

    Linear Elasticity is generally considered to occur in most standard textbooks by the strengthening of chemical bonds in the regime below the proportional limit in most materials. In some cases, however, a number of researchers have recognized the possible role of localized microplasticity (microplasticity in this paper refers to localized plasticity on a microstructural level at stresses below the so-called bulk yield stress) in the so-called elastic deformation regime. There is, therefore, a need for careful studies of the micromechanisms of microplasticity in the so-called elastic regime. Micromechanisms of microplasticity will be presented in this paper for a metastable β Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (Ti-15-3) alloy deformed in incremental stages to failure under monotonic loading. Micromechanisms of tensile deformation and fracture will be elucidated for a Ti-15-3 plate with single phase β and Widmanstaetten α+β microstructures

  5. Resistivity and magnetoresistance studies of Nb3Ir and V3Sb compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, M.; Barman, A.; Das, A.; Meikap, A.K.; De, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed measurements of electrical resistivity and magnetoresistivity of the compounds Nb 3 Ir and V 3 Sb in the temperature range 1.8 K ≤ T ≤ 300 K in absence as well as in presence of a magnetic field up to 7.7 T. At high temperature the resistivity shows a linear behaviour whereas the low temperature resistivity shows a T 2 behaviour. The data are fitted to several theories in order to explain the anomalous behaviour of the resistivity. The simple s-d scattering model is not adequate to offer a proper explanation for the positive magnetoresistance. The enhancement of the coefficient A of the T 2 term and the deviation from the quadratic field dependence of the resistivity may be due to the anisotropy in the compounds. (orig.)

  6. Mutagenesis in yam, Discorea rotundata: Clonal evaluation of M1V3 yam plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanso, E.N.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Ten thousand plants of M 1 V 3 population of the white guinea yam, Dioscorea rotundata Poir, were evaluated. There was no consistent trends in variations in plant height, number of branches, branching heights and number of leaves of the treated tubers. However, plant height were lower in the irradiated than in the control. The coefficients of variations (C.V.) were higher in the irradiated than in the control populations, indicating wider variations in the former population. Based on yield performance, 110 tubers were selected for preliminary yield trials, Considering that diplontic selection may occur in the irradiated micro-tubers, the experiment will also be carried out using nodal cultures in vitro. (author). 2 tabs

  7. Technology in the Aid of Delivering Economic Content to Teachers: Virtual Economics v. 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Swinton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the impact on student achievement of a face-to-face teacher workshop that also provides economics instructors with access to an electronic library of instructional and reference material for their economics classroom—Virtual Economics v. 3 (VE3, offered by the Council for Economic Education. Based on evidence using student and teacher-level administrative data from the Georgia Department of Education and controlling for students’ prior achievement in mathematics, we find evidence that the VE3 workshop experience increases student achievement in high school economics. Our difference-in-differences estimates suggest that teacher participation in the VE3 workshop increases student achievement by 0.061 standard deviations on Georgia’s high stakes economics end-of-course test. Future research should seek estimating the effect of treatments in education such as the VE3 workshop using randomized controlled trials (RCT.

  8. Low temperature electron microscopy on the cubic-tetragonal transformation of V3Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, T.; Ohnishi, N.; Hirabayashi, M.

    1988-04-01

    The cubic-tetragonal martensitic transition of V3Si and its precursor have been investigated in the temperature range from 13 K to 80 K using a 1 MV electron microscope with a double-tilting cold stage. Below the transition temperature Tm = 19 K, fine twin lamellae appear parallel to {110} plane traces, being connected continuously with mottled striations having the same orientation. Fine striations along {110} traces or so-called tweeds are observed below 50 K at the precursor of the structural phase transition. The image contrast of mottled striations and tweed patterns is attributed to the presence of lattice distortion owing to the softening of the shear modulus. Reversible changes of the patterns recorded with a TV-VTR system during cooling and heating processes were discussed briefly.

  9. Elastic scattering of 90 - 120 MeV 3He particles and unique optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyakutake, M.; Matoba, M.; Kumabe, I.; Fukada, M.; Komatuzaki, T.

    1978-01-01

    The elastic scattering of 109.2 MeV 3 He particles by 40 Ca, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 116 Sn has been investigated over a wide angular range. The elastic scattering cross sections have been analyzed in terms of the optical model. The data for each nucleus studied were sufficient to eliminate the discrete ambiguity in the strength of the optical potential; the unique potential which fits the data has real well depth of about 100 MeV and a corresponding volume integral per nucleon pair of about 310 MeV fm 3 . The elastic scattering of 3 He particles by 58 Ni has been further measured at bombarding energies of 89.3 and 118.5 MeV, and the incident-energy dependence of the optical potential of 3 He particles for 58 Ni was obtained. (author)

  10. Design of a 1 MeV 3He+ RFQ for the SAIC PET accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelius, W.D.; Young, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The novel design of a 1 MeV 3 He + radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator is discussed. This RFQ is the first segment of an accelerator for the production of radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET) applications. This RFQ is unusual in that two specific innovations were incorporated into the design. The mechanical design is a hybrid of conventional four-vane and four-rod geometries. This hybridization reduces the physical dimensions of the accelerator without sacrificing too much in rf efficiency and has the added benefit of reducing the sensitivity to mechanical alignment errors. In addition, the beam dynamics of the last few cells was modified to tailor the output beam parameters to improve the beam transport through the next accelerator section. The details of the mechanical structure, the mechanical and electrical alignment experiences, and a comparison of the theoretical and experimental performance of this accelerator are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. SMMP v. 3.0—Simulating proteins and protein interactions in Python and Fortran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Jan H.; Mohanty, Sandipan; Eisenmenger, Frank; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We describe a revised and updated version of the program package SMMP. SMMP is an open-source FORTRAN package for molecular simulation of proteins within the standard geometry model. It is designed as a simple and inexpensive tool for researchers and students to become familiar with protein simulation techniques. SMMP 3.0 sports a revised API increasing its flexibility, an implementation of the Lund force field, multi-molecule simulations, a parallel implementation of the energy function, Python bindings, and more. Program summaryTitle of program:SMMP Catalogue identifier:ADOJ_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADOJ_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html Programming language used:FORTRAN, Python No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:52 105 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:599 150 Distribution format:tar.gz Computer:Platform independent Operating system:OS independent RAM:2 Mbytes Classification:3 Does the new version supersede the previous version?:Yes Nature of problem:Molecular mechanics computations and Monte Carlo simulation of proteins. Solution method:Utilizes ECEPP2/3, FLEX, and Lund potentials. Includes Monte Carlo simulation algorithms for canonical, as well as for generalized ensembles. Reasons for new version:API changes and increased functionality. Summary of revisions:Added Lund potential; parameters used in subroutines are now passed as arguments; multi-molecule simulations; parallelized energy calculation for ECEPP; Python bindings. Restrictions:The consumed CPU time increases with the size of protein molecule. Running time:Depends on the size of the simulated molecule.

  12. Experimental characterization of the flux-line lattice in superconducting V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Narayan, J.; Chang, Y.K.; Larson, B.C.; Sekula, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    Several microscopic properties of the flux-line lattice (FLL) in three separate single crystals of V 3 Si have been investigated by means of small-angle neutron diffraction. These low-field FLL characterizations have been correlated with the following material and superconducting properties: (1) the real crystal symmetry parallel to the applied magnetic field; (2) the micro-structure as determined by TEM; (3) magnetic irreversibilities in the mixed state; (4) reversible flux-line motion in ac response; and (5) martensitic structural transformation observed by x-ray diffraction. The three samples, V 3 Si-MP3, -MP4, and -MP5 possessed different defect structures, and this was manifested foremost in the FLL perfection. At low field (B 0 K, only MP3, which is free of second-phase precipitates, showed a highly resolved FLL. Sample MP5 contains a low density of small (200 A) coherent precipitates, and revealed well-defined FLL Bragg peaks for B greater than or equal to 0.5 T, but a highly mosaic, nearly polycrystalline FLL at lower fields. Sample MP4 contained large (500 to 1000 A) incoherent precipitates, and showed only a polycrystalline FLL at low field. In both MP3 and MP5, distinct anisotropic correlations were observed between the FLL morphology and the real-crystal direction along the applied field. The FLL perfection was strongly dependent on the growth history. The peak width history dependence for two different scattering geometries can be qualitatively modeled by proposed flux-pinning mechanisms. Quantitative comparisons with critical current measurements, however, are not totally reconcilable

  13. Sim1 is required for the migration and axonal projections of V3 interneurons in the developing mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklaws, Jake; Deska-Gauthier, Dylan; Jones, Christopher T; Petracca, Yanina L; Liu, Mingwei; Zhang, Han; Fawcett, James P; Glover, Joel C; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    V3 spinal interneurons (INs) are a group of excitatory INs that play a crucial role in producing balanced and stable gaits in vertebrate animals. In the developing mouse spinal cord, V3 INs arise from the most ventral progenitor domain and form anatomically distinctive subpopulations in adult spinal cords. They are marked by the expression of transcription factor Sim1 postmitotically, but the function of Sim1 in V3 development remains unknown. Here, we used Sim1(Cre) ;tdTomato mice to trace the fate of V3 INs in a Sim1 mutant versus control genetic background during development. In Sim1 mutants, V3 INs are produced normally and maintain a similar position and organization as in wild types before E12.5. Further temporal analysis revealed that the V3 INs in the mutants failed to migrate properly to form V3 subgroups along the dorsoventral axis of the spinal cord. At birth, in the Sim1 mutant the number of V3 INs in the ventral subgroup was normal, but they were significantly reduced in the dorsal subgroup with a concomitant increase in the intermediate subgroup. Retrograde labeling at lumbar level revealed that loss of Sim1 led to a reduction in extension of contralateral axon projections both at E14.5 and P0 without affecting ipsilateral axon projections. These results demonstrate that Sim1 is essential for proper migration and the guidance of commissural axons of the spinal V3 INs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acquiring taste in home economics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbak Larsen, Christian

    Objective: To explore how home economics was taught in Denmark before the recent Danish school reform, which also revised the objectives and content of home economics, naming it Food Knowledge (Madkundskab) Methods: Participant observation was done in home economic lessons in two case schools...... appreciated by the group of boys, and others again learned to stick with their idiosyncrasies when pressured by the teacher. Conclusions: Children were acquiring taste in the home economic lessons, but not only the kind of tastes that the teacher had planned for. This leads to reflections on the very complex...... process of taste acquiring and to a call for further research into taste acquiring in complex real life contexts as home economics lessons....

  15. The V3+-V5+ redox equilibrium reaction and magnetic properties of vanadium ions in binary alkali silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.S.; Singh, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation-reduction equilibrium in binary alkali silicate glasses containing V 3+ , V 4+ and V 5+ ions was studied at 1400 degC in air atmosphere. The ionic equation representing the V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium reaction was used to represent the V 3+ -V 4+ -V 5+ redox reactions in glasses as V 4+ ion was an intermediate species. The V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium was found to shift more towards the oxidized state with the increasing ionic radii of alkali ions or with the increasing concentration of alkali oxide in the same series of glasses. The slopes of the straight lines obtained on plotting log ([V 5+ ]/[V 3+ ][pO 2 ] 1/2 ) against mol% R 2 O (R + = Li + , Na + and K + ions) in binary alkali silicate glasses were approximately inversely proportional to the coulombic force between the alkali ions and nonbridging oxygen ions. This indicates the redox equilibrium shifted more towards oxidized state with increasing oxygen ion activity in the glass. The loss of vanadium from the glass melts with the duration of heat treatment was observed due to volatilization at high temperature, which did not influence the V 3+ -V 5+ redox equilibrium. Magnetic susceptibility of the present glasses, measured at room temperature, did not show any sign of paramagnetism which might be due to the presence of smaller concentration of V 3+ and V 4+ ions in the glass. Further, it indicated a strong diamagnetism because of the presence of higher proportion of vanadium in pentavalent state in the glasses. However, the optical absorption spectra or a silicate glass containing ions of vanadium indicated the presence of V 3+ , V 4+ and V 5+ ions. (author)

  16. Electrochemical behavior of LiV3O8 positive electrode in hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletti, S.; Sarapulova, A.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Oswald, S.; Fauth, F.; Giebeler, L.; Bramnik, N. N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Mikhailova, D.

    2018-01-01

    Vanadium(V)-containing oxides show superior intercalation properties for alkaline ions, although the performance of the material strongly depends on its surface morphology. In this work, intercalation activity of LiV3O8, prepared by a conventional solid state synthesis, is demonstrated for the first time in non-aqueous Li,Na-ion hybrid batteries with Na as negative electrode, and different Na/Li ratios in the electrolyte. In the pure Na-ion cell, one Na per formula unit of LiV3O8 can be reversibly inserted at room temperature via a two-step process, while further intercalation leads to gradual amorphisation of the material, with a specific capacity of 190 mAhg-1 after 10 cycles in the potential window of 0.8-3.4 V. Hybrid Li,Na-ion batteries feature simultaneous intercalation of Li+ and Na+ cations into LiV3O8, resulting in the formation of a second phase. Depending on the electrolyte composition, this second phase bears structural similarities either to Li0.7Na0.7V3O8 in Na-rich electrolytes, or to Li4V3O8 in Li-rich electrolytes. The chemical diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Li+ in crystalline LiV3O8 are very close, hence explaining the co-intercalation of these cations. As DFT calculations show, once formed, the Li0.7Na0.7V3O8-type structure favors intercalation of Na+, whereas the LiV3O8-type prefers to accommodate Li+ cations.

  17. Comparative dermatology: acquired digital fibrokeratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz da

    2008-01-01

    Demonstra-se quadro característico de fibroqueratoma digital adquirido em trabalhadora rural de 42 anos de idade, que se compara a corno de rinoceronte.It is presented a case of a 42 year-old white female farmer with the classical feature of acquired digital fibrokeratoma, which is compared to rhinoceros horn.

  18. Ductile-phase toughening in V-V3Si in situ composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.; Strum, M.J.; Bewlay, B.P.; Sutliff, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the room-temperature fracture behavior of ductile-phase-toughened V-V 3 Si in situ composites that were produced by arc melting (AM), cold-crucible induction melting (IM), and cold-crucible directional solidification (DS). Composites were produced containing a wide range of microstructures, interstitial impurity contents, and volume fractions of the ductile V-Si solid solution phase, denoted (V). The fracture toughness of these composites generally increases as the volume fraction of (V) increases, but is strongly influenced by the microstructure, the mechanical properties of the component phases, and the crystallographic orientation of the (V) phase with respect to the maximum principal stress direction. For eutectic composites that have a (V) volume fraction of about 50 pct, the fracture toughness increases with decreasing ''''effective'''' interstitial impurity concentration, [I] = [N] + 1.33 [O] + 9 [H]. As [I] decreases from 1,400 ppm (AM) to 400 ppm (IM), the fracture toughness of the eutectic composites increases from 10 to 20 MPa √m. Further, the fracture toughness of the DS eutectic composites is greater when the crack propagation direction is perpendicular, rather than parallel, to the composite growth direction. These results are discussed in light of conventional ductile-phase bridging theories, which alone cannot fully explain the fracture toughness of V-Si in situ composites

  19. Spectroscopy of V4+ and V3+ ions in a forsterite crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veremeichik, T F; Gaister, A V; Subbotin, Kirill A; Zharikov, Evgeny V; Protopopov, V N; Smirnov, Valerii A

    2000-01-01

    The absorption spectra of impurity vanadium ions in forsterite crystals are studied in the wavelength range from 600 to 2000 nm. It is found that the V 4+ ion in the tetrahedral coordination in crystals grown by the Czochralski technique exhibits strong absorption in the range from 600 to 1200 nm. The intense electron-vibrational progressions in the absorption spectra of impurity d-ions in crystals were observed for the first time at temperatures 300 and 77 K. In the authors' opinion, these progressions appear due to the formation of the oxovanadate complex and distortions of the structural tetrahedron. The forsterite crystal doped with V 4+ ions has a very high absorption cross section (up to 2.1x10 -18 cm 2 ) and a continuous broad absorption band, which makes this crystal promising as a passive laser switch in the range between 600 and 1200 nm. At the same time, the V 4+ ions in the forsterite crystal do not emit luminescence because of a high probability of the nonradiative relaxation of their excited state. It is shown that luminescence of a V:Mg 2 SiO 4 crystal is related to the tetrahedral V 3+ ion. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i which models to use; (ii which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv how to post-process the data; and (v how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1 implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  1. Experimental determination of the temperature-dependent penetration depth in V3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, D.K.; Kerchner, H.R.; Sekula, S.T.; Chang, Y.K.

    1984-03-01

    Small angle neutron diffraction from the flux-line lattice (FLL) in a high quality, single crystal of superconducting V 3 Si has been used to deduce the low-field penetration depth lambda (T). An absolute determination is possible because the FLL form factor F/sub hk/ is essentially single-valued in the scattering vector magnitude absolute value of K/sub hk/, as well as nearly London-like at low field. We obtain lambda (0) = 102 +- 1 nm, 20% to 30% larger than previous determinations of the London penetration depth lambda/sub L/ (0). The temperature dependence of lambda (T) is found to deviate from that of the BCS theory. An assessment of the data indicates the most prominent source of the discrepancy is due to strong electron-phonon coupling, and we find 2Δ(0)/k/sub B/T/sub c/ = 3.88 +- 0.07, in reasonable agreement with values found in the literature

  2. Un canoéiste du CERN vice-champion de France V3

    CERN Multimedia

    Canoe-Kayak Club

    2016-01-01

    Le monde du canoë-kayak slalom à rendez-vous depuis le 23 juillet à Bourg Saint Maurice pour une semaine de compétition pour disputer les championnats de France. Les  hostilités ont commencé par les catégories masters qui comptent d’anciens membres de l’équipe de France et des grands noms qui ont fait la gloire du canoë kayak, comme le duo Adisson-Forgues  champion olympique de canoë biplace en 1996, Philippe Quemerais double champion du monde de canoë biplace en 1999, 2002 et 5ème des jeux d’Athènes et des participants au passé plus modeste comme Olivier Barrière qui représentait le Canoë Kayak CERN en canoë monoplace ‘’C1’’ et en kayak ‘’K1’’ dans la catégorie homme V3 (45-50ans). A l&am...

  3. Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) Level 1 Version 3 (L1V3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Frank T; Cooper, Jonathan; König, Matthias; Moraru, Ion; Nickerson, David; Le Novère, Nicolas; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Smith, Lucian; Waltemath, Dagmar

    2018-03-19

    The creation of computational simulation experiments to inform modern biological research poses challenges to reproduce, annotate, archive, and share such experiments. Efforts such as SBML or CellML standardize the formal representation of computational models in various areas of biology. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) describes what procedures the models are subjected to, and the details of those procedures. These standards, together with further COMBINE standards, describe models sufficiently well for the reproduction of simulation studies among users and software tools. The Simulation Experiment Description Markup Language (SED-ML) is an XML-based format that encodes, for a given simulation experiment, (i) which models to use; (ii) which modifications to apply to models before simulation; (iii) which simulation procedures to run on each model; (iv) how to post-process the data; and (v) how these results should be plotted and reported. SED-ML Level 1 Version 1 (L1V1) implemented support for the encoding of basic time course simulations. SED-ML L1V2 added support for more complex types of simulations, specifically repeated tasks and chained simulation procedures. SED-ML L1V3 extends L1V2 by means to describe which datasets and subsets thereof to use within a simulation experiment.

  4. Source size and time dependence of multifragmentation induced by GeV 3He beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Renshaw Foxford, E.; Hsi, W.; Morley, K.B.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.; Volant, C.; Legrain, R.; Pollacco, E.C.; Korteling, R.G.; Botvina, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Breuer, H.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the source size and time dependence of multifragmentation reactions, small- and large-angle relative velocity correlations between coincident complex fragments have been measured for the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV 3 He+ nat Ag, 197 Au systems. The results support an evolutionary scenario for the fragment emission process in which lighter IMFs (Z approx-lt 6) are emitted from a hot, more dense source prior to breakup of an expanded residue. For the most highly excited residues, for which there is a significant yield of fragments with very soft energy spectra (E/A≤3 MeV), comparisons with an N-body simulation suggest a breakup time of τ∼50 fm/c for the expanded residue. Comparison of these data with both the evolutionary expanding emitting source model and the Copenhagen statistical multifragmentation model shows good agreement for heavier IMF close-quote s formed in the final breakup stage, but only the evolutionary model is successful in accounting for the lighter IMFs. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Production and characterization of human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies from the cells of HIV-1 infected Indian donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrabi Raiees

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs developed from HIV-1 infected donors have enormously contributed to the identification of neutralization sensitive epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The third variable region (V3 is a crucial target on gp120, primarily due to its involvement in co-receptor (CXCR4 or CCR5 binding and presence of epitopes recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Methods Thirty-three HIV-1 seropositive drug naive patients (18 males and 15 females within the age range of 20–57 years (median = 33 years were recruited in this study for mAb production. The mAbs were selected from EBV transformed cultures with conformationally constrained Cholera-toxin-B containing V3C (V3C-CTB fusion protein. We tested the mAbs for their binding with HIV-1 derived proteins and peptides by ELISA and for neutralization against HIV-1 viruses by TZM-bl assays. Results We isolated three anti-V3 mAbs, 277, 903 and 904 from the cells of different individuals. The ELISA binding revealed a subtype-C and subtype-A specific binding of antibody 277 and 903 while mAb 904 exhibited cross reactivity also with subtype-B V3. Epitope mapping of mAbs with overlapping V3 peptides showed exclusive binding to V3 crown. The antibodies displayed high and low neutralizing activity against 2/5 tier 1 and 1/6 tier 2 viruses respectively. Overall, we observed a resistance of the tier 2 viruses to neutralization by the anti-V3 mAbs, despite the exposure of the epitopes recognized by these antibodies on two representative native viruses (Du156.12 and JRFL, suggesting that the affinity of mAb might equally be crucial for neutralization, as the epitope recognition. Conclusions Our study suggests that the anti-V3 antibodies derived from subtype-C infected Indian patients display neutralization potential against tier 1 viruses while such activity may be limited against more resistant tier 2 viruses. Defining the fine epitope

  6. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL: one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis.

  7. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  8. Universal acquired melanosis (Carbon baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 3-year-old girl born with fair complexion which became darker. The color change was insidious in onset at the age of 5 months, asymptomatic and progressive involving the entire body surface. Histopathology revealed increased pigmentation of the epidermal basal layer. Universal acquired melanosis is a rare form of hypermelanosis which was synonymously referred to as "Carbon baby". This is a rare presentation with only one earlier case report.

  9. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  10. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Identification of an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120 influencing neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies and soluble CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, G J; Hemming, A; Bolmstedt, A

    1994-01-01

    affecting viral infectivity in cell culture. We found that the mutated virus lacking an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of gp120 was more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to the V3-loop and neutralization by soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4). Both viruses were equally well neutralized by Con...... in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120. Lack of an N-linked glycan was verified by a mobility enhancement of mutant gp120 in SDS-gel electrophoresis. The mutated virus showed no differences in either gp120 content per infectious unit or infectivity, indicating that the N-linked glycan was neither essential nor...

  12. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon--coupling spectra α 2 F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α 2 F = CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ 0 /k/sub B/T/sub c/approx. =4.6, ΔC/γT/sub c/approx. =2.5--2.6, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/ H/sub c/(0)approx. =2.1, γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 approx. =0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb 3 Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γapprox. =52 mJ/mol K 2 ). The same applies to V 3 Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔC/γT/sub c/, -T/sub c/[dH/sub c/(T)/dT]c/H/sub c/(0), γ[T/sub c//H/sub c/(0)] 2 , and experimental values for Nb 3 Al and Nb 3 Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α 2 F

  13. Thermodynamics of superconducting Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and V3Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, B.; Schachinger, E.; Carbotte, J. P.

    1984-06-01

    We have calculated the superconducting thermodynamic properties for several high-transition-temperature A15 compounds: Nb-Al, Nb-Ge, Nb-Sn, and V-Ga. In our calculations we have used the tunneling electron-phonon-coupling spectra α2F for all four systems considered, and in the case of Nb-Al and Nb-Ge we have also used α2F=CG, where G is the measured generalized phonon density of states and C is a constant. We find that all Nb-based A15 compounds display similar thermodynamic properties, which do not depend explicitly on the band density of states: 2Δ0κBTc≅4.6, ΔCγTc≅2.5-2.6,-Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0)≅2.1, γ[TcHc(0)]2≅0.134, and positive D(t)'s with the maximum value around 0.02. For Nb3Sn we find good agreement between the calculated properties and the old specific-heat experimental results (γ≅52 mJ/mol K2). The same applies to V3Ga, where the theoretical results have been compared with the experiments of Junod et al. However, we do not find good agreement between calculated ΔCγTc, - Tc[dHc(T)dT]TcHc(0), γ[TcHc(0)]2, and experimental values for Nb3Al and Nb3Ge, presumably due to broadened transitions. It is argued that the tunneling experiments underestimate the value of the gap which should be associated with the inverted α2F.

  14. Risk of Breast Cancer with CXCR4-using HIV Defined by V3-Loop Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, James J.; Swenson, Luke C.; Napolitano, Laura A.; Haddad, Mojgan; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Levine, Alexandra; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin; Seaberg, Eric C.; Aouizerat, Bradley; Rabkin, Charles S.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hessol, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the risk of female breast cancer associated with HIV-CXCR4 (X4) tropism as determined by various genotypic measures. Methods A breast cancer case-control study, with pairwise comparisons of tropism determination methods, was conducted. From the Women's Interagency HIV Study repository, one stored plasma specimen was selected from 25 HIV-infected cases near the breast cancer diagnosis date and 75 HIV-infected control women matched for age and calendar date. HIVgp120-V3 sequences were derived by Sanger population sequencing (PS) and 454-pyro deep sequencing (DS). Sequencing-based HIV-X4 tropism was defined using the geno2pheno algorithm, with both high-stringency DS [False-Positive-Rate (FPR 3.5) and 2% X4 cutoff], and lower stringency DS (FPR 5.75, 15% X4 cut-off). Concordance of tropism results by PS, DS, and previously performed phenotyping was assessed with kappa (κ) statistics. Case-control comparisons used exact P-values and conditional logistic regression. Results In 74 women (19 cases, 55 controls) with complete results, prevalence of HIV-X4 by PS was 5% in cases vs 29% in controls (P=0.06, odds ratio 0.14, confidence interval 0.003-1.03). Smaller case-control prevalence differences were found with high-stringency DS (21% vs 36%, P=0.32), lower-stringency DS (16% vs 35%, P=0.18), and phenotyping (11% vs 31%, P=0.10). HIV-X4-tropism concordance was best between PS and lower-stringency DS (93%, κ=0.83). Other pairwise concordances were 82%-92% (κ=0.56-0.81). Concordance was similar among cases and controls. Conclusions HIV-X4 defined by population sequencing (PS) had good agreement with lower stringency deep sequencing and was significantly associated with lower odds of breast cancer. PMID:25321183

  15. Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V3/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a 'genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HBsAg plasmid...

  16. A novel broadband emission phosphor Ca2KMg2V3O12 for white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Junfu; Qiu, Kehui; Li, Junfeng; Li, Wei; Yang, Qian; Li, Junhan

    2010-01-01

    A novel broadband emission phosphor Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 was first synthesized by solution combustion method. The X-ray diffraction showed that Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 phase can be obtained at 600-900 o C through combustion route. The crystal structure of this material was refined by Rietveld method using powder X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in cubic system and belongs to space group Ia3d with z = 8, a = 0.12500 nm. The excitation band of Ca 2 KMg 2 V 3 O 12 peaks at 320 nm in a region between 260 nm and 425 nm, and the emission spectrum exhibits an intense band centered at about 528 nm covering from 400 nm to 800 nm. The colour coordinates of samples prepared at different ignition temperatures are in a range of x = 0.323-0.339, y = 0.430-0.447.

  17. Biological characterization of HIV type 1 envelope V3 regions from mothers and infants associated with perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matala, E; Hahn, T; Yedavalli, V R; Ahmad, N

    2001-12-10

    Our previous study has shown that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope V3 region minor genotypes of infected mothers were transmitted to their infants and predominated initially as a homogeneous virus population in the infants (Ahmad N, Baroudy BM, Baker RC, et al.: J Virol 1995;69:1001-1012). Here we have characterized the biological properties, including cellular tropism, replication efficiency, cytopathic effects, and coreceptor utilization, of these V3 region isolates from mothers and infants. Nineteen V3 region sequences from three mother-infant pairs, including the minor variants of mothers and the major variants of infants as characterized in our previous study, were reciprocally inserted into an HIV-1 infectious molecular clone, pNL4-3, and chimeric viruses were generated by DNA transfections into HeLa cells. Equal amounts of chimeric viruses were then used to infect T lymphocyte cell lines (A3.01 and MT-2), primary blood lymphocytes (PBLs), primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), and coreceptor cell lines. We found that the V3 region chimeras failed to replicate in T lymphocyte cell lines but replicated in MDMs and PBLs, albeit at reduced levels compared with R5 laboratory HIV-1 strains. In addition, the V3 region chimeras were able to infect the HOS-CD4(+)CCR5(+) cell line, suggesting CCR5 coreceptor utilization. Moreover, the V3 region chimeras were unable to induce syncytia in MT-2 cells, indicative of non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) phenotypes. In conclusion, the HIV-1 minor genotypes of infected mothers with macrophage-tropic and NSI or R5 phenotypes are transmitted to their infants and are initially maintained with the same properties.

  18. Constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Chromosomal imbalances can result from numerical or structural anomalies. Numerical chromosomal abnormalities are often referred to as aneuploid conditions. This article focuses on the occurrence of constitutional and acquired autosomal aneuploidy in humans. Topics covered include frequency, mosaicism, phenotypic findings, and etiology. The article concludes with a consideration of anticipated advances that might allow for the development of screening tests and/or lead to improvements in our understanding and management of the role that aneuploidy plays in the aging process and acquisition of age-related and constitutional conditions.

  19. High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Sprouffske

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli's genomic mutation rate affect adaptive evolution. To do so, we evolved multiple replicate populations of asexual E. coli strains engineered to have four different mutation rates for 3000 generations in the laboratory. We measured the ability of evolved populations to grow in their original environment and in more than 90 novel chemical environments. In addition, we subjected the populations to whole genome population sequencing. Although populations with higher mutation rates accumulated greater genetic diversity, this diversity conveyed benefits only for modestly increased mutation rates, where populations adapted faster and also thrived better than their ancestors in some novel environments. In contrast, some populations at the highest mutation rates showed reduced adaptation during evolution, and failed to thrive in all of the 90 alternative environments. In addition, they experienced a dramatic decrease in mutation rate. Our work demonstrates that the mutation rate changes the global balance between deleterious and beneficial mutational effects on fitness. In contrast to most theoretical models, our experiments suggest that this tipping point already occurs at the modest mutation rates that are found in the wild.

  20. Processing, fusogenicity, virion incorporation and CXCR4-binding activity of a feline immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein lacking the two conserved N-glycosylation sites at the C-terminus of the V3 domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Silvia A; Affranchino, José L

    2016-07-01

    The process of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) entry into its target cells is initiated by the association of the surface (SU) subunit of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) with the cellular receptors CD134 and CXCR4. This event is followed by the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes, which is mediated by the transmembrane (TM) subunit of Env. We and others have previously demonstrated that the V3 domain of the SU subunit of Env is essential for CXCR4 binding. Of note, there are two contiguous and highly conserved potential N-glycosylation sites ((418)NST(420) and (422)NLT(424)) located at the C-terminal side of the V3 domain. We therefore decided to study the relevance for Env functions of these N-glycosylation motifs and found that disruption of both of them by introducing the N418Q/N422Q double amino acid substitution drastically impairs Env processing into the SU and TM subunits. Moreover, the simultaneous mutation of these N-glycosylation sites prevents Env incorporation into virions and Env-mediated cell-to-cell fusion. Notably, a recombinant soluble version of the SU glycoprotein carrying the double amino acid replacement N418Q/N422Q at the V3 C-terminal side binds to CXCR4 with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type SU.

  1. Acquired Duodenal Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chien

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic intramural hematoma of the duodenum is a rare cause of acquired duodenal obstruction in children, and a high degree of suspicion is therefore required to make an early and accurate diagnosis. We report a 6-year-old boy whose epigastrium was impacted by the handlebar of his bicycle during a traffic accident. The boy then experienced epigastralgia. Six days later, progressive bilious vomiting suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction was noted. Imaging studies revealed a large hematoma extending from the fourth portion of the duodenum to the jejunum. Conservative methods of treatment failed to manage his condition. He underwent laparoscopic surgery to evacuate the hematoma. We also report a case of duodenal obstruction in a previously healthy 2-year-old girl who presented for the first time with acute symptoms of proximal intestinal obstruction. Contrast examinations showed apparent barium retention over the stomach and proximal duodenum. She underwent surgery due to persistent obstruction, and a mushroom-like foreign body was detected embedded in the orifice of the windsock duodenal web. After duodenoduodenostomy and removal of the bezoar, she had a smooth recovery and tolerated feeding well. We conclude that blunt abdominal trauma and incomplete duodenal obstruction, such as that caused by duodenal web, should be considered as possible causes of acquired proximal gastrointestinal obstruction in previously healthy children, despite their rarity.

  2. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  4. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Structure-guided Design and Immunological Characterization of Immunogens Presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop on a CTB Scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Totrov; X Jiang; X Kong; S Cohen; C Krachmarov; A Salomon; C Williams; M Seaman; R Abagyan; et al.

    2011-12-31

    V3 loop is a major neutralizing determinant of the HIV-1 gp120. Using 3D structures of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), complete V3 in the gp120 context, and V3 bound to a monoclonal antibody (mAb), we designed two V3-scaffold immunogen constructs (V3-CTB). The full-length V3-CTB presenting the complete V3 in a structural context mimicking gp120 was recognized by the large majority of our panel of 24 mAbs. The short V3-CTB presenting a V3 fragment in the conformation observed in the complex with the 447-52D Fab, exhibited high-affinity binding to this mAb. The immunogens were evaluated in rabbits using DNA-prime/protein-boost protocol. Boosting with the full-length V3-CTB induced high anti-V3 titers in sera that potently neutralize multiple HIV virus strains. The short V3-CTB was ineffective. The results suggest that very narrow antigenic profile of an immunogen is associated with poor Ab response. An immunogen with broader antigenic activity elicits robust Ab response.

  6. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....

  7. Somatic Mutations and Clonal Hematopoiesis in Aplastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Hosokawa, Kohei; Makishima, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenichi; Townsley, Danielle; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Sato, Yusuke; Liu, Delong; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Wu, Colin O; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Clemente, Michael J; Kataoka, Keisuke; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Nagata, Yasunobu; Katagiri, Takamasa; Kon, Ayana; Sanada, Masashi; Scheinberg, Phillip; Miyano, Satoru; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Nakao, Shinji; Young, Neal S; Ogawa, Seishi

    2015-07-02

    In patients with acquired aplastic anemia, destruction of hematopoietic cells by the immune system leads to pancytopenia. Patients have a response to immunosuppressive therapy, but myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia develop in about 15% of the patients, usually many months to years after the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. We performed next-generation sequencing and array-based karyotyping using 668 blood samples obtained from 439 patients with aplastic anemia. We analyzed serial samples obtained from 82 patients. Somatic mutations in myeloid cancer candidate genes were present in one third of the patients, in a limited number of genes and at low initial variant allele frequency. Clonal hematopoiesis was detected in 47% of the patients, most frequently as acquired mutations. The prevalence of the mutations increased with age, and mutations had an age-related signature. DNMT3A-mutated and ASXL1-mutated clones tended to increase in size over time; the size of BCOR- and BCORL1-mutated and PIGA-mutated clones decreased or remained stable. Mutations in PIGA and BCOR and BCORL1 correlated with a better response to immunosuppressive therapy and longer and a higher rate of overall and progression-free survival; mutations in a subgroup of genes that included DNMT3A and ASXL1 were associated with worse outcomes. However, clonal dynamics were highly variable and might not necessarily have predicted the response to therapy and long-term survival among individual patients. Clonal hematopoiesis was prevalent in aplastic anemia. Some mutations were related to clinical outcomes. A highly biased set of mutations is evidence of Darwinian selection in the failed bone marrow environment. The pattern of somatic clones in individual patients over time was variable and frequently unpredictable. (Funded by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and others.).

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization, formation mechanism and electrochemical property of V3O7.H2O single-crystal nanobelts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifu; Liu Xinghai; Xie Guangyong; Yu Lei; Yi Shengping; Hu Mingjie; Huang Chi

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystal V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts have been successfully synthesized in a large-scale by ethanol reducing of the commercial V 2 O 5 powder via a facile hydrothermal approach, without any templates and surfactants. The as-prepared V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts are up to several tens of micrometers in length, about 100 nm in width and about 20 nm in thickness in average, respectively. The 'Hydrating-Reducing-Exfoliating-Splitting' (HRES) mechanism was proposed to describe the formation of the V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts. In our research progress, it was found that the ratio of EtOH/H 2 O, the reaction time and categories of the reducing agents had significant effects on the morphology and composition of as-obtained products. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of V 3 O 7 .H 2 O nanobelts were preformed and the results revealed that a lithium battery using those nanobelts as the positive electrode exhibited a high initial discharge capacity of 373 mAh/g.

  9. Bulk superconducting gap of V_3Si studied by low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Sugawara, K.; Toyota, N.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy of A15 compound V_3Si. • We found a sharp quasiparticle peak due to superconducting-gap opening. • The surface metallic component is negligibly small in the bulk-sensitive measurement. • We show that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor. - Abstract: We have performed low-energy ultrahigh-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (PES) of A15 compound V_3Si with a xenon-plasma discharge lamp to elucidate the bulk superconducting gap. Below the superconducting transition temperature (T_c = 15.9 K), we found a sharp quasiparticle peak at the Fermi level in the PES spectrum. The gap spectrum is well fitted by a single s-wave superconducting-gap function together with a dip structure at ∼30 meV suggestive of a strong electron-phonon coupling. The anomalous in-gap state previously observed in the PES measurement with high-energy photons is absent or negligibly small in the present bulk-sensitive measurement. The present PES result shows that V_3Si is a single-gap s-wave superconductor.

  10. A novel strategy for efficient production of anti-V3 human scFvs against HIV-1 clade C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Production of human monoclonal antibodies that exhibit broadly neutralizing activity is needed for preventing HIV-1 infection, however only a few such antibodies have been generated till date. Isolation of antibodies by the hybridoma technology is a cumbersome process with fewer yields. Further, the loss of unstable or slowly growing clones which may have unique binding specificities often occurs during cloning and propagation and the strongly positive clones are often lost. This has been avoided by the process described in this paper, wherein, by combining the strategy of EBV transformation and recombinant DNA technology, we constructed human single chain variable fragments (scFvs against the third variable region (V3 of the clade C HIV-1 envelope. Results An antigen specific phage library of 7000 clones was constructed from the enriched V3- positive antibody secreting EBV transformed cells. By ligation of the digested scFv DNA into phagemid vector and bio panning against the HIV-1 consensus C and B V3 peptides followed by random selection of 40 clones, we identified 15 clones that showed V3 reactivity in phage ELISA. DNA fingerprinting analysis and sequencing showed that 13 out of the 15 clones were distinct. Expression of the positive clones was tested by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. All the 13 anti-V3 scFvs showed cross-reactivity against both the clade C and B V3 peptides and did not show any reactivity against other unrelated peptides in ELISA. Preliminary neutralization assays indicated varying degrees of neutralization of clade C and B viruses. EBV transformation, followed by antigen selection of lines to identify specific binders, enabled the selection of phage from un-cloned lines for scFv generation, thus avoiding the problems of hybridoma technology. Moreover, as the clones were pretested for antigen binding, a comparatively small library sufficed for the selection of a considerable number of unique antigen binding

  11. Involvement of both the V2 and V3 Regions of the CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope in Reduced Sensitivity to Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yosuke; Foda, Mohamed; Matsushita, Shuzo; Harada, Shinji

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether C-C chemokines play an important role in the phenotype switch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage during the course of an infection in vivo, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α-resistant variants were isolated from CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in vitro. The selected variants displayed reduced sensitivities to MIP-1α (fourfold) through CCR5-expressing CD4-HeLa/long terminal repeat–β-galactosidase (MAGI/CCR5) cells. The variants were also resistant to other natural ligands for CCR5, namely, MIP-1β (>4-fold) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) (6-fold). The env sequence analyses revealed that the variants had amino acid substitutions in V2 (valine 166 to methionine) and V3 (serine 303 to glycine), although the same V3 substitution appeared in virus passaged without MIP-1α. A single-round replication assay using a luciferase reporter HIV-1 strain pseudotyped with mutant envelopes confirmed that mutations in both V2 and V3 were necessary to confer the reduced sensitivity to MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES. However, the double mutant did not switch its chemokine receptor usage from CCR5 to CXCR4, indicating the altered recognition of CCR5 by this mutant. These results indicated that V2 combined with the V3 region of the CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to C-C chemokines without altering the ability to use chemokine receptors. PMID:10644351

  12. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical

  13. Acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-12-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG).

  14. And the Winner is - Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    New entrants to a market tend to be superior to incumbents in originating radical innovations. We provide a new explanation for this phenomenon, based on markets for technology. It applies in industries where successful entrepreneurial firms, or their technologies, are acquired by incumbents...... that then commercialize the innovation. To this end we analyze an innovation game between one incumbent and a large number of entrants. In the first stage, firms compete to develop innovations of high quality. They do so by choosing, at equal cost, the success probability of their R&D approach, where a lower probability...... the incumbent performs the least radical project. Entrants pick pairwise different projects; the bigger the number of entrants, the more radical the most radical project. Generally, entrants tend to choose more radical R&D approaches and generate the highest value innovation in case of success. We illustrate...

  15. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  16. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Sanchez-Sandoval

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA and low-voltage (LVA activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  17. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30–40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers. PMID:29474447

  18. Contribution of S4 segments and S4-S5 linkers to the low-voltage activation properties of T-type CaV3.3 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Sandoval, Ana Laura; Herrera Carrillo, Zazil; Díaz Velásquez, Clara Estela; Delgadillo, Dulce María; Rivera, Heriberto Manuel; Gomora, Juan Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels contain four highly conserved transmembrane helices known as S4 segments that exhibit a positively charged residue every third position, and play the role of voltage sensing. Nonetheless, the activation range between high-voltage (HVA) and low-voltage (LVA) activated calcium channels is around 30-40 mV apart, despite the high level of amino acid similarity within their S4 segments. To investigate the contribution of S4 voltage sensors for the low-voltage activation characteristics of CaV3.3 channels we constructed chimeras by swapping S4 segments between this LVA channel and the HVA CaV1.2 channel. The substitution of S4 segment of Domain II in CaV3.3 by that of CaV1.2 (chimera IIS4C) induced a ~35 mV shift in the voltage-dependence of activation towards positive potentials, showing an I-V curve that almost overlaps with that of CaV1.2 channel. This HVA behavior induced by IIS4C chimera was accompanied by a 2-fold decrease in the voltage-dependence of channel gating. The IVS4 segment had also a strong effect in the voltage sensing of activation, while substitution of segments IS4 and IIIS4 moved the activation curve of CaV3.3 to more negative potentials. Swapping of IIS4 voltage sensor influenced additional properties of this channel such as steady-state inactivation, current decay, and deactivation. Notably, Domain I voltage sensor played a major role in preventing CaV3.3 channels to inactivate from closed states at extreme hyperpolarized potentials. Finally, site-directed mutagenesis in the CaV3.3 channel revealed a partial contribution of the S4-S5 linker of Domain II to LVA behavior, with synergic effects observed in double and triple mutations. These findings indicate that IIS4 and, to a lesser degree IVS4, voltage sensors are crucial in determining the LVA properties of CaV3.3 channels, although the accomplishment of this function involves the participation of other structural elements like S4-S5 linkers.

  19. Multicenter Evaluation of the Vitek MS v3.0 System for the Identification of Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Jenna; Slechta, E Sue; Barker, Adam P; Miranda, Edwin; Babady, N Esther; Tang, Yi-Wei; Gibas, Connie; Wiederhold, Nathan; Sutton, DeAnna; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2018-02-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality affecting primarily immunocompromised patients. While fungal identification to the species level is critical to providing appropriate therapy, it can be slow and laborious and often relies on subjective morphological criteria. The use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry has the potential to speed up and improve the accuracy of identification. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the accuracy of the Vitek MS v3.0 system in identifying 1,601 clinical mold isolates compared to identification by DNA sequence analysis and supported by morphological and phenotypic testing. Among the 1,519 isolates representing organisms in the v3.0 database, 91% ( n = 1,387) were correctly identified to the species level. An additional 27 isolates (2%) were correctly identified to the genus level. Fifteen isolates were incorrectly identified, due to either a single incorrect identification ( n = 13) or multiple identifications from different genera ( n = 2). In those cases, when a single identification was provided that was not correct, the misidentification was within the same genus. The Vitek MS v3.0 was unable to identify 91 (6%) isolates, despite repeat testing. These isolates were distributed among all the genera. When considering all isolates tested, even those that were not represented in the database, the Vitek MS v3.0 provided a single correct identification 98% of the time. These findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS v3.0 system is highly accurate for the identification of common molds encountered in the clinical mycology laboratory. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Glucokinase gene mutations (MODY 2) in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, Sekar; Jahnavi, Suresh; Balamurugan, Kandasamy; Ranjani, Harish; Sonya, Jagadesan; Goswami, Soumik; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan

    2014-03-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene cause a hyperglycemic condition termed maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 2 or GCK-MODY. This is characterized by mild, stable, usually asymptomatic, fasting hyperglycemia that rarely requires pharmacological intervention. The aim of the present study was to screen for GCK gene mutations in Asian Indian subjects with mild hyperglycemia. Of the 1,517 children and adolescents of the population-based ORANGE study in Chennai, India, 49 were found to have hyperglycemia. These children along with the six patients referred to our center with mild hyperglycemia were screened for MODY 2 mutations. The GCK gene was bidirectionally sequenced using BigDye(®) Terminator v3.1 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) chemistry. In silico predictions of the pathogenicity were carried out using the online tools SIFT, Polyphen-2, and I-Mutant 2.0 software programs. Direct sequencing of the GCK gene in the patients referred to our Centre revealed one novel mutation, Thr206Ala (c.616A>G), in exon 6 and one previously described mutation, Met251Thr (c.752T>C), in exon 7. In silico analysis predicted the novel mutation to be pathogenic. The highly conserved nature and critical location of the residue Thr206 along with the clinical course suggests that the Thr206Ala is a MODY 2 mutation. However, we did not find any MODY 2 mutations in the 49 children selected from the population-based study. Hence prevalence of GCK mutations in Chennai is MODY 2 mutations from India and confirms the importance of considering GCK gene mutation screening in patients with mild early-onset hyperglycemia who are negative for β-cell antibodies.

  1. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  2. Improved humoral and cellular immune response against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatites B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A.; Nielsen, H.V.; Bryder, K.

    1998-01-01

    response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V2/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL...... responses were induced in all mice against both MN V3 and HBsAg already within the first 3 weeks, lasting at least 11 weeks. Thus, HBsAg acts as a `genetic vaccine adjuvant' augmenting and accelerating the cellular and humoral immune response against the inserted MN V3 loop. Such chimeric HIV-HbsAg plasmid...

  3. An evolutionary-network model reveals stratified interactions in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The third variable loop (V3 of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 envelope is a principal determinant of antibody neutralization and progression to AIDS. Although it is undoubtedly an important target for vaccine research, extensive genetic variation in V3 remains an obstacle to the development of an effective vaccine. Comparative methods that exploit the abundance of sequence data can detect interactions between residues of rapidly evolving proteins such as the HIV-1 envelope, revealing biological constraints on their variability. However, previous studies have relied implicitly on two biologically unrealistic assumptions: (1 that founder effects in the evolutionary history of the sequences can be ignored, and; (2 that statistical associations between residues occur exclusively in pairs. We show that comparative methods that neglect the evolutionary history of extant sequences are susceptible to a high rate of false positives (20%-40%. Therefore, we propose a new method to detect interactions that relaxes both of these assumptions. First, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of extant sequences by maximum likelihood, shifting focus from extant sequence variation to the underlying substitution events. Second, we analyze the joint distribution of substitution events among positions in the sequence as a Bayesian graphical model, in which each branch in the phylogeny is a unit of observation. We perform extensive validation of our models using both simulations and a control case of known interactions in HIV-1 protease, and apply this method to detect interactions within V3 from a sample of 1,154 HIV-1 envelope sequences. Our method greatly reduces the number of false positives due to founder effects, while capturing several higher-order interactions among V3 residues. By mapping these interactions to a structural model of the V3 loop, we find that the loop is stratified into distinct evolutionary clusters. We extend our model to

  4. Deletion mutations of bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, Yeikou

    1975-01-01

    Resolution of mutation mechanism with structural changes of DNA was discussed through the studies using bacteriophage lambda. One of deletion mutations inductions of phage lambda is the irradiation of ultraviolet ray. It is not clear if the inductions are caused by errors in reparation of ultraviolet-induced damage or by the activation of int gene. Because the effective site of int gene lies within the regions unnecessary for existing, it is considered that int gene is connected to deletion mutations induction. A certain system using prophage complementarity enables to detect deletion mutations at essential hereditary sites and to solve the relations of deletion mutations with other recombination system, DNA reproduction and repairment system. Duplication and multiplication of hereditary elements were discussed. If lambda deletion mutations of the system, which can control recombination, reproduction and repairment of added DNA, are constructed, mutations mechanism with great changes of DNA structure can be solved by phage lambda. (Ichikawa, K.)

  5. Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, M; Pasmans, F; Vranckx, K; De Pauw, N; Vande Maele, L; Vyt, Philip; Vandersmissen, Tamara; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2017-08-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seagull to acquire arkla exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Seagull Energy Corp., Houston, has agreed to acquire Arkla Exploration Inc. from Arkla Inc., Shreveport, La., for about $402 million. The transaction-expected to net Seagull reserves totaling about 578 bcf of gas and 7.3 million bbl of oil and condensate-would more than double Seagull's proved reserves and nearly double its total assets. According to Seagull's 1991 annual report, the company's reserves at yearend 1991 were estimated at 401.2 bcf of gas equivalent (bcfe), including 335.1 bcf of gas and 11 million bbl of oil. Independent engineers at yearend 1991 estimated Arkla's proved reserves at 635 bcf of gas and 9 million bbl of liquids. Seagull Chairman Barry J. Galt said the company plans to keep many of Arkla Exploration's employees and to establish a meaningful presence in Shreveport. Arkla's already got good people in Shreveport and an operating base, a Seagull official said. We want to move in, put our name on the door, and continue the good operations Arkla already has. Seagull has lined up financing for the acquisition from a group of major U.S. banks. A new credit facility-consisting of a $475 million line of revolving credit and a $150 million 3 year term loan-will replace an exiting $225 million line of revolving credit. Boards of both companies have approved the deal, which Seagull and Arkla hope to close before yearend, subject to regulatory approvals and purchase price adjustments

  7. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  8. Comparison of EuroMISE Minimal Data Model for Cardiology and HL7 V3 DAM: Cardiology Rel. 2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seidl, Libor; Hanzlíček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 33-36 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : data model * EuroMISE MDMC * HL7 V3 DAM cardiology * comparison Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Seidl_en.pdf

  9. The comparison of MODIS-Aqua (C5 and CALIOP (V2 & V3 aerosol optical depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Redemann

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We assess the consistency between instantaneously collocated level-2 aerosol optical depth (AOD retrievals from MODIS-Aqua (C5 and CALIOP (Version 2 & 3, comparing the standard MODIS AOD (MYD04_L2 data to the AOD calculated from CALIOP aerosol extinction profiles for both the previous release (V2 and the latest release (V3 of CALIOP data. Based on data collected in January 2007, we investigate the most useful criteria for screening the MODIS and CALIOP retrievals to achieve the best agreement between the two data sets. Applying these criteria to eight months of data (Jan, Apr, Jul, Oct 2007 and 2009, we find an order of magnitude increase for the CALIOP V3 data density (by comparison to V2, that is generally accompanied by equal or better agreement with MODIS AOD. Differences in global, monthly mean, over-ocean AOD (532 nm between CALIOP and MODIS range between 0.03 and 0.04 for CALIOP V3, with CALIOP generally biased low, when all available data from both sensors are considered. Root-mean-squares (RMS differences in instantaneously collocated AOD retrievals by the two instruments are reduced from values ranging between 0.14 and 0.19 using the unscreened V3 data to values ranging from 0.09 to 0.1 for the screened data. A restriction to scenes with cloud fractions less than 1% (as defined in the MODIS aerosol retrievals generally results in improved correlation (R2>0.5, except for the month of July when correlations remain relatively lower. Regional assessments show hot spots in disagreement between the two sensors in Asian outflow during April and off the coast of South Africa in July.

  10. Specialist committee V.3 entitled "Materials and Fabrication Technology" of the 18th International Ship and Offshore Structure Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Caprace, Jean-David; Schipperen, I.; Andric, J.; Brennan, D.; Chou, C.; Gordo, J.; Lee, J.; Li, S.; Liu, S.; Okada, T.; Pires, F.; Yu, M.

    2012-01-01

    After years of growth the global economic crisis has deeply affected the shipping industry. There are however clear signs of recovery in the last year. The shipbuilding industry has realised that, due to the crisis, new innovative designs and design and production methods are necessary to decrease operational costs, production costs and emissions, whilst meeting the changing rules and regulations. In this report ISSC committee V.3 discusses recent development in materials and fabrication tech...

  11. KMS fusion system resource accounting and performance measurement system for RSX11M V3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downward, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Version 3.2 of the KMS FUSION accounting system is aimed at providing the user of RSX11M V3.2 with a versatile tool for measuring the performance of the operating system, tuning the system, and providing sufficient usage statistics so that the system manager can implement chargeback accounting if it is required by the installation. Sufficient hooks are provided so that the intrepid user can expand the system substantially beyond what is currently provided

  12. Modulation of Ca(v)3.2 T-type calcium channel permeability by asparagine-linked glycosylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ondáčová, K.; Karmažínová, M.; Lazniewska, Joanna; Weiss, Norbert; Lacinová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2016), s. 175-184 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : calcium channel * Ca(v)3.2 * gating * glycosylation * T-type channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  13. A new wire fabrication processing using high Ga content Cu-Ga compound in V3Ga compound superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Nishimura, Arata; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Iijima, Yasuo; Takeuchi, Takao

    2007-01-01

    A superconducting magnet system is also one of the important components in an advanced magnetic confinement fusion reactor. Then it is required to have a higher magnetic field property to confine and maintain steady-sate burning deuterium (D)-tritium (T) fusion plasma in the large interspace during the long term operation. Burning plasma is sure to generate 14 MeV fusion neutrons during deuterium-tritium reaction, and fusion neutrons will be streamed and penetrated to superconducting magnet through large ports with damping neutron energy. Therefore, it is necessary to consider carefully not only superconducting property but also neutron irradiation property in superconducting materials for use in a future fusion reactor, and a 'low activation and high field superconducting magnet' will be required to realize the fusion power plant beyond International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). V-based superconducting material has a much shorter decay time of induced radioactivity compared with the Nb-based materials. We thought that the V 3 Ga compound was one of the most promising materials for the 'low activation and higher field superconductors' for an advanced fusion reactor. However, the present critical current density (J c ) property of V 3 Ga compound wire is insufficient for apply to fusion magnet applications. We investigated a new route PIT process using a high Ga content Cu-Ga compound in order to improve the superconducting property of the V 3 Ga compound wire. (author)

  14. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated.

  15. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  16. Disease evolution and outcomes in familial AML with germline CEBPA mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawana, Kiran; Wang, Jun; Renneville, Aline

    2015-01-01

    collected from 10 CEBPA-mutated families, representing 24 members with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whole-exome (WES) and deep sequencing were performed to genetically profile tumors and define patterns of clonal evolution. Germline CEBPA mutations clustered within the N-terminal and were highly penetrant......, with AML presenting at a median age of 24.5 years (range, 1.75-46 years). In all diagnostic tumors tested (n = 18), double CEBPA mutations (CEBPAdm) were detected, with acquired (somatic) mutations preferentially targeting the C-terminal. Somatic CEBPA mutations were unstable throughout the disease course...

  17. Computational study of HIV gp120 as a target for polyanionic entry inhibitors: Exploiting the V3 loop region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis R Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Multiple approaches are being utilized to develop therapeutics to treat HIV infection. One approach is designed to inhibit entry of HIV into host cells, with a target being the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Polyanionic compounds have been shown to be effective in inhibiting HIV entry, with a mechanism involving electrostatic interactions with the V3 loop of gp120 being proposed. In this study, we applied computational methods to elucidate molecular interactions between the repeat unit of the precisely alternating polyanion, Poly(4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylate-alt-maleic acid (DCSti-alt-MA and the V3 loop of gp120 from strains of HIV against which these polyanions were previously tested (IIIb, BaL, 92UG037, JR-CSF as well as two strains for which gp120 crystal structures are available (YU2, 2B4C. Homology modeling was used to create models of the gp120 proteins. Using monomers of the gp120 protein, we applied extensive molecular dynamics simulations to obtain dominant morphologies that represent a variety of open-closed states of the V3 loop to examine the interaction of 112 ligands of the repeating units of DCSti-alt-MA docked to the V3 loop and surrounding residues. Using the distance between the V1/V2 and V3 loops of gp120 as a metric, we revealed through MD simulations that gp120 from the lab-adapted strains (BaL and IIIb, which are more susceptible to inhibition by DCSti-alt-MA, clearly transitioned to the closed state in one replicate of each simulation set, whereas none of the replicates from the Tier II strains (92UG037 and JR-CSF did so. Docking repeat unit microspecies to the gp120 protein before and after MD simulation enabled identification of residues that were key for binding. Notably, only a few residues were found to be important for docking both before and after MD simulation as a result of the conformational heterogeneity provided by the simulations. Consideration of the residues that were consistently involved in interactions

  18. Structure-controlled synthesis and electrochemical properties of NH_4V_3O_8 as cathode material for Lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yayi; Huang, Jianfeng; Li, Jiayin; Cao, Liyun; Xu, Zhanwei; Wu, Jianpeng; Cao, Shanshan; Hu, Hailing

    2016-01-01

    NH_4V_3O_8 flower, nanobelt, lath and sheet were synthesized using a facile microwave hydrothermal method. The formation mechanism of NH_4V_3O_8 with various structures was proposed. As an cathode in Li-ion battery, the NH_4V_3O_8 nanobelt with one-dimensional structure as well as nanosized morphology, presents excellent cycling stability and enhanced rate capability when comparing with other NH_4V_3O_8 structures. Further study finds that the NH_4V_3O_8 nanobelt could provide high Li ion diffusion, excellent structural stability and good reversibility during the charge/discharge process, indicating a strong connection between the morphology and the electrochemical performance of NH_4V_3O_8 cathode.

  19. Development and chamber evaluation of the MCM v3.2 degradation scheme for β-caryophyllene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A degradation mechanism for β-caryophyllene has recently been released as part of version 3.2 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2, describing the gas phase oxidation initiated by reaction with ozone, OH radicals and NO3 radicals. A detailed overview of the construction methodology is given, within the context of reported experimental and theoretical mechanistic appraisals. The performance of the mechanism has been evaluated in chamber simulations in which the gas phase chemistry was coupled to a representation of the gas-to-aerosol partitioning of 280 multi-functional oxidation products. This evaluation exercise considered data from a number of chamber studies of either the ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene, or the photo-oxidation of β-caryophyllene/NOx mixtures, in which detailed product distributions have been reported. This includes the results of a series of photo-oxidation experiments performed in the University of Manchester aerosol chamber, also reported here, in which a comprehensive characterization of the temporal evolution of the organic product distribution in the gas phase was carried out, using Chemical Ionisation Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (CIR-TOF-MS, in conjunction with measurements of NOx, O3 and SOA mass loading. The CIR-TOF-MS measurements allowed approximately 45 time-resolved product ion signals to be detected, which were assigned on the basis of the simulated temporal profiles of the more abundant MCM v3.2 species, and their probable fragmentation patterns. The evaluation studies demonstrate that the MCM v3.2 mechanism provides an acceptable description of β-caryophyllene degradation under the chamber conditions considered, with the temporal evolution of the observables identified above generally being recreated within the uncertainty bounds of key parameters within the mechanism. The studies have highlighted a number of areas of uncertainty or discrepancy

  20. Emergence of clonal hematopoiesis in the majority of patients with acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, Daria V; Perdigones, Nieves; Perin, Juan C; Olson, Timothy S; Ye, Wenda; Roth, Jacquelyn J; Lind, Curt; Cattier, Carine; Li, Yimei; Hartung, Helge; Paessler, Michele E; Frank, Dale M; Xie, Hongbo M; Cross, Shanna; Cockroft, Joshua D; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Monos, Dimitrios; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica

    2015-04-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is a nonmalignant disease caused by autoimmune destruction of early hematopoietic cells. Clonal hematopoiesis is a late complication, seen in 20-25% of older patients. We hypothesized that clonal hematopoiesis in aAA is a more general phenomenon, which can arise early in disease, even in younger patients. To evaluate clonal hematopoiesis in aAA, we used comparative whole exome sequencing of paired bone marrow and skin samples in 22 patients. We found somatic mutations in 16 patients (72.7%) with a median disease duration of 1 year; of these, 12 (66.7%) were patients with pediatric-onset aAA. Fifty-eight mutations in 51 unique genes were found primarily in pathways of immunity and transcriptional regulation. Most frequently mutated was PIGA, with seven mutations. Only two mutations were in genes recurrently mutated in myelodysplastic syndrome. Two patients had oligoclonal loss of the HLA alleles, linking immune escape to clone emergence. Two patients had activating mutations in key signaling pathways (STAT5B (p.N642H) and CAMK2G (p.T306M)). Our results suggest that clonal hematopoiesis in aAA is common, with two mechanisms emerging-immune escape and increased proliferation. Our findings expand conceptual understanding of this nonneoplastic blood disorder. Future prospective studies of clonal hematopoiesis in aAA will be critical for understanding outcomes and for designing personalized treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural characterization of Li1.2v3o8 insertion electrodes by single-crystal x-ray-diffraction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Picciotto, LA

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of Li1.2V3O8 and a lithiated product Li4.0V3O8 have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The structure refinement of Li1.2V308 confirms that of Li1+xV3O8(x almost-equal-to 0) reported by Wadsley thirty...

  2. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla López-Causapé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  3. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Del Barrio-Tofiño, Ester; Oliver, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility) between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  4. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  5. FLT3 mutation incidence and timing of origin in a population case series of pediatric leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in FLT3 result in activated tyrosine kinase activity, cell growth stimulation, and a poor prognosis among various subtypes of leukemia. The causes and timing of the mutations are not currently known. We evaluated the prevalence and timing of origin of FLT3 mutations in a population series of childhood leukemia patients from Northern California. Methods We screened and sequenced FLT3 mutations (point mutations and internal tandem duplications, ITDs among 517 childhood leukemia patients, and assessed whether these mutations occurred before or after birth using sensitive "backtracking" methods. Results We determined a mutation prevalence of 9 of 73 acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs, 12% and 9 of 441 acute lymphocytic leukemias (ALLs, 2%. Among AMLs, FLT3 mutations were more common in older patients, and among ALLs, FLT3 mutations were more common in patients with high hyperdiploidy (3.7% than those without this cytogenetic feature (1.4%. Five FLT3 ITDs, one deletion mutation, and 3 point mutations were assessed for their presence in neonatal Guthrie spots using sensitive real-time PCR techniques, and no patients were found to harbor FLT3 mutations at birth. Conclusions FLT3 mutations were not common in our population-based patient series in California, and patients who harbor FLT3 mutations most likely acquire them after they are born.

  6. Clonal hematopoiesis in acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-07-21

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in aplastic anemia (AA) has been closely linked to the evolution of late clonal disorders, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which are common complications after successful immunosuppressive therapy (IST). With the advent of high-throughput sequencing of recent years, the molecular aspect of CH in AA has been clarified by comprehensive detection of somatic mutations that drive clonal evolution. Genetic abnormalities are found in ∼50% of patients with AA and, except for PIGA mutations and copy-neutral loss-of-heterozygosity, or uniparental disomy (UPD) in 6p (6pUPD), are most frequently represented by mutations involving genes commonly mutated in myeloid malignancies, including DNMT3A, ASXL1, and BCOR/BCORL1 Mutations exhibit distinct chronological profiles and clinical impacts. BCOR/BCORL1 and PIGA mutations tend to disappear or show stable clone size and predict a better response to IST and a significantly better clinical outcome compared with mutations in DNMT3A, ASXL1, and other genes, which are likely to increase their clone size, are associated with a faster progression to MDS/AML, and predict an unfavorable survival. High frequency of 6pUPD and overrepresentation of PIGA and BCOR/BCORL1 mutations are unique to AA, suggesting the role of autoimmunity in clonal selection. By contrast, DNMT3A and ASXL1 mutations, also commonly seen in CH in the general population, indicate a close link to CH in the aged bone marrow, in terms of the mechanism for selection. Detection and close monitoring of somatic mutations/evolution may help with prediction and diagnosis of clonal evolution of MDS/AML and better management of patients with AA. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  7. Decrease in specific micronutrient intake in colorectal cancer patients with tumors presenting Ki-ras mutation

    OpenAIRE

    JORDI SALAS; NURIA LASO; SERGI MAS; M. JOSE LAFUENTE; XAVIER CASTERAD; MANUEL TRIAS; ANTONIO BALLESTA; RAFAEL MOLINA; CARLOS ASCASO; SHICHUN ZHENG; JOHN K. WIENCKE; AMALIA LAFUENTE

    2004-01-01

    Decrease in specific micronutrient intake in colorectal cancer patients with tumors presenting Ki-ras mutation BACKGROUND: The diversity of the Mediterranean diet and the heterogeneity of acquired genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) led us to examine the possible association between dietary factors and mutations, such as Ki-ras mutations, in genes implicated in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was based on 246 cases and 296 controls. For th...

  8. Current V3 genotyping algorithms are inadequate for predicting X4 co-receptor usage in clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Dong, Winnie; Chan, Dennison; Sing, Tobias; Swanstrom, Ronald; Jensen, Mark; Pillai, Satish; Good, Benjamin; Harrigan, P Richard

    2007-09-12

    Integrating CCR5 antagonists into clinical practice would benefit from accurate assays of co-receptor usage (CCR5 versus CXCR4) with fast turnaround and low cost. Published HIV V3-loop based predictors of co-receptor usage were compared with actual phenotypic tropism results in a large cohort of antiretroviral naive individuals to determine accuracy on clinical samples and identify areas for improvement. Aligned HIV envelope V3 loop sequences (n = 977), derived by bulk sequencing were analyzed by six methods: the 11/25 rule; a neural network (NN), two support vector machines, and two subtype-B position specific scoring matrices (PSSM). Co-receptor phenotype results (Trofile Co-receptor Phenotype Assay; Monogram Biosciences) were stratified by CXCR4 relative light unit (RLU) readout and CD4 cell count. Co-receptor phenotype was available for 920 clinical samples with V3 genotypes having fewer than seven amino acid mixtures (n = 769 R5; n = 151 X4-capable). Sensitivity and specificity for predicting X4 capacity were evaluated for the 11/25 rule (30% sensitivity/93% specificity), NN (44%/88%), PSSM(sinsi) (34%/96%), PSSM(x4r5) (24%/97%), SVMgenomiac (22%/90%) and SVMgeno2pheno (50%/89%). Quantitative increases in sensitivity could be obtained by optimizing the cut-off for methods with continuous output (PSSM methods), and/or integrating clinical data (CD4%). Sensitivity was directly proportional to strength of X4 signal in the phenotype assay (P < 0.05). Current default implementations of co-receptor prediction algorithms are inadequate for predicting HIV X4 co-receptor usage in clinical samples, particularly those X4 phenotypes with low CXCR4 RLU signals. Significant improvements can be made to genotypic predictors, including training on clinical samples, using additional data to improve predictions and optimizing cutoffs and increasing genotype sensitivity.

  9. Fabrication of β-CoV3O8 nanorods embedded in graphene sheets and their application for electrochemical charge storage electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Lee, Ilbok; Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hea-Min; Baek, Seungmin; Kwon, O.-Pil; Kumta, Prashant N.; Yoon, Songhun; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2018-05-01

    The fabrication of β-CoV3O8 nanorods embedded in graphene sheets and their application as electrochemical charge storage electrodes is reported. From the surfactant treatment of raw graphite, graphene was directly prepared and its nanocomposite with β-CoV3O8 nanorods distributed between graphene layers (β-CoV3O8-G) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method. When applied as an anode in lithium-ion batteries, the β-CoV3O8-G anode exhibits greatly improved charge and discharge capacities of 790 and 627 mAh · g-1, respectively, with unexpectedly high initial efficiency of 82%. The observed discharge capacity reflected that at least 3.7 mol of Li+ is selectively accumulated within the β-CoV3O8 phase (LixCoV3O8, x > 3.7), indicative of significantly improved Li+ uptake when compared with aggregated β-CoV3O8 nanorods. Moreover, very distinct peak plateaus and greatly advanced cycling performance are observed, showing more improved Li+ storage within the β-CoV3O8 phase. As a supercapacitor electrode, moreover, our composite electrode exhibits very high peak pseudocapacitances of 2.71 F · cm-2 and 433.65 F · g-1 in the β-CoV3O8 phase with extremely stable cycling performance. This remarkably enhanced performance in the individual electrochemical charge storage electrodes is attributed to the novel phase formation of β-CoV3O8 and its optimized nanocomposite structure with graphene, which yield fast electrical conduction through graphene, easy accessibility of ions through the open multilayer nanosheet structure, and a relaxation space between the β-CoV3O8-G.

  10. Interaction of a 29 MeV 3He particle beam with a Cl4C vapour target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lleo Morilla, A.

    1963-01-01

    The interactions of a 29 MeV 3 H e particles beam on a Cl 4 C vapour target have been studied using the photographic method. differential cross-sections for the Cl( 3 He, 3 He)Cl elastic scattering and 1 2C( 3 He, α) 1 1C pick-up reaction are shown; the corresponding angular distributions in the centre-of-mass system have been compared with the predictions of optical model and A.B.M. theories. (Author) 21 refs

  11. And the Winner is – Acquired

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Joachim; Rønde, Thomas; Wagner, Marcus

    value in case of success—that is, a more radical innovation. In the second stage, successful entrants bid to be acquired by the incumbent. We assume that entrants cannot survive on their own, so being acquired amounts to a ‘prize’ in a contest. We identify an equilibrium in which the incumbent chooses...

  12. Acquired Inventors’ Productivity after Horizontal Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Massimo G.; Moreira, Solon; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    Effective integration of the R&D functions of the acquired and acquiring firms is essential for knowledge recombination after acquisition. However, prior research suggests that the post-acquisition integration process often damages the inventive labor force. We argue that an examination of the mu...

  13. Acquired intrathoracic kidney in thoracic kyphosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Sadayuki; Kawashima, Akira; Ohuchida, Toshiyuki; Russell, W.J.

    1986-12-01

    Two cases of acquired intrathoracic kidney associated with thoracic kyphosis are reported, with emphasis on the radiographic manifestations. A search of the scientific literature disclosed that the acquired type of this abnormality is rare. The importance of recognizing this entity from a differential diagnostic standpoint is underscored. (author)

  14. Mutation and premating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  15. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments generated by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for point mutation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranenko, N.I.; Chung, C.N.; Zhu, Y.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A point mutation can be associated with the pathogenesis of inherited or acquired diseases. Laser desorption mass spectrometry coupled with allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was first used for point mutation detection. G551D is one of several mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene present in 1-3% of the mutant CFTR alleles in most European populations. In this work, two different approaches were pursued to detect G551D point mutation in the cystic fibrosis gene. The strategy is to amplify the desired region of DNA template by PCR using two primers that overlap one base at the site of the point mutation and which vary in size. If the two primers based on the normal sequence match the target DNA sequence, a normal PCR product will be produced. However, if the alternately sized primers that match the mutant sequence recognize the target DNA, an abnormal PCR product will be produced. Thus, the mass spectrometer can be used to identify patients that are homozygous normal, heterozygous for a mutation or homozygous abnormal at a mutation site. Another approach to identify similar mutations is the use of sequence specific restriction enzymes which respond to changes in the DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry is used to detect the length of the restriction fragments by digestion of a PCR generated target fragment. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Irradiation and annealing effects of deuteron irradiated NbTi and V3Ga multifilamentary composite wires at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibt, E.

    1975-01-01

    To study the effects of low-temperature irradiation on technological type II-superconductors, NbTi and V 3 Ga multifilamentary composite wires, the critical current I/sub c/ and transition temperature T/sub c/ were measured before and after irradiation with 50-MeV deuterons at 10 and 15 0 K, respectively. While the irradiation effects on I/sub c/ and T/sub c/ of NbTi are substantially unaffected, the V 3 Ga wires undergo a reduction in I/sub c/ of about 50 percent and T/sub c/ decreases from 14.7 +- 0.1 0 K to 12.3 +- 0.1 0 K at a total deuteron flux of 2.6 x 10 17 cm -2 . Annealing experiments at room temperature and 100 0 C show only a small recovery of the superconducting properties up to 15 percent. The field dependence of the volume pinning force densities P/sub V/ was determined and the results are shown to be consistent with a qualitative dynamic pinning model

  18. Irradiation defects in the A-15 compounds V3Si and Nb3Ge: effects on superconducting and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rullier-Albenque, F.

    1984-11-01

    In the first part the mechanisms of atomic displacements under electron irradiation in these diatomic ordered solids are studied. In the case of superconducting alloys, simultaneous measurements of electrical resistivity at 20 K and critical temperature allow to distinguish the influence of point defects created in each sub-lattice and antisite defects. The threshold energies have been determined. In the case of V 3 Si, Frenkel pairs have been characterized by their specific resistivities and the decrease of Tsub(c) by vanadium vacancies. The Tsub(c) results obtained on V 3 Si also reveal the existence of a threshold electron energy to produce antisite defects. The second part is a comparative study of irradiation effects in Nb 3 Ge with very different kinds of projectiles: 2.5 MeV electrons, fast neutrons or 100 MeV heavy ions (uranium fission fragments). For these three types of irradiation, resistivity and critical temperature damage can be described in terms of point defects: Frenkel pairs and antisite defects. In the third part we have studied the influence of 2.5 MeV electron or fission fragment-irradiation on the resistivity versus temperature curves of Nb 3 Ge. For both projectiles, negative temperature coefficients of resistivity drho)/dT, were measured and correlated with resistivity at 280 K and 25 K. These anomalous transport properties are related to an electron localization process assisted by electron-phonon and electron-electron interaction [fr

  19. Fine definition of the CXCR4-binding region on the V3 loop of feline immunodeficiency virus surface glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Ying Hu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is shared by primary and laboratory-adapted strains of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV for viral entry. Our previous studies implicated a contiguous nine-amino-acid region of the V3 loop of the FIV envelope surface as important in CXCR4 binding and virus entry. The binding is specific for CXCR4 since it can be inhibited by AMD3100, a selective CXCR4 inhibitor. Additional site-directed mutagenesis was used to further reveal the key residues. Binding studies indicated that basic residues R395, K397, R399 as well as N398 are critical for CXCR4 binding. The effect of other amino acid residues on receptor binding depends on the type of amino acid residue substituted. The binding study results were confirmed on human CXCR4-expressing SupT1 cells and correlated with entry efficiency using a virus entry assay. Amino acid residues critical for CXCR4 are not critical for interactions with the primary binding receptor CD134, which has an equivalent role as CD4 for HIV-1 binding. The ELISA results show that W394 and W400 are crucial for the recognition by neutralizing anti-V3 antibodies. Since certain strains of HIV-1 also use CXCR4 as the entry receptor, the findings make the feline model attractive for development of broad-based entry antagonists and for study of the molecular mechanism of receptor/virus interactions.

  20. Altered thalamocortical rhythmicity and connectivity in mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in unconsciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Lee, Seongwon; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2015-01-01

    In unconscious status (e.g., deep sleep and anesthetic unconsciousness) where cognitive functions are not generated there is still a significant level of brain activity present. Indeed, the electrophysiology of the unconscious brain is characterized by well-defined thalamocortical rhythmicity. Here we address the ionic basis for such thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. In particular, we address the role of CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels, which are richly expressed in thalamic neurons. Toward this aim, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking CaV3.1 channels (CaV3.1 knockout) during unconsciousness induced by ketamine or ethanol administration. Our findings indicate that CaV3.1 KO mice displayed attenuated low-frequency oscillations in thalamocortical loops, especially in the 1- to 4-Hz delta band, compared with control mice (CaV3.1 WT). Intriguingly, we also found that CaV3.1 KO mice exhibited augmented high-frequency oscillations during unconsciousness. In a behavioral measure of unconsciousness dynamics, CaV3.1 KO mice took longer to fall into the unconscious state than controls. In addition, such unconscious events had a shorter duration than those of control mice. The thalamocortical interaction level between mediodorsal thalamus and frontal cortex in CaV3.1 KO mice was significantly lower, especially for delta band oscillations, compared with that of CaV3.1 WT mice, during unconsciousness. These results suggest that the CaV3.1 channel is required for the generation of a given set of thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. Further, that thalamocortical resonant neuronal activity supported by this channel is important for the control of vigilance states. PMID:26056284

  1. High mutation rates limit evolutionary adaptation in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Mutation is fundamental to evolution, because it generates the genetic variation on which selection can act. In nature, genetic changes often increase the mutation rate in systems that range from viruses and bacteria to human tumors. Such an increase promotes the accumulation of frequent deleterious or neutral alleles, but it can also increase the chances that a population acquires rare beneficial alleles. Here, we study how up to 100-fold increases in Escherichia coli’s genomic mutation rate affect adaptive evolution. To do so, we evolved multiple replicate populations of asexual E. coli strains engineered to have four different mutation rates for 3000 generations in the laboratory. We measured the ability of evolved populations to grow in their original environment and in more than 90 novel chemical environments. In addition, we subjected the populations to whole genome population sequencing. Although populations with higher mutation rates accumulated greater genetic diversity, this diversity conveyed benefits only for modestly increased mutation rates, where populations adapted faster and also thrived better than their ancestors in some novel environments. In contrast, some populations at the highest mutation rates showed reduced adaptation during evolution, and failed to thrive in all of the 90 alternative environments. In addition, they experienced a dramatic decrease in mutation rate. Our work demonstrates that the mutation rate changes the global balance between deleterious and beneficial mutational effects on fitness. In contrast to most theoretical models, our experiments suggest that this tipping point already occurs at the modest mutation rates that are found in the wild. PMID:29702649

  2. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in Korean patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Wonjun; Lee, Dae Ho; Lee, Jae Cheol; Choi, Chang-Min; Rho, Jin Kyung; Jang, Se Jin; Park, Young Soo; Chun, Sung-Min; Kim, Woo Sung; Lee, Jung-Shin; Kim, Sang-We

    2013-01-01

    Despite an initial good response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), resistance to treatment eventually develops. Although several resistance mechanisms have been discovered, little data exist regarding Asian patient populations. Among patients at a tertiary referral hospital in Korea who initially responded well to gefitinib and later acquired resistance to treatment, we selected those with enough tissues obtained before EGFR-TKI treatment and after the onset of resistance to examine mutations by mass spectrometric genotyping technology (Asan-Panel), MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and analysis of AXL status, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and neuroendocrine markers by immunohistochemistry. Twenty-six patients were enrolled, all of whom were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations (19del: 16, L858R: 10) except one (squamous cell carcinoma with 19del). Secondary T790M mutation was detected in 11 subjects (42.3%) and four of these patients had other co-existing resistance mechanisms; increased AXL expression was observed in 5/26 patients (19.2%), MET gene amplification was noted in 3/26 (11.5%), and one patient acquired a mutation in the phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA) gene. None of the patients exhibited EMT; however, increased CD56 expression suggesting neuroendocrine differentiation was observed in two patients. Interestingly, conversion from L858R-mutant to wild-type EGFR occurred in one patient. Seven patients (26.9%) did not exhibit any known resistance mechanisms. Patients with a T790M mutation showed a more favorable prognosis. The mechanisms and frequency of acquired EGFR-TKI resistance in Koreans are comparable to those observed in Western populations; however, more data regarding the mechanisms that drive EGFR-TKI resistance are necessary

  3. Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscone, Mark J.; Miamidian, John L.; Muchiri, John M.; Baik, Sarah S.W.; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.

    2006-01-01

    The bridging sheet region of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein interacts with the major virus coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined the impact of mutations in and adjacent to the bridging sheet region of an X4 tropic HIV-1 on membrane fusion and entry inhibitor susceptibility. When the V3-loop of this Env was changed so that CCR5 was used, the effects of these same mutations on CCR5 use were assayed as well. We found that coreceptor-binding site mutations had greater effects on CXCR4-mediated fusion and infection than when CCR5 was used as a coreceptor, perhaps related to differences in coreceptor affinity. The mutations also reduced use of the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and CCR8 to varying degrees, indicating that the bridging sheet region is important for the efficient utilization of both major and minor HIV coreceptors. As seen before with a primary R5 virus strain, bridging sheet mutations increased susceptibility to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779, which correlated with CCR5 binding efficiency. Bridging sheet mutations also conferred increased susceptibility to the CXCR4 ligand AMD-3100 in the context of the X4 tropic Env. However, these mutations had little effect on the rate of membrane fusion and little effect on susceptibility to enfuvirtide, a membrane fusion inhibitor whose activity is dependent in part on the rate of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner

  4. Corpus callosum demyelination associated with acquired stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Barbara McElwee; Guitar, Barry; Solomon, Andrew

    2018-04-21

    Compared with developmental stuttering, adult onset acquired stuttering is rare. However, several case reports describe acquired stuttering and an association with callosal pathology. Interestingly, these cases share a neuroanatomical localisation also demonstrated in developmental stuttering. We present a case of adult onset acquired stuttering associated with inflammatory demyelination within the corpus callosum. This patient's disfluency improved after the initiation of immunomodulatory therapy. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Identification of an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120 influencing neutralization by anti-V3 antibodies and soluble CD4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, G J; Hemming, A; Bolmstedt, A

    1994-01-01

    Glycosylation is necessary for HIV-1 gp120 to attain a functional conformation, and individual N-linked glycans of gp120 are important, but not essential, for replication of HIV-1 in cell culture. We have constructed a mutant HIV-1 infectious clone lacking a signal for N-linked glycosylation...... in the V1-loop of HIV-1 gp120. Lack of an N-linked glycan was verified by a mobility enhancement of mutant gp120 in SDS-gel electrophoresis. The mutated virus showed no differences in either gp120 content per infectious unit or infectivity, indicating that the N-linked glycan was neither essential nor...... affecting viral infectivity in cell culture. We found that the mutated virus lacking an N-linked glycan in the V1-loop of gp120 was more resistant to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies to the V3-loop and neutralization by soluble recombinant CD4 (sCD4). Both viruses were equally well neutralized by Con...

  6. Magnetic Field Enhancement of Heat Transport in the 2D Heisenberg Antiferromagnet K_2V_3O_8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, B. C.; Lumsden, M. D.; Nagler, S. E.; Mandrus, D.; Jin, R.

    2002-03-01

    The thermal conductivity and heat capacity of single crystals of the spin 1/2 quasi-2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet K_2V_3O8 have been measured from 1.9 to 300 K in magnetic fields from 0 to 8T. The data are consistent with resonant scattering of phonons by magnons near the zone boundary and heat transport by long wavelength magnons. The magnon heat transport only occurs after the small anisotropic gap at k=0 is closed by the application of a magnetic field. The low temperature thermal conductivity increases linearly with magnetic field after the gap has been closed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is managed by UT-Battelle LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-00R22725.

  7. Magnetic characteristics of M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groń, T.; Blonska-Tabero, A.; Filipek, E.; Stokłosa, Z.; Duda, H.; Sawicki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The unusual physical characteristics of the multicomponent oxide systems renewed the interest as the potential cathode materials in high-energy cells. Since the earlier magnetic characteristics were not entirely conclusive, we report the results of dc magnetic measurements including higher harmonics of ac magnetic susceptibility of the M2FeV3O11 (M = Mg, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni) compounds. Ferrimagnetic long-range and antiferromagnetic short-range interactions for all compounds under study at low temperatures as well as superparamagnetic-like behavior with the blocking temperature of 29 K and the freezing parameter of 0.013 were observed. These effects are discussed within the framework of superexchange and double exchange magnetic interactions as well as the mixed valence band of iron ions.

  8. Surface Hardening of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn Alloy after Cyclic Hydrogenation and Subsequent Solution Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Po Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The as-received and preheated (1000°C-30 min. and 500°C-30 min. sheets of Ti-15V-3Al-3Cr-3Sn alloy (Ti-153 were treated according to the predetermined process including a cyclic electrolytic hydrogenation (at 50 mA/cm2 for 1 hr and at 5 mA/cm2 for 10 hrs combining a subsequent solution treatment to see the effects of various operating parameters on the evolution of microstructure and the variations of hardness. The hardening effect deriving from solid-solution strengthening of hydrogen eventually overrode that from precipitation hardening. The maximum hardness elevation was from 236.9 to 491.1 VHN.

  9. Study of different coupling agents in the conjugation of a V3-based synthetic MAP to carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, L J; Iglesias, E; Aguilar, J C; Quintana, D; Garay, H E; Duarte, C; Reyes, O

    2001-09-01

    The conjugation of synthetic peptides to carrier proteins is a widely used method for immunological studies. Different coupling agents have been described to form the conjugate with carrier proteins. In this paper, we demonstrate that the antibody response toward V3-based synthetic MAPs derived from HIV-1, JY1 isolate, conjugated to two different carrier proteins using either m-maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS) or beta-maleimidopropionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MPS), or succinic anhydride (SA) show different behaviors. An excellent anti-JY1 response without a strong response to the coupling agent is observed in the case of succinic anhydride spacer. In contrast, MBS produces total abrogation of the antibody response with a high response toward the coupling agent.

  10. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  11. Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In October 2014, CMS began reducing Medicare payments for subsection (d) hospitals that rank in the worst performing quartile with respect to hospital-acquired...

  12. Enhancing Medicares Hospital Acquired Conditions Policy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The current Medicare policy of non-payment to hospitals for Hospital Acquired Conditions (HAC) seeks to avoid payment for preventable complications identified within...

  13. Common acquired kidney diseases in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5. Common acquired kidney diseases in children. Examination of the urine is probably the most important investigation ... result from the same streptococcal infection. .... musculoskeletal system. ... Prediction of histopathology from clinical.

  14. Genetic Mutations in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many different types of genetic mutations are found in cancer cells. This infographic outlines certain types of alterations that are present in cancer, such as missense, nonsense, frameshift, and chromosome rearrangements.

  15. AIP mutations and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Potorac, Iulia; Beckers, Pablo; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2017-06-01

    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Earlier diagnosis of AIP-related acromegaly-gigantism cases enables timely clinical evaluation and treatment, thereby improving outcomes in terms of excessive linear growth and acromegaly comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Ying, Bei-Wen; Tsuru, Saburo; Iijima, Leo; Suzuki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Oyake, Ayana; Kobayashi, Hisaka; Someya, Yuki; Narisawa, Dai; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution experiment in duplicated lineages. The cells from the continuously fitness-increasing evolutionary process were subjected to genome sequencing and analyzed at both the population and single-colony levels. Although the dynamics of genome mutation fixation were complicated by the combination of the stochastic appearance of adaptive mutations and clonal interference, the mutation fixation in the population was simply linear over generations. Each genome in the population accumulated 1.6 synonymous and 3.1 non-synonymous neutral mutations, on average, by the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate, while only a single genome in the population occasionally acquired an adaptive mutation. The neutral mutations that preexisted on the single genome hitchhiked on the domination of the adaptive mutation. The successive fixation processes of the 128 mutations demonstrated that hitchhiking and not genetic drift were responsible for the coincidence of the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate in the genome with the fixation rate of neutral mutations in the population. The molecular clock of neutral mutations to the fitness-increasing evolution suggests that the numerous neutral mutations observed in molecular phylogenetic trees may not always have been fixed in fitness-steady evolution but in adaptive evolution.

  17. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Kishimoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution experiment in duplicated lineages. The cells from the continuously fitness-increasing evolutionary process were subjected to genome sequencing and analyzed at both the population and single-colony levels. Although the dynamics of genome mutation fixation were complicated by the combination of the stochastic appearance of adaptive mutations and clonal interference, the mutation fixation in the population was simply linear over generations. Each genome in the population accumulated 1.6 synonymous and 3.1 non-synonymous neutral mutations, on average, by the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate, while only a single genome in the population occasionally acquired an adaptive mutation. The neutral mutations that preexisted on the single genome hitchhiked on the domination of the adaptive mutation. The successive fixation processes of the 128 mutations demonstrated that hitchhiking and not genetic drift were responsible for the coincidence of the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate in the genome with the fixation rate of neutral mutations in the population. The molecular clock of neutral mutations to the fitness-increasing evolution suggests that the numerous neutral mutations observed in molecular phylogenetic trees may not always have been fixed in fitness-steady evolution but in adaptive evolution.

  18. How are Concepts of Infinity Acquired?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of infinity have been subjects of dispute since antiquity. The main problems of this paper are: is the mind able to acquire a concept of infinity? and: how are concepts of infinity acquired? The aim of this paper is neither to say what the meanings of the word “infinity” are nor what infinity is and whether it exists. However, those questions will be mentioned, but only in necessary extent.

  19. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  20. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  1. Differences in microbiological profile between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Teresa; Ribeiro, Orquídea; Aragão, Irene; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Sarmento, António

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological profiles were analysed and compared for intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections according to place of acquisition: community-acquired, with a separate analysis of healthcare-associated, and hospital-acquired. Prospective cohort study performed at a university tertiary care hospital over 1 year. Inclusion criteria were meeting the Centers for Disease Control definition of intra-abdominal, urinary, respiratory and bloodstream infections. A total of 1035 patients were included in the study. More than 25% of intra-abdominal infections were polymicrobial; multi-drug resistant gram-negatives were 38% in community-acquired, 50% in healthcare-associated and 57% in hospital-acquired. E. coli was the most prevalent among urinary infections: 69% in community-acquired, 56% in healthcare-associated and 26% in hospital-acquired; ESBL producers' pathogens were 10% in healthcare-associated and 3% in community-acquired and hospital-acquired. In respiratory infections Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most prevalent in community-acquired (54%) and MRSA in healthcare-associated (24%) and hospital-acquired (24%). A significant association was found between MRSA respiratory infection and hospitalization in the previous year (adjusted OR = 6.3), previous instrumentation (adjusted OR = 4.3) and previous antibiotic therapy (adjusted OR = 5.7); no cases were documented among patients without risk factors. Hospital mortality rate was 10% in community-acquired, 14% in healthcare-associated and 19% in hospital-acquired infection. This study shows that healthcare-associated has a different microbiologic profile than those from community or hospital acquired for the four main focus of infection. Knowledge of this fact is important because the existing guidelines for community-acquired are not entirely applicable for this group of patients.

  2. Preleukemic and second-hit mutational events in an acute myeloid leukemia patient with a novel germline RUNX1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Isaac Ks; Lee, Joanne; Ng, Christopher; Kosmo, Bustamin; Chiu, Lily; Seah, Elaine; Mok, Michelle Meng Huang; Tan, Karen; Osato, Motomi; Chng, Wee-Joo; Yan, Benedict; Tan, Lip Kun

    2018-01-01

    Germline mutations in the RUNX1 transcription factor give rise to a rare autosomal dominant genetic condition classified under the entity: Familial Platelet Disorders with predisposition to Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (FPD/AML). While several studies have identified a myriad of germline RUNX1 mutations implicated in this disorder, second-hit mutational events are necessary for patients with hereditary thrombocytopenia to develop full-blown AML. The molecular picture behind this process remains unclear. We describe a patient of Malay descent with an unreported 7-bp germline RUNX1 frameshift deletion, who developed second-hit mutations that could have brought about the leukaemic transformation from a pre-leukaemic state. These mutations were charted through the course of the treatment and stem cell transplant, showing a clear correlation between her clinical presentation and the mutations present. The patient was a 27-year-old Malay woman who presented with AML on the background of hereditary thrombocytopenia affecting her father and 3 brothers. Initial molecular testing revealed the same novel RUNX1 mutation in all 5 individuals. The patient received standard induction, consolidation chemotherapy, and a haploidentical stem cell transplant from her mother with normal RUNX1 profile. Comprehensive genomic analyses were performed at diagnosis, post-chemotherapy and post-transplant. A total of 8 mutations ( RUNX1 , GATA2 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR , 2 PHF6 and CDKN2A ) were identified in the pre-induction sample, of which 5 remained ( RUNX1 , DNMT3A , BCORL1 , BCOR and 1 out of 2 PHF6 ) in the post-treatment sample and none were present post-transplant. In brief, the 3 mutations which were lost along with the leukemic cells at complete morphological remission were most likely acquired leukemic driver mutations that were responsible for the AML transformation from a pre-leukemic germline RUNX1 -mutated state. On the contrary, the 5 mutations that persisted post

  3. Mutator activity in Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneyour, Y.; Koltin, Y. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Microbiology)

    1983-01-01

    A strain with an elevated level of spontaneous mutations and an especially high rate of reversion at a specific locus (pab/sup -/) was identified. The mutator trait is recessive. UV sensitivity and the absence of a UV-specific endonucleolytic activity were associated with the enhancement of the mutation rate in mutator strains. The endonuclease associated with the regulation of the mutation rate also acted on single-stranded DNA. The molecular weight of this enzyme is about 38,000 daltons.

  4. A study on tumor suppressor genes mutations associated with different pathological colorectal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, S.N.A.

    2011-01-01

    ). Purified DNAs which were extracted from the tissue samples, PCR amplified and subjected to the following examinations: 1- Detection of KLF6 mutations by using SSCP-silver staining technique and DNA sequencing by using BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing kit using Biosystem automated sequencer (The ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer). 2- Determination of Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 10 p15 regions (KLF6-locus) by using three micro satellite markers which includes KLFM1, KLFM2, and KLFM4. Data from the present study could be summarized as follows: In G I, 55.3% of cases had abnormalities in KLF6 gene (mutations and LOH). LOH was detected in 29% of investigated samples while KLF6 mutations were detected in 44% of cases. In G II, 57% of cases had abnormalities in KLF6 gene (mutations and LOH). LOH was detected in 55% of investigated samples while mutations of KLF6 gene were detected in 26% of investigated samples. In G III, 50% of samples had abnormalities in KLF6 gene (mutations and LOH). LOH was detected in 36.4% of investigated samples while mutations of KLF6 gene were detected in 27.3% of investigated samples. Most of the mutations reported were of the missence and /or Trans version type and were almost in exon 2. In conclusion, our data highlight for the first time a role of KLF6 gene in the progression of Egyptian colorectal carcinogenesis where the results suggest that KLF6 gene alteration is involved in the progression of Egyptian colorectal carcinogenesis from both sporadic adenomatous polyps and ulcerative colitis pathways. Detecting mutational sites differing from that detected in western populations may be a characteristic of Egyptian CRC due to environmental and genetic factors. The detections of such genetic abnormalities may also be used as a marker for the early uncovering of colon cancer cases. It is recommended that those who have pre-neoplastic colon lesions in which the KLF6 gene has mutated or lost its heterozygosity should experience more

  5. RANCANG BANGUN SOLAR CHARGE CONTROLLER MENGGUNAKAN SYNCRONOUS NON-INVERTING BUCK-BOOST CONVERTER PADA PANEL SURYA 50 WATT PEAK (WP) BERBASIS ARDUINO NANO V3.0

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrubi, Irfan; Bintoro, Jusuf; Djatmiko, Wisnu

    2018-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang bangun rangkaian synchronous non-inverting buck-boost converter (SNIBBC) untuk solar charge controller guna melakukan manajemen pengisian baterai dan manajemen beban dengan menggunakan Arduino Nano V3.0 ATMega 328. Rancang bangun rangkaian synchronous non-inverting buck-boost converter (SNIBBC) menggunakan empat mosfet yang bekerja secara saling singkron dengan dikontrol oleh pulsa PWM dari Timer1 arduino nano V3.0 ATMega 328 dengan frekuensi 10KHz men...

  6. [Chronologic analysis of clonal evolution in acquired aplastic anemia and sMDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizato, Tetsuichi

    2016-04-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a prototype of idiopathic bone marrow failure, which is caused by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic progenitors but is also characterized by frequent evolution to clonal myeloid disorders, such as myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia. However, the chronological behavior of the clonality and its link to myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia has not been fully explored. To define the clonality and its chronological behavior in AA, we performed targeted sequencing (N=439) in cases with AA. Somatic mutations were detected in 1/3 of our cases. Mutations were most frequently found in DNMT3A, followed by BCOR, PIGA and ASXL1. The prevalence of mutations increased with age. The clone sizes in DNMT3A and ASXL1 were prone to increase, whereas those of BCOR and PIGA were more likely to decrease or remain stable. Mutations in PIGA, BCOR and BCORL1 correlated with a better response to immunosuppressive therapy and more favorable survival. On the other hand, other mutations were associated with worse outcomes. The chronological dynamics of clonality showed marked variability and were not necessarily associated with prognosis.

  7. Dynamics of ASXL1 mutation and other associated genetic alterations during disease progression in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T-C; Hou, H-A; Chou, W-C; Tang, J-L; Kuo, Y-Y; Chen, C-Y; Tseng, M-H; Huang, C-F; Lai, Y-J; Chiang, Y-C; Lee, F-Y; Liu, M-C; Liu, C-W; Liu, C-Y; Yao, M; Huang, S-Y; Ko, B-S; Hsu, S-C; Wu, S-J; Tsay, W; Chen, Y-C; Tien, H-F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mutations of the additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1) gene were identified in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, ASXL1 mutations were identified in 106 (22.7%) of the 466 patients with primary MDS based on the French-American-British (FAB) classification and 62 (17.1%) of the 362 patients based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. ASXL1 mutation was closely associated with trisomy 8 and mutations of RUNX1, EZH2, IDH, NRAS, JAK2, SETBP1 and SRSF2, but was negatively associated with SF3B1 mutation. Most ASXL1-mutated patients (85%) had concurrent other gene mutations at diagnosis. ASXL1 mutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for survival. Sequential studies showed that the original ASXL1 mutation remained unchanged at disease progression in all 32 ASXL1-mutated patients but were frequently accompanied with acquisition of mutations of other genes, including RUNX1, NRAS, KRAS, SF3B1, SETBP1 and chromosomal evolution. On the other side, among the 80 ASXL1-wild patients, only one acquired ASXL1 mutation at leukemia transformation. In conclusion, ASXL1 mutations in association with other genetic alterations may have a role in the development of MDS but contribute little to disease progression

  8. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Spectroscopy of V4+ and V3+ ions in a forsterite crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veremeichik, T. F.; Gaister, A. V.; Zharikov, Evgeny V.; Protopopov, V. N.; Smirnov, Valerii A.; Subbotin, Kirill A.

    2000-05-01

    The absorption spectra of impurity vanadium ions in forsterite crystals are studied in the wavelength range from 600 to 2000 nm. It is found that the V4+ ion in the tetrahedral coordination in crystals grown by the Czochralski technique exhibits strong absorption in the range from 600 to 1200 nm. The intense electron-vibrational progressions in the absorption spectra of impurity d-ions in crystals were observed for the first time at temperatures 300 and 77 K. In the authors' opinion, these progressions appear due to the formation of the oxovanadate complex and distortions of the structural tetrahedron. The forsterite crystal doped with V4+ ions has a very high absorption cross section (up to 2.1×10-18 cm2) and a continuous broad absorption band, which makes this crystal promising as a passive laser switch in the range between 600 and 1200 nm. At the same time, the V4+ ions in the forsterite crystal do not emit luminescence because of a high probability of the nonradiative relaxation of their excited state. It is shown that luminescence of a V:Mg2SiO4 crystal is related to the tetrahedral V3+ ion.

  9. Penyusunan Panduan Pengelolaan Keamanan Informasi Untuk Firewall Configuration Berdasarkan Kerangka Kerja PCI DSS v.3.1 dan COBIT 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Puji Santoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information security systems must be protected from all attacks and interuptions by an unauthorized user. Firewall is a mechanism that can be applied to improve the security information which done by filtering data packets that enter and exit the network. IT governance is needed to manage good information security. IT governance can use to make the arrangement of guidelines for the management of information security. This research aims to create a reference guide to information security such as an information security management guide for firewall configuration that refers to the framework of PCI DSS v.3.1 and COBIT 5 by taking a case study at the DSIK Universitas Airlangga.Arrangement of guidelines for information security management for firewall configuration will be done in three stages. The first stage was the arrangement of information security management procedures for firewall configuration which consists of mapping analysis stage process, arrangement procedure’s stage and determining roles and job description’s stage. In the second stage was the verification of the information security management guidance using a questionnaire. The third stage was improvement of the information security management guidance. These improvements was done to correct deficiencies that were produced when verification. The verification results show that 42.86% of respondents said that management guidelines are operationally very easy to be implemented.

  10. Effect of helium and DPA's on tensile properties of V-5Ti and V-3Ti-1Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van; Vries, E. de.

    1991-02-01

    Specimens of the alloys V-5Ti and V-3Ti-1Si were irradiated in a mixed-spectrum fission reactor in reactor grade liquid sodium to a fast neutron fluence of 3.8 x 10 25 m -2 (E>0.1 MeV), which corresponds to 6.2 dpa. Irradiation temperatures were 500, 600 and 700 deg C. Some of the specimens were pre-injected with helium to 100 appm at approx 50 deg C by means of a cyclotron. In addition, part of the specimens were doped with boron-10 to concentrations of 100 and 600 appm. Tensile testing, at temperatures equal to the irradiation temperatures and at a strain rate of 10 -4 s -1 , showed an increase in strength and reduced elongation at 500 deg C and to a lesser extent at 600 deg C. These changes are caused by displacement damage. Helium, pre-injected as well as produced by transmutation of boron-10, did not have a significant influence on the tensile properties. Cavities seen in the irradiated materials at low concentrations, were not preferentially located on grain boundaries. There was no apparent deleterious effect of lithium, which is also a transmutation product of boron-10. (author). 12 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Monte-Carlo-calculations for the simulation of channelling-experiments with V3Si-single-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.

    1978-05-01

    The results of channelling-investigations on single-crystals of A15-type structure, like e.g. V 3 Si, are not directly comparable to analytical model-calculations. Therefore the channelling-process was simulated in a Monte-Carlo-program on the basis of the binary-collision-model. The calculated values for the minimum yield, Chisub(min), and the critical angle, Psisub(1/2), were in good agreement with the results of experiments with 2 MeV- 4 He + -particles. The lattice damage in the range of 2,000 Angstroem at the surface after an irradiation with a fluence of 6 x 10 16 - 4 He + /cm 2 at 300 KeV could be explained by normally distributed static displacements of the V-atoms with a mean value of 0.05 A. The transverse damage structure after an irradiation with a fluence of 1.5 x 10 16 - 4 He + /cm 2 at 50 KeV could be simulated by a step profile of 50% displacements of the V-atoms with a maximum value of 0.5 Angstroem at the depth of the projected range. (orig./HPOE) [de

  12. Information, communication and anthropology of knowledge - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i3.279en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Béguin-Verbrugge

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Lille, ICS (Information and Communication Sciences research revolves around the concept of anthropology of knowledge, and is strongly supported by textual sciences. Since the bond between communication and information was a core concern, the ideas of “text” or “enunciation” were used with a very broad meaning, according to a pragmatic approach that takes into consideration semiotic, social and technical contexts. At this moment of widespreadcomputerization, researchers become more centered on evolutionary rather than mediatic principles, always reaching new levels and acquiring new shapes. It is about studying the constitution, circulation and appropriation of knowledge under a perspective that is both systemic and phenomenologic.

  13. Pennzoil to acquire part of Chevron's production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Pennzoil Co., Houston, will exchange 48% of its $2.2 billion investment in Chevron Corp. for a chunk of chevron's U.S. producing leases. The trade is to involve a tax free exchange of 15.75 million chevron Corp. shares held by Pennzoil for all the stock of Chevron PBC Inc., a Chevron unit owning Gulf of Mexico, Gulf Coast, Permian basin, and other U.S. oil and gas producing leases. Sixty percent of the acquired reserves are in the Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast where Pennzoil's operations are concentrated, and 60% of the acquired reserves consist of natural gas, mirroring Pennzoil's reserve ratios

  14. Update on HIV-1 acquired and transmitted drug resistance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Lihana, Raphael W; Ugoji, Chinenye; Abimiku, Alash'le; Nkengasong, John; Dakum, Patrick; Ndembi, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The last ten years have witnessed a significant scale-up and access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa, which has improved patient quality of life and survival. One major challenge associated with increased access to antiretroviral therapy is the development of antiretroviral resistance due to inconsistent drug supply and/or poor patient adherence. We review the current state of both acquired and transmitted drug resistance in Africa over the past ten years (2001-2011) to identify drug resistance associated with the different drug regimens used on the continent and to help guide affordable strategies for drug resistance surveillance. A total of 161 references (153 articles, six reports and two conference abstracts) were reviewed. Antiretroviral resistance data was available for 40 of 53 African countries. A total of 5,541 adult patients from 99 studies in Africa were included in this analysis. The pooled prevalence of drug resistance mutations in Africa was 10.6%, and Central Africa had the highest prevalence of 54.9%. The highest prevalence of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations was in the west (55.3%) and central (54.8%) areas; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations were highest in East Africa (57.0%) and protease inhibitors mutations highest in Southern Africa (16.3%). The major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation in all four African regions was M184V. Major nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as well as protease inhibitor mutations varied by region. The prevalence of drug resistance has remained low in several African countries although the emergence of drug resistance mutations varied across countries. Continued surveillance of antiretroviral therapy resistance remains crucial in gauging the effectiveness of country antiretroviral therapy programs and strategizing on effective and affordable strategies for successful treatment.

  15. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  16. Are There Mutator Polymerases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Garcia-Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymerases are involved in different cellular events, including genome replication and DNA repair. In the last few years, a large number of novel DNA polymerases have been discovered, and the biochemical analysis of their properties has revealed a long list of intriguing features. Some of these polymerases have a very low fidelity and have been suggested to play mutator roles in different processes, like translesion synthesis or somatic hypermutation. The current view of these processes is reviewed, and the current understanding of DNA polymerases and their role as mutator enzymes is discussed.

  17. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The ...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  18. Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, James E; Kaufmann-Malaga, Benjamin B; Wivagg, Carl N; Kim, Peter B; Silvis, Melanie R; Renedo, Nikolai; Ioerger, Thomas R; Ahmad, Rushdy; Livny, Jonathan; Fishbein, Skye; Sacchettini, James C; Carr, Steven A; Hung, Deborah T

    2017-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance arising via chromosomal mutations is typically specific to a particular antibiotic or class of antibiotics. We have identified mutations in genes encoding ribosomal components in Mycobacterium smegmatis that confer resistance to several structurally and mechanistically unrelated classes of antibiotics and enhance survival following heat shock and membrane stress. These mutations affect ribosome assembly and cause large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic changes, including the downregulation of the catalase KatG, an activating enzyme required for isoniazid sensitivity, and upregulation of WhiB7, a transcription factor involved in innate antibiotic resistance. Importantly, while these ribosomal mutations have a fitness cost in antibiotic-free medium, in a multidrug environment they promote the evolution of high-level, target-based resistance. Further, suppressor mutations can then be easily acquired to restore wild-type growth. Thus, ribosomal mutations can serve as stepping-stones in an evolutionary path leading to the emergence of high-level, multidrug resistance.

  19. Aetiological considerations of acquired aplastic anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.; Sarwar, I.; Mehmood, T.; Naz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anaemia is one of the important causes of pancytopenia. This study was conducted to observe the mode of presentation of acquired aplastic anaemia and to find out its possible etiological factors. Methods: It is a hospital based descriptive study of 100 patients of acquired aplastic anaemia. Results: Out of 100 patients 60 were male and 40 female. Majority (44%) of the patients were between 12 - 20 years of age. Patient presented with variable symptoms majority (40%) with fever. Most of the patients had haemoglobin levels between 4 - 6 gm/dl. (53%). Seventy percent of the cases had no obvious cause, while in 30% some known causative factors were found. Chloramphenicol was found to be the most common causative drug. Mortality was 35%. Thirty patients were partially treated and 15 were lost to follow up. Twenty patients showed improvement with treatment. Conclusions: Acquired aplastic anaemia is common among males and more prevalent in younger age group. It is idiopathic in 70% cases while 30% had some cause. It has very high mortality. Doctors need to keep in mind this fatal condition in patients presenting with anaemia and should properly investigate before prescribing antibiotics and haematinics. (author)

  20. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  1. Acquired dysfibrinogenemia secondary to multiple myeloma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlín, R.; Sobotková, A.; Riedel, Tomáš; Salaj, P.; Suttnar, J.; Reicheltová, Z.; Májek, P.; Khaznadar, T.; Dyr, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2008), s. 75-81 ISSN 0001-5792 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : acquired dysfibrinogenemia * amorphous clot * fibrinogen Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.191, year: 2008

  2. Acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renck, Decio Valente; Lopes Junior, Joao Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar hernia is a rare condition whose diagnosis is hardly achieved. The prevalence is higher in elderly men. The present case report describes the case of a male, 78-year-old patient who underwent pleural effusion drainage 17 years before presenting with clinical manifestations and tomographic findings compatible with acquired secondary Grynfeltt's hernia. (author)

  3. Radiological pulmonary manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, Edson; Melo, Alessandro Severo Alves de; Ossa, Alfonso Jaramillo

    1999-01-01

    In this article are reviewed the principal radiologic manifestations of inflammatory and tumoral diseases the compromise the lungs of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In the group of inflammatory diseases the radiologic aspects of pneumocystosis, cytomegalovirus disease, cryptococcosis, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonias are emphasized. In the neoplasic diseases' group the aspects of lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma are specially presented. (author)

  4. Some Characteristics of Patients with Community Acquired ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a dearth of studies relating the information from the history of patients with community-acquired pneumonia to the mortality of the disease. The relationship between age, sex, occupation, marital status, smoking history, alcohol use, concomitant COPD / bronchial asthma, source of referral and the mortality of patients ...

  5. Immunomodulation in community-acquired pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmelts, H.H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease with considerable morbidity and mortality, despite effective antibiotic treatment. In this thesis, we showed that the major causative microorganisms in CAP trigger distinct inflammatory response profiles in the host. While an inflammatory

  6. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Tanrıkulu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks.

  7. Mutation, somatic mutation and diseases of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic mutagenesis for the evolution process, genetic diseases and the process of aging is exemplified. The fundamental reaction is the function of the DNA and the DNA-enzymes like the DNA-polymerases in replication, repair, and transcription. These defects are responsible for the mutation frequency and the genetic drift in the evolution process. They cause genetic diseases like Xeroderma pigmentosum which is described here in detail. The accumulation of structural and functional mistakes leads to diseases of old age, for example to autoimmune diseases and immune suppression. There is a proportionality between the duration of life and the frequency of mistakes in the enzymatic repair system. No possibility of prophylaxis or therapy is seen. Methods for prognosis could be developed. (AJ) [de

  8. Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-8 Gene Polymorphisms and Acquired Aplastic Anemia Risk in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Lin, Shengyun; Yang, Yan; Rong, Liucheng; He, Guangsheng; He, Hailong; Xue, Yao; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Cytokines IL-2 and IL-8 both participate in immune regulation. However, the relationship between polymorphisms in these two cytokines and the risk of acquired aplastic anemia (acquired AA) has not been explored. We selected five SNPs including rs11575812, rs2069772 and rs2069762 of IL-2, rs2227306 and rs2227543 of IL-8. SNaPshot genotyping was used to test the genotypes of IL-2 and IL-8 polymorphisms in a population of 101 acquired AA patients and 165 healthy controls. The rs2069762 G allele appeared to be a protective mutation, but no significant differences were found in other four SNPs. We also found that rs2069762 had an impact on the transcriptional regulation. It could be assumed that the rs2069762 polymorphism might reduce the risk of acquired aplastic anemia, while the remaining four SNPs might not contribute to susceptibility to acquired AA in a Chinese population. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic changes of mutations and chromosomal aberrations are discussed. The consequences of both depend not only on the type of genetic change produced but also on the type of cell that is affected and on the development stage of the organism. (C.F.)

  10. Mutations in GABRB3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke S; Wuttke, Thomas V; Helbig, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of mutations in GABRB3 encoding the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor in individual patients with epilepsy with regard to causality, the spectrum of genetic variants, their pathophysiology, and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We performed massive parallel sequencing ...

  11. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  12. Modelling the formation and composition of secondary organic aerosol from α- and β-pinene ozonolysis using MCM v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Jenkin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and detailed composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA from the gas phase ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene has been simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism version 3 (MCM v3, coupled with a representation of gas-to-aerosol transfer of semivolatile and involatile oxygenated products. A kinetics representation, based on equilibrium absorptive partitioning of ca. 200 semivolatile products, was found to provide an acceptable description of the final mass concentrations observed in a number of reported laboratory and chamber experiments, provided partitioning coefficients were increased by about two orders of magnitude over those defined on the basis of estimated vapour pressures. This adjustment is believed to be due, at least partially, to the effect of condensed phase association reactions of the partitioning products. Even with this adjustment, the simulated initial formation of SOA was delayed relative to that observed, implying the requirement for the formation of species of much lower volatility to initiate SOA formation. The inclusion of a simplified representation of the formation and gas-to-aerosol transfer of involatile dimers of 22 bi- and multifunctional carboxylic acids (in addition to the absorptive partitioning mechanism allowed a much improved description of SOA formation for a wide range of conditions. The simulated SOA composition recreates certain features of the product distributions observed in a number of experimental studies, but implies an important role for multifunctional products containing hydroperoxy groups (i.e. hydroperoxides. This is particularly the case for experiments in which 2-butanol is used to scavenge OH radicals, because [HO2]/[RO2] ratios are elevated in such systems. The optimized mechanism is used to calculate SOA yields from α- and β-pinene ozonolysis in the presence and absence of OH scavengers, and as a function of temperature.

  13. Studies on the effects of helium on the microstructural evolution of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doraiswamy, N.; Kestel, B.; Alexander, D.E. [Argonne National Labs., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The favorable physical and mechanical properties of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti (wt.%), when subjected to neutron irradiation, has lead to considerable attention being focused on it for use in fusion reactor structural applications. However, there is limited data on the effects of helium on physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. Understanding these effects are important since helium will be generated by direct {alpha}-injection or transmutation reactions in the fusion environment, typically at a rate of {approx}5 appm He/dpa. Helium has been shown to cause substantial embrittlement, even at room temperature in vanadium and its alloys. Recent simulations of the fusion environment using the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiments (DHCE) have also indicated that the mechanical properties of vanadium alloys are altered by the presence of helium in post irradiation tests performed at room temperature. While the strengths were lower, room temperature ductilities of the DHCE specimens were higher than those of non-DHCE specimens. These changes have been attributed to the formation of different types of hardening centers in these alloys due to He trapping. Independent thermal desorption experiments suggest that these hardening centers may be associated with helium-vacancy-X (where X = O, N, and C) complexes. These complexes are stable below 290{degrees}C and persist at room temperature. However, there has been no direct microstructural evidence correlating the complexes with irradiation effects. An examination of the irradiation induced microstructure in samples preimplanted with He to different levels would enable such a correlation.

  14. Effect of step-aging on the fracture toughness of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, Naotake

    1993-01-01

    Development and an application of a new high-low step-aging to improve the fracture toughness-strength balance of a Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al alloy are studied. The high-low step-aging of aging at higher temperatures followed by aging at lower temperatures produces bi-modal microstructure composed of coarse and fine alpha precipitates in beta matrix. It greatly improves fracture toughness-strength balance compared with aging at a single temperature. Homogeneous distribution of coarse alpha precipitates produced by adding pre-aging at 573K before the high-low step-aging tends to reduce the superiority of the bi-modal microstructure in fracture toughness. The improvement is provided by the formation of microcracks and voids in the coarse alpha precipitates and rugged crack propagation due to the uneven microstructure. The high-low step-aging is applied to a TIG weldment of the alloy to improve the mechanical properties of the weldment. In the TIG weldment, strength of a fusion zone becomes much higher than that of a base metal after aging at a single temperature because of different aging response. In the first high temperature aging of the high low step-aging, coarse alpha particles that strengthen little and suppress strengthening by fine alpha precipitation in low temperature re-aging, precipitate more in fusion zone than in base metal because of the enhancement of aging in fusion zone. Therefore, strengthening of fusion zone in re-aging is less than in the base metal, resulting in comparable strength between the fusion zone and the base metal after re-aging. The bi-modal microstructure produced by the step-aging also improves, the, fracture toughness of the fusion zone of the weldment

  15. Germline mutation of CBL is associated with moyamoya disease in a child with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Noonan syndrome-like disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyakuna, Nobuyuki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Higa, Takeshi; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Wang, Xinan; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Germline mutations in CBL have been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome-like phenotypes, while juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) harbors duplication of a germline CBL, resulting in acquired isodisomy. The association between moyamoya disease and Noonan syndrome carrying a PTPN11 mutation has recently been reported. We present a patient with JMML who developed moyamoya disease and neovascular glaucoma. Our patient exhibited a Noonan syndrome-like phenotype. Genetic analysis revealed acquired isodisomy and a germline heterozygous mutation in CBL. This is a rare case of CBL mutation associated with moyamoya disease. Prolonged RAS pathway signaling may cause disruption of cerebrovascular development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Clonal hematopoiesis in acquired aplastic anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in aplastic anemia (AA) has been closely linked to the evolution of late clonal disorders, including paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which are common complications after successful immunosuppressive therapy (IST). With the advent of high-throughput sequencing of recent years, the molecular aspect of CH in AA has been clarified by comprehensive detection of somatic mutations that drive clonal evolut...

  17. Mutations in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J.K.V. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This Letter raises four issues concerning two papers on galactosemia published in the March 1995 of the Journal. First, table 2 in the paper by Elsas et al. incorrectly attributes seven galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) mutations (S135L, L195P, K285N, N314D, R333W, R333G, and K334R). The table also fails to mention that others have reported the same two findings attributed to {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al. and in press{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al.{close_quotes} The first finding on the prevalence of the Q188R galactosemia mutation in the G/G Caucasian population has also been described by Ng et al., and the second finding on the correlation of the N314D GALT mutation with the Duarte variant was reported by Lin et al. Second, Elsas et al. suggest that the E203K and N314D mutations may {open_quotes}produce intra-allelic complementation when in cis{close_quotes}. This speculation is supported by the activity data of individual III-2 but is inconsistent with the activities of three other individuals I-1, II-1, and III-1 of the same pedigree. The GALT activity measured in these three individuals suggests a dominant negative effect of E203K in E203K-N314D chromosomes, since they all have less than normal activity. Thus, the preponderance of the data in this paper is at odds with the authors speculation. It is worth recalling that Lin et al. also identified four N314D GALT mutations on 95 galactosemic chromosomes examined. A similar situation also appears to be the case in proband III-1 (with genotype E203K-N314D/IVSC) in the Elsas et al. paper. 9 refs.

  18. Mutations in gp41 are correlated with coreceptor tropism but do not improve prediction methods substantially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Alexander; Lengauer, Thomas; Swenson, Luke C; Dong, Winnie W Y; McGovern, Rachel A; Lewis, Marilyn; James, Ian; Heera, Jayvant; Valdez, Hernan; Harrigan, P Richard

    2011-01-01

    The main determinants of HIV-1 coreceptor usage are located in the V3-loop of gp120, although mutations in V2 and gp41 are also known. Incorporation of V2 is known to improve prediction algorithms; however, this has not been confirmed for gp41 mutations. Samples with V3 and gp41 genotypes and Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA, USA) results were taken from the HOMER cohort (n=444) and from patients screened for the MOTIVATE studies (n=1,916; 859 with maraviroc outcome data). Correlations of mutations with tropism were assessed using Fisher's exact test and prediction models trained using support vector machines. Models were validated by cross-validation, by testing models from one dataset on the other, and by analysing virological outcome. Several mutations within gp41 were highly significant for CXCR4 usage; most strikingly an insertion occurring in 7.7% of HOMER-R5 and 46.3% of HOMER-X4 samples (MOTIVATE 5.7% and 25.2%, respectively). Models trained on gp41 sequence alone achieved relatively high areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUCs; HOMER 0.713 and MOTIVATE 0.736) that were almost as good as V3 models (0.773 and 0.884, respectively). However, combining the two regions improved predictions only marginally (0.813 and 0.902, respectively). Similar results were found when models were trained on HOMER and validated on MOTIVATE or vice versa. The difference in median log viral load decrease at week 24 between patients with R5 and X4 virus was 1.65 (HOMER 2.45 and MOTIVATE 0.79) for V3 models, 1.59 for gp41-models (2.42 and 0.83, respectively) and 1.58 for the combined predictor (2.44 and 0.86, respectively). Several mutations within gp41 showed strong correlation with tropism in two independent datasets. However, incorporating gp41 mutations into prediction models is not mandatory because they do not improve substantially on models trained on V3 sequences alone.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  2. Topographic organization of areas V3 and V4 and its relation to supra-areal organization of the primate visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, M J; Kastner, S

    2015-01-01

    Areas V3 and V4 are commonly thought of as individual entities in the primate visual system, based on definition criteria such as their representation of visual space, connectivity, functional response properties, and relative anatomical location in cortex. Yet, large-scale functional and anatomical organization patterns not only emphasize distinctions within each area, but also links across visual cortex. Specifically, the visuotopic organization of V3 and V4 appears to be part of a larger, supra-areal organization, clustering these areas with early visual areas V1 and V2. In addition, connectivity patterns across visual cortex appear to vary within these areas as a function of their supra-areal eccentricity organization. This complicates the traditional view of these regions as individual functional "areas." Here, we will review the criteria for defining areas V3 and V4 and will discuss functional and anatomical studies in humans and monkeys that emphasize the integration of individual visual areas into broad, supra-areal clusters that work in concert for a common computational goal. Specifically, we propose that the visuotopic organization of V3 and V4, which provides the criteria for differentiating these areas, also unifies these areas into the supra-areal organization of early visual cortex. We propose that V3 and V4 play a critical role in this supra-areal organization by filtering information about the visual environment along parallel pathways across higher-order cortex.

  3. Functional Antibody Response Against V1V2 and V3 of HIV gp120 in the VAX003 and VAX004 Vaccine Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Preetha; Williams, Constance; Shapiro, Mariya B; Sinangil, Faruk; Higgins, Keith; Nádas, Arthur; Totrov, Maxim; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Fiore-Gartland, Andrew J; Haigwood, Nancy L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Hioe, Catarina E

    2018-01-11

    Immunization with HIV AIDSVAX gp120 vaccines in the phase III VAX003 and VAX004 trials did not confer protection. To understand the shortcomings in antibody (Ab) responses induced by these vaccines, we evaluated the kinetics of Ab responses to the V1V2 and V3 regions of gp120 and the induction of Ab-mediated antiviral functions during the course of 7 vaccinations over a 30.5-month period. Plasma samples from VAX003 and VAX004 vaccinees and placebo recipients were measured for ELISA-binding Abs and for virus neutralization, Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Ab responses to V1V2 and V3 peaked after 3 to 4 immunizations and declined after 5 to 7 immunizations. The deteriorating responses were most evident against epitopes in the underside of the V1V2 β-barrel and in the V3 crown. Correspondingly, vaccinees demonstrated higher neutralization against SF162 pseudovirus sensitive to anti-V1V2 and anti-V3 Abs after 3 or 4 immunizations than after 7 immunizations. Higher levels of ADCP and ADCC were also observed at early or mid-time points as compared with the final time point. Hence, VAX003 and VAX004 vaccinees generated V1V2- and V3-binding Abs and functional Abs after 3 to 4 immunizations, but subsequent boosts did not maintain these responses.

  4. The Human Gene Mutation Database: building a comprehensive mutation repository for clinical and molecular genetics, diagnostic testing and personalized genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenson, Peter D; Mort, Matthew; Ball, Edward V; Shaw, Katy; Phillips, Andrew; Cooper, David N

    2014-01-01

    The Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD®) is a comprehensive collection of germline mutations in nuclear genes that underlie, or are associated with, human inherited disease. By June 2013, the database contained over 141,000 different lesions detected in over 5,700 different genes, with new mutation entries currently accumulating at a rate exceeding 10,000 per annum. HGMD was originally established in 1996 for the scientific study of mutational mechanisms in human genes. However, it has since acquired a much broader utility as a central unified disease-oriented mutation repository utilized by human molecular geneticists, genome scientists, molecular biologists, clinicians and genetic counsellors as well as by those specializing in biopharmaceuticals, bioinformatics and personalized genomics. The public version of HGMD (http://www.hgmd.org) is freely available to registered users from academic institutions/non-profit organizations whilst the subscription version (HGMD Professional) is available to academic, clinical and commercial users under license via BIOBASE GmbH.

  5. Whole genome analysis of linezolid resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals resistance and compensatory mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré Danielle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mutations were present in the genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae linezolid-resistant strains but the role of several of these mutations had not been experimentally tested. To analyze the role of these mutations, we reconstituted resistance by serial whole genome transformation of a novel resistant isolate into two strains with sensitive background. We sequenced the parent mutant and two independent transformants exhibiting similar minimum inhibitory concentration to linezolid. Results Comparative genomic analyses revealed that transformants acquired G2576T transversions in every gene copy of 23S rRNA and that the number of altered copies correlated with the level of linezolid resistance and cross-resistance to florfenicol and chloramphenicol. One of the transformants also acquired a mutation present in the parent mutant leading to the overexpression of an ABC transporter (spr1021. The acquisition of these mutations conferred a fitness cost however, which was further enhanced by the acquisition of a mutation in a RNA methyltransferase implicated in resistance. Interestingly, the fitness of the transformants could be restored in part by the acquisition of altered copies of the L3 and L16 ribosomal proteins and by mutations leading to the overexpression of the spr1887 ABC transporter that were present in the original linezolid-resistant mutant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the usefulness of whole genome approaches at detecting major determinants of resistance as well as compensatory mutations that alleviate the fitness cost associated with resistance.

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acquired aplastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, George E.; Storb, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review There has been steady improvement in outcomes with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA), due to progress in optimization of the conditioning regimens, donor hematopoietic cell source and supportive care. Here we review recently published data that highlight the improvements and current issues in the treatment of SAA. Recent findings Approximately one-third of AA patients treated with immune suppression therapy (IST) have acquired mutations in myeloid cancer candidate genes. Because of the greater probability for eventual failure of IST, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donor BMT is the first-line of treatment for SAA. HLA-matched unrelated donor (URD) BMT is generally recommended for patients who have failed IST. However, in younger patients for whom a 10/10-HLA-allele matched URD can be rapidly identified, there is a strong rationale to proceed with URD BMT as first-line therapy. HLA-haploidentical BMT using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) conditioning regimens, is now a reasonable second-line treatment for patients who failed IST. Summary Improved outcomes have led to an increased first-line role of BMT for treatment of SAA. The optimal cell source from an HLA-matched donor is bone marrow. Additional studies are needed to determine the optimal conditioning regimen for HLA-haploidentical donors. PMID:27607445

  7. Acquire: an open-source comprehensive cancer biobanking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowst, Heidi; Pew, Benjamin; Watkins, Chris; McOwiti, Apollo; Barney, Jonathan; Qu, Shijing; Becnel, Lauren B

    2015-05-15

    The probability of effective treatment of cancer with a targeted therapeutic can be improved for patients with defined genotypes containing actionable mutations. To this end, many human cancer biobanks are integrating more tightly with genomic sequencing facilities and with those creating and maintaining patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and cell lines to provide renewable resources for translational research. To support the complex data management needs and workflows of several such biobanks, we developed Acquire. It is a robust, secure, web-based, database-backed open-source system that supports all major needs of a modern cancer biobank. Its modules allow for i) up-to-the-minute 'scoreboard' and graphical reporting of collections; ii) end user roles and permissions; iii) specimen inventory through caTissue Suite; iv) shipping forms for distribution of specimens to pathology, genomic analysis and PDX/cell line creation facilities; v) robust ad hoc querying; vi) molecular and cellular quality control metrics to track specimens' progress and quality; vii) public researcher request; viii) resource allocation committee distribution request review and oversight and ix) linkage to available derivatives of specimen. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Genetic engineering and therapy for inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sharlene; Davis, Jennifer; Westfall, Margaret; Metzger, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac myofilaments consist of a highly ordered assembly of proteins that collectively generate force in a calcium-dependent manner. Defects in myofilament function and its regulation have been implicated in various forms of acquired and inherited human heart disease. For example, during cardiac ischemia, cardiac myocyte contractile performance is dramatically downregulated due in part to a reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium under acidic pH conditions. Over the last several years, the thin filament regulatory protein, troponin I, has been identified as an important mediator of this response. Mutations in troponin I and other sarcomere genes are also linked to several distinct inherited cardiomyopathic phenotypes, including hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathies. With the cardiac sarcomere emerging as a central player for such a diverse array of human heart diseases, genetic-based strategies that target the myofilament will likely have broad therapeutic potential. The development of safe vector systems for efficient gene delivery will be a critical hurdle to overcome before these types of therapies can be successfully applied. Nonetheless, studies focusing on the principles of acute genetic engineering of the sarcomere hold value as they lay the essential foundation on which to build potential gene-based therapies for heart disease.

  9. Behavior of variable V3 region from 16S rDNA of lactic acid bacteria in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolini, D; Moschetti, G; Blaiotta, G; Coppola, S

    2001-03-01

    Separation of amplified V3 region from 16S rDNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was tested as a tool for differentiation of lactic acid bacteria commonly isolated from food. Variable V3 regions of 21 reference strains and 34 wild strains referred to species belonging to the genera Pediococcus, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Streptococcus were analyzed. DGGE profiles obtained were species-specific for most of the cultures tested. Moreover, it was possible to group the remaining LAB reference strains according to the migration of their 16S V3 region in the denaturing gel. The results are discussed with reference to their potential in the analysis of LAB communities in food, besides shedding light on taxonomic aspects.

  10. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo, E-mail: andreafariasm@gmail.com [Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira de Pernambuco (IMIP), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-07-15

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  11. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Andrea Farias de Melo; Mota Junior, Americo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common - increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. (author)

  12. Somatic mutations of the histone H3K27 demethylase, UTX, in human cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Dalgliesh, Gillian L; Davies, Helen; Chen, Lina; Bignell, Graham; Greenman, Chris; Edkins, Sarah; Hardy, Claire; O’Meara, Sarah; Teague, Jon; Butler, Adam; Hinton, Jonathan; Latimer, Calli; Andrews, Jenny; Barthorpe, Syd; Beare, Dave; Buck, Gemma; Campbell, Peter J; Cole, Jennifer; Dunmore, Rebecca; Forbes, Simon; Jia, Mingming; Jones, David; Kok, Chai Yin; Leroy, Catherine; Lin, Meng-Lay; McBride, David J; Maddison, Mark; Maquire, Simon; McLay, Kirsten; Menzies, Andrew; Mironenko, Tatiana; Lee, Mulderrig; Mudie, Laura; Pleasance, Erin; Shepherd, Rebecca; Smith, Raffaella; Stebbings, Lucy; Stephens, Philip; Tang, Gurpreet; Tarpey, Patrick S; Turner, Rachel; Turrell, Kelly; Varian, Jennifer; West, Sofie; Widaa, Sara; Wray, Paul; Collins, V Peter; Ichimura, Koichi; Law, Simon; Wong, John; Yuen, Siu Tsan; Leung, Suet Yi; Tonon, Giovanni; DePinho, Ronald A; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C; Kahnoski, Richard J.; Massie, Aaron; Khoo, Sok Kean; Teh, Bin Tean; Stratton, Michael R; Futreal, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Somatically acquired epigenetic changes are present in many cancers. Epigenetic regulation is maintained via post-translational modifications of core histones. Here, we describe inactivating somatic mutations in the histone lysine demethylase, UTX, pointing to histone H3 lysine methylation deregulation in multiple tumour types. UTX reintroduction into cancer cells with inactivating UTX mutations resulted in slowing of proliferation and marked transcriptional changes. These data identify UTX as a new human cancer gene. PMID:19330029

  13. Key clinical features to identify girls with CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlène; Héron, Delphine; N'guyen Morel, Marie Ange; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of CDKL5-associated encephalopathy. We screened the entire coding region of CDKL5 for mutations in 183 females with encephalopathy with early seizures by denaturing high liquid performance chromatography and direct sequencing, and we identified in 20 unrelated girls, 18 different mutations including 7 novel mutations. These mutations were identified in eight patients with encephalopathy with RTT-like features, five with infantile spasms and seven with encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy. Early epilepsy with normal interictal EEG and severe hypotonia are the key clinical features in identifying patients likely to have CDKL5 mutations. Our study also indicates that these patients clearly exhibit some RTT features such as deceleration of head growth, stereotypies and hand apraxia and that these RTT features become more evident in older and ambulatory patients. However, some RTT signs are clearly absent such as the so called RTT disease profile (period of nearly normal development followed by regression with loss of acquired fine finger skill in early childhood and characteristic intensive eye communication) and the characteristic evolution of the RTT electroencephalogram. Interestingly, in addition to the overall stereotypical symptomatology (age of onset and evolution of the disease) resulting from CDKL5 mutations, atypical forms of CDKL5-related conditions have also been observed. Our data suggest that phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with the nature or the position of the mutations or with the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, but most probably with the functional transcriptional and/or translational consequences of CDKL5

  14. Metal substitution in the active site of nitrogenase MFe(7)S(9) (M = Mo(4+), V(3+), Fe(3+)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Timothy; Torres, Rhonda A; Han, Wen-Ge; Liu, Tiqing; Case, David A; Noodleman, Louis

    2002-11-04

    The unifying view that molybdenum is the essential component in nitrogenase has changed over the past few years with the discovery of a vanadium-containing nitrogenase and an iron-only nitrogenase. The principal question that has arisen for the alternative nitrogenases concerns the structures of their corresponding cofactors and their metal-ion valence assignments and whether there are significant differences with that of the more widely known molybdenum-iron cofactor (FeMoco). Spin-polarized broken-symmetry (BS) density functional theory (DFT) calculations are used to assess which of the two possible metal-ion valence assignments (4Fe(2+)4Fe(3+) or 6Fe(2+)2Fe(3+)) for the iron-only cofactor (FeFeco) best represents the resting state. For the 6Fe(2+)2Fe(3+) oxidation state, the spin coupling pattern for several spin state alignments compatible with S = 0 were generated and assessed by energy criteria. The most likely BS spin state is composed of a 4Fe cluster with spin S(a) = (7)/(2) antiferromagnetically coupled to a 4Fe' cluster with spin S(b) = (7)/(2). This state has the lowest DFT energy for the isolated FeFeco cluster and displays calculated Mössbauer isomer shifts consistent with experiment. Although the S = 0 resting state of FeFeco has recently been proposed to have metal-ion valencies of 4Fe(2+)4Fe(3+) (derived from experimental Mössbauer isomer shifts), our isomer shift calculations for the 4Fe(2+)4Fe(3+) oxidation state are in poorer agreement with experiment. Using the Mo(4+)6Fe(2+)Fe(3+) oxidation level of the cofactor as a starting point, the structural consequences of replacement of molybdenum (Mo(4+)) with vanadium (V(3+)) or iron (Fe(3+)) in the cofactor have been investigated. The size of the cofactor cluster shows a dependency on the nature of the heterometal and increases in the order FeMoco < FeVco < FeFeco.

  15. Phylogenetically Acquired Representations and Evolutionary Algorithms.

    OpenAIRE

    Wozniak , Adrianna

    2006-01-01

    First, we explain why Genetic Algorithms (GAs), inspired by the Modern Synthesis, do not accurately model biological evolution, being rather an artificial version of artificial, rather than natural selection. Being focused on optimisation, we propose two improvements of GAs, with the aim to successfully generate adapted, desired behaviour. The first one concerns phylogenetic grounding of meaning, a way to avoid the Symbol Grounding Problem. We give a definition of Phylogenetically Acquired Re...

  16. Acquiring Procedural Skills from Lesson Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    Teachers of Mathematics . Washington, D)C: NCTM . Brueckner, I..J. (1930) Diagnostic aund remedial teaching in arithmetic. Philadelphia. PA: Winston. Burton...arithmetic and algebra, fr-m multi-lesson curricula. The central hypothesis is that students and teachers obey cc: :-.entions that cause the goal hierarchy...students and • . teachers obey conventions that cause the goal hierarchy of the acquired procedure to be a particular structural function of the sequential

  17. Brucella abortus infection acquired in microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, P L; Mastrandrea, S; Rappelli, P; Cappuccinelli, P

    2000-05-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated.

  18. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  19. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  20. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole.

  1. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  2. Correlation between SiO v = 3 J = 1 → 0 maser excitation and the light curve of a long-period variable star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Takumi; Oyama, Tomoaki; Matsumoto, Naoko; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Cho, Se-Hyung

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the excitation mechanisms of silicon monoxide (SiO) masers around long-period variables (LPVs), we have investigated distributions of the SiO v = 2 and v = 3 J = 1 → 0 masers around 12 LPVs by very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA) and the Nobeyama 45 m telescopes. VLBI fringes of the v = 3 maser emission were detected for five LPVs. The composite maps of the v = 2 and v = 3 masers were made for T Cep, W Hya, WX Psc, and R Leo using the spectral line phase-referencing technique. The v = 2 maser spots were distributed in a ring-like form around the central stars, while it is difficult to recognize any specific morphology in the v = 3 maser distributions due to the small number of v = 3 spots detected. However in T Cep, we find that the distribution of the v = 3 maser spots correlates well with the v = 2 masers within a few milliarcseconds (0.2-0.3 au) in position and 1 km s-1 in line-of-sight velocity at the light curve phase of ϕ = 0.28 (ϕ = 0.0 and 1.0 correspond to the visible light maxima). This correlation implies that the mechanism of line-overlapping between the mid-infrared lines of H2O and SiO molecules works in T Cep at ϕ = 0.28. We discuss the possibility that the line-overlapping may work at the limited duration from the maximum to the minimum of the stellar light curve.

  3. Behavior of sheet-like crystalline ammonium trivanadate hemihydrate (NH4V3O8×0.5H2O) as a novel ammonia sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, S.G.; Primerano, P.; Donato, N.; Neri, G.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the use of ammonium trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O) as a novel sensing material for ammonia resistive sensors. It was prepared by a simple and fast hydrothermal method from V 2 O 5 as a precursor and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TG techniques. The as-synthesized material showed a sheet-like morphology and was found thermally stable up to 250–280 °C. It reacted promptly and irreversibly when exposed to ammonia at room temperature. A full reversibility was instead registered undergoing the formed ammonia adduct at a temperature higher than 200 °C. A NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O-based resistive gas sensor was fabricated and its sensing properties were evaluated. Experimental results obtained have given a preliminary demonstration of the feasibility of using NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O as a novel ammonia sensing material since it yields several advantages including easy synthesis of the sensing layer, good sensitivity and reproducibility and fast response. - Graphical abstract: Sheet-like morphology of the synthesized trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O). Inset: Its electrical response to different ammonia concentrations in air. - Highlights: • A simple hydrothermal method for the fast synthesis of trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O) is reported. • Sheet particles could be obtained. • A preliminary demonstration of the feasibility of using NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O as a novel ammonia sensing material is presented

  4. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C.; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images

  5. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  6. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  7. Comparative study of the B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 questionnaires as screening tools for overactive bladders in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Calderín, M P; Fernández, Y; González, M; Gómez, E; Herreros, M B; Peñasco, P; Zapatero, M; Dorado, J F

    To compare the capacity shown by 3 self-assessment questionnaires validated in Spanish (B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3) for the screening of patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in clinical practice. A noninterventional observational study was conducted of men and women older than 30 years evaluated in primary care consultations. The clinical diagnosis of OAB was conducted through a case history review, physical examination, urine analysis, ultrasonography and voiding diary. The presence of coping strategies and discomfort was investigated. The differential diagnosis was established in patients with symptoms not due to OAB. We assessed the correlation between the clinical tests and diagnosis (kappa .6 good; >.8 excellent) and ROC curves to define the capacity to screen the assessed questionnaires. A total of 411 patients were investigated. OAB was detected in 207 (50.4%) patients, other causes for the lower urinary tract symptoms were detected in 63 (15.3%), and 141 (34.3%) patients had no diagnosis. The voiding diary suggested OAB in 197 (47.9%) patients. The correlation between the clinical diagnosis and the diagnosis based on the voiding diary was .702. The correlation between the clinical diagnosis and B-SAQ, OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 was .59, .673 and .732, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was .799 for B-SAQ; .837 for OAB-V8 and .867 for OAB-V3 (OAB-V3 vs. OAB-V8, P=.02; OAB-V3 vs. B-SAQ, P<.0001). The AUC for the voiding diary was .852 (OAB-V3 vs. diary, P=.47). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire with excellent performance for screening OAB in a specific population and that is superior to the OAB-V8 and B-SAQ. The accuracy of the voiding diary for the same indication is equivalent to that of the OAB-V3 in our setting. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutation breeding in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, S [Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Seibersdorf Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1986-03-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F{sub 1} hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M{sub 1} effects, handling the treated material in M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  9. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  10. Mutated hilltop inflation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we re-investigate pros and cons of mutated hilltop inflation. Applying Hamilton-Jacobi formalism we solve inflationary dynamics and find that inflation goes on along the {W}_{-1} branch of the Lambert function. Depending on the model parameter mutated hilltop model renders two types of inflationary solutions: one corresponds to small inflaton excursion during observable inflation and the other describes large field inflation. The inflationary observables from curvature perturbation are in tune with the current data for a wide range of the model parameter. The small field branch predicts negligible amount of tensor to scalar ratio r˜ O(10^{-4}), while the large field sector is capable of generating high amplitude for tensor perturbations, r˜ O(10^{-1}). Also, the spectral index is almost independent of the model parameter along with a very small negative amount of scalar running. Finally we find that the mutated hilltop inflation closely resembles the α -attractor class of inflationary models in the limit of α φ ≫ 1.

  11. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  12. 48 CFR 1845.502-70 - Contractor-acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor-acquired... Possession of Contractors 1845.502-70 Contractor-acquired property. All contractor-acquired property must be... contractor-acquired. (2) Submission of DD Form 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Requisition, or equivalent format...

  13. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations typically benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. However, virtually all patients succumb to acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance that occurs via diverse mechanisms....... The diversity and unpredictability of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms presents a challenge for developing new treatments to overcome EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance. Here, we show that Akt activation is a convergent feature of acquired EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance......, across a spectrum of diverse, established upstream resistance mechanisms. Combined treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and Akt inhibitor causes apoptosis and synergistic growth inhibition in multiple EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer models. Moreover...

  14. Inherited and Acquired Muscle Weakness: A Moving Target for Diagnostic Muscle Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Werner; Schoser, Benedikt

    2017-08-01

    Inherited and acquired muscular weakness is caused by multiple conditions. While the inherited ones are mostly caused by mutations in genes coding for myopathic or neurogenic diseases, the acquired ones occur due to inflammatory, endocrine, or toxic etiologies. Precise diagnosis of a specific disease may be challenging and may require a multidisciplinary approach. What is the current place for a diagnostic biopsy of skeletal muscle? Diagnostic muscle biopsy lost in this context its first-tier place in the primary diagnostic workup for some diseases, but it is still mandatory for others. We here summarize conditions in which we believe a diagnostic sample is most relevant and mention those in which a biopsy may be secondary or can even be left out. We would like to stress that muscle biopsy nowadays has a new important place in description and definition of new diseases, for example, discovered by modern genetic approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  15. The V1-V3 region of a brain-derived HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein determines macrophage tropism, low CD4 dependence, increased fusogenicity and altered sensitivity to entry inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-García Julio

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 infects macrophages and microglia in the brain and can cause neurological disorders in infected patients. We and others have shown that brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env have lower CD4 dependence and higher avidity for CD4 than those from peripheral isolates, and we have also observed increased fusogenicity and reduced sensitivity to the fusion inhibitor T-1249. Due to the genetic differences between brain and spleen env from one individual throughout gp120 and in gp41's heptad repeat 2 (HR2, we investigated the viral determinants for the phenotypic differences by performing functional studies with chimeric and mutant Env. Results Chimeric Env showed that the V1/V2-C2-V3 region in brain's gp120 determines the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4, as well as macrophage tropism and reduced sensitivity to the small molecule BMS-378806. Changes in brain gp41's HR2 region did not contribute to the increased fusogenicity or to the reduced sensitivity to T-1249, since a T-1249-based peptide containing residues found in brain's but not in spleen's HR2 had similar potency than T-1249 and interacted similarly with an immobilized heptad repeat 1-derived peptide in surface plasmon resonance analysis. However, the increased fusogenicity and reduced T-1249 sensitivity of brain and certain chimeric Env mostly correlated with the low CD4 dependence and high avidity for CD4 determined by brain's V1-V3 region. Remarkably, most but not all of these low CD4-dependent, macrophage tropic envelopes glycoproteins also had increased sensitivity to the novel allosteric entry inhibitor HNG-105. The gp120's C2 region asparagine 283 (N283 has been previously associated with macrophage tropism, brain infection, lower CD4 dependence and higher CD4 affinity. Therefore, we introduced the N283T mutation into an env clone from a brain-derived isolate and into a brain tissue-derived env clone, and the T283N change into a spleen-derived env

  16. Derivation and Error Analysis of the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid at 2 arc min Resolution Version 3 (EMAG2v3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B.; Chulliat, A.; Saltus, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid at 2 arc min resolution version 3, EMAG2v3, combines marine and airborne trackline observations, satellite data, and magnetic observatory data to map the location, intensity, and extent of lithospheric magnetic anomalies. EMAG2v3 includes over 50 million new data points added to NCEI's Geophysical Database System (GEODAS) in recent years. The new grid relies only on observed data, and does not utilize a priori geologic structure or ocean-age information. Comparing this grid to other global magnetic anomaly compilations (e.g., EMAG2 and WDMAM), we can see that the inclusion of a priori ocean-age patterns forces an artificial linear pattern to the grid; the data-only approach allows for greater complexity in representing the evolution along oceanic spreading ridges and continental margins. EMAG2v3 also makes use of the satellite-derived lithospheric field model MF7 in order to accurately represent anomalies with wavelengths greater than 300 km and to create smooth grid merging boundaries. The heterogeneous distribution of errors in the observations used in compiling the EMAG2v3 was explored, and is reported in the final distributed grid. This grid is delivered at both 4 km continuous altitude above WGS84, as well as at sea level for all oceanic and coastal regions.

  17. Electrochemical performance of LiV3O8 micro-rod at various calcination temperatures as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Ginanjar, Edith Setia; Susanti, Diah; Prihandoko, Bambang

    2018-04-01

    Lithium vanadium oxide (LiV3O8) has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method followed by calcination via the reaction of Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and ammonium metavanade (NH4VO3). The precursors were heated at hydrothermal at 200 °C and then calcined at different calcination temperature in 400, 450, and 500 °C. The characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) is indicated that LiV3O8 micro-rod have been obtained by this method. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) result showed that redox reaction occur in potential range between 2.42 - 3.57 V for the reduction reaction and oxidation reaction in potential range between 2.01 V-3.69 V. The highest result was obtained for sample 450 °C with specific discharge capacity of 138 mA/g. The result showed that LiV3O8 has a promising candidate as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

  18. Electrospun hierarchical LiV3O8 nanofibers assembled from nanosheets with exposed {100} facets and their enhanced performance in aqueous lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lin; Zhou, Min; Xie, Yi

    2012-03-05

    Hierarchical LiV(3)O(8) nanofibers, assembled from nanosheets that have exposed {100} facets, have been fabricated by using electrospinning combined with calcination. The formation mechanism of hierarchical nanofibers was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) played a dual role in the formation of the nanofibers: besides acting as the template for forming the fibers, it effectively prevented the aggregation of LiV(3)O(8) nanoparticles, thereby allowing them to grow into small nanosheets with exposed {100} facets owing to the self-limitation property of LiV(3)O(8). This nanostructure is beneficial for the insertion/extraction of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the {100} facets have fewer and smaller channels, which may effectively alleviate proton co-intercalation into the electrode materials. Hence, the hierarchical LiV(3)O(8) nanofibers exhibit higher discharge capacities and better cycling stabilities as the anode electrode material for aqueous lithium-ion batteries than those reported previously. We demonstrate that these hierarchical nanofibers have promising potential applications in aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of hydrogen concentration in amorphous silicon films by nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV 3He2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, M.; Imura, T.; Hiraki, A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear elastic scattering (NES) of 100 MeV 3 He 2+ ions was used to determine the amount of hydrogen atoms in hydrogenated amorphous silicon film fabricated by reactive sputtering. The total amount of hydrogen in this film was determined to be (1.12 +- 0.1) x 10 22 cm -3 within the accuracy of approximately 10%. (author)

  20. Concurrent validity and clinical utility of the HCR-20V3 compared with the HCR-20 in forensic mental health nursing: similar tools but improved method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Selmer, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    The main scope of this small-scale investigation was to compare clinical application of the HCR-20V3 with its predecessor, the HCR-20. To explore concurrent validity, two experienced nurses assessed 20 forensic mental health service patients with the tools. Estimates of internal consistency for the HCR-20 and the HCR-20V3 were calculated by Cronbach's alpha for two levels of measurement: the H-, C-, and R-scales and the total sum scores. We found moderate (C-scale) to good (H- and R- scales and aggregate scores) estimates of internal consistency and significant differences for the two versions of the HCR. This finding indicates that the two versions reflect common underlying dimensions and that there still appears to be differences between V2 and V3 ratings for the same patients. A case from forensic mental health was used to illustrate similarities and differences in assessment results between the two HCR-20 versions. The case illustration depicts clinical use of the HCR-20V3 and application of two structured nursing interventions pertaining to the risk management part of the tool. According to our experience, Version 3 is superior to Version 2 concerning: (a) item clarity; (b) the distinction between presence and relevance of risk factors; (c) the integration of risk formulation and risk scenario; and (d) the explicit demand to construct a risk management plan as part of the standard assessment procedure.

  1. Improved detection of CXCR4-using HIV by V3 genotyping: application of population-based and "deep" sequencing to plasma RNA and proviral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Luke C; Moores, Andrew; Low, Andrew J; Thielen, Alexander; Dong, Winnie; Woods, Conan; Jensen, Mark A; Wynhoven, Brian; Chan, Dennison; Glascock, Christopher; Harrigan, P Richard

    2010-08-01

    Tropism testing should rule out CXCR4-using HIV before treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Currently, the recombinant phenotypic Trofile assay (Monogram) is most widely utilized; however, genotypic tests may represent alternative methods. Independent triplicate amplifications of the HIV gp120 V3 region were made from either plasma HIV RNA or proviral DNA. These underwent standard, population-based sequencing with an ABI3730 (RNA n = 63; DNA n = 40), or "deep" sequencing with a Roche/454 Genome Sequencer-FLX (RNA n = 12; DNA n = 12). Position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMX4/R5) (-6.96 cutoff) and geno2pheno[coreceptor] (5% false-positive rate) inferred tropism from V3 sequence. These methods were then independently validated with a separate, blinded dataset (n = 278) of screening samples from the maraviroc MOTIVATE trials. Standard sequencing of HIV RNA with PSSM yielded 69% sensitivity and 91% specificity, relative to Trofile. The validation dataset gave 75% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Proviral DNA plus PSSM gave 77% sensitivity and 71% specificity. "Deep" sequencing of HIV RNA detected >2% inferred-CXCR4-using virus in 8/8 samples called non-R5 by Trofile, and <2% in 4/4 samples called R5. Triplicate analyses of V3 standard sequence data detect greater proportions of CXCR4-using samples than previously achieved. Sequencing proviral DNA and "deep" V3 sequencing may also be useful tools for assessing tropism.

  2. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhaohui, E-mail: lzhtrhos@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijingxbh@yahoo.com.cn [Capital Medical University, Beijing Tongren Hospital, No 1 Dong Jiao Min Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730 (China); Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopengf05@163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Lv, Han, E-mail: chrislvhan@126.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Dong, Cheng, E-mail: derc007@sina.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China); Liu, Wenjuan, E-mail: wenjuanliu@163.com [Jining No. 1 People' s Hospital, No. 6 Health Street, Jining 272100 (China); Wang, Zhenchang, E-mail: cjr.wzhch@vip.163.com [Capital Medical University, Beijing Friendship Hospital, No 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100050 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition.

  3. Sigmoid plate dehiscence: Congenital or acquired condition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhaohui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Pengfei; Lv, Han; Dong, Cheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Zhenchang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT with multiplanar reformations can accurately display the sigmoid platet dehiscence. • The prevalence of sigmoid plate dehiscence was no significant difference among different age groups. • The size of sigmoid plate bony defects were not statistically different among different age groups. • The sigmoid plate dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition. - Abstract: Background and purpose: The imaging features of sigmoid plate dehiscence-induced pulsatile tinnitus have been presented. The origin of the sigmoid plate dehiscence, however, remains unclear. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence on computed tomography (CT) images in multiple age groups to determine whether this condition is more likely to be congenital or acquired. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced CT images of sigmoid plates of temporal bones in 504 patients. Each temporal bone was characterized as normal or dehiscent. Patients were then subcategorized into four age groups, and the prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates in each group were calculated and compared. Results: Overall, 80 patients had sigmoid plate dehiscence, nine of whom had it bilaterally. In successively older age groups, the prevalences of sigmoid plate dehiscence were 18.9%, 20.1%, 14.5%, and 12.7%, respectively. Respective average anteroposterior bony defect diameters were 3.7 ± 1.7, 3.0 ± 1.3, 3.1 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.1 mm. Respective average vertical bony defect diameters were 3.6 ± 2.3, 2.6 ± 1.2, 3.2 ± 1.5, and 3.0 ± 1.7 mm. The prevalence and extent of sigmoid plate dehiscence were not statistically different among the four age groups. Conclusions: The similar radiologic prevalence and extent of dehiscent sigmoid plates among the age groups suggest that the dehiscence is more commonly a congenital than an acquired condition

  4. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquired apraxia of speech: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollman-Porter, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired adult neurogenic communication disorder that often occurs following stroke. The purpose of this article is to review current research studies addressing the diagnostic and therapeutic management of AOS. Traditional definitions and characteristics are compared with current features that assist in the differential diagnosis of AOS. Prognostic indicators are reviewed in addition to how neuroplasticity may impact treatment in chronic AOS. Treatment techniques discussed include the articulatory kinematic approach (AKA), use of augmentative/alternative communication devices, intersystemic facilitation/reorganization, and constraint-induced therapy. Finally, the need to address functional communication through support groups, outside the therapeutic environment, is discussed.

  6. Acquired Methemoglobinemia - A Sporadic Holi Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masavkar, Sanjeevani Satish; Mauskar, Anupama; Patwardhan, Gaurav; Bhat, Vasudeva; Manglani, Mamta V

    2017-06-15

    To study clinical profile and outcome in patients with methemoglobinemia following exposure to toxic colors during Holi festival. This retrospective study included 112 children (5 to 12 years) admitted with methemoglobinemia after playing Holi. Clinical and treatment details were reviewed. The common symptoms were giddiness, vomiting and headache. Treatment included thorough skin wash, intravenous fluid and methylene blue in 111 children. Age 7-9 and > 11 years, vomiting, giddiness, cyanosis, PaO2 < 80 mm Hg and oxygen saturation < 95% were associated with higher need for methylene blue. All children had a good outcome. Timely diagnosis and management of acquired methemoglobinemia can save lives.

  7. Cerebral involvement in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestin, G.P.; Juergens, R.; Steinbrich, W.; Diederich, N.; Koeln Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually due to opportunistic infections; these frequently offer a difficult differential diagnostic problem. Imaging methods play an important part in the elucidation of symptoms. CT and MR findings were analysed in 13 patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms. Some infections of the central nervous system (encephalitis of unknown aetiology, cytomegalic encephalitis, meningitis) may show cerebral atrophy or even no morphological changes. Toxoplasmosis and PML are the most common opportunistic infections typical changes on CT and MR may lead to diagnosis. MR offers advantages compared with CT in its higher sensitivity for the demonstration even of small lesions. (orig.) [de

  8. The Genomic Basis of Intrinsic and Acquired Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Serratia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner-Miranda, Luisa; Vinuesa, Pablo; Cravioto, Alejandro; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Serratia marcescens, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, was long thought to be a non-pathogenic bacterium prevalent in environmental habitats. Together with other members of this genus, it has emerged in recent years as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing various types of infections. One important feature of pathogens belonging to this genus is their intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotic families, including β-lactam, aminoglycosides, quinolones and polypeptide antibiotics. The aim of this study was to elucidate which genes participate in the intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance of this genus in order to determine the Serratia genus resistome. We performed phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses using 32 Serratia spp. genomes deposited in the NCBI GenBank from strains isolated from different ecological niches and different lifestyles. S. marcescens strain SmUNAM836, which was previously isolated from a Mexican adult with obstructive pulmonary disease, was included in this study. The results show that most of the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were found on the chromosome, and to a lesser degree, on plasmids and transposons acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Four strains contained the gyrA point mutation in codon Ser83 that confers quinolone resistance. Pathogenic and environmental isolates presented a high number of ARGs, especially genes associated with efflux systems. Pathogenic strains, specifically nosocomial strains, presented more acquired resistance genes than environmental isolates. We may conclude that the environment provides a natural reservoir for antibiotic resistance, which has been underestimated in the medical field.

  9. New Fks hot spot for acquired echinocandin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its contribution to intrinsic resistance of Scedosporium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael E; Katiyar, Santosh K; Edlind, Thomas D

    2011-08-01

    Echinocandins represent a new antifungal group with potent activity against Candida species. These lipopeptides inhibit the synthesis of β-1,3-glucan, the major cell wall polysaccharide. Acquired resistance or reduced echinocandin susceptibility (RES) is rare and associated with mutations in two "hot spot" regions of Fks1 or Fks2, the probable β-1,3-glucan synthases. In contrast, many fungi demonstrate intrinsic RES for reasons that remain unclear. We are using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to understand the basis for RES by modeling echinocandin-Fks interaction. Previously characterized mutations confer cross-RES; we screened for mutations conferring differential RES, implying direct interaction of that Fks residue with a variable echinocandin side chain. One mutant (in an fks1Δ background) exhibited ≥16-fold micafungin and anidulafungin versus caspofungin RES. Sequencing identified a novel Fks2 mutation, W714L/Y715N. Equivalent W695L/Y696N and related W695L/F/C mutations in Fks1 generated by site-directed mutagenesis and the isolation of a W695L-equivalent mutation in Candida glabrata confirmed the role of the new "hot spot 3" in RES. Further mutagenesis expanded hot spot 3 to Fks1 residues 690 to 700, yielding phenotypes ranging from cross-RES to differential hypersusceptibility. Fks1 sequences from intrinsically RES Scedosporium species revealed W695F-equivalent substitutions; Fks1 hybrids expressing Scedosporium prolificans hot spot 3 confirmed that this substitution imparts RES.

  10. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  11. CD4-dependent characteristics of coreceptor use and HIV type 1 V3 sequence in a large population of therapy-naive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Andrew J; Marchant, David; Brumme, Chanson J; Brumme, Zabrina L; Dong, Winnie; Sing, Tobias; Hogg, Robert S; Montaner, Julio S G; Gill, Vikram; Cheung, Peter K; Harrigan, P Richard

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the associations between coreceptor use, V3 loop sequence, and CD4 count in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort of chronically HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients. HIV coreceptor usage was determined in the last pretherapy plasma sample for 977 individuals initiating HAART in British Columbia, Canada using the Monogram Trofile Tropism assay. Relative light unit (RLU) readouts from the Trofile assay, as well as HIV V3 loop sequence data, were examined as a function of baseline CD4 cell count for 953 (97%) samples with both phenotype and genotype data available. Median CCR5 RLUs were high for both R5 and X4-capable samples, while CXCR4 RLUs were orders of magnitude lower for X4 samples (p < 0.001). CCR5 RLUs in R5 samples (N = 799) increased with decreasing CD4 count (p < 0.001), but did not vary with plasma viral load (pVL) (p = 0.74). In X4 samples (N = 178), CCR5 RLUs decreased with decreasing CD4 count (p = 0.046) and decreasing pVL (p = 0.097), while CXCR4 RLUs increased with decreasing pVL (p = 0.0008) but did not vary with CD4 (p = 0.96). RLUs varied with the presence of substitutions at V3 loop positions 11, 25, and 6-8. The prevalence and impact of substitutions at codons 25 and 6-8 were CD4 dependent as was the presence of amino acid mixtures in the V3; substitutions at position 11 were CD4 independent. Assay RLU measures predictably vary with both immunological and virological parameters. The ability to predict X4 virus using genotypic determinants at positions 25 and 6-8 of the V3 loop is CD4 dependent, while position 11 appears to be CD4 independent.

  12. Population-based V3 genotypic tropism assay: a retrospective analysis using screening samples from the A4001029 and MOTIVATE studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Rachel A; Thielen, Alexander; Mo, Theresa; Dong, Winnie; Woods, Conan K; Chapman, Douglass; Lewis, Marilyn; James, Ian; Heera, Jayvant; Valdez, Hernan; Harrigan, P Richard

    2010-10-23

    The MOTIVATE-1 and 2 studies compared maraviroc (MVC) along with optimized background therapy (OBT) vs. placebo along with OBT in treatment-experienced patients screened as having R5-HIV (original Monogram Trofile). A subset screened with non-R5 HIV were treated with MVC or placebo along with OBT in a sister safety trial, A4001029. This analysis retrospectively examined the performance of population-based sequence analysis of HIV-1 env V3-loop to predict coreceptor tropism. Triplicate V3-loop sequences were generated using stored screening plasma samples and data was processed using custom software ('ReCall'), blinded to clinical response. Tropism was inferred using geno2pheno ('g2p'; 5% false positive rate). Primary outcomes were viral load changes after starting maraviroc; and concordance with prior screening Trofile results. Genotype and Trofile results were available for 1164 individuals with virological outcome data (N = 169 non-R5 by Trofile). Compared with Trofile, V3 genotyping had a specificity of 92.6% and a sensitivity of 67.4% for detecting non-R5 virus. However, when compared with clinical outcome, virological responses were consistently similar between Trofile and V3 genotype at weeks 8 and 24 following the initiation of therapy for patients categorized as R5. Despite differences in sensitivity for predicting non-R5 HIV, week 8 and 24 week virological responses were similar in this treatment-experienced population. These findings suggest the potential utility of V3 genotyping as an accessible assay to select patients who may benefit from maraviroc treatment. Optimization of the predictive tropism algorithm may lead to further improvement in the clinical utility of HIV genotypic tropism assays.

  13. Consistent absence of BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Mohtasham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignant salivary gland tumors are rare entities. Despite advances in surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the rate of the mortality and five-year survival has not been improved markedly over the last few decades. The activation of EGFR- RAS-RAF signaling pathway contributes to the initiation and progression of many human cancers, promising a key pathway for therapeutic molecules. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate BRAF mutations in salivary gland carcinomas. Methods: We designed PCR- RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and screened 50 salivary gland carcinomas (SGCs including mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC and polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA for the BRAF V600E mutation. Results: PCR-RFLP analyses demonstrated no mutation in BRAF exon 15 for SGC samples at position V600, which is the most commonly mutated site for BRAF in human cancer. Conclusions: According to our results SGCs didn’t acquire BRAF mutations that result in a constitutive activation of the signaling cascade downstream of EGFR, hence SGCs can be a good candidate for anti EGFR therapies.

  14. Autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations commonly impair striatal circuits to boost repetitive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Patrick E; Fuccillo, Marc V; Maxeiner, Stephan; Hayton, Scott J; Gokce, Ozgun; Lim, Byung Kook; Fowler, Stephen C; Malenka, Robert C; Südhof, Thomas C

    2014-07-03

    In humans, neuroligin-3 mutations are associated with autism, whereas in mice, the corresponding mutations produce robust synaptic and behavioral changes. However, different neuroligin-3 mutations cause largely distinct phenotypes in mice, and no causal relationship links a specific synaptic dysfunction to a behavioral change. Using rotarod motor learning as a proxy for acquired repetitive behaviors in mice, we found that different neuroligin-3 mutations uniformly enhanced formation of repetitive motor routines. Surprisingly, neuroligin-3 mutations caused this phenotype not via changes in the cerebellum or dorsal striatum but via a selective synaptic impairment in the nucleus accumbens/ventral striatum. Here, neuroligin-3 mutations increased rotarod learning by specifically impeding synaptic inhibition onto D1-dopamine receptor-expressing but not D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons. Our data thus suggest that different autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutations cause a common increase in acquired repetitive behaviors by impairing a specific striatal synapse and thereby provide a plausible circuit substrate for autism pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia-associated DNMT3A p.Arg882His mutation in a patient with Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome as a constitutional mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Rika; Terashima, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Kosaki, Kenjiro

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation plays a critical role in both embryonic development and tumorigenesis and is mediated through various DNA methyltransferases. Constitutional mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A cause a recently identified Tatton-Brown-Rahman overgrowth syndrome (TBRS). Somatically acquired mutations in DNMT3A are causally associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and p.Arg882His represents the most prevalent hotspot. So far, no patients with TBRS have been reported to have subsequently developed AML. Here, we report a live birth and the survival of a female with the TBRS phenotype who had a heterozygous constitutional DNMT3A mutation at the AML somatic mutation hotspot p.Arg882His in her DNA from peripheral blood and buccal tissue. Her characteristic features at birth included hypotonia, narrow palpebral fissures, ventricular septal defect, umbilical hernia, sacral cyst, Chiari type I anomaly. At the age of 6 years, she exhibited overgrowth (> 3 SD) and round face and intellectual disability. This report represents the first documentation of the same variant (DNMT3A p.Arg882His) as both the constitutional mutation associated with TBRS and the somatic mutation hotspot of AML. The observation neither confirms nor denies the notion that mutations responsible for TBRS and those for AML might share the same mode of action. Larger data sets are required to determine whether TBRS patients with constitutional DNMT3A mutations are at an increased risk for AML. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  17. Electrical Signaling, Photosynthesis and Systemic Acquired Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szechyńska-Hebda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical signaling in higher plants is required for the appropriate intracellular and intercellular communication, stress responses, growth and development. In this review, we have focus on recent findings regarding the electrical signaling, as a major regulator of the systemic acquired acclimation (SAA and the systemic acquired resistance (SAR. The electric signaling on its own cannot confer the required specificity of information to trigger SAA and SAR, therefore, we have also discussed a number of other mechanisms and signaling systems that can operate in combination with electric signaling. We have emphasized the interrelation between ionic mechanism of electrical activity and regulation of photosynthesis, which is intrinsic to a proper induction of SAA and SAR. In a special way, we have summarized the role of non-photochemical quenching and its regulator PsbS. Further, redox status of the cell, calcium and hydraulic waves, hormonal circuits and stomatal aperture regulation have been considered as components of the signaling. Finally, a model of light-dependent mechanisms of electrical signaling propagation has been presented together with the systemic regulation of light-responsive genes encoding both, ion channels and proteins involved in regulation of their activity. Due to space limitations, we have not addressed many other important aspects of hormonal and ROS signaling, which were presented in a number of recent excellent reviews.

  18. Acquired pulmonary artery stenosis in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A; Schober, Karsten E; Bonagura, John D; Smeak, Daniel D

    2008-04-15

    4 dogs with acquired pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) were examined for various clinical signs. One was a mixed-breed dog with congenital valvular PAS that subsequently developed peripheral PAS, one was a Golden Retriever with pulmonary valve fibrosarcoma, one was a Pembroke Welsh Corgi in which the left pulmonary artery had inadvertently been ligated during surgery for correction of patent ductus arteriosus, and one was a Boston Terrier with a heart-base mass compressing the pulmonary arteries. All 4 dogs were evaluated with 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography to characterize the nature and severity of the stenoses; other diagnostic tests were also performed. The mixed-breed dog with valvular and peripheral PAS was euthanized, surgical resection of the pulmonic valve mass was performed in the Golden Retriever, corrective surgery was performed on the Pembroke Welsh Corgi with left pulmonary artery ligation, and the Boston Terrier with the heart-base mass was managed medically. Acquired PAS in dogs may manifest as a clinically silent heart murmur, syncope, or right-sided heart failure. The diagnosis is made on the basis of imaging findings, particularly results of 2-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Treatment may include surgical, interventional, or medical modalities and is targeted at resolving the inciting cause.

  19. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  20. Induced mutations in citrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Vardi, Aliza

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Parthenocarpic tendency is an important prerequisite for successful induction of seedlessness in breeding and especially in mutation breeding. A gene for asynapsis and accompanying seedless fruit has been found by us in inbred progeny of cv. 'Wilking'. Using budwood irradiation by gamma rays, seedless mutants of 'Eureka' and 'Villafranca' lemon (original clone of the latter has 25 seeds) and 'Minneola' tangelo have been obtained. Ovule sterility of the three mutants is nearly complete, with some pollen fertility still remaining. A semi-compact mutant of Shamouti orange has been obtained by irradiation. A programme for inducing seedlessness in easy peeling citrus varieties and selections has been initiated. (author)

  1. Induced skeletal mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a large-scale experiment that, by means of breeding tests, confirmed that many dominant skeletal mutations are induced by large-dose radiation exposure. The author also discusses: (1) the major advantages and disadvantages of the skeletal method in improving estimates of genetic hazard to man; (2) future uses of the skeletal method; (3) direct estimation of risk beyond the first generation using the skeletal method; and (4) the possibility of using the skeletal method as a quick and easy screen for chemical mutagens

  2. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter contains brief articles on the use of radiation to induce mutations in plants; radiation-induced mutants in Chrysanthemum; disrupting the association between oil and protein content in soybean seeds; mutation studies on bougainvillea; a new pepper cultivar; and the use of mutation induction to improve the quality of yam beans. A short review of the seminar on the use of mutation and related biotechnology for crop improvement in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and a description of a Co-ordinated Research Programme on the application of DNA-based marker mutations for the improvement of cereals and other sexually reproduced crop species are also included. Two tables are given: these are based on the ''FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database'' and show the number of mutated varieties and the number of officially released mutant varieties in particular crops/species. Refs and tabs

  3. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  4. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  5. Clinopyroxenite dikes crosscutting banded peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in the Oman ophiolite: early cumulates from the primary V3 lava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Satoko; Arai, Shoji; Tamura, Akihiro

    2013-04-01

    Oman ophiolite is one of the well-known ophiolites for excellent exposures not only of the mantle section but also of the crustal section including effusive rocks and the underlying metamorphic rocks. In the Oman ophiolite, three types of effusive rocks (V1, V2 and V3 from the lower sequences) are recognized: i.e., V1, MORB-like magma, V2, island-arc type lava, and V3, intra-plate lava (Godard et al., 2003 and references there in). V1 and V2 lavas are dominant (> 95 %) as effusive rocks and have been observed in almost all the blocks of northern part of the Oman ophiolite (Godard et al., 2003), but V3 lava has been reported only from Salahi area (Alabaster et al., 1982). It is clear that there was a time gap of lava eruption between V1-2 and V3 based on the presence of pelagic sediments in between (Godard et al., 2003). In addition, V3 lavas are fed by a series of doleritic dikes crosscutting V2 lava (Alley unit) (Alabaster et al., 1982). We found clinopyroxenite (CPXITE) dikes crosscutting deformation structure of basal peridotites just above the metamorphic sole in Wadi Ash Shiyah. The sole metamorphic rock is garnet amphibolite, which overlies the banded and deformed harzburgite and dunite. The CPXITE is composed of coarse clinopyroxene (CPX) with minor amount of chlorite, garnet (hydrous/anhydrous grossular-andradite) with inclusions of titanite, and serpentine formed at a later low-temperature stage. The width of the CPXITE dikes is 2-5 cm (10 cm at maximum) and the dikes contain small blocks of wall harzburgite. Almost all the silicates are serpentinized in the harzburgite blocks except for some CPX. The Mg# (= Mg/(Mg + Fe) atomic ratio) of the CPX is almost constant (= 0.94-0.95) in the serpentinite blocks but varies within the dikes, highest at the contact with the block (0.94) and decreasing with the distance from the contact to 0.81 (0.85 on average). The contents of Al2O3, Cr2O3, and TiO2 in the CPX of the dikes are 0.5-2.0, 0.2-0.6, and 0

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  7. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  8. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  9. The BRCA1-Δ11q Alternative Splice Isoform Bypasses Germline Mutations and Promotes Therapeutic Resistance to PARP Inhibition and Cisplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yifan; Bernhardy, Andrea J; Cruz, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Breast and ovarian cancer patients harboring BRCA1/2 germline mutations have clinically benefitted from therapy with PARP inhibitor (PARPi) or platinum compounds, but acquired resistance limits clinical impact. In this study, we investigated the impact of mutations on BRCA1 isoform expression and...

  10. Mutational pattern of the nurse shark antigen receptor gene (NAR) is similar to that of mammalian Ig genes and to spontaneous mutations in evolution: the translesion synthesis model of somatic hypermutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M; Velez, J; Singh, M; Cerny, J; Flajnik, M F

    1999-05-01

    The pattern of somatic mutations of shark and frog Ig is distinct from somatic hypermutation of Ig in mammals in that there is a bias to mutate GC base pairs and a low frequency of mutations. Previous analysis of the new antigen receptor gene in nurse sharks (NAR), however, revealed no bias to mutate GC base pairs and the frequency of mutation was comparable to that of mammalian IgG. Here, we analyzed 1023 mutations in NAR and found no targeting of the mechanism to any particular nucleotide but did obtain strong evidence for a transition bias and for strand polarity. As seen for all species studied to date, the serine codon AGC/T in NAR was a mutational hotspot. The NAR mutational pattern is most similar to that of mammalian IgG and furthermore both are strikingly akin to mutations acquired during the neutral evolution of nuclear pseudogenes, suggesting that a similar mechanism is at work for both processes. In yeast, most spontaneous mutations are introduced by the translesion synthesis DNA polymerase zeta (REV3) and in various DNA repair-deficient backgrounds transitions were more often REV3-dependent than were transversions. Therefore, we propose a model of somatic hypermutation where DNA polymerase zeta is recruited to the Ig locus. An excess of DNA glycosylases in germinal center reactions may further enhance the mutation frequency by a REV3-dependent mutagenic process known as imbalanced base excision repair.

  11. Dendritic ion channelopathy in acquired epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolos, Nicholas P.; Johnston, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Ion channel dysfunction or “channelopathy” is a proven cause of epilepsy in the relatively uncommon genetic epilepsies with Mendelian inheritance. But numerous examples of acquired channelopathy in experimental animal models of epilepsy following brain injury have also been demonstrated. Our understanding of channelopathy has grown due to advances in electrophysiology techniques that have allowed the study of ion channels in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in cortex and hippocampus. The apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons comprise the vast majority of neuronal surface membrane area, and thus the majority of the neuronal ion channel population. Investigation of dendritic ion channels has demonstrated remarkable plasticity in ion channel localization and biophysical properties in epilepsy, many of which produce hyperexcitability and may contribute to the development and maintenance of the epileptic state. Here we review recent advances in dendritic physiology and cell biology, and their relevance to epilepsy. PMID:23216577

  12. Merge or Acquire - A Strategic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Pratap SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Merger or acquisition is always a long-debated topic in the field of Strategy and Finance from a long time. This article proposes a strategic framework using five steps process to deal with this issue. The step one defines the objective of merger or acquisition. Second step deals with SWOT analysis. Step three follows the framework proposed by Dyer JH et. al (2004 to decide on when to ally and when to acquire. Step four applies Parenting Fit matrix. Finally, the fifth and final step carried out the valuation to take a call on the price for acquisition. All along this journey, the paper takes up a relevant example of Bank of America’s acquisition to Merrill Lynch and concludes.

  13. The acquired hyperostosis syndrome. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihlmann, W.; Hering, L.; Bargon, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In the second part of this publication, we describe some additional findings in cases of sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH). These include focal hyperostosis of the spine, in the pelvis and in the extremities and psoriatric skin lesions and severe forms of acne (acne conglobata, acne fulminans). An analysis of our 13 patients and of the relevant literature indicates that the hyperostosis is due to increased bone metabolism and heterotopic ossification of fibrous tissue and that these are the pathogenic bases of the changes in the axial skeleton, the pelvis and the bones of the extremities. We have suggested a scheme which would categorise the syndrom into complete, incomplete and possibly acquired forms. (orig./GDG) [de

  14. Prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Mathilde; Overgaard-Steensen, C

    2015-01-01

    for prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances....... In the hospitalised patient, non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion is frequent and results in a reduced renal electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC). This condition puts the patient at risk of hyponatraemia upon infusion of fluids that are hypotonic such as 5% glucose, Darrow-glucose, NaKglucose and 0.45% Na......Cl in 5% glucose. It is suggested that individualised fluid therapy includes the following: Firstly, bolus therapy with Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate/0.9% NaCl in the hypovolaemic patient to minimise the risk of fluid under-/overload. Secondly, P-[Na(+) ] should be monitored together with the balances...

  15. Monitoring Agitated Behavior After acquired Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadal, Lena; Mortensen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbaek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the onset, duration, intensity, and nursing shift variation of agitated behavior in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) at a rehabilitation hospital. Design: Prospective descriptive study. Methods: A total of 11 patients with agitated behavior were included. Agitated...... behavior was registered with the Agitated Behavior Scale (ABS). The nurse or therapist allocated the individual patient assessed ABS during each shift. Intensity of agitated behavior was tested using exact test. A within-subject shift effect was analyzed with repeated-measure ANOVA. Findings: The onset...... of agitated behavior was at a median of 14 (1–28) days from admission. Seven patients remained agitated beyond 3 weeks from onset. Severe intensity of agitation was observed in 86 of 453 nursing shifts. Differences in agitated behavior between day, evening, and night shifts were found, F(2.20) = 7.90, p...

  16. Multiple myeloma associated with acquired cutis laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S Y; Maguire, R F

    1980-08-01

    Acquired cutis laxa is a rare disorder characterized by diffuse laxity of the skin and loss of connective tissue support with involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pelvic organs, and aorta. The case report presented herein describes a forty-six year old woman with multiple myeloma and cutis laxa. Her history included several severe allergic reactions and the gradual development of lax skin, loss of connective tissue support throughout the body, and emphysema. At autopsy, multiple myeloma, diffuse laxity of the skin, and panacinar emphysema were found. The amount of elastic fiber in the skin, lungs, and aorta was decreased and showed abnormal fragmentation. Results of direct immunofluorescence study demonstrated IgG bound to dermal elastic fibers. Speculation regarding an immunologic etiology of the elastic tissue abnormality is presented herein.

  17. Contemporary Management of Adult Acquired Buried Penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, M S; Gallegos, M A; Santucci, R A

    2018-04-06

    In 2014, The World Health Organization reported that 1.9 billion adults, 39% of the population, were overweight or obese [1]. Unlike most complications of obesity, adult acquired buried penis is an uncomfortable topic which may be overlooked. Patients are often encouraged to lose weight, but this is futile. Simple weight loss will not cure buried penis, as it is a multifactorial condition caused by a combination of: a) overhanging escutcheon from overweight, b) lichen sclerosus, which often contracts and destroys the penile shaft skin, and c) loss of normal penile shaft attachments to the penile skin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Synesthetic colors for Japanese late acquired graphemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Determinants of synesthetic color choice for the Japanese logographic script, Kanji, were studied. The study investigated how synesthetic colors for Kanji characters, which are usually acquired later in life than other types of graphemes in Japanese language (phonetic characters called Hiragana and Katakana, and Arabic digits), are influenced by linguistic properties such as phonology, orthography, and meaning. Of central interest was a hypothesized generalization process from synesthetic colors for graphemes, learned prior to acquisition of Kanji, to Kanji characters learned later. Results revealed that color choices for Kanji characters depend on meaning and phonological information. Some results suggested that colors are generalized from Hiragana characters and Arabic digits to Kanji characters via phonology and meaning, respectively. Little influence of orthographic information was observed. The findings and approach of this study contributes to a clarification of the mechanism underlying grapheme-color synesthesia, especially in terms of its relationship to normal language processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Time dysperception perspective for acquired brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica ePiras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with acquired brain injuries in key cerebral areas recently implicated in human studies of timing. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will definitively answer the question of whether time distortions are manifestations of cognitive and behavioral symptoms of brain damage and definitively clarify their mechanisms.

  20. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  1. Mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia | Tanimowo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquired pneumonia to themedicalwards of Ladoke Akintola University ofTeaching Hospital between Jan. 2003 andDec. 2005. The case notes of 65 patients admitted for community-acquired pneumoniawere studiedwith respect to their admission ...

  2. Composite of K-doped (NH4)2V3O8/graphene as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Li, Zhiwei; Fei, Hailong; Wei, Mingdeng

    2015-11-21

    A layer structured K-doped (NH4)2V3O8/graphene (K-NVG) was prepared via a hydrothermal route and then used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries for the first time. The K-NVG nanosheets have a diameter in the range of 200-500 nm. The K-NVG electrode exhibited stable cycling and a good rate performance with a reversible capacity of 235.4 mA h g(-1), which is much higher than the 90.5 mA h g(-1) value of the (NH4)2V3O8/graphene electrode after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g(-1). Simultaneously, the retention rate was maintained at 82% even after 250 cycles at the current density of 300 mA g(-1). Such good electrochemical properties may be attributed to the K-NVG's stable layered structure.

  3. Use of versican variant V3 and versican antisense expression to engineer cultured human skin containing increased content of insoluble elastin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Mervyn J; Falk, Ben A; Zuo, Ning; Dickinson, Michelle E; May, Barnaby C H; Wight, Thomas N

    2017-01-01

    Skin substitutes for repair of dermal wounds are deficient in functional elastic fibres. We report that the content of insoluble elastin in the dermis of cultured human skin can be increased though the use of two approaches that enhance elastogenesis by dermal fibroblasts, forced expression of versican variant V3, which lacks glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, and forced expression of versican antisense to decrease levels of versican variant V1 with GAG chains. Human dermal fibroblasts transduced with V3 or anti-versican were cultured under standard conditions over a period of 4 weeks to produce dermal sheets, with growth enhanced though multiple seedings for the first 3 weeks. Human keratinocytes, cultured in supplemented media, were added to the 4-week dermal sheets and the skin layer cultured for a further week. At 5 weeks, keratinocytes were multilayered and differentiated, with desmosome junctions thoughout and keratin deposits in the upper squamous layers. The dermal layer was composed of layered fibroblasts surrounded by extracellular matrix of collagen bundles and, in control cultures, small scattered elastin deposits. Forced expression of V3 and versican antisense slowed growth, decreased versican V1 expression, increased tropoelastin expression and/or the deposition of large aggregates of insoluble elastin in the dermal layer, and increased tissue stiffness, as measured by nano-indentation. Skin sheets were also cultured on Endoform Dermal Template™, the biodegradable wound dressing made from the lamina propria of sheep foregut. Skin structure and the enhanced deposition of elastin by forced expression of V3 and anti-versican were preserved on this supportive substrate. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. CaV3.1 isoform of T-type calcium channels supports excitability of rat and mouse ventral tegmental area neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Matthew E; Tesic, Vesna; Stamenic, Tamara Timic; Joksimovic, Srdjan M; Busquet, Nicolas; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2018-03-23

    Recent data have implicated voltage-gated calcium channels in the regulation of the excitability of neurons within the mesolimbic reward system. While the attention of most research has centered on high voltage L-type calcium channel activity, the presence and role of the low voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (T-channels) has not been well explored. Hence, we investigated T-channel properties in the neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) utilizing wild-type (WT) rats and mice, Ca V 3.1 knock-out (KO) mice, and TH-eGFP knock-in (KI) rats in acute horizontal brain slices of adolescent animals. In voltage-clamp experiments, we first assessed T-channel activity in WT rats with characteristic properties of voltage-dependent activation and inactivation, as well as characteristic crisscrossing patterns of macroscopic current kinetics. T-current kinetics were similar in WT mice and WT rats but T-currents were abolished in Ca V 3.1 KO mice. In ensuing current-clamp experiments, we observed the presence of hyperpolarization-induced rebound burst firing in a subset of neurons in WT rats, as well as dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in TH-eGFP KI rats. Following the application of a pan-selective T-channel blocker TTA-P2, rebound bursting was significantly inhibited in all tested cells. In a behavioral assessment, the acute locomotor increase induced by a MK-801 (Dizocilpine) injection in WT mice was abolished in Ca V 3.1 KO mice, suggesting a tangible role for 3.1 T-type channels in drug response. We conclude that pharmacological targeting of Ca V 3.1 isoform of T-channels may be a novel approach for the treatment of disorders of mesolimbic reward system. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A Ca(v)3.2/Stac1 molecular complex controls T-type channel expression at the plasma membrane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Proft, Juliane; Campiglio, M.; Flucher, B. E.; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2016), s. 346-354 ISSN 1933-6950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Ca(v)3 * 2 channel * Stac adaptor protein * trafficking * T-type calcium channel Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.042, year: 2016

  6. Mutational profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer patients resistant to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors using next generation sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Shao, Yang; Shi, Xun; Lou, Guangyuan; Zhang, Yiping; Wu, Xue; Tong, Xiaoling; Yu, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitive epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations invariably develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Identification of actionable genetic alterations conferring drug-resistance can be helpful for guiding the subsequent treatment decision. One of the major resistant mechanisms is secondary EGFR-T790M mutation. Other mechanisms, such as HER2 and MET amplifications, and PIK3CA mutations, were also reported. However, the mechanisms in the remaining patients are still unknown. In this study, we performed mutational profiling in a cohort of 83 NSCLC patients with TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations at diagnosis and acquired resistance to three different first-generation EGFR TKIs using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-related genes. In total, we identified 322 genetic alterations with a median of 3 mutations per patient. 61% of patients still exhibit TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations, and 36% of patients acquired EGFR-T790M. Besides other known resistance mechanisms, we identified TET2 mutations in 12% of patients. Interestingly, we also observed SOX2 amplification in EGFR-T790M negative patients, which are restricted to Icotinib treatment resistance, a drug widely used in Chinese NSCLC patients. Our study uncovered mutational profiles of NSCLC patients with first-generation EGFR TKIs resistance with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:27528220

  7. Mutation breeding in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In Indonesia, soybean is one of the important crop after rice. It is generally cultivated in the lowlands and rarely in the highlands. Seeds of soybean variety ORBA were treated with various doses of fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and NaN 3 with the aims of studying the mutagen effects in M-1 and M-2 generations and also to select mutants adapted to highland conditions. D-50 doses for gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS were around 23 krad, 2,300 rad, 0.3%, respectively. Much higher chlorophyll mutation frequency was observed in EMS treatment of 0.3%. Seven mutants were shorter and four early mutants matured from 4 to 20 days earlier than the control plants. Two early mutants were quite adaptable in both the low and highlands and produced better yields than the parental material. (author)

  8. C235-V3 cyclotron for a proton therapy center to be installed in the hospital complex of radiation medicine (Dimitrovgrad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, R. V.; Gurskii, S. V.; Jongen, Y.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Kazarinov, M. Yu.; Korovkin, S. A.; Kostromin, S. A.; Calderan, J.-M.; Cahay, P.; Mokrenko, S. P.; Morozov, N. A.; Nkongolo, H.; Ol'shevskii, A. G.; Paradis, Y.; Petrov, D. S.; Romanov, V. M.; Samsonov, E. V.; Syresin, E. M.; Shakun, A. N.; Shakun, N. G.; Shirkov, G. D.; Shirkov, S. G.

    2014-06-01

    Proton therapy is an effective method of treating oncologic diseases. In Russia, construction of several centers for proton and ion therapy is slated for the years to come. A proton therapy center in Dimitrovgrad will be the first. The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russia) in collaboration with Ion Beam Application (IBA) (Belgium) has designed an C235-V3 medical proton cyclotron for this center. It outperforms previous versions of commercial IBA cyclotrons, which have already been installed in 11 oncologic hospital centers in different countries. Experimental and calculation data for the beam dynamics in the C235-V3 medical cyclotron are presented. Reasons for beam losses during acceleration are considered, the influence of the magnetic field radial component in the midplane of the accelerator and main resonances is studied, and a beam extraction system is designed. In 2011-2012 in Dubna, the cyclotron was mounted, its magnetic field was properly configured, acceleration conditions were optimized, and beam extraction tests were carried out after which it was supplied to Dimitrovgrad. In the C235-V3 cyclotron, an acceleration efficiency of 72% and an extraction efficiency of 62% have been achieved without diaphragming to form a vertical profile of the beam.

  9. Founder Mutations in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Deborah; DiGiovanna, John J.; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue, Soufir et al. report a founder mutation in the XPC DNA repair gene in 74% of families with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) in the Maghreb region (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) of northern Africa. These patients have a high frequency of skin cancer. The presence of this founder mutation provides an opportunity for genetic counseling and early diagnosis of XP. PMID:20463673

  10. Mutations causative of familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    causing mutations in 98 098 participants from the general population, the Copenhagen General Population Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped for LDLR[W23X;W66G;W556S] and APOB[R3500Q] accounting for 38.7% of pathogenic FH mutations in Copenhagen. Clinical FH assessment excluded mutation information......-cholesterol concentration to discriminate between mutation carriers and non-carriers was 4.4 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Familial hypercholesterolaemia-causing mutations are estimated to occur in 1:217 in the general population and are best identified by a definite or probable phenotypic diagnosis of FH based on the DLCN criteria....... The prevalence of the four FH mutations was 0.18% (1:565), suggesting a total prevalence of FH mutations of 0.46% (1:217). Using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria, odds ratios for an FH mutation were 439 (95% CI: 170-1 138) for definite FH, 90 (53-152) for probable FH, and 18 (13-25) for possible FH...

  11. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  12. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without...

  13. Histological transformation after acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yi; Zhong, Dian-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer patients with sensitive epidermal growth factor receptor mutations generally respond well to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, acquired resistance will eventually develop place after 8-16 months. Several mechanisms contribute to the resistance including T790M mutation, c-Met amplification, epithelial mesenchymal transformation and PIK3CA mutation; however, histological transformation is a rare mechanism. The patterns and mechanisms underlying histological transformation need to be explored. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and search engines Google Scholar, Medical Matrix for literature related to histological transformation. Case reports, cases series, and clinical and basic medical research articles were reviewed. Sixty-one articles were included in this review. Cases of transformation to small-cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and sarcoma after TKI resistance have all been reported. As the clinical course differed dramatically between cases, a new treatment scheme needs to be recruited. The mechanisms underlying histological transformation have not been fully elucidated and probably relate to cancer stem cells, driver genetic alterations under selective pressure or the heterogeneity of the tumor. When TKI resistance develops, we recommend that patients undergo a second biopsy to determine the reason, guide the next treatment and predict the prognosis.

  14. Cerebral Vein Thrombosis:Screening of Acquired and Hereditary Thrombophilic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarraf Payam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT is an infrequent condition with a large variety of causes that can lead to serious disabilities. However, in 20% to 35% of cases, no cause is found. In this study we evaluated the hereditary (P & C Proteins, antithrombin, mutation of prothrombin G20210A and factor V Leiden, other risk factors (hyperhomocycteinemia, factor VIII, ACL-ab, APL-ab, and OCP and clinical manifestations among a population of Iranian patients with CVT. 18 women and 10 men aged 16 to 50 years with CVT were screened for inherited and acquired coagulation risk factors. No one had an abnormal ACL-ab, APL-ab or antithrombin III deficiency. One had prothrombin G20210A mutation (heterozygot (3.6%. Hyperhomocycteinemia was observed in 5 patients (17.9%. APC-R was decreased in 3 (10.7%. 2 had positive factor V Leiden mutation (heterozygot (7.1%. 17 had an increased of factor VIII (60.7. PS and PC deficiencies were each detected in two cases (7.1%. Conclusion: Our study suggests that screening for inherited thrombophilia may be an integral part in the diagnostic workup and duration of treatment in patients with CVT.

  15. MPL mutations in myeloproliferative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beer, Philip A.; Campbell, Peter J.; Scott, Linda M.

    2008-01-01

    Activating mutations of MPL exon 10 have been described in a minority of patients with idiopathic myelofibrosis (IMF) or essential thrombocythemia (ET), but their prevalence and clinical significance are unclear. Here we demonstrate that MPL mutations outside exon 10 are uncommon in platelet c......DNA and identify 4 different exon 10 mutations in granulocyte DNA from a retrospective cohort of 200 patients with ET or IMF. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction was then used to genotype 776 samples from patients with ET entered into the PT-1 studies. MPL mutations were identified in 8.5% of JAK2 V617F......(-) patients and a single V617F(+) patient. Patients carrying the W515K allele had a significantly higher allele burden than did those with the W515L allele, suggesting a functional difference between the 2 variants. Compared with V617F(+) ET patients, those with MPL mutations displayed lower hemoglobin...

  16. Mutation induction by heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, J.; Stoll, U.; Schneider, E.

    1994-10-01

    Mutation induction by heavy ions is compared in yeast and mammalian cells. Since mutants can only be recovered in survivors the influence of inactivation cross sections has to be taken into account. It is shown that both the size of the sensitive cellular site as well as track structure play an important role. Another parameter which influences the probability of mutation induction is repair: Contrary to naive assumptions primary radiation damage does not directly lead to mutations but requires modification to reconstitute the genetic machinery so that mutants can survive. The molecular structure of mutations was analyzed after exposure to deuterons by amplification with the aid of polymerase chain reaction. The results-although preliminary-demonstrate that even with densely ionizing particles a large fraction does not carry big deletions which suggests that point mutations may also be induced by heavy ions.

  17. Community-acquired pneumonia; Ambulant erworbene Pneumonien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wien (Austria)

    2017-01-15

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [German] Anhand der klinischen Symptome und laborchemischen Befundkonstellation alleine ist es oft nicht moeglich, die Diagnose einer ambulant erworbenen Pneumonie (''community-acquired pneumonia'', CAP) zu stellen. Bei jedem Patienten mit Verdacht auf CAP sollte eine Roentgenthoraxaufnahme in 2 Ebenen angefertigt werden. Weiter muss eine Risikostratifizierung im Sinne der Entscheidung ambulante Therapie vs. Hospitalisierung erfolgen. Anhand der Analyse radiologischer Muster sowie deren Verteilung und Ausdehnung koennen eine grobe Zuordnung zu sogenannten Erregergruppen sowie eine Differenzierung zwischen viralen und bakteriellen Infektionen gelingen. Da

  18. Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetics for Acquired Nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rose, Geoff E; Verity, David H; Manohar, Sanjay G; MacKenzie, Kelly; Adams, Gill; Theodorou, Maria; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Kennard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Acquired nystagmus, a highly symptomatic consequence of damage to the substrates of oculomotor control, often is resistant to pharmacotherapy. Although heterogeneous in its neural cause, its expression is unified at the effector-the eye muscles themselves-where physical damping of the oscillation offers an alternative approach. Because direct surgical fixation would immobilize the globe, action at a distance is required to damp the oscillation at the point of fixation, allowing unhindered gaze shifts at other times. Implementing this idea magnetically, herein we describe the successful implantation of a novel magnetic oculomotor prosthesis in a patient. Case report of a pilot, experimental intervention. A 49-year-old man with longstanding, medication-resistant, upbeat nystagmus resulting from a paraneoplastic syndrome caused by stage 2A, grade I, nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's lymphoma. We designed a 2-part, titanium-encased, rare-earth magnet oculomotor prosthesis, powered to damp nystagmus without interfering with the larger forces involved in saccades. Its damping effects were confirmed when applied externally. We proceeded to implant the device in the patient, comparing visual functions and high-resolution oculography before and after implantation and monitoring the patient for more than 4 years after surgery. We recorded Snellen visual acuity before and after intervention, as well as the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus in each eye. The patient reported a clinically significant improvement of 1 line of Snellen acuity (from 6/9 bilaterally to 6/6 on the left and 6/5-2 on the right), reflecting an objectively measured reduction in the amplitude, drift velocity, frequency, and intensity of the nystagmus. These improvements were maintained throughout a follow-up of 4 years and enabled him to return to paid employment. This work opens a new field of implantable therapeutic devices-oculomotor prosthetics-designed to modify eye

  19. Experiences from treatment-predictive KRAS testing; high mutation frequency in rectal cancers from females and concurrent mutations in the same tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Mats; Ekstrand, Anna; Edekling, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    . METHODS: We used a real-time PCR based method to determine KRAS mutations in 136 colorectal cancers with mutations identified in 53 (39%) tumors. RESULTS: KRAS mutations were significantly more often found in rectal cancer (21/38, 55%) than in colon cancer (32/98, 33%) (P = 0.02). This finding...... was explained by marked differences mutation rates in female patients who showed mutations in 33% of the colon cancers and in 67% of the rectal cancers (P = 0.01). Concurrent KRAS mutations were identified in three tumors; two colorectal cancers harbored Gly12Asp/Gly13Asp and Gly12Cys/Gly13Asp and a third tumor...... carried Gly12Cys/Gly12Asp in an adenomatous component and additionally acquired Gly12Val in the invasive component. CONCLUSION: The demonstration of a particularly high KRAS mutation frequency among female rectal cancer patients suggests that this subset is the least likely to respond to anti...

  20. [Psychometric validation of the OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales for the screening of patients with probable overactive bladder in the Spanish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Francisco J; Angulo, Javier C; Ochayta, David; Rejas, Javier; Arumí, Daniel; Cañadas, Ana; Lizarraga, Isabel

    2014-12-23

    To perform the psychometric validation in the Spanish population of the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool (OAB-V8) scale and its abbreviated version OAB-V3 for screening patients with probable overactive bladder (OAB). A cross-sectional study was conducted in a population aged over 18 years, which was representative of the prevalence of OAB in Spain using an online methodology (Internet survey). Psychometric properties included feasibility, reliability, and validity. Subjects were classified according to the likelihood of OAB, using an automated algorithm validated previously. ROC curve analysis was performed, and the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were also assessed. A total of 2,035 subjects with a mean+SD age of 52.7+12.1 years were included (50.8%) men. In total 13.7% were classified as «Probable», 27.9% «Possible», and 58.3% «No» OAB. The internal consistency of both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales was high (0.894 and 0.851, respectively). The item-total correlation coefficients were high; 0.87-0.88 and 0.71-0.83, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for OAB-V8 was 0.826 (confidence interval 95% 0.695-0.901) and it was 0.828 (confidence interval 0.623-0.922) for OAB-V3. The optimum cut-off value of OAB-V8 for detecting probable OAB was≥8 points (AUC=0.895, sensitivity 0.875, specificity 0.735), while for the OAB-V3 it was ≥ 3 (AUC=0.910, sensitivity 0.828, specificity 0.825). Both OAB-V8 and OAB-V3 scales were considered useful online self-administered screening tools, which were also feasible, reliable and valid for the detection of patients with probable OAB in the general population in Spain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutational meltdown in laboratory yeast populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyl, C.; Mizesko, M.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    In small or repeatedly bottlenecked populations, mutations are expected to accumulate by genetic drift, causing fitness declines. In mutational meltdown models, such fitness declines further reduce population size, thus accelerating additional mutation accumulation and leading to extinction. Because

  2. Whole-exome sequencing for mutation detection in pediatric disorders of insulin secretion: Maturity onset diabetes of the young and congenital hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Leo, P J; McInerney-Leo, A M; Anderson, L K; Marshall, M; McGown, I; Newell, F; Brown, M A; Conwell, L S; Harris, M; Duncan, E L

    2018-06-01

    To assess the utility of whole-exome sequencing (WES) for mutation detection in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI). MODY and CHI are the two commonest monogenic disorders of glucose-regulated insulin secretion in childhood, with 13 causative genes known for MODY and 10 causative genes identified for CHI. The large number of potential genes makes comprehensive screening using traditional methods expensive and time-consuming. Ten subjects with MODY and five with CHI with known mutations underwent WES using two different exome capture kits (Nimblegen SeqCap EZ Human v3.0 Exome Enrichment Kit, Nextera Rapid Capture Exome Kit). Analysis was blinded to previously identified mutations, and included assessment for large deletions. The target capture of five exome capture technologies was also analyzed using sequencing data from >2800 unrelated samples. Four of five MODY mutations were identified using Nimblegen (including a large deletion in HNF1B). Although targeted, one mutation (in INS) had insufficient coverage for detection. Eleven of eleven mutations (six MODY, five CHI) were identified using Nextera Rapid (including the previously missed mutation). On reconciliation, all mutations concorded with previous data and no additional variants in MODY genes were detected. There were marked differences in the performance of the capture technologies. WES can be useful for screening for MODY/CHI mutations, detecting both point mutations and large deletions. However, capture technologies require careful selection. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acquired ventricular septal defect due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi E Durden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired intracardiac left-to-right shunts are rare occurrences. Chest trauma and myocardial infection are well-known causes of acquired ventricular septal defect (VSD. There have been several case reports describing left ventricle to right atrium shunt after infective endocarditis (IE. We present here a patient found to have an acquired VSD secondary to IE of the aortic and tricuspid valves in the setting of a known bicuspid aortic valve. This is the first case reported of acquired VSD in a pediatric patient in the setting of IE along with literature review of acquired left-to-right shunts.

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Acquiring Synaesthesia: Insights from Training Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eRothen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artefacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds. Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-colour associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by the means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training.

  6. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laborato......ObjectivesIdentification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic...... laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data.MethodsWe developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired...... antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de...

  7. The body talks, moves and acquires identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Calero

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The body is the main communication tool in the child, gesture and posture of those around you let you understand their environment; from birth the child begins a process of self-recognition to be strengthened in different social spheres from personal experiences, as the emission of sounds with your body, body language and play a fundamental part of your child’s condition.For the child to move in the surrounding medium is what is the most important, as this experience allows the child not only to know his or her body, but also to communicate and form his or her own identity from the personal and social relationships. It is for this reason that the recognition of his body and his skills make fundamental part of this experience is called movement. From the movement of his body the child expresses, lives and acquires skills that enable him or her to understand their environment and so develop themselves physically, cognitively and socially using basic tools of their physical structure, the gesture and posture in different emotional manifestations.

  8. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations.

  9. Acquiring energy savings in manufactured housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, the Northwest utilities faced a complex situation. They needed new sources of electrical power to avoid future deficits. A significant block of energy savings was available in the manufactured housing sector in the form of energy savings from increased insulation to new manufactured homes. The manufacturers were interested in saving the electricity in the homes, but would only deal with the utility sector as a whole. Half of the homes targeted were sited in investor-owned utility (IOU) service territories, and half in the public sector made up of utilities that purchased some or all of their electricity from the Bonneville Power Administration. Utilities agreed to acquire energy from manufacturers In the form of thermal efficiency measures specified by the Bonneville Power Administration. The program that resulted from over one year of negotiations was called the Manufactured Housing Acquisition Program, or MAP. Manufacturers, the utilities, State Energy Offices, the Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville all worked closely and with tenacity to build the program that went into effect on April 1, 1992, and should save the region between 7 and 9 megawatts, enough energy to supply 11,000 homes in the Northwest

  10. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  11. Antibiotic stewardship in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viasus, Diego; Vecino-Moreno, Milly; De La Hoz, Juan M; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes. In this regard, antibiotic de-escalation, duration of antibiotic treatment, adherence to CAP guidelines recommendations about empirical treatment, and switching from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy may each be relevant in this context. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies, such as prospective audit with intervention and feedback, clinical pathways, and dedicated multidisciplinary teams, that have included some of these elements have demonstrated improvements in antimicrobial use for CAP without negatively affecting clinical outcomes. Expert commentary: Although there are a limited number of randomized clinical studies addressing antimicrobial stewardship strategies in CAP, there is evidence that antibiotic stewardship initiatives can be securely applied, providing benefits to both healthcare systems and patients.

  12. New Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection of Inducible and Acquired Clarithromycin Resistance in the Mycobacterium abscessus Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallom, Shamira J; Moura, Natalia S; Olivier, Kenneth N; Sampaio, Elizabeth P; Holland, Steven M; Zelazny, Adrian M

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus group (MAG) cause lung, soft tissue, and disseminated infections. The oral macrolides clarithromycin and azithromycin are commonly used for treatment. MAG can display clarithromycin resistance through the inducible erm(41) gene or via acquired mutations in the rrl (23S rRNA) gene. Strains harboring a truncation or a T28C substitution in erm(41) lose the inducible resistance trait. Phenotypic detection of clarithromycin resistance requires extended incubation (14 days), highlighting the need for faster methods to detect resistance. Two real-time PCR-based assays were developed to assess inducible and acquired clarithromycin resistance and tested on a total of 90 clinical and reference strains. A SYBR green assay was designed to distinguish between a full-length and truncated erm(41) gene by temperature shift in melting curve analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele discrimination assays were developed to distinguish T or C at position 28 of erm(41) and 23S rRNA rrl gene mutations at position 2058 and/or 2059. Truncated and full-size erm(41) genes were detected in 21/90 and 69/90 strains, respectively, with 64/69 displaying T at nucleotide position 28 and 5/69 containing C at that position. Fifteen isolates showed rrl mutations conferring clarithromycin resistance, including A2058G (11 isolates), A2058C (3 isolates), and A2059G (1 isolate). Targeted sequencing and phenotypic assessment of resistance concurred with molecular assay results. Interestingly, we also noted cooccurring strains harboring an active erm(41), inactive erm(41), and/or acquired mutational resistance, as well as slowly growing MAG strains and also strains displaying an inducible resistance phenotype within 5 days, long before the recommended 14-day extended incubation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Law-medicine interfacing: patenting of human genes and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialho, Arsenio M; Chakrabarty, Ananda M

    2011-08-01

    Mutations, Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), deletions and genetic rearrangements in specific genes in the human genome account for not only our physical characteristics and behavior, but can lead to many in-born and acquired diseases. Such changes in the genome can also predispose people to cancers, as well as significantly affect the metabolism and efficacy of many drugs, resulting in some cases in acute toxicity to the drug. The testing of the presence of such genetic mutations and rearrangements is of great practical and commercial value, leading many of these genes and their mutations/deletions and genetic rearrangements to be patented. A recent decision by a judge in the Federal District Court in the Southern District of New York, has created major uncertainties, based on the revocation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene patents, in the eligibility of all human and presumably other gene patents. This article argues that while patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes could be challenged based on a lack of utility, the patenting of the mutations and genetic rearrangements is of great importance to further development and commercialization of genetic tests that can save human lives and prevent suffering, and should be allowed.

  14. Acquired versus Non-Acquired Subsidiaries - Which Entry Mode do Parent Firms Prefer

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Kalkbrenner

    2010-01-01

    Despite the economic importance of international foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, investment decisions of multinational firms are not well understood. A multinational firm can establish a subsidiary in a foreign country through greenfield investment or through acquiring an existing firm in the target country. The goal of this paper is to shed some light on the determinants of foreign market entry modes. In particular to analyze the systematic variation in the mode choice of FDI, namely ...

  15. Human Metabolic Enzymes Deficiency: A Genetic Mutation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Chaturvedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the extreme challenges in biology is to ameliorate the understanding of the mechanisms which emphasize metabolic enzyme deficiency (MED and how these pretend to have influence on human health. However, it has been manifested that MED could be either inherited as inborn error of metabolism (IEM or acquired, which carries a high risk of interrupted biochemical reactions. Enzyme deficiency results in accumulation of toxic compounds that may disrupt normal organ functions and cause failure in producing crucial biological compounds and other intermediates. The MED related disorders cover widespread clinical presentations and can involve almost any organ system. To sum up the causal factors of almost all the MED-associated disorders, we decided to embark on a less traveled but nonetheless relevant direction, by focusing our attention on associated gene family products, regulation of their expression, genetic mutation, and mutation types. In addition, the review also outlines the clinical presentations as well as diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  16. Minisequencing mitochondrial DNA pathogenic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carracedo Ángel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of well-known mutations responsible of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diseases. In order to overcome technical problems related to the analysis of complete mtDNA genomes, a variety of different techniques have been proposed that allow the screening of coding region pathogenic mutations. Methods We here propose a minisequencing assay for the analysis of mtDNA mutations. In a single reaction, we interrogate a total of 25 pathogenic mutations distributed all around the whole mtDNA genome in a sample of patients suspected for mtDNA disease. Results We have detected 11 causal homoplasmic mutations in patients suspected for Leber disease, which were further confirmed by standard automatic sequencing. Mutations m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C occur at higher frequency than expected by change in the Galician (northwest Spain patients carrying haplogroup J lineages (Fisher's Exact test, P-value Conclusion We here developed a minisequencing genotyping method for the screening of the most common pathogenic mtDNA mutations which is simple, fast, and low-cost. The technique is robust and reproducible and can easily be implemented in standard clinical laboratories.

  17. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  18. HNPCC: Six new pathogenic mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Joerg T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC is an autosomal dominant disease with a high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes (MMR. HNPCC accounts for approximately 2 to 5% of all colorectal cancers. Here we present 6 novel mutations in the DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of HNPCC were counselled. Tumor specimen were analysed for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 protein was performed. If one of these proteins was not detectable in the tumor mutation analysis of the corresponding gene was carried out. Results We identified 6 frameshift mutations (2 in MLH1, 3 in MSH2, 1 in MSH6 resulting in a premature stop: two mutations in MLH1 (c.2198_2199insAACA [p.N733fsX745], c.2076_2077delTG [p.G693fsX702], three mutations in MSH2 (c.810_811delGT [p.C271fsX282], c.763_766delAGTGinsTT [p.F255fsX282], c.873_876delGACT [p.L292fsX298] and one mutation in MSH6 (c.1421_1422dupTG [p.C475fsX480]. All six tumors tested for microsatellite instability showed high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H. Conclusions HNPCC in families with MSH6 germline mutations may show an age of onset that is comparable to this of patients with MLH1 and MSH2 mutations.

  19. Factor V Leiden Mutation and PT 20210 Mutation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Fibromyalgia Food and Waterborne Illness Fungal Infections Gout Graves Disease Guillain-Barré Syndrome Hashimoto Thyroiditis Heart ... Tested? To determine whether you have an inherited gene mutation that increases your risk of developing a ...

  20. Detection of MPL exon10 mutations in 103 Chinese patients with JAK2V617F-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuhua; Qi, Xiling; Tan, Yanhong; Xu, Zhifang; Xu, Aining; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Hongwei

    2011-06-15

    JAK2V617F mutation has been reported in 90% of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) and about 50% of patients with essential thromobocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Recently, acquired mutations in the transmembrane-juxtamembrane region of MPL (MPLW515 mutations) have been reported in approximately 5% of JAK2V617F-negative PMF and about 1% of all cases of ET. MPL is the receptor for thrombopoietin that regulates the production of platelets by bone marrow. It is likely that some mutations more closely related to ET in MPL exon10 may have been missed by current assays. We inferred that there might be other mutations in MPL exon10 for MPN patients in addition to MPLW515 mutations. To investigate its mutation types and prevalence in Chinese patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), we performed mutation detection on MPL exon10 in 103 JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) combined with sequencing. As a result, one previously unrecognized MPL mutation (12-bp in-frame insertion) was identified in one patient with ET in addition to an MPLW515K mutation identified in one PMF patient. This confirms our hypothesis that BCR/ABL negative and JAK2V617F-negative MPN patients have other mutations besides W515 mutation in MPL exon10 and mutations other than single nucleotide exchange also exist. In addition, MPL mutation was associated with Chinese MPN patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of gamma radiation in floriculture industry for development of new varieties through induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear radiation (gamma rays) can create changes in genetic make up of plant material through mutation. Gamma ray induced mutation is now an established method for crop improvement. It is well known that the crops which are propagated vegetatively are very suitable for the application of mutation breeding methods. In floriculture industry there is always demand and necessity of new and novel ornamental varieties. Flower colour and shape are the most important components of novelties. Gamma rays have been most successfully use to produce quite a large number of new promising,varieties in different ornamental (Bougainvillea - 4, Perennial portulaca-6, Chrysanthemum-43, Hibiscus-1, Rose-16, Tuberose-2, Lantana depressa-3 etc.) plants by bringing about genetic changes at Floriculture Section, National Botanical Research. Institute, Lucknow, India. Research carried out covers radiosensitivity, selection of materials, methods of exposure to gamma rays, suitable dose of gamma rays, detection of mutants, isolation of mutants and commercial exploitation of mutants. A good number of mutant varieties have been well accepted in the floriculture industry. The mutant varieties are with new flower colour and shape. More than three decades of applied mutation breeding work has now established beyond doubt that mutation breeding will constitute an excellent supplement to the conventional methods for development of new varieties . Detection of somatic, mutations in flower colour/shape in different vegetative generations (M 1 V 1 , M 1 V 2 , M 1 V 3 and even in later vegetative generations), mutation frequency and spectrum relationship with dose of gamma radiation have been precisely determined. Studies have clearly proved that mutation breeding technique can be exploited for the creation of new and novel ornamental cultivars of commercial importance by inducing genetic variation in already adapted, modern genotypes and can also enrich the germplasm of ornamental horticulture

  2. Species A rotavirus NSP3 acquires its translation inhibitory function prior to stable dimer formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo I Contreras-Treviño

    Full Text Available Species A rotavirus non-structural protein 3 (NSP3 is a translational regulator that inhibits or, under some conditions, enhances host cell translation. NSP3 binds to the translation initiation factor eIF4G1 and evicts poly-(A binding protein (PABP from eIF4G1, thus inhibiting translation of polyadenylated mRNAs, presumably by disrupting the effect of PABP bound to their 3'-ends. NSP3 has a long coiled-coil region involved in dimerization that includes a chaperone Hsp90-binding domain (HS90BD. We aimed to study the role in NSP3 dimerization of a segment of the coiled-coil region adjoining the HS90BD. We used a vaccinia virus system to express NSP3 with point mutations in conserved amino acids in the coiled-coil region and determined the effects of these mutations on translation by metabolic labeling of proteins as well as on accumulation of stable NSP3 dimers by non-dissociating Western blot, a method that separates stable NSP3 dimers from the monomer/dimerization intermediate forms of the protein. Four of five mutations reduced the total yield of NSP3 and the formation of stable dimers (W170A, K171E, R173E and R187E:K191E, whereas one mutation had the opposite effects (Y192A. Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 revealed that stable NSP3 dimers and monomers/dimerization intermediates are susceptible to proteasome degradation. Surprisingly, mutants severely impaired in the formation of stable dimers were still able to inhibit host cell translation, suggesting that NSP3 dimerization intermediates are functional. Our results demonstrate that rotavirus NSP3 acquires its function prior to stable dimer formation and remain as a proteasome target throughout dimerization.

  3. Mutations induced by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifer, Gerd P.; You, Young-Hyun; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    The different ultraviolet (UV) wavelength components, UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (200-280 nm), have distinct mutagenic properties. A hallmark of UVC and UVB mutagenesis is the high frequency of transition mutations at dipyrimidine sequences containing cytosine. In human skin cancers, about 35% of all mutations in the p53 gene are transitions at dipyrimidines within the sequence 5'-TCG and 5'-CCG, and these are localized at several mutational hotspots. Since 5'-CG sequences are methylated along the p53 coding sequence in human cells, these mutations may be derived from sunlight-induced pyrimidine dimers forming at sequences that contain 5-methylcytosine. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) form preferentially at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine when cells are irradiated with UVB or sunlight. In order to define the contribution of 5-methylcytosine to sunlight-induced mutations, the lacI and cII transgenes in mouse fibroblasts were used as mutational targets. After 254 nm UVC irradiation, only 6-9% of the base substitutions were at dipyrimidines containing 5-methylcytosine. However, 24-32% of the solar light-induced mutations were at dipyrimidines that contain 5-methylcytosine and most of these mutations were transitions. Thus, CPDs forming preferentially at dipyrimidines with 5-methylcytosine are responsible for a considerable fraction of the mutations induced by sunlight in mammalian cells. Using mouse cell lines harboring photoproduct-specific photolyases and mutational reporter genes, we showed that CPDs (rather than 6-4 photoproducts or other lesions) are responsible for the great majority of UVB-induced mutations. An important component of UVB mutagenesis is the deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine within CPDs. The mutational specificity of long-wave UVA (340-400 nm) is distinct from that of the shorter wavelength UV and is characterized mainly by G to T transversions presumably arising through mechanisms involving oxidized DNA

  4. Next-generation systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Estrella; Bruce, Toby J A; Roberts, Michael R; Flors, Victor; Ton, Jurriaan

    2012-02-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant immune response to pathogen attack. Recent evidence suggests that plant immunity involves regulation by chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. We investigated whether SAR can be inherited epigenetically following disease pressure by Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (PstDC3000). Compared to progeny from control-treated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; C(1)), progeny from PstDC3000-inoculated Arabidopsis (P(1)) were primed to activate salicylic acid (SA)-inducible defense genes and were more resistant to the (hemi)biotrophic pathogens Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and PstDC3000. This transgenerational SAR was sustained over one stress-free generation, indicating an epigenetic basis of the phenomenon. Furthermore, P(1) progeny displayed reduced responsiveness of jasmonic acid (JA)-inducible genes and enhanced susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. This shift in SA- and JA-dependent gene responsiveness was not associated with changes in corresponding hormone levels. Instead, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that SA-inducible promoters of PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENE1, WRKY6, and WRKY53 in P(1) plants are enriched with acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9, a chromatin mark associated with a permissive state of transcription. Conversely, the JA-inducible promoter of PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 showed increased H3 triple methylation at lysine 27, a mark related to repressed gene transcription. P(1) progeny from the defense regulatory mutant non expressor of PR1 (npr1)-1 failed to develop transgenerational defense phenotypes, demonstrating a critical role for NPR1 in expression of transgenerational SAR. Furthermore, the drm1drm2cmt3 mutant that is affected in non-CpG DNA methylation mimicked the transgenerational SAR phenotype. Since PstDC3000 induces DNA hypomethylation in Arabidopsis, our results suggest that transgenerational SAR is transmitted by hypomethylated genes that direct priming

  5. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works.

  6. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  7. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  8. Mutation breeding in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study aims to improve the productivity of wheat by using gamma ray (100 - 600 Gy) in mutation breading. Five local varieties were used and the program continued for the Sakha 69 for seven generations. Seeds irradiated with 600 Gy were not germinated in the field, while low doses (100-150 Gy) stimulated the root growth and spike length. The higher doses caused gradual decrease of growth with differences in varieties response. in the second generation, a genetic differences were noticed in most varieties using doses of 100-300 Gy, and the dispike was disappeared when 250 Gy was used. 79 plants from irradiated Sakha 69 were selected according to spike length and the number of grains and planted with the control to test the third generation. differences between the varieties were noticed and 8 mutants with high productivity were selected and evaluated in the fourth and fifth generations with the local variety. The mutants improve the productivity and in particular the mutants Nos.. (19-1), (14-3), and (30-2). The experiment showed the relation between the planting sites and the mutants in the sixth and seven generations

  9. Induced mutations in castor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, K.; Javad Hussain, H.S.; Vindhiyavarman, P.

    2001-01-01

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important oilseed crop in India. To create variability mutations were induced in two cultivars 'TMV5' (maturing in 130-140 days) and 'CO1' (perennial type). Gamma rays and diethyl sulphate and ethidium bromide were used for seed treatment. Ten doses, from 100 to 1000 Gy were employed. For chemical mutagenesis five concentrations of mutagenes from 10 to 50 mM were tried. No economic mutants could be isolated after treatment with the chemical mutagens. The following economic mutants were identified in the dose 300 Gy of gamma rays. Annual types from perennial CO 1 castor CO 1 is a perennial variety (8-10 years) with bold seeds (100 seed weight 90 g) and high oil content (57%). Twenty-one lines were isolated with annual types (160-180 days) with high yield potential as well as bold seeds and high oil content. These mutants, identified in M 3 generation were bred true in subsequent generations up to M 8 generation. Critical evaluation of the mutants in yield evaluation trials is in progress

  10. Production possibility of 51Mn via natV(3He,x)51Mn nuclear process for combined positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelecsenyi, F.; Kovacs, Z.; Suzuki, K.; Mukai, K.; Japan Steel Works, Yokohama

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. It is very difficult to quantify the uptake kinetics and bio-distribution of magneto pharmaceuticals in humans using MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). The well-know PET (Positron Emission Tomography) technique, however, could give a solution to this problem in the case of those MRI contrast agents that are based on manganese as paramagnetic contrast enhancer. Luckily manganese has a proper radioisotope, namely the 51 Mn (T 1/2 = 46.2 min, β + = 97%), which can be easily employed (in the form of 51 Mn-labelled contrast agents) for PET studies. Recently, for the production of this radioisotope proton and deuteron induced nuclear reactions were suggested using natural and enriched Cr targets, respectively. In this work we studied the nat V( 3 He,x) 51 Mn nuclear processes in detail from their respective threshold energies up to 40 MeV. For natural vanadium, the 51 V( 3 He,3n) 51 Mn reaction (natural isotopic composition of 51 V: 99.75%) forms the majority of the required radioisotope. The cross-sections were measured by the conventional stacked-foil method. Two stacks containing 10 and 8 pieces of thin natural V foils were irradiated in external collimated 3 He beams of the AVF-930 isochronous cyclotron of NIRS. Thin copper and titanium foils served as energy degraders. The activations lasted for 1 h with a beam current of 100 nA. The activity of the irradiated samples was measured without chemical separation by using the usual gamma-ray spectroscopy. Since the 51 Mn has a very weak gamma-line at 749 keV (Iγ=0.265%) its activity was measured via decay curve analysis of the annihilation peaks. We also measured the excitation functions of those reactions which form the major radio-contaminants i.e. 52m Mn (T 1/2 =21.1 min, Eγ=1434.068 keV(Iγ=98.3%)) and 52 Mn (T 1/2 = 5.591 d, Eγ=744.223 keV (Iγ=90%), Eγ=935.538 keV (Iγ=94.5%)). The excitation function curve of the nat V( 3 He,x) 51 Mn nuclear process shows one maximum of

  11. Performance of VITEK mass spectrometry V3.0 for rapid identification of clinical Aspergillus fumigatus in different culture conditions based on ribosomal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou L

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Longrong Zhou, Yongquan Chen, Yuanhong Xu Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Anhui, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Fast and accurate discrimination of Aspergillus fumigatus is significant, since misidentification may lead to inappropriate clinical therapy. This study assessed VITEK mass spectrometry (MS V3.0 for A. fumigatus identification using extracted fungal ribosomal proteins. A total of 52 isolates preliminarily identified as A. fumigatus by traditional morphological methods were inoculated in three different culture media and cultured at two different temperatures. The specific spectral fingerprints of different culture time points (48, 72, 96, and 120 h were obtained. Of all strains, 88.5% (46/52 were discriminated as A. fumigatus, while the remaining 11.5% (6/52 produced results inconsistent with morphological analysis. Molecular sequencing, as a reference method for species identification, was used to validate the morphological analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight MS. Chi-square tests (Χ2 test, P=0.05 demonstrated that the culture medium and incubation temperature had no effects on identification accuracy; however, identification accuracy of the strains in the 48-h group was lower than that in other groups. In addition, we found that ribosomal proteins extracted from A. fumigatus can be stored in different environments for at least 1 week, with their profiles remaining stable and strain identification results showing no change. This is beneficial for medical institutions with no mass spectrometer at hand. Overall, this study showed the powerful ability of VITEK MS V 3.0 in identifying A. fumigatus. Keywords: VITEK MS V 3.0, Aspergillus fumigatus, identification, ribosomal protein, spectral fingerprints, fungal, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF MS

  12. [Prevalence and characterization of overactive bladder detected in a population in Madrid with self-administered OAB-V3 questionnaire in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier C; Calderín, María P; Fernández, Yolanda; González, Miriam; Gómez, Esther; Herreros, Maria B; Peñasco, Purificación; Zapatero, Manuela; Dorado, Juan F

    2018-02-01

    Determining the prevalence of symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder (OAB) in a Spanish population and evaluate the impact of these symptoms on well-being and labour productivity in this population. Transversal study. Primary health care, Madrid, Spain. Males and females >30 years. Classification by primary care physicians with the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool abbreviated version (OAB-V3). Subjects with score ≥3 and a similarly balanced control population with score <3 were clinically investigated. History, physical examination, urinalysis, sonography, general well-being scale and the questionnaires PPBC, OAB-q y WPAI-SHP. A total 923 subjects were screened, of which 209 (22.6%), 35% males and 65% females, had probable OAB. Age distribution increased from 11.1% in 4th decade to 44.4% in 9th decade. Kappa coefficient between suspected OAB and definite diagnosis was .83. The area under ROC curve for diagnosis based on OAB-V3 questionnaire and the presence of perceived bother and coping strategies was 92%. Subjects classified by score ≥3 had worse well-being, higher PPBC score and worse parameters on total OAB-q and transformed scores for each OAB-q subscale (P<.0001). In these subjects labour productivity was not affected (P=.14) but the capacity to perform regular activities was (P<.0001). OAB-V3 is a simple questionnaire to screen OAB with good predictive accuracy in a primary care setting and reveals important implications on health related quality of life issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocol for the development of the Master Chemical Mechanism, MCM v3 (Part A: tropospheric degradation of non-aromatic volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Saunders

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic and mechanistic data relevant to the tropospheric degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC, and the production of secondary pollutants, have previously been used to define a protocol which underpinned the construction of a near-explicit Master Chemical Mechanism. In this paper, an update to the previous protocol is presented, which has been used to define degradation schemes for 107 non-aromatic VOC as part of version 3 of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3. The treatment of 18 aromatic VOC is described in a companion paper. The protocol is divided into a series of subsections describing initiation reactions, the reactions of the radical intermediates and the further degradation of first and subsequent generation products. Emphasis is placed on updating the previous information, and outlining the methodology which is specifically applicable to VOC not considered previously (e.g. a- and b-pinene. The present protocol aims to take into consideration work available in the open literature up to the beginning of 2001, and some other studies known by the authors which were under review at the time. Application of MCM v3 in appropriate box models indicates that the representation of isoprene degradation provides a good description of the speciated distribution of oxygenated organic products observed in reported field studies where isoprene was the dominant emitted hydrocarbon, and that the a-pinene degradation chemistry provides a good description of the time dependence of key gas phase species in a-pinene/NOX photo-oxidation experiments carried out in the European Photoreactor (EUPHORE. Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP have been calculated for the 106 non-aromatic non-methane VOC in MCM v3 for idealised conditions appropriate to north-west Europe, using a photochemical trajectory model. The POCP values provide a measure of the relative ozone forming abilities of the VOC. Where applicable, the values are compared with

  14. High Rate and Stable Li-Ion Insertion in Oxygen-Deficient LiV3O8 Nanosheets as a Cathode Material for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huanqiao; Luo, Mingsheng; Wang, Aimei

    2017-01-25

    Low performance of cathode materials has become one of the major obstacles to the application of lithium-ion battery (LIB) in advanced portable electronic devices, hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. The present work reports a versatile oxygen-deficient LiV 3 O 8 (D-LVO) nanosheet that was synthesized successfully via a facile oxygen-deficient hydrothermal reaction followed by thermal annealing in Ar. When used as a cathode material for LIB, the prepared D-LVO nanosheets display remarkable capacity properties at various current densities (a capacity of 335, 317, 278, 246, 209, 167, and 133 mA h g -1 at 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mA g -1 , respectively) and excellent lithium-ion storage stability, maintaining more than 88% of the initial reversible capacity after 200 cycles at 1000 mA g -1 . The outstanding electrochemical properties are believed to arise largely from the introduction of tetravalent V (∼15% V 4+ ) and the attendant oxygen vacancies into LiV 3 O 8 nanosheets, leading to intrinsic electrical conductivity more than 1 order of magnitude higher and lithium-ion diffusion coefficient nearly 2 orders of magnitude higher than those of LiV 3 O 8 without detectable V 4+ (N-LVO) and thus contributing to the easy lithium-ion diffusion, rapid phase transition, and the excellent electrochemical reversibility. Furthermore, the more uniform nanostructure, as well as the larger specific surface area of D-LVO than N-LVO nanosheets may also improve the electrolyte penetration and provide more reaction sites for fast lithium-ion diffusion during the discharge/charge processes.

  15. Application of thermal hydraulic and severe accident code SOCRAT/V3 to bottom water reflood experiment QUENCH-LOCA-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A.D.; Stuckert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► QLOCA-0 test simulates a design basis LOCA NPP accident with maximum temperature 1300 K. ► Deep understanding of hydraulics and thermal mechanics under accident conditions is necessary. ► We model the test QLOCA-0 with bottom flooding using the Russian code SOCRAT/V3. ► Calculated and experimental data are in a good agreement. ► Experimental procedure is determined to reach a representative LOCA scenario in future tests. -- Abstract: The thermal hydraulic and SFD (severe fuel damage) best estimate computer modeling code SOCRAT/V3 has been used for the calculation of QUENCH-LOCA-0 experiment. The new QUENCH-LOCA bundle tests with different cladding materials will simulate a representative scenario of the LOCA (loss of coolant accident) nuclear power plant accident sequence in which the overheated up to 1300 K reactor core would be reflooded from the bottom by ECCS (emergency core cooling system). The first test QUENCH-LOCA-0 was successfully conducted at the KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany, in July 22, 2010, and was performed as the commissioning test for this series. The rod claddings are identical to that used in PWRs. The bundle was electrically heated in steam from 800 K to 1340 K with the heat-up rate of approximately 2.7 K/s. After cooling in the saturated steam the bottom flooding with water flow rate of about 100 g/s was initiated. The SOCRAT calculated results are in a good agreement with experimental data taking into account additional quenching due to water condensate entrainment at the steam cooling stage. SOCRAT/V3 has been used for estimation of further steps in experimental procedure to reach a representative LOCA scenario in future tests

  16. Accurate and efficient gp120 V3 loop structure based models for the determination of HIV-1 co-receptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaisman Iosif I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 targets human cells expressing both the CD4 receptor, which binds the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, as well as either the CCR5 (R5 or CXCR4 (X4 co-receptors, which interact primarily with the third hypervariable loop (V3 loop of gp120. Determination of HIV-1 affinity for either the R5 or X4 co-receptor on host cells facilitates the inclusion of co-receptor antagonists as a part of patient treatment strategies. A dataset of 1193 distinct gp120 V3 loop peptide sequences (989 R5-utilizing, 204 X4-capable is utilized to train predictive classifiers based on implementations of random forest, support vector machine, boosted decision tree, and neural network machine learning algorithms. An in silico mutagenesis procedure employing multibody statistical potentials, computational geometry, and threading of variant V3 sequences onto an experimental structure, is used to generate a feature vector representation for each variant whose components measure environmental perturbations at corresponding structural positions. Results Classifier performance is evaluated based on stratified 10-fold cross-validation, stratified dataset splits (2/3 training, 1/3 validation, and leave-one-out cross-validation. Best reported values of sensitivity (85%, specificity (100%, and precision (98% for predicting X4-capable HIV-1 virus, overall accuracy (97%, Matthew's correlation coefficient (89%, balanced error rate (0.08, and ROC area (0.97 all reach critical thresholds, suggesting that the models outperform six other state-of-the-art methods and come closer to competing with phenotype assays. Conclusions The trained classifiers provide instantaneous and reliable predictions regarding HIV-1 co-receptor usage, requiring only translated V3 loop genotypes as input. Furthermore, the novelty of these computational mutagenesis based predictor attributes distinguishes the models as orthogonal and complementary to previous methods that utilize sequence

  17. In-situ irradiation studies on the effects of helium on the microstructural evolution of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doraiswamy, N.; Kestel, B.; Alexander, D.E.

    1996-11-01

    Role of He in microstructural evolution of V-3.8Cr-3.9Ti was investigated by in-situ TEM of as-prepared and He implanted (<10 appM) samples subjected to 200 keV He irradiation at RT. Quantitative analysis showed an increase in defect density and size with irradiation in both. The unimplanted sample showed a defect density consistent with electron irradiation experiments. The He preimplanted sample had slightly larger defects and a substantially greater increase in number density of defects. This is consistent with a mechanism of He trapping by formation of He-vacancy-X (X=C,N,O) complexes

  18. Fragment charge and energy distributions in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1995-01-01

    Moving source fits have been performed for IMFs as a function of observables related to collision violence in the 1.8-4.8 GeV 3 He + nat Ag, l97 Au reactions. The systematic behavior of the source properties and fragment charge distributions will be reviewed. The evolution of the spectral Coulomb parameters provides evidence for nuclear expansion prior to multifragmentation, suggesting a breakup density of p/p o ∼ 1/3. The charge distributions will be examined in terms of power-law fits and moment analyses

  19. Stepwise Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to Pleuromutilins Is Associated with Stepwise Acquisition of Mutations in rplC and Minimally Affects Susceptibility to Retapamulin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Daniel R.; Rittenhouse, Stephen F.; McCloskey, Lynn; Holmes, David J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess their effects on susceptibility to retapamulin in Staphylococcus aureus, first-, second-, and third-step mutants with elevated MICs to tiamulin and other investigational pleuromutilin compounds were isolated and characterized through exposure to high drug concentrations. All first- and second-step mutations were in rplC, encoding ribosomal protein L3. Most third-step mutants acquired a third mutation in rplC. While first- and second-step mutations did cause an elevation in tiamulin and retapamulin MICs, a significant decrease in activity was not seen until a third mutation was acquired. All third-step mutants exhibited severe growth defects, and faster-growing variants arose at a high frequency from most isolates. These faster-growing variants were found to be more susceptible to pleuromutilins. In the case of a mutant with three alterations in rplC, the fast-growing variants acquired an additional mutation in rplC. In the case of fast-growing variants of isolates with two mutations in rplC and at least one mutation at an unmapped locus, one of the two rplC mutations reverted to wild type. These data indicate that mutations in rplC that lead to pleuromutilin resistance have a direct, negative effect on fitness. While reduction in activity of retapamulin against S. aureus can be seen through mutations in rplC, it is likely that target-specific resistance to retapamulin will be slow to emerge due to the need for three mutations for a significant effect on activity and the fitness cost of each mutational step. PMID:17404009

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents research reports on the role of radiation induced mutation and chemical mutagens in improving productivity, disease resistance; cold and salinity tolerance of various crops and ornamental plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  3. CHRNE Mutation and Congenital Myasthenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The CHRNE e1293insG mutation was identified in 14 (60% of 23 North African families with an early onset form of congenital myasthenic syndrome studied at centers in France, Tunisia, Algeria, and UK.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  8. BRAF mutations in conjunctival melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; Dahl, Christina; Dahmcke, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    with atypia. BRAF mutations were identified in 39 of 111 (35%) cases. The rate ratio of BRAF-mutated versus BRAF-wild-type melanoma did not change over time. BRAF mutations were associated with T1 stage (p = 0.007), young age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.02), sun-exposed location (p = 0.01), mixed....../non-pigmented tumour colour (p = 0.02) and nevus origin (p = 0.005), but did not associate with prognosis. BRAF status in conjunctival melanoma and paired premalignant lesions corresponded in 19 of 20 cases. Immunohistochemistry detected BRAF V600E mutations with a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 1...

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  10. The Cacna1h mutation in the GAERS model of absence epilepsy enhances T-type Ca2+ currents by altering calnexin-dependent trafficking of Ca(v)3.2 channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Proft, Juliane; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Zhang, F. X.; Cain, S. M.; Snutch, T. P.; Zamponi, G. W.; Weiss, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Sep 14 (2017), č. článku 11513. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13556S; GA MŠk 7AMB15FR015 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : asparagine-linked glycosylation * idiopathic generalized epilepsies * voltage-activated currents Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-11591-5

  11. Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salenave, Sylvie; Trabado, Sévérine; Maione, Luigi; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH), contrary to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterized by postnatal onset of disorders that damage or alter the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and/or pituitary gonadotroph cells. AHH thus prevents the establishment of gonadotropin secretion at puberty, or its post-pubertal maintenance. Thus, postnatal AHH may prevent the onset of puberty or appear during pubertal development, but it usually emerges after the normal age of puberty. Although pituitary tumors, particularly prolactinoma, are the most common cause, sellar tumors or cyst of the hypothalamus or infundibulum, infiltrative, vascular, iron overload and other disorders may also cause AHH. Pituitary surgery and head trauma or cranial/pituitary radiation therapy are also usual causes of AHH. The clinical manifestations of AHH depend on age of onset, the degree of gonadotropin deficiency, the rapidity of its onset and the association to other pituitary function deficiencies or excess. Men with AHH have less stamina, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and strength, and a worsened sense of well being leading to degraded quality of life. The physical examination is usually normal if hypogonadism is of recent onset. Diminished facial, body hair and muscle mass, fine facial wrinkles, gynecomastia, and hypotrophic testes are observed in long-standing and complete AHH. Spermatogenesis is impaired and the volume of ejaculate is decreased only when gonadotropins and testosterone levels are very low. Men with AHH may have normal or low serum LH and FSH concentrations, but normal gonadotropin values are inappropriate when associated with low serum testosterone. In the majority of AHH patients, serum inhibin B is "normal". The decrease of this sertolian hormone indicates a long-standing and severe gonadotropin deficiency. Symptoms, usually associated with significant testosterone deficiency in men with AHH, improve with

  12. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  13. The Genomic Basis of Intrinsic and Acquired Antibiotic Resistance in the Genus Serratia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Sandner-Miranda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, was long thought to be a non-pathogenic bacterium prevalent in environmental habitats. Together with other members of this genus, it has emerged in recent years as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing various types of infections. One important feature of pathogens belonging to this genus is their intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotic families, including β-lactam, aminoglycosides, quinolones and polypeptide antibiotics. The aim of this study was to elucidate which genes participate in the intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance of this genus in order to determine the Serratia genus resistome. We performed phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses using 32 Serratia spp. genomes deposited in the NCBI GenBank from strains isolated from different ecological niches and different lifestyles. S. marcescens strain SmUNAM836, which was previously isolated from a Mexican adult with obstructive pulmonary disease, was included in this study. The results show that most of the antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs were found on the chromosome, and to a lesser degree, on plasmids and transposons acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Four strains contained the gyrA point mutation in codon Ser83 that confers quinolone resistance. Pathogenic and environmental isolates presented a high number of ARGs, especially genes associated with efflux systems. Pathogenic strains, specifically nosocomial strains, presented more acquired resistance genes than environmental isolates. We may conclude that the environment provides a natural reservoir for antibiotic resistance, which has been underestimated in the medical field.

  14. Neural basis of acquired amusia and its recovery after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Sihvonen, A.J.; Ripollés, P.; Leo, V.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, S.; Särkämö, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although acquired amusia is a relatively common disorder after stroke, its precise neuroanatomical basis is still unknown. To evaluate which brain regions form the neural substrate for acquired amusia and its recovery, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study with 77 human stroke subjects. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6 month poststroke stages. Amusia and aphasia were behaviorally assessed at acute and 3 month poststroke stages using t...

  15. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  16. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexandrov, L.B.; Nik-Zainal, S.; Wedge, D.C.; Aparicio, S.A.; Behjati, S.; Biankin, A.V.; Bignell, G.R.; Bolli, N.; Borg, A.; Borresen-Dale, A.L.; Boyault, S.; Burkhardt, B.; Butler, A.P.; Caldas, C.; Davies, H.R.; Desmedt, C.; Eils, R.; Eyfjord, J.E.; Foekens, J.A.; Greaves, M.; Hosoda, F.; Hutter, B.; Ilicic, T.; Imbeaud, S.; Imielinsk, M.; Jager, N.; Jones, D.T.; Knappskog, S.; Kool, M.; Lakhani, S.R.; Lopez-Otin, C.; Martin, S.; Munshi, N.C.; Nakamura, H.; Northcott, P.A.; Pajic, M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Paradiso, A.; Pearson, J.V.; Puente, X.S.; Raine, K.; Ramakrishna, M.; Richardson, A.L.; Richter, J.; Rosenstiel, P.; Schlesner, M.; Schumacher, T.N.; Span, P.N.; Teague, J.W.; Totoki, Y.; Tutt, A.N.; Valdes-Mas, R.; Buuren, M.M. van; Veer, L. van 't; Vincent-Salomon, A.; Waddell, N.; Yates, L.R.; Zucman-Rossi, J.; Futreal, P.A.; McDermott, U.; Lichter, P.; Meyerson, M.; Grimmond, S.M.; Siebert, R.; Campo, E.; Shibata, T.; Pfister, S.M.; Campbell, P.J.; Stratton, M.R.; Schlooz-Vries, M.S.; Tol, J.J. van; Laarhoven, H.W. van; Sweep, F.C.; Bult, P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362

  17. Production, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the HIV-2-neutralizing V3 loop-specific Fab fragment 7C8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Sourial, Samer; Friemann, Rosmarie; Ehnlund, Mariethe; Spetz, Anna-Lena; Harris, Robert A.; Madhurantakam, Chaithanya; Achour, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    Neutralizing Fab fragments of the HIV-2-binding murine antibody 7C8 were generated after purification from hybridoma cell-culture supernatant. Crystallization conditions were determined and diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution. 7C8 is a mouse monoclonal antibody that is specific for the third hypervariable loop (V3 loop) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) associated protein gp125. Fab fragments of 7C8 effectively neutralize HIV-2. 7C8 was expressed and purified from a hybridoma cell line in order to establish the molecular basis underlying the specificity of the 7C8 antibody for the V3 loop as well as the specific role of the elongated third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (CDRH3). The antibody was digested with papain and Fab fragments were purified using size-exclusion chromatography. Hanging-drop vapour-diffusion crystallization techniques were employed and the protein was crystallized in 50 mM ammonium sulfate, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.5, 25%(w/v) PEG 8000 and 2.5%(w/v) PEG 400 at 275 K. The analysed crystals belonged to the rhombohedral space group P3 2 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 100.1, c = 196.8 Å, and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution

  18. Mature seeds for in vitro sanitation of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3) from grape (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiró, R.; Gammoudi, N.; Yuste, A.; Olmos, A.; Gisbert, C.

    2015-07-01

    The conservation of old grapevine varieties is important since they are adapted to specific climate conditions and may carry genes interesting to breeders. As virus infection is common in grapevine varieties, the use of virus free materials is of great importance. In this work, we used somatic embryogenesis for the sanitation of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses that were found after analyzing the putative presence of the five most common, economically important grape viruses by real-time multiplex RT-PCR in the old cultivar “Grumet Negre”. Unopened and opened inflorescences, fecundated ovaries, and, also, mature seeds were used as starting explants. Explants were cultured on plates with two embryogenesis induction media (Nitsch & McCown Woody plant medium) that contained the growth regulator thidiazuron and differed in their salt and vitamin compositions. One half of each kind of explant was cut prior to being cultured. After five months of culture, embryos had only developed from seeds that were cut previous to sowing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that mature seeds have been used for inducing embryogenesis in grape. A total of 42% of the embryos transferred to tubes for germination regenerated into normal plantlets. The absence of both the GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 viruses in all regenerated plants was confirmed by real-time uniplex RT-PCR. So, this protocol can be used for sanitation and also for micropropagation. (Author)

  19. A visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity of vanadate garnet AgCa2Ni2V3O12 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yuting; Chen, Luyang; Li, Yuze; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-01-01

    A visible-light-driven photocatalyst of nanosized vanadate garnet AgCa 2 Ni 2 V 3 O 12 was prepared by a modified Pechini method. The nanoparticles were characterized with the measurements such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and structural refinements, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) absorption spectrum. The sample has an efficient absorption in the UV–Vis light region with a narrow band-gap energy of 2.16 eV and an indirect allowed electronic transition. Besides, the photocatalysis of AgCa 2 Ni 2 V 3 O 12 nanoparticles was evaluated by photo-degradation of methylene blue under visible-light irradiation, which shows excellent photocatalytic activity. The effective photocatalytic activity was discussed on the base of the garnet crystal structure such as the activated optical centers of Ni–O octahedron and V–O tetrahedral, highly distorted Ag–O dodecahedra, and long V–V distance in the lattices

  20. Performance of VITEK mass spectrometry V3.0 for rapid identification of clinical Aspergillus fumigatus in different culture conditions based on ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Longrong; Chen, Yongquan; Xu, Yuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate discrimination of Aspergillus fumigatus is significant, since misidentification may lead to inappropriate clinical therapy. This study assessed VITEK mass spectrometry (MS) V3.0 for A. fumigatus identification using extracted fungal ribosomal proteins. A total of 52 isolates preliminarily identified as A. fumigatus by traditional morphological methods were inoculated in three different culture media and cultured at two different temperatures. The specific spectral fingerprints of different culture time points (48, 72, 96, and 120 h) were obtained. Of all strains, 88.5% (46/52) were discriminated as A. fumigatus , while the remaining 11.5% (6/52) produced results inconsistent with morphological analysis. Molecular sequencing, as a reference method for species identification, was used to validate the morphological analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight MS. Chi-square tests ( χ 2 test, P =0.05) demonstrated that the culture medium and incubation temperature had no effects on identification accuracy; however, identification accuracy of the strains in the 48-h group was lower than that in other groups. In addition, we found that ribosomal proteins extracted from A. fumigatus can be stored in different environments for at least 1 week, with their profiles remaining stable and strain identification results showing no change. This is beneficial for medical institutions with no mass spectrometer at hand. Overall, this study showed the powerful ability of VITEK MS V 3.0 in identifying A. fumigatus .