WorldWideScience

Sample records for acoustic holography

  1. Nearfield Acoustical Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Sabih I.

    Nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is a method by which a set of acoustic pressure measurements at points located on a specific surface (called a hologram) can be used to image sources on vibrating surfaces on the acoustic field in three-dimensional space. NAH data are processed to take advantage of the evanescent wavefield to image sources that are separated less that one-eighth of a wavelength.

  2. Underwater Applications of Acoustical Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Mehta

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the basic technique of acoustical holography. Requirements for recording the acoustical hologram are discussed with its ability for underwater imaging in view. Some practical systems for short-range and medium-range imaging are described. The advantages of acoustical holography over optical imaging, acoustical imaging and sonars are outlined.

  3. Application of holography in jet acoustic studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Pundarika; R Lakshminarayana; T S Sheshadri

    2004-08-01

    Source strength distribution on a jet boundary was obtained from measurements using the principle of acoustic holography. Measurements were conducted in an open field. Measurement of acoustic pressure on a cylindrical twodimensional contour located close to the vibrating jet boundary was used to obtain the acoustic source strength distribution at the jet boundary. Particular attention was focussed on back projection of the sound field on to a cylindrical surface. A jet emanating from 5 mm convergent nozzle was used for the holography experiments, assuming axisymmetry. Experimental results were compared with results obtained from holography

  4. Three-dimensional nonlinear acoustical holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yaying

    Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an acoustic field visualization technique that can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic fields by projecting two-dimensional (2-D) data measured on a hologram surface. However, linear NAH algorithms developed and improved by many researchers can result in significant reconstruction errors when they are applied to reconstruct 3-D acoustic fields that are radiated from a high-level noise source and include significant nonlinear components. Here, planar, nonlinear acoustical holography procedures are developed that can be used to reconstruct 3-D, nonlinear acoustic fields radiated from a high-level noise source based on 2-D acoustic pressure data measured on a hologram surface. The first nonlinear acoustic holography procedure is derived for reconstructing steady-state acoustic pressure fields by applying perturbation and renormalization methods to nonlinear, dissipative, pressure-based Westervelt Wave Equation (WWE). The nonlinear acoustic pressure fields radiated from a high-level pulsating sphere and an infinite-size, vibrating panel are used to validate this procedure. Although the WWE-based algorithm is successfully validated by those two numerical simulations, it still has several limitations: (1) Only the fundamental frequency and its second harmonic nonlinear components can be reconstructed; (2) the application of this algorithm is limited to mono-frequency source cases; (3) the effects of bent wave rays caused by transverse particle velocities are not included; (4) only acoustic pressure fields can be reconstructed. In order to address the limitations of the steady-state, WWE-based procedure, a transient, planar, nonlinear acoustic holography algorithm is developed that can be used to reconstruct 3-D nonlinear acoustic pressure and particle velocity fields. This procedure is based on Kuznetsov Wave Equation (KWE) that is directly solved by using temporal and spatial Fourier Transforms. When compared

  5. RECONSTRUCTION STABILITY OF NEARFIELD ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Chuanxing; Chen Xinzhao; Zhou Rong; Chen Jian

    2005-01-01

    The distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM) is used as the spatial transform algorithm for realizing nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), the sensitivity of the reconstructed solution to the measurement errors is analyzed, and the regularization method is proposed to stabilize the reconstruction process, control the influence of the measurement errors and get a better approximate solution. An oscillating sphere is investigated as a numerical example, the influence of the measurement errors on the reconstruction solution is demonstrated, and the feasibility and validity of the regularization method are validated.

  6. Landweber iterative regularization for nearfield acoustic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Chuanxing; CHEN Xinzhao; ZHOU Rong; CHEN Jian

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM)-based nearfield acoustic holography (NAH), Landweber iterative regularization method is proposed to stabilize the NAH reconstruction process, control the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results and ensure the validity of the reconstructed results. And a new method, the auxiliary surface method, is proposed to determine the optimal iterative number for optimizing the regularization effect. Here, the optimal number is determined by minimizing the relative error between the calculated pressure on the auxiliary surface corresponding to each iterative number and the measured pressure. An experiment on a speaker is investigated to demonstrate the high sensitivity of the reconstructed results to measurement errors and to validate the chosen method of the optimal iterative number and the Landweber iterative regularization method for controlling the influence of measurement errors on the reconstructed results.

  7. Supersonic acoustic intensity with statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The concept of supersonic acoustic intensity was introduced some years ago for estimating the fraction of the flow of energy radiated by a source that propagates to the far field. It differs from the usual (active) intensity by excluding the near-field energy resulting from evanescent waves...... to the information provided by the near-field acoustic holography technique. This study proposes a version of the supersonic acoustic intensity applied to statistically optimized near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). The theory, numerical results and an experimental study are presented. The possibility of using...

  8. Acoustic holography. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, W. E.

    1980-07-01

    Aspects of acoustic holography are covered in this bibliography of Federally funded research. Theory, equipment design, uses, and imaging techniques are presented. The applications include underwater and underground object locating, structural geology and tectonics, sonar imaging, non destructive testing, antenna radiation patterns, nuclear reactor inspection, remote sensing, and use in medical examination. This updated bibliography contains 166 citations, 15 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  9. Near-field acoustic holography analysis of modulated sound source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Rongfu; ZHU Haichao; DU Xianghua; ZHU Haipeng

    2011-01-01

    When conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH) technique is appliedto sound field induced by modulated signal, the modulating frequency can not be revealed by the reconstructed results. To solve the problem, a NAH analysis methodology for modulated sound source was proposed. Firstly, Hilbert transform was introduced to demodulate the signal, and then modulating component was reconstructed by NAH technique. Both numerical simulation and experiment results demonstrate that accurate reconstruction analysis can be obtained by the proposed method.

  10. NEAR-FIELD ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY FOR SEMI-FREE ACOUSTIC FIELD BASED ON WAVE SUPERPOSITION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weibing; CHEN Jian; YU Fei; CHEN Xinzhao

    2006-01-01

    In the semi-free acoustic field, the actual acoustic pressure at any point is composed of two parts: The direct acoustic pressure and the reflected acoustic pressure. The general acoustic holographic theories and algorithms request that there is only the direct acoustic pressure contained in the pressure at any point on the hologram surface, consequently, they cannot be used to reconstruct acoustic source and predict acoustic field directly. To take the reflected pressure into consideration, near-field acoustic holography for semi-free acoustic field based on wave superposition approach is proposed to realize the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field, and the wave superposition approach is adopted as a holographic transform algorithm. The proposed theory and algorithm are realized and verified with a numerical example,and the drawbacks of the general theories and algorithms in the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field are also demonstrated by this numerical example.

  11. Near-Field Acoustic Holography of Chladni Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Yunbog; Jeon, Dongryul

    2007-03-01

    Characteristic modes of a Chladni plate can be visualized by sand gathering along the nodal lines. Although one can view two-dimensional vibration patterns, the sand pattern does not show a bending of antinode. We used near-field acoustic holography to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of circular and rectangular Chladni plates. The sound pressure was measured using four scanning microphones located 3 mm above a Chladni plate. A reference microphone was placed close to a speaker which drives the plate. A total of 60x60 data were collected from 30x30 cm^2 area and processed using MATLAB in accordance with the algorithm of near-field acoustic holography. The three-dimensional graphic image of the vibrating plate reconstructed this way not only matched the sand pattern but also visualized the bending of the plate. Propagation of the sound pressure could be also visualized three-dimensionally. The plot of sound pressure against the distance showed the 1/distance^2 dependence as expected. Sound is a difficult subject in physics class because it is invisible. Our results demonstrate that near-field acoustic holography combined with computer graphic is an effective tool to visualize the generation of a sound.

  12. Investigation on acoustic holography reconstruction of scattering field of target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Xuemei; HE Zuoyong

    2000-01-01

    The BEM-based (Boundary EIement Method) scattering near field acoustic holography technique, which can be used to reconstruct the scattering sound field on the surface of a target and predict the whole scattering field from measured scattering near field, is described.First, the fundamental equations of this method and the related separation method for scattering field are brought forward. Then the problems such as the affect of different hologram to reconstructed result, the availability of singular value filter method and the applicability of separation method for scattering field are analyzed by means of numerical simulation.

  13. Patch near-field acoustic holography: The influence of acoustic contributions from outside the source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Zhang, Yong-Bin

    2009-01-01

    is of particular interest (known as the “patch” or “source patch”). The area of the source beyond this patch is not of interest in the analysis. However, its acoustic output may nevertheless contribute to the total sound field in the measurement plane, and influence the reconstruction of the field close...... that an acceptable reconstruction of the normal velocity can be achieved if the contributions from beyond the patch area are accounted for.......It is a requirement of conventional Near-field Acoustic Holography that the measurement area covers the entire surface of the source. In the case of Patch Near-field Acoustic Holography (patch NAH), the measurement area can be reduced to cover only a specific area of the source which...

  14. Cylindrical acoustical holography applied to full-scale jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; Krueger, David W; James, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Near-field acoustical holography methods are used to predict sound radiation from an engine installed on a high-performance military fighter aircraft. Cylindrical holography techniques are an efficient approach to measure the large and complex sound fields produced by full-scale jets. It is shown that a ground-based, one-dimensional array of microphones can be used in conjunction with a cylindrical wave function field representation to provide a holographic reconstruction of the radiated sound field at low frequencies. In the current work, partial field decomposition methods and numerical extrapolation of data beyond the boundaries of the hologram aperture are required prior to holographic projection. Predicted jet noise source distributions and directionality are shown for four frequencies between 63 and 250 Hz. It is shown that the source distribution narrows and moves upstream, and that radiation directionality shifts toward the forward direction, with increasing frequency. A double-lobe feature of full-scale jet radiation is also demonstrated.

  15. Nearfield Acoustic Holography using sparsity and compressive sampling principles

    CERN Document Server

    Chardon, Gilles; Peillot, Antoine; Ollivier, François; Bertin, Nancy; Gribonval, Rémi

    2012-01-01

    Regularization of the inverse problem is a complex issue when using Near-field Acoustic Holography (NAH) techniques to identify the vibrating sources. This paper shows that, for convex homogeneous plates with arbitrary boundary conditions, new regularization schemes can be developed, based on the sparsity of the normal velocity of the plate in a well-designed basis, i.e. the possibility to approximate it as a weighted sum of few elementary basis functions. In particular, these new techniques can handle discontinuities of the velocity field at the boundaries, which can be problematic with standard techniques. This comes at the cost of a higher computational complexity to solve the associated optimization problem, though it remains easily tractable with out-of-the-box software. Furthermore, this sparsity framework allows us to take advantage of the concept of Compressive Sampling: under some conditions on the sampling process (here, the design of a random array, which can be numerically and experimentally valid...

  16. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The nu- merical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  17. Patch nearfield acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the equivalent source method (ESM), patch NAH based on the ESM is proposed. The method overcomes the shortcoming in the conventional NAH that the hologram surface should be larger than the source surface. It need not to discretize the whole source and its measurement need not to cover the whole source. The measurement may be performed over the region of interest, and the reconstruction can be done in the region directly. The method is flexible in applications, stable in computation, and very easy to implement. It has good potential applications in engineering. The numerical simulations show the invalidity of the conventional NAH based on the ESM and prove the validities of the proposed method for reconstructing a partial source and the regularization for reducing the error effect of the pressure measured on the hologram surface.

  18. Resolution enhancement of nearfield acoustic holography by interpolation using band-limited signal restoration method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang; BI ChuanXing; CHEN XinZhao; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on interpolation using band-limited signal restoration method was proposed for enhancing the resolution of the nearfield acoustic holography. According to the band-limited property of the pressure on the hologram surface, a band-limited signal restoration method named Pa-poulis-Gerchberg algorithm was used to realize the interpolation of acoustic pressure. Therefore acoustic pressure data on the hologram surface were increased, the sampling interval was reduced, the information on evanescent waves which was lost because of the large sampling interval was partially recovered, and the resolution of nearfield acoustic holography image was improved. The experimental result shows that the method can enhance the resolution of the nearfield acoustic holography image efficiently.

  19. Investigating the use of the acousto-optic effect for acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn;

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the acousto-optic effect, that is, the interaction between sound and light, can be used as a means to visualize acoustic fields in the audible frequency range. The changes of density caused by sound waves propagating in air induce phase shifts to a laser beam...... that travels through the acoustic field. This phenomenon can in practice be captured with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), and the pressure distribution of the acoustic field can be reconstructed using tomography. The present work investigates the potential of the acousto-optic effect in acoustic holography....... Two different holographic methods are examined for this purpose. One method first reconstructs the hologram plane using acousto-optic tomography and then propagates it using conventional near-field acoustic holography (NAH). The other method exploits the so-called Fourier Slice Theorem and bases all...

  20. Underwater hybrid near-field acoustical holography based on the measurement of vector hydrophone array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid near-field acoustical holography(NAH) is developed for reconstructing acoustic radiation from a cylindrical source in a complex underwater environment. In hybrid NAH,we combine statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography(SONAH) and broadband acoustical holography from intensity measurements(BAHIM) to reconstruct the underwater cylindrical source field. First,the BAHIM is utilized to regenerate as much acoustic pressures on the hologram surface as necessary,and then the acoustic pressures are taken as input to the formulation implemented numerically by SONAH. The main advantages of this technology are that the complex pressure on the hologram surface can be reconstructed without reference signal,and the measurement array can be smaller than the source,thus the practicability and efficiency of this technology are greatly enhanced. Numerical examples of a cylindrical source are demonstrated. Test results show that hybrid NAH can yield a more accurate reconstruction than conventional NAH. Then,an experiment has been carried out with a vector hydrophone array. The experimental results show the advantage of hybrid NAH in the reconstruction of an acoustic field and the feasibility of using a vector hydrophone array in an underwater NAH measurement,as well as the identification and localization of noise sources.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND MONITORING OF NOISE SOURCES OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS BY ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of sound field emitted by selected CNC machine tools. The identification of noise sources and level was measured by acoustic holography for the 3-axis DMC 635eco machine tool and the 5-axis vertical machining centre DMU 65 monoBlock. The acoustic holography method allows precise identification and measurement of noise sources at different bandwidths of frequency. Detection of noise sources in tested objects allows diagnosis of their technical condition, as well as choice of effective means of noise reduction, which is highly significant from the perspective of minimising noise at the CNC machine operator workstation. Test results were presented as acoustic maps in various frequency ranges. Noise sources of the machine tool itself were identified, as well as the range of noise influence and the most frequent places of reflections and their span. The results of measurements were presented in figures and diagrams.

  2. Identification of Turbomachinery Noise Sources Using Acoustical Holography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evaluation and enhancement of the acoustical performance of turbomachinery requires knowledge of the acoustic sources. However, the noise generation mechanisms...

  3. Tomographic reconstruction of transient acoustic fields recorded by pulsed TV holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren, P; Schedin, S; Li, X

    1998-02-10

    Pulsed TV holography combined with computerized tomography (CT) are used to evaluate the three-dimensional distribution of transient acoustic fields in air. Experiments are performed with an electrical discharge between two electrodes as the sound source. Holograms from several directions of the acoustic field are recorded directly onto a CCD detector by use of a double-pulsed ruby laser as the light source. Phase maps, representing projections of the acoustic field, are evaluated quantitatively from the recorded holograms. The projections are used for the CT reconstruction to evaluate the pressure-field distribution in any cross section of the measured volume of air.

  4. Planar near-field acoustical holography based on equivalent source method and its experimental investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongbin; CHEN Xinzhao; BI Chuanxing; CHEN Jian

    2008-01-01

    The current main approach to reconstruct and predict the acoustic field of a planar source is Near-field Acoustical Holography (NAH) based on FFT. But this method has some disadvantages such as wraparound error and edge Gibbs phenomena which will contaminate the results badly. A planar NAH based on equivalent source approach is developed, which has no wraparound error and edge Gibbs phenomena, and it is beneficial for engineering application.The experimental results of acoustic radiation generated by a point-driven plate with clamped boundaries validate the correctness and availability of the method.

  5. Sound field separation technique with double holographic planes and its applications in acoustic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; CHEN Jian; CHEN Xinzhao

    2004-01-01

    Sound field separation technique with double holographic planes is proposed, which overcomes the limitation on applications of near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and broadband acoustic holography from intensity measurement (BAHIM). The limitation is that sound field on one side of holographic plane must be free, that is to say, all the sound sources must be confined to the other side; but it is not easy to achieve for industrial measurements. The technique builds the sound field separation formula in wave number domain according to the wave field extrapolation theorem, and the sound pressure caused by sources on one side of holographic plane can be obtained as expected by taking two-dimensional Fourier transform of the formula. The derivation of the principle verifies the technique theoretically. The numerical simulations demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness.

  6. A study on regularization parameter choice in near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper; Hansen, Per Christian

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Periodogram (NCP). The latter method is new within NAH and it is based on the Fourier transform of the residual vector. The methods are used in connection with three NAH methods: Statistically Optimized Near-field Acoustical Holography (SONAH), the Inverse Boundary Element Method (IBEM......Regularization plays an important role in Near-field Acoustical Holography (NAH), and choosing the right amount of regularization is crucial in order to get a meaningful solution. An automated method such as the L-curve or Generalized Cross-Validation (GCV) is often used in NAH to choose...... a regularization parameter. These parameter choice methods (PCMs) are attractive, since they require no a priori knowledge about the noise. However, there seems to be no clear understanding of when one PCM is better than the other. This paper presents comparisons of three PCMs: GCV, L-curve and Normalized...

  7. Characterization of High-Power Rocket and Jet Noise Using Near-Field Acoustical Holography

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Structural fatigue, hearing damage, and community disturbances are all consequences of rocket and jet noise, especially as they become more powerful. Noise-reduction schemes require accurate characterization of the noise sources within rocket plumes and jets. Nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) measurements were made to visualize the sound field in the jet exhaust region of an F-22 Raptor. This is one of the largest-scale applications of NAH since its development in the 1980s. A scan-based ...

  8. A sparse equivalent source method for near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study examines a near-field acoustic holography method consisting of a sparse formulation of the equivalent source method, based on the compressive sensing (CS) framework. The method, denoted Compressive–Equivalent Source Method (C-ESM), encourages spatially sparse solutions (based...... on the superposition of few waves) that are accurate when the acoustic sources are spatially localized. The importance of obtaining a non-redundant representation, i.e., a sensing matrix with low column coherence, and the inherent ill-conditioning of near-field reconstruction problems is addressed. Numerical...

  9. Reconstruction and prediction of multi-source acoustic field with the distributed source boundary point method based nearfield acoustic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI; Chuanxing; CHEN; Jian; CHEN; Xinzhao

    2004-01-01

    In a multi-source acoustic field, the actual measured pressure is a scalar sum of pressures from all the sources. The pressure belonging to every source cannot be separated out with the existing techniques. Consequently, routine formulas cannot be used to reconstruct the acoustic source and predict the acoustic field directly. In this paper, a novel theoretical model of reconstruction and prediction of multi-source acoustic field in the distributed source boundary point method (DSBPM) based nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) is established. Three different methods, namely combination method with single surface measurement, combination method with multi-surface measurement and elimination method with multi-surface measurement, are proposed to realize the holographic reconstruction of sources. With these methods, the problem of reconstruction and prediction of acoustic field existing multiple coherent sources synchronously is solved effectively. Using the particular solutions constructed by the DSBPM to establish the vibro-acoustic transfer matrix, the calculation time, calculation precision and calculation stability are improved. These methods are valuable in localizing acoustic source and predicting acoustic field in engineering field.

  10. Military jet noise source imaging using multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; McKinley, Richard L; James, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The identification of acoustic sources is critical to targeted noise reduction efforts for jets on high-performance tactical aircraft. This paper describes the imaging of acoustic sources from a tactical jet using near-field acoustical holography techniques. The measurement consists of a series of scans over the hologram with a dense microphone array. Partial field decomposition methods are performed to generate coherent holograms. Numerical extrapolation of data beyond the measurement aperture mitigates artifacts near the aperture edges. A multisource equivalent wave model is used that includes the effects of the ground reflection on the measurement. Multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (M-SONAH) is used to reconstruct apparent source distributions between 20 and 1250 Hz at four engine powers. It is shown that M-SONAH produces accurate field reconstructions for both inward and outward propagation in the region spanned by the physical hologram measurement. Reconstructions across the set of engine powers and frequencies suggests that directivity depends mainly on estimated source location; sources farther downstream radiate at a higher angle relative to the inlet axis. At some frequencies and engine powers, reconstructed fields exhibit multiple radiation lobes originating from overlapped source regions, which is a phenomenon relatively recently reported for full-scale jets.

  11. A comparison of inverse boundary element method and near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Saemann, E.-U.

    1999-01-01

    An inverse boundary element method (IBEM) is used to estimate the surface velocity of a rolling tyre from measurements of the near-field pressure. Subsequently, the sound pressure is calculated over a finite plane surface next to the tyre from the reconstructed velocity field on the tyre surface........ In order to verify the reconstruction process, part of the measurement data is used together with Near-Field Acoustical Holography (NAH). Estimated distributions of sound pressure and particle velocity over a plane surface obtained from the two methods are compared....

  12. The application of regularization technique based on partial optimization in the nearfield acoustic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chundong; ZHANG Yongbin; BI Chuanxing; CHEN Xinzhao

    2012-01-01

    The regularization technique for stabilizing the reconstruction based on the nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) was investigated on the basis of the equivalent source method. In order to obtain higher regularization effect, a regularization method based on the idea of partial optimization was proposed, which inherits the advantages of the Tikhonov and another regularization method-truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD). Through the numerical simulation, it is proved that the proposed method is stabler than the Tikhonov, and more precise than the TSVD. Finally the validity and the feasibility of the proposed method are demonstrated by an experiment carried out in a semi-anechoic room with two speakers.

  13. Investigation of 3D surface acoustic waves in granular media with 3-color digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Mathieu; Picart, Pascal; Penelet, Guillaume; Tournat, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the implementation of digital color holography to investigate elastic waves propagating along a layer of a granular medium. The holographic set-up provides simultaneous recording and measurement of the 3D dynamic displacement at the surface. Full-field measurements of the acoustic amplitude and phase at different excitation frequencies are obtained. It is shown that the experimental data can be used to obtain the dispersion curve of the modes propagating in this granular medium layer. The experimental dispersion curve and that obtained from a finite element modeling of the problem are found to be in good agreement. In addition, full-field images of the interaction of an acoustic wave guided in the granular layer with a buried object are also shown.

  14. Investigation of an acoustical holography system for real-time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Barbara A.; Andre, Michael P.; Garlick, George F.; Shelby, Ronald L.; Shelby, Jerod O.; Lehman, Constance D.

    1998-07-01

    A new prototype imaging system based on ultrasound transmission through the object of interest -- acoustical holography -- was developed which incorporates significant improvements in acoustical and optical design. This system is being evaluated for potential clinical application in the musculoskeletal system, interventional radiology, pediatrics, monitoring of tumor ablation, vascular imaging and breast imaging. System limiting resolution was estimated using a line-pair target with decreasing line thickness and equal separation. For a swept frequency beam from 2.6 - 3.0 MHz, the minimum resolution was 0.5 lp/mm. Apatite crystals were suspended in castor oil to approximate breast microcalcifications. Crystals from 0.425 - 1.18 mm in diameter were well resolved in the acoustic zoom mode. Needle visibility was examined with both a 14-gauge biopsy needle and a 0.6 mm needle. The needle tip was clearly visible throughout the dynamic imaging sequence as it was slowly inserted into a RMI tissue-equivalent breast biopsy phantom. A selection of human images was acquired in several volunteers: a 25 year-old female volunteer with normal breast tissue, a lateral view of the elbow joint showing muscle fascia and tendon insertions, and the superficial vessels in the forearm. Real-time video images of these studies will be presented. In all of these studies, conventional sonography was used for comparison. These preliminary investigations with the new prototype acoustical holography system showed favorable results in comparison to state-of-the-art pulse-echo ultrasound and demonstrate it to be suitable for further clinical study. The new patient interfaces will facilitate orthopedic soft tissue evaluation, study of superficial vascular structures and potentially breast imaging.

  15. Transient nearfield acoustic holography based on an interpolated time-domain equivalent source method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Zheng; Bi, Chuan-Xing; Zhang, Yong-Bin; Xu, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Transient nearfield acoustic holography based on an interpolated time-domain equivalent source method (ESM) is proposed to reconstruct transient acoustic fields directly in the time domain. Since the equivalent source strengths solved by the traditional time-domain ESM formulation cannot be used to reconstruct the pressure on the source surface directly, an interpolation function is introduced to develop an interpolated time-domain ESM formulation which permits one to deduce an iterative reconstruction process. As the reconstruction process is ill-conditioned and especially there exists a cumulative effect of errors, the Tikhonov regularization is used to stabilize the process. Numerical examples of reconstructing transient acoustic fields from a baffled planar piston, an impulsively accelerating sphere and a cube box, respectively, demonstrate that the proposed method not only can effectively reconstruct transient acoustic fields in the time domain, but also can visualize acoustic fields in the space domain. And, in the first numerical example, the cumulative effect of errors and the validity of using the Tikhonov regularization to suppress the errors are described.

  16. Optimization of Fixed Microphone Array in High Speed Train Noises Identification Based on Far-Field Acoustic Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujia Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.

  17. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    on particle velocity input data than when it is based on measurements of sound pressure data, and this is confirmed by a simulation study and by experimental results. A method that combines pressure- and particle velocity-based reconstructions in order to distinguish between contributions to the sound field......The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has...... recently been demonstrated. This paper examines whether there might be a similar advantage in using the particle velocity as the input of NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM). Error sensitivity considerations indicate that ESM-based NAH is less sensitive to measurement errors when it is based...

  18. Research on the cyclostationary nearfield acoustic holography based on boundary element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Haibin; WAN Quan; JIANG Weikang

    2009-01-01

    Cyclostationary sound field is a special kind of nonstationary sound field, in which the pressure signal is modulated seriously and sidebands exist in its spectrum. The reconstructed sound field can't figure the cyclostationary features in conventional Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) procedure. On the basis of planar cyclostationary NAH, the cyclostationary NAH based on boundary element method is proposed which can be utilized to analyze radiators with complicated surface. Replacing the Fourier's transform with the second-order cyclic statistics, the Cyclic Spectral Density (CSD) functions is used as the reconstructed physical quantity in the proposed NAH technique, instead of the spectrum or power spectral density of pressure signal. By virtue of the demodulation ability of CSD function, the reconstructed CSD can effectively express the information of modulating and carrier wave respectively. The simulation and experiment illustrate that the validity and accuracy of this cyclostationary NAH technique satisfy the request of engineering.

  19. The near field acoustic holography technique for cyclostationary sound field and its experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Quan; JIANG Weikang

    2005-01-01

    One near field acoustic holography (NAH) technique is proposed for analyzing cyclostationary sound field. The signal of this kind of sound field has very serious modulation phenomenon generally, in spectrum of which obvious sidebands exist. It is difficult for the traditional NAH to possess demodulation function, so virtual power of sidebands exists in its hologram. Replacing the Fourier's transform with the second-order cyclic statistics, the proposed NAH technique uses the cyclic spectrum density (CSD) function as reconstructed physical quantity, instead of the spectrum or power spectrum density of sound pressure signal.The CSD function can demodulate cyclostationary signals, which makes no virtual power of sidebands in its hologram. The results of simulation and experiment show that the proposed NAH can extract more information about cyclostationary sound field than traditional NAH, by which sound field can be known more clearly.

  20. Single layer planar near-field acoustic holography for compact sources and a parallel reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Elias; Lopez Arteaga, Ines

    2016-10-01

    We consider the problem of planar near-field acoustic holography (PNAH) and introduce a new reconstruction method that can be used to process single layer pressure measurements performed in the presence of a reflective surface that is parallel to the measurement plane. The method is specially tailored for compact sources, or for problems in which the scattered field due to the source can be neglected. The approach consists in formulating a seismic model (WRW model) in wavenumber-space and employ it for sound source reconstructions. The proposed method is validated with numerical and experimental data, and, although the most accurate results are obtained when an estimate of the surface impedance is known beforehand, we show that it can substantially improve the reconstruction performance with respect to that of free-field PNAH.

  1. EVALUATION OF ACOUSTICAL HOLOGRAPHY FOR THE INSPECTION OF LIGHT WATER REACTOR WELD ASSEMBLIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, H. D.; Gribble, R. P.

    1982-06-01

    The primary objective of this program was the evaluation of acoustical holography techniques for characterization of the light water reactor weld surface signatures in the nuclear safeguards program. The accurate characterization of weld surface irregulari ties and vertical deviations was achieved using acoustical holographic interferometric techniques. Preselected weld surfaces were inspected and the vertical deviations characterized by phase measurements or fringe densities in the image. Experimental results on Sandia samples verify depth deviation sensitivities of 0.11 {micro}m to 0.16 {micro}m. The two point interferogram technique is recommended for surveillance of the weld surface associated wi th fuel rod removal in the nuclear safeguard program. The use of this unique holographic signal processing provides essentially a fail-safe method for surveillance of clandestine fuel rod removal. Statistical analysis indicates 99.99% (weld surface deviation) confidence interval between 2~m and 3~m can be achieved. These results illustrate the extremely high resolution capabilities of the surveillance technique employing coherent signal processing.

  2. Quantitative measurement of ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Hanayama, Hiroki; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-07-01

    A fast and accurate measurement of an ultrasound field with various exposure sequences is necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety of various ultrasound applications in medicine. The most common method used to measure an ultrasound pressure field, that is, hydrophone scanning, requires a long scanning time and potentially disturbs the field. This may limit the efficiency of developing applications of ultrasound. In this study, an optical phase contrast method enabling fast and noninterfering measurements is proposed. In this method, the modulated phase of light caused by the focused ultrasound pressure field is measured. Then, a computed tomography (CT) algorithm used to quantitatively reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) pressure field is applied. For a high-intensity focused ultrasound field, a new approach that combines the optical phase contrast method and acoustic holography was attempted. First, the optical measurement of focused ultrasound was rapidly performed over the field near a transducer. Second, the nonlinear propagation of the measured ultrasound was simulated. The result of the new approach agreed well with that of the measurement using a hydrophone and was improved from that of the phase contrast method alone with phase unwrapping.

  3. Comparison study on spherical wave superposition method and spherical wave source boundary point method for realizing nearfield acoustic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Chuanxing; CHEN Xinzhao; ZHOU Rong; CHEN Jian

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the concept of spherical wave source, the theoretical model of nearfield acoustic holography (NAH) based on the spherical wave superposition method (SWSM), including reconstruction of expansion coefficients, prediction of acoustic field, error sensitivity analysis, regularization method and a searching method with dual measurement surfaces for determining the optimal number of expansion terms, is established. Subsequently, the spherical wave source boundary point method (SWSBPM) and its application in the NAH are introduced briefly. Considering the similarity of the SWSM and the SWSBPM for realizing the NAH, they are compared. The similarities and differences of the two methods are illuminated by a rigorous mathematical justification and two experiments on a single source and two coherent sources in the semi-free acoustic field. And, the superiority of the NAH based on the SWSBPM is demonstrated.

  4. On optimal retreat distance for the equivalent source method-based nearfield acoustical holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Jia-Hong

    2011-03-01

    As a basic form of the equivalent source method (ESM) that is used to nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) problems, discrete monopoles are utilized to represent the sound field of interest. When setting up the virtual source distribution, it is vital to maintain a "retreat distance" between the virtual sources and the actual source surface such that reconstruction would not suffer from singularity problems. However, one cannot increase the distance without bound because of the ill-posedness inherent in the reconstruction process with large distance. In prior research, 1-2 times lattice spacing, or the inter-element distance of microphones, is generally recommended as retreat distance in using the ESM-based NAH. While this rule has shown to yield good results in many cases, the optimal choice is a complicated issue that depends on frequency, geometry of the physical source, content of evanescent waves, distribution of sensors and virtual sources, etc. This paper deals about attaining the best compromise between the reconstruction errors induced by the point source singularity; the reconstruction ill-posedness is an interesting problem in its own right. The paper revisits this issue, with the aid of an optimization algorithm based on the golden section search and parabolic interpolation. Numerical simulations were conducted for a baffled planar piston source and a spherically baffled piston source. The results revealed that the retreat distance appropriate for the ESM ranged from 0.4 to 0.5 times the spacing for the planar piston, while from 0.8 to 1.7 times average spacing for the spherical piston. Experiments carried out for a vibrating aluminum plate also revealed that the retreat distance with 0.5 times the spacing yielded better reconstructed velocity than those with 1/20 and 1 times the spacing.

  5. On sparse reconstructions in near-field acoustic holography using the method of superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Abusag, Nadia M

    2016-01-01

    The method of superposition is proposed in combination with a sparse $\\ell_1$ optimisation algorithm with the aim of finding a sparse basis to accurately reconstruct the structural vibrations of a radiating object from a set of acoustic pressure values on a conformal surface in the near-field. The nature of the reconstructions generated by the method differs fundamentally from those generated via standard Tikhonov regularisation in terms of the level of sparsity in the distribution of charge strengths specifying the basis. In many cases, the $\\ell_1$ optimisation leads to a solution basis whose size is only a small fraction of the total number of measured data points. The effects of changing the wavenumber, the internal source surface and the (noisy) acoustic pressure data in general will all be studied with reference to a numerical study on a cuboid of similar dimensions to a typical loudspeaker cabinet. The development of sparse and accurate reconstructions has a number of advantageous consequences includin...

  6. Near-field acoustic holography with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren

    of particle velocity measurements and combined pressure-velocity measurements in NAH, the relation between the near-field and the far-field radiation from sound sources via the supersonic acoustic intensity, and finally, the reconstruction of sound fields using rigid spherical microphone arrays. Measurement...... of the particle velocity has notable potential in NAH, and furthermore, combined measurement of sound pressure and particle velocity opens a new range of possibilities that are examined in this study. On this basis, sound field separation methods have been studied, and a new measurement principle based on double...... layer measurements of the particle velocity has been proposed. Also, the relation between near-field and far-field radiation from sound sources has been examined using the concept of the supersonic intensity. The calculation of this quantity has been extended to other holographic methods, and studied...

  7. Polarization holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, L.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    Current research into holography is concerned with applications in optically storing, retrieving, and processing information. Polarization holography has many unique properties compared to conventional holography. It gives results in high efficiency, achromaticity, and special polarization...... properties. This books reviews the research carried out in this field over the last 15 years. The authors provide basic concepts in polarization and the propagation of light through anisotropic materials, before presenting a sound theoretical basis for polarization holography. The fabrication...... and characterization of azobenzene based materials, which remain the most efficient for the purpose, is described in detail. This is followed by a description of other materials that are used in polarization holography. An in-depth description of various applications, including display holography and optical storage...

  8. Noise suppression in curved glass shells using macro-fiber-composite actuators studied by the means of digital holography and acoustic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mokrý

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods and experimental results of the semi-active control of noise transmission in a curved glass shell with attached piezoelectric macro fiber composite (MFC actuators. The semi-active noise control is achieved via active elasticity control of piezoelectric actuators by connecting them to an active electric shunt circuit that has a negative effective capacitance. Using this approach, it is possible to suppress the vibration of the glass shell in the normal direction with respect to its surface and to increase the acoustic transmission loss of the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure. The effect of the MFC actuators connected to the negative capacitance shunt circuit on the surface distribution of the normal vibration amplitude is studied using frequency-shifted digital holography (FSDH. The principle of the used FSDH method is described in the paper. The frequency dependence of the acoustic transmission loss through the piezoelectric MFC-glass composite structure is estimated using measurements of the specific acoustic impedance of the curved glass shell. The specific acoustic impedance is measured using two microphones and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV. The results from the LDV measurements are compared with the FSDH data. The results of the experiments show that using this approach, the acoustic transmission loss in a glass shell can be increased by 36 dB in the frequency range around 247 Hz and by 25 dB in the frequency range around 258 Hz. The experiments indicate that FSDH measurements provide an efficient tool that can be used for fast and accurate measurements of the acoustic transmission loss in large planar structures.

  9. Digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a substantial description of the principles and applications of digital holography.The first part of the book deals with mathematical basics and the linear filtering theory necessary to approach the topic. The next part describes the fundamentals of diffraction theory and exhaustively details the numerical computation of diffracted fields using FFT algorithms. A thorough presentation of the principles of holography and digital holography, including digital color holography, is proposed in the third part.A special section is devoted to the algorithms and method

  10. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  11. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  12. Dental Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  13. New techniques in digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art presentation of important advances in the field of digital holography, detailing advances related to fundamentals of digital holography, in-line holography applied to fluid mechanics, digital color holography, digital holographic microscopy, infrared holography, special techniques in full field vibrometry and inverse problems in digital holography

  14. Scale Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Cembranos, Jose A R; Garay, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    We present a new correspondence between a d-dimensional dynamical system and a whole family of (d+1)-dimensional systems. This new scale-holographic relation is built by the explicit introduction of a dimensionful constant which determines the size of the additional dimension. Scale holography is particularly useful for studying non-local theories, since the equivalent dual system on the higher dimensional manifold can be made to be local, as we illustrate with the specific example of the p-adic string.

  15. Holography and tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    This session includes a collection of outlines of pertinent information, diagrams, graphs, electron micrographs, and color photographs pertaining to historical aspects and recent advances in the development of X-ray Gabor Holography. Many of the photographs feature or pertain to instrumentation used in holography, tomography, and cryo-holography.

  16. 48 Years with holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Toshihiro

    2014-11-01

    The invention of holography was epoch-making in optics. Although the research on holography has cycled through active and stagnant periods, holography has gradually become a practical technique thanks to researchers' steady efforts. The technique has many attractive features and is used in many fields nowadays. The latest developments in high-definition image sensors and ultrashort pulsed lasers have given rise to a new possibility of holography. I have been engaged in the research and development of holography since I knew it by casual opportunity. In this paper, the research in early stages of holography is briefly described, and some of my basic and applied research in which I have so far engaged are introduced.

  17. An efficient planar inverse acoustic method based on Toeplitz matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.W.; Boer, de A.; Ellenbroek, M.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new, fast method to solve inverse acoustic problems for planar sources. This problem is often encountered in practice and methods such as planar nearfield acoustic holography (PNAH) and statistically optimised nearfield acoustic holography (SONAH) are widely used to solve it.

  18. Reconstruction and separation of vibratory field using structural holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, C.; Totaro, N.; Thomas, J.-H.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2017-02-01

    A method for reconstructing and separating vibratory field on a plate-like structure is presented. The method, called "Structural Holography" is derived from classical Near-field Acoustic Holography (NAH) but in the vibratory domain. In this case, the plate displacement is measured on one-dimensional lines (the holograms) and used to reconstruct the entire two-dimensional displacement field. As a consequence, remote measurements on non directly accessible zones are possible with Structural Holography. Moreover, as it is based on the decomposition of the field into forth and back waves, Structural Holography permits to separate forces in the case of multi-sources excitation. The theoretical background of the Structural Holography method is described first. Then, to illustrate the process and the possibilities of Structural Holography, the academic test case of an infinite plate excited by few point forces is presented. With the principle of vibratory field separation, the displacement fields produced by each point force separately is reconstructed. However, the displacement field is not always meaningful and some additional treatments are mandatory to localize the position of point forces for example. From the simple example of an infinite plate, a post-processing based on the reconstruction of the structural intensity field is thus proposed. Finally, Structural Holography is generalized to finite plates and applied to real experimental measurements

  19. Predictive dynamic digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sennan; Gibson, Steve; Spencer, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Digital holography has received recent attention for many imaging and sensing applications, including imaging through turbulent and turbid media, adaptive optics, three dimensional projective display technology and optical tweezing. A significant obstacle for digital holography in real-time applications, such as wavefront sensing for high energy laser systems and high speed imaging for target tracking, is the fact that digital holography is computationally intensive; it requires iterative virtual wavefront propagation and hill-climbing to optimize some sharpness criteria. This paper demonstrates real-time methods for digital holography based on approaches developed recently at UCLA for optimal and adaptive identification, prediction, and control of optical wavefronts. The methods presented integrate minimum variance wavefront prediction into digital holography schemes to short-circuit the computationally intensive algorithms for iterative propagation of virtual wavefronts and hill climbing for sharpness optimization.

  20. Artistic Representation with Pulsed Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, S.

    2013-02-01

    This thesis describes artistic representation through pulsed holography. One of the prevalent practical problems in making holograms is object movement. Any movement of the object or film, including movement caused by acoustic vibration, has the same fatal results. One way of reducing the chance of movement is by ensuring that the exposure is very quick; using a pulsed laser can fulfill this objective. The attractiveness of using pulsed laser is based on the variety of materials or objects that can be recorded (e.g., liquid material or instantaneous scene of a moving object). One of the most interesting points about pulsed holograms is that some reconstructed images present us with completely different views of the real world. For example, the holographic image of liquid material does not appear fluid; it looks like a piece of hard glass that would produce a sharp sound upon tapping. In everyday life, we are unfamiliar with such an instantaneous scene. On the other hand, soft-textured materials such as a feather or wool differ from liquids when observed through holography. Using a pulsed hologram, we can sense the soft touch of the object or material with the help of realistic three-dimensional (3-D) images. The images allow us to realize the sense of touch in a way that resembles touching real objects. I had the opportunity to use a pulsed ruby laser soon after I started to work in the field of holography in 1979. Since then, I have made pulsed holograms of activities, including pouring water, breaking eggs, blowing soap bubbles, and scattering feathers and popcorn. I have also created holographic art with materials and objects, such as silk fiber, fabric, balloons, glass, flowers, and even the human body. Whenever I create art, I like to present the spectator with a new experience in perception. Therefore, I would like to introduce my experimental artwork through those pulsed holograms.

  1. Characterization of Transducer Performance and Narrowband Transient Ultrasonic Fields in Metals by Rayleigh-Sommerfeld Backpropagation of Compression Acoustic Waves Measured with Double-Pulsed Tv Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo, Cristina; Doval, Ángel F.; Fernández, José L.; Rodríguez-Gómez, Pablo; López-Vázquez, J. Carlos

    2014-10-01

    This article presents a method aimed at the characterization of the narrowband transient acoustic field radiated by an ultrasonic plane transducer into a homogeneous, isotropic and optically opaque prismatic solid, and the assessment of the performance of the acoustic source. The method relies on a previous technique based on the full-field optical measurement of an acoustic wavepacket at the surface of a solid and its subsequent numerical backpropagation within the material. The experimental results show that quantitative transversal and axial profiles of the complex amplitude of the beam can be obtained at any plane between the measurement and excitation surfaces. The reconstruction of the acoustic field at the transducer face, carried out on a defective transducer model, shows that the method could also be suitable for the nondestructive testing of the performance of ultrasonic sources. In all cases, the measurements were performed with the transducer working under realistic loading conditions.

  2. Nearfield acoustic holography based on inverse boundary element method for moving sound source identification%运动声源的边界元声全息识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦英; 商德江; 李琪; 刘永伟

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种可实现任意形状的运动结构噪声源识别的声全息方法.通过结合移动框架技术与边界元声全息技术两种算法的特点,提出利用移动框架技术将存在多普勒效应的时域数据转换成边界元声全息所需的双平面全息数据,然后由边界元法声全息公式重构任意结构表面的声学信息,实现运动结构噪声源定位.该方法既具有移动框架技术处理运动问题的快速简便,又具有边界元方法可处理任意形状问题的特点.最后在半消声水池中,对运动速度为9.96cm/s的带帽圆柱壳体进行了试验验证,结果表明:在低速条件下,该方法能够准确反演得到该结构的表面有功声强以及声压等声场信息,从而实现噪声源定位,由于条件有限,高速验证需进一步验证.%A method for realizing noise source identification of the arbitrary shaped moving structure is present. A theoretical model is established, which is a combination of moving frame acoustic holography (MFAH) and acoustic holography based on boundary element method (BEM-based NAH). MFAH can change time-domain data which existing Doppler effects into the dual plane holographic data which is needed in the BEM-based NAH. The surface acoustic information of an arbitrary structure is reconstructed by BEM-based NAH, which can be used for location of noise source. It not only has the MFAH's fast and easy characteristics for dealing with movement problem, but also has the BEM-based NAH characteristics of dealing with arbitrary shape. Finally, an experiment test was conducted by using a moving hooded cylindrical shell which speed is 9.96 cm/s as research object in the semi-anechoic pool. The results showed that: the method can accurately realize the inversion of the structure of the surface of active sound intensity and sound pressure and other information in sound field, thereby achieving noise source location. Because of the condition limited, high

  3. Student Conceptions of Holography (Schuelervorstellungen zur Holographie)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E; Horn, Martin Erik; Mikelskis, Helmut F

    2003-01-01

    In a lesson on holography a tension is to be found between the ray model, the wave model, the phasor model and the particle model. Lessons depend on the previous experiences of the students, the intentions of the teacher as well as on other parameters and therefore provide a diversity in emphasis while explaining holographic effects. As class discussion concerning selected areas of interference optics and specifically holography develops in a questioning manner and with limited intervention from the teacher, numerous student conceptions with regard to interference optics and different model conceptions of light can be identified. Student interviews in which these discovered concepts are explored in greater detail can provide in depth information. Primary student conceptions, which were gathered in the main research conducted for a dissertation project will be presented here and analysed with a view to their didactic consequences.

  4. Holography In Biomedical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bally, G.

    1988-01-01

    Today not only physicists and engineers but also biological and medical scientists are exploring the potentials of holographic methods in their special field of work. Most of the underlying physical principles such as coherence, interference, diffraction and polarization as well as general features of holography e.g. storage and retrieval of amplitude and phase of a wavefront, 3-d-imaging, large field of depth, redundant storage of information, spatial filtering, high-resolving, non-contactive, 3-d form and motion analysis are explained in detail in other contributions to this book. Therefore, this article is confined to the applications of holography in biomedical sciences. Because of the great number of contributions and the variety of applications [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8] in this review the investigations can only be mentioned briefly and the survey has to be confined to some examples. As in all fields of optics and laser metrology, a review of biomedical applications of holography would be incomplete if military developments and their utilization are not mentioned. As will be demonstrated by selected examples the increasing interlacing of science with the military does not stop at domains that traditionally are regarded as exclusively oriented to human welfare like biomedical research [9]. This fact is actually characterized and stressed by the expression "Star Wars Medicine", which becomes increasingly common as popular description for laser applications (including holography) in medicine [10]. Thus, the consequence - even in such highly specialized fields like biomedical applications of holography - have to be discussed.

  5. Photon counting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario; Pavičić, Mladen

    2016-05-01

    Digital holography uses electronic sensors for hologram recording and numerical method for hologram reconstruction enabling thus the development of advanced holography applications. However, in some cases, the useful information is concealed in a very wide dynamic range of illumination intensities and successful recording requires an appropriate dynamic range of the sensor. An effective solution to this problem is the use of a photon-counting detector. Such detectors possess counting rates of the order of tens to hundreds of millions counts per second, but conditions of recording holograms have to be investigated in greater detail. Here, we summarize our main findings on this problem. First, conditions for optimum recording of digital holograms for detecting a signal significantly below detector's noise are analyzed in terms of the most important holographic measures. Second, for time-averaged digital holograms, optimum recordings were investigated for exposures shorter than the vibration cycle. In both cases, these conditions are studied by simulations and experiments.

  6. Thermal worldline holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Dennis D

    2015-01-01

    For a quantum field theory over four-dimensional Minkowski space at zero temperature worldline holography states, that it can be expressed as a field theory of its sources over five-dimensional AdS space to all orders in its elementary fields, the fifth dimension being Schwinger's proper time of the worldline formalism. For the finite temperatures studied here worldline holography yields either a thermal AdS space or an AdS black hole as five-dimensional manifolds. Comparing the values of the five-dimensional action for the two alternatives, the AdS black hole is preferred, if there are more bosonic elementary degrees of freedom; and the thermal AdS space is preferred, if there are more fermionic ones. If the dominance of bosons versus fermions changes with temperature, a transition between the two spaces takes place.

  7. STATISTICALLY OPTIMISED NEAR FIELD ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHYAND THE HELMHOLTZ EQUATION LEAST SQUARESMETHOD: A COMPARISON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus; Jacobsen, Finn

    Several variants of near field acoustic holography (NAH) that do not require measurement areas larger than the source have been proposed. This paper examines and compares two such methods, statistically optimised near field acoustic holography (SONAH) and the Helmholtz equation least squares method...

  8. Dynamic holography using pixelated light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Susanne; Haist, Tobias; Warber, Michael; Osten, Wolfgang

    2010-09-01

    Dynamic holography using spatial light modulators is a very flexible technique that offers various new applications compared to static holography. We give an overview on the technical background of dynamic holography focusing on pixelated spatial light modulators and their technical restrictions, and we present a selection of the numerous applications of dynamic holography.

  9. Holography in the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Examines the use of holography in the art technology program of a junior high school. Characterizing holography as a valuable artistic experience and discovery experience and stressing the importance of student interest and involvement, the author discusses the necessary equipment for the project and includes two diagrams of a holographic setup.…

  10. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  11. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  12. When is holography consistent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  13. Holography of Little Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg

    2015-05-15

    For several crucial microseconds of its early history, the Universe consisted of a Quark–Gluon Plasma. As it cooled during this era, it traced out a trajectory in the quark matter phase diagram. The form taken by this trajectory is not known with certainty, but is of great importance: it determines, for example, whether the cosmic plasma passed through a first-order phase change during the transition to the hadron era, as has recently been suggested by advocates of the “Little Inflation” model. Just before this transition, the plasma was strongly coupled and therefore can be studied by holographic techniques. We show that holography imposes a strong constraint (taking the form of a bound on the baryonic chemical potential relative to the temperature) on the domain through which the cosmic plasma could pass as it cooled, with important consequences for Little Inflation. In fact, we find that holography applied to Little Inflation implies that the cosmic plasma must have passed quite close to the quark matter critical point, and might therefore have been affected by the associated fluctuation phenomena.

  14. Holography of Little Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett McInnes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For several crucial microseconds of its early history, the Universe consisted of a Quark–Gluon Plasma. As it cooled during this era, it traced out a trajectory in the quark matter phase diagram. The form taken by this trajectory is not known with certainty, but is of great importance: it determines, for example, whether the cosmic plasma passed through a first-order phase change during the transition to the hadron era, as has recently been suggested by advocates of the “Little Inflation” model. Just before this transition, the plasma was strongly coupled and therefore can be studied by holographic techniques. We show that holography imposes a strong constraint (taking the form of a bound on the baryonic chemical potential relative to the temperature on the domain through which the cosmic plasma could pass as it cooled, with important consequences for Little Inflation. In fact, we find that holography applied to Little Inflation implies that the cosmic plasma must have passed quite close to the quark matter critical point, and might therefore have been affected by the associated fluctuation phenomena.

  15. Video-rate computational heterodyne holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dillée, Antoine; Lopes, Fernando; Atlan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a versatile computational image rendering software of optically-acquired holograms. The reported software can process 4 Megapixel 8-bit raw frames from a sensor array acquired at a sustained rate of 80 Hz. Video-rate image rendering is achieved by streamline image processing with commodity computer graphics hardware. For time-averaged holograms acquired in off-axis optical configuration with a frequency-shifted reference beam, wide-field imaging of one tunable spectral component is permitted. This software is validated by phase-stepped hologram rendering, and non-contact monitoring of surface acoustic waves by single and dual sideband hologram rendering. It demonstrates the suitability of holography for video-rate computational laser Doppler imaging in heterodyne optical configuration.

  16. Comparative digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Torsten; Jüptner, Werner

    2002-01-01

    We described a method for direct holographic comparison of the shape or the deformation of two objects when it is not necessary that both samples be located at the same place. In contrast to the well-known incoherent techniques based on inverse fringe projection, this new approach uses a coherent mask that is imaged onto a sample object that has a microstructure different from that of the master object. The coherent mask is created by digital holography to permit instant access to complete optical information on the master object at any wanted place. Transmission of the digital master holograms to the relevant places can be made with a broadband digital telecommunication network such as the Internet.

  17. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  18. When Is Holography Consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognised; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, are satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, \\emph{not} be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold, and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark-gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur...

  19. GPU-accelerated compressive holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yutaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-18

    In this paper, we show fast signal reconstruction for compressive holography using a graphics processing unit (GPU). We implemented a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm on a GPU to solve the ℓ1 and total variation (TV) regularized problems that are typically used in compressive holography. Since the algorithm is highly parallel, GPUs can compute it efficiently by data-parallel computing. For better performance, our implementation exploits the structure of the measurement matrix to compute the matrix multiplications. The results show that GPU-based implementation is about 20 times faster than CPU-based implementation.

  20. Rainbow holography and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, N. G.; Ivanov, Vladimir S.

    1993-09-01

    The general equations of the rainbow holography are deduced. Their analysis makes it possible to offer different methods of the rainbow holographic images production. A new way of using the rainbow holograms as optical elements for effective color illuminating of transparent, specular, and polished objects is proposed. Application fields are the advertising industry, shop windows design, etc.

  1. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  2. Application of Compressive Sensing to Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0071 APPLICATION OF COMPRESSIVE SENSING TO DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHY Mark Neifeld University of Arizona...From - To) May 2015 Final 3 September 2013 – 27 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATION OF COMPRESSIVE SENSING TO DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHY 5a...from under- sampled data. This work presents a new reconstruction algorithm for use with under-sampled digital holography measurements and yields

  3. Radar, sonar, and holography an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kock, Winston E

    1974-01-01

    Radar, Sonar, and Holography: An Introduction provides an introduction to the technology of radar and sonar. Because the new science of holography is affecting both these fields quite strongly, the book includes an explanation of the fundamental principles underlying this new art (including the subjects of wave coherence, interference, and diffraction) and of the hologram process itself. Finally, numerous examples are discussed which show how holography is providing new horizons to radar and sonar systems. The book thus also provides a simple approach to the new technology of holography. The

  4. Fast evaluation of the Rayleigh integral and applications to inverse acoustics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.W.; Wijnant, Y.H.; Boer, de A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a fast evaluation of the Rayleigh integral, which leads to fast and robust solutions in inverse acoustics. The method commonly used to reconstruct acoustic sources on a plane in space is Planar Nearfield Acoustic Holography (PNAH). Some of the most important recent improveme

  5. X-ray fluorescence holography

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  6. Holography: childrens' window to relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacShane, James E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of the concept of natural education. Psychology has discovered that all humans learn intuitively the cultural concepts of time from birth to eight and one-half to ten years of age. Einstein showed us that this must also be the natural time for the development of spatial concepts. The importance of this has been dramatized for me in the past eight years that I have been developing the Laser Arts and Holography Programs and Workshops. I have worked with over 100,000 students kindergarten through eighth grade. I have worked with 175 students age 8 to 10 in three hour and one half workshops specifically on the development of time and space concepts. The concepts developed are based upon the vast amount of psychological evidence related to the natural development of time and space understandings, Dr. Nils Abramson's 'Light in Flight' and subsequent work on the clarification of relativity through holography, and Maria Montessori's method of Scientific Education. The paper also demonstrates the natural method of teaching science to younger students is to teach scientifically. All of the research which has been done in the past 100 years has been used by the educational institutions to try to improve the system. What has not been done is changing the system to how humans learn. Because of the perceived hi-tech nature of the program I am able to dramatize the potential. An outline for a holography curriculum kindergarten through eighth grade is included.

  7. Acoustic-optical imaging without immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.

    1979-01-01

    System using membraneous end wall of Bragg cell to separate test specimen from acoustic transmission medium, operates in real time and uses readily available optical components. System can be easily set up and maintained by people with little or no training in holography.

  8. Underwater holography: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John

    2006-05-01

    Holography is a well-known optical technique which can provide valuable information on the location and distribution of small particles in three-dimensional space. For several years now, we have utilised holography for high-precision subsea inspection and measurement. One specific application which spurred much of our work was the need for high-precision inspection and analysis of plankton sizes, distribution and species identification. To this end we have developed a subsea holographic camera (HoloMar) for recording of plankton and other marine organisms in situ in their natural environment. This camera is unique in that it is able to record simultaneous in-line and off-axis holograms to cover a range of size of marine organisms from a few microns to tens of millimetres and at concentrations from a few particles per cubic centimetre to dense aggregates. Holograms of aquatic systems of up to 50000 cm 3 volume (off-axis) and 9500 cm 3 (in-line), have been recorded in situ, using a pulsed laser (Q-switched, frequency-doubled Nd-YAG, 532 nm). The use of a pulsed laser effectively "freezes" the scene at a given instant. Although the recording of the holograms takes place in water, replay of the image is carried out in the laboratory in air, using the projected (real) image mode of reconstruction. By precision translation of a computer-controlled video-camera through the replayed image volume and performing "optical sectioning" on the image, individual organisms can be isolated and their size, shape and relative location precisely determined. Image processing algorithms, will allow optimisation of the holographic image together with automated identification of individual species and enumeration of concentrations. The local interactions between different organisms and particles can be observed, recorded and quantitatively determined. Following initial laboratory and observation tank testing, the holo-camera was deployed in a sea loch in the West of Scotland to a depth of

  9. Holograms for acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melde, Kai; Mark, Andrew G.; Qiu, Tian; Fischer, Peer

    2016-09-01

    Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.

  10. Ballistics firearm identification by digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-guang

    2009-01-01

    The need for firearm identification systems by police services continues to increase with greater accessibility to weapons in the national and international contexts. The difficulties associated with traditional imaging of ballistics specimens are numerous, and include the smallness of the samples, the nature of the surfaces and shapes for the cartridge cases and projectiles. The digital holography has been introduced to create the 3D image of the fired bullets in order to identify firearms. In digital holography a CCD camera records optically generated holograms which is then reconstructed numerically by a calculation of scalar diffraction in the Fresnel approximation. The digital photography facilitates real time transmission of the message via traditional communication methods. In this paper the principle of digital holography and its application to the 3D image encryption-decryption were reviewed. The experimental results of firearm identification recording using digital holography and their numerical reconstruction were presented.

  11. Introduction to holography - theory - experimental equipment; Introduction a l'holographie - theorie - dispositifs experimentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T.; Proca, G.; Slama, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    This work presents the theory and the technic in the field of holography. It makes a synthesis of the present knowledge in that field. (authors) [French] Ce travail expose les theories et les techniques dans le domaine de l'holographie. Il fait la synthese des connaissances acquises a ce jour dans ce domaine en evolution rapide. (auteurs)

  12. Digital holography-based steganography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Habib

    2010-12-15

    A steganographic method offering a high hiding capacity is presented in which the techniques of digital holography are used to distribute information from a small secret image across the larger pixel field of a cover image. An iterative algorithm is used to design a phase-only or complex hologram from a padded version of the secret image, quantizing this data according to the carrier data bits that are available within the intended cover image. By introducing the hologram data only into low-order bits of larger amplitude cover pixels, the change in the cover image remains imperceptible to the casual observer, with a peak signal-to-noise ratio of >40 dB.

  13. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  14. Enhanced Acoustic Emission in Relation to the Acoustic Halo Surrounding Active Region 11429

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Chris S; Leka, K D

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic holography in the high-frequency $p$-mode spectrum can resolve the source distributions of enhanced acoustic emissions within halo structures surrounding active regions. In doing so, statistical methods can then be applied to ascertain relationships with the magnetic field. This is the focus of this study. The mechanism responsible for the detected enhancement of acoustic sources around solar active regions has not yet been explained. Furthermore the relationship between the magnetic field and enhanced acoustic emission has not yet been comprehensively examined. We have used vector magnetograms from the \\Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to image the magnetic-field properties in the halo. We have studied the acoustic morphology of an active region, with a complex halo and "glories," and we have linked some acoustic properties to the magnetic-field configuration. In particular, we find that acoustic sources are significantly enhanced in reg...

  15. Spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeuner, Franziska; Li, Xin; Reineke, Bernhard; He, Shan; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Liu, Juan; Wang, Yongtian; Zhang, Shuang; Zentgraf, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Metasurfaces, as the ultrathin version of metamaterials, have caught growing attention due to their superior capability in controlling the phase, amplitude and polarization states of light. Among various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurface that encodes a geometric or Pancharatnam-Berry phase into the orientation angle of the constituent meta-atoms has shown great potential in controlling light in both linear and nonlinear optical regimes. The robust and dispersionless nature of the geometric phase simplifies the wave manipulation tremendously. Benefitting from the continuous phase control, metasurface holography has exhibited advantages over conventional depth controlled holography with discretized phase levels. Here we report on spin and wavelength multiplexed nonlinear metasurface holography, which allows construction of multiple target holographic images carried independently by the fundamental and harmonic generation waves of different spins. The nonlinear holograms provide independent, nondispersive and crosstalk-free post-selective channels for holographic multiplexing and multidimensional optical data storages, anti-counterfeiting, and optical encryption.

  16. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beche, A., E-mail: armand.beche@fei.com [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rouviere, J.L. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Barnes, J.P.; Cooper, D. [CEA-LETI, Minatec Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-15

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. -- Research Highlights: {yields} Step by step explanation of the dark field electron holography technique. {yields} Presentation of the theoretical equations to obtain quantitative strain map. {yields} Description of experimental parameters influencing dark field holography results. {yields} Quantitative strain measurement on a SiGe layer embedded in a silicon matrix.

  17. Holography in the curriculum of medical institutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, S. Y.; Nagibina, I. M.; Baranov, S. V.; Bolshakov, Oleg P.; Petrishin, V. L.

    1995-11-01

    Holography at present is the most effective technique of obtaining 3-D images of different objects. That's why there is more and more dissemination of holography in different fields of science and engineering, for example, in medicine. So, last time the technique of synthesized holograms obtained for evaluating inner organs states of patients without surgical intervention was designed. Due to properties of the hologram such as high quality of image and relative simplicity of duplication it is clear that holography could take its place in the curriculum of medical specializations because posters, photos, and models cannot give a full notation about an object of interest. The attempt to obtain holographical complete sets to demonstrate the most frequent pathologic changes of a human's bones was undertaken by our Institutes. The aim of our research was to obtain holograms with the following properties: minimum cost and high quality of reconstructed image to identify both the presented objects and the pathologic changes of them.

  18. Holography with a Landau pole

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is $d=4$, $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills coupled to $N_f$ quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale $\\Lambda_{LP}$. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies $E \\ll \\Lambda_{LP}$ no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales $E \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures $T \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singular...

  19. Holography - Application To Art: Curatorial Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Sydney

    1987-06-01

    An exploration of the need to define a specific and critical language to describe the art of holography. Within any discussion of art, critical analysis must maintain an objective openess, particularily when the discourse concerns new media. To apply technological invention to art, new media is often without precedent on which to base criticism and bias. For this reason, holography falls prey to comparative rhetoric and established evaluation of other forms of imaging,as photography emulated the compositional romanticism of painting initially. Isolated and often misunderstood within the context of history, new media vascillates between legitimacy and curiosity in an attempt to create specific parameters to identify perceptual transition.

  20. Is holography ready for yet another life? or make holography great again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.

    2016-08-01

    Holographic metrology, unlike most other applications of holography, has always thrived and continues to thrive by continuously incorporating new supporting technologies that make it more powerful and useful. Successes, failures, lives, and deaths are examined and recognized as evolutionary steps that position the field where opportunities are as great and as many as ever. This is a story of that evolution. Comparisons and analogies with other applications of holography such as data storage, archiving, the arts, entertainment, advertising, and security and their evolution are interesting. Critical events, successes, mistakes, and coincidences represent milestones of abandonment or failure to deliver in many holography communities that followed a different evolutionary path. Events and new technical developments continue to emerge in supporting fields that can revive and expand all holography applications. New opportunities are described with encouragement to act on them and take some risks. Don't wait until all of the required technology and hardware are available, because good scientists always act before then. The paper is about "making holography great again" and your opportunity to be a part of the upcoming revolution. Although the discussion focuses on holographic metrology, the same principles should apply to other holography communities.

  1. Measurement of incident sound power using near field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Tiana Roig, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    The conventional method of measuring the insertion loss of a partition relies on an assumption of the sound field in the source room being diffuse and the classical relation between the spatial average of the mean square pressure in the source room and the incident sound power per unit area...

  2. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  3. X-ray holography with atomic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegze, Miklós; Faigel, Gyula

    1996-03-01

    DIFFRACTION methods for crystallographic structure determination suffer from the so-called 'phase problem'; a diffraction pattern provides intensity but not phase information for the scattered beams, and therefore cannot be uniquely inverted to obtain the crystal structure of a sample. Holographic methods1, on the other hand, offer a means of extracting both intensity and phase information. To be useful for crystallographic applications, holography must be implemented with radiation of sufficiently small wavelength to resolve atomic-scale features2. One method, electron-emission holography3-9, uses electron waves and is a powerful tool for studying surface structure; but it cannot image the internal structure of solids because of complications arising from the highly anisotropic nature of electron scattering processes. A proposed alternative method uses X-rays2,10-13, which scatter more isotropically than electrons. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of atomic-scale X-ray holography by obtaining direct images of the three-dimensional arrangement of strontium atoms in the cubic perovskite SrTiO3. With more intense synchrotron sources for illumination, and with the development of improved X-ray detectors, X-ray holography should become a powerful general technique for unambiguous structure determination in condensed matter systems.

  4. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  5. Refractometry of microscopic objects using digital holography

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Mats; Sebesta, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Digital holography has some desirable properties for refractometry of microscopic objects since it gives phase and amplitude information of an object in all depths of focus from one set of exposures. The refractive index of the object can be determined by observation of the movements of the Becke lines between different focus depths. It is also shown that one single phase image provides an independent technique to determine sign of the relief between an object and the surroun...

  6. Digital holography from shadowgraphic phase estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano; Pliakis, Dimitris; Pertsch, Thomas

    2012-02-15

    We show experimentally that the recently proposed iterative shadowgraphic method can be applied to in-line digital holography, provided a suitable regularization step is introduced. We show that the method correctly solves the "twin-image" problem using just two samples of the intensity field scattered by a phase object. Field retrieval accuracy is significantly improved when compared to a reconstruction obtained with the defocusing variation algorithms.

  7. Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, G F

    2003-08-13

    Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.

  8. Reconstruction and prediction of coherent acoustic field with the combined wave superposition approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weibing; CHEN Jian; YU Fei; CHEN Xinzhao

    2006-01-01

    The routine wave superposition approach cannot be used in reconstruction and prediction of a coherent acoustic field, because it is impossible to separate the pressures generated by individual sources. According to the superposition theory of the coherent acoustic field , a novel method based on the combined wave superposition approach is developed to reconstruct and predict the coherent acoustic field by building the combined pressure matching matrixes between the hologram surfaces and the sources. The method can reconstruct the acoustic information on surfaces of the individual sources, and it is possible to predict the acoustic field radiated from every source and the total coherent acoustic field can also be calculated spontaneously. The experimental and numerical simulation results show that this method can effectively solve the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the coherent acoustic field and it can also be used as a coherent acoustic field separation technique. The study on this novel method extends the application scope of the acoustic holography technique.

  9. Application of Denisyuk pulsed holography to material testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renesse, R.L. van; Burgmeijer, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    When holography is applied outside the laboratory, some well known problems are experienced: vibrations, rigid body motion, stray daylight. Pulse holography can overcome the difficulties with vibrations, but the other problems are less easily solved. When the object area to be holographically tested

  10. DHM (Digital Holography Microscope) for imaging cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Yves [Lyncee Tec SA, PSE-A, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cuche, Etienne [Lyncee Tec SA, PSE-A, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Colomb, Tristan [STI-IOA-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Depeursinge, Christian [STI-IOA-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rappaz, Benjamin [SV-BM-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Marquet, Pierre [CNP-CHUV, Site de Cery, 1008 Prilly (Switzerland); Magistretti, Pierre [SV-BM-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Light interaction with a sample modifies both intensity and phase of the illuminating wave. Any available supports for image recording are only sensitive to intensity, but Denis Gabor [P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, et. al. Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging, Optics Letters, 30, 5, pp 291-93 (2005)] invented in 1948 a way to encode the phase as an intensity variation: the {sup h}ologram{sup .} Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [D. Gabor, A new microscopic principle, Nature, 1948] implements digitally this powerful hologram. Characterization of various pollen grains and of morphology changes of neurones associated with hypotonic shock demonstrates the potential of DHM for imaging cells.

  11. "Kunstwerk" in the age of holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlmann, Dietmar; Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    In 2007 one auction shocked collectors and artists: Two art works of Rudie Berkhout were offered for one thousand dollars on eBay. The closing down of museums for holography in Cologne, New York and Washington DC paid a big price of respect for true art. Benjamin's vision about "Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" found a new expression in abuse and ignorance. Beautiful sculptures of Art are reduced to "Holograms" like Rudie's "Cairo Aspect" placed in a rummage sale, covered by fingerprints of ignorance.

  12. EDITORIAL: Optical tomography and digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Jeremy; Lobera, Julia

    2008-07-01

    The articles in this special feature in Measurement Science and Technology concern exciting new developments in the field of digital holography—the process of electronically recording and numerically reconstructing an optical field [1]. Making use of the enormous advances in digital imaging and computer technology, digital holography is presented in a range of applications from fluid flow measurement and structural analysis to medical imaging. The science of digital holography rests on the foundations of optical holography, on the work of Gabor in the late 1940s, and on the development of laser sources in the 1960s, which made his vision a practical reality [2]. Optical holography, however, uses a photosensitive material, both to record a latent image and subsequently to behave as a diffractive optical element with which to reconstruct the incident field. In this way display holograms, using silver halide materials for example, can produce life-size images that are virtually indistinguishable from the object itself [3]. Digital holography, in contrast, separates the steps of recording and reconstruction, and the final image is most often in the form of a 3D computer model. Of course, television cameras have been used from the beginnings of holography to record interferometric images. However, the huge disparity between the resolution of holographic recording materials (more than 3000 cycles/mm) and television cameras (around 50 cycles/mm) was raised as a major concern by early researchers. TV holography, as it was sometimes called, generally recorded low numerical aperture (NA) holograms producing images with characteristically large speckle and was therefore more often referred to as electronic speckle pattern interferomery (ESPI) [4]. It is possible, however, to record large NA holograms on a sensor with restricted resolution by using an objective lens or a diverging reference wave [5]. This is generally referred to as digital holographic microscopy (DHM) since

  13. Simulated electron holography of PSD particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conbhuí, Pádraig Ó.; Williams, Wyn; Nagy, Les

    2016-04-01

    Electron holography is an experimental technique that is capable of observing magnetic microstructures on the same scale as can be determined using numerical modeling and thus bridge the gap between experimental measurements and theory. I will present a technique for simulating holographic images from the results of micromagnetic models and demonstrate an easily used tool for generating holograms on the fly in an interactive environment (ie in ParaView). Since holography flattens 3D information onto a 2D image, some useful information can be lost. By looking at some examples of holograms of interesting 3D magnetizations (ie PSD structures), particularly how they change as they're rotated, along with comparisons of different structures, I will examine what information can be retrieved and what might be lost. The existance of an external dipole can be indicative of an in-plane component of a seemingly out-of-plane vortex core. It is also seen, however, that two quite different structures (in this case a [111] vortex core and a [111] uniform magnetization) can sometimes be quite indistinguishable.

  14. Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.

  15. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  16. Stückelberg formulation of holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico

    2016-10-01

    We suggest that holography can be formulated in terms of the information capacity of the Stückelberg degrees of freedom that maintain gauge invariance of the theory in the presence of an information boundary. These Stückelbergs act as qubits that account for a certain fraction of quantum information. Their information capacity is measured by the ratio of the inverse Stückelberg energy gap to the size of the system. Systems with the smallest gap are maximally holographic. For massless gauge systems this information measure is universally equal to the inverse coupling evaluated at the systems' length scale. In this language it becomes very transparent why the Stückelberg information capacity of black holes saturates the Bekenstein bound and accounts for the entire information of the system. The physical reason is that the strength of quantum interaction is bounded from below by the gravitational coupling, which scales as area. Observing the striking similarity between the scalings of the energy gap of the boundary Stückelberg modes and the Bogoliubov modes of critical many-body systems, we establish a connection between holography and quantum criticality through the correspondence between these modes.

  17. Helioseismic holography of simulated sunspots: magnetic and thermal contributions to travel times

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, T; Crouch, A D; Birch, A C

    2016-01-01

    Wave propagation through sunspots involves conversion between waves of acoustic and magnetic character. In addition, the thermal structure of sunspots is very different than that of the quiet Sun. As a consequence, the interpretation of local helioseismic measurements of sunspots has long been a challenge. With the aim of understanding these measurements, we carry out numerical simulations of wave propagation through sunspots. Helioseismic holography measurements made from the resulting simulated wavefields show qualitative agreement with observations of real sunspots. We use additional numerical experiments to determine, separately, the influence of the thermal structure of the sunspot and the direct effect of the sunspot magnetic field. We use the ray approximation to show that the travel-time shifts in the thermal (non-magnetic) sunspot model are primarily produced by changes in the wave path due to the Wilson depression rather than variations in the wave speed. This shows that inversions for the subsurfac...

  18. Holography for ${\\cal N}=2^*$ on $S^4$

    CERN Document Server

    Bobev, Nikolay; Freedman, Daniel Z; Pufu, Silviu S

    2013-01-01

    We find the gravity dual of $\\mathcal{N}=2^*$ super-Yang-Mills theory on $S^4$ and use holography to calculate the universal contribution to the corresponding $S^4$ free energy at large $N$ and large 't Hooft coupling. Our result matches the expression previously computed using supersymmetric localization in the field theory. This match represents a non-trivial precision test of holography in a non-conformal, Euclidean signature setting.

  19. Black Holes, Holography and Moduli Space Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Sen-Gupta, K; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2007-01-01

    String theory can accommodate black holes with the black hole parameters related to string moduli. It is a well known but remarkable feature that the near horizon geometry of a large class of black holes arising from string theory contains a BTZ part. A mathematical theorem (Sullivan's Theorem) relates the three dimensional geometry of the BTZ metric to the conformal structures of a two dimensional space, thus providing a precise kinematic statement of holography. Using this theorem it is possible to argue that the string moduli space in this region has to have negative curvature from the BTZ part of the associated spacetime. This is consistent with a recent conjecture of Ooguri and Vafa on string moduli space.

  20. Quantum probabilities for inflation from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartle, James B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, 93106 (United States); Hawking, S.W. [DAMTP, CMS, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Hertog, Thomas, E-mail: hartle@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: S.W.Hawking@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: Thomas.Hertog@fys.kuleuven.be [Institute for Theoretical Physics, KU Leuven, Leuven, 3001 (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the universe is determined by its quantum state. The wave function of the universe obeys the constraints of general relativity and in particular the Wheeler-DeWitt equation (WDWE). For non-zero Λ, we show that solutions of the WDWE at large volume have two domains in which geometries and fields are asymptotically real. In one the histories are Euclidean asymptotically anti-de Sitter, in the other they are Lorentzian asymptotically classical de Sitter. Further, the universal complex semiclassical asymptotic structure of solutions of the WDWE implies that the leading order in h-bar quantum probabilities for classical, asymptotically de Sitter histories can be obtained from the action of asymptotically anti-de Sitter configurations. This leads to a promising, universal connection between quantum cosmology and holography.

  1. Holography, Hydrodynamization and Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michal P

    2016-01-01

    In the course of the past several years holography has emerged as an ab initio tool in exploring strongly-time-dependent phenomena in gauge theories. These lecture notes overview recent developments in this area driven by phenomenological questions concerning applicability of hydrodynamics under extreme conditions occurring in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. The topics include equilibration time scales, holographic collisions and hydrodynamization from the point of view of the asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion. The emphasis is put on concepts rather than calculational techniques and particular attention is devoted to present these developments in the context of the most recent advances and some of the open problems.

  2. Effective actions for relativistic fluids from holography

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Jan; Pinzani-Fokeeva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress in developing action formulations of relativistic hydrodynamics, we use holography to derive the low energy dissipationless effective action for strongly coupled conformal fluids. Our analysis is based on the study of novel double Dirichlet problems for the gravitational field, in which the boundary conditions are set on two codimension one timelike hypersurfaces (branes). We provide a geometric interpretation of the Goldstone bosons appearing in such constructions in terms of a family of spatial geodesics extending between the ultraviolet and the infrared brane. Furthermore, we discuss supplementing double Dirichlet problems with information about the near-horizon geometry. We show that upon coupling to a membrane paradigm boundary condition, our approach reproduces correctly the complex dispersion relation for both sound and shear waves. We also demonstrate that upon a Wick rotation, our formulation reproduces the equilibrium partition function formalism, provided the near-horiz...

  3. Optical scanning holography for stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jung-Ping; Wen, Hsuan-Hsuan

    2016-10-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a scanning-type digital holographic recording technique. One of OSH's most important properties is that the OSH can record an incoherent hologram, which is free of speckle and thus is suitable for the applications of holographic display. The recording time of a scanning hologram is proportional to the sampling resolution. Hence the viewing angle as well as the resolution of a scanning hologram is limited for avoid too long recording. As a result, the viewing angle is not large enough for optical display. To solve this problem, we recorded two scanning holograms at different viewing angles. The two holograms are synthesized to a single stereoscopic hologram with two main viewing angles. In displaying, two views at the two main viewing angles are reconstructed. Because both views contain full-depth-resolved 3D scenes, the problem of accommodation conflict in conventional stereogram is avoided.

  4. Editorial for Focus Issue on Digital and Computer Generated Holography (DCH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Chung Poon

    2009-01-01

    @@ This focus issue Digital and Computer Generated Holography (DCH) combines the contributions from digital holography (DH) and computer-generated holography (CGH) into a single issue. We have classified the papers into four topics: holographic microscopy, computer-generated holography, metrology and speckles, and finally other applications. It is hoped that this issue will bring the research community's attention to some of the latest development in DH and CGH.

  5. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  6. Acoustic telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To determine movements of green turtles in the nearshore foraging areas, we deployed acoustic tags and determined their movements through active and passive acoustic...

  7. Acoustic Holographic Rendering with Two-dimensional Metamaterial-based Passive Phased Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangbo; Shen, Chen; Wang, Wenqi; Li, Junfei; Suo, Dingjie; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Jing, Yun; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic holographic rendering in complete analogy with optical holography are useful for various applications, ranging from multi-focal lensing, multiplexed sensing and synthesizing three-dimensional complex sound fields. Conventional approaches rely on a large number of active transducers and phase shifting circuits. In this paper we show that by using passive metamaterials as subwavelength pixels, holographic rendering can be achieved without cumbersome circuitry and with only a single transducer, thus significantly reducing system complexity. Such metamaterial-based holograms can serve as versatile platforms for various advanced acoustic wave manipulation and signal modulation, leading to new possibilities in acoustic sensing, energy deposition and medical diagnostic imaging. PMID:27739472

  8. Advanced Electron Holography Applied to Electromagnetic Field Study in Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Toshiaki; Park, Hyun Soon

    2016-11-17

    Advances and applications of electron holography to the study of electromagnetic fields in various functional materials are presented. In particular, the development of split-illumination electron holography, which introduces a biprism in the illumination system of a holography electron microscope, enables highly accurate observations of electromagnetic fields and the expansion of the observable area. First, the charge distributions on insulating materials were studied by using split-illumination electron holography and including a mask in the illumination system. Second, the three-dimensional spin configurations of skyrmion lattices in a helimagnet were visualized by using a high-voltage holography electron microscope. Third, the pinning of the magnetic flux lines in a high-temperature superconductor YBa2 Cu3 O7-y was analyzed by combining electron holography and scanning ion microscopy. Finally, the dynamic accumulation and collective motions of electrons around insulating biomaterial surfaces were observed by utilizing the amplitude reconstruction processes of electron holography.

  9. Optical generation of non-diffracting beams via photorefractive holography

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Tarcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Zamboni-Rached, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This work presents, for the first time the optical generation of non-diffracting beams via photorefractive holography. Optical generation of non-diffracting beams using conventional optics components is difficult and, in some instances, unfeasible, as it is wave fields given by superposition of non-diffracting beams. It is known that computer generated holograms and spatial light modulators (SLMs) successfully generate such beams. With photorefractive holography technique, the hologram of a non-diffracting beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (reading) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The experimental realization of a non-diffracting beam was made in a photorefractive holography setup using a photorefractive Bi12SiO20 (BSO) crystal as the holographic recording medium, where the non-diffracting beams, the Bessel beam arrays and superposition of co-propagating Bessel beams (Frozen Waves) were obtained experimentally. The experimental results are in agreement with the theoretically pr...

  10. Pit Distribution Design for Computer-Generated Waveguide Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shogo; Imai, Tadayuki; Ueno, Masahiro; Ohtani, Yoshimitsu; Endo, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Fukuda, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Multilayered waveguide holography (MWH) is one of a number of page-oriented data multiplexing holographies that will be applied to optical data storage and three-dimensional (3D) moving images. While conventional volumetric holography using photopolymer or photorefractive materials requires page-by-page light exposure for recording, MWH media can be made by employing stamping and laminating technologies that are suitable for mass production. This makes devising an economical mastering technique for replicating holograms a key issue. In this paper, we discuss an approach to pit distribution design that enables us to replace expensive electron beam mastering with economical laser beam mastering. We propose an algorithm that avoids the overlapping of even comparatively large adjacent pits when we employ laser beam mastering. We also compensate for the angular dependence of the diffraction power, which strongly depends on pit shape, by introducing an enhancement profile so that a diffracted image has uniform intensity.

  11. A computational study of gabor zone plate gamma ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, C E

    2000-01-01

    Gamma ray zone plate holography is a new technique with applications to Nuclear Medicine. Unlike other tomographic techniques, three-dimensional images can be reconstructed from just one projection. The history of zone plate holography is reviewed, and the differences between this technique and conventional holography are outlined. Sources of error in the recorded hologram are reviewed and methods for the assessment of image quality are given. Three image reconstruction techniques are described and compared. These techniques are convolution, deconvolution and the CLEAN algorithm. Simulated diffraction is the main image reconstruction method which has previously been used to reconstruct images from zone plate holograms. This method is a form of convolution reconstruction. Several variations on this technique are introduced and compared. Matched filtering is also investigated and compared with the simulated diffraction based methods. An approximate Fourier Wiener filter is used to reconstruct the images by deco...

  12. Digital holography and wavefront sensing principles, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schnars, Ulf; Watson, John; Jüptner, Werner

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a self-contained treatment of the principles and major applications of digital hologram recording and numerical reconstruction (Digital Holography). This second edition has been significantly revised and enlarged. The authors have extended the chapter on Digital Holographic Microscopy to incorporate new sections on particle sizing, particle image velocimetry and underwater holography. A new chapter now deals comprehensively and extensively with computational wave field sensing. These techniques represent a fascinating alternative to standard interferometry and Digital Holography. They enable wave field sensing without the requirement of a particular reference wave, thus allowing the use of low brilliance light sources and even liquid-crystal displays (LCD) for interferometric applications.              

  13. A new method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qing-Sheng; Lü Xiao-Xu; Yu Qing-Ting; Liu Gan-Yong

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography based on the principle of holography. In the new method aperture synthetizing is achieved by reconstructing each sub-hologram respectively, firstly,moving each reconstructed wave field referred to the benchmark reconstructed wave field according to the relationship between spacial motion and frequency shift, and finally splicing them by using superposition. Two different recording ways, using plane wave to record and using spherical wave to record, are analyzed, and their moving formula is deduced,too. Simulation and experiment are done. The results show that in comparison with the traditional method of aperture synthetizing in digital holography, the new method can decrease calculation and save reconstructed time obviously which has better applicability.

  14. Construction Of A Holography Organization: Demands, Problems, And Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzau, Teit

    1987-06-01

    Since the early sixties many companies in USA and abroad have tried to find a successful way to commercialize Holography. Most of them failed. The reasons are many - but are often due to the fact that there was neither a commercial major market for the holographic products nor the right kind of products. Since the beginning of the 1980's a small number of companies have begun a more wide and successful approach to Holography. What is the reason for this? And how can new holography companies learn from past experiences and in the future be more successful? Based on the experiences in New Dimensions, Laser Systems (a 3-year-old company, situated in Copenhagen) we have examined some of the greater aspects in building up a larger holographic organization.

  15. Dynamic imaging through turbid media based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiping; Zhong, Jingang

    2014-03-01

    Imaging through turbid media using visible or IR light instead of harmful x ray is still a challenging problem, especially in dynamic imaging. A method of dynamic imaging through turbid media using digital holography is presented. In order to match the coherence length between the dynamic object wave and the reference wave, a cw laser is used. To solve the problem of difficult focusing in imaging through turbid media, an autofocus technology is applied. To further enhance the image contrast, a spatial filtering technique is used. A description of digital holography and experiments of imaging the objects hidden in turbid media are presented. The experimental result shows that dynamic images of the objects can be achieved by the use of digital holography.

  16. m-Learning and holography: Compatible techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    Since the last decades, cell phones have become increasingly popular and are nowadays ubiquitous. New generations of cell phones are now equipped with text messaging, internet, and camera features. They are now making their way into the classroom. This is creating a new teaching and learning technique, the so called m-Learning (or mobile-Learning). Because of the many benefits that cell phones offer, teachers could easily use them as a teaching and learning tool. However, an additional work from the teachers for introducing their students into the m-Learning in the classroom needs to be defined and developed. As an example, optical techniques, based upon interference and diffraction phenomena, such as holography, appear to be convenient topics for m-Learning. They can be approached with simple examples and experiments within the cell phones performances and classroom accessibility. We will present some results carried out at the Faculty of Physical Sciences in UCM to obtain very simple holographic recordings via cell phones. The activities were carried out inside the course on Optical Coherence and Laser, offered to students in the fourth course of the Grade in Physical Sciences. Some open conclusions and proposals will be presented.

  17. Holography and the Electroweak Phase Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Creminelli, P; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Creminelli, Paolo; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2002-01-01

    We study through holography the compact Randall-Sundrum (RS) model at finite temperature. In the presence of radius stabilization, the system is described at low enough temperature by the RS solution. At high temperature it is described by the AdS-Schwarzshild solution with an event horizon replacing the TeV brane. We calculate the transition temperature T_c between the two phases and we find it to be somewhat smaller than the TeV scale. Assuming that the Universe starts out at T >> T_c and cools down by expansion, we study the rate of the transition to the RS phase. We find that the transition is too slow and the Universe ends up in an old inflation scenario unless tight bounds are satisfied by the model parameters. In particular we find that the AdS curvature must be comparable to the 5D Planck mass and that the radius stabilization mechanism must lead to a sizeable distortion of the basic RS metric.

  18. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J

    2010-01-01

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum $L$ of hadrons and the radial quantum number $N$. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable $z$ of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable $\\zeta$ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors...

  19. Holography, Green's Functions And Conformal Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Zoubos, K

    2004-01-01

    Holography is the name given to the belief that a theory of quantum gravity in some domain can be reformulated as another theory without gravity on the boundary of that domain. String theory provides a very precise realization of this abstract idea in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which proposes the complete equivalence of IIB string theory on the ten-dimensional manifold AdS5 × S5 with a certain super-symmetric gauge theory living on the boundary of AdS5. Numerous extensions of this correspondence have been given in the literature, but they have tended to rely on the very special symmetry properties of the Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces. Instead, we explore the application of the AdS/CFT correspondence to a more general class of manifolds that are only asymptotically Anti-de Sitter, and in particular to what is known as the quaternionic Taub-NUT (QTN) space, a four dimensional inhomogeneous manifold with the property of smoothly interpolating between two symmetric manifolds, AdS4 and the ...

  20. St\\"uckelberg Formulation of Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Wintergerst, Nico

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that holography can be formulated in terms of the information capacity of the St\\"uckelberg degrees of freedom that maintain gauge invariance of the theory in the presence of an information boundary. These St\\"uckelbergs act as qubits that account for a certain fraction of quantum information. Their information capacity is measured by the ratio of the inverse St\\"uckelberg energy gap to the size of the system. Systems with the smallest gap are maximally holographic. For massless gauge systems this information measure is universally equal to the inverse coupling evaluated at the systems' length scale. In this language it becomes very transparent why the St\\"uckelberg information capacity of black holes saturates the Bekenstein bound and accounts for the entire information of the system. The physical reason is that the strength of quantum interaction is bounded from below by the gravitational coupling, which scales as area. Observing the striking similarity between the scalings of the energy gap of t...

  1. Holography And Holometry Applications In Dental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenborg, George C.

    1987-06-01

    The earliest reference to holographic applications appeared in the dental literature in 1972 when Wictorin, Bjelkhagen and Abramson described a method to study elastic deformation of defective gold solder joints in simulated fixed bridges. Their paper, published in the Swedish dental literature, offered a concise presentation of the interferometry technique which led to the development of other research applications of holographic interferometry(holometry) in dentistry. In this presentation, the development and application of the interferometry technique in the dental field will be discussed. Various interesting and potentially useful applications of holography have appeared in the dental literature over the past decade. Some of these, which will be discussed, include the use of holograms as a storage medium for dental study models, multiplexing of computer(CT) scan sections to form white light viewable holograms and the potential application of holographic training aids in the teaching of the basic courses of dental anatomy and restorative dentistry. In addition, some unique related applications will be mentioned including a laser reflection method for accurate non-contact measurement of tooth mobility/movement and a technique for contour mapping of occlusal surfaces to measure wear of restorative materials.

  2. A simplified holography based superresolution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we are proposing a simple idea based on holography to achieve superresolution. The object is illuminated by three fibers which maintain the mutual coherence between the light waves. The object in-plane rotation along with fiber-based illumination is used to achieve superresolution. The object in a 4f optical system is illuminated by an on-axis fiber to make the central part of the object's spectrum to the pass through the limiting square-aperture placed at the Fourier plane and the corresponding hologram of the image is recorded at the image plane. The on-axis fiber is switched off and the two off axis fibers (one positioned on the vertical axis and the other positioned on diagonal) are switched on one by one for each orientation of the object position. Four orientations of object in-plane rotation are used differing in angle by 90°. This will allow the recording of eight holographic images in addition to the one recorded with on-axis fiber. The three fibers are at the vertices of a right angled isosceles triangle and are aligned toward the centre of the lens following the fiber plane to generate plane waves for object illumination. The nine holographic images are processed for construction of object's original spectrum, the inverse of which gives the super-resolved image of the original object. Mathematical modeling and simulations are reported.

  3. Holography of 3d Flat Cosmological Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Arjun; Fareghbal, Reza; Simon, Joan

    2013-01-01

    We provide a first derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 3d flat cosmological horizons in terms of the counting of states in a dual field theory. These horizons appear in the shifted-boost orbifold of R^{1,2}, the flat limit of non-extremal rotating BTZ black holes. These 3d geometries carry non-zero charges under the asymptotic symmetry algebra of R^{1,2}, the 3d Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS3) algebra. The dual theory has the symmetries of the 2d Galilean Conformal Algebra, a contraction of two copies of the Virasoro algebra, which is isomorphic to BMS3. We study flat holography as a limit of AdS3/CFT2 to semi-classically compute the density of states in the dual, exactly reproducing the bulk entropy in the limit of large charges. Our flat horizons, remnants of the BTZ inner horizons also satisfy a first law of thermodynamics. We comment on how the dual theory reproduces the bulk first law and how cosmological bulk excitations are matched with boundary quantum numbers.

  4. High temperature measurements of martensitic transformations using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesing, Benjamin P; Mann, Christopher J; Dryepondt, Sebastien

    2013-07-01

    During thermal cycling of nickel-aluminum-platinum (NiAlPt) and single crystal iron-chromium-nickel (FeCrNi) alloys, the structural changes associated with the martensite to austenite phase transformation were measured using dual-wavelength digital holography. Real-time in situ measurements reveal the formation of striations within the NiAlPt alloy at 70°C and the FeCrNi alloy at 520°C. The results demonstrate that digital holography is an effective technique for acquiring noncontact, high precision information of the surface evolution of alloys at high temperatures.

  5. An effective method for reducing speckle noise in digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Kang

    2008-01-01

    An effective method for reducing the speckle noise in digital holography is proposed in this paper.Different from the methods based on classical filtering technique,it utilizes the multiple holograms which are generated by rotating the illuminating light continuously.The intensity images reconstructed by a series of holograms generated by rotating the illuminating light possess different speckle patterns.Hence by properly averaging the reconstructed intensity fields,the speckle noises can be reduced greatly.Experimental results show that the proposed method is simple and effective to reduce speckle noise in digital holography.

  6. Concept Mapping as an Instrument for Evaluating an Instruction Unit on Holography (Concept Maps als Evaluierungsinstrumente einer Unterrichtseinheit zur Holographie)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E; Horn, Martin Erik; Mikelskis, Helmut F.

    2004-01-01

    Due to its amazing three-dimensional effects, holography is a very motivating, yet very demanding subject for physics classes at the upper level in school. For this reason an instruction unit on holography that supplement holographic experiments with computer-supported work sessions and a simulation program was developed. The effects of the lessons on holography were determined by a pre-post-test design. In addition to videotaping the lessons, knowledge and motivational tests as well as student interviews, students were asked to prepare concept maps, which were used to track processes of model construction. The way this knowledge was applied largely depends on the students' understanding of models. In particular it was shown that the participating students' demonstrated capacity for distinguishing between the different models of light is of great importance. Only students with a developed capacity for distinguishing between models are able to reason in an problem-oriented manner. They recognize the limits of ...

  7. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging

  8. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  9. Acoustic biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of ...

  10. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  11. Measurement of thin films using very long acoustic wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Clement, G T; Adachi, H; Kamakura, T

    2013-01-01

    A procedure for measuring material thickness by means of necessarily-long acoustic wavelengths is examined. The approach utilizes a temporal phase lag caused by the impulse time of wave momentum transferred through a thin layer that is much denser than its surrounding medium. In air, it is predicted that solid or liquid layers below approximately 1/2000 of the acoustic wavelength will exhibit a phase shift with an arctangent functional dependence on thickness and layer density. The effect is verified for thin films on the scale of 10 microns using audible frequency sound (7 kHz). Soap films as thin as 100 nm are then measured using 40 kHz air ultrasound. The method's potential for imaging applications is demonstrated by combining the approach with near-field holography, resulting in reconstructions with sub-wavelength resolution in both the depth and lateral directions. Potential implications at very high and very low acoustic frequencies are discussed.

  12. Free energy of topologically massive gravity and flat space holography

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the free energy from the on-shell action for topologically massive gravity with negative and vanishing cosmological constant, thereby providing a first principles derivation of the free energy of BTZ black holes and flat space cosmologies. We summarize related recent checks of flat space holography.

  13. Applications of holography. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, B.

    1980-05-01

    The bibliography covers studies on the applications of holography in such areas as photograping high-speed particles, nondestructive testing of material defects, strain analysis, microscopy, interferometry, vibration measurement, and medical diagnosis. This updated bibliography contains 249 abstracts, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  14. Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Carignan, L. P.; Yelon, A.

    2014-01-01

    We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated...

  15. Photorefractive dynamic holography using self-pumped phase conjugate beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Anand; C S Narayanamurthy

    2006-03-01

    Dynamic holography in photorefractive materials using self-pumped phase conjugate beam of the object beam itself as the other writing beam is proposed. Our detailed theoretical analysis shows four-fold increase in the diffraction efficiency of dynamic holograms if recorded using this geometry even in photorefractive crystal like BTO (having low optical activity) without applying external field. Detailed theoretical analysis is given.

  16. Radiation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyamshev, Leonid M

    2004-01-01

    Radiation acoustics is a developing field lying at the intersection of acoustics, high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics. Radiation Acoustics is among the first books to address this promising field of study, and the first to collect all of the most significant results achieved since research in this area began in earnest in the 1970s.The book begins by reviewing the data on elementary particles, absorption of penetrating radiation in a substance, and the mechanisms of acoustic radiation excitation. The next seven chapters present a theoretical treatment of thermoradiation sound generation in condensed media under the action of modulated penetrating radiation and radiation pulses. The author explores particular features of the acoustic fields of moving thermoradiation sound sources, sound excitation by single high-energy particles, and the efficiency and optimal conditions of thermoradiation sound generation. Experimental results follow the theoretical discussions, and these clearl...

  17. Optical holography applications for the zero-g Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    A complete description of holography is provided, both for the time-dependent case of moving scene holography and for the time-independent case of stationary holography. Further, a specific holographic arrangement for application to the detection of particle size distribution in an atmospheric simulation cloud chamber. In this chamber particle growth rate is investigated; therefore, the proposed holographic system must capture continuous particle motion in real time. Such a system is described.

  18. QCD and Light-Front Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2010-10-27

    The soft-wall AdS/QCD model, modified by a positive-sign dilaton metric, leads to a remarkable one-parameter description of nonperturbative hadron dynamics. The model predicts a zero-mass pion for zero-mass quarks and a Regge spectrum of linear trajectories with the same slope in the leading orbital angular momentum L of hadrons and the radial quantum number N. Light-Front Holography maps the amplitudes which are functions of the fifth dimension variable z of anti-de Sitter space to a corresponding hadron theory quantized on the light front. The resulting Lorentz-invariant relativistic light-front wave equations are functions of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. The result is to a semi-classical frame-independent first approximation to the spectra and light-front wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states, which in turn predict the behavior of the pion and nucleon form factors. The theory implements chiral symmetry in a novel way: the effects of chiral symmetry breaking increase as one goes toward large interquark separation, consistent with spectroscopic data, and the the hadron eigenstates generally have components with different orbital angular momentum; e.g., the proton eigenstate in AdS/QCD with massless quarks has L = 0 and L = 1 light-front Fock components with equal probability. The soft-wall model also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function which agrees with the effective coupling {alpha}{sub g1} extracted from the Bjorken sum rule. The AdS/QCD model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms. A new perspective on quark and gluon condensates is also reviewed.

  19. Ultra-realistic imaging advanced techniques in analogue and digital colour holography

    CERN Document Server

    Bjelkhagen, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high resolution holograms are now finding commercial and industrial applications in such areas as holographic maps, 3D medical imaging, and consumer devices. Ultra-Realistic Imaging: Advanced Techniques in Analogue and Digital Colour Holography brings together a comprehensive discussion of key methods that enable holography to be used as a technique of ultra-realistic imaging.After a historical review of progress in holography, the book: Discusses CW recording lasers, pulsed holography lasers, and reviews optical designs for many of the principal laser types with emphasis on attaining th

  20. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki

    2009-01-01

    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  1. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju

    2015-01-01

    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  2. Acoustics Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  3. Room Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  4. Helioseismic Holography of Simulated Sunspots: Magnetic and Thermal Contributions to Travel Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, T.; Braun, D. C.; Crouch, A. D.; Birch, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Wave propagation through sunspots involves conversion between waves of acoustic and magnetic character. In addition, the thermal structure of sunspots is very different than that of the quiet Sun. As a consequence, the interpretation of local helioseismic measurements of sunspots has long been a challenge. With the aim of understanding these measurements, we carry out numerical simulations of wave propagation through sunspots. Helioseismic holography measurements made from the resulting simulated wavefields show qualitative agreement with observations of real sunspots. We use additional numerical experiments to determine, separately, the influence of the thermal structure of the sunspot and the direct effect of the sunspot magnetic field. We use the ray approximation to show that the travel-time shifts in the thermal (non-magnetic) sunspot model are primarily produced by changes in the wave path due to the Wilson depression rather than variations in the wave speed. This shows that inversions for the subsurface structure of sunspots must account for local changes in the density. In some ranges of horizontal phase speed and frequency there is agreement (within the noise level in the simulations) between the travel times measured in the full magnetic sunspot model and the thermal model. If this conclusion proves to be robust for a wide range of models, it would suggest a path toward inversions for sunspot structure.

  5. Resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging by microsphere digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Guo, Sha; Wang, Dayong; Lin, Qiaowen; Rong, Lu; Zhao, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Microsphere has shown the superiority of super-resolution imaging in the traditional 2D intensity microscope. Here a microsphere digital holography approach is presented to realize the resolution enhancement phase-contrast imaging. The system is designed by combining the microsphere with the image-plane digital holography. A microsphere very close to the object can increase the resolution by transforming the object wave from the higher frequency to the lower one. The resolution enhancement amplitude and phase images can be retrieved from a single hologram. The experiments are carried on the 1D and 2D gratings, and the results demonstrate that the observed resolution has been improved, meanwhile, the phase-contrast image is obtained. The proposed method can improve the transverse resolution in all directions based on a single exposure. Furthermore, this system has extended the application of the microsphere from the conventional 2D microscopic imaging to 3D phase-contrast microscopic imaging.

  6. Measurements of the Characteristics of Transparent Material Using Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital holography is applied to measure the characteristics of transparent material. A digital hologram recording system to measure the surface of transparent material was established, and the digital holograms of transparent object were obtained in high quality. For postprocessing of hologram, the least-squares phase unwrapping algorithm was used in phase unwrapping, and the phase reconstruction image of transparent object was obtained. The information of material surfaces was measured and the characteristic was presented in 3D visualization. The validation experiment was conducted by NanoMap 500LS system; the results of validation experiment are well satisfied with the measurement by digital holography, which proved the feasibility of digital holographic technology as a good measurement tool for transparent material.

  7. Local magnetic structure determination using polarized neutron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szakál, Alex, E-mail: szakal.alex@wigner.mta.hu; Markó, Márton, E-mail: marko.marton@wigner.mta.hu; Cser, László, E-mail: cser.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Konkoly Thege M. út 29-33, H-1121 Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-05-07

    A unique and important property of the neutron is that it possesses magnetic moment. This property is widely used for determination of magnetic structure of crystalline samples observing the magnetic components of the diffraction peaks. Investigations of diffraction patterns give information only about the averaged structure of a crystal but for discovering of local spin arrangement around a specific (e.g., impurity) nucleus remains still a challenging problem. Neutron holography is a useful tool to investigate the local structure around a specific nucleus embedded in a crystal lattice. The method has been successfully applied experimentally in several cases using non-magnetic short range interaction of the neutron and the nucleus. A mathematical model of the hologram using interaction between magnetic moment of the atom and the neutron spin for polarized neutron holography is provided. Validity of a polarized neutron holographic experiment is demonstrated by applying the proposed method on model systems.

  8. The SHIVA Project: Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, Jim; Rogers, Jan; Witherow, William; Coimbra, Carlos; Rangel, Roger; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The poster summarizes theoretical and experimental concepts used in the development of the proposed NASA flight experiment SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus). SHIVA exploits a unique holography-based, diagnostics tools to understand the behavior of small particles subjected to transient accelerations. Flight experiment protocols and apparatus will test model equations, characterize the acceleration environment and other microgravity phenomena. The primary objective of SHIVA is to enhance the current understanding of complex dynamics of small particles subjected to transient microgravity conditions. Existing theory did not fully describe the movement of particles in fluids in the microgravity environment. Results from recent ground-based experiments and comparison with the model recently developed by Rangel and Coimbra are presented.

  9. Application of Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction to Digital Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Shuqun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new application of super-resolution image reconstruction to digital holography which is a technique for three-dimensional information recording and reconstruction. Digital holography has suffered from the low resolution of CCD sensors, which significantly limits the size of objects that can be recorded. The existing solution to this problem is to use optics to bandlimit the object to be recorded, which can cause the loss of details. Here super-resolution image reconstruction is proposed to be applied in enhancing the spatial resolution of digital holograms. By introducing a global camera translation before sampling, a high-resolution hologram can be reconstructed from a set of undersampled hologram images. This permits the recording of larger objects and reduces the distance between the object and the hologram. Practical results from real and simulated holograms are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  10. Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aizawa, Shinji; Park, Hyun Soon [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Harada, Ken [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama 350-0395 (Japan); Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Advanced split-illumination electron holography was developed by employing two biprisms in the illuminating system to split an electron wave into two coherent waves and two biprisms in the imaging system to overlap them. A focused image of an upper condenser-biprism filament was formed on the sample plane, and all other filaments were placed in its shadow. This developed system makes it possible to obtain precise reconstructed object waves without modulations due to Fresnel fringes, in addition to holograms of distant objects from reference waves. - Highlights: • Advanced split-illumination electron holography without Fresnel fringes is developed. • Two biprisms are installed in illuminating system of microscope. • High-precision holographic observations of an area locating far from the sample edge become possible.

  11. Linear programming phase unwrapping for dual-wavelength digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaomin; Jiao, Jiannan; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Li, Hongru; Tian, Ailing; Asundi, Anand

    2017-01-20

    A linear programming phase unwrapping method in dual-wavelength digital holography is proposed and verified experimentally. The proposed method uses the square of height difference as a convergence standard and theoretically gives the boundary condition in a searching process. A simulation was performed by unwrapping step structures at different levels of Gaussian noise. As a result, our method is capable of recovering the discontinuities accurately. It is robust and straightforward. In the experiment, a microelectromechanical systems sample and a cylindrical lens were measured separately. The testing results were in good agreement with true values. Moreover, the proposed method is applicable not only in digital holography but also in other dual-wavelength interferometric techniques.

  12. Gray tone image watermarking with complementary computer generated holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Christophe; Laulagnet, Fabien; Lemonnier, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    We present herein an original approach for the watermarking of holograms in gray tone images for use in microscopic halftone image archiving. Our concept is based on the principle of complementary holography presented in a previous contribution. The efficiency of the concept is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate the interest of elliptical diffraction patterns as an alternative to the usual rectangular diffraction patterns and confirm the subsidiary role of the hologram amplitude in the hologram recovery process.

  13. Ohya Large Holography Studio In A Huge Rock Cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Hirosawa, A.; Morie, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamashita, H.

    1988-01-01

    There is a great demand recently for a large size hologram, 2meters width for instance, in which a brand-new car, a life-size statue and sometimes a group of the them, or interior spaces could he taken. Especially, in the world of advertisement or art, there is a big demand for a large hologram. The larger hologram needs the larger space for its suitable holography. This is the report of a large underground studio built in Japan.

  14. Compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjun; Zhou, Dingfu; Yuan, Sheng; Wei, Yayun; Wang, Mengting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, compressive sensing holography based on optical heterodyne detection is presented, which can photograph the hologram of an object. The complex hologram is composed of a sine-hologram and a cosine-hologram. A single pixel photoelectric conversion element is used to detect the time-varying optical field which contains the amplitude and phase information of the transmitted light, and a simulation result is demonstrated further by recording the Fresnel hologram of a complex amplitude object.

  15. Lasers and holography an introduction to coherent optics

    CERN Document Server

    KOCK, Winston

    1972-01-01

    Science Study Series No. 39: Lasers and Holography: An Introduction to Coherent Optics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and techniques involved in optics, including wave diffraction and patterns, zone plates, holograms, and diffraction. The publication first ponders on holograms as wave patterns, coherence, and lasers. Topics include reflectors and resonators, natural line width, semiconductor lasers, reflectors and spatial coherence, energy conservation with reflectors, frequency coherence and stability, coherent waves from small sources, photographic grating, and properties o

  16. Bi-local holography in the SYK model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevicki, Antal; Suzuki, Kenta; Yoon, Junggi

    2016-07-01

    We discuss large N rules of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model and the bi-local representation of holography of this theory. This is done by establishing 1 /N Feynman rules in terms of bi-local propagators and vertices, which can be evaluated following the recent procedure of Polchinski and Rosenhaus. These rules can be interpreted as Witten type diagrams of the dual AdS theory, which we are able to define at IR fixed point and off.

  17. Twin removal in digital holography using diffuse illumination

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A method to numerically remove the twin image for inline digital holography, using multiple digital holograms, is discussed. Each individual hologram is recorded by using a statistically independent speckle field to illuminate the object. If the holograms are recorded in this manner and then numerically reconstructed, the twin image appears as a different speckle pattern in each of the reconstructions. By performing specklereduction techniques the presence of the twin image can be...

  18. Twin suppression in digital holography by means of speckle reduction

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A method for numerically removing the twin image in on-axis digital holography, based on multiple digital holograms, is discussed. The digital holograms under examination are captured experimentally using an in-line modified Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup and subsequently reconstructed numerically. The technique is suitable for both transmission and reflection geometry. Each individual hologram is recorded with a statistically independent diffuse illumination field. This is achieved by sh...

  19. Noise estimation for off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röder, Falk, E-mail: Falk.Roeder@Triebenberg.de [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Lubk, Axel; Wolf, Daniel [Triebenberg Labor, Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Off-axis electron holography provides access to the phase of the elastically scattered wave in a transmission electron microscope at scales ranging from several hundreds of nanometres down to 0.1 nm. In many cases the reconstructed phase shift is directly proportional to projected electric and magnetic potentials rendering electron holography a useful and established characterisation method for materials science. However, quantitative interpretation of experimental phase shifts requires quantitative knowledge about the noise, which has been previously established for some limiting cases only. Here, we present a general noise transfer formalism for off-axis electron holography allowing to compute the covariance (noise) of reconstructed amplitude and phase from characteristic detector functions and general properties of the reconstruction process. Experimentally, we verify the presented noise transfer formulas for two different cameras with and without objects within the errors given by the experimental noise determination. - Highlights: • We derive a general noise transfer for the off-axis holographic reconstruction. • Noise transfer formulas given by F. Lenz are included as a special case. • We estimate the covariance of a hologram using the noise spread function. • We experimentally verify the derived noise transfer formulas.

  20. Ultra-realistic imaging: a new beginning for display holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Brotherton-Ratcliffe, David

    2014-02-01

    Recent improvements in key foundation technologies are set to potentially transform the field of Display Holography. In particular new recording systems, based on recent DPSS and semiconductor lasers combined with novel recording materials and processing, have now demonstrated full-color analogue holograms of both lower noise and higher spectral accuracy. Progress in illumination technology is leading to a further major reduction in display noise and to a significant increase of the clear image depth and brightness of such holograms. So too, recent progress in 1-step Direct-Write Digital Holography (DWDH) now opens the way to the creation of High Virtual Volume Displays (HVV) - large format full-parallax DWDH reflection holograms having fundamentally larger clear image depths. In a certain fashion HVV displays can be thought of as providing a high quality full-color digital equivalent to the large-format laser-illuminated transmission holograms of the sixties and seventies. Back then, the advent of such holograms led to much optimism for display holography in the market. However, problems with laser illumination, their monochromatic analogue nature and image noise are well cited as being responsible for their failure in reality. Is there reason for believing that the latest technology improvements will make the mark this time around? This paper argues that indeed there is.

  1. Acoustic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. PMID:27365040

  2. Dark-field electron holography for the measurement of geometric phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytch, M.J., E-mail: hytch@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Houdellier, F.; Huee, F.; Snoeck, E. [CEMES-CNRS and Universite de Toulouse, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-15

    The genesis, theoretical basis and practical application of the new electron holographic dark-field technique for mapping strain in nanostructures are presented. The development places geometric phase within a unified theoretical framework for phase measurements by electron holography. The total phase of the transmitted and diffracted beams is described as a sum of four contributions: crystalline, electrostatic, magnetic and geometric. Each contribution is outlined briefly and leads to the proposal to measure geometric phase by dark-field electron holography (DFEH). The experimental conditions, phase reconstruction and analysis are detailed for off-axis electron holography using examples from the field of semiconductors. A method for correcting for thickness variations will be proposed and demonstrated using the phase from the corresponding bright-field electron hologram. -- Highlights: {yields} Unified description of phase measurements in electron holography. {yields} Detailed description of dark-field electron holography for geometric phase measurements. {yields} Correction procedure for systematic errors due to thickness variations.

  3. Analyzing panel acoustic contributions toward the sound field inside the passenger compartment of a full-size automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Moondra, Manmohan; Beniwal, Ravi

    2015-04-01

    The Helmholtz equation least squares (HELS)-based nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) is utilized to analyze panel acoustic contributions toward the acoustic field inside the interior region of an automobile. Specifically, the acoustic power flows from individual panels are reconstructed, and relative contributions to sound pressure level and spectrum at any point of interest are calculated. Results demonstrate that by correlating the acoustic power flows from individual panels to the field acoustic pressure, one can correctly locate the panel allowing the most acoustic energy transmission into the vehicle interior. The panel on which the surface acoustic pressure amplitude is the highest should not be used as indicative of the panel responsible for the sound field in the vehicle passenger compartment. Another significant advantage of this HELS-based NAH is that measurements of the input data only need to be taken once by using a conformal array of microphones in the near field, and ranking of panel acoustic contributions to any field point can be readily performed. The transfer functions between individual panels of any vibrating structure to the acoustic pressure anywhere in space are calculated not measured, thus significantly reducing the time and effort involved in panel acoustic contributions analyses.

  4. Droplets Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Dahan, Raphael; Carmon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to their capillary resonances (Rayleigh, 1879) and their optical resonances (Ashkin, 1977), droplets acoustical resonances were rarely considered. Here we experimentally excite, for the first time, the acoustical resonances of a droplet that relies on sound instead of capillary waves. Droplets vibrations at 37 MHz rates and 100 quality factor are optically excited and interrogated at an optical threshold of 68 microWatt. Our vibrations span a spectral band that is 1000 times higher when compared with drops previously-studied capillary vibration.

  5. Robust three dimensional surface contouring method with digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Cao-jin; ZHAI Hong-chen; WANG Xiao-lei; WU Lan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a digital holography system with short-coherence light source is used to record a series of holograms of a micro-object. The three dimensional reconstruction is completed by the least-square-polynomial-fitting with a series of two dimensional intensity images which are obtained through holographic reconstruction. This three dimensional reconstruction method can be used to carry out three-dimensional reconstruction of a micro-object with strong laser speckle noise,which can not be obtained from the conventional method.

  6. Nonlinear volume holography for wave-front engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xu-Hao; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2014-10-17

    The concept of volume holography is applied to the design of an optical superlattice for the nonlinear harmonic generation. The generated harmonic wave can be considered as a holographic image caused by the incident fundamental wave. Compared with the conventional quasi-phase-matching method, this new method has significant advantages when applied to complicated nonlinear processes such as the nonlinear generation of special beams. As an example, we experimentally realized a second-harmonic Airy beam, and the results are found to agree well with numerical simulations.

  7. Fourier transform light scattering angular spectroscopy using digital inline holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, YongKeun

    2012-10-01

    A simple and practical method for measuring the angle-resolved light scattering (ARLS) from individual objects is reported. Employing the principle of inline holography and a Fourier transform light scattering technique, both the static and dynamic scattering patterns from individual micrometer-sized objects can be effectively and quantitatively obtained. First, the light scattering measurements were performed on individual polystyrene beads, from which the refractive index and diameter of each bead were retrieved. Also, the measurements of the static and dynamic light scattering from intact human red blood cells are demonstrated. Using the present method, an existing microscope can be directly transformed into a precise instrument for ARLS measurements.

  8. Overview of compressive sensing techniques applied in holography [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivenson, Yair; Stern, Adrian; Javidi, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    In recent years compressive sensing (CS) has been successfully introduced in digital holography (DH). Depending on the ability to sparsely represent an object, the CS paradigm provides an accurate object reconstruction framework from a relatively small number of encoded signal samples. DH has proven to be an efficient and physically realizable sensing modality that can exploit the benefits of CS. In this paper, we provide an overview of the theoretical guidelines for application of CS in DH and demonstrate the benefits of compressive digital holographic sensing.

  9. Criteria for the observation of strong-field photoelectron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, T. [UPMC Universite Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matiere et Rayonnement, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75005 Paris (France); Huismans, Y. [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 113, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schafer, K. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States); Vrakking, M. J. J. [FOM-Institute AMOLF, Science Park 113, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Max-Born-Institut, Max Born Strasse 2A, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Photoelectron holography is studied experimentally and computationally using the ionization of ground-state xenon atoms by intense near-infrared radiation. A strong dependence of the occurrence of the holographic pattern on the laser wavelength and intensity is observed, and it is shown that the observation of the hologram requires that the ponderomotive energy U{sub p} is substantially larger than the photon energy. The holographic interference is therefore favored by longer wavelengths and higher laser intensities. Our results indicate that the tunneling regime is not a necessary condition for the observation of the holographic pattern, which can be observed under the conditions formally attributed to the multiphoton regime.

  10. Particle digital in-line holography with spherical wave recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baozhen Ge(葛宝臻); Qieni Lü(吕且妮); Yimo Zhang(张以谟)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method of digital in-line holography of particle. A diverging spherical beam is used for illumination in recording hologram, the complex amplitude distribution generated by particle field at a single plane located in the Fresnel diffraction region is recorded by CCD, and a plane beam for reconstructing hologram, then, the magnified image can be obtained by numerical reconstruction in computer. This procedure can be interpreted by Fourier optical theory and the theoretical analysis have been done in detail, the experimental results, the air freshener being subject, are also given.

  11. What are the ideal wavelengths for full color holography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Kaveh

    2013-02-01

    One of the holy grails in display holography is the production of natural color holographic images. Various sets of wavelengths for recording have been suggested, some favoring three wavelengths, some four, and even more. I will argue that the choice of recording wavelengths is completely independent of the holographic process; it was in fact was solved once and for all by scientists working in general lighting in the 1970s. I will suggest an ideal set of wavelengths which will produce color rendition equal to better than conventional photographic processes.

  12. Phase measurement error in summation of electron holography series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, Robert A., E-mail: robbmcleod@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada); National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Bergen, Michael [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Malac, Marek [National Institute for Nanotechnology, 11421 Saskatchewan Dr., Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2M9 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Off-axis electron holography is a method for the transmission electron microscope (TEM) that measures the electric and magnetic properties of a specimen. The electrostatic and magnetic potentials modulate the electron wavefront phase. The error in measurement of the phase therefore determines the smallest observable changes in electric and magnetic properties. Here we explore the summation of a hologram series to reduce the phase error and thereby improve the sensitivity of electron holography. Summation of hologram series requires independent registration and correction of image drift and phase wavefront drift, the consequences of which are discussed. Optimization of the electro-optical configuration of the TEM for the double biprism configuration is examined. An analytical model of image and phase drift, composed of a combination of linear drift and Brownian random-walk, is derived and experimentally verified. The accuracy of image registration via cross-correlation and phase registration is characterized by simulated hologram series. The model of series summation errors allows the optimization of phase error as a function of exposure time and fringe carrier frequency for a target spatial resolution. An experimental example of hologram series summation is provided on WS{sub 2} fullerenes. A metric is provided to measure the object phase error from experimental results and compared to analytical predictions. The ultimate experimental object root-mean-square phase error is 0.006 rad (2π/1050) at a spatial resolution less than 0.615 nm and a total exposure time of 900 s. The ultimate phase error in vacuum adjacent to the specimen is 0.0037 rad (2π/1700). The analytical prediction of phase error differs with the experimental metrics by +7% inside the object and −5% in the vacuum, indicating that the model can provide reliable quantitative predictions. - Highlights: • Optimization of electro-optical configuration for double biprism holography. • Model of drift

  13. Dynamic modal characterization of musical instruments using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoli, Nazif; Demoli, Ivan

    2005-06-27

    This study shows that a dynamic modal characterization of musical instruments with membrane can be carried out using a low-cost device and that the obtained very informative results can be presented as a movie. The proposed device is based on a digital holography technique using the quasi-Fourier configuration and time-average principle. Its practical realization with a commercial digital camera and large plane mirrors allows relatively simple analyzing of big vibration surfaces. The experimental measurements given for a percussion instrument are supported by the mathematical formulation of the problem.

  14. Holographie en infrarouge sur de minces couches d'huile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, M; Blanchard, M; Rioux, M; Beaulieu, R

    1978-11-15

    Oil films of approximately 1-microm thickness on glass plates are used as a holographic recording medium at a 10.6-microm wavelength. This dynamic recording medium (on which the recording is not permanent) shows diffraction efficiencies up to 20% when reconstructing at 632.8 nm, the spatial frequency at the recording being as high as ~50 cycles/mm. Furthermore, the response time of these oil films when recording ir can be as small as 2 msec so that ir holography of moving objects is possible in real time.

  15. Three-dimensional edge extraction in optical scanning holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Yonghong; Zhou, Changhe; Ma, Jianyong; Jia, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Edge extraction has found applications in various image processing fields, such as in pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method is proposed for edge extraction of three-dimensional objects in optical scanning holography (OSH). Isotropic and anisotropic edge extraction of 3D objects is simulated using spiral phase plates in OSH operating in an incoherent mode. We propose to use a delta function and a spiral phase plate as the pupil functions to realize isotropic and anisotropic edge extraction. Our computer simulations show the capability of extracting the edges of a given 3D object by spiral phase filtering in OSH.

  16. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine...... the total charge enclosed within an object. However, the situation is more complicated for a partial charge measurement when the integration domain encloses only part of the object. We analyze in detail the effects on charge measurement of the mean inner potential of the object, of the presence of induced...

  17. Holography in a background-independent effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Torrieri, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the meaning of the strong equivalence principle when applied to a quantum field theory. We show that, because of unitary inequivalence of accelerated frames, the only way for the equivalence principle to apply exactly is to add a boundary term representing the decoherence of degrees of freedom leaving the observable region of the bulk. We formulate the constraints necessary for the equivalence principle to hold at the level of the partition function and argue that, when the non-unitary part is expressed as a functional integral over the horizon, holography arises naturally as a consequence of the equivalence principle.

  18. Non-abelian T-duality, generalised geometry and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, Niall T

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress which relates non-abelian T-duality of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SuGra solutions to the powerful techniques of Generalised geometry is reviewed. It is shown that SU(3) structure solutions are mapped to SU(2) structures and the transformation rule of the corresponding pure spinors is presented. This constitutes an important step on the road towards the utility of the duality within holography, showing for example, how smeared sources must transform and so how to add flavour to the T-duals.

  19. Twin removal in digital holography using diffuse illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S; Kelly, Damien P; Pandey, Nitesh; Hennelly, Bryan M

    2009-12-01

    A method to numerically remove the twin image for inline digital holography, using multiple digital holograms, is discussed. Each individual hologram is recorded by using a statistically independent speckle field to illuminate the object. If the holograms are recorded in this manner and then numerically reconstructed, the twin image appears as a different speckle pattern in each of the reconstructions. By performing speckle-reduction techniques the presence of the twin image can be greatly reduced. A theoretical model is developed, and experimental results are presented that validate this approach. We show experimentally that the dc object intensity term can also be removed by using this technique.

  20. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Introduction: Digital Holography and 3D Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Chung Poon; Changhe Zhou; Toyohiko Yatagai; Byoungho Lee; Hongchen Zhai

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue is the fifth installment on digital holography since its inception four years ago.The last four issues have been published after the conclusion of each Topical Meeting "Digital Holography and 3D imaging (DH)." However,this feature issue includes a new key feature-Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters Feature Issue.The DH Topical Meeting is the world's premier forum for disseminating the science and technology geared towards digital holography and 3D information processing.Since the meeting's inception in 2007,it has steadily and healthily grown to 130 presentations this year,held in Tokyo,Japan,May 2011.

  1. The application of holography as a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A historical introduction to holography is presented, as well as a basic description of sideband holography for stationary objects. A brief theoretical development of both time-dependent and time-independent holography is also provided, along with an analytical and intuitive discussion of a unique holographic arrangement which allows the resolution of front surface detail from an object moving at high speeds. As an application of such a system, a real-time three-dimensional motion picture camera system is discussed and the results of a recent demonstration of the world's first true three-dimensional motion picture are given.

  2. Acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis

    2009-10-01

    Acoustic dose is defined as the energy deposited by absorption of an acoustic wave per unit mass of the medium supporting the wave. Expressions for acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate are given for plane-wave conditions, including temporal and frequency dependencies of energy deposition. The relationship between the acoustic dose-rate and the resulting temperature increase is explored, as is the relationship between acoustic dose-rate and radiation force. Energy transfer from the wave to the medium by means of acoustic cavitation is considered, and an approach is proposed in principle that could allow cavitation to be included within the proposed definitions of acoustic dose and acoustic dose-rate.

  3. Simulation studies of atomic resolution X-ray holography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogesh Kashyap; P S Sarkar; Amar Sinha; B K Godwal

    2004-02-01

    X-ray holography is a new method of structure determination based on measurement of interference of a known reference wave with an unknown object wave (containing information on atomic sites scattering the reference wave) so that phase information is preserved. Unlike X-ray diffraction, it does not demand for translational periodicity in the material. It is based on the idea similar to that of optical holography and has been tested on crystals, quasicrystals, thin films and doped semiconductors for their structure determination. In order to analyse potentials and limitations of this technique, we have carried out theoretical simulation studies on simple structures. In this paper we describe the basic algorithm of hologram generation and reconstruction of atomic positions from generated data. We illustrate this technique using Fe (bcc) single crystal as sample case to demonstrate its capabilities and limitations. Simulations were carried out on the Cu (fcc) structure and on complex structure such as the Al–Pd–Mn quasicrystal. Technical issues such as low signal to noise ratio, twin image problem etc have been discussed briefly to emphasize the need for high intensity X-ray source such as synchrotron for experiments and proper reconstruction algorithm. Finally the scope and potential of this technique have been discussed.

  4. Fresnel incoherent correlation holography and its imaging properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Ma, Haotong; Ren, Ge; Xie, Zongliang; Yu, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The incoherent digital holography makes it possible to record holograms under incoherent illumination, which lowers requirement for the coherence of light sources and results in expanding its application to white-light and fluorescence illuminating circumstances. The Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH) technology achieves diverging the incident beam and shifting phase by mounting phase masks on the phase modulator. Then it obtains holograms with phase difference and reconstructs the image. In this paper, we explain the principles of the FINCH technology, and introduce the n-step phase-shifting method which is utilized to eliminate the twin image and bias term in holograms. During the research, we studied what impact the term n may have on imaging performance, compared imaging performances when different phase masks are mounted on SLM, and established simulation system on imaging with which imaging performances are deeply inspected. At last, it is shown in the research that the FINCH technology could record holograms of objects, from which clear images could be reconstructed digitally.

  5. Poor man's holography: How far can it go?

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao

    2013-01-01

    One of the most exciting things in recent theoretical physics is the suspicion that gravity may be holographic, dual to some sort of quantum field theory living on the boundary with one less dimension. Such a suspicion has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. This paper is intended to purport the holographic gravity from a different perspective. Namely we propose that such a holography can actually be observed within the context of Einstein's gravity, where neither is spacetime required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity. We show that our holography works remarkably well at least at the level of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. In particular, a perfect matching between the bulk gravity and boundary system is found not only for the equilibrium variation but also for the non-equilibrium entropy production, where a method of conserved current is seen to be efficient in relating the black hole perturbation in the bulk gravity and t...

  6. Advanced double-biprism holography with atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genz, Florian, E-mail: florian.genz@physik.tu-berlin.de [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Buijsse, Bart; Freitag, Bert [FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, 5651 GG Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lehmann, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Straße des 17. Juni, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    The optimum biprism position as suggested by Lichte (Ultramicroscopy 64 (1996) 79 [10]) was implemented into a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope. For a setup optimized for atomic resolution holograms with a width of 30 nm and a fringe spacing of 30 pm, we investigated the practical improvements on hologram quality. The setup is additionally supplemented by a second biprism as suggested by Harada et al. (Applied Physics Letters 84 (2004) 3229 [12]). In order to estimate the possibilities and limitations of the double biprism setup, geometric optics arguments lead to calculation of the exploitable shadow width, necessary for strong reduction of biprism-induced artefacts. Additionally, we used the double biprism setup to estimate the biprism vibration, yielding the most stable imaging conditions with lowest overall fringe contrast damping. Electron holograms of GaN demonstrate the good match between experiment and simulation, also as a consequence of the improved stability. - Highlights: • Investigation of optimum biprism position implementation into state-of-the-art TEM. • Reduction of artefacts, especially vignetting in double-biprism electron holography. • Biprism vibration and most stable imaging conditions in double-biprism holography. • Demonstration of the optimized double-biprism setup using a thin GaN-foil.

  7. SHIVA-(Spaceflight Holography in a Virtual Apparatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; LaI, Ravindra B.; Rangel, Roger; Coimbra, Carlos; Witherow William; Rogers, Jan

    2001-01-01

    SHIVA (Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus) will expand our understanding of the fundamental physics of particle movement in fluids by exploiting the power of holography in a spaceflight experiment'. In addition, the study will exploit the movement of particles in fluids to observe and quantify microgravity phenomena that are extremely important in materials sciences with applications both in space and on earth. The regime under scrutiny is the low Reynolds number, Stokes regime or creeping flow, which covers particles and bubbles moving at very low velocity. The equations describing this important regime have been under development and investigation for over 100 years and yet a complete analytical solution of the general equation had remained elusive yielding only approximations and numerical solutions. In the course of the ongoing NASA NRA, the first analytical solution of the general equation was produced by members of the investigator team using the mathematics of fractional derivatives. This opened the way to an even more insightful and important investigation of the phenomena in microgravity.

  8. The Thermal Bath of de Sitter from Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We consider the AdS/dS CFT correspondence and study the nature of the thermal bath of the de Sitter field theory using holography. Unlike the temperature of a thermal field theory in flat spacetime, the temperature of a superconformal field theory on de Sitter space is an integral part of the theory and leaves intact the conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. In the dual AdS side, there is no black hole. Instead we have cosmological expansion of the de Sitter factor. We consider a number of different observables, such as the entanglement entropy, two point correlation function, Wilson loops corresponding to static and spinning mesons in the field theory, and study their thermal properties using holography. The former two quantities have trivial temperature dependence due to conformal symmetry. We compute the energy of the quark anti-quark bound state for a static meson, as well as the energy and the angular momentum for a spinning meson. We find that there is a maximum distance, as well as a maximum spin for t...

  9. Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2006-01-01

    About the Book Digital (or electronic) holography and its application to 3-D display is one of the formidable problems of evolving areas of high technology that has been receiving great attention in recent years. The realization of life-size interactive 3-D displays has been a seemingly unobtainable goal. Technology is not quite at that level yet, but advances in 3-D display now allow us to take important steps toward the achievement of this objective. The reader is presented with the state-of-the-art developments in both digital holography and 3-D display techniques. The book contains a large amount of research material as well as reviews, new ideas and insights that will be useful for graduate students, scientists, and engineers working in the field. About the Editor Ting-Chung Poon is a professor at Virgina Tech in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, where he is also Director of the Optical Image Processing Laboratory. His research interests include acousto-optics, hybrid (optica...

  10. Poor man’s holography: how far can it go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2013-06-01

    Almost a century ago, Einstein, after Newton, shed new light on gravity by claiming that gravity is geometry. There has been no deeper insight beyond that later on except the recent suspicion that gravity may also be holographic, dual to some sort of quantum field theory living on the boundary with one less dimension. Such a suspicion has been supported mainly by a variety of specific examples from string theory. This paper is intended to purport the holographic gravity from a different perspective. Namely, we shall show that such a holography can actually be observed by working merely within the context of Einstein’s gravity through promoting Brown-York’s formalism, where neither is the spacetime required to be asymptotically AdS nor the boundary to be located at conformal infinity, which also conforms to the spirit inherited from Wilson’s effective field theory. In particular, we show that our holography works remarkably well at least at the level of thermodynamics and hydrodynamics, where a perfect matching between the bulk gravity and boundary fluid is found for entropy and its production by the conserved current method.

  11. A comparison of SONAH and IBEM for near-field acoustic holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    implementations: Whereas SONAH performs the back-propagation of the sound field to a plane surface; the IBEM has no restrictions on the radiating geometry. On the other hand, IBEM requires the generation of a surface mesh and a time consuming solution process. The present paper compares the performance...

  12. Near field acoustic holography with microphones mounted on a rigid sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Moreno, Guillermo; Fernandez Grande, Efren;

    2008-01-01

    . This is potentially very useful for source identification. On the other hand a rigid sphere is somewhat more practical than an open sphere, and it is possible to modify the existing spherical NAH theory so that a similar sound field reconstruction can be made with an array of microphones flush-mounted on a rigid...... sphere. Rigid spheres with flush-mounted microphones are also used for beamforming, and it is known that they are advantageous compared with open spheres for this application. However, whereas beamforming is a far field technique NAH is a near field technique, and spherical NAH based on a rigid sphere...

  13. Statistically optimised near field acoustic holography based on particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Jaud, Virginie

    2006-01-01

    splitting. Threshold condition for the double-well form origin has been determined taking into account the impact of both harmonics. The splitting gap of the ground energy level has been calculated as a function of the harmonic amplitudes for different ratio s of characteristic Josephson energy E......-C to the Coulomb energy E-Q0. It has been shown that the gap value comes to about 7E(Q0) with increase of the ratio s. No external field needed, no bias current required and no circular currents are major advantages of such a qubit. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Experimental Method to Measure Low Frequency Sound Radiation - Nearfield Acoustical Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-03

    Interferometric Measurements of the Top Plate Vibrations of a Guitar ," Acustica 25, 95-100 (1971) 10. I. M. Firth, " Physics of the Guitar at the Helmholtz and...rectangular plate) and a complex source (an intact, string excited guitar ). The guitar research revealed some interesting results such as: the rose is...source (an In- tact, string excited guitar ). The guitar research revealed some interesting results such as: the rose is an important source of low

  15. Feed particle size evaluation: conventional approach versus digital holography based image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of image analysis approach based on digital holography in defining particle size in comparison with the sieve shaker method (sieving method as reference method. For this purpose ground corn meal was analyzed by a sieve shaker Retsch VS 1000 and by image analysis approach based on digital holography. Particle size from digital holography were compared with results obtained by screen (sieving analysis for each of size classes by a cumulative distribution plot. Comparison between particle size values obtained by sieving method and image analysis indicated that values were comparable in term of particle size information, introducing a potential application for digital holography and image analysis in feed industry.

  16. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-12-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging.

  17. Observation of the stray field of thin film magnetic tips using electron holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunedei, E.; Matteucci, G.; Frost, B.G.; Greve, J.

    1996-01-01

    The stray field around thin film ferromagnetic tips employed for magnetic force microscopy has been revealed using electron holography. The experimental phase difference maps are in good agreement with simulations. Quantitative flux measurements of the leakage field are obtained.

  18. Terahertz digital holography image denoising using stationary wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shan-Shan; Li, Qi; Chen, Guanghao

    2015-04-01

    Terahertz (THz) holography is a frontier technology in terahertz imaging field. However, reconstructed images of holograms are inherently affected by speckle noise, on account of the coherent nature of light scattering. Stationary wavelet transform (SWT) is an effective tool in speckle noise removal. In this paper, two algorithms for despeckling SAR images are implemented to THz images based on SWT, which are threshold estimation and smoothing operation respectively. Denoised images are then quantitatively assessed by speckle index. Experimental results show that the stationary wavelet transform has superior denoising performance and image detail preservation to discrete wavelet transform. In terms of the threshold estimation, high levels of decomposing are needed for better denoising result. The smoothing operation combined with stationary wavelet transform manifests the optimal denoising effect at single decomposition level, with 5×5 average filtering.

  19. Application of digital holography to circle flow bed boiler measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shiliang; Denis Lebrun; WANG Qinghui; CEN Kefa; REN Kuanfang

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of particles in the boiler is very important in the study on the circle flow bed boiler (CFB). Digital in-line holography technique was applied to obtain the spatial and diameter distribution of the particles inside the boiler. A HE-NE laser was used to illuminate the particles inside the CFB through two glass windows and the in-line diffraction pattern was recorded by a CCD camera. The diffraction can be interpreted as a convolution between a family of wavelet functions and the object function. So the three-dimensional (3D) images of the particles in the two-phase flow were reconstructed by the convolution between diffraction pattern and wavelet functions. The particle diameters and 3D coordinates were calculated from the reconstructed 3D images by a series of image-processing methods, followed by a discussion of the experimental results.

  20. Optical voice recorder by off-axis digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Osamu; Inokuchi, Hiroki; Nitta, Kouichi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-15

    An optical voice recorder capable of recording and reproducing propagating sound waves by using off-axis digital holography, as well as quantitative visualization, is presented. Propagating sound waves temporally modulate the phase distribution of an impinging light wave via refractive index changes. This temporally modulated phase distribution is recorded in the form of digital holograms by a high-speed image sensor. After inverse propagation using Fresnel diffraction of a series of the recorded holograms, the temporal phase profile of the reconstructed object wave at each three-dimensional position can be used to reproduce the original sound wave. Experimental results using a tuning fork vibrating at 440 Hz and a human voice are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Spectroscopic imaging, diffraction, and holography with x-ray photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    X-ray probes are capable of determining the spatial structure of an atom in a specific chemical state, over length scales from about a micron all the way down to atomic resolution. Examples of these probes include photoemission microscopy, energy-dependent photoemission diffraction, photoelectron holography, and X-ray absorption microspectroscopy. Although the method of image formation, chemical-state sensitivity, and length scales can be very different, these X-ray techniques share a common goal of combining a capability for structure determination with chemical-state specificity. This workshop will address recent advances in holographic, diffraction, and direct imaging techniques using X-ray photoemission on both theoretical and experimental fronts. A particular emphasis will be on novel structure determinations with atomic resolution using photoelectrons.

  2. On generalized gravitational entropy, squashed cones and holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpan [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); Sharma, Menika [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India); Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sinha, Aninda [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-01-08

    We consider generalized gravitational entropy in various higher derivative theories of gravity dual to four dimensional CFTs using the recently proposed regularization of squashed cones. We derive the universal terms in the entanglement entropy for spherical and cylindrical surfaces. This is achieved by constructing the Fefferman-Graham expansion for the leading order metrics for the bulk geometry and evaluating the generalized gravitational entropy. We further show that the Wald entropy evaluated in the bulk geometry constructed for the regularized squashed cones leads to the correct universal parts of the entanglement entropy for both spherical and cylindrical entangling surfaces. We comment on the relation with the Iyer-Wald formula for dynamical horizons relating entropy to a Noether charge. Finally we show how to derive the entangling surface equation in Gauss-Bonnet holography.

  3. Steady-state Physics, Effective Temperature Dynamics in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Arnab

    2013-01-01

    Using the gauge-gravity duality, we argue that for a certain class of out-of-equilibrium steady-state systems in contact with a heat bath at a given temperature, the macroscopic physics can be captured by an effective thermodynamic description. The steady-state is obtained by applying a constant electric field that results in a stationary current flow. Within holography, we consider generic probe systems where an open string equivalence principle and an open string metric govern the effective thermodynamics. This description comes equipped with an effective temperature, which is larger than the bath temperature, and a corresponding effective entropy. For conformal or scale-invariant theories, certain scaling behaviours follow immediately. In general, in the large electric field limit, this effective temperature is also observed to obey certain generic relations with various physical parameters in the system.

  4. Digital holography microscopy in 3D biologic samples analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricardo, J O; Palacios, F; Palacios, G F; Sanchez, A [Department of Physics, University of Oriente (Cuba); Muramatsu, M [Department of General Physics, University of Sao Paulo - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gesualdi, M [Engineering center, Models and Applied Social Science, UFABC - Sao Paulo (Brazil); Font, O [Department of Bio-ingeniering, University of Oriente - Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Valin, J L [Mechanics Department, ISPJAE, Habana (Cuba); Escobedo, M; Herold, S [Department of Computation, University of Oriente (Cuba); Palacios, D F, E-mail: frpalaciosf@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear physics, University of Simon BolIva (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    In this work it is used a setup for Digital Holography Microscopy (MHD) for 3D biologic samples reconstruction. The phase contrast image reconstruction is done by using the Double propagation Method. The system was calibrated and tested by using a micrometric scale and pure phase object respectively. It was simulated the human red blood cell (erythrocyte) and beginning from the simulated hologram the digital 3D phase image for erythrocytes it was calculated. Also there was obtained experimental holograms of human erythrocytes and its corresponding 3D phase images, being evident the correspondence qualitative and quantitative between these characteristics in the simulated erythrocyte and in the experimentally calculated by DHM in both cases.

  5. DIGITAL VIDEO HOLOGRAPHY- A ROBUST TOOL FOR COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ponchitra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Holograms are being produced using optical methods for decades. A lot of techniques and methods exist for the production of efficient holograms. Digital Holography (DH is the method of simulating holograms with the use of computer. In this paper digital holograms are generated using Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction integrals. Multi color holograms are simulated and the digitally generated holograms are analysed. DH technique is extended further to video format which yields video holograms. The concept that every bit of a hologram contains full information of the original video, which is being effectively utilized to reduce the file size required for communication in terms of storage, security and speed. The entire process is simulated using Matlab7.10 environment.

  6. Holography demonstrations and workshops for science and engineering outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Weston; Kruse, Kevin; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    The SPIE/OSA Student Chapter at Michigan Technological University have developed demonstrations and workshops for science and engineering outreach. The practical approach to holography promotes the study of photonic related sciences in high school and college-aged students. An introduction to laser safety, optical laboratory practices, and basic laser coherence theory is given in order to first introduce the participants to the science behind the holograms. The students are then able to create a hologram of an item of their choice, personalizing the experience. By engaging directly, the students are able to see how the theory is applied and also enforces a higher level of attention from them so no mistakes are made in their hologram. Throughout the course participants gain an appreciation for photonics by learning how holograms operate and are constructed through hands on creation of their own holograms. This paper reviews the procedures and methods used in the demonstrations and workshop while examining the overall student experience.

  7. Temperature measurement in laminar free convective flow using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Mosarraf; Shakher, Chandra

    2009-04-01

    A method for measurement of temperature in laminar free convection flow of water is presented using digital holographic interferometry. The method is relatively simple and fast because the method uses lensless Fourier transform digital holography, for which the reconstruction algorithm is simple and fast, and also the method does not require use of any extra experimental efforts as in phase shifting. The quantitative unwrapped phase difference is calculated experimentally from two digital holograms recorded in two different states of water--one in the quiescent state, the other in the laminar free convection. Unknown temperature in laminar free convection is measured quantitatively using a known value of temperature in the quiescent state from the unwrapped phase difference, where the equation by Tilton and Taylor describing the variation of refractive index of water with temperature is used to connect the phase with temperature. Experiments are also performed to visualize the turbulent free convection flow.

  8. SHIVA: Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolinger, James D.; Rangel, Roger; Coimbra, Carlos; Lal, Ravindra B.; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan

    2000-01-01

    SHIVA, a NASA spaceflight program, will exploit a unique, holography-based, diagnostics tool to test and apply a new, more general analytical solution to a fundamental equation of motion. The equation describes particle dynamics in fluids in a microgravity environment, and our solution represents the first analytical solution of it. When gravity is removed the equation becomes much more complex and had been solved previously only by numerical means. After our analytical solution has been validated it will be used as a tool for making additional measurements of the gravity environment. Our experiment will be optimized for testing the model, measuring g, g-jitter, and other microgravity phenomena. We will also collect data for which no current theory exists, This paper describes ground experiments and analysis that have been conducted by the investigator team to support the flight experiment.

  9. Short-time Fourier transform laser Doppler holography

    CERN Document Server

    Atlan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We report a demonstration of laser Doppler holography at a sustained acquisition rate of 250 Hz on a 1 Megapixel complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensor array and image display at 10 Hz frame rate. The holograms are optically acquired in off-axis configuration, with a frequency-shifted reference beam. Wide-field imaging of optical fluctuations in a 250 Hz frequency band is achieved by turning time-domain samplings to the dual domain via short-time temporal Fourier transformation. The measurement band can be positioned freely within the low radio-frequency spectrum by tuning the frequency of the reference beam in real-time. Video-rate image rendering is achieved by streamline image processing with commodity computer graphics hardware. This experimental scheme is validated by a non-contact vibrometry experiment.

  10. Imaging of a vibrating object by Sideband Digital Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Michel; Atlan, Michael; Hare, Jean

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method for imaging vibrating objects. The frequency sidebands on the light scattered by the object, shifted by $n$ times the vibration frequency, are selectively detected by heterodyne holography, and images of the object are calculated for different sideband orders $n$. Orders up to $n=120$ have been observed, allowing the detection of amplitudes of oscillation that are much larger than the optical wavelength. We check that the signal on the sideband $n$ is proportional to $|J_n(z)|^2$, where $z$ is the modulation amplitude for the phase, and $J_n$ a Bessel function of the first kind. Using the data obtained for each value of $n$, we reconstruct the shape of vibration the object with accuracy.

  11. Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Miyu; Kato, Jun-ichi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2011-04-08

    The recently emerging three-dimensional (3D) displays in the electronic shops imitate depth illusion by overlapping two parallax 2D images through either polarized glasses that viewers are required to wear or lenticular lenses fixed directly on the display. Holography, on the other hand, provides real 3D imaging, although usually limiting colors to monochrome. The so-called rainbow holograms--mounted, for example, on credit cards--are also produced from parallax images that change color with viewing angle. We report on a holographic technique based on surface plasmons that can reconstruct true 3D color images, where the colors are reconstructed by satisfying resonance conditions of surface plasmon polaritons for individual wavelengths. Such real 3D color images can be viewed from any angle, just like the original object.

  12. Energy-filtered electron-diffracted beam holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, R.A. [Center for Advanced Materials and Related Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P.O. Box. 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8N 4T6 (Canada)]. E-mail: rherring@uvic.ca

    2005-10-15

    A method of energy-filtered electron holography is described where any two electron-diffracted beams can be interfered using an electron biprism. A Gatan image filter is used to select the energy loss of the electrons produced in the holograms. Gallium arsenide is used as the TEM specimen. This method of microscopy confirms that fringes extending beyond a limiting aperture were due to inelastically scattered electrons and specifically electrons scattered from the bulk plasmon. The degree of coherence of the zero-loss and energy-loss electrons were high and measured to be {approx}0.3, which was maintained even for the high energy-loss electrons up to 100 eV. Future systematic studies using this method should help understand the Stobbs factor and contribute to the development of quantitative high-resolution electron microscopy.

  13. Energy-filtered electron-diffracted beam holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, R A

    2005-10-01

    A method of energy-filtered electron holography is described where any two electron-diffracted beams can be interfered using an electron biprism. A Gatan image filter is used to select the energy loss of the electrons produced in the holograms. Gallium arsenide is used as the TEM specimen. This method of microscopy confirms that fringes extending beyond a limiting aperture were due to inelastically scattered electrons and specifically electrons scattered from the bulk plasmon. The degree of coherence of the zero-loss and energy-loss electrons were high and measured to be approximately 0.3, which was maintained even for the high energy-loss electrons up to 100 eV. Future systematic studies using this method should help understand the Stobbs factor and contribute to the development of quantitative high-resolution electron microscopy.

  14. Digital holography and phase retrieval: a theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Damien P.; Meinecke, Thomas; Sabitov, Nail; Sinzinger, Stefan; Sheridan, John T.

    2011-06-01

    Iterative Phase Retrieval (PR) techniques represent an alternative means to Digital Holography (DH) for estimating the complex amplitude of an optical wavefront. To achieve a high-resolution reconstruction from a digital hologram, one must use Phase-Shifting Interferometric (PSI) techniques to remove the DC and twin image terms that are a feature of holographic recordings. Unfortunately this approach is not suitable for imaging dynamic events, since a minimum of 3 sequential captures, are typically required and the scene cannot change during this recording process. PR algorithms may provide a solution to this dynamic imaging problem, however these algorithms provide solutions that are not unique and hence cannot ensure an accurate solution to the problem.

  15. Three-dimensional information encryption and anticounterfeiting using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun; Chan, Huang-Tian; Wong, Xin-Yu; Chang, Chi-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In this work, arbitrary micro phase-step digital holography with optical interferometry and digital image processing is utilized to obtain information about an image of a three-dimensional object and encrypting keys. Then, a computer-generated hologram is used for the purpose of holographic encryption. All information about the keys is required to perform the decryption, comprising the amplitude and phase distribution of the encrypting key, the distance of image reconstruction, zero-order term elimination, and twin-image term suppression. In addition to using identifiable information on different image planes and linear superposition processing hidden within the encrypted information, not only can we convey an important message, but we can also achieve anticounterfeiting. This approach retains the strictness of traditional holographic encryption and the convenience of digital holographic processing without image distortion. Therefore, this method provides better solutions to earlier methods for the security of the transmission of holographic information.

  16. Surface/State Correspondence as a Generalized Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaji, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new duality relation between codimension two space-like surfaces in gravitational theories and quantum states in dual Hilbert spaces. This surface/state correspondence largely generalizes the idea of holography such that we do not need to rely on any existence of boundaries in gravitational spacetimes. The present idea is motivated by the recent interpretation of AdS/CFT in terms of the tensor networks so called MERA. Moreover, we study this correspondence from the viewpoint of entanglement entropy and information metric. The Cramer-Rao bound in quantum estimation theory implies that the quantum fluctuations of radial coordinate of the AdS is highly suppressed in the large N limit.

  17. Non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2012-01-01

    We derive non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for bosonic correlation functions from holography in the classical gravity approximation. We also show this holds universally in any classical gravity theory which has a stable thermal background as a solution. Therefore, this can provide a strong experimental test for the applicability of the holographic framework. The fluctuation-dissipation relation gives a proportionality factor between the expectation value of the commutator i.e. the spectral function, and the expectation value of the anti-commutator, i.e. the Keldysh propagator, in an arbitrary non-equilibrium state. We show that, in the limit in which the external sources vanish and within the range of validity of perturbative hydrodynamic (derivative) and non-hydrodynamic (amplitude) expansions, the holographic non-equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation is fixed completely by the temperature of the final equilibrium. We argue this is consistent with locality and causality of the dual fie...

  18. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...

  19. Acoustic cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Gregory W.; Martin, Richard A.; Radenbaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    An acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effective to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15-60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintian a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K.

  20. Acoustic telemetry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumheller, Douglas Schaeffer; Kuszmaul, Scott S.

    2003-08-01

    Broadcasting messages through the earth is a daunting task. Indeed, broadcasting a normal telephone conversion through the earth by wireless means is impossible with todays technology. Most of us don't care, but some do. Industries that drill into the earth need wireless communication to broadcast navigation parameters. This allows them to steer their drill bits. They also need information about the natural formation that they are drilling. Measurements of parameters such as pressure, temperature, and gamma radiation levels can tell them if they have found a valuable resource such as a geothermal reservoir or a stratum bearing natural gas. Wireless communication methods are available to the drilling industry. Information is broadcast via either pressure waves in the drilling fluid or electromagnetic waves in the earth and well tubing. Data transmission can only travel one way at rates around a few baud. Given that normal Internet telephone modems operate near 20,000 baud, these data rates are truly very slow. Moreover, communication is often interrupted or permanently blocked by drilling conditions or natural formation properties. Here we describe a tool that communicates with stress waves traveling through the steel drill pipe and production tubing in the well. It's based on an old idea called Acoustic Telemetry. But what we present here is more than an idea. This tool exists, it's drilled several wells, and it works. Currently, it's the first and only acoustic telemetry tool that can withstand the drilling environment. It broadcasts one way over a limited range at much faster rates than existing methods, but we also know how build a system that can communicate both up and down wells of indefinite length.

  1. Analyzing excitation forces acting on a plate based on measured acoustic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Zhou, Pan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on "seeing" through an elastic structure to uncover the root cause of sound and vibration by using nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) and normal modes expansion. This approach is of generality because vibro-acoustic responses on the surface of a vibrating structure can always be reconstructed, exactly or approximately. With these vibro-acoustic responses, excitation forces acting on the structure can always be determined, analytically or numerically, given any set of boundary conditions. As an example, the explicit formulations for reconstructing time-harmonic excitation forces, including point, line and surface forces, and their arbitrary combinations acting on a rectangular thin plate in vacuum mounted on an infinite baffle are presented. The reason for choosing this example is that the analytic solutions to vibro-acoustic responses are available, and in-depth analyses of results are possible. Results demonstrate that this approach allows one to identify excitation forces based on measured acoustic pressures and reveal their characteristics such as locations, types and amplitudes, as if one could "see" excitation forces acting behind the plate based on acoustic pressure measured on the opposite side. This approach is extendable to general elastic structures, except that in such circumstance numerical results must be sought.

  2. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton;

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  3. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  4. Acoustic Spatiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon LaBelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of listening can be appreciated as intensely relational, bringing us into contact with surrounding events, bodies and things. Given that sound propagates and expands outwardly, as a set of oscillations from a particular source, listening carries with it a sensual intensity, whereby auditory phenomena deliver intrusive and disruptive as well as soothing and assuring experiences. The physicality characteristic of sound suggests a deeply impressionistic, locational "knowledge structure" – that is, the ways in which listening affords processes of exchange, of being in the world, and from which we extend ourselves. Sound, as physical energy reflecting and absorbing into the materiality around us, and even one's self, provides a rich platform for understanding place and emplacement. Sound is always already a trace of location.Such features of auditory experience give suggestion for what I may call an acoustical paradigm – how sound sets in motion not only the material world but also the flows of the imagination, lending to forces of signification and social structure, and figuring us in relation to each other. The relationality of sound brings us into a steady web of interferences, each of which announces the promise or problematic of being somewhere.

  5. Acoustic Neurinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faraji Rad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic neuromas (AN are schwann cell-derived tumors that commonly arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve also known as vestibular schwannoma(VS causes unilateral hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo and unsteadiness. In many cases, the tumor size may remain unchanged for many years following diagnosis, which is typically made by MRI. In the majority of cases the tumor is small, leaving the clinician and patient with the options of either serial scanning or active treatment by gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR or microneurosurgery. Despite the vast number of published treatment reports, comparative studies are few. The predominant clinical endpoints of AN treatment include tumor control, facial nerve function and hearing preservation. Less focus has been put on symptom relief and health-related quality of life (QOL. It is uncertain if treating a small tumor leaves the patient with a better chance of obtaining relief from future hearing loss, vertigo or tinnitus than by observing it without treatment.   In this paper we review the literature for the natural course, the treatment alternatives and the results of AN. Finally, we present our experience with a management strategy applied for more than 30 years.

  6. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  7. Canonical Acoustics and Its Application to Surface Acoustic Wave on Acoustic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian Qi

    2016-08-01

    In a conventional formalism of acoustics, acoustic pressure p and velocity field u are used for characterizing acoustic waves propagating inside elastic/acoustic materials. We shall treat some fundamental problems relevant to acoustic wave propagation alternatively by using canonical acoustics (a more concise and compact formalism of acoustic dynamics), in which an acoustic scalar potential and an acoustic vector potential (Φ ,V), instead of the conventional acoustic field quantities such as acoustic pressure and velocity field (p,u) for characterizing acoustic waves, have been defined as the fundamental variables. The canonical formalism of the acoustic energy-momentum tensor is derived in terms of the acoustic potentials. Both the acoustic Hamiltonian density and the acoustic Lagrangian density have been defined, and based on this formulation, the acoustic wave quantization in a fluid is also developed. Such a formalism of acoustic potentials is employed to the problem of negative-mass-density assisted surface acoustic wave that is a highly localized surface bound state (an eigenstate of the acoustic wave equations). Since such a surface acoustic wave can be strongly confined to an interface between an acoustic metamaterial (e.g., fluid-solid composite structures with a negative dynamical mass density) and an ordinary material (with a positive mass density), it will give rise to an effect of acoustic field enhancement on the acoustic interface, and would have potential applications in acoustic device design for acoustic wave control.

  8. Measurement of rabbit eardrum vibration through stroboscopic digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Greef, Daniël; Dirckx, Joris J. J. [University of Antwerp, Laboratory of BioMedical Physics, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-05-27

    In this work, we present a setup for high-power single shot stroboscopic digital holography and demonstrate it in an application on rabbit eardrum vibration measurement. The setup is able to make full-field time-resolved measurements of vibrating surfaces with a precision in the nanometer range in a broad frequency range. The height displacement of the measured object is visualized over the entire surface as a function of time. Vibration magnitude and phase maps can be extracted from these data, the latter proving to be very useful to reveal phase delays across the surface. Such deviations from modal motion indicate energy losses due to internal damping, in contrast to purely elastic mechanics. This is of great interest in middle ear mechanics and finite element modelling. In our setup, short laser pulses are fired at selected instants within the surface vibration period and are recorded by a CCD camera. The timing of the pulses and the exposure of the camera are synchronized to the vibration phase by a microprocessor. The high-power frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser produces pulses containing up to 5 mJ of energy, which is amply sufficient to record single-shot holograms. As the laser pulse length is 8 ns and the smallest time step of the trigger electronics is 1 μs, vibration measurements of frequencies up to 250 kHz are achievable through this method, provided that the maximum vibration amplitude exceeds a few nanometers. In our application, middle ear mechanics, measuring frequencies extend from 5 Hz to 20 kHz. The experimental setup will be presented, as well as results of measurements on a stretched circular rubber membrane and a rabbit's eardrum. Two of the challenges when measuring biological tissues, such as the eardrum, are low reflectivity and fast dehydration. To increase reflectivity, a coating is applied and to counteract the undesirable effects of tissue dehydration, the measurement setup and software have been optimized for speed without

  9. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  10. Surface roughness measurement and analysis of mechanical parts based on digital holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Jing Zhou; Ke-Qin Peng; Ying-Jie Yu

    2016-01-01

    We measure the surface roughness of the mechanical parts based on digital holography.A digital offaxis hologram recording setup for reflective samples is built.Firstly,the height reconstruction error 2.3% of the setup is calibrated by using the quartz step height standard (VLSI-SHS-880QC).Then,the standard scribed-line model and the grinding roughness specimen are selected as the test samples and their surface roughness are 0.095 6 μm and 0.025 3 μm,with errors 6.3%,0.9%,respectively.The results are in good agreement with the given roughness parameters.At last,we also analyze the window effect of the filter on the roughness measurement value based on digital holography.In conclu sion,the paper demonstrated effectively that the digital holography could provide the surface feature for the roughness measurement with high accuracy.

  11. Photorefractive and computational holography in the experimental generation of Airy beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Rafael A. B.; Vieira, Tarcio A.; Yepes, Indira S. V.; Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental generation of Airy beams via computational and photorefractive holography. Experimental generation of Airy beams using conventional optical components presents several difficulties and a practically infeasible. Thus, the optical generation of Airy beams has been made from the optical reconstruction of a computer generated hologram implemented by a spatial light modulator. In the photorefractive holography technique, being used for the first time to our knowledge, the hologram of an Airy beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (read) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The Airy beam experimental realization was made by a setup of computational and photorefractive holography using a photorefractive Bi12 TiO20 crystal as holographic recording medium. Airy beams and Airy beam arrays were obtained experimentally in accordance with the predicted theory; with excellent prospects for applications in optical trapping and optical communications systems.

  12. Photorefractive and computational holography in the experimental generation of Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Suarez, Rafael A B; Yepes, Indira S V; Gesualdi, Marcos R R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental generation of Airy beams via computational and photorefractive holography. Experimental generation of Airy beams using conventional optical components presents several difficulties and are practically infeasible. Thus, the optical generation of Airy beams has been made from the optical reconstruction of a computer generated hologram implemented in a spatial light modulators. In the photorefractive holography technique, being used for the first time to our knowledge, the hologram of an Airy beam is constructed (recorded) and reconstructed (reading) optically in a nonlinear photorefractive medium. The Airy beam experimental realization was made by a setup of computational and photorefractive holography using a photorefractive Bi_{12}TiO_{20} crystal as holographic recording medium. Airy beams and Airy beam arrays were obtained experimentally as in accordance with the predicted theory; and present excellent prospects for applications in optical trapping and optical comm...

  13. Fast reconstruction of a bounded ultrasonic beam using acoustically induced piezo-luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersemans, Mathias, E-mail: Mathias.Kersemans@UGent.be; Lammens, Nicolas; Degrieck, Joris; Van Paepegem, Wim [Mechanics of Materials and Structures MMS, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Smet, Philippe F. [LumiLab, Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2015-12-07

    We report on the conversion of ultrasound into light by the process of piezo-luminescence in epoxy with embedded BaSi{sub 2}O{sub 2}N{sub 2}:Eu as active component. We exploit this acoustically induced piezo-luminescence to visualize several cross-sectional slices of the radiation field of an ultrasonic piston transducer (f = 3.3 MHz) in both the near-field and the far-field. Simply combining multiple slices then leads to a fast representation of the 3D spatial radiation field. We have confronted the luminescent results with both scanning hydrophone experiments and digital acoustic holography results, and obtained a good correlation between the different approaches.

  14. Acoustic Communications (ACOMMS) ATD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    develop and demonstrate emerging undersea acoustic communication technologies at operationally useful ranges and data rates. The secondary objective...Technology Demonstration program (ACOMMS ATD) was to demonstrate long range and moderate data rate underwater acoustic communications between a submarine...moderate data rate acoustic communications capability for tactical use between submarines, surface combatants, unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs), and other

  15. Tutorial on architectural acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio

    2002-11-01

    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  16. Holography and quantum states in elliptic de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Halpern, Illan F

    2015-01-01

    We outline a program for interpreting the higher-spin dS/CFT model in terms of physics in the causal patch of a dS observer. The proposal is formulated in "elliptic" de Sitter space dS_4/Z_2, obtained by identifying antipodal points in dS_4. We discuss recent evidence that the higher-spin model is especially well-suited for this, since the antipodal symmetry of bulk solutions has a simple encoding on the boundary. For context, we test some other (free and interacting) theories for the same property. Next, we analyze the notion of quantum field states in the non-time-orientable dS_4/Z_2. We compare the physics seen by different observers, with the outcome depending on whether they share an arrow of time. Finally, we implement the marriage between higher-spin holography and observers in dS_4/Z_2, in the limit of free bulk fields. We succeed in deriving an observer's operator algebra and Hamiltonian from the CFT, but not her S-matrix. We speculate on the extension of this to interacting higher-spin theory.

  17. On the Shape of Things: From holography to elastica

    CERN Document Server

    Fonda, Piermarco; Veliz-Osorio, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    We explore the question of which shape a manifold is compelled to take when immersed into another one, provided it must be the extremum of some functional. We consider a family of functionals which depend quadratically on the extrinsic curvatures and on projections of the ambient curvatures. These functionals capture a number of physical setups ranging from holography to the study of membranes and elastica. We present a detailed derivation of the equations of motion, known as the shape equations, placing particular emphasis in the issue of gauge freedom in the choice of normal frame. We apply these equations to the specific case of holographic entanglement entropy for higher-curvature three-dimensional gravity and find new classes of entangling curves. In particular, we discuss the case of New Massive Gravity where we show that non-geodesic entangling curves have always a smaller on-shell value of the entropy functional. Nevertheless, the correct value for the entanglement entropy is provided by geodesics. Th...

  18. Surface-focused Seismic Holography of Sunspots: I. Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, D C

    2008-01-01

    We present a comprehensive set of observations of the interaction of p-mode oscillations with sunspots using surface-focused seismic holography. Maps of travel-time shifts, relative to quiet-Sun travel times, are shown for incoming and outgoing p modes as well as their mean and difference. We compare results using phase-speed filters with results obtained with filters that isolate single p-mode ridges, and further divide the data into multiple temporal frequency bandpasses. The f mode is removed from the data. The variations of the resulting travel-time shifts with magnetic-field strength and with the filter parameters are explored. We find that spatial averages of these shifts within sunspot umbrae, penumbrae, and surrounding plage often show strong frequency variations at fixed phase speed. In addition, we find that positive values of the mean and difference travel-time shifts appear exclusively in waves observed with phase-speed filters that are dominated by power in the low-frequency wing of the p1 ridge....

  19. Digital reflection holography based systems development for MEMS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; Liansheng, Sui; Asundi, Anand

    2010-05-01

    MEMS are tiny mechanical devices that are built onto semiconductor chips and are measured in micrometers and nanometers. Testing of MEMS device is an important part in carrying out their functional assessment and reliability analysis. Development of systems based on digital holography (DH) for MEMS inspection and characterization is presented in this paper. Two DH reflection systems, table-top and handheld types, are developed depending on the MEMS measurement requirements and their capabilities are presented. The methodologies for the systems are developed for 3D profile inspection and static & dynamic measurements, which is further integrated with in-house developed software that provides the measurement results in near real time. The applications of the developed systems are demonstrated for different MEMS devices for 3D profile inspection, static deformation/deflection measurements and vibration analysis. The developed systems are well suitable for the testing of MEMS and Microsystems samples, with full-field, static & dynamic inspection as well as to monitor micro-fabrication process.

  20. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.

  1. Transitions in Dilaton Holography with Global or Local Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We study various transitions in dilaton holography, including those associated with the spontaneous breaking of a global (superfluid case) or local (superconductor case) U(1) symmetry in diverse dimensions d. By analyzing the thermodynamics of the dilaton-gravity system we find that scale invariance is broken at low temperatures, as shown by a nontrivial hyperscaling violation exponent in the infrared; increasing the temperature we recover scale symmetry in a d dependent way: while for d=2+1 a phase transition is found, for d=3+1 the transition is rather a crossover (as expected in QCD). When the U(1) is preserved and at low temperatures, the system is insulating for arbitrary d if the dilaton is appropriately coupled to the gauge field; for other couplings we also find a linear in temperature resistivity. We then determine the prediction of these models for several quantities in the superconducting phase: the DC and AC conductivity, the gap for charged excitations, the superfluid density, the vortex profiles...

  2. [Spatial and temporal control of ultrasonic fields via optoacoustic holography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gspan, Stefan; Meyer, Alex; Bernet, Stefan; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2004-01-01

    The present paper presents a new method for generating ultrasound, based on the interaction of laser-induced ultrasound generation and ultrasonic holography. An ultrasonic field generated in a water tank via the optoacoustic effect is spatially and temporally controlled: In order to produce defined ultrasonic frequencies in the MHz range, the laser pulses incident on a light-absorbing layer are modulated in time using an electro-optic modulator (EOM). Additionally, a high-resolution liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is used to imprint a pre-calculated phase front to the laser beam. A computer-generated binary hologram is also displayed at the SLM. The expanded laser beam projects the corresponding pattern to the plane absorptive layer in the water tank. The projection of specific patterns for the generation of ultrasonic beams resembles the use of, diffractive optical elements" in optics. Optical ultrasound generation with holographic steering is a flexible tool with promising numerous new applications in medical and technical ultrasound diagnostics.

  3. Off-axis electron holography of ferromagnetic multilayer nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtari-Zavareh, Azadeh; Kavanagh, K. L. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A1S6 (Canada); Carignan, L. P. [Apollo Microwaves, 1650 Trans-Canada Highway, Dorval, Quebec H9P 1H7 (Canada); Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Department of Electrical Engineering, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Yelon, A.; Ménard, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, H3C 3A7 Canada (Canada); Kasama, T. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Herring, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Institute for Microstructure Research, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); McCartney, M. R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2014-07-14

    We have used electron holography to investigate the local magnetic behavior of isolated ferromagnetic nanowires (NWs) in their remanent states. The NWs consisted of periodic magnetic layers of soft, high-saturation magnetization CoFeB alloys, and non-magnetic layers of Cu. All NWs were fabricated by pulsed-potential electrodeposition in nanoporous alumina membranes. The NW composition and layer thicknesses were measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The magnetization of individual NWs depended upon the thicknesses of the layers and the direction of an external magnetic field, which had been applied in situ. When the CoFeB was thicker than the diameter (50 nm), magnetization was axial for all external field directions, while thinner layers could be randomized via a perpendicular field. In some cases, magnetization inside the wire was detected at an angle with respect to the axis of the wires. In thinner Cu/CoFeB (<10 nm each) multilayer, magnetic field vortices were detected, associated with opposing magnetization in neighbouring layers. The measured crystallinity, compositions, and layer thicknesses of individual NWs were found to be significantly different from those predicted from calibration growths based on uniform composition NWs. In particular, a significant fraction of Cu (up to 50 at. %) was present in the CoFeB layers such that the measured magnetic induction was lower than expected. These results will be used to better understand previously measured effective anisotropy fields of similar NW arrays.

  4. Off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Clarence E.; Price, Jeffery R.; Voelkl, Edgar; Hanson, Gregory R.

    2004-06-08

    Systems and methods are described for off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method of recording an off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object at an angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording the off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes by transforming axes of the recorded off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined as an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; applying a digital filter to cut off signals around an original origin; and then performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  5. 2D wave-front shaping in optical superlattices using nonlinear volume holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Hong, Xu-Hao; Lu, Rong-Er; Yue, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-Qiang; Zhu, Yong-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear volume holography is employed to realize arbitrary wave-front shaping during nonlinear processes with properly designed 2D optical superlattices. The concept of a nonlinear polarization wave in nonlinear volume holography is investigated. The holographic imaging of irregular patterns was performed using 2D LiTaO3 crystals with fundamental wave propagating along the spontaneous polarization direction, and the results agree well with the theoretical predictions. This Letter not only extends the application area of optical superlattices, but also offers an efficient method for wave-front shaping technology.

  6. Twin image removal in digital in-line holography based on iterative inter-projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing Kuan; Chen, Tai-Yu; Hung, Shau Gang; Huang, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Jiunn-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    A simple and efficient phase retrieval method based on the iterative inter-projections of the recorded Fourier modulus between two effective holographic planes is developed to eliminate the twin image in digital in-line holography. The proposed algorithm converges stably in phase extraction procedures without requiring any prior knowledge or sophisticated support of the object and is applicable to lensless Gabor and Fourier holography as well as holographic microscopy with imaging lenses. Numerical and experimental results suggest that the spatial resolution enhancement on the reconstructed image can be achieved with this technique due to the capability of recovering the diffraction phases of low-intensity signals.

  7. Split-illumination electron holography for improved evaluation of electrostatic potential associated with electrophotography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: tanigaki-toshiaki@riken.jp; Aizawa, Shinji; Soon Park, Hyun [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, Kuniaki; Akase, Zentaro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Matsuda, Tsuyoshi [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Murakami, Yasukazu; Shindo, Daisuke [Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawase, Hiromitsu [Product Environment Technology Development Department, Environment and Energy Technology Development Center R and D Group, RICOH Co., Ltd., Shinei-cho, Tsuzuki-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 224-0035 (Japan)

    2014-03-31

    Precise evaluation of the electrostatic potential distributions of and around samples with multiple charges using electron holography has long been a problem due to unknown perturbation of the reference wave. Here, we report the first practical application of split-illumination electron holography (SIEH) to tackle this problem. This method enables the use of a non-perturbed reference wave distant from the sample. SIEH revealed the electrostatic potential distributions at interfaces of the charged particles used for development in electrophotography and should lead to dramatic improvements in electrophotography.

  8. Speckle decorrelation in Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography made by heterodyne holography

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, M

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) is a technique that images optical contrast deep inside scattering media. Heterodyne holography is a promising tool able to detect the UOT tagged photons with high efficiency. In this work, we describe theoretically the detection of the tagged photon in heterodyne holography based UOT, show how to filter the untagged photon discuss, and discuss the effect of speckle decorrelation. We show that optimal detection sensitivity can obtain, if the frame exposure time is of the order of the decorrelation time.

  9. Acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hua; Qu Shao-Bo; Xu Zhuo; Wang Jia-Fu

    2009-01-01

    By making a comparison between the acoustic equations and the 2-dimensional (2D) Maxwell equations, we obtain the material parameter equations (MPE) for acoustic elliptical cylindrical cloaks. Both the theoretical results and the numerical results indicate that an elliptical cylindrical cloak can realize perfect acoustic invisibility when the spatial distributions of mass density and bulk modulus are exactly configured according to the proposed equations. The present work is the meaningful exploration of designing acoustic cloaks that are neither sphere nor circular cylinder in shape, and opens up possibilities for making complex and multiplex acoustic cloaks with simple models such as spheres, circular or elliptic cylinders.

  10. Indoor acoustic gain design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Abarca, Justo Andres

    2002-11-01

    The design of sound reinforcement systems includes many variables and usually some of these variables are discussed. There are criteria to optimize the performance of the sound reinforcement systems under indoor conditions. The equivalent acoustic distance, the necessary acoustic gain, and the potential acoustic gain are parameters which must be adjusted with respect to the loudspeaker array, electric power and directionality of loudspeakers, the room acoustics conditions, the distance and distribution of the audience, and the type of the original sources. The design and installation of front of the house and monitoring systems have individual criteria. This article is about this criteria and it proposes general considerations for the indoor acoustic gain design.

  11. Twin-image reduction method for in-line digital holography using periphery and random reference phase-shifting techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Teppei; Matsudo, Yusuke; Kakue, Takashi; Arai, Daisuke; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Digital holography has the twin image problem that unwanted lights (conjugate and direct lights) overlap in the object light in the reconstruction process. As a method for extracting only the object light, phase-shifting digital holography is widely used; however, this method is not applicable for the observation of moving objects, because this method requires the recording of plural holograms. In this study, we propose a twin-image reduction method by combining the "periphery" method with the "random phase-shifting" method. The proposed method succeeded in improving the reconstruction quality, compared to other one-shot recording methods ("parallel phase-shifting digital holography" and "random phase-shifting").

  12. Light-Front Holography and Non-Perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2009-12-09

    The combination of Anti-de Sitter space (AdS) methods with light-front holography leads to a semi-classical first approximation to the spectrum and wavefunctions of meson and baryon light-quark bound states. Starting from the bound-state Hamiltonian equation of motion in QCD, we derive relativistic light-front wave equations in terms of an invariant impact variable {zeta} which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron at equal light-front time. These equations of motion in physical space-time are equivalent to the equations of motion which describe the propagation of spin-J modes in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. Its eigenvalues give the hadronic spectrum, and its eigenmodes represent the probability distribution of the hadronic constituents at a given scale. Applications to the light meson and baryon spectra are presented. The predicted meson spectrum has a string-theory Regge form M{sup 2} = 4{kappa}{sup 2}(n + L + S = 2); i.e., the square of the eigenmass is linear in both L and n, where n counts the number of nodes of the wavefunction in the radial variable {zeta}. The space-like pion form factor is also well reproduced. One thus obtains a remarkable connection between the description of hadronic modes in AdS space and the Hamiltonian formulation of QCD in physical space-time quantized on the light-front at fixed light-front time {tau}. The model can be systematically improved by using its complete orthonormal solutions to diagonalize the full QCD light-front Hamiltonian or by applying the Lippmann-Schwinger method in order to systematically include the QCD interaction terms.

  13. Near-Curie magnetic anomaly at the Ni/C interface observed by Electron Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Loris; Matteucci, Giorgio; Schofield, Marvin A;

    2010-01-01

    We analyze with electron holography carried out in a transmission electron microscope the near-Curie behavior of magnetism at the edge of a Nickel thin film coated with Carbon. In-situ experiments with finely controlled variations of the sample temperature reveal an anomaly in the ferromagnetic t...

  14. Study of the leakage field of magnetic force microscopy thin-film tips using electron holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frost, B.G.; Hulst, van N.F.; Lunedei, E.; Matteucci, G.; Rikkers, E.

    1996-01-01

    Electron holography is applied for the study of the leakage field of thin-film ferromagnetic tips used as probes in magnetic force microscopy. We used commercially available pyramidal tips covered o­n o­ne face with a thin NiCo film, which were then placed in a high external magnetic field directed

  15. Joint Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters feature introduction: digital holography and three-dimensional imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2011-01-01

    This feature issue serves as a pilot issue promoting the joint issue of Applied Optics and Chinese Optics Letters. It focuses upon topics of current relevance to the community working in the area of digital holography and 3-D imaging. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Interpretation of electron beam induced charging of oxide layers in a transistor studied using electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ubaldi, F; Pozzi, G; Kasama, Takeshi;

    2010-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography has been used to characterize a linear array of transistors, which was prepared for examination in cross-sectional geometry in the transmission electron microscope using focused ion beam milling. In reconstructed phase images, regions of silicon oxide that are located...

  17. In-line holography for flow and cavitation visualization on hydrofoils and for nuclei measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renesse, R.L. van; Meulen, J.H.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    The boundary layer flow about two hydrofoils and the appearance of cavitation are investigated by means of in-line holography. Practical details on the hologram resolution and data collection time for nuclei size analysis are given. It is shown that the appearance of cavitation on the hydrofoils is

  18. The study of lossy compressive method with different interpolation for holographic reconstruction in optical scanning holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Zhijuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The lossy hologram compression method with three different interpolations is investigated to compress images holographically recorded with optical scanning holography.Without loss of major reconstruction details,results have shown that the lossy compression method is able to achieve high compression ratio of up to 100.

  19. Direct-Write Digital Holography. Development and research of a hologram printer

    CERN Document Server

    Tapsell, John

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 gives a brief history of the field of holography along with an overview of this thesis. A more detailed description of holography is provided in Chapter 2 along with a discussion of digital holography. Chapter 3 examines the design of a one-step monochromatic hologram printer capable producing white-light viewable transmission holograms created with the aid of an LCOS display system and printed in a dot-matrix sequence. The lens system employed includes a microlens array and an afocal relay telescope which are both quantitatively examined in order to maximise the contrast, diffraction efficiency and depth of view of the final hologram image. A brief overview of speckle reduction techniques and their applicability to pulsed digital holography is presented along with experimental results of the use of a microlens array to reduce speckle effects. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of the unwanted side effects of the angular intensity distribution of a hologram pixel, using a case study for analysis. Chapte...

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of living cell culture by lensless digital holography imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxin Wang; Dayong Wang; Jie Zhao; Yishu Yang; Xiangqian Xiao; Huakun Cui

    2011-01-01

    @@ A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology.Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining.Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method.The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency.Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.%A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology. Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining. Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method. The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency. Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.

  1. In-line holography for flow and cavitation visualization on hydrofoils and for nuclei measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Renesse, R.L. van; Meulen, J.H.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    The boundary layer flow about two hydrofoils and the appearance of cavitation are investigated by means of in-line holography. Practical details on the hologram resolution and data collection time for nuclei size analysis are given. It is shown that the appearance of cavitation on the hydrofoils is strongly influenced by viscous effects.

  2. Mapping the Large Millimeter Telescope primary reflector using photogrammetry: a first comparison with 12 GHz holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, David M.; Leon-Huerta, Andrea; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Castro Santos, David; Hernández Ríos, Emilio; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Tecuapetla Sosa, Esteban; Tzile Torres, Carlos; Sánchez-Argüelles, David; Narayanan, Gopal; Schloerb, F. Peter; Wilson, Grant W.; Smith, David R.

    2016-07-01

    The Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) makes extensive use of 12 GHz holography during maintenance periods to finetune the alignment of primary reflector segments to the best-fit design parabola. Tracker measurements have also been used for this task, however the technique is severely limited by environmental noise and large data collection times, on the order of many hours for a single map. In 2015 we started photogrammetry trials as a complimentary measurement technique. Photogrammetry can offer reduced mapping times compared with laser trackers, and like holography, allows maps to be made at arbitrary elevation angles. Depending on the placement of reflecting targets, the technique can also provide higher spatial resolution than currently achieved using our holography system. Accurate photogrammetry requires a robust strategy for the incorporation of multiple camera stations, a task complicated by the size of the antenna, obstructions of the surface by the sub-reflector and tetrapod legs, and the practicability of using the site tower crane as a moving camera platform. Image scaling is also a major consideration, since photogrammetry lacks any inherent distance reference. Therefore appropriate scale bars must be fabricated and located within the camera field of view. Additional considerations relate to the size and placement of reflective targets, and the optimization of camera settings. In this paper we present some initial comparisons of laser tracker, holography and photogrammetry measurements taken in 2015, showing clearly the status of alignment for distinct zones of the currently operating 32.5 m primary collecting area.

  3. Aspects of AdS$_2$ holography with non-constant dilaton

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel; Vassilevich, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    In this proceedings contribution we summarize and discuss results of Refs. \\cite{Grumiller:2013swa, Grumiller:2015vaa} in the light of recent developments in $\\textrm{AdS}_2$ holography \\cite{Maldacena:2016upp, Jensen:2016pah, Engelsoy:2016xyb}.

  4. Variable magnification dual lens electron holography for semiconductor junction profiling and strain mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.Y., E-mail: wangyy@us.ibm.com [IBM Micro-electronics Division, Zip 40E, Hudson Valley Research Park, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533 (United States); Li, J.; Domenicucci, A. [IBM Micro-electronics Division, Zip 40E, Hudson Valley Research Park, 2070 Route 52, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533 (United States); Bruley, J. [IBM TJ Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Route 134 Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Dual lens operation for electron holography, which was developed previously (Wang et al., Ultramicroscopy 101 (2004) 63-72; US patent: 7,015,469 B2 (2006)), is re-investigated for bright field (junction profiling) and dark field (strain mapping) electron holography using FEI instrumentation (i.e. F20 and Titan). It is found that dual lens operation provides a wide operational range for electron holography. In addition, the dark field image tilt increases at high objective lens current to include Si Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 0 0 4 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket diffraction spot. Under the condition of high spatial resolution (1 nm fringe spacing), a large field of view (450 nm), and high fringe contrast (26%) with dual lens operation, a junction map is obtained and strain maps of Si device on Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 2 2 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 0 0 4 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket diffraction are acquired. In this paper, a fringe quality number, N Prime , which is number of fringe times fringe contrast, is proposed to estimate the quality of an electron hologram and mathematical reasoning for the N Prime number is provided. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dual lens electron holography is implemented on FEI instruments (Titan and F20). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wide range of field of view (0.1-0.9 {mu}m) and fringe spacing (0.5-6 nm) is achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fringe quality number is proposed to quantify the quality of an electron hologram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Junction map at high spatial resolution is provided. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strain maps along Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 2 2 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket 0 0 4 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket direction of Si by dark field electron holography are reported.

  5. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  6. Springer handbook of acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  7. Acquiring multi-viewpoint image of 3D object for integral imaging using synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min-Ok; Kim, Nam; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Jeon, Seok-Hee; Gil, Sang-Keun

    2009-02-01

    We propose a method generating elemental images for the auto-stereoscopic three-dimensional display technique, integral imaging, using phase-shifting digital holography. Phase shifting digital holography is a way recording the digital hologram by changing phase of the reference beam and extracting the complex field of the object beam. Since all 3D information is captured by the phase-shifting digital holography, the elemental images for any specifications of the lens array can be generated from single phase-shifting digital holography. We expanded the viewing angle of the generated elemental image by using the synthetic aperture phase-shifting digital hologram. The principle of the proposed method is verified experimentally.

  8. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-043016 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to...improve our understanding. During the past few years, the physics effects studied have been three-dimensional propagation on global scales, deep water

  9. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  10. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  11. Acoustic Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  12. Localized acoustic surface modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, Pai-Yen; Bağcı, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes. We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  13. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  14. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  15. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  16. High-intensity x-ray holography: an approach to high-resolution snapshot imaging of biological specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solem, J.C.

    1982-08-01

    The crucial physical and technological issues pertaining to the holographic imaging of biological structures with a short-pulse, high-intensity, high-quantum-energy laser were examined. The limitations of x-ray optics are discussed. Alternative holographic techniques were considered, and it was concluded that far-field Fresnel transform holography (Fraunhofer holography) using a photoresist recording surface is most tractable with near term technology. The hydrodynamic expansion of inhomogeneities within the specimen is discussed. It is shown that expansion is the major source of image blurring. Analytic expressions were derived for the explosion of protein concentrations in an x-ray transparent cytoplasm, compared with numerical calculations, and corrections derived to account for the competitive transport processes by which these inhomogeneities lose energy. It is concluded that for the near term Fresnel transform holography, particularly, far-field or Fraunhofer holography, is more practical than Fourier transform holography. Of the alternative fine grain recording media for use with Fresnel transform holography, a photo-resist is most attractive. For best resolution, exposure times must be limited to a few picoseconds, and this calls for investigation of mechanisms to shutter the laser or gate the recording surface. The best contrast ratio between the nitrogen-bearing polymers (protein and the nucleic acids) and water is between the K-edges of oxygen and nitrogen.

  17. 'Micromanaging de Sitter holography'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2010-08-26

    We develop tools to engineer de Sitter vacua with semi-holographic duals, using elliptic fibrations and orientifolds to uplift Freund-Rubin compactifications with CFT duals. The dual brane construction is compact and constitutes a microscopic realization of the dS/dS correspondence, realizing d-dimensional de Sitter space as a warped compactification down to (d-1)-dimensional de Sitter gravity coupled to a pair of large-N matter sectors. This provides a parametric microscopic interpretation of the Gibbons-Hawking entropy. We illustrate these ideas with an explicit class of examples in three dimensions, and describe ongoing work on four-dimensional constructions. The Gibbons-Hawking entropy of the de Sitter horizon [1] invites a microscopic interpretation and a holographic formulation of inflating spacetimes. Much progress was made in the analogous problem in black hole physics using special black holes in string theory whose microstates could be reliably counted, such as those analyzed in [2,3]; this led to the AdS/CFT correspondence [4]. In contrast, a microscopic understanding of the entropy of de Sitter space is more difficult for several reasons including its potential dynamical connections to other backgrounds (metastability), the absence of a non-fluctuating timelike boundary, and the absence of supersymmetry. In this paper, we develop a class of de Sitter constructions in string theory, built up from AdS/CFT dual pairs along the lines of [5], which are simple enough to provide a microscopic accounting of the parametric scaling of the Gibbons-Hawking entropy. These models realize microscopically a semi-holographic description of metastable de Sitter space which had been derived macroscopically in [6]. It would also be interesting to connect this to other approaches to de Sitter holography such as [7, 8] and to other manifestations of the de Sitter entropy such as [9]. The construction is somewhat analogous to neutral black branes analyzed in [11]. We will

  18. Submicron Defect Detection in Periodic Structures Using Photorefractive Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Craig Edward

    Detection of defects in periodic objects is an important step in the manufacture of integrated circuits, particularly memory chips which are highly repetitive. As feature sizes shrink below 1 mum, automated detection of sub-micron defects becomes necessary. We present a real-time holographic system which allows the detection of sub-micron defects in periodic structures. The inspection technique is a marriage of Fourier spatial filtering and real-time phase conjugate holography. The system output is a near diffraction limited image of any defects in the pattern (defined to be any deviations from periodicity). Real-time holographic recording allows the system to adapt to the orientation and period of the object. The early chapters introduce the photorefractive effect and the generation of the phase conjugate of an optical wavefront using Bi_{12} SiO_{20}. Relevant properties of the optical Fourier transform are also discussed. The following sections present the system design rules and experimental techniques which allow the system to reliably detect sub-micron defects. The most important improvements over previous demonstrations are (1) a novel write/read holographic process which increases phase conjugate reflectivity by orders of magnitude, (2) control of the light polarization to allow efficient object illumination and collection of the diffracted signal, (3) avoidance of noise by moving the crystal away from the origin of the Fourier plane, and (4) compensation for the crystal aberrations with a holographic optical element. The final chapter presents results which clearly show enhancement of sub-micron defects and near perfect suppression of the surrounding periodic patterns. An area larger than 1 mm^2 is inspected in 20-60 seconds. Over 90% of the 0.5 mu m diameter defects on glass masks (viewed in reflection) are detected, and approximately 80% of defects in the 0.2 -0.3 μm range are found. On silicon wafers, the results are even better with over a 95% success

  19. Acoustic imaging in application to reconstruction of rough rigid surface with airborne ultrasound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krynkin, A.; Dolcetti, G.; Hunting, S.

    2017-02-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the surface roughness is of high importance to various areas of science and engineering. One important application of this technology is for remote monitoring of open channel flows through observing its dynamic surface roughness. In this paper a novel airborne acoustic method of roughness reconstruction is proposed and tested with a static rigid rough surface. This method is based on the acoustic holography principle and Kirchhoff approximation which make use of acoustic pressure data collected at multiple receiver points spread along an arch. The Tikhonov regularisation and generalised cross validation technique are used to solve the underdetermined system of equations for the acoustic pressures. The experimental data are collected above a roughness created with a 3D printer. For the given surface, it is shown that the proposed method works well with the various number of receiver positions. In this paper, the tested ratios between the number of surface points at which the surface elevation can be reconstructed and number of receiver positions are 2.5, 5, and 7.5. It is shown that, in a region comparable with the projected size of the main directivity lobe, the method is able to reconstruct the spatial spectrum density of the actual surface elevation with the accuracy of 20%.

  20. Acoustic fluidization for earthquakes?

    OpenAIRE

    Sornette, D.; Sornette, A.

    2000-01-01

    Melosh [1996] has suggested that acoustic fluidization could provide an alternative to theories that are invoked as explanations for why some crustal faults appear to be weak. We show that there is a subtle but profound inconsistency in the theory that unfortunately invalidates the results. We propose possible remedies but must acknowledge that the relevance of acoustic fluidization remains an open question.

  1. Acoustic ground impedance meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are presented for measuring the acoustic impedance of a surface in which the surface is used to enclose one end of the chamber of a Helmholz resonator. Acoustic waves are generated in the neck of the resonator by a piston driven by a variable speed motor through a cam assembly. The acoustic waves are measured in the chamber and the frequency of the generated acoustic waves is measured by an optical device. These measurements are used to compute the compliance and conductance of the chamber and surface combined. The same procedure is followed with a calibration plate having infinite acoustic impedance enclosing the chamber of the resonator to compute the compliance and conductance of the chamber alone. Then by subtracting, the compliance and conductance for the surface is obtained.

  2. Cochlear bionic acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Fu, Gang; Bai, Changan

    2014-11-01

    A design of bionic acoustic metamaterial and acoustic functional devices was proposed by employing the mammalian cochlear as a prototype. First, combined with the experimental data in previous literatures, it is pointed out that the cochlear hair cells and stereocilia cluster are a kind of natural biological acoustic metamaterials with the negative stiffness characteristics. Then, to design the acoustic functional devices conveniently in engineering application, a simplified parametric helical structure was proposed to replace actual irregular cochlea for bionic design, and based on the computational results of such a bionic parametric helical structure, it is suggested that the overall cochlear is a local resonant system with the negative dynamic effective mass characteristics. There are many potential applications in the bandboard energy recovery device, cochlear implant, and acoustic black hole.

  3. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  4. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  5. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying, E-mail: ying.wu@kaust.edu.sa

    2014-10-03

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry–Perot resonance. - Highlights: • Expression of transmission coefficient of an acoustic grating with curled slits. • Non-dispersive and tunable effective medium parameters for the acoustic grating. • A flat acoustic focusing lens with gradient index by using the acoustic grating.

  6. Investigation of super-resolution processing algorithm by target light-intensity search in digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Atsushi; Kakue, Takashi; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Digital holography is expected to be useful in the analysis of moving three-dimensional (3D) image measurement. In this technique, a two-dimensional interference fringe recorded using a 3D image is captured with an image sensor, and the 3D image is reproduced on a computer. To obtain the reproduced 3D images with high spatial resolution, a high-performance image sensor is required, which increases the system cost. We propose an algorithm for super-resolution processing in digital holography that does not require a high-performance image sensor. The proposed algorithm wherein 3D images are considered as the aggregation of object points improves spatial resolution by performing a light-intensity search of the reproduced image and the object points.

  7. Color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamizu, Hideki; Shimoma, Shohei; Aizu, Yoshihisa

    2014-02-01

    We present color digital holography using speckle illumination by means of a multi-mode fiber. In this technique, speckle fields emitted from the fiber are used as both a reference wave and a wavefront illuminating an object. For three wavelengths, the interference patterns of two coherent waves are recorded as digital holograms on a CCD camera. A speckle method is used for suppressing DC terms and reducing a twin image in an in-line color digital holography. The speckle fields are changed by vibrating the multi-mode fiber using a vibrator, and a number of holograms are acquired to average reconstructed images. The dependence of the averaged number of holograms on color quality of reconstructed images is evaluated by chromaticity coordinates and color differences in colorimetry.

  8. Strain Measurement Using Phase-shifting Digital Holography with Two Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimoto Y.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase-shifting digital holography is a convenient method to measure displacement and strain distributions. Development of compact and conventional strain distribution measurement equipment for practical use is required for inspection of health monitoring and life lengthening of infrastructures such as steel bridges. In this paper, we propose an off-axis reconstruction method for displacement and strain distribution measurement with a phase-shifting digital holography. In the case of off-axis optical setup, the pitch of the fringe appearing on the image sensor becomes smaller than a pixel size. However, the phase-shifting digital hologram can be obtained even if the off-axis setup and effective results can be obtained using a Windowed-PSDHI. The principle and the experimental result of strain distribution measurement was performed with this method using two cameras.

  9. Unraveling nonadiabatic ionization and Coulomb potential effects in strong-field photoelectron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Xiaohong; Sheng, Zhihao; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhangjin; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Lin, C D; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back to the ion where it scatters off (the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to retrieve the target information. However, unlike conventional optical holography, the propagations of electron wave packets are affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. In addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. We showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the nonadiabatic effect in ionization i...

  10. Incoherent holography by a Michelson type interferometer with a lens for a radial shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kaho; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-06-01

    The modified Michelson type interferometer with lenses for a radial shear to record incoherent holograms is proposed. It enables us to record a hologram by self-interference without coherent illumination such as a laser. The interferometer has two wave plates which can realize phase-shifting incoherent holography. The feature can avoid a very large bias term and the twin image, which are the inherent problem of incoherent holography by self-interference. The advantages of the proposed method using lenses and wave plates are easy adjustment of the zone plate and simplification of the optical system. A preliminary experiment using an LED as an incoherent object was performed to confirm the four step phase-shifting by wave plates.

  11. Drawing Light-fields: Hand-drawn Approaches to Abrasion Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T.

    2013-02-01

    Abrasion holography has received little attention since the technique was described by William J. Beaty in the early 1990's. In this paper the limitations of abrasion holography are explored, and new approaches are presented which expand the possibilities of the medium. New tools presented here offer new possibilities to the artist wishing to draw holograms by hand. Methods are described by which complex curves and organic forms can be constructed by hand more easily and intuitively than previously described. In an analysis of reconstruction lighting and viewing geometries, new solutions to reduce or eliminate distortions are suggested. Various tools, materials, and scratch geometries are considered for optimum 3D illusion. A new class of abrasion holograms is presented that use elliptical, hypotrochoidal, and epitrochoidal scratch geometries, exhibiting novel animation effects. In conclusion, a method for embossing abrasion holograms with the aid of an etching press is described.

  12. Off-axis electron holography for the measurement of active dopants in silicon semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2016-11-01

    There is a need in the semiconductor industry for a dopant profiling technique with nm-scale resolution. Here we demonstrate that off-axis electron holography can be used to provide maps of the electrostatic potential in semiconductor devices with nm-scale resolution. In this paper we will discuss issues regarding the spatial resolution and precision of the technique. Then we will discuss problems with specimen preparation and how this affects the accuracy of the measurements of the potentials. Finally we show results from experimental off-axis electron holography applied to nMOS and pMOS CMOS devices grown on bulk silicon and silicon- on-insulator type devices and present solutions to common problems that are encountered when examining these types of devices.

  13. Super-resolution phase reconstruction technique in electron holography with a stage-scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dan; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Harada, Ken; Shimojo, Masayuki; Ju, Dongying; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2014-02-01

    Super-resolution image reconstruction is a digital signal processing technique that allows creating a high-resolution image from multiple low-resolution images taken at slightly different positions. We introduce the super-resolution image reconstruction technique into electron holography for reconstructing phase images as follows: the studied specimen is shifted step-wise with a high-precision piezo holder, and a series of holograms is recorded. When the step size is not a multiple of the CCD pixel size, processing of the acquired series results in a higher pixel density and spatial resolution as compared to the phase image obtained with conventional holography. The final resolution exceeds the limit of the CCD pixel size divided by the magnification.

  14. Improvement of speckle noise suppression in digital holography by rotating linear polarization state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xiao; Jing Zhang; Lu Rong; Feng Pan; Shuo Liu; Fanjing Wang; Aga He

    2011-01-01

    An improved polarization recording approach to reduce speckle noise in digital holography is proposed.Multiple off-axis holograms are obtained by rotating the linear polarization state of both illumination and reference wave simultaneously. By averaging the intensity fields, the speckle noise in the reconstructed images is well suppressed. Statistical evaluation of the experimental results shows the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method.%@@ An improved polarization recording approach to reduce speckle noise in digital holography is proposed.Multiple off-axis holograms are obtained by rotating the linear polarization state of both illumination and reference wave simultaneously.By averaging the intensity fields, the speckle noise in the reconstructed images is well suppressed.Statistical evaluation of the experimental results shows the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method.

  15. Applications of AdS/QCD and Light-Front Holography to Baryon Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2011-08-22

    The correspondence between theories in anti-de Sitter space and field theories in physical space-time leads to an analytic, semiclassical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance at short distances and color confinement at large distances. These equations, for both mesons and baryons, give a very good representation of the observed hadronic spectrum, including a zero mass pion. Light-front holography allows hadronic amplitudes in the AdS fifth dimension to be mapped to frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons in physical space-time, thus providing a relativistic description of hadrons at the amplitude level. The meson and baryon wavefunctions derived from light-front holography and AdS/QCD also have remarkable phenomenological features, including predictions for the electromagnetic form factors and decay constants. The approach can be systematically improved using light-front Hamiltonian methods. Some novel features of QCD for baryon physics are also discussed.

  16. Electron holography on remanent magnetization distribution of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Gil; Shindo, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Microstructures and magnetic domain structures of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets were investigated in detail by analytical electron microscopy and electron holography. While the crystal orientation of matrix Nd2Fe14B grains was analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction, precipitates of a few tens of nanometers at grain boundaries were identified to be alpha-Fe by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The detailed magnetization distribution in Nd2Fe14B grains and at their boundaries was visualized by electron holography. Ex situ experimentation with an electromagnet revealed that the domain walls in the demagnetized state and remanent states were pinned at grain boundaries, and Fe precipitates at the grain boundary were situated at the center of the closure domain.

  17. Real-time visualization of Karman vortex street in water flow field by using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Le

    2009-10-26

    The Karman vortex street generated behind a circular cylinder in water flow field is displayed and analyzed in real time by means of digital holography. Using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a digital hologram of the flow field in still state and then a video of continuous digital holograms in flowing state are recorded at 14.6 frames per second by a CCD camera, respectively. A series of sequential phase maps of the flow field are numerically reconstructed from the holograms in different states above based on double-exposure holographic interferometry. By seriating these phase maps, the shape and evolution of Karman vortex street can be displayed in real time in the form of a movie. For comparison, numerical simulation of the Karman vortex street under the boundary conditions adopted in the experiment is also presented, and the consistent results indicate that the experimental observation of Karman vortex street by using digital holography is successful and feasible.

  18. Phase reconstruction of digital holography with the peak of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Zhong, Jingang; Hu, Cuiying

    2009-06-20

    We describe a numerical reconstruction technique for digital holography by means of the two-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (2D-GWT). Applying the 2D-GWT to digital holography, the object wave can be reconstructed by calculating the wavelet coefficients of the hologram at the peak of the 2D-GWT automatically. At the same time the effect of the zero-order diffraction image and the twin image are eliminated without spatial filtering. Comparing the numerical reconstruction of a holographic image by the analysis of the one-dimensional Gabor wavelet transform (1D-GWT) with the 2D-GWT, we show that the 2D-GWT method is superior to the 1D-GWT method, especially when the fringes of the hologram are not just along the y direction. The theory and the results of a simulation and experiments are shown.

  19. Inverse-problem approach for particle digital holography: accurate location based on local optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulez, Ferréol; Denis, Loïc; Fournier, Corinne; Thiébaut, Eric; Goepfert, Charles

    2007-04-01

    We propose a microparticle localization scheme in digital holography. Most conventional digital holography methods are based on Fresnel transform and present several problems such as twin-image noise, border effects, and other effects. To avoid these difficulties, we propose an inverse-problem approach, which yields the optimal particle set that best models the observed hologram image. We resolve this global optimization problem by conventional particle detection followed by a local refinement for each particle. Results for both simulated and real digital holograms show strong improvement in the localization of the particles, particularly along the depth dimension. In our simulations, the position precision is > or =1 microm rms. Our results also show that the localization precision does not deteriorate for particles near the edge of the field of view.

  20. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  1. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  2. Synthetic-aperture experiment in the visible with on-axis digital heterodyne holography

    CERN Document Server

    Clerc, Frédérique Le; Collot, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a new on-axis digital holographic technique, heterodyne holography. The resolution of this technique is limited mainly by the amount of data recorded on two-dimensional photodetectors, i.e., the number of pixels and their size. We demonstrate that it is possible to increase the resolution linearly with the amount of recorded data by aperture synthesis as done in the radar technique but with an optical holographic field.

  3. Digital Holography for in Situ Real-Time Measurement of Plasma-Facing-Component Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ThomasJr., C. E. [Third Dimension Technologies, LLC, Knoxville, TN; Granstedt, E. M. [Tri-Alpha Energy; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2014-01-01

    In situ, real time measurement of net plasma-facing-component (PFC) erosion/deposition in a real plasma device is challenging due to the need for good spatial and temporal resolution, sufficient sensitivity, and immunity to fringe-jump errors. Design of a high-sensitivity, potentially high-speed, dual-wavelength CO2 laser digital holography system (nominally immune to fringe jumps) for PFC erosion measurement is discussed.

  4. A study of the electrode/solution interface during electrochemical reactions by digital holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENHAO CHEN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital holography was used to study in situ the dynamic changes of the electrode/solution interface and the solution near the electrode during the anodic process of iron in a sulfuric acid solution. The effects of chloride, bromide and iodine ions on this process were also investigated. The magnetic field also has effects on the process. The effects are discussed in combination with SEM results.

  5. 3D velocity measurement by a single camera using Doppler phase-shifting holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Nao; Kubo, Yamato; Barada, Daisuke; Kiire, Tomohiro

    2016-10-01

    In order to understand the details of the flow field in micro- and nano-fluidic devices, it is necessary to measure the 3D velocities under a microscopy. Thus, there is a strong need for the development of a new measuring technique for 3D velocity by a single camera. One solution is the use of holography, but it is well known that the accuracy in the depth direction is very poor for the commonly used in-line holography. At present, the Doppler phase-shifting holography is used for the 3D measurement of an object. This method extracts the signal of a fixed frequency caused by the Doppler beat between the object light and the reference light. It can measure the 3D shape precisely. Here, the frequency of the Doppler beat is determined by the velocity difference between the object light and the reference light. This implies that the velocity of an object can be calculated by the Doppler frequency. In this study, a Japanese 5 yen coin was traversed at a constant speed and its holography has been observed by a high-speed camera. By extracting only the first order diffraction signal at the Doppler frequency, a precise measurement of the shape and the position of a 5 yen coin has been achieved. At the same time, the longitudinal velocity of a 5 yen coin can be measured by the Doppler frequency. Furthermore, the lateral velocities are obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. A 5 yen coin has been traversed at different angles and its shapes and the 3D velocities have been measured accurately. This method can be applied to the particle flows in the micro- or nano-devices, and the 3D velocities will be measured under microscopes.

  6. Improvement of the image quality of random phase--free holography using an iterative method

    CERN Document Server

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Hiyama, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Satoki; Nagahama, Yuki; Sano, Marie; Oikawa, Minoru; Sugie, Takashige; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our proposed method of random phase-free holography using virtual convergence light can obtain large reconstructed images exceeding the size of the hologram, without the assistance of random phase. The reconstructed images have low-speckle noise in the amplitude and phase-only holograms (kinoforms); however, in low-resolution holograms, we obtain a degraded image quality compared to the original image. We propose an iterative random phase-free method with virtual convergence light to address this problem.

  7. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron...... holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p-. n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic...

  8. New Cosmologies on the Horizon. Cosmology and Holography in bigravity and massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolley, Andrew James [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2013-03-31

    The goal of this research program is to explore the cosmological dynamics, the nature of cosmological and black hole horizons, and the role of holography in a new class of infrared modified theories of gravity. This will capitalize of the considerable recent progress in our understanding of the dynamics of massive spin two fields on curved spacetimes, culminating in the formulation of the first fully consistent theories of massive gravity and bigravity/bimetric theories.

  9. Magnetic microstructure of iron sulfide crystals in magnetotactic bacteria from off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, T. [Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Posfai, M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Veszprem (Hungary); Chong, R.K.K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Finlayson, A.P. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Frontier Research System, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Japan); Frankel, R.B. [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States)]. E-mail: rfrankel@calpoly.edu

    2006-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy, off-axis electron holography and energy-selected imaging were used to study the crystallography, morphology, and magnetic microstructure of nanoscale greigite (Fe{sub 3}S{sub 4}) magnetosomes in magnetotactic bacteria from a sulfidic habitat. The greigite magnetosomes were organized in chains, but were less ordered than magnetite magnetosomes in other bacteria. Nevertheless, the magnetosomes comprise a permanent magnetic dipole, sufficient for magnetotaxis.

  10. Focus detection criterion for refocusing in multi-wavelength digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Mater, Mike; Ni, Jun

    2011-08-01

    The majority of focus detection criteria reported is based on amplitude contrast. Due to phase wrapping, phase contrast was previously reported unsuitable for focus finding tasks. By taking the advantage of multi-wavelength digital holography, we propose a new focus detection criterion based on phase contrast. Experimental results are presented to prove the feasibility of the developed criterion. Possible applications of the developed technology include inspecting machined surfaces in the auto industry.

  11. Copyright protection in digital museum based on digital holography and discrete wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhibin Li; Fei Xia; Gang Zheng; Junyong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    @@ A new method to protect the copyright of digital museum based on digital holography is proposed. The Fresnel hologram of watermark image is embedded in the object to be protected through discrete wavelet transform (DWT). After the watermark detection, the copyright information appears in the reconstructed hologram. With the higher redundancy feature in the hologram, the proposed technique can actually survive several kinds of image processing. Experimental results prove that the presented method has good robustness in image protection.

  12. Inelastic electron holography as a variant of the Feynman thought experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, P L; Verbeeck, J; Schattschneider, P; Lichte, H; van Dyck, D

    2007-08-01

    Using a combination of electron holography and energy filtering, interference fringes produced after inelastic interaction of electrons with hydrogen molecules are examined. Surprisingly, the coherence of inelastic scattering increases when moving from the surface of a hydrogen-containing bubble to the vacuum. This phenomenon can be understood in terms of the Feynman two-slit thought experiment with a variable ambiguity of the which-way registration.

  13. Aerial projection of three-dimensional motion pictures by electro-holography and parabolic mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Kakue; Takashi Nishitsuji; Tetsuya Kawashima; Keisuke Suzuki; Tomoyoshi Shimobaba; Tomoyoshi Ito

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an aerial projection system for reconstructing 3D motion pictures based on holography. The system consists of an optical source, a spatial light modulator corresponding to a display and two parabolic mirrors. The spatial light modulator displays holograms calculated by computer and can reconstruct holographic motion pictures near the surface of the modulator. The two parabolic mirrors can project floating 3D images of the motion pictures formed by the spatial light modulator wi...

  14. Complete oral rehabilitation with implants using CAD/CAM technology, stereolithography, and conoscopic holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Robert M; Balshi, Stephen F

    2012-02-01

    A 64-year-old totally edentulous female initially presented with ill-fitting removable prostheses. A comprehensive treatment plan with dental implants was accepted by the patient. Clinical and laboratory procedures were executed using various computer technologies including computed tomography, rapid prototyping, and optical scanning using conoscopic holography. A review of the patient's treatment and various modalities used are the focus of this patient report.

  15. Electric radiation mapping of silver/zinc oxide nanoantennas by using electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. E.; Mendoza-Santoyo, F.; Cantu-Valle, J.; Velazquez-Salazar, J.; José Yacaman, M.; Ponce, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio 78249 (United States); González, F. J. [Coordinación para la Innovación y la Aplicación de la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de San Luís Potosí, San Luis Potosí 78210 (Mexico); Diaz de Leon, R. [Instituto Tecnológico de San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosi 78437 (Mexico)

    2015-01-21

    In this work, we report the fabrication of self-assembled zinc oxide nanorods grown on pentagonal faces of silver nanowires by using microwaves irradiation. The nanostructures resemble a hierarchal nanoantenna and were used to study the far and near field electrical metal-semiconductor behavior from the electrical radiation pattern resulting from the phase map reconstruction obtained using off-axis electron holography. As a comparison, we use electric numerical approximations methods for a finite number of ZnO nanorods on the Ag nanowires and show that the electric radiation intensities maps match closely the experimental results obtained with electron holography. The time evolution of the radiation pattern as generated from the nanostructure was recorded under in-situ radio frequency signal stimulation, in which the generated electrical source amplitude and frequency were varied from 0 to 5 V and from 1 to 10 MHz, respectively. The phase maps obtained from electron holography show the change in the distribution of the electric radiation pattern for individual nanoantennas. The mapping of this electrical behavior is of the utmost importance to gain a complete understanding for the metal-semiconductor (Ag/ZnO) heterojunction that will help to show the mechanism through which these receiving/transmitting structures behave at nanoscale level.

  16. Experimental imaging research on continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haochong; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin

    2014-09-01

    The terahertz (THz) imaging is an advanced technique on the basis of the unique characteristics of terahertz radiation. Due to its noncontact, non-invasive and high-resolution capabilities, it has already shown great application prospects in biomedical observation, sample measurement, and quality control. The continuous-wave terahertz in-line digital holography is a combination of terahertz technology and in-line digital holography of which the source is a continuous-wave terahertz laser. Over the past decade, many researchers used different terahertz sources and detectors to undertake experiments. In this paper, the pre-process of the hologram is accomplished after the holograms' recording process because of the negative pixels in the pyroelectric detector and the air vibration caused by the chopper inside the camera. To improve the quality of images, the phase retrieval algorithm is applied to eliminate the twin images. In the experiment, the pin which terahertz wave can't penetrate and the TPX slice carved letters "THz" are chosen for the samples. The amplitude and phase images of samples are obtained and the twin image and noise in the reconstructed images are suppressed. The results validate the feasibility of the terahertz in-line digital holographic imaging technique. This work also shows the terahertz in-line digital holography technique's prospects in materials science and biological samples' detection.

  17. Unraveling nonadiabatic ionization and Coulomb potential effect in strong-field photoelectron holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Liu, Peng; Chen, Zhangjin; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Lin, C. D.; Chen, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Strong field photoelectron holography has been proposed as a means for interrogating the spatial and temporal information of electrons and ions in a dynamic system. After ionization, part of the electron wave packet may directly go to the detector (the reference wave), while another part may be driven back and scatters off the ion(the signal wave). The interference hologram of the two waves may be used to extract target information embedded in the collision process. Unlike conventional optical holography, however, propagation of the electron wave packet is affected by the Coulomb potential as well as by the laser field. In addition, electrons are emitted over the whole laser pulse duration, thus multiple interferences may occur. In this work, we used a generalized quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo method to investigate the effect of Coulomb potential and the nonadiabatic subcycle ionization on the photoelectron hologram. We showed that photoelectron hologram can be well described only when the effect of nonadiabatic ionization is accounted for, and Coulomb potential can be neglected only in the tunnel ionization regime. Our results help paving the way for establishing photoelectron holography for probing spatial and dynamic properties of atoms and molecules.

  18. Improving the phase measurement by the apodization filter in the digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shifeng; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie; Rong, Lu

    2012-11-01

    Due to the finite size of the hologram aperture in digital holography, high frequency intensity and phase fluctuations along the edges of the images, which reduce the precision of phase measurement. In this paper, the apodization filters are applied to improve the phase measurement in the digital holography. Firstly, the experimental setup of the lensless Fourier transform digital holography is built, where the sample is a standard phase grating with the grating constant of 300μm and the depth of 150nm. Then, apodization filters are applied to phase measurement of the sample with three kinds of the window functions: Tukey window, Hanning window and Blackman window, respectively. Finally, the results were compared to the detection data given by the commercial white-light interferometer. It is shown that aperture diffraction effects can be reduced by the digital apodization, and the phase measurement with the apodization is more accurate than in the unapodized case. Meanwhile, the Blackman window function produces better effect than the other two window functions in the measurement of the standard phase grating.

  19. Quantitative in situ magnetization reversal studies in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, L.A. [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig, B.P. 94347, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Magén, C., E-mail: cmagend@unizar.es [Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); Fundación ARAID, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Snoeck, E.; Gatel, C. [Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy (TALEM), CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza, Toulouse (France); CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig, B.P. 94347, F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Marín, L. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Serrano-Ramón, L. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); and others

    2013-11-15

    A generalized procedure for the in situ application of magnetic fields by means of the excitation of the objective lens for magnetic imaging experiments in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography is quantitatively described. A protocol for applying magnetic fields with arbitrary in-plane magnitude and orientation is presented, and a freeware script for Digital Micrograph{sup ™} is provided to assist the operation of the microscope. Moreover, a method to accurately reconstruct hysteresis loops is detailed. We show that the out-of-plane component of the magnetic field cannot be always neglected when performing quantitative measurements of the local magnetization. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and functionality of the methods. - Highlights: • Generalized procedure for application of magnetic fields with the TEM objective lens. • Arbitrary in-plane magnetic field magnitude and orientation can be applied. • Method to accurately reconstruct hysteresis loops by electron holography. • Out-of-plane field component should be considered in quantitative measurements. • Examples to illustrate the method in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography.

  20. Optimising electron holography in the presence of partial coherence and instrument instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Shery L.Y., E-mail: shery.chang@fz-juelich.de; Dwyer, Christian, E-mail: c.dwyer@fz-juelich.de; Boothroyd, Chris B.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    2015-04-15

    Off-axis electron holography provides a direct means of retrieving the phase of the wavefield in a transmission electron microscope, enabling measurement of electric and magnetic fields at length scales from microns to nanometers. To maximise the accuracy of the technique, it is important to acquire holograms using experimental conditions that optimise the phase resolution for a given spatial resolution. These conditions are determined by a number of competing parameters, especially the spatial coherence and the instrument instabilities. Here, we describe a simple, yet accurate, model for predicting the dose rate and exposure time that give the best phase resolution in a single hologram. Experimental studies were undertaken to verify the model of spatial coherence and instrument instabilities that are required for the optimisation. The model is applicable to electron holography in both standard mode and Lorentz mode, and it is relatively simple to apply. - Highlights: • We describe a simple, yet accurate, model for predicting the best phase resolution in off-axis electron holography. • Calibration of the model requires only two series of blank holograms; an intensity sequence and a time sequence. • The model can predict the optimum dose rate and exposure time for any given combination of biprism voltage and magnification. • The model is applicable in both standard mode and Lorentz mode, using either round or elliptical illumination.

  1. Measurement of width and step-height of photolithographic product patterns by using digital holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ju Yeop; Kang, Sung Hoon; Ma, Hye Joon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Chung Ki; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ik Hwan [Dept. of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Pil [Dept. of Ophthalmic Optics, Dong A College of Health, Youngam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The semiconductor industry is one of the key industries of Korea, which has continued growing at a steady annual growth rate. Important technology for the semiconductor industry is high integration of devices. This is to increase the memory capacity for unit area, of which key is photolithography. The photolithography refers to a technique for printing the shadow of light lit on the mask surface on to wafer, which is the most important process in a semiconductor manufacturing process. In this study, the width and step-height of wafers patterned through this process were measured to ensure uniformity. The widths and inter-plate heights of the specimens patterned using photolithography were measured using transmissive digital holography. A transmissive digital holographic interferometer was configured, and nine arbitrary points were set on the specimens as measured points. The measurement of each point was compared with the measurements performed using a commercial device called scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Alpha Step. Transmission digital holography requires a short measurement time, which is an advantage compared to other techniques. Furthermore, it uses magnification lenses, allowing the flexibility of changing between high and low magnifications. The test results confirmed that transmissive digital holography is a useful technique for measuring patterns printed using photolithography.

  2. Acoustic Igniter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  3. Acoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, J. M., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Tool detects noise sources by scanning sound "scene" and displaying relative location of noise-producing elements in area. System consists of ellipsoidal acoustic mirror and microphone and a display device.

  4. Acoustic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  5. An acoustic invisible gateway

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Kan, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The recently-emerged concept of "invisible gateway" with the extraordinary capability to block the waves but allow the passage of other entities has attracted great attentions due to the general interests in illusion devices. However, the possibility to realize such a fascinating phenomenon for acoustic waves has not yet been explored, which should be of paramount significance for acoustical applications but would necessarily involve experimental difficulty. Here we design and experimentally demonstrate an acoustic invisible gateway (AIG) capable of concealing a channel under the detection of sound. Instead of "restoring" a whole block of background medium by using transformation acoustics that inevitably requires complementary or restoring media with extreme parameters, we propose an inherently distinct methodology that only aims at engineering the surface impedance at the "gate" to mimic a rigid "wall" and can be conveniently implemented by decorating meta-structures behind the channel. Such a simple yet ef...

  6. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  7. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  8. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  9. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  10. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  11. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J;

    2011-01-01

    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  12. Properties of the vacuum in models for QCD. Holography vs. resummed field theory. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayakin, Andrey V.

    2011-01-17

    This Thesis is dedicated to a comparison of the two means of studying the electromagnetic properties of the QCD vacuum - holography and resummed field theory. I compare two classes of distinct models for the dynamics of the condensates. The first class consists of the so-called holographic models of QCD. Based upon the Maldacena conjecture, it tries to establish the properties of QCD correlation functions from the behavior of classical solutions of field equations in a higher-dimensional theory. Yet in many aspects the holographic approach has been found to be in an excellent agreement with data. These successes are the prediction of the very small viscosity-to-entropy ratio and the predictions of meson spectra up to 5% accuracy in several models. On the other hand, the resummation methods in field theory have not been discarded so far. Both classes of methods have access to condensates. Thus a comprehensive study of condensates becomes possible, in which I compare my calculations in holography and resummed field theory with each other, as well as with lattice results, field theory and experiment. I prove that the low-energy theorems of QCD keep their validity in holographic models with a gluon condensate in a non-trivial way. I also show that the so-called decoupling relation holds in holography models with chiral and gluon condensates, whereas this relation fails in the Dyson-Schwinger approach. On the contrary, my results on the chiral magnetic effect in holography disagree with the weak-field prediction; the chiral magnetic effect (that is, the electric current generation in a magnetic field) is three times less than the current in the weakly-coupled QCD. The chiral condensate behavior is found to be quadratic in external field both in the Dyson-Schwinger approach and in holography, yet we know that in the exact limit the condensate must be linear, thus both classes of models are concluded to be deficient for establishing the correct condensate behaviour in the

  13. On the applicability of the spherical wave expansion with a single origin for near-field acoustical holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, J.; Hald, J.; Juhl, P.

    2009-01-01

    regularization (the truncated singular value decomposition) is introduced. Important differences between applying the method when using a microphone array surrounding the source completely and an array covering only a part of the source are described. Another relevant issue is the scaling of the wave functions...... the sound field model to the measured pressure close to the source. This problem is ill posed, and therefore regularization is required. The present paper investigates the consequence of using only the expansion truncation as regularization approach and compares it with results obtained when additional...

  14. Designing an array for performing Near-field Acoustic Holography with a small number of p-u probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Comesaña, Daniel; Wen, Junjie; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    , such approaches usually require that a large number of transducers is spatially distributed over the area of interest. This paper describes some practical considerations for the design and optimization of a compact sensor array for performing NAH with a small number of sound intensity p-u probes. Two sensor...... geometries based on hexagonal lattice and polar sampling are assessed and compared to a regular square grid via Monte Carlo simulations accounting for multiple source configurations. Results show that transducer placement plays an important role in the robustness and accuracy of the results, specially...

  15. Acoustic vector sensor signal processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guiqing; LI Qihu; ZHANG Bin

    2006-01-01

    Acoustic vector sensor simultaneously, colocately and directly measures orthogonal components of particle velocity as well as pressure at single point in acoustic field so that is possible to improve performance of traditional underwater acoustic measurement devices or detection systems and extends new ideas for solving practical underwater acoustic engineering problems. Although acoustic vector sensor history of appearing in underwater acoustic area is no long, but with huge and potential military demands, acoustic vector sensor has strong development trend in last decade, it is evolving into a one of important underwater acoustic technology. Under this background, we try to review recent progress in study on acoustic vector sensor signal processing, such as signal detection, DOA estimation, beamforming, and so on.

  16. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  17. Interactions in an acoustic world

    CERN Document Server

    Simaciu, Ion; Borsos, Zoltan; Bradac, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to complete an earlier paper where the acoustic world was introduced. This is accomplished by analyzing the interactions which occur between the inhomogeneities of the acoustic medium, which are induced by the acoustic vibrations traveling in the medium. When a wave packet travels in a medium, the medium becomes inhomogeneous. The spherical wave packet behaves like an acoustic spherical lens for the acoustic plane waves. According to the principle of causality, there is an interaction between the wave and plane wave packet. In specific conditions the wave packet behaves as an acoustic black hole.

  18. Doping GaP Core-Shell Nanowire pn-Junctions: A Study by Off-Axis Electron Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Berg, Alexander; Borgström, Magnus T; Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samuelson, Lars; Wagner, Jakob B

    2015-06-10

    The doping process in GaP core-shell nanowire pn-junctions using different precursors is evaluated by mapping the nanowires' electrostatic potential distribution by means of off-axis electron holography. Three precursors, triethyltin (TESn), ditertiarybutylselenide, and silane are investigated for n-type doping of nanowire shells; among them, TESn is shown to be the most efficient precursor. Off-axis electron holography reveals higher electrostatic potentials in the regions of nanowire cores grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism (axial growth) than the regions grown parasitically by the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism (radial growth), attributed to different incorporation efficiency between VLS and VS of unintentional p-type carbon doping originating from the trimethylgallium precursor. This study shows that off-axis electron holography of doped nanowires is unique in terms of the ability to map the electrostatic potential and thereby the active dopant distribution with high spatial resolution.

  19. Developement of leakage localization technique by using acoustic signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. H.; Jeon, J. H.; Seo, D. H.; Kim, K. W. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of this research is to develop a leakage monitoring system for pipelines or valves in the secondary water system of a nuclear power plant. The system aims to detect the existence of leakage and to estimate the leak location, especially by utilizing the noise generated from the leak. It is safe, precise real-time alert system compared with the previous monitoring methods and tools such as the visual test and the thermal imaging camera. When there exists leakage in the pipeline or valves of nuclear power plant, the noise due to gas flow is radiated through leak region. That is, the secondary water system with leakage generates different noise from the system without leakage. This motivates us to measure and analyze the noise generated from the secondary water system, so as firstly to detect the existence of leakage, and secondly to estimate the leak location by using the noise source identification technique such as beamforming and acoustic holography. Especially the beamforming method models the signal from the noise source to estimate the location of source. Therefore, it is necessary to model the noise due to leakage which is dependent upon parameters. In the process of leak localization, the reflected wave due to interior walls and the measurement noise should be removed for the precise estimation. Therefore, we attempt to characterize the reflected wave and the measurement noise by modeling the interior sound field, thus to remove them and to localize the leak location with high precision

  20. Quantitative determination of vortex core dimensions in head‑to‑head domain walls using off‑axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, F; Klaui, M; Backes, D

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete three-dimensional characterization of vortex core spin structures, which is important for future magnetic data storage based on vortex cores in disks and in wires. Using electron holography to examine vortices in patterned Permalloy devices we have quantitativ......In this paper, we present a complete three-dimensional characterization of vortex core spin structures, which is important for future magnetic data storage based on vortex cores in disks and in wires. Using electron holography to examine vortices in patterned Permalloy devices we have...

  1. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  2. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  3. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.

    2003-04-01

    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  4. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  5. Passive broadband acoustic thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosov, A. A.; Belyaev, R. V.; Klin'shov, V. V.; Mansfel'd, A. D.; Subochev, P. V.

    2016-04-01

    The 1D internal (core) temperature profiles for the model object (plasticine) and the human hand are reconstructed using the passive acoustothermometric broadband probing data. Thermal acoustic radiation is detected by a broadband (0.8-3.5 MHz) acoustic radiometer. The temperature distribution is reconstructed using a priori information corresponding to the experimental conditions. The temperature distribution for the heated model object is assumed to be monotonic. For the hand, we assume that the temperature distribution satisfies the heat-conduction equation taking into account the blood flow. The average error of reconstruction determined for plasticine from the results of independent temperature measurements is 0.6 K for a measuring time of 25 s. The reconstructed value of the core temperature of the hand (36°C) generally corresponds to physiological data. The obtained results make it possible to use passive broadband acoustic probing for measuring the core temperatures in medical procedures associated with heating of human organism tissues.

  6. Acoustics of courtyard theatres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiqing

    2008-01-01

    The traditional Chinese theatre was often built with a courtyard. In such open-top space, the absence of a roof would mean little reverberation and non-diffused sound field.Acoustically the situation is quite different from that of any enclosed space. The refore, theclassic room acoustics, such as Sabine reverberation formula, would no longer be applicable due to the lack of sound reflections from the ceiling. As the parameter of reverberation time T30 shows the decay rate only, it would not properly characterize the prominent change in the fine structure of the echogram, particularly in case of a large reduction of reflections during the decay process. The sense of reverbrance in a courtyard space would differ noticeably from that of the equivalent 3D-T30 in an enclosed space. Based upon the characteristic analysis of the sound field in an open-top space, this paper presents a preliminary study on the acoustics of the courtyard theatres.

  7. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  8. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.

    2009-01-01

    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  9. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  10. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  11. Formulation of the rotational transformation of wave fields and their application to digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kyoji

    2008-07-01

    Rotational transformation based on coordinate rotation in Fourier space is a useful technique for simulating wave field propagation between nonparallel planes. This technique is characterized by fast computation because the transformation only requires executing a fast Fourier transform twice and a single interpolation. It is proved that the formula of the rotational transformation mathematically satisfies the Helmholtz equation. Moreover, to verify the formulation and its usefulness in wave optics, it is also demonstrated that the transformation makes it possible to reconstruct an image on arbitrarily tilted planes from a wave field captured experimentally by using digital holography.

  12. Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using digital holography microscope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhananjay Kumar Singh; P K Panigrahi

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size $d_p = 2.1$ m. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 l/min. The instantaneous 3D velocity field is obtained by correlating the particles obtained from the 3D numerical reconstruction of holograms using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV).

  13. A Map Between d = 3 and d = 4 Spacetime Dimensional k-strings Using Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Stiffler, Kory

    2009-11-01

    We investigate k-string in d=3 and d=4 spacetime dimensions using holography. Exploiting the similarities between two supergravity backgrounds,Maldacena-Nunez background and Maldacena-Nastase background, we map calculations for k-strings between d = 3 and d = 4 spacetime dimensions. The specific calculations investigated are the usual lowest order tension term for the energy of k-strings and the first order, one loop corrections, the Luscher term. The tension term is proportional to L, the length between quark antiquark pairs and the Luscher term is the typical 1/L Coulombic correction.

  14. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y

    2013-11-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice.

  15. Causality and the conformal boundary of AdS in real-time holography

    CERN Document Server

    Enciso, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We consider the holographic prescription problem in a (Lorentzian) AdS background, deriving from first principles the explicit formulas that relate the field at infinity with the field in the bulk. In contrast with the previous studies of the "real-time" holography problem, our derivation uses purely classical arguments that involve causality, as in the usual treatment of the holographic prescription problem in Wick-rotated spaces of Euclidean signature. We show that there is a unique propagator that preserves causality and see that this provides a simple picture of the relationship between the bulk manifold and its conformal boundary.

  16. Fast extended focused imaging in digital holography using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Hongzhen

    2011-05-01

    We present a simple and effective method for reconstructing extended focused images in digital holography using a graphics processing unit (GPU). The Fresnel transform method is simplified by an algorithm named fast Fourier transform pruning with frequency shift. Then the pixel size consistency problem is solved by coordinate transformation and combining the subpixel resampling and the fast Fourier transform pruning with frequency shift. With the assistance of the GPU, we implemented an improved parallel version of this method, which obtained about a 300-500-fold speedup compared with central processing unit codes.

  17. Geometric finiteness, holography and quasinormal modes for the warped AdS{sub 3} black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Kumar S [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700064 (India); Harikumar, E; Sivakumar, M [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sen, Siddhartha, E-mail: kumars.gupta@saha.ac.i, E-mail: harisp@uohyd.ernet.i, E-mail: sen@maths.ucd.i, E-mail: mssp@uohyd.ernet.i [School of Mathematical Sciences, UCD, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-08-21

    We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped AdS{sub 3} black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped AdS{sub 3} black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped AdS{sub 3} black hole.

  18. Geometric Finiteness, Holography and Quasinormal Modes for the Warped AdS_3 Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kumar S; Sen, Siddhartha; Sivakumar, M

    2009-01-01

    We show that there exists a precise kinematical notion of holography for the Euclidean warped $AdS_3$ black hole. This follows from the fact that the Euclidean warped $AdS_3$ black hole spacetime is a geometrically finite hyperbolic manifold. For such manifolds a theorem of Sullivan provides a one-to-one correspondence between the hyperbolic structure in the bulk and the conformal structure of its boundary. Using this theorem we obtain the holographic quasinormal modes for the warped $AdS_3$ black hole.

  19. Digital in-line holography in thick optical systems: application to visualization in pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, Nicolas; Marc, Brunel; Denis, Lebrun; 10.1364/AO.47.004147

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we apply digital in-line holography to image opaque objects through a thick plano-concave pipe. Opaque fibers and opaque particles are considered}. Analytical expression of the intensity distribution in the CCD sensor plane is derived using generalized Fresnel transform. \\textbf{The proposed model has the ability to deal with various pipe shape and thickness and compensates for the lack of versatility of classical DIH models. Holograms obtained with a 12 mm thick plano-concave pipe are then reconstructed using fractional Fourier transform (FRFT).} This method allows us to get rid of astigmatism. Numerical and experimental results are presented.

  20. Resolution improvement in off-axis digital holography using an iterative scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Liu, Cheng; Veetil, Suhas P.; Gao, Shumei; Wang, Jicheng; Wang, Yueke

    2014-08-01

    The image quality in off-axis digital holography (DH) is often degraded by inaccuracies in the reference wave used for reconstruction and the spatial filtering adopted to avoid twin images and zeroth order diffraction. To enhance the image quality in such cases, coherent diffraction imaging is combined with a DH technique to iteratively reconstruct the hologram. By using a small aperture on the sample plane as a spatial constraint and the recorded diffraction pattern as an intensity constraint, a higher spatial resolution than usual is obtained with the proposed method.

  1. Electron holography of magnetic field generated by a magnetic recording head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takayuki; Jeong, Jong Seok; Xia, Weixing; Akase, Zentaro; Shindo, Daisuke; Hirata, Kei

    2013-06-01

    The magnetic field generated by a magnetic recording head is evaluated using electron holography. A magnetic recording head, which is connected to an electric current source, is set on the specimen holder of a transmission electron microscope. Reconstructed phase images of the region around the magnetic pole show the change in the magnetic field distribution corresponding to the electric current applied to the coil of the head. A simulation of the magnetic field, which is conducted using the finite element method, reveals good agreement with the experimental observations.

  2. Developments in digital in-line holography enable validated measurement of 3D particle field dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert

    2013-12-01

    Digital in-line holography is an optical technique which can be applied to measure the size, three-dimensional position, and three-component velocity of disperse particle fields. This work summarizes recent developments at Sandia National Laboratories focused on improvement in measurement accuracy, experimental validation, and applications to multiphase flows. New routines are presented which reduce the uncertainty in measured position along the optical axis to a fraction of the particle diameter. Furthermore, application to liquid atomization highlights the ability to measure complex, three-dimensional structures. Finally, investigation of particles traveling at near sonic conditions prove accuracy despite significant experimental noise due to shock-waves.

  3. Study of transient wave propagation in plates using double pulse TV holography

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, H.; Guedes, R. M.; M. A. P. Vaz; Rodrigues, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a numerical and experimental study of the transient response of an isotropic plate. A low mass impact is used to generate the bending wave propagation. Displacements due to the bending wave propagation were assessed using an out-of-plane double pulse TV holography set-up. A PZT transducer is used to record the impact force and its temporal evolution. A novel experimental technique is presented for determination of the stress field in the plate using the out-of-plane ...

  4. Applied holography for drop formation of non-Newtonian fluids in centrifugal atomizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, J. J.

    Holography made possible the analysis of drop formation in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The drops were illuminated at the moment of their formation with an impulse ruby laser, and from the holograms the whole spray was reconstructed with a closed-circuit TV loop. From the pictures taken from different planes of the spray, the size and the spatial distribution of the drops were determined with an electrooptical analyzer. The holographic measuring method provided quantitative data phenomena which were qualitatively observable on high-speed films. The experiments also verified an equation involving dimensionless criteria, deduced fo the atomization of non-Newtonian substances.

  5. Twin image removal in X-ray fluorescence holography with two energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade,X-ray fluorescence holography has been developed for the study of 3D atomic arrangements in solids.However,it encounters the twin image problem which may disturb the reconstructed atomic images.In this paper,the formation of twin image is discussed and we propose a modified two-energy algorithm to remove the twin image.The simulation shows that the method is valid and more efficient than the multiple-energy algorithm proposed by Barton.

  6. Correct self-assembling of spatial frequencies in super-resolution synthetic aperture digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Ferraro, Pietro

    2009-12-01

    Synthetic aperture enlargement is obtained, in lensless digital holography, by introducing a diffraction grating between the object and the CCD camera with the aim of getting super-resolution. We demonstrate here that the spatial frequencies are naturally self-assembled in the reconstructed image plane when the NA is increased synthetically at its maximum extent of three times. By this approach it possible to avoid the use of the grating transmission formula in the numerical reconstruction process, thus reducing significantly the noise in the final super-resolved image. Demonstrations are reported in 1D and 2D with an optical target and a biological sample, respectively.

  7. Visualizations of Light-induced Refractive Index Changes in Photorefractive Crystals Employing Digital Holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建林; 张鹏; 周俭波; 杨德兴; 杨东升; 李恩普

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to visualize the light-induced refractive index changes in photorefractive crystals employing digital holography. The holograms formed in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are recorded by a twodimensional CCD camera. From these holograms, the phase differences, which contain the information of the index changes in photorefractive crystals, are determined by utilizing digital holographic interferometry. Then the two-dimensional visualizations of index changes in the crystals can be obtained. This method is successfully demonstrated in LiNbO3:Fe, KNSBN:Ce and SBN:Cr crystals.

  8. Image process in imaging through a scattering medium using fs electronic holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯比学; 陈国夫

    1999-01-01

    Aimed at imaging technology through scattering medium using fs electronic holography, a set of image process algorithm is put forward. This algorithm can be divided into three stages. First, every hologram is pre-processed, whose contrast is enhanced. Second, the first-order spatial spectrum is low-pass-filtered through a two-step process, so that high-frequency noise can be removed. Finally, many reconstructed images are ensemble-averaged. This stage can smooth random noise and is advantageous to restraining the speckle noise of image. The operation of this algorithm shows that all of processes in the three stages have obvious effects on improving image quality.

  9. Single Shot Digital Holography Using Iterative Reconstruction with Alternating Updates of Amplitude and Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dennis J; Weiner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    We present an image recovery approach to improve amplitude and phase reconstruction from single shot digital holograms, using iterative reconstruction with alternating updates. This approach allows the flexibility to apply different priors to amplitude and phase, improves phase reconstruction in image areas with low amplitudes, and does not require phase unwrapping for regularization. Phantom simulations and experimental measurements of a grating sample both demonstrate that the proposed method helps to reduce noise and resolve finer features. The improved image reconstruction from this technique will benefit the many applications of digital holography.

  10. Removing the twin image in digital holography by segmented filtering of in-focus twin image

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We propose and investigate a new digital method for the reduction of twin-image noise from digital Fresnel holograms. For the case of in-line Fresnel holography the unwanted twin is present as a highly corruptive noise when the object image is numerically reconstructed. We propose to firstly reconstruct the unwanted twin-image when it is in-focus and in this plane we calculate a segmentation mask that borders this in focus image. The twin-image is then segmented and removed by sim...

  11. Terahertz digital holography using angular spectrum and dual wavelength reconstruction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbeck, Martin S; Kim, Myung K; Gregory, Don A; Everitt, Henry O

    2011-05-09

    Terahertz digital off-axis holography is demonstrated using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a highly coherent, frequency tunable, continuous wave terahertz source emitting around 0.7 THz and a single, spatially-scanned Schottky diode detector. The reconstruction of amplitude and phase objects is performed digitally using the angular spectrum method in conjunction with Fourier space filtering to reduce noise from the twin image and DC term. Phase unwrapping is achieved using the dual wavelength method, which offers an automated approach to overcome the 2π phase ambiguity. Potential applications for nondestructive test and evaluation of visually opaque dielectric and composite objects are discussed.

  12. Combined single-pulse holography and time-resolved laser schlieren for flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed ruby laser and continuous-wave argon ion laser were used in a combined setup at the Langley Expansion Tube for single pulse holography and time resolved laser schlieren with a common optical axis. The systems can be operated simultaneously for a single run. For a single frame, the pulsed holographic setup offers the options of shadowgraph, Schlieren, and interferometry from the reconstructed hologram as well as the advantage of post-run sensitivity adjustments. For flow establishment studies the time resolved laser Schlieren provides visualization of the flow field every 12.5 microns for up to 80 frames with an exposure time per frame of 5.4 microns.

  13. Determination of Mean Inner Potential by Electron Holography Along with Electron Dynamic Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩国; 刘红荣; 杨奇斌; 张泽

    2003-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography in a field-emission-gun transmission electron microscope and electron dynamic simulation is used to determine the mean inner potential of copper. The phase shift of object wave versus specimen thickness is calculated up to 30 nm using electron dynamic formula, and the sample thickness is decided by match of the experimental and calculated phase shift. Based on the measured phase shift, the calculated mean inner potential of Cu is 21.2 V, which agrees with the reported values within the experimental error.

  14. From Architectural Acoustics to Acoustical Architecture Using Computer Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Marie Due; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2005-01-01

    Architectural acoustics design has in the past been based on simple design rules. However, with a growing complexity in architectural acoustics and the emergence of room acoustic simulation programmes with considerable potential, it is now possible to subjectively analyse and evaluate acoustic...... properties prior to the actual construction of a building. With the right tools applied, acoustic design can become an integral part of the architectural design process. The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of application that an acoustic simulation programme can have during an architectural...... acoustic design process and to set up a strategy to develop future programmes. The emphasis is put on the first three out of four phases in the working process of the architect and a case study is carried out in which each phase is represented by typical results ? as exemplified with reference...

  15. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has onl...

  16. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J;

    1985-01-01

    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  17. Indigenous Acoustic Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-26

    considerable distances, and they act as good sensors of human presence. Though singing insects are ubiquitous in warm areas, even in the desert ( Nevo and...methodology. DTIC. CD-58-PL. Lloyd, J. E. 1981. Personnel communication. Nevo , E. and S. A. Blondheim. 1972. Acoustic isolation in the speciation of

  18. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    sound speed profile is range-independent; since there is little expectation there will be significant mesoscale phenomenon given the lack of solar ...34 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 93 (4), 1736-1742 (1993). 2 Chris H. Harrison and Martin Siderius, "Effective Parameters for Matched

  19. The measurement of electrostatic potentials in core/shell GaN nanowires using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, Sadegh; Kasama, Takeshi; Ciechonski, R;

    2013-01-01

    Core-shell GaN nanowires are expected to be building blocks of future light emitting devices. Here we apply off-axis electron holography to map the electrostatic potential distributions in such nanowires. To access the cross-section of selected individual nanowires, focused ion beam (FIB) milling...

  20. Non-invasive, label-free cell counting and quantitative analysis of adherent cells using digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, A; Sebesta, M; Gustafsson, M; Gisselson, L; Wingren, A Gjörloff; Alm, K

    2008-11-01

    Manual cell counting is time consuming and requires a high degree of skill on behalf of the person performing the count. Here we use a technique that utilizes digital holography, allowing label-free and completely non-invasive cell counting directly in cell culture vessels with adherent viable cells. The images produced can provide both quantitative and qualitative phase information from a single hologram. The recently constructed microscope Holomonitor (Phase Holographic Imaging AB, Lund, Sweden) combines the commonly used phase contrast microscope with digital holography, the latter giving us the possibility of achieving quantitative information on cellular shape, area, confluence and optical thickness. This project aimed at determining the accuracy and repeatability of cell counting measurements using digital holography compared to the conventional manual cell counting method using a haemocytometer. The collected data were also used to determine cell size and cellular optical thickness. The results show that digital holography can be used for non-invasive automatic cell counting as precisely as conventional manual cell counting.

  1. Ultra-high-speed digital in-line holography system applied to particle-laden supersonic underexpanded jet flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Buchmann, Nicolas A.; Soria, Julio

    2012-01-01

    for magnified digital in-line holography is created, using an ultra-high-speed camera capable of frame rates of up to 1.0MHz. To test the new technique an axisymmetric supersonic underexpanded particle-laden jet is investigated. The results show that the new technique allows for the acquisition of time resolved...

  2. Extending the detection limit of dopants for focused ion beam prepared semiconductor specimens examined by off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, David; Rivallin, Pierrette; Hartmann, Jean-Michel;

    2009-01-01

    Silicon specimens containing p-n junctions have been prepared for examination by off-axis electron holography using focused ion beam (FIB) milling. FIB milling modifies the surfaces of the specimens due to gallium implantation and the creation of defects which has the effect of reducing the activ...

  3. Digital holography wavefront sensing in the pupil-plane recording geometry for distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banet, Matthias T.; Spencer, Mark F.; Raynor, Robert A.; Marker, Dan K.

    2016-09-01

    Digital holography in the pupil-plane recording geometry shows promise as a wavefront sensor for use in adaptive-optics systems. Because current wavefront sensors suffer from decreased performance in the presence of turbulence and thermal blooming, there is a need for a more robust wavefront sensor in such distributed-volume atmospheric conditions. Digital holography fulfills this roll by accurately estimating the wrapped phase of the complex optical field after propagation through the atmosphere to the pupil plane of an optical system. This paper examines wave-optics simulations of spherical-wave propagation through both turbulence and thermal blooming; it also quantifies the performance of digital holography as a wavefront sensor by generating field-estimated Strehl ratios as a function of the number of pixels in the detector array, the Rytov number, and the Fried coherence diameter. Altogether the results indicate that digital holography wavefront sensing in the pupil-plane recording geometry is a valid and accurate method for estimating the wrapped phase of the complex optical field in the presence of distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations.

  4. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  5. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  6. Optical scanning holography based on compressive sensing using a digital micro-mirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A-qian, Sun; Ding-fu, Zhou; Sheng, Yuan; You-jun, Hu; Peng, Zhang; Jian-ming, Yue; xin, Zhou

    2017-02-01

    Optical scanning holography (OSH) is a distinct digital holography technique, which uses a single two-dimensional (2D) scanning process to record the hologram of a three-dimensional (3D) object. Usually, these 2D scanning processes are in the form of mechanical scanning, and the quality of recorded hologram may be affected due to the limitation of mechanical scanning accuracy and unavoidable vibration of stepper motor's start-stop. In this paper, we propose a new framework, which replaces the 2D mechanical scanning mirrors with a Digital Micro-mirror Device (DMD) to modulate the scanning light field, and we call it OSH based on Compressive Sensing (CS) using a digital micro-mirror device (CS-OSH). CS-OSH can reconstruct the hologram of an object through the use of compressive sensing theory, and then restore the image of object itself. Numerical simulation results confirm this new type OSH can get a reconstructed image with favorable visual quality even under the condition of a low sample rate.

  7. Development of a Digital Holography Diagnostic for Surface Characterization at ORNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewer, T. M.; Thomas, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems Division (FMNSD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with Third Dimension Technologies (TDT), proposes to develop a digital holography (DH) surface erosion/deposition diagnostic for imaging 3D plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces in real time. Digital holography is a technique that utilizes IR lasers reflected from a material surface to form a holographic interferogram, which carries information about the topology of the surface when reconstructed. The interrogated surface (at a distance of 3 m) is a region of 2.3 cm x 2.3 cm, and the surface feature resolution is 10 micron or better in depth, around 1 mm transverse to the beam. This is being accomplished in a multi-staged research program at ORNL: 1) establishment of a single-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' 2) establishment of a dual-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' and 3) implementation of the dual-laser DH system on the Proto-MPEX device. The status of the diagnostic development effort will be presented. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of ORNL, managed by UT Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E.

  8. Applications of X-ray fluorescence holography to determine local lattice distortions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kouichi, E-mail: khayashi@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Happo, Naohisa [Graduate School of Information Sciences, Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima 731-3194 (Japan); Hosokawa, Shinya [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We summarized topics of X-ray fluorescence holography focused on the local lattice distortions. • We found details of behaviors of nearest neighbor atoms around dopants. • We found the average distributions of the atoms at the individual sites in mixed crystals. • Distorted and undistorted sires sometimes coexist in a same mixed crystal. - Abstract: X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a method for investigating atomic order up to the medium ranges, and can provide 3D atomic images around specific elements within a radius of nm order. In addition to these characteristics, XFH is sensitive to positional fluctuations of atoms, and therefore it is useful for characterizing the local lattice distortions around specific elements. We have applied XFH to dopants and mixed crystals. We found interesting features in local lattice distortions, such as the displacements of first-neighbor atoms around dopants, far-sighted views of the atomistic fluctuations in mixed crystals, and the coexistence of distorted/undistorted sites in the same material.

  9. Super-resolution imaging in optical scanning holography using structured illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhenbo; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2016-10-01

    As a specific digital holographic microscopy system, optical scanning holography (OSH) is an appealing technique that makes use of the advantages of holography in the application of optical microscopy. In OSH system, a three-dimensional object is scanned with a Fresnel zone plate in a raster fashion, and the electrical signals are demodulated into a complex hologram by heterodyne detection. Then the recorded light wavefront information contained in the hologram allows one to digitally reconstruct the specimen for multiple purposes such as optical sectioning, extended focused imaging as well as three-dimensional imaging. According to Abbe criterion, however, akin to those conventional microscopic imaging systems, OSH suffers from limited resolving power due to the finite sizes of the objective lens and the aperture, i.e., low numerical aperture. To bypass the diffraction barrier in light microscopy, various super-resolution imaging techniques have been proposed. Among those methods, structured illumination is an ensemble imaging concept that modulates the spatial frequency by projecting additional well-defined patterns with different orientation and phase shift onto the specimen. Computational algorithms are then applied to remove the effect of the structure and to reconstruct a super-resolved image beyond the diffraction-limit. In this paper, we introduce this technique in OSH system to scale down the spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit. The performance of the proposed method is validated by simulation and experimental results.

  10. Primary Beam and Dish Surface Characterization at the Allen Telescope Array by Radio Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, P R; Barott, William; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, D C -J; Bower, Geoffrey C; Bradford, Tucker; Cheng, Calvin; Croft, Steve; Dexter, Matt; Dreher, John; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Heiles, Carl; Helfer, Tamara; Jordan, Jane; Jorgensen, Susan; Kilsdonk, Tom; Gutierrez-Kraybill, Colby; Keating, Garrett; Law, Casey; Lugten, John; MacMahon, D H E; McMahon, Peter; Milgrome, Oren; Siemion, Andrew; Smolek, Ken; Thornton, Douglas; Pierson, Tom; Randall, Karen; Ross, John; Shostak, Seth; Tarter, J C; Urry, Lynn; Werthimer, Dan; Williams, Peter K G; Whysong, David; Harp, G R; Ackermann, R F; Nadler, Z J; Blair, Samantha K; Davis, M M; Wright, M C H; Forster, J R; DeBoer, D R; Welch, W J

    2012-01-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) is a cm-wave interferometer in California, comprising 42 antenna elements with 6-m diameter dishes. We characterize the antenna optical accuracy using two-antenna interferometry and radio holography. The distortion of each telescope relative to the average is small, with RMS differences of 1 percent of beam peak value. Holography provides images of dish illumination pattern, allowing characterization of as-built mirror surfaces. The ATA dishes can experience mm-scale distortions across -2 meter lengths due to mounting stresses or solar radiation. Experimental RMS errors are 0.7 mm at night and 3 mm under worst case solar illumination. For frequencies 4, 10, and 15 GHz, the nighttime values indicate sensitivity losses of 1, 10 and 20 percent, respectively. The ATA.s exceptional wide-bandwidth permits observations over a continuous range 0.5 to 11.2 GHz, and future retrofits may increase this range to 15 GHz. Beam patterns show a slowly varying focus frequency dependence. We prob...

  11. In-lab in-line digital holography for cloud particle measurement experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaiqi; Ji, Feng; Li, Liang; Li, Baosheng; Ma, Fei

    2016-10-01

    In terms of climate science, getting the accurate cloud particle sizes, shape and number distributions is necessary for searching the influence of cloud on the environment, radiative transfer, remote sensing measurements and understanding precipitation formation. Many methods and instruments have been developed to measure cloud particles, yet there is still restricted to one-dimensional or two-dimensional projections of particle positions, unable to get the three-dimensional information of the spatial distribution of particles. In-line holography is particularly useful for particles field measurements, because it can directly get the three-dimensional information of the particles and quickly access and storage holographic image. In this paper, the main work is using digital in-line holographic system to measure simulated cloud particles in the laboratory. For digital recording hologram reconstructing, we consider the image intensity in conjunction with the edge sharpness of the particles, to obtain an automatically selected threshold of each particle. Using the threshold, we can get a binary image to identify the particles and separate the particles from background, and then get the information such as the location, shape, particle size of particles. The experimental results show that the in-line digital holography can be used to detect the cloud particles, which can gain many parameters of the simulated cloud particles in the plane perpendicular to the optical axis, and can estimate volume parameters of the simulated cloud particles. This experiment is a basis for the further in situ detection of atmospheric cloud particles.

  12. Lightfront holography and area density of entropy associated with quantum localization on wedge-horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2002-08-01

    The lightfront quantization of the 70s is reviewed in the more rigorous setting of lightfront (LF) restriction of free fields in which the lightfront is considered to be linear extension of the upper causal horizon of a wedge region. Particular attention is given to the change of localization structure in passing from the wedge to its horizon which results in the emergence of a transverse quantum mechanical substructure of the QFT on the horizon and its lightfront extension. The vacuum fluctuations of QFT on the LF are compressed into the direction of the lightray (where they become associated with a chiral QFT) and lead to the notion of area density of a 'split localization' entropy. To overcome the limitation of this restriction approach and include interacting theories with non-canonical short distance behavior, we introduce a new concept of algebraic lightfront holography which uses ideas of algebraic QFT, in particular the modular structure of its associated local operator algebras. In this way the localization properties of LF degrees of freedom including the absence of transverse vacuum fluctuations are confirmed to be stable against interactions. The important universality aspect of lightfront holography is emphasized. Only in this way one is able to extract from the 'split-localization' entropy a split-independent additive entropy-like measure of the entanglement of the vacuum upon restriction to the horizon algebra. (author)

  13. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures.

  14. Stochastic dual-plane on-axis digital holography based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-09-01

    For traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography, the robustness is lower because it is difficult to maintain the stability of the phase difference between the object beam and the reference beam, and it may be invalid when the objects are on the surface of a medium with uneven thickness. An improved dual-plane digital holographic method based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented to address these problems. Two holograms are recorded at two different planes separated by a small distance. Then, the zero-order image and conjugated image are eliminated by Fourier domain processing. In order to enhance the robustness of the system, the object is illuminated by a stochastic beam that is a speckle wave produced by a diffuser. Simulated and experimental results are shown to demonstrate that the proposed method has greater robustness than the traditional dual-plane on-axis digital holography and it can be used to imaging on the irregular surface of a transparent medium.

  15. Deformation monitoring on ancient terracotta warriors by microscopic TV-holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülker, Gerd; Hinsch, Klaus D.; Kraft, Arne

    2001-11-01

    In order to investigate deterioration processes on the famous 2000-yr-old Chinese Terracotta warriors, deformation measurements were performed with TV-holography. The aim of the investigations is to estimate the suitability of several conservation agents and procedures, which are developed to preserve the extremely endangered paint layers of the figures. Due to the occurrence of small-scale deformation areas the field of view had to be reduced. A microscopic system was constructed and typical object deformations due to shrinkage and swelling are presented. To investigate the individual layers of the multilayered objects a short-coherent superluminescence diode instead of a laser diode is used in a further modification. By changing the path length of one of the interfering beams it is possible to select a region limited in depth where deformations are measured even if it is located below the surface. Results on an artificial test object and on original terracotta fragments demonstrate the capabilities of this new short-coherence TV-holography system.

  16. Using Seismic Tomography and Holography Ground Imaging to Investigate Ground Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ed Kase; Tim Ross

    2004-01-01

    Unforeseen, variable subsurface ground conditions present the greatest challenge to the heavy construction and civil engineering industry in the design, construction, and maintenance of large projects. A detailed, accurate site investigation will reduce project risk, improve construction performance and safety, prolong the life of the tunnel or structure,and prevent waste in over - design. Presently, site characterization and geotechnical engineering are limited by the inability to adequately describe these subsurface ground conditions.NSA Geotechnical Services has successfully applied seismic tomography and holography ground imaging technologies on tunneling and heavy civil excavations worldwide. Seismic signal waveforms traveling through a complex medium consist of various arrivals from refractions, reflections, scattering, and dispersion. Tomography and holography are proven inversion technologies for estimating location and extent of material property variations causing changes in signal waveforms.ent attenuation rates and velocities. Seismic waves will travel faster through competent material and be generally less attenuated than through broken/fractured ground or voids.encounters an interface between ground zones possessing different seismic properties. Most geologic structures, anomalies,and changes in lithology provide detectable seismic reflections if they are within a reasonable distance of the seismic source.This paper will present various applications of these technologies, illustrating how seismic imaging can provide accurate information regarding ground conditions associated with tunneling projects. With this information, engineers can complete projects safely, within time and budget constraints.

  17. AdS/QCD, Light-Front Holography, and Sublimated Gluons

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J

    2011-01-01

    Gauge/gravity duality leads to a simple, analytical, and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian. This approach, called "Light-Front Holography", successfully describes the spectroscopy of light-quark meson and baryons, their elastic and transition form factors, and other hadronic properties. The bound-state Schrodinger and Dirac equations of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model predict linear Regge trajectories which have the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. Light-front holography connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable zeta in 3+1 space at fixed light-front time. A key feature is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons -- the relativistic analogs of the Schrodinger wavefunctions of atomic physics which allow one to compute form factors, transversity distributions, spin properties of the valence ...

  18. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  19. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Aljahdali, Rasha

    We design a type of acoustic metasurface, which is composed of carefully designed slits in a rigid thin plate. The effective refractive indices of different slits are different but the impedances are kept the same as that of the host medium. Numerical simulations show that such a metasurface can redirect or reflect a normally incident wave at different frequencies, even though it is impedance matched to the host medium. We show that the underlying mechanisms can be understood by using the generalized Snell's law, and a unified analytic model based on mode-coupling theory. We demonstrate some simple realization of such acoustic metasurface with real materials. The principle is also extended to the design of planar acoustic lens which can focus acoustic waves. Manipulate acoustic waves by impedance matched acoustic metasurfaces.

  20. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions.

  1. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  2. ACOUSTIC EMISSION ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Almeida-Pérez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper appears a solution for acoustic emission analysis commonly known as noise. For the accomplishmentof this work a personal computer is used, besides sensors (microphones and boards designed and built for signalconditioning. These components are part of a virtual instrument used for monitoring the acoustical emission. Themain goal of this work is to develop a virtual instrument that supplies many important data as the result of ananalysis allowing to have information in an easy and friendly way. Moreover this information is very useful forstudying and resolving several situations in planning, production and testing areas.The main characteristics of the virtual instrument are: signal analysis in time, effective power measurement inDecibels (dB, average intensity taken from the principle of paired microphones, as well as the data analysis infrequency. These characteristics are included to handle two information channels.

  3. Electromagnetic acoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jane F; Chang, David B; McNaughton, Stuart; Jeong, Jong Seob; Shung, K K; Cerwin, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Electromagnetic acoustic imaging (EMAI) is a new imaging technique that uses long-wavelength RF electromagnetic (EM) waves to induce ultrasound emission. Signal intensity and image contrast have been found to depend on spatially varying electrical conductivity of the medium in addition to conventional acoustic properties. The resultant conductivity- weighted ultrasound data may enhance the diagnostic performance of medical ultrasound in cancer and cardiovascular applications because of the known changes in conductivity of malignancy and blood-filled spaces. EMAI has a potential advantage over other related imaging techniques because it combines the high resolution associated with ultrasound detection with the generation of the ultrasound signals directly related to physiologically important electrical properties of the tissues. Here, we report the theoretical development of EMAI, implementation of a dual-mode EMAI/ultrasound apparatus, and successful demonstrations of EMAI in various phantoms designed to establish feasibility of the approach for eventual medical applications.

  4. Acoustic emission source modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hora P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the acoustic emission (AE source modeling by means of FEM system COMSOL Multiphysics. The following types of sources are used: the spatially concentrated force and the double forces (dipole. The pulse excitation is studied in both cases. As a material is used steel. The computed displacements are compared with the exact analytical solution of point sources under consideration.

  5. Acoustic Characterization of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dept. of Electrical & Computer Enginnering Dept Natural Resources...same transduction device is used for transmit and receive, and the broad-band mechanical matching between the transduction device and the acoustic...has a direct influence over the imaging depth for a given dynamic range. Figure 10 demonstrated the influence of the roundtrip propagation loss as a

  6. Acoustic Communications for UUVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    through use of high-gain, error-control coding coupled with a modified decision feedback equalizer (DFE) which allows the gain to be exploited prior to...finished it wait for feedback from the receiver. At the host each packet is decoded and displayed if it is correct, or added to a list of bad packets if it...Systems Laboratory, Florida Alantic University, July 1998. L. Freitag el al: ‘A Bidriectional Coherent Acoustic Communications Systems for Underwater

  7. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: tan.ming.kwang@monash.edu [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  8. Acoustics, computers and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchard, James J.

    2003-10-01

    The human ear has created a high standard for the requirements of acoustical measurements. The transient nature of most acoustical signals has limited the success of traditional volt meters. Professor Hixson's pioneering work in electroacoustical measurements at ARL and The University of Texas helped set the stage for modern computer-based measurements. The tremendous performance of modern PCs and extensive libraries of signal processing functions in virtual instrumentation application software has revolutionized the way acoustical measurements are made. Today's analog to digital converters have up to 24 bits of resolution with a dynamic range of over 120 dB and a single PC processor can process 112 channels of FFTs at 4 kHz in real time. Wavelet technology further extends the capabilities for analyzing transients. The tools available for measurements in speech, electroacoustics, noise, and vibration represent some of the most advanced measurement tools available. During the last 50 years, Professor Hixson has helped drive this revolution from simple oscilloscope measurements to the modern high performance computer-based measurements.

  9. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kar M.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ˜ 106 Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξs ˜ 10-9 m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξs ˜ 10-8 m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10-8 m with 106 Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  10. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R

    2007-01-01

    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  11. Latest Trends in Acoustic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Caliendo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustics-based methods offer a powerful tool for sensing applications. Acoustic sensors can be applied in many fields ranging from materials characterization, structural health monitoring, acoustic imaging, defect characterization, etc., to name just a few. A proper selection of the acoustic wave frequency over a wide spectrum that extends from infrasound (<20 Hz up to ultrasound (in the GHz–band, together with a number of different propagating modes, including bulk longitudinal and shear waves, surface waves, plate modes, etc., allow acoustic tools to be successfully applied to the characterization of gaseous, solid and liquid environments. The purpose of this special issue is to provide an overview of the research trends in acoustic wave sensing through some cases that are representative of specific applications in different sensing fields.

  12. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James

    2012-01-01

    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  13. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Allen, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the project is to develop an acoustic modeling capability, based on commercial off-the-shelf software, to be used as a tool for oversight of the future manned Constellation vehicles. The use of such a model will help ensure compliance with acoustic requirements. Also, this project includes modeling validation and development feedback via building physical mockups and conducting acoustic measurements to compare with the predictions.

  14. Acoustic Imaging of Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, K. N.; Seshan, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Elliposidal acoustic mirror used to measure sound emitted at discrete points in burning turbulent jets. Mirror deemphasizes sources close to target source and excludes sources far from target. At acoustic frequency of 20 kHz, mirror resolves sound from region 1.25 cm wide. Currently used by NASA for research on jet flames. Produces clearly identifiable and measurable variation of acoustic spectral intensities along length of flame. Utilized in variety of monitoring or control systems involving flames or other reacting flows.

  15. Acoustic streaming with heat exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubaidullin, A. A.; Pyatkova, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    Acoustic streaming in a cylindrical cavity with heat exchange is numerically investigated. The cavity is filled with air. The boundaries of the cavity are maintained at constant temperature. The features of acoustic streaming manifesting with the decrease in the frequency of vibration in comparison with the resonant frequency are determined. The influence of the nonlinearity of process on acoustic streaming is shown. The nonlinearity is caused by the increase of the vibration amplitude.

  16. State of the art in atomic resolution off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linck, Martin, E-mail: mlinck@lbl.gov [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zum Triebenberg 50, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Freitag, Bert; Kujawa, Stephan [FEI Company, Eindhoven, Building AAE, Achtseweg Noord 5, P.O. Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lehmann, Michael; Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    As proposed by Hannes Lichte, to resolve structure-property relations not only the question 'Which atom is where?' but also the question 'Which fields are around?' has to be answered. High-resolution off-axis electron holography opens up an access to these key questions in that it allows accessing the complete exit-wave of the object provided within the information limit of the microscope, i.e. amplitude and phase including atomic details such as position and species, and moreover, information about large area electric potentials and magnetic fields, which a conventional transmission electron microscope is blind for-also when using a Cs-corrector. For an excellent object exit-wave reconstruction, special care has to be taken on the hologram quality, i.e. interference fringe contrast and electron dose. Severe restrictions are given to signal resolution by the limited brightness of the electron source. Utilizing a new high-brightness Schottky field electron emitter in a state-of-the-art transmission electron microscope operated at 300 kV, the phase signal resolution at atomic resolution can significantly be enhanced. An improvement by at least a factor of 2.88 compared to the most recently reported single hologram at atomic resolution is found. To proof the applicability of this setup to real materials science problems, a grain boundary of gold has been investigated holographically. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impact of the brightness on the reconstructed signal in electron holography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factor 2.8 gain in signal quality by setup with a high brightness electron gun. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of a grain boundary in gold with a state-of-the-art holography setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-posteriori aberration fine-tuning for true one Angstrom resolution in the object wave. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mistilt analysis on the atomic scale by numerical wave optics.

  17. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  18. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  19. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  20. Compressive sensing sectional imaging for single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jiawen; Clark, David C.; Kim, Myung K.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical reconstruction method based on compressive sensing (CS) for self-interference incoherent digital holography (SIDH) is proposed to achieve sectional imaging by single-shot in-line self-interference incoherent hologram. The sensing operator is built up based on the physical mechanism of SIDH according to CS theory, and a recovery algorithm is employed for image restoration. Numerical simulation and experimental studies employing LEDs as discrete point-sources and resolution targets as extended sources are performed to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the method. The intensity distribution and the axial resolution along the propagation direction of SIDH by angular spectrum method (ASM) and by CS are discussed. The analysis result shows that compared to ASM the reconstruction by CS can improve the axial resolution of SIDH, and achieve sectional imaging. The proposed method may be useful to 3D analysis of dynamic systems.

  1. Quantitative in situ magnetization reversal studies in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L A; Magén, C; Snoeck, E; Gatel, C; Marín, L; Serrano-Ramón, L; Prieto, J L; Muñoz, M; Algarabel, P A; Morellon, L; De Teresa, J M; Ibarra, M R

    2013-11-01

    A generalized procedure for the in situ application of magnetic fields by means of the excitation of the objective lens for magnetic imaging experiments in Lorentz microscopy and electron holography is quantitatively described. A protocol for applying magnetic fields with arbitrary in-plane magnitude and orientation is presented, and a freeware script for Digital Micrograph(™) is provided to assist the operation of the microscope. Moreover, a method to accurately reconstruct hysteresis loops is detailed. We show that the out-of-plane component of the magnetic field cannot be always neglected when performing quantitative measurements of the local magnetization. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and functionality of the methods.

  2. Design of a digital holography system for PFC erosion measurements on Proto-MPEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ThomasJr., C. E. [Third Dimension Technologies, LLC, Knoxville, TN; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Granstedt, E. M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2016-01-01

    A project has been started at ORNL to develop a dual-wavelength digital holography system for plasma facing component (PFC) erosion measurements on Proto-MPEX. Such a system will allow in-situ real-time measurements of component erosion. Initially the system will be developed with one laser, and first experimental laboratory measurements will be made with the single laser system. In the second year of development a second CO2 laser will be added and measurements with the dual wavelength system will begin. Adding the second wavelength allows measurements at a much longer synthetic wavelength equal to the average of the two wavelengths times the average divided by the difference of the two wavelengths.

  3. Upgrade of the pedagogic and popular science tool for holography to a colour version

    CERN Document Server

    Escarguel, A

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, a pedagogic tool for monochromatic holography was realized for pedagogic and popular science purposes [Th. Voslion and A. Escarguel, Eur. J. Phys 33, 1803 (2012)]. Following its success, we decided to upgrade it to make larger colour holograms and new pedagogic experiments. The resulting kit includes all the necessary equipment to produce 4 "x 5" colour holograms with a simple optical assembly and with an excellent vibration tolerance. The resulting holograms, in colour and bigger, are much more spectacular for science outreach purposes. For teaching purposes, some of the existing experiments have been upgraded, and new ones have been developed for university students and continuing education of teachers: colour reflection Denisyuk holograms, single shot transmission/reflection holograms, angular and wavelength multiplexing, holographic diffraction gratings with improved setup.

  4. Light-Front Holography, Color Confinement, and Supersymmetric Features of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J

    2016-01-01

    Light-Front Quantization provides a physical, frame-independent formalism for hadron dynamics and structure. Observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes are defined from the hadronic light-front wavefunctions. One obtains new insights into the hadronic spectrum, light-front wavefunctions, and the functional form of the QCD running coupling in the nonperturbative domain using light-front holography -- the duality between the front form and AdS$_5$, the space of isometries of the conformal group. In addition, superconformal algebra leads to remarkable supersymmetric relations between mesons and baryons of the same parity. The mass scale $\\kappa$ underlying confinement and hadron masses can be connected to the parameter $\\Lambda_{\\overline {MS}}$ in the QCD running coupling by matching the nonperturbative dynamics, as described by the effective conformal theory mapped to the light-front and its embedding in AdS space, to the perturbative QCD regime. The...

  5. Electron Holography of Barrier Structures in Co/ZrAlOx/Co Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; ZHU Tao; SHEN Feng; SHENG Wen-Ting; WANG Wei-Gang; XIAO John Q; ZHANG Ze

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the potential profiles and elemental distribution of barriers in Co/ZrAlOx/Co magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using electron holography (EH) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The MTJ barriers are introduced by oxidizing a bilayer consisting with a uniform 0.45-nm Al layer and a wedge-shaped Zr layer (0-2 nm). From the scanning transmission electron microscopy, AlOx and ZrOx layers are mixed together,indicating that compact AlOx layer cannot be formed in such a bilayer structure of barriers. The EH results reveal that there are no sharp interfaces between the barrier and magnetic electrodes, which may be responsible for a smaller tunnelling magnetoresistance compared with the MTJs of Co/AlOx/Co.

  6. Transfer and reconstruction of the density matrix in off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Falk; Lubk, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The reduced density matrix completely describes the quantum state of an electron scattered by an object in transmission electron microscopy. However, the detection process restricts access to the diagonal elements only. The off-diagonal elements, determining the coherence of the scattered electron, may be obtained from electron holography. In order to extract the influence of the object from the off-diagonals, however, a rigorous consideration of the electron microscope influences like aberrations of the objective lens and the Möllenstedt biprism in the presence of partial coherence is required. Here, we derive a holographic transfer theory based on the generalization of the transmission cross-coefficient including all known holographic phenomena. We furthermore apply a particular simplification of the theory to the experimental analysis of aloof beam electrons scattered by plane silicon surfaces.

  7. Twin image elimination in digital holography by combination of Fourier transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2013-01-01

    We present a new technique for removing twin image in in-line digital Fourier holography using a combination of Fourier transformations. Instead of recording only a Fourier transform hologram of the object, we propose to record a combined Fourier transform hologram by simultaneously recording the hologram of the Fourier transform and the inverse Fourier transform of the object with suitable weighting coefficients. Twin image is eliminated by appropriate inverse combined Fourier transformation and proper choice of the weighting coefficients. An optical configuration is presented for recording combined Fourier transform holograms. Simulations demonstrate the feasibility of twin image elimination. The hologram reconstruction is sensitive to phase aberrations of the object, thereby opening a way for holographic phase sensing.

  8. Evaporating droplet hologram simulation for digital in-line holography setup with divergent beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méès, Loïc; Grosjean, Nathalie; Chareyron, Delphine; Marié, Jean-Louis; Seifi, Mozhdeh; Fournier, Corinne

    2013-10-01

    Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) for a multilayered sphere is used to simulate holograms produced by evaporating spherical droplets with refractive index gradient in the surrounding air/vapor mixture. Simulated holograms provide a physical interpretation of experimental holograms produced by evaporating Diethyl Ether droplets with diameter in the order of 50 μm and recorded in a digital in-line holography configuration with a divergent beam. Refractive index gradients in the surrounding medium lead to a modification of the center part of the droplet holograms, where the first fringe is unusually bright. GLMT simulations reproduce this modification well, assuming an exponential decay of the refractive index from the droplet surface to infinity. The diverging beam effect is also considered. In both evaporating and nonevaporating cases, an equivalence is found between Gaussian beam and plane wave illuminations, simply based on a magnification ratio to be applied to the droplets' parameters.

  9. Large object investigation by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: coolboy006@sohu.com; Zhang, Yingying; Xie, Jun [College of Physics and Electronics, Nanjing XiaoZhuang University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 211171 (China)

    2014-10-13

    We present a method to investigate large object by digital holography with effective spectrum multiplexing under single-exposure approach. This method splits the original reference beam and redirects one of its branches as a second object beam. Through the modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two object beams can illuminate different parts of the large object and create a spectrum multiplexed hologram onto the focal plane array of the charge-coupled device/complementary metal oxide semiconductor camera. After correct spectrum extraction and image reconstruction, the large object can be fully observed within only one single snap-shot. The flexibility and great performance make our method a very attractive and promising technique for large object investigation under common 632.8 nm illumination.

  10. Digital Heterodyne Holography Reveals the Non-Quasi-Static Scattering Behaviour of Transversally Coupled Nanodisk Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Y. Suck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reconstruct the full three-dimensional scattering pattern of longitudinal and transverse modes in pairs of coupled gold nanodisks using digital heterodyne holography. Near-field simulations prove that, in our experimental conditions, the induced dipoles in the longitudinal mode are in phase while they are nearly in opposite phase for the transverse mode. The scattering efficiency of the two modes is of the same order of magnitude, which goes against the common belief that antisymmetric transverse modes are “dark.” The analysis of the reconstructed hologram in the Fourier plane allows us to estimate the angular scattering pattern for both excited modes. In particular, the antisymmetric transverse mode scatters light mostly into one half-plane, demonstrating that the quasi-static approximation breaks down in nanodisk pairs even for an interparticle distance lower than λ/4.

  11. Meson/Baryon/Tetraquark Supersymmetry from Superconformal Algebra and Light-Front Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, Stanley J; Dosch, Hans Günter; Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Superconformal algebra leads to remarkable connections between the masses of mesons and baryons of the same parity -- supersymmetric relations between the bosonic and fermionic bound states of QCD. Supercharges connect the mesonic eigenstates to their baryonic superpartners, where the mesons have internal angular momentum one unit higher than the baryons. We also predict the existence of tetraquarks which are degenerate in mass with baryons with the same angular momentum. An effective supersymmetric light-front Hamiltonian for hadrons composed of light quarks can be constructed by embedding superconformal quantum mechanics into AdS space. The breaking of conformal symmetry determines a unique quark-confining light-front potential for light hadrons including spin-spin interactions in agreement with the soft-wall AdS/QCD approach and light-front holography. The mass-squared of the light hadrons can be expressed as a frame-independent decomposition of contributions from the constituent kinetic energy, the confin...

  12. Determination of material properties of violin tone wood using electronic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgela, Stanislav; Saldner, Henrik O.

    1994-11-01

    Four pieces of halved blank for violin making, two cut from tone spruce wood and two from maple wood, have been investigated. The method used for determination of the elasticity constants of the wooden plates is based on the knowledge of eigenfrequencies and shapes of the first few vibration modes. The electronic holography system visualizes the time-average interferograms in real-time. The electro-optical measurements are supported by the separation of eigenmodes electroacoustically. The frequencies are compared with the results of the Chladni method and a measurement of frequency responses. The obtained knowledge can be helpful for the selection of wood plates before they are used in a production process.

  13. Pulsed digital micro-holography of femto-second order by double-wavelength recording

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-wei; WANG Xiao-lei; ZHAI Hong-chen

    2007-01-01

    Double-wavelength recording used in a pulsed digital micro-holographic system to record ultra-fast processing of the order of femto-second is reported for the first time, where a BBO crystal is used to generate harmonic wave of the incident laser wave, and both of the basic and the frequency doubled waves are time-delayed and introduced to a Michelson's interferom eter to record two sub-holograms with different spatial frequencies on a single frame of a CCD. In the experiment, an ultra fast dynamic process of air ionization induced by a single femto-second laser pulse is recorded with holography by this system, and both of intensity and phase difference images digitally reconstructed are obtained through Fourier transformation and digital filtering, which show clearly the dynamic process of formation and propagation of the plasma, with a time resolution of the order of femto-second.

  14. Elimination of the Background Noise of the Decoded Image in Fresnel Zone Plate Scanning Holography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A method of digitally high pass filtering in frequency domain is proposed to eliminate the background noise of the decoded image in Fresnel zone plate scanning holography. The high pass filter is designed as a circular stop, which should be suitable to suppressing the background noise significantly and remain much low frequency information of the object. The principle of high pass filtering is that the Fourier transform of the decoded image is multiplied with the high pass filter. Thus the frequency spectrum of the decoded image without the background noise is achieved. By inverse Fourier transform of the spectrum of the decoded image after multiplying operation, the decoded image without the background noise is obtained. Both of the computer simulations and the experimental results show that the contrast and the signal-to-noise ratio of the decoded image are significantly improved with digital filtering.

  15. Higher spin holography and the AdS string sigma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Dimitri

    2013-05-01

    We analyse the cubic spin-3 interaction in AdS space using the higher spin extension of the string-theoretic sigma-model constructed in our previous work, whose low energy limit is described by the AdS vacuum solution. We find that, in the leading order of the cosmological constant, the spin-3 correlator on the AdS4 string theory side reproduces the structure of the three-point function of composite operators, quadratic in free fields, in the dual d = 3 vector model. The cancellation of holography violating terms in d = 3 is related to the value of the Liouville background charge in d = 4. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’.

  16. Sensitivity adjustable contouring by digital holography and a virtual reference wavefront

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, L. Z.; Liu, Q.; Yang, X. L.; Wang, Y. R.

    2003-06-01

    A new method of contouring using digital holography and a virtual reference wavefront is reported. In this method, an object wave is first recorded and then digitally reconstructed. At the same time, a reference wave is digitally introduced to interfere with the reconstructed object wave to form a contour pattern. Since the form or curvature of the reference wave can be arbitrarily designed and artificially generated by a computer, the contouring sensitivity (the depth interval) can be easily adjusted for different purpose. The effectiveness of this method has been verified by computer simulations with both the conventional off-axis hologram and the phase-shifting hologram. The simplicity of optical setup and the unique ability of changing contouring sensitivity in this technique make it attractive potential in practical measurements.

  17. Three-dimensional microscopy and sectional image reconstruction using optical scanning holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Edmund Y; Zhang, Xin; Vo, Huy; Poon, Ting-Chung; Indebetouw, Guy

    2009-12-01

    Fast acquisition and high axial resolution are two primary requirements for three-dimensional microscopy. However, they are sometimes conflicting: imaging modalities such as confocal imaging can deliver superior resolution at the expense of sequential acquisition at different axial planes, which is a time-consuming process. Optical scanning holography (OSH) promises to deliver a good trade-off between these two goals. With just a single scan, we can capture the entire three-dimensional volume in a digital hologram; the data can then be processed to obtain the individual sections. An accurate modeling of the imaging system is key to devising an appropriate image reconstruction algorithm, especially for real data where random noise and other imaging imperfections must be taken into account. In this paper we demonstrate sectional image reconstruction by applying an inverse imaging sectioning technique to experimental OSH data of biological specimens and visualizing the sections using the OSA Interactive Science Publishing software.

  18. Super-resolution imaging in digital holography by using dynamic grating with a spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiaowen; Wang, Dayong; Wang, Yunxin; Rong, Lu; Chang, Shifeng

    2015-03-01

    A super-resolution imaging method using dynamic grating based on liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) is developed to improve the resolution of a digital holographic system. The one-dimensional amplitude cosine grating is loaded on the SLM, which is placed between the object and hologram plane in order to collect more high-frequency components towards CCD plane. The point spread function of the system is given to confirm the separation condition of reconstructed images for multiple diffraction orders. The simulation and experiments are carried out for a standard resolution test target as a sample, which confirms that the imaging resolution is improved from 55.7 μm to 31.3 μm compared with traditional lensless Fourier transform digital holography. The unique advantage of the proposed method is that the period of the grating can be programmably adjusted according to the separation condition.

  19. Metasurfaces-based holography and beam shaping: engineering the phase profile of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer and shape the phase profile of optical beams is in the heart of any optical element. Be it a simple lens or a sophisticated holographic element, the functionality of such components is dictated by their spatial phase response. In contrast to conventional optical components which rely on thickness variation to induce a phase profile, metasurfaces facilitate the realization of arbitrary phase distributions using large arrays with sub-wavelength and ultrathin (tens of nanometers) features. Such components can be easily realized using a single lithographic step and is highly suited for patterning a variety of substrates, including nonplanar and soft surfaces. In this article, we review the recent developments, potential, and opportunities of metasurfaces applications. We focus primarily on flat optical devices, holography, and beam-shaping applications as these are the key ingredients needed for the development of a new generation of optical devices which could find widespread applications in photonics.

  20. Interpretation of electron beam induced charging of oxide layers in a transistor studied using electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubaldi, F; Pozzi, G [Department of Physics, University of Bologna, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Kasama, T; Dunin-Borkowski, R E [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); McCartney, M R [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Newcomb, S B, E-mail: ubaldi@bo.imm.cnr.i [Sonsam Limited, Glebe Laboratories, Newport, Co. Tipperary (Ireland)

    2010-02-01

    Off-axis electron holography has been used to characterize a linear array of transistors, which was prepared for examination in cross-sectional geometry in the transmission electron microscope using focused ion beam milling. In reconstructed phase images, regions of silicon oxide that are located between metal contacts show unexpected elliptical phase contours centered several hundreds of nm from the specimen edge. The experimental images are compared with simulations performed using three-dimensional calculations of the electrostatic potential inside and outside the specimen, which take into account the mean inner potential of the specimen and the perturbed vacuum reference wave. The simulations suggest that the oxide layers contain a uniform volume density of positive charge and that the elliptical contours result from the combined effect of the electrostatic potential in the specimen and the external electrostatic fringing field.

  1. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Sadegh, E-mail: sadegh.yazdi@cen.dtu.dk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samaie Yekta, Maryam [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); McComb, David W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Twitchett-Harrison, Alison C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p–n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic potential simulations highlights several remaining challenges to quantitative analysis. Our results illustrate how the determination of reliable potential distributions from phase images of electrically biased devices requires electrostatic fringing fields, surface charges, specimen preparation damage and the effects of limited spatial resolution to be taken into account.

  2. Four-wave dark-field electron holography for imaging strain fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneulin, T.; Hÿtch, M.

    2016-06-01

    Strain characterization by transmission electron microscopy is an active area of research especially for microelectronics applications. Two-wave dark-field electron holography (DFEH) was previously introduced as a reliable strain mapping technique. Here, DFEH with four electron waves was investigated in order to image equi-displacement lines as amplitude modulations of the holographic fringes. Two perpendicular electrostatic biprisms are used to interfere three reference waves diffracted by a substrate and one object wave diffracted by an epitaxially strained region. This technique provides a different way to represent the displacement field. It might be helpful to obtain information about the strain state during in situ experiments. A dummy p-MOSFET device with embedded SiGe source and drain is used for experimental demonstration.

  3. A Stochasticity Threshold in Holography and and the Instability of AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Saurabh, Ayush

    2014-01-01

    We give strong numerical evidence that a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS, with only a few modes turned on initially, will undergo fast thermalization only if it is above a certain energetic threshold. Below the threshold the energy stays close to constant in a few modes for a very long time instead of cascading quickly. This indicates the existance of a Strong Stochasticity Threshold (SST) in holography. The idea of SST is familiar from certain statistical mechanical systems, and we suggest that it exists also in AdS gravity. This would naturally reconcile the generic non-linear instability of AdS observed by Bizon and Rostworowski, with the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou-like quasi-periodocity noticed recently for some classes of initial conditions. We show that our simple set-up captures many of the relevant features of the full gravity-scalar system.

  4. A new mass scale, implications on black hole evaporation and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, Piyabut; Wuthicharn, Taum

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new mass scale $M_{T}=(\\hbar^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda}/G)^{1/3}$ constructed from dimensional analysis by using $G$, $\\hbar$ and $\\Lambda$ and discuss its physical interpretation. Based on the Generalized Uncertainty Relation, a black hole with age comparable to the universe would stop radiating when the mass reaches a new mass scale $M'_{T}=c(\\hbar/G^{2}\\sqrt{\\Lambda})^{1/3}$ at which its temperature corresponds to the mass $M_{T}$. Black hole remnants could have masses ranging from a Planck mass to a trillion kilograms. Holography persists even when the uncertainty relation is modified to the Minimum Length Uncertainty Relation~(MLUR). The remnant black hole entropy is proportional to the surface area of the black hole in unit of the Planck area in arbitrary noncompact dimensions.

  5. Quality investigation of surface mount technology using phase-shifting digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsri, Chantira; Buranasiri, Prathan

    2016-09-01

    Applying of a phase-shifting digital holography combined with compressive sensing to inspect the soldering quality of surface mount technology (SMT) which is a method for producing electronic circuits. In SMT, the components are mounted and connected with each other directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). By reconstructing the multidimensional images from a few samples of SMT, the results are solved by an optimization problem. In this paper, two problems have been concerned. The first one is to examine the devices and the soldering quality of connections between them, which are in micro-scaled. The second is to observe the effect of heat treatment of soldering material and devices on the surface mount board.

  6. Novel Perspectives from Light-Front QCD, Super-Conformal Algebra, and Light-Front Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Light-Front Quantization – Dirac’s “Front Form” – provides a physical, frame-independent formalism for hadron dynamics and structure. Observables such as structure functions, transverse momentum distributions, and distribution amplitudes are defined from the hadronic LFWFs. One obtains new insights into the hadronic mass scale, the hadronic spectrum, and the functional form of the QCD running coupling in the nonperturbative domain using light-front holography. In addition, superconformal algebra leads to remarkable supersymmetric relations between mesons and baryons. I also discuss evidence that the antishadowing of nuclear structure functions is nonuniversal; i.e., flavor dependent, and why shadowing and antishadowing phenomena may be incompatible with the momentum and other sum rules for the nuclear parton distribution functions.

  7. Optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption mode by using digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sang Keun; Jeon, Seok Hee; Jung, Jong Rae; Kim, Nam

    2016-03-01

    We propose an optical design of cipher block chaining (CBC) encryption by using digital holographic technique, which has higher security than the conventional electronic method because of the analog-type randomized cipher text with 2-D array. In this paper, an optical design of CBC encryption mode is implemented by 2-step quadrature phase-shifting digital holographic encryption technique using orthogonal polarization. A block of plain text is encrypted with the encryption key by applying 2-step phase-shifting digital holography, and it is changed into cipher text blocks which are digital holograms. These ciphered digital holograms with the encrypted information are Fourier transform holograms and are recorded on CCDs with 256 gray levels quantized intensities. The decryption is computed by these encrypted digital holograms of cipher texts, the same encryption key and the previous cipher text. Results of computer simulations are presented to verify that the proposed method shows the feasibility in the high secure CBC encryption system.

  8. Single-shot optical imaging through scattering medium using digital in-line holography

    CERN Document Server

    R., Vinu; Somkuwar, Atul S; Park, YongKeun; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive and single-shot holographic imaging through complex media is technically challenging due to random light scattering which significantly scrambles optical information. Recently, several methods have been presented to address this issue. However, they require complicated measurements of optical transmission matrices, or existing techniques do only retrieve intensity information. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a holographic approach for single-shot imaging through a scattering layer based on digital in-line holography in combination with the autocorrelation of the speckle intensity. Using a simple optical configuration and experimental procedure, the proposed method enables to retrieve the complex amplitude image of an object located at arbitrary planes behind scattering media. The technique has potential applications in biomedical imaging, deep tissue microscopy, and 3D imaging through turbid media.

  9. Noise and signal scaling factors in digital holography in weak illumination: relationship with shot noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaffre, M; Verrier, N; Gross, M

    2013-01-01

    We have performed off-axis heterodyne holography with very weak illumination by recording holograms of the object with and without object illumination in the same acquisition run. We have experimentally studied how the reconstructed image signal (with illumination) and noise background (without) scale with the holographic acquisition and reconstruction parameters that are the number of frames and the number of pixels of the reconstruction spatial filter. The first parameter is related to the frequency bandwidth of detection in time, the second one to the bandwidth in space. The signal to background ratio varies roughly like the inverse of the bandwidth in time and space. We have also compared the noise background with the theoretical shot-noise background calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental and Monte Carlo noise background agree very well with each other.

  10. Vibration of low amplitude imaged in amplitude and phase by sideband versus carrier correlation digital holography

    CERN Document Server

    Verrier, N; Gross, M

    2015-01-01

    Sideband holography can be used to get fields images (E0 and E1) of a vibrating object for both the carrier (E0) and the sideband (E1) frequency with respect to vibration. We propose here to record E0 and E1 sequentially, and to image the correlation E1E * 0 . We show that this correlation is insensitive the phase related to the object roughness and directly reflect the phase of the mechanical motion. The signal to noise can be improved by averaging the correlation over neighbor pixel. Experimental validation is made with vibrating cube of wood and with a clarinet reed. At 2 kHz, vibrations of amplitude down to 0.01 nm are detected.

  11. Determination of Inelastic Mean Free Path by Electron Holography Along with Electron Dynamic Calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩国; 刘红荣; 杨奇斌; 张泽

    2003-01-01

    Off-axis electron holography in a field emission gun transmission-electron microscope and electron dynamic calculation are used to determine the absorption coefficient and inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of copper.Dependence of the phase shift of the exit electron wave on the specimen thickness is established by electron dynamic simulation. The established relationship makes it possible to determine the specimen thickness with the calculated phase shift by match of the phase shift measured in the reconstructed phase image. Based on the measured amplitudes in reconstructed exit electron wave and reference wave in the vacuum, the examined IMFP of electron with energy of 200kV in Cu is obtained to be 96nm.

  12. General Attitude and Acceptance of Holography in Teaching Among Lecturers in Nigerian Colleges of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman A. Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is a byproduct of instructional design. Thus online learning designers, in their approaches are expected to be familiar with the epistemological underpinnings of several theories and their consequences on the process of instruction. In the same vein constructivism holds assumptions, that learning is an active process whereby the learner constructs knowledge base on experience. Secondly, learning occurs when there is disequilibrium. It therefore takes place in a social context. Recently, technological developments are playing an important role in improving the educational process especially the integration of holographic presentation in the area. A hologram is a three-dimensional record of the positive interference of laser light waves. Teacher training in virtual holographic classrooms could help the new teachers adapt to a real problematic classroom with such tools. Nigeria being one of the moderately growing economy and a successful and relatively stable democracy, educational development is always on the increase due to commitment of government in the area. Holography is a virgin area in the Nigerian educational mindset. Colleges of education in Nigeria are basically teacher training institutions. Teachers are the backbone of education every development. This brought about the need of this study to investigate on the perception, appreciation attitude as well as acceptance of holography in teaching among the academicians in colleges of education in the Nigerian context. This study therefore in a small sample of 100 teachers survey opinions and reported the results in a descriptive statistics as well as variance (t-test and ANOVA with regards to gender and designation. On the scale of structural equation modeling (SEM tool and SPSS regression analysis as well, it presents the actual model of the modified technology acceptance model TAM. The finding indicates less positive attitude and less general acceptance of the holographic system

  13. Stimulated Raman scattering holography for time-resolved imaging of methane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Edenharder, Stefan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pulsed digital holographic detection is coupled to the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process for imaging gases. A Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm) has been used to pump methane gas (CH4) at pressures up to 12 bars. The frequency-tripled (355 nm) beam from the same laser was used to pump an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The Stokes beam (from the OPO) has been tuned to 629.93 nm so that the frequency difference between the pump (532 nm) and the Stokes beams fits a Raman active vibrational mode of the methane molecule (2922  cm-1). The pump beam has been spatially modulated with fringes produced in a Michelson interferometer. The pump and the Stokes beams were overlapped in time, space, and polarization on the gas molecules, resulting in a stimulated Raman gain of the Stokes beam and a corresponding loss of the pump beam through the SRS process. The resulting gain of the Stokes beam has been detected using pulsed digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two holograms of the Stokes beam, without and with the pump beam fringes present, were recorded. Intensity maps calculated from the recorded digital holograms showed amplification of the Stokes beam at the position of overlap with the pump beam fringes and the gas molecules. The gain of the Stokes beam has been separated from the background in the Fourier domain. A gain of about 4.5% at a pump beam average intensity of 4  MW/cm2 and a Stokes beam intensity of 0.16  MW/cm2 have been recorded at a gas pressure of 12 bars. The gain decreased linearly with decreasing gas pressure. The results show that SRS holography is a promising technique to pinpoint a specific species and record its spatial and temporal distribution.

  14. AdS/QCD, Light-Front Holography, and Sublimated Gluons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2012-02-16

    The gauge/gravity duality leads to a simple analytical and phenomenologically compelling nonperturbative approximation to the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian - 'Light-Front Holography', which provides a Lorentz-invariant first-approximation to QCD, and successfully describes the spectroscopy of light-quark meson and baryons, their elastic and transition form factors, and other hadronic properties. The bound-state Schroedinger and Dirac equations of the soft-wall AdS/QCD model predict linear Regge trajectories which have the same slope in orbital angular momentum L and radial quantum number n for both mesons and baryons. Light-front holography connects the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z to an invariant impact separation variable {zeta} in 3+1 space at fixed light-front time. A key feature is the determination of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions of hadrons - the relativistic analogs of the Schroedinger wavefunctions of atomic physics which allow one to compute form factors, transversity distributions, spin properties of the valence quarks, jet hadronization, and other hadronic observables. One thus obtains a one-parameter color-confining model for hadron physics at the amplitude level. AdS/QCD also predicts the form of the non-perturbative effective coupling {alpha}{sub s}{sup AdS} (Q) and its {beta}-function with an infrared fixed point which agrees with the effective coupling a{sub g1} (Q{sup 2}) extracted from measurements of the Bjorken sum rule below Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2}. This is consistent with a flux-tube interpretation of QCD where soft gluons with virtualities Q{sup 2} < 1 GeV{sup 2} are sublimated into a color-confining potential for quarks. We discuss a number of phenomenological hadronic properties which support this picture.

  15. New education system for construction of optical holography setup - Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  16. Frequency steerable acoustic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Matteo

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an active research area devoted to the assessment of the structural integrity of critical components of aerospace, civil and mechanical systems. Guided wave methods have been proposed for SHM of plate-like structures using permanently attached piezoelectric transducers, which generate and sense waves to evaluate the presence of damage. Effective interrogation of structural health is often facilitated by sensors and actuators with the ability to perform electronic, i.e. phased array, scanning. The objective of this research is to design an innovative directional piezoelectric transducer to be employed for the localization of broadband acoustic events, or for the generation of Lamb waves for active interrogation of structural health. The proposed Frequency Steerable Acoustic Transducers (FSATs) are characterized by a spatial arrangement of active material which leads to directional characteristics varying with frequency. Thus FSATs can be employed both for directional sensing and generation of guided waves without relying on phasing and control of a large number of channels. The analytical expression of the shape of the FSATs is obtained through a theoretical formulation for continuously distributed active material as part of a shaped piezoelectric device. The FSAT configurations analyzed in this work are a quadrilateral array and a geometry which corresponds to a spiral in the wavenumber domain. The quadrilateral array is experimentally validated, confirming the concept of frequency-dependent directionality. Its limited directivity is improved by the Wavenumber Spiral FSAT (WS-FSAT), which, instead, is characterized by a continuous frequency dependent directionality. Preliminary validations of the WS-FSAT, using a laser doppler vibrometer, are followed by the implementation of the WS-FSAT as a properly shaped piezo transducer. The prototype is first used for localization of acoustic broadband sources. Signal processing

  17. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  18. Taming Acoustic Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Rivas, David Fernandez; Enriquez, Oscar R; Versluis, Michel; Prosperetti, Andrea; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In this fluid dynamics video we show acoustic cavitation occurring from pits etched on a silicon surface. By immersing the surface in a liquid, gas pockets are entrapped in the pits which upon ultrasonic insonation, are observed to shed cavitation bubbles. Modulating the driving pressure it is possible to induce different behaviours based on the force balance that determines the interaction among bubbles and the silicon surface. This system can be used for several applications like sonochemical water treatment, cleaning of surfaces with deposited materials such as biofilms.

  19. Wind turbine acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-12-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  20. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  1. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  2. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  3. Structural biology at the single particle level: imaging tobacco mosaic virus by low-energy electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Longchamp, Jean-Nicolas; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2014-01-01

    Modern structural biology relies on NMR, X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy for gaining information on biomolecules at nanometer, sub-nanometer or atomic resolution. All these methods, however, require averaging over a vast ensemble of entities and hence knowledge on the conformational landscape of an individual particle is lost. Unfortunately, there are now strong indications that even X-ray free electron lasers will not be able to image individual molecules but will require nanocrystal samples. Here, we show that non-destructive structural biology of single particles has now become possible by means of low-energy electron holography. Individual tobacco mosaic viruses deposited on ultraclean freestanding graphene are imaged at one nanometer resolution revealing structural details arising from the helical arrangement of the outer protein shell of the virus. Since low-energy electron holography is a lens-less technique and since electrons with a deBroglie wavelength of approximately 1 Angstrom ...

  4. Measurement of Specimen Thickness by Using Electron Holography and Electron Dynamic Calculation with a Transmission Electron Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岩国; 刘红荣; 杨奇斌; 张泽

    2003-01-01

    A method of transmission-electron microscopy for accurate measurement of specimen thickness has been proposed based on off-axis electron holography along with the dynamic electron diffraction simulation. The phase shift of the exit object wave with respect to the reference wave in vacuum, resulting from the scattering within the specimen, has been simulated versus the specimen thickness by the dynamic electron diffraction formula. Offaxis electron holography in a field emission gun transmission-electron microscope has been used to determine the phase shift of the exit wave. The specimen thickness can be obtained by match of the experimental and simulated phase shift. Based on the measured phase shift of the [110] oriented copper foil, the thickness can be determined at a good level of accuracy with an error less than ~10%.

  5. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F; Arellano-Jiménez, M Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-28

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  6. High-resolution analytical imaging and electron holography of magnetite particles in amyloid cores of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Ponce, Arturo; Collingwood, Joanna F.; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Zhu, Xiongwei; Rogers, Jack T.; Betancourt, Israel; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Perry, George

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal accumulation of brain metals is a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Formation of amyloid-β plaque cores (APC) is related to interactions with biometals, especially Fe, Cu and Zn, but their particular structural associations and roles remain unclear. Using an integrative set of advanced transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques, including spherical aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), nano-beam electron diffraction, electron holography and analytical spectroscopy techniques (EDX and EELS), we demonstrate that Fe in APC is present as iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetite nanoparticles. Here we show that Fe was accumulated primarily as nanostructured particles within APC, whereas Cu and Zn were distributed through the amyloid fibers. Remarkably, these highly organized crystalline magnetite nanostructures directly bound into fibrillar Aβ showed characteristic superparamagnetic responses with saturated magnetization with circular contours, as observed for the first time by off-axis electron holography of nanometer scale particles.

  7. TEM, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography studies of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles in Inconel 718 superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, B; Kruk, A; Stepniowska, E; Cempura, G; Geiger, D; Formanek, P; Hernandez, J; Midgley, P; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was the identification of gamma' and gamma'' strengthening precipitates in a commercial nickel-base superalloy Inconel 718 (Ni-19Fe-18Cr-5Nb-3Mo-1Ti-0.5Al-0.04C, wt %) using TEM dark-field, HRTEM, electron holography and electron tomography imaging. To identify gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles unambiguously, a systematic analysis of experimental and theoretical diffraction patterns were performed. Using HRTEM method it was possible to analyse small areas of precipitates appearance. Electron holography and electron tomography techniques show new possibilities of visualization of gamma' and gamma'' nanoparticles. The analysis by means of different complementary TEM methods showed that gamma'' particles exhibit a shape of thin plates, while gamma' phase precipitates are almost spherical.

  8. The influence of hologram aperture on speckle noise in the reconstructed image of digital holography and its reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-ou; Wang, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Based on the whole process of the recording and reconstruction of digital holography, we study the formation cause of speckle noise in its reconstructed image and acquire the conclusion that the small size of hologram aperture diffraction aggravates the speckle noise of reconstructed image and the speckle noise has been one of primary noise sources in the reconstruction process. In order to reduce the speckle noise resulting from little hologram aperture diffraction, we set an appropriate aperture function matching the recording parameter and aperture size of hologram and deconvolve the reconstructed image with it. The validity has been proved in theory and experiment. Therefore, it offers a brand-new thought and practical way to reduce the speckle noise in the reconstructed image of digital holography.

  9. Acoustic Absorption in Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Johnston, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of both the areas of materials science and acoustics is necessary to successfully develop materials for acoustic absorption applications. This paper presents the basic knowledge and approaches for determining the acoustic performance of porous materials in a manner that will help materials researchers new to this area gain the understanding and skills necessary to make meaningful contributions to this field of study. Beginning with the basics and making as few assumptions as possible, this paper reviews relevant topics in the acoustic performance of porous materials, which are often used to make acoustic bulk absorbers, moving from the physics of sound wave interactions with porous materials to measurement techniques for flow resistivity, characteristic impedance, and wavenumber.

  10. Applicability of time-averaged holography for micro-electro-mechanical system performing non-linear oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palevicius, Paulius; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ostasevicius, Vytautas

    2014-01-21

    Optical investigation of movable microsystem components using time-averaged holography is investigated in this paper. It is shown that even a harmonic excitation of a non-linear microsystem may result in an unpredictable chaotic motion. Analytical results between parameters of the chaotic oscillations and the formation of time-averaged fringes provide a deeper insight into computational and experimental interpretation of time-averaged MEMS holograms.

  11. Applicability of Time-Averaged Holography for Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Performing Non-Linear Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Palevicius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical investigation of movable microsystem components using time-averaged holography is investigated in this paper. It is shown that even a harmonic excitation of a non-linear microsystem may result in an unpredictable chaotic motion. Analytical results between parameters of the chaotic oscillations and the formation of time-averaged fringes provide a deeper insight into computational and experimental interpretation of time-averaged MEMS holograms.

  12. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  13. MEMS Based Acoustic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); Nishida, Toshikaza (Inventor); Humphreys, William M. (Inventor); Arnold, David P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention described and shown in the specification aid drawings include a combination responsive to an acoustic wave that can be utilized as a dynamic pressure sensor. In one embodiment of the present invention, the combination has a substrate having a first surface and an opposite second surface, a microphone positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having an input and a first output and a second output, wherein the input receives a biased voltage, and the microphone generates an output signal responsive to the acoustic wave between the first output and the second output. The combination further has an amplifier positioned on the first surface of the substrate and having a first input and a second input and an output, wherein the first input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the first output of the microphone and the second input of the amplifier is electrically coupled to the second output of the microphone for receiving the output sinual from the microphone. The amplifier is spaced from the microphone with a separation smaller than 0.5 mm.

  14. Acoustic data transmission method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, A.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a method for transmitting time line data through a drillstring having drill pipe sections connected end-to-end by joints from a first location below the surface of the earth to a second location at or near the surface of the earth, the length and cross-sectional area of the drill pipe sections being different from the length and cross-sectional area of the joints. It comprises generating acoustic data signals having a single frequency content in at least one passband of the drillstring; transmitting the data signals through the drillstring from either the first location to the second location or from the second location to the first location during a time period prior to the onset of reflective interference caused by the data signals reflecting from along the length of the drillstring, the time period being equal to or less than the time for the data signals to travel three lengths of the drillstring; stopping the transmission of data signals at the onset of the reflective interference and allowing the acoustic signals to substantially attenuate; and detecting the data signals at the respective first or second location.

  15. Instant Holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Pedersen, M.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    . The holograms are made in a side-chain azobenzene polyester and can be erased through a thermal treatment of the film enabling the film to be reused. Significantly, an atomic force microscopic scan of the film shows a strong surface relief after the 5 ns exposure paving the way for a cheap, mass replication...... of the holograms using a micromolding technique. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Interstellar holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, M. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Stinebring, D. R.; van Straten, W.

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic spectrum of a radio pulsar is an in-line digital hologram of the ionized interstellar medium. It has previously been demonstrated that such holograms permit image reconstruction, in the sense that one can determine an approximation to the complex electric field values as a function of Do

  17. Anomaly holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gripaios, Ben [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Merton College, Oxford OX1 4JD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.gripaios1@physics.ox.ac.uk; West, Stephen M. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.west1@physics.ox.ac.uk

    2008-01-21

    We consider, in the effective field theory context, anomalies of gauge field theories on a slice of a five-dimensional, anti-de Sitter geometry and their four-dimensional, holographic duals. A consistent effective field theory description can always be found, notwithstanding the presence of the anomalies and without modifying the degrees of freedom of the theory. If anomalies do not vanish, the d=4 theory contains additional pseudoscalar states, which are either present in the low-energy theory as physical, light states, or are eaten by (would-be massless) gauge bosons. We show that the pseudoscalars ensure that global anomalies of the four-dimensional dual satisfy the 't Hooft matching condition and comment on the relevance for warped models of electroweak symmetry breaking.

  18. Sandbox Holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, D. G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes simple methods of making both a reflection and a transmission hologram, as a teaching aid to stimulate students' interest in physics. Lists the various items of equipment necessary for making a hologram. (GA)

  19. Acoustic Signal Feature Extraction of Vehicle Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝金辉; 马宝华; 李科杰

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic signal feature extraction is an important part of target recognition. The mechanisms for producing acoustic signals and their propagation are analyzed to extract the features of the radiated noise from different targets. Analysis of the acoustic spectra of typical vehicle targets acquired outdoors shows that the vehicles can be classified based on the acoustic spectra and amplitudes.

  20. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on soun...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...... insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...