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Sample records for acinetobacter spp aspectos

  1. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

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    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p enrichment. Next, the Dijkshoorn's enrichment followed by direct plating on CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Commensal Staphylococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANTHONY

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... Intermittent assessment of resistance genes in the ecosystem should be ..... among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish .... independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial .... Functional.

  3. Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens: Epidemiology and resistance features

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    Saad B. Almasaudi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter is a major cause of nosocomial infections; it is increasingly being associated with various epidemics and has become a widespread concern in a variety of hospitals worldwide. Multi-antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, is now recognized to be of great clinical significance. Numerous reports relay to the spread of A. baumannii in the hospital settings which leads to enhanced nosocomial outbreaks associated with high death rates. However, many other Acinetobacter spp. also can cause nosocomial infections. This review focused on the role of Acinetobacter spp. as nosocomial pathogens in addition to their persistence, antimicrobial resistance patterns and epidemiology. Keywords: Acinetobacter, Nosocomial infections, Multi-drug resistance, Epidemiology, Characteristics

  4. RESISTENCIA A LOS ANTIBIÓTICOS EN CEPAS DE KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE, SERRATIA SPP. Y ACINETOBACTER SPP.AISLADAS DE PACIENTES CON INFECCIÓN DEL TRACTO URINARIO - LIMA, PERU

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    Luján Roca DA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INFECTION - LIMA, PERU Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common infections in clinical practice. Gram negative bacteria as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. can cause UTI. Objective: To study antibiotic resistance in K. pneumoniae, Serratia spp. and Acinetobacter spp. strains isolated from UTI Material and methods: Urine cultures were collected from January 2003 to December 2003. Identification of isolated bacteria included biochemical characteristics. Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion test was performed. Results: A total of 106 strains were evaluated (41 of K. pneumoniae, 28 of Serratia spp. and 37 of Acinetobacter spp.. Among K. pneumoniae isolates resistance to ampicillin (83% was remarkable. The Serratia spp. isolates displayed a high level of resistance to nalidixic acid (79% and gentamicin (75%. In Acinetobacter spp. isolates high resistance rates were observed against amikacin (81%, gentamicin (67% and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole(71%. Conclusions: In general, antibiotic resistance patterns were high. Acinetobacter spp. showed elevated resistance rates (>50% against antibiotics included.

  5. Acinetobacter spp. Infections in Malaysia: A Review of Antimicrobial Resistance Trends, Mechanisms and Epidemiology.

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    Mohd Rani, Farahiyah; A Rahman, Nor Iza; Ismail, Salwani; Alattraqchi, Ahmed Ghazi; Cleary, David W; Clarke, Stuart C; Yeo, Chew Chieng

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii - calcoaceticus complex, which have become a global public health threat due to increasing resistance to carbapenems and almost all other antimicrobial compounds. High rates of resistance have been reported among countries in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia. In this review, we examine the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Acinetobacter spp. hospital isolates from Malaysia over a period of nearly three decades (1987-2016) with data obtained from various peer-reviewed publications as well as the Malaysian National Surveillance on Antibiotic Resistance (NSAR). NSAR data indicated that for most antimicrobial compounds, including carbapenems, the peak resistance rates were reached around 2008-2009 and thereafter, rates have remained fairly constant (e.g., 50-60% for carbapenems). Individual reports from various hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia do not always reflect the nationwide resistance rates and often showed higher rates of resistance. We also reviewed the epidemiology and mechanisms of resistance that have been investigated in Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates, particularly carbapenem resistance and found that bla OXA-23 is the most prevalent acquired carbapenemase-encoding gene. From the very few published reports and whole genome sequences that are available, most of the Acinetobacter spp. isolates from Malaysia belonged to the Global Clone 2 (GC2) CC92 group with ST195 being the predominant sequence type. The quality of data and analysis in the national surveillance reports could be improved and more molecular epidemiology and genomics studies need to be carried out for further in-depth understanding of Malaysian Acinetobacter spp. isolates.

  6. Phenotypic characterization and colistin susceptibilities of carbapenem-resistant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp.

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    Mohanty, Srujana; Maurya, Vijeta; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama

    2013-11-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobcter spp. are important nosocomial pathogens and carbapenem resistance is an emerging threat. Therapeutic options for infections with these isolates include colistin. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream isolates, phenotypically characterize the resistance mechanisms and evaluate the in vitro activity of colistin. Consecutive 145 (95 P.aeruginosa and 50 Acinetobacter spp.) non-repeat isolates were included. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed per CLSI guidelines. MIC for carbapenems and colistin was performed using Etest. Isolates showing reduced susceptibility or resistance to the carbapenems were tested for metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) production using imipenem-EDTA combined disk and MBL Etest. Carbapenem resistance was observed in 40% P. aeruginosa and 66.0% Acinetobacter spp. Carbapenem-resistant (CA-R) isolates were significantly (p carbapenem-susceptible isolates. Approximately half of the CA-R strains were multidrug-resistant, and 3.1-5.5% were resistant to all antibiotics tested. MBL was found in 76.3% and 69.7% of the P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., respectively. Colistin resistance was observed in three (6.0%) Acinetobacter isolates and eight (8.4%) P. aeruginosa. MIC50 for carbapenems were two to four times higher for MBL-positive compared to MBL-negative isolates, but no difference was seen in MIC for colistin. Carbapenem resistance was observed to be mediated by MBL in a considerable number of isolates. Colistin is an alternative for infections caused by CA-R isolates; however, MIC testing should be performed whenever clinical use of colistin is considered.

  7. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection

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    Renata Souto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05. In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p < 0.01. Smokers presenting P. aeruginosa and high frequencies of supragingival plaque were more likely to present CP than PH. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are frequently detected in the oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis.

  8. Epidemiology of nosocomial colonization/infection caused by Acinetobacter spp. in patients of six surgical clinics in war and peacetime.

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    Suljagić, Vesna; Jevtić, Miodrag; Djordjević, Boban; Romić, Predrag; Ilić, Radoje; Stanković, Nebojsa; Milović, Novak; Novaković, Marijan; Kozarski, Jefta; Roganović, Zoran; Popović, Zoran; Jovelić, Aleksandra

    2011-08-01

    Acinetobacter spp. has emerged as nosocomial pathogen during the past few decades in hospitals all over the world, but it has increasingly been implicated as a serious nosocomial pathogen in military hospitals. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the surveillance data on Acinetobacter nosocomial colonization/infection (NCI) collected during the wartime with the data collected in peacetime. We conducted a prospective study of incidence of Acinetobacter spp. colonization/infection. Also, the two nested case-control studies were conducted. The patients with nosocomial infection (cases) were compared with those with nosocomial colonization (controls) during the two different periods, wartime and peacetime. The patients with NCI by Acinetobacter spp. were identified by the case-based surveillance. The surveillance covered all the patients in 6 surgical clinics. During the study periods a total of 166 patients had cultures that grew Acinetobacter spp. and the pooled rates of Acinetobacter spp. colonization and infection were significantly higher in wartime. When patients with NCI in wartime were compared with those with NCI in peacetime significant differences were observed. In the war year, the patients were more significantly males (p war and peace period.

  9. Resistência a β-lactâmicos em Acinetobacter spp isolados de efluente hospitalar no sul do Brasil Resistance to β-lactams among Acinetobacter spp isolated from hospital sewage in southern Brazil

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    Carolina de Souza Gusatti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter spp é um importante patógeno causador de infecções nosocomiais que acomete pacientes imunocomprometidos e capaz de adquirir resistência a antimicrobianos com facilidade. Os esgotos hospitalares são importantes disseminadores de genes de resistência a antimicrobianos para a microbiota ambiental. Neste contexto, 30 cepas de Acinetobacter spp provenientes de efluente de um hospital em Porto Alegre, RS, foram analisados quanto ao perfil de susceptibilidade a β-lactamases, quinolonas e aminoglicosídeos através de antibiograma e testes de triagem para metalo beta-lactamases e β-lactamases de espectro estendido. O perfil encontrado revela cepas multi-resistentes e que mecanismos de resistência como a produção de β-lactamases de espectro estendido e bombas de efluxo podem estar presentes nesses isolados.Acinetobacter spp is an important pathogen that is responsible for nosocomial infections affecting immunocompromised patients, and it can easily acquire resistance to antimicrobial agents. Hospital sewage is an important means for disseminating genes for resistance to antimicrobial agents, to the microbiota of the environment. Within this context, 30 strains of Acinetobacter spp from the sewage of a hospital in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed regarding their profile of susceptibility to β-lactams, quinolones and aminoglycosides, by means of an antibiogram and tests to screen for metallo-β-lactamases and extended-spectrum β-lactamases. The profile obtained revealed the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and showed that resistance mechanisms such as the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and efflux pumps may be present in these strains.

  10. Species distribution, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp. isolates from dogs and cats: a preliminary study.

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    Kimura, Yui; Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Ohki, Asami; Watarai, Masahisa

    2018-05-12

    We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii strains were assigned to ST25, ST149, ST164, ST203, and ST1198. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored point mutations in gyrA and/or parC. This is the first preliminary monitoring of animal-origin Acinetobacter spp. in Japan. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Biofilm and metallo beta-lactamase production among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal

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    Bandana Baniya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are found to be associated with biofilm and metallo-β-lactamase production and are the common causes of serious infections mainly in hospitalized patients. So, the main aims of this study were to determine the rates of biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production (MBL among the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. isolated from hospitalized patients. Methods A total of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates and 50 Acinetobacter spp. isolates isolated from different clinical specimens from patients admitted to Shree Birendra Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from July 2013 to May 2014 were included in this study. The bacterial isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests. Modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Combined disc diffusion technique was used for the detection of MBL production, while Congo red agar method and tube adherence method were used for detection of biofilm production. Results Around 16.4% of P. aeruginosa isolates and 22% of the strains of Acinetobacter spp. were metallo β-lactamase producers. Out of 85 P. aeruginosa isolates, 23 (27.05% were biofilm producers according to tube adherence test while, only 13 (15.29% were biofilm producers as per Congo red agar method. Similarly, out of 50 Acinetobacter spp. 7 (14% isolates were biofilm producers on the basis of tube adherence test, while only 5 (10% were positive for biofilm production by Congo red agar method. Highest rates of susceptibility of P. aeruginosa as well as Acinetobacter spp. were seen toward colistin. Conclusion In our study, biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production were observed among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. However, no statistically significant association could be established between biofilm production and metallo beta-lactamase production.

  12. Characterization of a novel plasmid type and various genetic contexts of bla OXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. from multiple cities in China.

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    Yiqi Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Several studies have described the epidemiological distribution of blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter baumannii in China. However, there is limited data concerning the replicon types of blaOXA-58-carrying plasmids and the genetic context surrounding blaOXA-58 in Acinetobacter spp. in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve non-duplicated blaOXA-58-harboring Acinetobacter spp. isolates were collected from six hospitals in five different cities between 2005 and 2010. The molecular epidemiology of the isolates was carried out using PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Carbapenemase-encoding genes and plasmid replicase genes were identified by PCR. The genetic location of blaOXA-58 was analyzed using S1-nuclease method. Plasmid conjugation and electrotransformation were performed to evaluate the transferability of blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids. The genetic structure surrounding blaOXA-58 was determined by cloning experiments. The twelve isolates included two Acinetobacter pittii isolates (belong to one pulsotype, three Acinetobacter nosocomialis isolates (belong to two pulsotypes and seven Acinetobacter baumannii isolates (belong to two pulsotypes/sequence types. A. baumannii ST91 was found to be a potential multidrug resistant risk clone carrying both blaOXA-58 and blaOXA-23. blaOXA-58 located on plasmids varied from ca. 52 kb to ca. 143 kb. All plasmids can be electrotransformed to A. baumannii recipient, but were untypeable by the current replicon typing scheme. A novel plasmid replicase named repAci10 was identified in blaOXA-58-harboring plasmids of two A. pittii isolates, three A. nosocomialis isolates and two A. baumannii isolates. Four kinds of genetic contexts of blaOXA-58 were identified. The transformants of plasmids with structure of IS6 family insertion sequence (ISOur1, IS1008 or IS15-ΔISAba3-like element-blaOXA-58 displayed carbapenem nonsusceptible, while others with structure of intact ISAba3-like element

  13. Acinetobacter pneumonia: Is the outcome different from the pneumonias caused by other agents

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    Edis Ebru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The principal aim of the present study was to determine whether Acinetobacter spp. pneumonia differs from hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAPs caused by other agents with respect to therapeutic success and survival rate. METHODS : This study includes 140 adult patients diagnosed with HAPs caused by identified etiologic agents between March 2005 and February 2006. These patients were divided into two groups according to the agent responsible for their infection (Acinetobacter spp. [n = 63] or non-Acinetobacter spp. [n = 77]. The groups were compared in terms of risk factors, therapeutic success and six-week survival rates. Results : Previous antibiotic use and the risk of aspiration were independent factors responsible for the development of Acinetobacter spp. pneumonia. Hypoalbuminemia, steroid use and the use of a mechanical ventilator were determined to be mortality-associated independent risk factors for Acinetobacter spp. pneumonia. The clinical success rate at the end of therapy was 41.6% and, at the sixth week, the survival rate was 35% among patients in whom Acinetobacter spp. was the causative agent. Conversely, in the control group, these values were 43 and 32%, respectively ( P > 0.05. We found that the use of the appropriate antibiotics for the treatment of Acinetobacter spp. pneumonia was an important factor in survival ( P < 0.001. Conclusion : The outcomes of Acinetobacter spp. pneumonia do not differ from HAPs associated with non-Acinetobacter spp. in terms of therapeutic success and survival rates.

  14. Molecular characterization of Ambler class A to D β-lactamases, ISAba1, and integrons reveals multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolates in northeastern China.

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    Sun, Xiaoyu; Liu, Bin; Chen, Yan; Huang, Honglan; Wang, Guoqing; Li, Fan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of various Ambler class A to D β-lactamases, ISAba1, and class 1 and 2 integrons as well as the clonal relatedness in 105 Acinetobacter spp. isolates found in northeastern China was investigated. All 105 Acinetobacter spp. isolates were determined to be multidrug resistant (MDR), and the resistance rates to carbapenem agents were approximately 50%. PER, IMP, AmpC, and OXA-23 were found to be dominant β-lactamases belonging to different classes, respectively. This is the first report of the coexistence of bla PER , bla IMP , bla AmpC , and bla OXA-23-like genes in Acinetobacter spp. isolates from northeastern China. ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene in 87.8% (36/41) strains and upstream of the bla OXA-51-like gene in 26.5% (13/49) strains. ISAba3-like element was found upstream of the bla OXA-58-like gene in one bla OXA-58-like -positive strain. The presence of IntI1 was detected in 63.8% (67/105) of the isolates and the most prevalent gene cassettes were aacA4, aadA1, and catB8. The highly prevalent isolates belong to international clonal lineage (ICL)-II. These results indicate that the wide horizontal and clonal spread of MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates harbouring multiple β-lactamase genes has become a serious problem in northeastern China.

  15. Influence of regular reporting on local Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. sensitivity to antibiotics on consumption of antibiotics and resistance patterns.

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    Djordjevic, Z M; Folic, M M; Jankovic, S M

    2017-10-01

    Regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is an important component of multifaceted interventions directed at the problem with resistance of bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial consumption and resistance among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. causing HAIs, before and after the introduction of mandatory reporting of resistance patterns to prescribers. A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015, at an interdisciplinary ICU of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. The intervention consisted of continuous resistance monitoring of all bacterial isolates from ICU patients and biannual reporting of results per isolate to prescribers across the hospital. Both utilization of antibiotics and density of resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were followed within the ICU. Resistance densities of P. aeruginosa to all tested antimicrobials were lower in 2015, in comparison with 2011. Although isolates of Acinetobacter spp. had lower resistance density in 2015 than in 2011 to the majority of investigated antibiotics, a statistically significant decrease was noted only for piperacillin/tazobactam. Statistically significant decreasing trends of consumption were recorded for third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, whereas for the piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam and carbapenems, utilization trends were decreasing, but without statistical significance. In the same period, increasing trends of consumption were observed for tigecycline and colistin. Regular monitoring of resistance of bacterial isolates in ICUs and reporting of summary results to prescribers may lead to a significant decrease in utilization of some antibiotics and slow restoration of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Informing Antibiotic Treatment Decisions: Evaluating Rapid Molecular Diagnostics To Identify Susceptibility and Resistance to Carbapenems against Acinetobacter spp. in PRIMERS III.

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    Evans, Scott R; Hujer, Andrea M; Jiang, Hongyu; Hill, Carol B; Hujer, Kristine M; Mediavilla, Jose R; Manca, Claudia; Tran, Thuy Tien T; Domitrovic, T Nicholas; Higgins, Paul G; Seifert, Harald; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Patel, Robin; Jacobs, Michael R; Chen, Liang; Sampath, Rangarajan; Hall, Thomas; Marzan, Christine; Fowler, Vance G; Chambers, Henry F; Bonomo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The widespread dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has created significant therapeutic challenges. At present, rapid molecular diagnostics (RMDs) that can identify this phenotype are not commercially available. Two RMD platforms, PCR combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and molecular beacons (MB), for detecting genes conferring resistance/susceptibility to carbapenems in Acinetobacter spp. were evaluated. An archived collection of 200 clinical Acinetobacter sp. isolates was tested. Predictive values for susceptibility and resistance were estimated as a function of susceptibility prevalence and were based on the absence or presence of beta-lactamase (bla) NDM, VIM, IMP, KPC, and OXA carbapenemase genes (e.g., bla OXA-23 , bla OXA-24/40 , and bla OXA-58 found in this study) against the reference standard of MIC determinations. According to the interpretation of MICs, 49% (n = 98) of the isolates were carbapenem resistant (as defined by either resistance or intermediate resistance to imipenem). The susceptibility sensitivities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for imipenem were 82% (74%, 89%) and 92% (85%, 97%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. Resistance sensitivities (95% CI) for imipenem were 95% (88%, 98%) and 88% (80%, 94%) for PCR/ESI-MS and MB, respectively. PRIMERS III establishes that RMDs can discriminate between carbapenem resistance and susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. In the context of a known prevalence of resistance, SPVs and RPVs can inform clinicians regarding the best choice for empiric antimicrobial therapy against this multidrug-resistant pathogen. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from diesel fuel polluted

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    Kais Kassim Ghaima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals pollution of soil and wastewater is a global problem that threatens the environment as they are not degraded or removed and the potential threat to human health comes from the multiple resistances to heavy metals and antibiotics among bacterial populations. The present study was aimed to isolate and identify multiple metal/antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter spp. from diesel fuel polluted soil of Al-Dora, Baghdad, Iraq. Initially, a total of 24 bacterial cultures (coded KNZ–1 to KNZ–24 were isolated and identified up to genus level as Acinetobacter by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. Screening of heavy metals resistant Acinetobacter were conducted by streaking the isolates on nutrient agar plates supplemented with different concentrations: 10, 25, 50 and 100mg/L of the three heavy metals; Hg2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+. Out of 24 isolates, 6 (25% isolates (KNZ–3, KNZ–5, KNZ–8, KNZ–12, KNZ–16 and KNZ–21 were selected as a multiple heavy metal resistant (MHMR Acinetobacter with maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs; 100–200mg/L for Hg2+, 300-600mg/L for Cd2+ and 100–300mg/L for Pb2+. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the selected MHMR isolates was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method against 12 different antibiotics belonging to 7 classes. Out of 6 isolates, 4 isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR with varying degrees. Among them isolate, KNZ–16 showed a wide range of resistance to all tested antibiotics except Levofloxacin and Imipenem. It was concluded that dual resistant Acinetobacter is useful in the bioremediation of environments polluted with heavy metals especially the biodegradation of organic pollutants.

  18. The tetracycline resistance determinant Tet 39 and the sulphonamide resistance gene sulII are common among resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from integrated fish farms in Thailand

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    Agersø, Yvonne; Petersen, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the genetic basis for tetracycline and sulphonamide resistance and the prevalence of class I and II integrons in oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Methods: A total of 222 isolates were screened for tetracycline resistance...... and Southern blots with sulII and tet(39) probes were performed on selected isolates. Results: The recently identified tetracycline resistance gene tet(39) was demonstrated in 75% (166/222) of oxytetracycline-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from integrated fish farms in Thailand. Isolates that were also...

  19. Emerging Trend of Acinetobacter Nosocomial Infection in Northeast of Iran

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    Samaneh Saed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acinetobacter spp. emerged as an opportunistic pathogen for hospital-acquired infections. Recently, increasing antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp. has worsened the problem. The aim of this study was to investigate  the  emerging  trend  of  infection  due  to Acinetobacter  in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad during 2006-2012.Methods: The demographic data and information about redisposing factors was collected. Appropriate bacteriological samples were collected and Acinetobacter spp. was isolated. Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of these isolates againstdifferent antimicrobials agents was determined.Results: Results confirmed that Acinetobacter spp. cause 20.9% of nosocomial infection during this period. The trend of Acinetobacter nosocomial infection was increasing and patients with risk factors such as COPD, bronchectasia, diabetes   mellitus   were   more   prone   to   infection.  There   was   significant association   between   these   infections   and   invasive   procedures   such   as catheterization, mechanical ventilation and broad-spectrum antibiotics usage. Conclusion:  Understanding  trends  in  causative  organisms  of  nosocomial infection can help us to better define our infection control policy.

  20. Acinetobacter infections as an emerging threat in intensive care units

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    Tahseen, U.; Talib, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species (Spp.) is an emerging threat in health care setups especially intensive care units (ICU). The objective of this observational study was to determine the pattern of Acinetobacter infections and its association with length of stay in patients admitted to our medical ICU from January to August 2011. Methods: All patients above 16 years of age with stay of more than 48 hours were checked for any development of new infections not present or incubating at the time of admission. Nosocomial infections were documented in the light of clinical findings and lab results. Data was analysed using statistical software SPSS 15.0. Results: A total of 146 patients had a stay of at least 48 hours; frequency of nosocomial infection was 30.8% out of which 57.8% were Acinetobacter infections. Respiratory system was most commonly involved. Acinetobacter Spp showed high resistance (96.2%) to penicillins, cephalosporins and even extended spectrum antibiotics including carbepenems, quinolones and piperacillin plus tazobactam. Extended drug resistance was seen in 92.3% isolates; while we found high susceptibility to tigecycline (88.5%) and polymyxins (100%). Acinetobacter Spp. infected patients had mean length of stay (LOS) of 12.92 days when compared to patients with other nosocomial infections and no infection with mean LOS of 7.05 days (p=0.05) and 4.86 days (p=0.00) respectively. Conclusions: Acinetobacter Spp infections increase with longer duration of stay in ICU. Emergence of multi-drug and extended-drug resistant Acinetobacter Spp is alarming and overwhelming at this rate for already stretched out health system with its economic and health implications. (author)

  1. Reservoirs of Non-baumannii Acinetobacter Species

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    Al Atrouni, Ahmad; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Hamze, Monzer; Kempf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are ubiquitous gram negative and non-fermenting coccobacilli that have the ability to occupy several ecological niches including environment, animals and human. Among the different species, Acinetobacter baumannii has evolved as global pathogen causing wide range of infection. Since the implementation of molecular techniques, the habitat and the role of non-baumannii Acinetobacter in human infection have been elucidated. In addition, several new species have been described. In the present review, we summarize the recent data about the natural reservoir of non-baumannii Acinetobacter including the novel species that have been described for the first time from environmental sources and reported during the last years. PMID:26870013

  2. LEVANTAMENTO EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DE INFECÇÃO POR ACINETOBACTER SPP EM AMOSTRAS DE HEMOCULTURAS DE UM LABORATÓRIO DE SÃO JOSÉ DOS CAMPOS

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    Vânia Waleska Sousa da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A presença de infecções na corrente sanguínea representa uma grave complicação na situação de pacientes críticos, podendo aumentar os riscos de morbidade e mortalidade, sendo a hemocultura um importante recurso no diagnóstico do agente microbiano. Entre as bactérias causadoras de bacteriemia, encontramos, frequentemente, a Acinetobacter spp, sendo um patógeno de grande importância clínica devido ao aumento de sua frequência como causa de infecções hospitalares e, também, por, normalmente, apresentar multirresistência aos agentes antimicrobianos de prática clínica. O presente estudo teve como finalidade o levantamento epidemiológico de infecções em hemoculturas causadas pelo gênero Acinetobacter spp em pacientes internados, em hospitais de São José dos Campos-SP, demonstrando sua prevalência no munícipio. Os dados analisados foram fornecidos pelo sistema de um laboratório de análises microbiológicas e utilizados para o levantamento de infecções por Acinetobacter spp em hemoculturas, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Foram avaliados 5.759 exames de hemocultura, com 1.019 resultados positivos, sendo que Acinetobacter baumannii foi identificada em 31 amostras, correspondendo ao sexto patógeno mais isolado (3,04% das hemoculturas positivas. A. baumannii se tornou um patógeno de grande preocupação hospitalar, devido à sua crescente colonização nas Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo e sua multirresistência aos antimicrobianos.

  3. Candida spp. airway colonization: A potential risk factor for Acinetobacter baumannii ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Zhu, Song; Yan, Dongxing; Chen, Weiping; Chen, Ruilan; Zou, Jian; Yan, Jingdong; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and evaluate the association between Candida spp. airway colonization and A. baumannii VAP. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were on mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥48 hours were divided into the following groups: patients with and without Candida spp. airway colonization; colonized patients receiving antifungal treatment or not; patients with A. baumannii VAP and those without VAP. Logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching were used to identify factors independently associated with A. baumannii VAP. Among 618 eligible patients, 264 (43%) had Candida spp. airway colonization and 114 (18%) developed A. baumannii VAP. Along with MV for ≥7 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.9, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 4.9-15.8) and presence of a central venous catheter (aOR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9), Candida spp. airway colonization (aOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3) was identified as an independent risk factor for A. baumannii VAP. Patients with Candida spp. airway colonization were more likely to develop A. baumannii VAP than non-colonized patients (23% vs 15%, P=.01 and 34% vs. 15%, PCandida spp. airway colonization (43%) and A. baumannii VAP (18%) were common in ICU patients who were on mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. Candida spp. airway colonization was an independent risk factor for subsequent A. baumannii VAP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Mutant Prevention Concentrations of Imipenem and Meropenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii

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    E. Dahdouh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the MPC of carbapenems against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. and to assess its possible relationship with mechanisms of resistance. Detection of the mechanisms of resistance was performed using Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing, Double Disk Synergy, disk antagonism, addition of NaCl to the medium, addition of PBA or EDTA to Carbapenem disks, addition of PBA to Cefoxitin disks, and CCCP test for 10 Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The MIC and MPC were determined using the broth macrodilution and plate dilution methods, respectively. Four Acinetobacter baumannii strains produced MBL. Two of them produced Oxacillinase and one produced ESBL. Two Pseudomonas spp. isolates produced both KPC and MBL. The resistant Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. strains had higher MPC values than susceptible ones. However, the Mutant Selection Window was found to be dependent on the degree of resistance but not on a particular mechanism of resistance. The usefulness of the MPC was found to be dependent on its value. Based on our data, we recommend determining the MPC for each isolate before using it during treatment. Furthermore, the use of T>MSW instead of T>MIC is suggested.

  5. Clinical and Pathophysiological Overview of Acinetobacter Infections: a Century of Challenges

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    Nielsen, Travis B.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Luna, Brian; Spellberg, Brad

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Acinetobacter is a complex genus, and historically, there has been confusion about the existence of multiple species. The species commonly cause nosocomial infections, predominantly aspiration pneumonia and catheter-associated bacteremia, but can also cause soft tissue and urinary tract infections. Community-acquired infections by Acinetobacter spp. are increasingly reported. Transmission of Acinetobacter and subsequent disease is facilitated by the organism's environmental tenacity, resistance to desiccation, and evasion of host immunity. The virulence properties demonstrated by Acinetobacter spp. primarily stem from evasion of rapid clearance by the innate immune system, effectively enabling high bacterial density that triggers lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated sepsis. Capsular polysaccharide is a critical virulence factor that enables immune evasion, while LPS triggers septic shock. However, the primary driver of clinical outcome is antibiotic resistance. Administration of initially effective therapy is key to improving survival, reducing 30-day mortality threefold. Regrettably, due to the high frequency of this organism having an extreme drug resistance (XDR) phenotype, early initiation of effective therapy is a major clinical challenge. Given its high rate of antibiotic resistance and abysmal outcomes (up to 70% mortality rate from infections caused by XDR strains in some case series), new preventative and therapeutic options for Acinetobacter spp. are desperately needed. PMID:27974412

  6. Radiation resistance of clinical Acinetobacter spp.: A need for concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.A.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Kristensen, H.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an epidemiological investigation of hospital infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. the radiation resistance of 15 clinical isolates and four reference strains was assessed. The radiation resistance (in D-6 values, viz. the dose necessary for reducing the initial number of colony forming units by a factor of 10(6)) was, in general, higher in the isolates of A. radioresistens than in the isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and of A. lwoffi. However, the least resistant isolates of A. radioresistens had a D-6 value equal to or lower than the most resistant isolates of the other groups. The lowest D-6 values found were for two of the reference strains. The highest D-6 value was 35 kGy. Three isolates of A. johnsonii could not survive long enough in a dried preparation to make an assessment of the D-6 values possible. The radiation resistance of the 15 clinical isolates in the present study was higher than the resistance found in a study of similar isolates in 1970

  7. Radiation resistance of clinical Acinetobacter spp. : A need for concern

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    Christensen, E.A.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Kristensen, H. (Control Department, Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1991-06-01

    As part of an epidemiological investigation of hospital infections caused by Acinetobacter spp. the radiation resistance of 15 clinical isolates and four reference strains was assessed. The radiation resistance (in D-6 values, viz. the dose necessary for reducing the initial number of colony forming units by a factor of 10(6)) was, in general, higher in the isolates of A. radioresistens than in the isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex and of A. lwoffi. However, the least resistant isolates of A. radioresistens had a D-6 value equal to or lower than the most resistant isolates of the other groups. The lowest D-6 values found were for two of the reference strains. The highest D-6 value was 35 kGy. Three isolates of A. johnsonii could not survive long enough in a dried preparation to make an assessment of the D-6 values possible. The radiation resistance of the 15 clinical isolates in the present study was higher than the resistance found in a study of similar isolates in 1970.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of acinetobacter species-one year experience in a tertiary care setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Abbasi, S.A.; Mirza, I.A.; Malik, N.; Sattar, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from 1 January 2009 through 31 December 2009 at Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi. Materials and Methods: A total of 276 isolates of Acinetobacter spp yielded from various clinical specimens during the study period were included Routine conventional methods were used to identify various species of Acinetobacter and modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for susceptibility testing. Out of total 276 isolates, 176 (63.8%) turned out to be Acinetobacter baumannii and 100 (36.2%) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Overall sensitivity of Acinetobacter spp against piperacillin/sulbactam, tigecycline, sulbactam/cefoperazone, piperacillin/tazobactam, imipenem, doxycycline, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim /sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, gentamycin, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ampicillin were 64%,63%, 48%, 47%, 41%,39%,35%, 34%, 32%, 31 %, 29%, 19%, 18% and 5% respectively. Out of 276 isolates, 181 (66 %) were multidrug resistant while 33 (18 %) isolates were pan-drug resistant. (author)

  9. Clinical and antimicrobial profile of Acinetobacter spp.: An emerging nosocomial superbug

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    Purti C Tripathi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Acinetobacter nosocomial infections resistant to most antimicrobials have emerged, especially in ICU. Early identification and continued surveillance of prevalent organism will help prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in hospital environment.

  10. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin restriction in an intensive care unit: less incidence of Acinetobacter spp. and improved susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Restricción del uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino en una unidad de cuidados intensivos: menor incidencia de Acinetobacter spp. y mayor sensibilidad de Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Julio César Medina Presentado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: To determine whether restricting the use of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin couldsignificantly reduce colonization and infection with resistant Gram-negative bacilli (r-GNB. METHODS: A two-phase prospective study (before/after design was conducted in an intensive care unit in two time periods (2004-2006. During phase 1, there was no antibiotic restriction. During phase 2, use of ceftriaxone or ciprofloxacin was restricted. RESULTS: Atotal of 200 patients were prospectively evaluated. In phase 2, the use of ceftriaxone was reduced by 93.6% (P = 0.0001 and that of ciprofloxacin by 65.1% (P = 0.041, accompanied by a 113.8% increase in use of ampicillin-sulbactam (P = 0.002.During phase 1, 48 GNB were isolated [37 r-GNB (77.1% and 11 non-r-GNB (22.9%], compared with a total of 64 during phase 2 [27 r-GNB (42.2% and 37 non-r-GNB (57.8%](P = 0.0002. Acinetobacter spp. was isolated 13 times during phase 1 and 3 times in phase 2 (P = 0.0018. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin increased from 40.0% in phase 1 to 100.0% in phase 2 (P = 0.0108. CONCLUSIONS: Restriction of ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin reduced colonization by Acinetobacter spp. and improved the susceptibility profile of P. aeruginosa.OBJETIVO: Determinar si la restricción del uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino reduce significativamente la colonización y la infección por bacilos gramnegativos resistentes. MÉTODOS: Se efectuó un estudio prospectivo de dos fases (diseño antes/después de la intervención en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en dos períodos sucesivos entre los años 2004 y 2006. Durante la fase 1, no hubo ninguna restricción de antibióticos. Durante la fase 2, se restringió el uso de ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino. RESULTADOS: Se evaluó prospectivamente a 200 pacientes en total. En la fase 2, el uso de ceftriaxona se redujo en 93,6% (P = 0,0001 y el de ciprofloxacino en 65,1% (P = 0,041, lo que se acompañó de un aumento de 113,8% en

  11. Pathogenic Acinetobacter: from the Cell Surface to Infinity and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Brent S.; Harding, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acinetobacter encompasses multiple nosocomial opportunistic pathogens that are of increasing worldwide relevance because of their ability to survive exposure to various antimicrobial and sterilization agents. Among these, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and Acinetobacter pittii are the most frequently isolated in hospitals around the world. Despite the growing incidence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp., little is known about the factors that contribute to pathogenesis. New strategies for treating and managing infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter strains are urgently needed, and this requires a detailed understanding of the pathobiology of these organisms. In recent years, some virulence factors important for Acinetobacter colonization have started to emerge. In this review, we focus on several recently described virulence factors that act at the bacterial surface level, such as the capsule, O-linked protein glycosylation, and adhesins. Furthermore, we describe the current knowledge regarding the type II and type VI secretion systems present in these strains. PMID:26712938

  12. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

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    Bersissa Kumsa

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli, Bovicola bovis (B. bovis and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001 higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1% and keds (86.4% including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001. Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001. Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  13. Molecular detection of Acinetobacter species in lice and keds of domestic animals in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Parola, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence of Acinetobacter and Rickettsia species DNA in lice and Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) of animals from Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. From September through November 2011, a total of 207 cattle, 85 sheep, 47 dogs and 16 cats were examined for ectoparasites. Results of morphological identification revealed several species of ectoparasites: Linognathus vituli (L. vituli), Bovicola bovis (B. bovis) and Solenopotes capillatus (S. capillatus) on cattle; B. ovis and Melophagus ovinus (M. ovinus) on sheep; and Heterodoxus spiniger (H. spiniger) on dogs. There was a significantly (p≤0.0001) higher prevalence of L. vituli observed in cattle than both S. capillatus and B. bovis. Molecular identification of lice using an 18S rRNA gene analysis confirms the identified lice species by morphological methods. We detected different Acinetobacter species among lice (11.1%) and keds (86.4%) including A. soli in L. vituli of cattle, A. lowffii in M. ovinus of sheep, A. pittii in H. spiniger of dogs, 1 new Acinetobacter spp. in M. ovinus and 2 new Acinetobacter spp. in H. spiniger of dogs using partial rpoB gene sequence analysis. There was a significantly higher prevalence of Acinetobacter spp. in keds than in lice (p≤0.00001). Higher percentage of Acinetobacter spp. DNA was detected in H. spiniger than in both B. ovis and L. vituli (p≤0.00001). Carbapenemase resistance encoding genes for blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaNDM-1 and blaOXA-51 were not found in any lice and keds. These findings suggest that synanthropic animals and their ectoparasites might increase the risk of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens and could be a source for Acinetobacter spp. infections in humans. However, additional epidemiological data are required to determine whether ectoparasites of animals can act as environmental reservoirs and play a role in spreading these bacteria to both animal and human hosts.

  14. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii International Clone II Lineage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Masato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Watahiki, Masanori; Hiraki, Yoichi; Kawano, Fumio; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Suzuki, Satowa

    2018-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. have been globally disseminated in association with the successful clonal lineage Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II (IC II). Because the prevalence of MDR Acinetobacter spp. in Japan remains very low, we characterized all Acinetobacter spp. ( n = 866) from 76 hospitals between October 2012 and March 2013 to describe the entire molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. The most prevalent species was A. baumannii ( n = 645; 74.5%), with A. baumannii IC II ( n = 245) accounting for 28.3% of the total. Meropenem-resistant isolates accounted for 2.0% ( n = 17) and carried IS Aba1-bla OXA-23-like ( n = 10), bla IMP ( n = 4), or IS Aba1-bla OXA-51-like ( n = 3). Multilocus sequence typing of 110 representative A. baumannii isolates revealed the considerable prevalence of domestic sequence types (STs). A. baumannii IC II isolates were divided into the domestic sequence type 469 (ST469) ( n = 18) and the globally disseminated STs ST208 ( n = 14) and ST219 ( n = 4). ST469 isolates were susceptible to more antimicrobial agents, while ST208 and ST219 overproduced the intrinsic AmpC β-lactamase. A. baumannii IC II and some A. baumannii non-IC II STs (e.g., ST149 and ST246) were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. This study revealed that carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii IC II was moderately disseminated in Japan. The low prevalence of acquired carbapenemase genes and presence of domestic STs could contribute to the low prevalence of MDR A. baumannii A similar epidemiology might have appeared before the global dissemination of MDR epidemic lineages. In addition, fluoroquinolone resistance associated with A. baumannii IC II may provide insight into the significance of A. baumannii epidemic clones. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. PREVALENCE OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN ADAM MALIK HOSPITAL

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    Evita Mayasari; Cherry Siregar

    2014-01-01

    AbstrakAcinetobacter baumannii merupakan spesies Acinetobacter spp. tersering diisolasi darimanusia, dan lebih sering dijumpai pada infeksi nosokomial dibandingkan dengan infeksi dikomunitas. Eksistensi bakteri ini di lingkungan terkait dengan keragaman reservoir, kemampuanmemperoleh gen pembawa sifat resisten antimikroba, dan sifat resisten terhadap pengeringan.Infeksi disebabkan strain A.baumannii yang resisten terhadap banyak antibiotik tidak mudahdikendalikan dan menjadi permasalahan di b...

  16. Actividad "in vitro" de diferentes antibacterianos sobre bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores, excluidos Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter spp ‘In vitro' activity of different antimicrobial agents on gram-negative nonfermentative bacilli, excluding Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp

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    C.A. Vay

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en el medio ambiente. Además de causar dificultades en la identificación, a menudo presentan una marcada multirresistencia a los antimicrobianos incluyendo aquellos activos frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la actividad "in vitro" de diferentes antimicrobianos sobre 177 aislamientos de bacilos gram-negativos no fermentadores (excluidos Pseudomonas aeruginosa y Acinetobacter spp. provenientes de especimenes clínicos. Las concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (CIM se determinaron por el método de dilución en agar Mueller Hinton frente a los siguientes antibacterianos: ampicilina, piperacilina, piperacilina-tazobactama, sulbactama, cefoperazona, cefoperazona-sulbactama, ceftazidima, cefepima, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, colistina, gentamicina, amicacina, trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol (TMS, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, rifampicina, norfloxacina, ciprofloxacina y minociclina. Sobre siete aislamientos: Sphingobacterium multivorum (2, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum (1, Empedobacter brevis (1, Weeksella virosa (1, Bergeyella zoohelcum (1 y Oligella urethralis (1 se ensayó la sensibilidad a amoxicilina-ácido clavulánico y ampicilina-sulbactama y no se determinó la actividad de cefoperazona ni de sulbactama. La multirresistencia fue comúnmente observada en los aislamientos de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Chryseobacterium spp., Myroides spp., Achromobacter xylosoxidans y Ochrobactrum anthropi. En cambio, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella putrefaciens-algae, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Weeksella virosa y Oligella urethralis, fueron ampliamente sensibles a los antibacterianos ensayados. Debido a la gran variabilidad observada en la sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos en las distintas especies, se hace imprescindible realizar la prueba de sensibilidad a los

  17. Single-step selection of drug resistant Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 mutants reveals a functional redundancy in the recruitment of multidrug efflux systems.

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    Anthony J Brzoska

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter have been the focus recent attention due to both their clinical significance and application to molecular biology. The soil commensal bacterium Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 has been proposed as a model system for molecular and genetic studies, whereas in a clinical environment, Acinetobacter spp. are of increasing importance due to their propensity to cause serious and intractable systemic infections. Clinically, a major factor in the success of Acinetobacter spp. as opportunistic pathogens can be attributed to their ability to rapidly evolve resistance to common antimicrobial compounds. Whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental Acinetobacter spp. isolates has revealed the presence of numerous multidrug transporters within the core and accessory genomes, suggesting that efflux is an important host defense response in this genus. In this work, we used the drug-susceptible organism A. baylyi ADP1 as a model for studies into the evolution of efflux mediated resistance in genus Acinetobacter, due to the high level of conservation of efflux determinants across four diverse Acinetobacter strains, including clinical isolates. A single exposure of therapeutic concentrations of chloramphenicol to populations of A. baylyi ADP1 cells produced five individual colonies displaying multidrug resistance. The major facilitator superfamily pump craA was upregulated in one mutant strain, whereas the resistance nodulation division pump adeJ was upregulated in the remaining four. Within the adeJ upregulated population, two different levels of adeJ mRNA transcription were observed, suggesting at least three separate mutations were selected after single-step exposure to chloramphenicol. In the craA upregulated strain, a T to G substitution 12 nt upstream of the craA translation initiation codon was observed. Subsequent mRNA stability analyses using this strain revealed that the half-life of mutant craA mRNA was significantly

  18. High Proportions of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a District in Western India: A Four-Year Antibiotic Susceptibility Study of Clinical Isolates

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    Ingvild Odsbu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the proportions of multidrug-resistant (MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period from 2011–2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of isolates from inpatients and outpatients was performed using Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters. Proportions of non-susceptible isolates were calculated from the antibacterial susceptibility data. MDR was defined as an isolate being non-susceptible to at least one antibacterial agent in at least three antibacterial categories. The change in proportions of MDR isolates; extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-producing isolates; and non-susceptible isolates to specific antibacterial categories over calendar time was investigated by logistic regression. The proportions of MDR and ESBL-producing isolates ranged from 89.4% to 95.9% and from 87.9% to 94.0%; respectively. The proportions of non-susceptible isolates to aminoglycosides; carbapenems; antipseudomonal penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors; cephalosporins; folate pathway inhibitors; or penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors exceeded 77.5%. Proportions of fluoroquinolone and tetracycline non-susceptible isolates ranged from 65.3% to 83.3% and from 71.3% to 75.9%; respectively. No changes in trends were observed over time; except for a decreasing trend in fluoroquinolone non-susceptible isolates (OR = 0.75 (95% CI, 0.62–0.91. Significantly higher proportions of non-susceptible; MDR and ESBL-producing isolates were found among isolates from the respiratory system compared to isolates from all other specimen types (p < 0.05. High proportions of MDR Acinetobacter spp. isolates were observed in the period from 2011–2014. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes are needed to prevent the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance.

  19. Carbapenem-resistance and pathogenicity of bovine Acinetobacter indicus-like isolates.

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    Peter Klotz

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize blaOXA-23 harbouring Acinetobacter indicus-like strains from cattle including genomic and phylogenetic analyses, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and evaluation of pathogenicity in vitro and in vivo. Nasal and rectal swabs (n = 45 from cattle in Germany were screened for carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter spp. Thereby, two carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. from the nasal cavities of two calves could be isolated. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA sequencing identified these isolates as A. indicus-like. A phylogenetic tree based on partial rpoB sequences indicated closest relation of the two bovine isolates to the A. indicus type strain A648T and human clinical A. indicus isolates, while whole genome comparison revealed considerable intraspecies diversity. High mimimum inhibitory concentrations were observed for carbapenems and other antibiotics including fluoroquinolones and gentamicin. Whole genome sequencing and PCR mapping revealed that both isolates harboured blaOXA-23 localized on the chromosome and surrounded by interrupted Tn2008 transposon structures. Since the pathogenic potential of A. indicus is unknown, pathogenicity was assessed employing the Galleria (G. mellonella infection model and an in vitro cytotoxicity assay using A549 human lung epithelial cells. Pathogenicity in vivo (G. mellonella killing assay and in vitro (cytotoxicity assay of the two A. indicus-like isolates was lower compared to A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and similar to A. lwoffii ATCC 15309. The reduced pathogenicity of A. indicus compared to A. baumannii correlated with the absence of important virulence genes encoding like phospholipase C1+C2, acinetobactin outer membrane protein BauA, RND-type efflux system proteins AdeRS and AdeAB or the trimeric autotransporter adhesin Ata. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. indicus-like strains from cattle carrying blaOXA-23 on transposable elements and

  20. Occurrence of an Environmental Acinetobacter baumannii Strain Similar to a Clinical Isolate in Paleosol from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durn, Goran; Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Kovacic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. Outbreaks of Acinetobacter infections are considered to be caused exclusively by contamination and transmission in hospital environments. The natural habitats of clinically important multiresistant Acinetobacter spp. remain to be defined. In this paper, we report an incidental finding of a viable multidrug-resistant strain of Acinetobacter baumannii, related to clinical isolates, in acid paleosol from Croatia. The environmental isolate of A. baumannii showed 87% similarity to a clinical isolate originating from a hospital in this geographic area and was resistant to gentamicin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. In paleosol, the isolate was able to survive a low pH (3.37), desiccation, and a high temperature (50°C). The probable source of A. baumannii in paleosol is illegally disposed waste of external origin situated in the abandoned quarry near the sampling site. The bacteria could have been leached from waste by storm water and thus infiltrated the paleosol. PMID:24584245

  1. Evolution of a Pathogen: A Comparative Genomics Analysis Identifies a Genetic Pathway to Pathogenesis in Acinetobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Jason W.; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James M.; Waddell, Victor G.; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emergent and global nosocomial pathogen. In addition to A. baumannii, other Acinetobacter species, especially those in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, have also been associated with serious human infection. Although mechanisms of attachment, persistence on abiotic surfaces, and pathogenesis in A. baumannii have been identified, the genetic mechanisms that explain the emergence of A. baumannii as the most widespread and virulent Acinetobacter species are not fully understood. Recent whole genome sequencing has provided insight into the phylogenetic structure of the genus Acinetobacter. However, a global comparison of genomic features between Acinetobacter spp. has not been described in the literature. In this study, 136 Acinetobacter genomes, including 67 sequenced in this study, were compared to identify the acquisition and loss of genes in the expansion of the Acinetobacter genus. A whole genome phylogeny confirmed that A. baumannii is a monophyletic clade and that the larger Acb complex is also a well-supported monophyletic group. The whole genome phylogeny provided the framework for a global genomic comparison based on a blast score ratio (BSR) analysis. The BSR analysis demonstrated that specific genes have been both lost and acquired in the evolution of A. baumannii. In addition, several genes associated with A. baumannii pathogenesis were found to be more conserved in the Acb complex, and especially in A. baumannii, than in other Acinetobacter genomes; until recently, a global analysis of the distribution and conservation of virulence factors across the genus was not possible. The results demonstrate that the acquisition of specific virulence factors has likely contributed to the widespread persistence and virulence of A. baumannii. The identification of novel features associated with transcriptional regulation and acquired by clades in the Acb complex presents targets for better understanding the

  2. Blue light irradiation triggers the antimicrobial potential of ZnO nanoparticles on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Yeh; Chang, Kai-Chih; Chen, Liang-Yu; Wang, Po-Ching; Chou, Chih-Chiang; Wu, Zhong-Bin; Hu, Anren

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a non-invasive and safe therapeutic method for microbial infections. Bacterial antibiotic resistance is caused by antibiotics abuse. Drug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. is a serious problem in hospitals around the world. These pathogens from nosocomial infections have high mortality rates in frailer people, and Acinetobacter spp. is commonly found in immunocompromised patients. Visible light is safer than ultraviolet light (UV) for PDI of nosocomial pathogens with mammalian cells. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were used in this study as an antimicrobial agent and a photosensitizer. ZnO is recognized as safe and has extensive usage in food additives, medical and cosmetic products. In this study, we used 0.125 mg/ml ZnO-NPs combined with 10.8 J/cm 2 blue light (BL) on Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) that could significantly reduce microbial survival. However, individual exposure to ZnO-NPs does not affect the viability of A. baumannii. BL irradiation could trigger the antimicrobial ability of ZnO nanoparticles on A. baumannii. The mechanism of photocatalytic ZnO-NPs treatment for sterilization occurs through bacterial membrane disruptions. Otherwise, the photocatalytic ZnO-NPs treatment showed high microbial eradication in nosocomial pathogens, including colistin-resistant and imipenem-resistant A. baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Based on our results, the photocatalytic ZnO-NPs treatment could support hygiene control and clinical therapies without antibiotics to nosocomial bacterial infections. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. PREVALENCE OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS IN ADAM MALIK HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evita Mayasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakAcinetobacter baumannii merupakan spesies Acinetobacter spp. tersering diisolasi darimanusia, dan lebih sering dijumpai pada infeksi nosokomial dibandingkan dengan infeksi dikomunitas. Eksistensi bakteri ini di lingkungan terkait dengan keragaman reservoir, kemampuanmemperoleh gen pembawa sifat resisten antimikroba, dan sifat resisten terhadap pengeringan.Infeksi disebabkan strain A.baumannii yang resisten terhadap banyak antibiotik tidak mudahdikendalikan dan menjadi permasalahan di berbagai negara. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmengetahui prevalensi A.baumannii dari spesimen klinis di instalasi mikrobiologi klinik RSUPHaji Adam Malik serta pola kepekaannya terhadap berbagai antibiotik. Identifikasi dan ujikepekaan menggunakan mesin otomatis Vitek 2 dengan Advanced Expert System (AES.Penelitian ini menemukan 644/3693 (17,44% isolat A.baumannii dari berbagai spesimen klinis.A.baumannii paling banyak diisolasi dari spesimen dahak. Penelitian ini menemukan 147/644(23% bahwa isolat carbapenem-resistent A.baumannii (imipenem dan meropenem. Sebagianbesar isolat sensitif terhadap colistin, amikacin dan tigecycline. Prevalensi A.baumanni yangditemukan pada penelitian ini adalah rendah namun resistensinya tinggi terhadap antibiotikterutama golongan penicillin, cephalosporin dan fluoroquinolon.AbstractAcinetobacter baumannii is the most frequent species of Acinetobacter spp. isolated fromhumans and more common in nosocomial infection than it is in community acquired infection.A.baumannii existence in environment is associated with the diversity of its reservoirs, itscapacity to accumulate genes of antimicrobial resistence, and its resistence to desiccation.Infection of Multidrug resistent (MDR strain of A.baumannii is not easy to manage and it hasbecome a problem in many countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigatethe prevalence of A.baumannii from routine clinical specimens sent to clinical microbiologylaboratory RSUP HAM

  4. Antimicrobial effects of Ferula gummosa Boiss gum against extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Acinetobacter clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Fatemeh Farid; Saffarian, Parvaneh; Hosseini, Hamideh Mahmoodzadeh; Sattarian, Fereshteh; Amin, Mohsen; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2016-08-01

    Acinetobacter spp. are important causes of nosocomial infections. They possess various antibiotic resistance mechanisms including extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter clinical isolates especially among ESBL-producing strains and to investigate the antimicrobial effects of oleo-gum-resin extract and essential oil of Ferula gummosa Boiss. 120 Acinetobacter strains were isolated from various clinical samples of hospitalized patients in Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran during 2011-2012. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed on the isolates using disk diffusion method. To detect and confirm the ESBL-positive isolates, phenotypic and genotypic tests were performed. Three types of F. gummosa oleo-gum-resin extracts and essential oils were prepared and the bioactive components of F. gummosa Boiss extracts were determined by GC-Mass chromatography. F. gummosa antimicrobial activity was evaluated against standard strain of Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606) as well as Acinetobacter clinical isolates using well and disk diffusion methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by broth microdilution method. 46 isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics. All clinical isolates were resistant to cefotaxime. 12.94% of the isolates were phenotypically ESBL-producing among which 94.2% carried ESBL genes ( bla PER-1 , bla OXA-4 and bla CTX-M ) detected by PCR. Oleo-gum-resin of F. gummosa had significant antibacterial activity and alcoholic essential oil had higher inhibitory effect on Acinetobacter strains (MIC of 18.75 mg/ml). Ferula gummosa extract contained components with well-known antimicrobial effects.

  5. An Increase of Abundance and Transcriptional Activity for Acinetobacter junii Post Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raihan Jumat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor (MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in Saudi Arabia is assessed over a five-month period in 2015 and once in 2017 for bacterial diversity and transcriptional activity using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Acinetobacter spp. are shown to be enriched in the chlorinated effluent. Members of the Acinetobacter genus are the most abundant in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. At the species level, Acinetobacter junii have higher relative abundances post MBR and chlorination. RNA-seq analysis show that, in A. junii, 288 genes and 378 genes are significantly upregulated in the effluent and chlorinated effluent, respectively, with 98 genes being upregulated in both. RT-qPCR of samples in 2015 and 2017 confirm the upregulation observed in RNA-seq. Analysis of the 98 genes show that majority of the upregulated genes are involved in cellular repair and metabolism followed by resistance, virulence, and signaling. Additionally, two different subpopulations of A. junii are observed in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. The upregulation of cellular repair and metabolism genes, and the formation of different subpopulations of A. junii in both effluents provide insights into the mechanisms employed by A. junii to persist in the conditions of a WWTP.

  6. An Increase of Abundance and Transcriptional Activity for Acinetobacter junii Post Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad; Haroon, Muhammad; Aljassim, Nada I.; Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2018-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Saudi Arabia is assessed over a five-month period in 2015 and once in 2017 for bacterial diversity and transcriptional activity using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Acinetobacter spp. are shown to be enriched in the chlorinated effluent. Members of the Acinetobacter genus are the most abundant in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. At the species level, Acinetobacter junii have higher relative abundances post MBR and chlorination. RNA-seq analysis show that, in A. junii, 288 genes and 378 genes are significantly upregulated in the effluent and chlorinated effluent, respectively, with 98 genes being upregulated in both. RT-qPCR of samples in 2015 and 2017 confirm the upregulation observed in RNA-seq. Analysis of the 98 genes show that majority of the upregulated genes are involved in cellular repair and metabolism followed by resistance, virulence, and signaling. Additionally, two different subpopulations of A. junii are observed in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. The upregulation of cellular repair and metabolism genes, and the formation of different subpopulations of A. junii in both effluents provide insights into the mechanisms employed by A. junii to persist in the conditions of a WWTP.

  7. An Increase of Abundance and Transcriptional Activity for Acinetobacter junii Post Wastewater Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2018-04-11

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Saudi Arabia is assessed over a five-month period in 2015 and once in 2017 for bacterial diversity and transcriptional activity using metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Acinetobacter spp. are shown to be enriched in the chlorinated effluent. Members of the Acinetobacter genus are the most abundant in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. At the species level, Acinetobacter junii have higher relative abundances post MBR and chlorination. RNA-seq analysis show that, in A. junii, 288 genes and 378 genes are significantly upregulated in the effluent and chlorinated effluent, respectively, with 98 genes being upregulated in both. RT-qPCR of samples in 2015 and 2017 confirm the upregulation observed in RNA-seq. Analysis of the 98 genes show that majority of the upregulated genes are involved in cellular repair and metabolism followed by resistance, virulence, and signaling. Additionally, two different subpopulations of A. junii are observed in the effluent and chlorinated effluent. The upregulation of cellular repair and metabolism genes, and the formation of different subpopulations of A. junii in both effluents provide insights into the mechanisms employed by A. junii to persist in the conditions of a WWTP.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Acinetobacter radioresistens Strain SA188 Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Alam, Intikhab; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, Rene; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter radioresistens strain SA188 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plants Indigofera spp., collected in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 3.2-Mb draft genome sequence of strain SA188, highlighting characteristic pathways for plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaptation.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Acinetobacter radioresistens Strain SA188 Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2017-03-03

    Acinetobacter radioresistens strain SA188 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plants Indigofera spp., collected in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 3.2-Mb draft genome sequence of strain SA188, highlighting characteristic pathways for plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaptation.

  10. Natural genetic transformation in Acinetobacter sp. BD413 Biofilms: introducing natural genetic transformation as a tool for bioenhancement of biofilm reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickx, L

    2002-07-01

    This study focussed on the localization and quantification of natural genetic transformation using neutral and disadvantageous genes in monoculture biofilms to investigate gene transfer and expression of the transferred genes in the absence of a selective advantage. Data obtained by this investigation were regarded as initial steps for evaluating the applicability of adding catabolic traits into the indigenous bacterial community of biofilm reactors by in situ natural genetic transformation. Because Acinetobacter spp. strains are readily found in waste water treatment plants and because Acinetobacter sp. BD413 possesses a high effective level of competence, natural genetic transformation was investigated in monoculture Acinetobacter sp. BD413 biofilms. The genes used for transformation encoded for the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its variants. Monitoring of transformation events were performed with the use of automated confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and semi automated digital image processing and analysis. (orig.)

  11. Multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection outbreak in dogs and cats in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2016-11-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in a university hospital in Nepal reveals the emergence of a novel epidemic clonal lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Shovita; Tada, Tatsuya; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Ohara, Hiroshi; Shimada, Kayo; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Nakano, Kazuma; Shiroma, Akino; Sherchand, Jeevan Bdr; Rijal, Basista Psd; Hirano, Takashi; Kirikae, Teruo; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious medical problem worldwide. To clarify the genetic and epidemiological properties of MDR A. baumannii strains isolated from a medical setting in Nepal, 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates obtained from different patients were screened for MDR A. baumannii by antimicrobial disk susceptibility testing. Whole genomes of the MDR A. baumannii isolates were sequenced by MiSeq™ (Illumina), and the complete genome of one isolate (IOMTU433) was sequenced by PacBio RS II. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from single nucleotide polymorphism concatemers. Multilocus sequence types were deduced and drug resistance genes were identified. Of the 246 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, 122 (49.6%) were MDR A. baumannii, with the majority being resistant to aminoglycosides, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones but not to colistin and tigecycline. These isolates harboured the 16S rRNA methylase gene armA as well as bla(NDM-1), bla(OXA-23) or bla(OXA-58). MDR A. baumannii isolates belonging to clonal complex 1 (CC1) and CC2 as well as a novel clonal complex (CC149) have spread throughout a medical setting in Nepal. The MDR isolates harboured genes encoding carbapenemases (OXA and NDM-1) and a 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidrug‑resistant acinetobacter infection and their susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Major infections found in different medical wards, surgical wards and ICU were due to Acinetobacter baumannii (74.02%), A. lowfii (14.2%), A. haemolyticus (7.79%), A. junii (3.8%) among Acinetobacter spices. Acinetobacter showed increased resistant against majority of commercially available drugs imipenem ...

  14. Clinical and economic outcomes of Acinetobacter vis a vis non-Acinetobacter infections in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyendu Asim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acinetobacter infections are a major nosocomial infection causing epidemics of infection in the Intensive Care Units (ICU. Aims: This study estimates the clinical and economic outcomes of Acinetobacter infections and compares them with those of non-Acinetobacter bacterial infections. Settings and Design: Prospective cross-sectional observational study carried out for 6 months in the medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided in two groups, one group with Acinetobacter infections and the other with non-Acinetobacter infections. The data was collected for infection, length of stay (LOS, mortality and cost along with patient demographics from the hospital records for analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 15.0. The LOS and cost of treatment (COT for the two groups were compared using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: A total of 220 patients were studied out of which 91 had Acinetobacter infections. The median LOS was 20 days in Group-A and 12 days in Group-B (P < 0.0001. The median COT was INR 125,862 in Group-A and INR 68,228 in the Group-B (P < 0.0001. Mortality in Group-A and Group-B was 32.97 and 32.56 (P = 0.949 respectively. Conclusion: The burden of Acinetobacter infections in ICUs is increasing with the increase in LOS and COT for the patients. The infection control team has to play a major role in reducing the rate of nosocomial infections.

  15. Effects of Carbapenem consumption on the prevalence of Acinetobacter infection in intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutlu, Aziz; Guclu, Ertugrul; Karabay, Oguz; Utku, Aylin Calica; Tuna, Nazan; Yahyaoglu, Mehmet

    2014-01-09

    The consumption of carbapenems has increased worldwide, together with the increase in resistant gram negative bacilli. Subsequently, the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter infections has increased rapidly and become a significant problem particularly in intensive care unit patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of Acinetobacter infection by restricting the consumption of carbapenems in intensive care unit patients. This study was conducted between May 1, 2011 and February 28, 2013. The amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of patients with multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates during the study period were retrospectively obtained from the records of the patients, who were hospitalized in the intensive care unit. The study period was divided into two periods named as: Carbapenem non-restricted period (CNRP) and carbapenem-restricted period (CRP). During CNRP, no restrictions were made on the use of carbapenems. During CRP, the use of carbapenems was not allowed if there was an alternative to carbapenems. Primary Endpoint: MDRAB infection after ICU admission. The definition of nosocomial infections related to Acinetobacter spp. was based on the criteria of the Center for Disease Control (CDC). The correlation between the amount of carbapenem consumption and the number of infections with MDRAB strains between the two periods were evaluated. During the study period, a total of 1822 patients' (1053 patients in CNRP and 769 patients in CRP) records were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 10.82 defined daily dose (DDD/100 ICU days) of anti-pseudomonal carbapenem were used in CNRP, and this figure decreased to 6.95 DDD/100 ICU days in CRP. In the 8-month CNRP, 42 (3.98%) MDRAB-related nosocomial infections were detected, and 14 (1.82%) infections were detected in CRP (p = 0.012). The prevalence of MDRAB strains isolated in the CNRP was 2.24-fold higher than the prevalence in

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis in Germany over a 5-year period (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, X; Higgins, P G; Wisplinghoff, H; Körber-Irrgang, B; Kresken, M; Seifert, H

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the species distribution within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex and the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, 376 Acinetobacter isolates were collected prospectively from hospitalized patients at 15 medical centres in Germany during three surveillance studies conducted over a 5-year period. Species identification was performed by molecular methods. Imipenem minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by broth microdilution. The prevalence of the most common carbapenemase-encoding genes was investigated by oxacillinase (OXA) -multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The molecular epidemiology was investigated by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR; DiversiLab™). Acinetobacter pittii was the most prevalent Acinetobacter species (n = 193), followed by A. baumannii (n = 140), A. calcoaceticus (n = 10) and A. nosocomialis (n = 8). The majority of A. baumannii was represented by sporadic isolates (n = 70, 50%) that showed unique rep-PCR patterns, 25 isolates (18%) clustered with one or two other isolates, and only 45 isolates (32%) belonged to one of the previously described international clonal lineages. The most prevalent clonal lineage was international clone (IC) 2 (n = 34) and IC 1 (n = 6). According to CLSI, 25 A. baumannii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem (MIC ≥ 8 mg/L), all of which produced an OXA-58-like or OXA-23-like carbapenemase. The rate of imipenem susceptibility among A. baumannii isolates decreased from 96% in 2005 to 76% in 2009. All other Acinetobacter isolates were susceptible to imipenem. The population structure of carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii in Germany is highly diverse. Imipenem non-susceptibility was strongly associated with the clonal lineages IC 2 and IC 1. These data underscore the high clonality of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of

  17. Drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug-resistant post-neurosurgical nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis in two Iranian hospitals. ... Vol 11, No 17 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Acinetobacter baumannii may cause meningitis and ventriculitis, particularly after head trauma and/or neurosurgery. The rate of ...

  18. An update on the arsenal for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infections: polymyxin antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassamali, Zahra; Jain, Rupali; Danziger, Larry H

    2015-01-01

    To review recent clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data to optimize dosing regimens for polymyxin B and colistin for treatment of infections due to A. baumannii. A literature search was performed using the search terms Acinetobacter, polymyxin, colistin, polymyxin B on MEDLINE. Additional references were identified from the resulting citations. Increasing the dose of polymyxin B or colistin and using either in combination with other antibiotic agents demonstrates improved antimicrobial activity against Acinetobacter spp. Polymyxin B, unlike colistin, is available as an active drug and appears to be relatively unaffected by renal function. This is advantageous both for patients with renal impairment and for those with intact renal function. Achieving therapeutic serum concentrations of colistin may be difficult for those with intact renal function due to rapid clearance of the prodrug, colistimethate sodium (CMS). Clinical data are still lacking for polymyxin B, and it remains to be seen whether advantages demonstrated in PK/PD analyses will persist in the larger scale of patient care and safety. The use of higher doses of either colistin or polymyxin B, as well as combination with other antibiotics, may prevent emerging resistance and preserve the activity of polymyxins against A. baumannii. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Tet 39, a novel class of tetracycline resistance determinant in Acinetobacter spp. of environmental and clinical origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Guardabassi, L.

    2005-01-01

    A novel tetracycline resistance determinant named Tet 39 was found in unrelated Acinetobacter strains isolated from freshwater trout farms (n=4) and sewage (n=6) in Denmark, and from a clinical specimen in the Netherlands (n=1). The determinant was located on transferable plasmids and consisted o...

  20. Isolation and characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii recovered from Campylobacter selective medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh M Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42 oC and in the presence of antibiotics from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents. Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that all of these isolates were less susceptible to at least two different clinically relevant antibiotics, compared to the type strain A. baumannii ATCC17978. Expression of resistance-nodulation-division efflux pumps, an important mechanism of intrinsic resistance in these organisms, was analyzed and adeB was found to be overexpressed in one and adeJ was overexpressed in three isolates. Comparison of these isolates using genomic DNA Macro-Restriction Fragment Pattern Analysis (MRFPA revealed relatively low relatedness among themselves or with some of the clinical isolates from previous studies. This study suggests that A. baumannii isolates are capable of growing under selective conditions for Campylobacter spp. and that this organism can be present in manure and water.

  1. Comparative Analysis of 37 Acinetobacter Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dann Turner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Acinetobacter are ubiquitous in the environment and the multiple-drug resistant species A. baumannii is of significant clinical concern. This clinical relevance is currently driving research on bacterial viruses infecting A. baumannii, in an effort to implement phage therapy and phage-derived antimicrobials. Initially, a total of 42 Acinetobacter phage genome sequences were available in the international nucleotide sequence databases, corresponding to a total of 2.87 Mbp of sequence information and representing all three families of the order Caudovirales and a single member of the Leviviridae. A comparative bioinformatics analysis of 37 Acinetobacter phages revealed that they form six discrete clusters and two singletons based on genomic organisation and nucleotide sequence identity. The assignment of these phages to clusters was further supported by proteomic relationships established using OrthoMCL. The 4067 proteins encoded by the 37 phage genomes formed 737 groups and 974 orphans. Notably, over half of the proteins encoded by the Acinetobacter phages are of unknown function. The comparative analysis and clustering presented enables an updated taxonomic framing of these clades.

  2. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaer F

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were studied in a period of 6 months. Maximum isolates were from burns cases and environmental sampling from burns ward also grew the same organism, indicating their role as nosocomial pathogen. Acinetobacter may initially be mistaken for Neisseria species. As the organisms show multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics their correct identification is important.

  3. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F; Deodhar, L

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four isolates of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were studied in a period of 6 months. Maximum isolates were from burns cases and environmental sampling from burns ward also grew the same organism, indicating their role as nosocomial pathogen. Acinetobacter may initially be mistaken for Neisseria species. As the organisms show multidrug resistance to commonly used antibiotics their correct identification is important.

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii on computer interface surfaces of hospital wards and association with clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ling

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer keyboards and mice are potential reservoirs of nosocomial pathogens, but routine disinfection for non-water-proof computer devices is a problem. With better hand hygiene compliance of health-care workers (HCWs, the impact of these potential sources of contamination on clinical infection needs to be clarified. Methods This study was conducted in a 1600-bed medical center of southern Taiwan with 47 wards and 282 computers. With education and monitoring program of hand hygiene for HCWs, the average compliance rate was 74% before our surveillance. We investigated the association of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, three leading hospital-acquired pathogens, from ward computer keyboards, mice and from clinical isolates in non-outbreak period by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and antibiogram. Results Our results revealed a 17.4% (49/282 contamination rate of these computer devices by S. aureus, Acinetobacter spp. or Pseudomonas spp. The contamination rates of MRSA and A. baumannii in the ward computers were 1.1% and 4.3%, respectively. No P. aeruginosa was isolated. All isolates from computers and clinical specimens at the same ward showed different pulsotypes. However, A. baumannii isolates on two ward computers had the same pulsotype. Conclusion With good hand hygiene compliance, we found relatively low contamination rates of MRSA, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii on ward computer interface, and without further contribution to nosocomial infection. Our results suggested no necessity of routine culture surveillance in non-outbreak situation.

  5. Escherichia coli Overexpressing a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase from Acinetobacter radioresistens Becomes Resistant to Imipenem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerdi, Daniela; Zgrablic, Ivan; Castrignanò, Silvia; Catucci, Gianluca; Medana, Claudio; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Sadeghi, Sheila J

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global issue currently resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people a year worldwide. Data present in the literature illustrate the emergence of many bacterial species that display resistance to known antibiotics; Acinetobacter spp. are a good example of this. We report here that Acinetobacter radioresistens has a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (Ar-BVMO) with 100% amino acid sequence identity to the ethionamide monooxygenase of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. Both enzymes are only distantly phylogenetically related to other canonical bacterial BVMO proteins. Ar-BVMO not only is capable of oxidizing two anticancer drugs metabolized by human FMO3, danusertib and tozasertib, but also can oxidize other synthetic drugs, such as imipenem. The latter is a member of the carbapenems, a clinically important antibiotic family used in the treatment of MDR bacterial infections. Susceptibility tests performed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method demonstrate that imipenem-sensitive Escherichia coli BL21 cells overexpressing Ar-BVMO become resistant to this antibiotic. An agar disk diffusion assay proved that when imipenem reacts with Ar-BVMO, it loses its antibiotic property. Moreover, an NADPH consumption assay with the purified Ar-BVMO demonstrates that this antibiotic is indeed a substrate, and its product is identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be a Baeyer-Villiger (BV) oxidation product of the carbonyl moiety of the β-lactam ring. This is the first report of an antibiotic-inactivating BVMO enzyme that, while mediating its usual BV oxidation, also operates by an unprecedented mechanism of carbapenem resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Nanoparticles for Control of Biofilms of Acinetobacter Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are the cause of 80% of microbial infections. Acinetobacter species have emerged as multi- and pan-drug-resistant bacteria and pose a great threat to human health. These act as nosocomial pathogens and form excellent biofilms, both on biotic and abiotic surfaces, leading to severe infections and diseases. Various methods have been developed for treatment and control of Acinetobacter biofilm including photodynamic therapy, radioimmunotherapy, prophylactic vaccines and antimicrobial peptides. Nanotechnology, in the present scenario, offers a promising alternative. Nanomaterials possess unique properties, and multiple bactericidal mechanisms render them more effective than conventional drugs. This review intends to provide an overview of Acinetobacter biofilm and the significant role of various nanoparticles as anti-biofouling agents, surface-coating materials and drug-delivery vehicles for biofilm control and treatment of Acinetobacter infections.

  7. The effects of tertiary wastewater treatment on the prevalence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, L.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dalsgaard, A.

    2002-01-01

    and anaerobically digested sludge by bacteriological counts on media selective for coliforms (MacConkey agar) and Acinetobacter spp. (Baumann agar). In addition, the level of antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disc-diffusion method in 442 Acinetobacter isolates identified by colony hybridisation......-resistant presumptive coliforms and Acinetobacter spp. in treated sewage and digested sludge were not significantly higher compared with raw sewage. On the contrary at one plant, statistically significant decreases were observed in the prevalence of ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.......0188) following sewage treatment, and in the prevalence of either ampicillin-resistant presumptive Acinetobacter spp. (p = 0.0013) or ampicillin- and gentamicin-resistant presumptive coliforms (p = 0.0273 and p = 0.0186) following sludge treatment. The results obtained by bacteriological counts were confirmed...

  8. CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII POSTOPERATIVE MENINGITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Ghibu; Egidia Miftode; Olivia Dorneanu; Carmen Dorobat

    2011-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing relevance in hospital infections during the last 15 years.This organism causes a wide range of infection .Extensive use of antibiotics within hospitals has contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistent A.baumannii strains that exhibit resistance to a wide range of antibiotics ,including carbapenems.We report the case of an 37 years old man diagnosed with Acinetobacter multidrug-resistant post-neurosurgical meningitis with...

  9. Short communication: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolated from infant milk formula and utensils in a nursery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, B C; Moraes, M S; Costa, L E O; Nascimento, J S

    2015-04-01

    Infant milk formulas are not sterile products, and pathogenic bacteria can survive and multiply in these products. This study was performed, initially, to detect the presence of Salmonella spp. in reconstituted infant milk formula and on utensils previously sanitized used in their preparation or distribution in a nursery of a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. None of the samples tested carried Salmonellaspp. However, further identification of colonies growing on the selective media revealed the presence of several other gram-negative bacteria. Seventeen isolates were identified as belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex. Fourteen isolates presented a multidrug-resistance profile, by disc diffusion assays, and one of them--JE4--was also resistant to imipenem. The detection of Acinetobacter isolates in this work demonstrates inadequate hygiene practices in the preparation or distribution of infant milk formula. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant coliform bacteria, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in wastewater sewerage biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépesová, Kristína; Kraková, Lucia; Pangallo, Domenico; Medveďová, Alžbeta; Olejníková, Petra; Mackuľak, Tomáš; Tichý, Jozef; Grabic, Roman; Birošová, Lucia

    2018-03-28

    Urban wastewater contains different micropollutants and high number of different microorganisms. Some bacteria in wastewater can attach to the surfaces and form biofilm, which gives bacteria advantage in fight against environmental stress. This work is focused on bacterial community analysis in biofilms isolated from influent and effluent sewerage of wastewater treatment plant in Bratislava. Biofilm microbiota detection was performed by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Composition of bacterial strains was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting coupled with the construction of 16S rRNA clone libraries. The biofilm collected at the inlet point was characterized primarily by the presence of Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Janthinobacterium sp. clones, while in the biofilm isolated at outflow of wastewater treatment plant members of Pseudomonas genus were largely detected. Beside this analysis prevalence of antibiotics and resistant coliforms, Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in sewerage was studied. In influent wastewater were dominant antibiotics like azithromycin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin. Removal efficiency of these antibiotics notably azithromycin and clarithromycin were 30% in most cases. The highest number of resistant bacteria with predominance of coliforms was detected in sample of effluent biofilm. Multidrug resistant strains in effluent biofilm showed very good ability to form biofilm. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, E; Wüst, J; Speich, R; Flury, G; Krause, M

    1993-08-21

    We report the history of a 38-year-old male native of Sri Lanka admitted to the emergency ward because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical and radiographic examination a bilateral predominantly right-sided pneumonia was found. The patient was admitted to the medical ICU and an antibiotic regimen with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and erythromycin was initiated. Shortly afterwards septic shock developed. The patient was intubated and received high doses of catecholamines. He died 30 hours after admission to the hospital. Cultures from sputum, tracheal aspirate and blood grew Acinetobacter baumanni. Acinetobacter is an ubiquitous gram-negative rod with coccobacillary appearance in clinical specimens, that may appear gram-positive due to poor discoloration on Gram-stain. It is a well known causative agent of nosocomial infections, particularly in intensive care units. Community-acquired pneumonias, however, are quite rare. Sporadic cases have been reported from the US, Papua-New Guinea and Australia. Interestingly, these pneumonias are fulminant and have a high mortality. Chronic obstructive lung disease, diabetes, and tobacco and alcohol consumption appear to be predisposing factors. Due to the rapid course and poor prognosis, prompt diagnosis and adequate antibiotic treatment are indicated. Antibiotics use for community-acquired pneumonias, such as amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or macrolides, are not sufficient. Appropriate antibiotics for the initial treatment of suspected Acinetobacter infections include imipenem and carboxy- and ureidopenicillins combined with an aminoglycoside.

  12. Infections caused by Acinetobacter species and their susceptibility to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-seven (63%) and 17 (30%) of the Acinetobacter isolates were from wound infections and UTI respectively. All the infections were nosocomially acquired and were associated with compromised host immunity, defective body defence, surgery or urinary catheterization; with Acinetobacter baumannii being the ...

  13. Acinetobacter Peritoneal Dialysis Peritonitis: A Changing Landscape over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis are rare. Methods All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000). Results Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes) in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%), followed by A. iwoffii (35%), with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01). The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05). All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%). Nearly half of the patients (46%) required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences. Conclusions The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients. PMID:25314341

  14. Acinetobacter peritoneal dialysis peritonitis: a changing landscape over time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ter Chao

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD peritonitis are rare.All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000.Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%, followed by A. iwoffii (35%, with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01. The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05. All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%. Nearly half of the patients (46% required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences.The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients.

  15. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of acinetobacter species isolated from blood samples of paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.; Zafar, A.; Ejaz, H.; Zubair, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Acinetobacter species is a major nosocomial pathogen causing serious infections in immuno-compromised and hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in blood samples of paediatric patients. Methodology: This cross sectional observational study was conducted during January to October, 2011 at The Children's Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Lahore. A total number of 12,032 blood samples were analysed during the study period. Acinetobacter species were Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: The blood cultures showed growth in 1,141 cultures out of which 46 (4.0%) were Acinetobacter species. The gender distribution of Acinetobacter species was 29 (63.0%) in males and 17 (37.0%) in females. A good antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species was seen with sulbactam-cefoperazone (93.0%), imepenem and meropenem (82.6% (30.4%) was poor. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows high rate of resistance of Acinetobacter species with cephalosporins in nosocomial infections. The sulbactam-cefoperazone, carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam showed effective antimicrobial susceptibility against Acinetobacter species. (author)

  16. Rapid molecular characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii clones with rep-PCR and evaluation of carbapenemase genes by new multiplex PCR in Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Pasanen

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB is an increasing problem worldwide. Prevalence of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. due to acquired carbapenemase genes is not known in Finland. The purpose of this study was to examine prevalence and clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii group species, and their carbapenemase genes. A total of 55 Acinetobacter isolates were evaluated with repetitive PCR (DiversiLab to analyse clonality of isolates, in conjunction with antimicrobial susceptibility profile for ampicillin/sulbactam, colistin, imipenem, meropenem, rifampicin and tigecycline. In addition, a new real-time PCR assay, detecting most clinically important carbapenemase genes just in two multiplex reactions, was developed. The assay detects genes for KPC, VIM, IMP, GES-1/-10, OXA-48, NDM, GIM-1, SPM-1, IMI/NMC-A, SME, CMY-10, SFC-1, SIM-1, OXA-23-like, OXA-24/40-like, OXA-58 and ISAbaI-OXA-51-like junction, and allows confident detection of isolates harbouring acquired carbapenemase genes. There was a time-dependent, clonal spread of multiresistant A. baumannii strongly correlating with carbapenamase gene profile, at least in this geographically restricted study material. The new carbapenemase screening assay was able to detect all the genes correctly suggesting it might be suitable for epidemiologic screening purposes in clinical laboratories.

  17. Susceptibility to tigecycline of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, Katarzyna; Krzyściak, Paweł; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii are difficult to cure due to the acquisition of resistance by these bacteria and lead to an increase in the general costs of hospitalization. The aim of this study was to determine tigecycline susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from intensive care unit and non-intensive care unit patients with skin and soft tissue infections. MICs were tested by Etest among 70 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The MIC range was from 0.5 to 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For ESBL-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, as well as for strains without carbapenemases, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 8.0 mg L⁻¹. For AmpC-producing Acinetobacter baumannii, the highest MIC to tigecycline value was 6.0 mg L⁻¹ and, for MBL-producing strains, 2.0 mg L⁻¹. The majority of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from ICU and non-ICU patients demonstrated high values of MIC range, MIC50 and MIC90 to tigecycline.

  18. Analysis of drug resistance in 1,861 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Qiu, Fan; Ji, Hong Jian; Lu, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging human pathogen that causes hospital-acquired infections. The trend in increased antimicrobial resistance limits the choice of effective antimicrobial agents. The present study reports the resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii and analyzes the associations between antibiotic use and resistance rates at a general hospital between 2010 and 2014. A total of 1,861 isolates were obtained from clinical cultures, accounting for 10.33% of all detected bacteria (1,861/18,016). The strains were mainly from respiratory samples (1,628 isolates, 87.5%) and the intensive care unit (696 isolates, 37.4%). The resistance rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to the majority of antibiotics were >50%, particularly the resistance rate to cefoperazone/sulbactam increased from 47.37 in 2011 to 89.25% in 2014. However, the rates of imipenem and cilastatin sodium decreased from 81.03 to 69.44% due to the antibiotic policy. There were Pearson significant associations between the use of three antibiotics and resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii to this drug, piperacillin/tazobactam (r=0.976, Ppolicies are essential to control the emergence of multidrug-resistance Acinetobacter baumannii .

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from infected wounds at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Acinetobacter, especially species Acinetobacter baumanii, is one of the most important causes of infection in immunocompromised patients in hospital. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility of Acinetobacter species isolated from swabs of inflamed wounds to antibiotics. The study was conducted in several departments of the Clinical Centre 'Kragujevac' through retrospective analysis of 220 Acinetobacter species isolates from surgical wounds in 2011. The isolates of Acinetobaster species were mostly sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, colistin and tigecycline in all hospital departments that were surveyed. Only minority of the isolated Acinetobacter species were susceptible to cotrimoxazole, amikacin, imipenem and/or meropenem. Antibiotics with the highest in vitro efficacy against Acinetobacter species were ampicillinsulbactam, colistin and tigecycline. Highly resistant Acinetobacter species were more frequently isolated from patients in Intensive Care Unit.

  20. Effect of Chlorine Exposure on the Survival and Antibiotic Gene Expression of Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Prasad Karumathil

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a multidrug resistant pathogen capable of causing a wide spectrum of clinical conditions in humans. Acinetobacter spp. is ubiquitously found in different water sources. Chlorine being the most commonly used disinfectant in water, the study investigated the effect of chlorine on the survival of A. baumannii in water and transcription of genes conferring antibiotic resistance. Eight clinical isolates of A. baumannii, including a fatal meningitis isolate (ATCC 17978 (~108 CFU/mL were separately exposed to free chlorine concentrations (0.2, 1, 2, 3 and 4 ppm with a contact time of 30, 60, 90 and 120 second. The surviving pathogen counts at each specified contact time were determined using broth dilution assay. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis of the antibiotic resistance genes (efflux pump genes and those encoding resistance to specific antibiotics of three selected A. baumannii strains following exposure to chlorine was performed. Results revealed that all eight A. baumannii isolates survived the tested chlorine levels during all exposure times (p > 0.05. Additionally, there was an up-regulation of all or some of the antibiotic resistance genes in A. baumannii, indicating a chlorine-associated induction of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen.

  1. Phenotypic and genetic relationship of Acinetobacter Baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovska-Dokic, E; Kotevska, V; Kaftandzieva, A; Jankoska, G; Mircevska, G; Petrovska, M; Panovski, N

    2011-01-01

    The interest in Acinetobacter continues to rise. One of the main reasons is the emergence of multi-resistant strains, which cause outbreaks of infection involving several patients in a ward, in the intensive care unit and in different areas of the hospital. Many outbreaks of its infection or colonization in surgical, neonatal and burn intensive care units have been reported, but the epidemiology of these infections remains unclear. To investigate the relationship among the isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, comparing some of their phenotypic and genetic features. A total of 20 Acinetobacter baumanni isolates were included in the study. 12 strains of Acinetobacter baumannii were obtained within a week in July 2010, from neonates hospitalized at the paediatric intensive care unit and on the neonatal ward. Three strains were isolated from neonates at the paediatric intensive care unit three months ago. All the Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from tracheal aspirates obtained from neonates with infection of the lower respiratory tract. Five additional Acinetobacter baumannii strains were included in the study as controls. They were isolated from wound swabs taken from adult patients with wound infection, hospitalized at the University Traumatology Clinic. Susceptibility of the bacterial strains to 13 different antimicrobial agents was determined by the disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer). Additional testing of the susceptibility was performed by the VITEK 2 system. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting was carried out using the following primer (5' GAAACAGCTATGACCATG -3'). All A. baumannii isolates were multi-drug resistant. Antibiotic susceptibility-testing by the disk-diffusion method and automated VITEK 2 system showed 3 and 2 antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, respectively. RAPD-PCR assay of A. baumannii strains revealed two different RAPD-fingerprints. All the strains of A. baumannii isolated within a week in July 2010 from tracheal aspirates taken from

  2. WCK 4234, a novel diazabicyclooctane potentiating carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter with class A, C and D β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Shazad; Vickers, Anna; Woodford, Neil; Livermore, David M

    2017-06-01

    Several diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) are under development as inhibitors of class A and C β-lactamases. Inhibition of OXA (class D) carbapenemases is variable, with those of Acinetobacter spp. remaining notably resistant. We describe a novel DBO, WCK 4234 (Wockhardt), with distinctive activity against OXA carbapenemases. MICs of imipenem and meropenem were determined by CLSI agar dilution with WCK 4234 added at 4 or 8 mg/L. Test organisms were clinical Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbapenemases or carbapenem resistance via porin loss plus AmpC or ESBL activity. AmpC mutants were also tested. WCK 4234, which lacked direct antibacterial activity, strongly potentiated imipenem and meropenem against Enterobacteriaceae with OXA-48/OXA-181 or KPC enzymes, or with combinations of impermeability and AmpC or ESBL activity, with MICs reduced to ≤2 mg/L in almost all cases. Carbapenems likewise were potentiated against P. aeruginosa ( n  =   2) with OXA-181 enzyme, with MICs reduced from 64-128 to 2-8 mg/L and against A. baumannii with OXA carbapenemases, particularly OXA-23 or hyperproduced OXA-51, with MICs reduced to ≤2 mg/L for 9/10 acinetobacters with OXA-23 enzyme. Carbapenems were not potentiated against Enterobacteriaceae or non-fermenters with metallo-β-lactamases. WCK 4234 distinctively overcame resistance mediated by OXA-type carbapenemases, including those of A. baumannii . It behaved similarly to other DBOs against strains with KPC carbapenemases or combinations of impermeability and ESBL or AmpC activity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Antibacterial Activity Evaluation of the Nanoparticles of Silver on Acinetobacter Baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Nasim Karimipour

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Due to the high drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, in this research, antibacterial properties of nano silver was evaluated for Acinetobacter baumannii. Materials & Methods: The nano silver with approximate diameter of 20 nanometer from Pishtazan Inc. Mashad, Iran and 5 nanometer from the Department of Chemistry in Maragheh University were prepared. Its concentration was determined by spectroscopy method in Tabriz Chemistry University.  Antimicrobial effects were determined by Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimal Bacterial Concentration (MBC by micro-broth-dilution method, disc diffusion and well diffusion methods. Anti-bacterial activity of nano-silver was tested for Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC12516 on 20 clinical strains (collected from Imam Reza Hospital in Tabriz. Results: The results showed the MIC and MBC of 20nm nanoparticles were 1250 ppm and 2500 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the MIC and MBC of 5 nm nanoparticles were 156 ppm and 312 ppm, respectively. According to these findings, the MIC and MBC identified for clinical Acinetobacter baumannii strains under study along with the NCTC12516 strain did not show a significant difference. Yet the amount of inhibition for the 20nm nanoparticles in the density of 20000 ppm of clinical Acinetobacter baumannii and NCTC12516 strains was 11 millimeter with the disc diffusion method and 9.5 millimeter for the well diffusion method with the same concentration. The amount of inhibition of 5nm nanoparticles in the 250-ppm concentration with both disc diffusion and well diffusion methods was 9.5 millimeter. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii is susceptible to nano-silver. Also the same MIC and MBC in multiple clinical strains suggests that there is not resistance to silver nanoparticles in Acinetobacter baumannii

  4. Acinetobacter: environmental and biotechnological applications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among microbial communities involved in different ecosystems such as soil, freshwater, wastewater and solid wastes, several strains belonging to the genus of Acinetobacter have been attracting growing interest from medical, environmental and a biotechnological point of view. Bacteria of this genus are known to be ...

  5. Acinetobacter species as model microorganisms in environmental microbiology: current state and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Park, Woojun

    2015-03-01

    Acinetobacter occupies an important position in nature because of its ubiquitous presence in diverse environments such as soils, fresh water, oceans, sediments, and contaminated sites. Versatile metabolic characteristics allow species of this genus to catabolize a wide range of natural compounds, implying active participation in the nutrient cycle in the ecosystem. On the other hand, multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii causing nosocomial infections with high mortality has been raising serious concerns in medicine. Due to the ecological and clinical importance of the genus, Acinetobacter was proposed as a model microorganism for environmental microbiological studies, pathogenicity tests, and industrial production of chemicals. For these reasons, Acinetobacter has attracted significant attention in scientific and biotechnological fields, but only limited research areas such as natural transformation and aromatic compound degradation have been intensively investigated, while important physiological characteristics including quorum sensing, motility, and stress response have been neglected. The aim of this review is to summarize the recent achievements in Acinetobacter research with a special focus on strain DR1 and to compare the similarities and differences between species or other genera. Research areas that require more attention in future research are also suggested.

  6. Bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Natália Anício; Cisneiros, Lígia DE Loiola; Machado, Carla Jorge; Cenedezi, Juliana Merlin; Procópio, Ricardo Jayme; Navarro, Túlio Pinho

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate whether bacterial genus is a risk factor for major amputation in patients with diabetic foot and infected ulcer. we conducted a case-control, observational study of 189 patients with infected ulcers in diabetic feet admitted to the Vascular Surgery Service of the Risoleta Tolentino Neves Hospital, from January 2007 to December 2012. The bacteriological evaluation was performed in deep tissue cultures from the lesions and amputation was considered major when performed above the foot'smiddle tarsus. the patients'mean age was 61.9±12.7 years; 122 (64.6%) were men. The cultures were positive in 86.8%, being monomicrobial in 72% of the cases. In patients with major amputation, Acinetobacter spp. (24.4%), Morganella spp. (24.4%), Proteus spp. (23.1%) and Enterococcus spp. (19.2%) were the most frequent types of bacteria. The most commonly isolated species were Acinetobacter baumannii, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. As predictors of major amputation, we identified the isolation of the generaAcinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp., serum creatinine ≥1.3mg/dl and hemoglobin creatinina ≥1,3mg/dl e de hemoglobina <11g/dl. os gêneros bacterianos Acinetobacter spp. e Klebsiella spp. identificados nas úlceras infectadas dos pacientes com pé diabético associaram-se a maior incidência de amputação maior.

  7. Characterization and plasmid elimination of NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Sun

    Full Text Available The presence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens in the environment poses a serious threat to public health. The opportunistic Acinetobacter spp. are among the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections. Here, we performed complete genome sequencing of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain XM1570, which was originally cultivated from the sputum of a patient diagnosed with pneumonia in Xiamen in 2010. We identified carbapenem resistance associated gene bla(NDM-1 located on a 47.3-kb plasmid. Three methods--natural reproduction, sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment and nalidixic acid treatment--were used to eliminate the bla(NDM-1-encoding plasmid, which achieved elimination rates of 3.32% (10/301, 83.78% (278/332, and 84.17% (298/354, respectively. Plasmid elimination dramatically increased antibiotic sensitivity, reducing the minimum bacteriostatic concentration of meropenem from 256 µg/ml in the clinical strain to 0.125 µg/ml in the plasmid-eliminated strain. Conjugation transfer assays showed that the bla(NDM-1-containing plasmid could be transferred into Escherichia coli DH5α:pBR322 in vitro as well as in vivo in mice. The bla(NDM-1 genetic environment was in accordance with that of other bla(NDM-1 genes identified from India, Japan, and Hong-Kong. The multilocus sequence type of the isolate was identified as ST-70. Two novel genes encoding intrinsic OXA and ADC were identified and named as OXA-417 and ADC-72. The finding of bla(NDM-1 in species like A. calcoaceticus demonstrates the wide spread of this gene in gram-negative bacteria which is possible by conjugative plasmid transfer. The results of this study may help in the development of a treatment strategy for controlling NDM-1 bacterial infection and transmission.

  8. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvement of MALDI-TOF MS profiling for the differentiation of species within the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedo, Ondrej; Nemec, Alexandr; Křížová, Lenka; Kačalová, Magdaléna; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2013-12-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is currently becoming the method of choice for rapid identification of bacterial species in routine diagnostics. Yet, this method suffers from the inability to differentiate reliably between some closely related bacterial species including those of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii (ACB) complex, namely A. baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis. In the present study, we evaluated a protocol which was different from that used in the Bruker Daltonics identification system (MALDI BioTyper) to improve species identification using a taxonomically precisely defined set of 105 strains representing the four validly named species of the ACB complex. The novel protocol is based on the change in matrix composition from alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (saturated solution in water:acetonitrile:trifluoroacetic acid, 47.5:50:2.5, v/v) to ferulic acid (12.5mgml(-1) solution in water:acetonitrile:formic acid 50:33:17, v/v), while the other steps of sample processing remain unchanged. Compared to the standard protocol, the novel one extended the range of detected compounds towards higher molecular weight, produced signals with better mass resolution, and allowed the detection of species-specific signals. As a result, differentiation of A. nosocomialis and A. baumannii strains by cluster analysis was improved and 13 A. nosocomialis strains, assigned erroneously or ambiguously by using the standard protocol, were correctly identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of multipurpose solutions against Acinetobacter carrying QAC genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen V; Chan, Jessica; Shi, Guang-sen; Cho, Pauline

    2014-03-01

    Acinetobacter has low virulence but causes infections in subjects with reduced immunity. It has been reported in ocular infections including those of patients using contact lenses. Treatment is difficult because Acinetobacter is frequently multidrug resistant. Antibiotic-resistant strains frequently also harbor genes for antiseptic resistance (quaternary ammonium compound [QAC]) genes. Because Acinetobacter is part of the normal flora, it may contaminate contact lens and accessories. This study aims to investigate carriage rates of QAC genes in household and clinical isolates of Acinetobacter and to determine the effectiveness of two multipurpose solutions (MPSs) for soft lenses against organisms carrying QAC genes. DNA was extracted from 11 bathroom isolates and 15 clinical isolates and amplified by polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of qacEΔ1. Gene-positive and gene-negative control strains were used to challenge the two MPSs, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of these organisms to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were determined. More than 90% of isolates carried qacEΔ1. The MICs of clinical isolates were higher than those of isolates of bathrooms. Both MPSs were able to produce a 3-log reduction in the numbers of all isolates. Although most isolates carried qacEΔ1 and elevated MICs to benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate were observed, all were susceptible to both MPSs tested. However, if there were to be poor compliance with care procedures, it is probable that such organisms could survive in the presence of diluted or expired solutions.

  11. Identification of genus Acinetobacter: Standardization of in-house PCR and its comparison with conventional phenotypic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sughosh S; Madalgi, Radhika; Ajantha, Ganavalli S; Kulkarni, Raghavendra D

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter is grouped under nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli. It is increasingly isolated from pathological samples. The ability of this genus to acquire drug resistance and spread in the hospital settings is posing a grave problem in healthcare. Specific treatment protocols are advocated for Acinetobacter infections. Hence, rapid identification and drug susceptibility profiling are critical in the management of these infections. To standardize an in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for identification of genus Acinetobacter and to compare PCR with two protocols for its phenotypic identification. A total of 96 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter were included in the study. An in-house PCR for genus level identification of Acinetobacter was standardized. All the isolates were phenotypically identified by two protocols. The results of PCR and phenotypic identification protocols were compared. The in-house PCR standardized was highly sensitive and specific for the genus Acinetobacter . There was 100% agreement between the phenotypic and molecular identification of the genus. The preliminary identification tests routinely used in clinical laboratories were also in complete agreement with phenotypic and molecular identification. The in-house PCR for genus level identification is specific and sensitive. However, it may not be essential for routine identification as the preliminary phenotypic identification tests used in the clinical laboratory reliably identify the genus Acinetobacter .

  12. Virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizun Nahar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter species are aerobic Gram variable coccobacilli that are now emerging as an important nosocomial pathogen. Infections caused by them are difficult to control due to multidrug resistance. The purpose of this study was to detect virulence factors namely gelatinase production, biofilm formation and antibiotic susceptibility of Acinetobacter species. Two hundred fifty six clinical samples collected from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib medical University (BSMMU and from burn unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital were included in the study. Gelatinase production was seen on Luria Bertani agar media containing gelatin (30 gm/l and biofilm formation was detected in microtiter plate assay. Out of 256 clinical samples, 52 (20.3% were Acinetobacter species. Out of 52 Acinetobacter isolates, none were gelatinase producer but 39 (75% were found biofilm producers. Acinetobacter isolates were 100% resistant to ceftazidime, cefotaxime cefuroxime and ceftriaxone. High level of resistance was also recorded for amoxicillin (98.1%, aztreonam (98.1%, gentamicin (90.4%, ciprofloxacin (73.1%, amikacin (57.6%, netilmicin (53.8% and imipenem (44.2%. Susceptibility to colistin was maximum (96.2%. The present study demonstrated a high propensity of biofilm formation by the clinical isolates of Acinetobacter species and most of the Acinetobacter were multidrug resistant. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(1: 27-30

  13. Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov., isolated from iceberg lettuce (Asteraceae: Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Alejandro P; Dunlap, Christopher A; Flor-Weiler, Lina B

    2016-09-01

    Strain NRRL B-41902T and three closely related strains were isolated from iceberg lettuce. The strain was found to consist of strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative rods that formed cocci in late stationary phase. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NRRL B-41902T was most closely related to species within the genera Acinetobacter, and that a grouping of it and the three other closely related strains was most closely related to the type strain of Acinetobacter pittii, which was also confirmed through a phylogenomic analysis. Moreover, in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed a substantial amount of genomic divergence (39.1 %) between strain NRRL B-41902T and the type strain of A. pittii, which is expected if the strains represent distinct species. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-41902T was able to utilize a combination of l-serine, citraconic acid and citramalic acid, which differentiated it from other, closely related Acinetobacter species. Therefore, strain NRRL B-41902T (=CCUG 68785T) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species, Acinetobacter lactucae sp. nov.

  14. Genome sequencing and annotation of Acinetobacter gerneri strain MTCC 9824T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter consists of 31 validly published species ubiquitously distributed in nature and primarily associated with nosocomial infection. We report the 4.4 Mb genome of Acinetobacter gerneri strain MTCC 9824T. The genome has a G + C content of 38.0% and includes 3 rRNA genes (5S, 23S16S and 64 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes.

  15. Molecular characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To survey the molecular characteristics of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii obtained from pediatric burns patients in a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Over a 10-month period, 73 non-duplicate A. baumannii strains were collected from pediatric burns patients admitted to Motahari Burn and ...

  16. Nosocomial imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (IRAB) has emerged as a challenging nosocomial pathogen particularly in intensive care units (ICUs). Studying the risk factors associated with IRAB infection is of paramount importance for appropriate control of IRAB spread. The aim of this study was to assess ...

  17. The role of Acinetobacter in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis examined by using Popper sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2012-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder. The role of 'Acinetobacter' has been examined using the method of Karl Popper and involves nine "Popper sequences". (1) The frequency of MS increases with latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, and the reverse is found in the Southern Hemisphere. (2) Sinusitis is found frequently at colder latitudes. (3) Sinusitis occurs frequently in patients with MS. (4) Specific sequences of bovine myelin when injected into experimental animals will produce a neurological disorder resembling MS which is called "experimental allergic encephalomyelitis". (5) Computer analysis of myelin shows molecular mimicry with sequences found in Acinetobacter. (6) Antibodies to Acinetobacter bacteria are found in MS patients. (7) Acinetobacter bacteria are located on human skin and in the nasal sinuses. (8) IgA antibodies are preferentially elevated in the sera of MS patients, thereby suggesting the trigger microbe is acting across a mucosal surface probably located in the nasal sinuses. (9) Only Acinetobacter bacteria and no other microbes evoke statistically significant titres of antibodies in MS patients. These nine Popper sequences suggest that MS is most probably caused by infections with Acinetobacter bacteria in the nasal sinuses, and this could have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome sequencing and annotation of Acinetobacter gyllenbergii strain MTCC 11365T

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    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter consists of 31 validly published species ubiquitously distributed in nature and primarily associated with nosocomial infection. We report 4.3 Mb genome of the Acinetobacter gyllenbergii strain MTCC 11365T. The draft genome of A. gyllenbergii has a G + C content of 41.0% and includes 3 rRNA genes (5S, 23S, 16S and 67 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes.

  19. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. pittii clinical isolates lack adherence and cytotoxicity to lung epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro-Díez, María; Navascués-Lejarza, Teresa; Remuzgo-Martínez, Sara; Navas, Jesús; Icardo, José Manuel; Acosta, Felix; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Ramos-Vivas, José

    2016-09-01

    The molecular and genetic basis of Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter pittii virulence remains poorly understood, and there is still lack of knowledge in host cell response to these bacteria. In this study, we have used eleven clinical Acinetobacter strains (A. baumannii n = 5; A. pittii n = 6) to unravel bacterial adherence, invasion and cytotoxicity to human lung epithelial cells. Our results showed that adherence to epithelial cells by Acinetobacter strains is scarce and cellular invasion was not truly detected. In addition, all Acinetobacter strains failed to induce any cytotoxic effect on A549 cells. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic sequencing of a strain of Acinetobacter baumannii and potential mechanisms to antibiotics resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Hongru; Zhu, Ziwen; Wakefield, Mark R; Fang, Yujiang; Ye, Ying

    2017-06-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii has been becoming a great challenge to clinicians due to their resistance to almost all available antibiotics. In this study, we sequenced the genome from a multiple antibiotics resistant Acinetobacter baumannii stain which was named A. baumannii-1isolated from China by SMRT sequencing technology to explore its potential mechanisms to antibiotic resistance. We found that several mechanisms might contribute to the antibiotic resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Specifically, we found that SNP in genes associated with nucleotide excision repair and ABC transporter might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; we also found that specific genes associated with bacterial DNA integration and recombination, DNA-mediated transposition and response to antibiotics might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics; Furthermore, specific genes associated with penicillin and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway and specific genes associated with CHDL and MBL β-lactamase genes might contribute to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Thus, the detailed mechanisms by which Acinetobacter baumannii show extensive resistance to multiple antibiotics are very complicated. Such a study might be helpful to develop new strategies to control Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduction in chlorhexidine efficacy against multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Kawamura, K; Matsui, M; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S; Shibayama, K; Arakawa, Y

    2017-03-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II (IC II) can cause severe clinical outcomes. Differential evaluation of bactericidal efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and benzethonium chloride (BZT) disinfectants against IC II and non-IC II isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CHX and BZT were determined for 137 A. baumannii IC II, 99 non-IC II and 69 non-baumannii isolates, further classified according to MIC values into disinfectant-reduced susceptible (DRS) and disinfectant-susceptible (DS) groups. Time-kill curves and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for representative isolates in each group. CHX and BZT MIC 90 s for IC II isolates were 100 and 175mg/L, respectively, but those for non-IC II and non-baumannii isolates were <100mg/L. Nevertheless, time-kill curves indicated that CHX and BZT reduced live bacterial cell number by 5 log 10 for IC II and non-IC II isolates within 30s when used at 1000mg/L, comparable to practical use concentrations. CHX MBC at 30s was 1000mg/L for IC II and non-IC II isolates, and was not influenced by addition of 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA); BZT MBC at 30s was 100mg/L without BSA and increased up to 500mg/L upon addition of BSA. No significant differences in BSA were found between DRS and DS isolates. CHX and BZT were effective against Acinetobacter spp. including IC II at a concentration of 1000mg/L and exposure for at least 30s, but their concentrations should be considered carefully to ensure sufficient effects in both clinical and healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Species Isolated from Pus and Pus Swab Specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Akbar, N.; Khan, I. U.; Hussain, A.; Ali, S.; Mirza, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter species isolated from pus and pus swab specimens at a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from July 2008 to July 2012. Methodology: Data regarding positive culture and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was retrieved from the pus and pus swab culture records of the Microbiology Department, AFIP, Rawalpindi. Only those pus and pus swab specimens which yielded the growth of Acinetobacter species were included in the study. Results:Out of 2781, 1848 were of pure pus while 933 were pus swab specimens. Out of 2538 culture positive isolates, 276 (10.9 percentage) were identified as Acinetobacterspecies. Among 276 Acinetobacter species, 245 (88.8 percentage) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 31 (11.2 percentage) were Acinetobacter johnsonii. Male/female ratio of the affected patients was 5.6:1. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic to which 45 percentage of the tested isolates were sensitive. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. Conclusion: About 11 percentage of soft tissue and wound infections are caused by Acinetobacter species in our set up particularly in male. Doxycycline was the most sensitive antibiotic. Sensitivity to all other antimicrobials was 15 percentage or less. In vitro sensitivity to carbapenems is very low. (author)

  3. Contribution of Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase-30 to sulbactam resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Shu-Chen eKuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The sulbactam resistance rate in Acinetobacter baumannii has increased worldwide. Previous reports have shown that the β-lactamase blaTEM-1 confers resistance to sulbactam in A. baumannii. The purpose of this study was to examine whether other β-lactamases including, the Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase (ADC, OXA-23, OXA-24/72, and OXA-58 families, also contribute to sulbactam resistance in A. baumannii. The correlation between these β-lactamases and the sulbactam minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined using A. baumannii clinical isolates from diverse clonality, which were collected in a nationwide surveillance program from 2002 to 2010 in Taiwan. A possible association between the genetic structure of ISAba1-blaADC-30 and sulbactam resistance was observed because this genetic structure was detected in 97% of sulbactam-resistant strains compared with 10% of sulbactam-susceptible strains. Transformation of ISAba1-blaADC-30 into susceptible strains increased the sulbactam MIC from 2 to 32 μg/ml, which required blaADC-30 overexpression using an upstream promoter in ISAba1. Flow cytometry showed that ADC-30 production increased in response to sulbactam, ticarcillin, and ceftazidime treatment. This effect was regulated at the RNA level but not by an increase in the blaADC-30 gene copy number as indicated by quantitative PCR. Purified ADC-30 decreased the inhibitory zone created by sulbactam or ceftazidime, similarly to TEM-1. In conclusion, ADC-30 overexpression conferred resistance to sulbactam in diverse clinical A. baumannii isolates.

  4. First case of bacteraemia due to Acinetobacter schindleri harbouring blaNDM-1 in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Montaña

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinically significant NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter schindleri has not yet been described in the literature. We report the first case of bacteraemia due to an A. schindleri strain harbouring blaNDM-1 recovered from an immunocompromised patient. Our report reinforces the fact that NDM-1 can easily be acquired by Acinetobacter species. Keywords: Acinetobacter schindleri, bacteraemia, blaNDM-1, clinically significant isolate, immunocompromised patient

  5. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Host-microbe interactions that shape the pathogenesis of Acinetobacter baumannii infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brittany L.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that has emerged as a prevalent source of nosocomial infections, most frequently causing ventilator-associated pneumonia. The emergence of pan-drug resistant strains magnifies the problem by reducing viable treatment options and effectively increasing the mortality rate associated with Acinetobacter infections. In light of this rising threat, research on A. baumannii epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, and pathogenesis is accelerating. The recent development of both in vitro and in vivo models has enabled studies probing the host-Acinetobacter interface. Bacterial genetic screens and comparative genomic studies have led to the identification of several A. baumannii virulence factors. Additionally, investigations into host defense mechanisms using animal models or cell culture have provided insight into the innate immune response to infection. This review highlights some of the key attributes of A. baumannii virulence with an emphasis on bacterial interactions with the innate immune system. PMID:22640368

  7. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Infection and Their Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-glucose fermenting Gram negative bacillus, has emerged in the last three decades as a major etiological agent of hospital-associated infections giving rise to significant morbidity and mortality particularly in immunocompromised patients. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii ...

  8. Acinetobacter Infection and Resistance Profile of Intensive Care Units In a City of Northwestern Anatolia

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    İsa Yıldız

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Determination of suitable antibiotics in treatment of Acinetobacter infections is through the hospital ascertaining the resistance state to bacteria causing the problem. In this study, the evaluation of antibiotics sensitivity of Acinetobacter strains isolated as infection factor in patients hospitalized in intensive care units is aimed. METHODS: Acinetobacter strains isolated from the samples of patients hospitalized in the 2nd and 3rd Stage adult intensive care units of a province in in northwestern Anatolia have been studied. RESULTS: A total of 165 patients were included in the study. The most isolated samples were respiratory tract samples, blood and urine. The antibiotics which the factors were most sensitive were cholistin (66,1% gentamicin (22,4% and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (18,2%. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We face increasing resistance ratios in Acinetobacter strains. Necessary precautions should be taken for this.

  9. Rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Jetter, Marion; Blöchliger, Nicolas; Kolesnik-Goldmann, Natalia; Keller, Peter M; Böttger, Erik C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility of rapid disc diffusion antibiotic susceptibility testing (rAST) with reading of inhibition zones after 6 and/or 8 h of incubation for Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. In addition, we evaluated discrimination of resistant populations from the WT populations at early timepoints and the requirement for clinical breakpoint adaptations for proper interpretation of rAST data. Methods In total, 815 clinical strains [E. faecalis (n = 135), E. faecium (n = 227), P. aeruginosa (n = 295) and A. baumannii (n = 158)] were included in this study. Disc diffusion plates were streaked, incubated and imaged using the WASPLabTM automation system. WT populations and non-WT populations were defined using epidemiological cut-offs. Results and conclusions rAST at 6 and 8 h was possible for A. baumannii and enterococci with readability of inhibition zones >90%. Overall categorical agreement of rAST at 6 h with AST at 18 h was 97.2%, 97.4% and 95.3% for E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii, respectively. With few exceptions, major categorization error rates were <1% for A. baumannii, and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium were clearly separated from the WT at 6 h. For P. aeruginosa the average readability of inhibition zones was 68.9% at 8 h and we found an overall categorical agreement of 94.8%. Adaptations of clinical breakpoints and/or introduction of technical buffer zones, preferably based on aggregated population data from various epidemiological settings, are required for proper interpretation of rAST. PMID:29186434

  10. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

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    Yesim Cekin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare e-test and disc diffusion methods for doripenem susceptibility of acinetobacter baumannii strains as nosocomial infections Acinetobacter baumanni isolates detected as nosocomial infection. Material and Method:. Between January to December, 2009 a total of 94 Acinetobacter baumanni strains isolated from different clinical specimens from intensive care units have been studied for doripenem susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test methods. Minimal inhibitory consantrations (MIC were accepted as; sensitive %u22641 %u03BCg/ml, intermadiate 2-4 %u03BCg/ml, resistant >4 %u03BCg/ml and diameters of inhibition zone with 10 µg disc; sensitive

  11. Diversity Within the O-linked Protein Glycosylation Systems of Acinetobacter Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N. E.; Kinsella, R. L.; Edwards, A. V. G.

    2014-01-01

    nature of glycan biogenesis we investigated the composition, diversity, and properties of the Acinetobacter glycoproteome. Utilizing global and targeted mass spectrometry methods, we examined 15 strains and found extensive glycan diversity in the O-linked glycoproteome of Acinetobacter. Comparison......-linked glycosylation favors short (three to five residue) glycans with limited branching containing negatively charged sugars such as GlcNAc3NAcA4OAc or legionaminic/pseudaminic acid derivatives. These observations suggest that although highly diverse, the capsule/O-linked glycan biosynthetic pathways generate glycans...

  12. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e hematológicos de 251 cães portadores de mórula de Ehrlichia spp. naturalmente infectados Epidemiological, clinical, and hematological aspects of 251 dogs naturally infected with Ehrlichia spp. morulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos aspectos epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos, dados de exame físico e alterações hematológicas da erliquiose em 251 cães naturalmente infectados por Ehrlichia spp. Dos 4407 casos atendidos em hospital veterinário no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2003, verificou-se que 251 cães eram portadores de mórula de Ehrlichia spp. em leucócitos de sangue periférico. Destes, 48 foram eliminados das avaliações por apresentarem patologias concomitantes. Nos 203 cães restantes, verificou-se que houve maior ocorrência em fêmeas (61,1% e que a doença manteve-se constante durante todo o período avaliado. Observou-se que 38% encontravam-se na faixa etária entre um e 23 meses e 58,6% eram de raça definida. As principais alterações clínicas observadas foram apatia, anorexia/hiporexia, vômito, secreção oculonasal e esplenomegalia. Cento e cinco cães apresentaram temperatura retal entre 38 e 39,5°C. As alterações observadas com maior frequência no hemograma foram anemia, predominando o tipo normocítica normocrômica (58,2%; desvio nuclear de neutrófilos para a esquerda (67% e eosinopenia (58,1%.A study of epidemiological and clinical aspects, alterations of physical exams, and hematological changes of canine ehrlichiosis was performed. A retrospective study was performed in 4,407 dogs referred to a Veterinary Hospital from January 2002 to December 2003. Of all cases, 251 dogs showed Ehrlichia spp. morulae. Among these, 48 were excluded from the study due to other co-infection by other pathologies. In the other 203 evaluated dogs, females (61.1% were more infected than males. The dogs aged from one to 23 months (68.6% and 58.6% were definite breed. Emesis, apathy, anorexia/hypoxeria, spleenomegaly, and nasal discharge were the most common signs presented. Rectal temperature was 38 - 39.5ÚC in 105 dogs. The most usual changes seen during the hematological tests were normochromic and

  13. In vitro efficacy of doripenem against pseudomonas aeruginosa and acinetobacter baumannii by e-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, M.; Munir, T.; Latif, M.; Rehman, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the in vitro efficacy of doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii using Epsilometer strips. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, from May 2014 to September 2014. Methodology: A total of 60 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa collected from various clinical samples received from Military Hospital were included in the study. The specimens were inoculated onto blood, MacConkey and chocolate agars. The isolates were identified using Gram staining, motility, catalase test, oxidase test and API 20NE (Biomeriux, France). Organisms identified as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were included in the study. Bacterial suspensions equivalent to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard of the isolates were prepared and applied on Mueller Hinton agar. Epsilometer strip was placed in the center of the plate and incubated for 18-24 hours. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was taken to be the point where the epsilon intersected the E-strip. MIC of all the isolates was noted. Results: For Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, MIC50 was 12 micro g/mL and MIC90 was 32 micro g/mL. For Acinetobacter baumannii MIC 50 and MIC90 was 32 micro g/mL. Conclusion: Doripenem is no more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii in our setting. (author)

  14. Genome Sequence of Jumbo Phage vB_AbaM_ME3 of Acinetobacter baumanni

    OpenAIRE

    Buttimer, Colin; O?Sullivan, Lisa; Elbreki, Mohamed; Neve, Horst; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; O?Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophage (phage) vB_AbaM_ME3 was previously isolated from wastewater effluent using the propagating host Acinetobacter baumannii DSM 30007. The full genome was sequenced, revealing it to be the largest Acinetobacter bacteriophage sequenced to date with a size of 234,900 bp and containing 326 open reading frames (ORFs).

  15. Characterisation and genome sequence of the lytic Acinetobacter baumannii bacteriophage vB_AbaS_Loki.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dann Turner

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in healthcare and community settings. While over 100 of Acinetobacter phages have been described in the literature, relatively few have been sequenced. This work describes the characterisation and genome annotation of a new lytic Acinetobacter siphovirus, vB_AbaS_Loki, isolated from activated sewage sludge. Sequencing revealed that Loki encapsulates a 41,308 bp genome, encoding 51 predicted open reading frames. Loki is most closely related to Acinetobacter phage IME_AB3 and more distantly related to Burkholderia phage KL1, Paracoccus phage vB_PmaS_IMEP1 and Pseudomonas phages vB_Pae_Kakheti25, vB_PaeS_SCH_Ab26 and PA73. Loki is characterised by a narrow host range, among the 40 Acinetobacter isolates tested, productive infection was only observed for the propagating host, A. baumannii ATCC 17978. Plaque formation was found to be dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ ions and adsorption to host cells was abolished upon incubation with a mutant of ATCC 17978 encoding a premature stop codon in lpxA. The complete genome sequence of vB_AbaS_Loki was deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under the accession number LN890663.

  16. Genome sequencing and annotation of Acinetobacter guillouiae strain MSP 4-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Acinetobacter consists of 31 validly published species ubiquitously distributed in nature and primarily associated with nosocomial infection. We report the 4.8 Mb genome of Acinetobacter guillouiae MSP 4-18, isolated from a mangrove soil sample from Parangipettai (11°30′N, 79°47′E, Tamil Nadu, India. The draft genome of A. guillouiae MSP 4-18 has a G + C content of 38.0% and includes 3 rRNA genes (5S, 23S, 16S and 69 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes.

  17. Staring at the cold sun: blue light regulation is distributed within the genus Acinetobacter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Golic

    Full Text Available We previously showed that the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to sense and respond to light via BlsA, a BLUF (Blue-Light-sensing Using FAD-domain photoreceptor protein. Here, we extend our previous studies showing that light regulation is not restricted to A. baumannii, but rather widespread within the genus Acinetobacter. First, we found that blue light modulates motility and biofilm formation in many species of the genus, including members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. In many of these species blue light acts as a key factor guiding the decision between motility or sessility at 24°C, whereas in A. baumannii, light inhibits both motility and biofilm formation. We also show that light regulation of motility occurred not only at 24°C but also at 37°C in non-A. baumannii species, contrasting the situation of A. baumannii which only shows photoregulation at 24°C. Second, we show that Acinetobacter baylyi (strain ADP1 BLUF-photoreceptors can functionally replace in vivo the A. baumannii 17978 BlsA protein and that the pathways leading to biofilm formation are inversely regulated at 24°C between these two microorganisms. Finally, we found the presence of predicted genes coding BLUF-containing proteins in all Acinetobacter sequenced genomes, even though the copy number is variable among them. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a common origin for all BLUF domains present in members of this genus, and could distinguish well-differentiated clusters that group together BLUF homologs from different species, a situation particularly clear for members of the ACB complex. Despite a role played by these BLUF domain-containing proteins in the photoregulation observed in the members of the genus Acinetobacter is a likely scenario given our findings in A. baumannii and A. baylyi, further research will contribute to confirm this possibility.

  18. Staring at the Cold Sun: Blue Light Regulation Is Distributed within the Genus Acinetobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golic, Adrián; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Nemec, Alexandr; Viale, Alejandro M.; Actis, Luis A.; Mussi, María Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that the opportunistic nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii is able to sense and respond to light via BlsA, a BLUF (Blue-Light-sensing Using FAD)-domain photoreceptor protein. Here, we extend our previous studies showing that light regulation is not restricted to A. baumannii, but rather widespread within the genus Acinetobacter. First, we found that blue light modulates motility and biofilm formation in many species of the genus, including members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex. In many of these species blue light acts as a key factor guiding the decision between motility or sessility at 24°C, whereas in A. baumannii, light inhibits both motility and biofilm formation. We also show that light regulation of motility occurred not only at 24°C but also at 37°C in non-A. baumannii species, contrasting the situation of A. baumannii which only shows photoregulation at 24°C. Second, we show that Acinetobacter baylyi (strain ADP1) BLUF-photoreceptors can functionally replace in vivo the A. baumannii 17978 BlsA protein and that the pathways leading to biofilm formation are inversely regulated at 24°C between these two microorganisms. Finally, we found the presence of predicted genes coding BLUF-containing proteins in all Acinetobacter sequenced genomes, even though the copy number is variable among them. Phylogenetic analysis suggests a common origin for all BLUF domains present in members of this genus, and could distinguish well-differentiated clusters that group together BLUF homologs from different species, a situation particularly clear for members of the ACB complex. Despite a role played by these BLUF domain-containing proteins in the photoregulation observed in the members of the genus Acinetobacter is a likely scenario given our findings in A. baumannii and A. baylyi, further research will contribute to confirm this possibility. PMID:23358859

  19. Antimicrobial resistance and clonality in Acinetobacter baumannii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemec, Alexandr

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain insight into the epidemiology and molecular basis of multidrug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii at the population level. To this aim a number of studies were performed on strains mainly from the Czech Republic (CR) which have shown in particular that (i) the

  20. Genome Sequence of Jumbo Phage vB_AbaM_ME3 of Acinetobacter baumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttimer, Colin; O'Sullivan, Lisa; Elbreki, Mohamed; Neve, Horst; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; O'Mahony, Jim; Coffey, Aidan

    2016-08-25

    Bacteriophage (phage) vB_AbaM_ME3 was previously isolated from wastewater effluent using the propagating host Acinetobacter baumannii DSM 30007. The full genome was sequenced, revealing it to be the largest Acinetobacter bacteriophage sequenced to date with a size of 234,900 bp and containing 326 open reading frames (ORFs). Copyright © 2016 Buttimer et al.

  1. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Metallo-beta-lactamases among Imipenem-Resistant Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Imipenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, resulting from metallo-beta-lactamase (MBLs-producing strains have been reported to be among the important causes of nosocomial infections and of serious therapeutic problem worldwide. Because of their broad range, potent carbapenemase activity and resistance to inhibitors, these enzymes can confer resistance to almost all beta-lactams. The prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase among imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enerobacteriaceae isolates is determined.Methods:   In this descriptive study 864 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae, were initially tested for imipenem susceptibility. The metallo-beta-lactamase production was detected using combined disk diffusion, double disk synergy test, and Hodge test. Then all imipenem resistant isolates were tested by PCR for imp, vim and ndm genes. Results:   Among 864 isolates, 62 (7.17 % were imipenem-resistant. Positive phonetypic test for metallo-beta-lactamase was 40 (64.5%, of which 24 (17.1% and 16 (9.2% isolates were Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively. By PCR method 30 (48.4% of imipenem resistant Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas isolates were positive for MBL-producing genes. None of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates were positive for metallo-beta-lactamase activity. Conclusion:   The results of this study are indicative of the growing number of nosocomial infections associated with multidrug-resistant gram negative bacteria in this region leading to difficulties in antibiotic therapy. Thereby, using of phenotypic methods can be helpful for management of this problem.

  2. Quorum sensing in Acinetobacter: with special emphasis on antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and quorum quenching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Subhadra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter is an important nosocomial, opportunistic human pathogen that is gradually gaining more attention as a major health threat worldwide. Quorum sensing (QS is a cell-cell communication system in which specific signaling molecules called autoinducers accumulate in the medium as the population density grows and control various physiological processes including production of virulence factors, biofilm and development of antibiotic resistance. The complex QS machinery in Acinetobacter is mediated by a two-component system which is homologous to the typical LuxI/LuxR system found in Gram-negative bacteria. This cell signaling system comprises of a sensor protein that functions as autoinducer synthase and a receptor protein which binds to the signal molecules, acyl homoserine lactones inducing a cascade of reactions. Lately, disruption of QS has emerged as an anti-virulence strategy with great therapeutic potential. Here, we depict the current understanding of the existing QS network in Acinetobacter and describe important anti-virulent strategies developed in order to effectively tackle this pathogen. In addition, the prospects of quorum quenching to control Acinetobacter infections is also been discussed.

  3. Study of biofilm in bacteria from water pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Ashoka; Padhi, Nupur; Mahapatra, Dharitri; Bhatt, Mamta; Sahoo, Debasish; Jena, Swetlina; Dash, Debabrata; Chayani, Nirupama

    2015-03-01

    A biofilm is a layer of microorganisms contained in a matrix (slime layer), which forms on surfaces in contact with water. Their presence in drinking water pipe networks can be responsible for a wide range of water quality and operational problems. To identify the bacterial isolates, obtained from water pipelines of kitchens, to evaluate the water quality & to study the biofilm producing capacity of the bacterial isolates from various sources. A prospective study using water samples from aqua guard & pipelines to kitchens of S.C.B Medical College hostels. Standard biochemical procedures for bacterial identification, multiple tube culture & MPN count to evaluate water quality & tissue culture plate (TCP) method for biofilm detection was followed. STATA software version 9.2 from STATA Corporation, College station road, 90 Houston, Texas was used for statistical analysis. One hundred eighty seven isolates were obtained from 45 water samples cultured. The isolates were Acinetobacter spp. (44), Pseudomonas spp.(41), Klebsiella spp.(36) & others . Biofilm was detected in (37) 19.78 % of the isolates (95% CI 30.08% -43.92%) including Acinetobacter spp.-10, Klebsiella spp. - 9, Pseudomonas spp. - 9, & others, majority (34) of which were from kitchen pipelines. Water from pipeline sources was unsatisfactory for consumption as the MPN counts were > 10. Most of the biofilm producers were gram negative bacilli & Pseudomonas & Acinetobacter spp. were strong (4+) biofilm producers.

  4. [Identification and typing of hospital strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumanni complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Urbásková, P; Grimont, F; Vránková, J; Melter, O; Schindler, J

    1996-05-01

    A collection of 95 strains of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, isolated between 1991 and 1993 in the Prague Burn Center (BC), was studied. Ninety-one strains were isolated from 43 patients: 50 of them from burnt sites, 22 from endotracheal tube, 13 from urine, 3 from blood and 3 from venous catheter, and 4 strains were isolated from the hospital environment and the nursing staff. The strains were classified by restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of total DNA, plasmid profile analysis, ribotyping, comparison of antibiograms, biotyping and according to epidemiological data, into 31 relatedness groups each of them including 1 to 29 strains, likely to be isolates of the same strain. None of the methods used enabled to distinguish all groups. The importance of the polyphasic approach is emphasized since three multiresistant strains, isolated almost simultaneously in the BC, needed at least two methods to be distinguished (e.g. ribotyping and biotyping). Twenty-eight representative strains of different groups were identified by ribotyping: 18 of them were allocated to genomospecies 2 (A. baumannii), 5 to genomospecies 3 and 5 to genomospecies 13 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing. Only A. baumannii was found to spread among patients. Strains of two multiresistant groups persisted in the BC throughout the period studied and strains of one of these groups were responsible for an outbreak in the autumn of 1993. The methods mentioned above were used to describe 12 multiresistant strains isolated in three hospital wards in other localities. When ribotyped these strains were identified as A. baumannii. The strains of the same origin were identical in their typing profiles while the strains of different origins were easy to differentiate using any of the above methods; nevertheless, 2 of these groups were almost identical to 2 groups of multiresistant strains isolated in the BC.

  5. Clonal relatedness and biofilm formation of OXA-23-producing carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliramezani, Amir; Douraghi, Masoumeh; Hajihasani, Azade; Mohammadzadeh, Mona; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a serious threat for hospitalized patients and it can survive for long periods in hospital settings, particularly on inanimate surfaces. The environment occupied by these resistant and resilient isolates may act as a reservoir for cross-colonization and outbreaks. Here, we aimed to determine the distribution of CRAB in the hospital environment and to characterize their clonal relatedness, susceptibility profile, carriage of bla OXA genes, and biofilm formation. A total of 1080 samples were collected from various environmental surfaces and equipment of two referral hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The A. baumannii isolates were subjected to gyrB multiplex PCR, antibiotic susceptibility testing, biofilm formation assay, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiplex PCR for bla OXA-58 , bla OXA-24 , and bla OXA-23 genes. Eighteen Acinetobacter spp. were isolated; 8 were identified as A. baumannii and 10 as A. lwoffii. Five of A. baumannii isolates were CRAB and exhibited the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype as well. All CRAB isolates produced biofilm, albeit with different levels. Four of CRAB isolates harbored the bla OXA-23 . The CRAB isolates were clustered into 3 distinct pulsotypes (PTs). The CRAB isolates belonging to PT1 were detected in two geographically distinct hospitals whereas those belonging to PT3 were found in two different units of same hospital. This study revealed the presence of clonally related OXA-23-producing CRAB in high risk units of referral hospitals as inter- or intra-hospital dissemination. The distribution of multiresistant A. baumannii on several surfaces and areas may increase the risk of transmission of resistant isolates to vulnerable patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of stethoscopes in the transmission of hospital infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 out 90 (16.3%) had potential pathogens including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (5), methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (4), Escherichia coli (3), Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and Enterococcus spp. Of the 121 health-care persons, only 61 regularly cleaned their ...

  7. Weigle Reactivation in Acinetobacter Calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, Dvora

    1982-01-01

    phage and host survivals of about 5 times 10-6 and 1 times 10-1, respectively. Intracellular development of W-reactivated P78 was followed by one-step growth experiments. Conditions which allowed maximal W-reactivation also extended the period of phage production and yielded a somewhat reduced burst......Weigle (W)-reactivation was demonstrated in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus for the UV-irra-diated lysogenic phage P78. The reactivation factor (survival of irradiated phage on irradiated bacteria/ survival on unirradiated bacteria) reached a maximum value of 20. This was obtained at UV-doses giving...

  8. Copper Resistance of the Emerging Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L.; Neu, Heather M.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Michel, Sarah L. J.; Zurawski, Daniel V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is an important emerging pathogen that is capable of causing many types of severe infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Since A. baumannii can rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance genes, many infections are on the verge of being untreatable, and novel therapies are desperately needed. To investigate the potential utility of copper-based antibacterial strategies against Acinetobacter infections, we characterized copper resistance in a panel of recent clinical A. baumannii isolates. Exposure to increasing concentrations of copper in liquid culture and on solid surfaces resulted in dose-dependent and strain-dependent effects; levels of copper resistance varied broadly across isolates, possibly resulting from identified genotypic variation among strains. Examination of the growth-phase-dependent effect of copper on A. baumannii revealed that resistance to copper increased dramatically in stationary phase. Moreover, A. baumannii biofilms were more resistant to copper than planktonic cells but were still susceptible to copper toxicity. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of copper allowed them to better adapt to and grow in high concentrations of copper; this copper tolerance response is likely achieved via increased expression of copper resistance mechanisms. Indeed, genomic analysis revealed numerous putative copper resistance proteins that share amino acid homology to known proteins in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Transcriptional analysis revealed significant upregulation of these putative copper resistance genes following brief copper exposure. Future characterization of copper resistance mechanisms may aid in the search for novel antibiotics against Acinetobacter and other highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii causes many types of severe nosocomial infections; unfortunately, some isolates have acquired resistance to almost every available antibiotic

  9. Copper Resistance of the Emerging Pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caitlin L; Neu, Heather M; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Michel, Sarah L J; Zurawski, Daniel V; Merrell, D Scott

    2016-10-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important emerging pathogen that is capable of causing many types of severe infection, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Since A. baumannii can rapidly acquire antibiotic resistance genes, many infections are on the verge of being untreatable, and novel therapies are desperately needed. To investigate the potential utility of copper-based antibacterial strategies against Acinetobacter infections, we characterized copper resistance in a panel of recent clinical A. baumannii isolates. Exposure to increasing concentrations of copper in liquid culture and on solid surfaces resulted in dose-dependent and strain-dependent effects; levels of copper resistance varied broadly across isolates, possibly resulting from identified genotypic variation among strains. Examination of the growth-phase-dependent effect of copper on A. baumannii revealed that resistance to copper increased dramatically in stationary phase. Moreover, A. baumannii biofilms were more resistant to copper than planktonic cells but were still susceptible to copper toxicity. Exposure of bacteria to subinhibitory concentrations of copper allowed them to better adapt to and grow in high concentrations of copper; this copper tolerance response is likely achieved via increased expression of copper resistance mechanisms. Indeed, genomic analysis revealed numerous putative copper resistance proteins that share amino acid homology to known proteins in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Transcriptional analysis revealed significant upregulation of these putative copper resistance genes following brief copper exposure. Future characterization of copper resistance mechanisms may aid in the search for novel antibiotics against Acinetobacter and other highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii causes many types of severe nosocomial infections; unfortunately, some isolates have acquired resistance to almost every available antibiotic, and treatment options

  10. A Pathogenic Potential of Acinetobacter baumannii-Derived Membrane Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Suk Jin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii secretes outer membrane vesicles (OMVs. A. baumannii OMVs deliver many virulence factors to host cells and then induce cytotoxicity and innate immune response. OMVs secreted from bacteria contribute directly to host pathology during A. baumannii infection.

  11. The Genomic Diversification of the Whole Acinetobacter Genus: Origins, Mechanisms, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Cury, Jean; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Krizova, Lenka; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; Murphy, Cheryl; Feldgarden, Michael; Wortman, Jennifer; Clermont, Dominique; Lambert, Thierry; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine; Nemec, Alexandr; Courvalin, Patrice; Rocha, Eduardo P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial genomics has greatly expanded our understanding of microdiversification patterns within a species, but analyses at higher taxonomical levels are necessary to understand and predict the independent rise of pathogens in a genus. We have sampled, sequenced, and assessed the diversity of genomes of validly named and tentative species of the Acinetobacter genus, a clade including major nosocomial pathogens and biotechnologically important species. We inferred a robust global phylogeny and delimited several new putative species. The genus is very ancient and extremely diverse: Genomes of highly divergent species share more orthologs than certain strains within a species. We systematically characterized elements and mechanisms driving genome diversification, such as conjugative elements, insertion sequences, and natural transformation. We found many error-prone polymerases that may play a role in resistance to toxins, antibiotics, and in the generation of genetic variation. Surprisingly, temperate phages, poorly studied in Acinetobacter, were found to account for a significant fraction of most genomes. Accordingly, many genomes encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems with some of the largest CRISPR-arrays found so far in bacteria. Integrons are strongly overrepresented in Acinetobacter baumannii, which correlates with its frequent resistance to antibiotics. Our data suggest that A. baumannii arose from an ancient population bottleneck followed by population expansion under strong purifying selection. The outstanding diversification of the species occurred largely by horizontal transfer, including some allelic recombination, at specific hotspots preferentially located close to the replication terminus. Our work sets a quantitative basis to understand the diversification of Acinetobacter into emerging resistant and versatile pathogens. PMID:25313016

  12. Characterization and identification of newly isolated Acinetobacter baumannii strain serdang 1 for phenol removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadzir, Z. H. M.; Shukor, M. Y.; Nazir, M. S.; Abdullah, M. A.

    2012-09-01

    A new indigenous bacterial strain from Malaysian soil contaminated with petroleum waste had been successfully isolated, characterized and identified for phenol removal. The gram negative bacteria showed 98% identity with Acinetobacter baumannii based on Biolog{trade mark, serif} Identification System and the determination of a partial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequence. The isolate clustered with species belonging to Acinetobacter clade in a 16S rDNA-based neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree.

  13. Rare cutaneous infection by Acinetobacter baumannii in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cirino, Pablo Vitoriano; Guimarães, Newton Sales; Follador, Ivonise

    2008-01-01

    O Acinetobacter baumanni é patógeno oportunista antigamente considerado de baixa virulência. Atualmente está envolvido em processos infecciosos que acometem pacientes imunocomprometidos,grandes queimados e pacientes em unidades de terapia intensiva que fazem uso de ventilação mecânica. Esse relato de caso chama atenção para infecção cutânea rara por essa bactéria em paciente imunocompetente.Acinetobacter baumannii is an oportunistic pathogen that used to be considered as having low virulence;...

  14. Isolation of a bacterial strain, Acinetobacter sp. from centrate wastewater and study of its cooperation with algae in nutrients removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Qin; Liu, Wen; Wei, Qian; Ren, Hongyan; Ming, Caibing; Min, Min; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2017-07-01

    Algae were able to grow healthy on bacteria-containing centrate wastewater in a pilot-scale bioreactor. The batch experiment indicated that the co-cultivation of algae and wastewater-borne bacteria improved the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus in centrate wastewater to 93.01% and 98.78%, respectively. A strain of beneficial aerobic bacteria, Acinetobacter sp., was isolated and its biochemical characteristics were explored. Synergistic cooperation was observed in the growth of algae and Acinetobacter sp. Removal efficiencies of some nutrients were improved significantly by the co-cultivation of algae and Acinetobacter sp. After treatment, residual nutrients in centrate wastewater reached the permissible discharge limit. The cooperation between algae and Acinetobacter sp. was in part attributed to the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the algae and bacteria. This synergetic relationship between algae and Acinetobacter sp. provided a promising way to treat the wastewater by improving the nutrients removal and biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Celulitis por Acinetobacter junii-johnsonii adquirida en la comunidad: una presentación de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F. Henao-Martínez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La infección de piel y tejidos blandos por Acinetobacter no relacionada con trauma es una presentación inusual. La mayoría de los casos descritos presentan enfermedades concomitantes y son causados por Acinetobacter baumanii. Se describe un caso de celulitis no traumática por A. junii-johnsonii con bacteriemia, de inicio en la comunidad y asociado con el tratamiento médico. De acuerdo con nuestro conocimiento, éste sería el primer caso reportado de infección de tejidos blandos y piel por A. juniijohnsonii.La vesícula hemorrágica podría ser una característica clínica de celulitis por Acinetobacter.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.652

  16. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade numa criança saudável por Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moreira Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O género Acinetobacter tem sido implicado numa grande variedade de doenças infecciosas, em particular, nas infecções associadas aos cuidados de saúde. Actualmente há evidência a enfatizar o papel deste microrganismo nas infecções adquiridas na comunidade.É relatado o caso de uma criança previamente saudável, de 28 meses de idade, internada por febre associada a tosse e dor localizada no hemitórax esquerdo e cuja radiografia torácica revelou pneumonia necrotisante do lobo inferior. A investigação diagnóstica efetuada permitiu o diagnóstico de Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade a Acinetobacter lwoffii.A criança partilhava frequentemente o seu equipamento respiratório com familiares idosos com doença pulmonar crónica obstrutiva. Dado não terem sido apurados outros factores de risco, considera-se que a partilha do equipamento poderá ter sido o foco infeccioso.Os autores pretendem alertar para a possibilidade de Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade por Acinetobacter lwoffii, numa criança previamente saudável, relacionada com o mau uso e limpeza dos nebulizadores. Este caso realça o papel emergente desta bactéria, mesmo no contexto comunitário. Abstract: Acinetobacter is involved in a variety of infectious diseases primarily associated with healthcare. Recently there has been increasing evidence of the important role these pathogens play in community acquired infections.We report on the case of a previously healthy child, aged 28 months, admitted for fever, cough and pain on the left side of the chest, which on radiographic examination corresponded to a lower lobe necrotizing pneumonia. After detailed diagnostic work–up, community acquired Acinetobacter lwoffii pneumonia was diagnosed.The child had frequently shared respiratory equipment with elderly relatives with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. As there were no other apparent risk factors, it could

  17. Simple screening tests for the detection of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL production in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheda Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are no standard methods for the detection of metallo-b-lactamase (MBL production in gram negative organism in routine microbiology practice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the screening tests like double disk synergy test (DDST and disk potentiation test (DPT using ceftazidime (CAZ and imipenem (IPM disks with chelating agents like EDTA, 2-mercaptopropionic acid (2-MPA. A total of 132 Pseudomonas and 76 Acinetobacter isolates were obtained from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU and Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation for Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM hospitals of Dhaka city. A total of 53 and 29 IPM resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates were selected. EDTA-IPM microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (EDTA-IPM MIC method detected MBL in 44 (83% IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 19 (65.5% Acinetobacter isolates. DDST with CAZ-0.1M EDTA and CAZ-2-MPA detected MBL in 73.6% and 67.9% of IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 55.2% and 48.3% of Acinetobacter isolates respectively. The detection rate was 67.9% and 66.1% in Pseudomonas and 51.7% and 44.8% in Acinetobacter isolates by EDTA-IPM and IPM-2-MPA methods respectively. In comparison to DDST, DPT with CAZ-0.1M EDTA showed higher sensitivity (89.7% and specificity (100% for detection of MBL in Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter. The results showed that simple screening tests like DPT with 0.1M EDTA was able to detect MBL producing Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(1: 26-30

  18. Coaggregation between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møretrø, Trond; Sharifzadeh, Shahab; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Rickard, Alexander H

    2015-07-01

    In this study, coaggregation interactions between Rhodococcus and Acinetobacter strains isolated from food-processing surfaces were characterized. Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3727 formed intrageneric coaggregates with Rhodococcus sp. strain MF3803 and intergeneric coaggregates with 2 strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (MF3293, MF3627). Stronger coaggregation between A. calcoaceticus MF3727 and Rhodococcus sp. MF3293 was observed after growth in batch culture at 30 °C than at 20 °C, after growth in tryptic soy broth than in liquid R2A medium, and between cells in exponential and early stationary phases than cells in late stationary phase. The coaggregation ability of Rhodococcus sp. MF3727 was maintained even after heat and Proteinase K treatment, suggesting its ability to coaggregate was protein independent whereas the coaggregation determinants of the other strains involved proteinaceous cell-surface-associated polymers. Coaggregation was stable at pH 5-9. The mechanisms of coaggregation among Acinetobacter and Rhodococcus strains bare similarity to those displayed by coaggregating bacteria of oral and freshwater origin, with respect to binding between proteinaceous and nonproteinaceous determinants and the effect of environmental factors on coaggregation. Coaggregation may contribute to biofilm formation on industrial food surfaces, protecting bacteria against cleaning and disinfection.

  19. Acinetobacter species in the hospital environment : tracing and epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Dijkshoorn-de Bruin (Lenie)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn the course of the investigation a new taxonomic classification of Acinetobacter strains was introduced. The groups of this classification were established on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization data of strains. In a final study of the present thesis, we investigated whether cell

  20. Endophthalmitis caused by Acinetobacter baumanni: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R; Panigrahi, P; Malathi, J; Pal, S S; Nandi, K; Patil, A; Nigam, E; Arora, V

    2013-03-01

    To profile the etiology, clinical outcomes and drug sensitivity patterns in endophthalmitis caused by Acinetobacter baumanni. Retrospective analysis of all the cases of Acinetobacter baumanni endophthalmitis presenting to tertiary referral care ophthalmic hospital in Eastern India from January 2009 to December 2011 were done. A total of four cases were included in the study. Out of the four cases one was post traumatic and the rest were post cataract surgery. All the cases underwent vitreoretinal surgical intervention followed by intravitreal antibiotics. A. Baumanni was isolated from vitreous in all the cases. Among all the drugs tested bacteria were found sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100 %) whereas all tested resistant to ceftazidime. Out of the four cases one had to be eviscerated, another developed retinal detachment post vitrectomy, one was phthisical at final followup, and only one patient achieved a vision of 20/200 with clear media and attached retina at final visit. A. Baumanni is a very rare cause of endophthalmitis with poor visual and anatomical outcomes. Ciprofloxacin should be considered as first the line intravitreal antibiotic.

  1. The genomic diversification of the whole Acinetobacter genus: origins, mechanisms, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchon, Marie; Cury, Jean; Yoon, Eun-Jeong; Krizova, Lenka; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; Murphy, Cheryl; Feldgarden, Michael; Wortman, Jennifer; Clermont, Dominique; Lambert, Thierry; Grillot-Courvalin, Catherine; Nemec, Alexandr; Courvalin, Patrice; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2014-10-13

    Bacterial genomics has greatly expanded our understanding of microdiversification patterns within a species, but analyses at higher taxonomical levels are necessary to understand and predict the independent rise of pathogens in a genus. We have sampled, sequenced, and assessed the diversity of genomes of validly named and tentative species of the Acinetobacter genus, a clade including major nosocomial pathogens and biotechnologically important species. We inferred a robust global phylogeny and delimited several new putative species. The genus is very ancient and extremely diverse: Genomes of highly divergent species share more orthologs than certain strains within a species. We systematically characterized elements and mechanisms driving genome diversification, such as conjugative elements, insertion sequences, and natural transformation. We found many error-prone polymerases that may play a role in resistance to toxins, antibiotics, and in the generation of genetic variation. Surprisingly, temperate phages, poorly studied in Acinetobacter, were found to account for a significant fraction of most genomes. Accordingly, many genomes encode clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas systems with some of the largest CRISPR-arrays found so far in bacteria. Integrons are strongly overrepresented in Acinetobacter baumannii, which correlates with its frequent resistance to antibiotics. Our data suggest that A. baumannii arose from an ancient population bottleneck followed by population expansion under strong purifying selection. The outstanding diversification of the species occurred largely by horizontal transfer, including some allelic recombination, at specific hotspots preferentially located close to the replication terminus. Our work sets a quantitative basis to understand the diversification of Acinetobacter into emerging resistant and versatile pathogens. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society

  2. Acinetobacter infections prevalence and frequency of the antibiotics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than a half of the isolates were from the ICUs and were obtained from 293 infected patients of which 65, 2% (191 cases) were males (sex ratio = 1.9) and the median age was 56 years (interquartile range: 42-68 years). Acinetobacter clinical isolates were obtained from respiratory samples (44.67%) followed by blood ...

  3. First report of an OXA-58 carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S. Natoubi

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... urinary tract infection, in Morocco. Acinetobacter baumannii are organisms frequently found in the environment. This bacterium causes several types of infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia and urinary tract infection [1]. Carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii is more often caused by the production of ...

  4. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utility of Whole-Genome Sequencing in Characterizing Acinetobacter Epidemiology and Analyzing Hospital Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Margaret A.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii frequently causes nosocomial infections and outbreaks. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a promising technique for strain typing and outbreak investigations. We compared the performance of conventional methods with WGS for strain typing clinical Acinetobacter isolates and analyzing a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) outbreak. We performed two band-based typing techniques (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR), multilocus sequence type (MLST) analysis, and WGS on 148 Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex bloodstream isolates collected from a single hospital from 2005 to 2012. Phylogenetic trees inferred from core-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) confirmed three Acinetobacter species within this collection. Four major A. baumannii clonal lineages (as defined by MLST) circulated during the study, three of which are globally distributed and one of which is novel. WGS indicated that a threshold of 2,500 core SNPs accurately distinguished A. baumannii isolates from different clonal lineages. The band-based techniques performed poorly in assigning isolates to clonal lineages and exhibited little agreement with sequence-based techniques. After applying WGS to a CRAB outbreak that occurred during the study, we identified a threshold of 2.5 core SNPs that distinguished nonoutbreak from outbreak strains. WGS was more discriminatory than the band-based techniques and was used to construct a more accurate transmission map that resolved many of the plausible transmission routes suggested by epidemiologic links. Our study demonstrates that WGS is superior to conventional techniques for A. baumannii strain typing and outbreak analysis. These findings support the incorporation of WGS into health care infection prevention efforts. PMID:26699703

  6. Quorum sensing molecules production by nosocomial and soil isolates Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdönmez, Demet; Rad, Abbas Yousefi; Aksöz, Nilüfer

    2017-12-01

    Acinetobacter species remain alive in hospitals on various surfaces, both dry and moist, forming an important source of hospital infections. These bacteria are naturally resistant to many antibiotic classes. Although the role of the quorum sensing system in regulating the virulence factors of Acinetobacter species has not been fully elucidated, it has been reported that they play a role in bacterial biofilm formation. The biofilm formation helps them to survive under unfavorable growth conditions and antimicrobial treatments. It is based on the accumulation of bacterial communication signal molecules in the area. In this study, we compared the bacterial signal molecules of 50 nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii strain and 20 A. baumannii strain isolated from soil. The signal molecules were detected by the biosensor bacteria (Chromobacterium violaceum 026, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL1) and their separation was determined by thin-layer chromatography. As a result, it has been found that soil-borne isolates can produce 3-oxo-C8-AHL and C8-AHL, whereas nosocomial-derived isolates can produce long-chain signals such as C10-AHL, C12-AHL, C14-AHL and C16-AHL. According to these results, it is possible to understand that these signal molecules are found in the infection caused by A. baumannii. The inhibition of this signaling molecules in a communication could use to prevent multiple antibiotic resistance of these bacteria.

  7. Uji Infeksi Mycosphaerella spp Terhadap Bibit Eucalyptus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Lidya Morita Sondang

    2009-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan 2 klon Eucalyptus spp yaitu Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla terhadap Mycosphaerella spp serta mengetahui virulensi Mycospaherella spp pada 2 kelas umur (2 dan 3 bulan) pada tanaman Eucalyptus spp. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan pengambilan sampel bibit tanaman Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus pellita dan Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla dari pembibitan PT.Toba Pulp...

  8. Distribution of adeB and NDM-1 genes in multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from infected wound of patients admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M J; Shamsuzzaman, S M

    2017-12-01

    The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh. A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.

  9. Acinetobacter baumannii in Localised Cutaneous Mycobacteriosis in Falcons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Gabriele Muller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Between May 2007 and April 2009, 29 falcons with identically localized, yellowish discolored cutaneous lesions in the thigh and lateral body wall region were presented at Abu Dhabi Falcon Hospital. Out of 18 falcons integrated in this study, 16 tested positive to Mycobacterium. avium complex. The 2 negative falcons tested positive in the Mycobacterium genus PCR. Moreover, 1 falcon tested positive to M. avium. paratuberculosis in tissue samples by PCR. In all cases, blood and fecal samples tested negative. In the acid-fast stain, all samples showed the for mycobacteriosis typical rods. Moreover, in 13 samples Acinetobacter baumannii was detected by PCR and proven by DNA sequencing. Clinical features included highly elevated WBCs, heterophilia, lymphocytopenia, monocytosis, severe anemia and weight loss. A. baumannii, a gram-negative bacillus with the ability to integrate foreign DNA, has emerged as one of the major multidrug resistant bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has so far been detected in dogs, cats, horses and wild birds. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an A. baumannii infection in falcons and of a veterinary Mycobacterium-Acinetobacter coinfection.

  10. Place of Colistin-Rifampicin Association in the Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii Meningitis: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahraoui Souhail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is an important challenge due to the accumulation of resistance of this bacteria and low meningeal diffusion of several antimicrobial requiring use of an antimicrobial effective combination to eradicate these species. We report a case of Acinetobacter baumannii multidrug-resistant nosocomial meningitis which was successfully treated with intravenous and intrathecal colistin associated with rifampicin.

  11. The success of acinetobacter species; genetic, metabolic and virulence attributes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Y Peleg

    Full Text Available An understanding of why certain Acinetobacter species are more successful in causing nosocomial infections, transmission and epidemic spread in healthcare institutions compared with other species is lacking. We used genomic, phenotypic and virulence studies to identify differences between Acinetobacter species. Fourteen strains representing nine species were examined. Genomic analysis of six strains showed that the A. baumannii core genome contains many genes important for diverse metabolism and survival in the host. Most of the A. baumannii core genes were also present in one or more of the less clinically successful species. In contrast, when the accessory genome of an individual A. baumannii strain was compared to a strain of a less successful species (A. calcoaceticus RUH2202, many operons with putative virulence function were found to be present only in the A. baumannii strain, including the csu operon, the acinetobactin chromosomal cluster, and bacterial defence mechanisms. Phenotype microarray analysis showed that compared to A. calcoaceticus (RUH2202, A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T was able to utilise nitrogen sources more effectively and was more tolerant to pH, osmotic and antimicrobial stress. Virulence differences were also observed, with A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T, A. pittii SH024, and A. nosocomialis RUH2624 persisting and forming larger biofilms on human skin than A. calcoaceticus. A. baumannii ATCC 19606(T and A. pittii SH024 were also able to survive in a murine thigh infection model, whereas the other two species were eradicated. The current study provides important insights into the elucidation of differences in clinical relevance among Acinetobacter species.

  12. The Success of Acinetobacter Species; Genetic, Metabolic and Virulence Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Anton Y.; de Breij, Anna; Adams, Mark D.; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Mocali, Stefano; Galardini, Marco; Nibbering, Peter H.; Earl, Ashlee M.; Ward, Doyle V.; Paterson, David L.; Seifert, Harald; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of why certain Acinetobacter species are more successful in causing nosocomial infections, transmission and epidemic spread in healthcare institutions compared with other species is lacking. We used genomic, phenotypic and virulence studies to identify differences between Acinetobacter species. Fourteen strains representing nine species were examined. Genomic analysis of six strains showed that the A. baumannii core genome contains many genes important for diverse metabolism and survival in the host. Most of the A. baumannii core genes were also present in one or more of the less clinically successful species. In contrast, when the accessory genome of an individual A. baumannii strain was compared to a strain of a less successful species (A. calcoaceticus RUH2202), many operons with putative virulence function were found to be present only in the A. baumannii strain, including the csu operon, the acinetobactin chromosomal cluster, and bacterial defence mechanisms. Phenotype microarray analysis showed that compared to A. calcoaceticus (RUH2202), A. baumannii ATCC 19606T was able to utilise nitrogen sources more effectively and was more tolerant to pH, osmotic and antimicrobial stress. Virulence differences were also observed, with A. baumannii ATCC 19606T, A. pittii SH024, and A. nosocomialis RUH2624 persisting and forming larger biofilms on human skin than A. calcoaceticus. A. baumannii ATCC 19606T and A. pittii SH024 were also able to survive in a murine thigh infection model, whereas the other two species were eradicated. The current study provides important insights into the elucidation of differences in clinical relevance among Acinetobacter species. PMID:23144699

  13. Effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation and metabolite profile of potato seedlings (Solanum tuberosum L. alpha variety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola G Zuno-Floriano

    Full Text Available One of the most serious diseases in potato cultivars is caused by the pathogen Phytophthora infestans, which affects leaves, stems and tubers. Metalaxyl is a fungicide that protects potato plants from Phytophthora infestans. In Mexico, farmers apply metalaxyl 35 times during the cycle of potato production and the last application is typically 15 days before harvest. There are no records related to the presence of metalaxyl in potato tubers in Mexico. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of Acinetobacter sp on metalaxyl degradation in potato seedlings. The effect of bacteria and metalaxyl on the growth of potato seedlings was also evaluated. A metabolite profile analysis was conducted to determine potential molecular biomarkers produced by potato seedlings in the presence of Acinetobacter sp and metalaxyl. Metalaxyl did not affect the growth of potato seedlings. However, Acinetobacter sp strongly affected the growth of inoculated seedlings, as confirmed by plant length and plant fresh weights which were lower in inoculated potato seedlings (40% and 27%, respectively compared to the controls. Acinetobacter sp also affected root formation. Inoculated potato seedlings showed a decrease in root formation compared to the controls. LC-MS/MS analysis of metalaxyl residues in potato seedlings suggests that Acinetobacter sp did not degrade metalaxyl. GC-TOF-MS platform was used in metabolic profiling studies. Statistical data analysis and metabolic pathway analysis allowed suggesting the alteration of metabolic pathways by both Acinetobacter sp infection and metalaxyl treatment. Several hundred metabolites were detected, 137 metabolites were identified and 15 metabolic markers were suggested based on statistical change significance found with PLS-DA analysis. These results are important for better understanding the interactions of putative endophytic bacteria and pesticides on plants and their possible effects on plant metabolism.

  14. PREVALENCE OF MBL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ACINETOBACTER ISOLATES FROM A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, ASSAM, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjuri Kataki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acinetobacter infection have been clinically prominent pathogen in tropical countries have caused recurrent problems during wars and natural disasters and have recently caused multihospital outbreaks. Rational use of antimicrobial agents is clinically important to prevent Acinetobacter infections as well as to avoid poor outcomes. 1 The aim of the study is to see the prevalence of Acinetobacter as a pathogen in this tertiary care hospital, their susceptibility pattern along with prevalence of metallo-beta-lactamase. MATERIALS AND METHODS The samples were processed for a period of one year. Samples were collected from ICU including urine, sputum, endotracheal aspirate, BAL, blood, pus, body fluids (pleural fluid, CSF, etc. and the stool specimens were plated using appropriate culture media (MAC, BA, CLED, XLD. RESULTS Shows Acinetobacter baumannii is the significant species isolated is ICU among 700 cases, which yielded only 100% sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics. So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way. CONCLUSION So, it is the need of the hour to implement infection control measures in a serious and intensive way.

  15. Phenotypic detection of metallo-β-lactamase among the clinical isolates of imipenem resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter in tertiary care hospitals of Dhaka city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheda Anwar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of Metallo-b-lactamase (MBL producing Gram negative bacilli represents a matter of great concern worldwide. The study analyzed the occurrence of MBL production in carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates over one year period. A total of 132 Pseudomonas and 76 Acinetobacter isolates were obtained from two tertiary care hospitals of Dhaka city. A total of 53 Pseudomonas and 29 Acinetobacter isolates were selected because of their resistance to carbapenem specially imipenem (IPM. Screening for MBL production was performed in these isolates by IPM-EDTA microdilution MIC method. 44 (83% IPM resistant Pseudomonas and 19 (65.5% Acinetobacter isolates were MBL producer by IPM-EDTA microdilution MIC method. These results suggest that MBL producing Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter isolates are emerging in our country and it is essential to screen carbapenem resistant isolates for MBL production. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2010; 4(2: 63-65

  16. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls (Larus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John E; Gilpin, Deidre; Crothers, Elizabeth; Canney, Anne; Kaneko, Aki; Matsuda, Motoo

    2002-01-01

    An investigation was carried out into the prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter subspecies (spp.) and Cryptosporidium spp. in fresh fecal specimens collected from members of the gull family (Larus spp.) from three coastal locations of Northern Ireland. A total of 205 fresh fecal specimens were collected from gulls, of which 28 of 205 (13.7%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and none of 205 for Cryptosporidium spp. Of these campylobacters, 21 of 28 (75%) isolates obtained belonged to the urease-positive thermophilic Campylobacter (UPTC) taxon, followed by five of 28 (17.9%) Campylobacter lari and 2/28 (7.1%) Campylobacter jejuni. It is significant that seagulls are the sole warm-blooded animal host of this bacterial taxon in Northern Ireland. It is proposed that physiological adaptation to starvation by gulls may lead to increased concentrations of urea through energy production from protein, yielding increased levels of urea for metabolism by UPTC organisms. In general, the possibility exists that environmental contamination of surface waters with campylobacters might be mediated by wild birds (such as gulls), where such waters are used for recreational purposes or where such waters are consumed untreated, might represent a risk to public health.

  17. Comparison of Disk Diffusion and E-Test Methods for Doripenem Susceptibility of Nosocomial Acinetobacter Baumannii Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Yesim Cekin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Acinetobacter species are amoung the most common two cause of infections isolated from patients of intensive care unit in our hospital. Doripenem which acts by inhibiting cell wall synthesis is resently introduced for use in our country is broad spectrum antibiotic belonging to carbapenems. There are many studies investigating the susceptibility of doripenem of Acinetobacter baumannii which is isolated as a cause of ventilatory associated pneumonia in the literature. We aimed to compare ...

  18. Non-susceptibility trends among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, David M; Hope, Russell; Brick, Geraldine; Lillie, Mark; Reynolds, Rosy

    2008-11-01

    Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. are important opportunists, notorious for resistance. Pseudomonas spp. are collected in the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) bacteraemia surveillance, with Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia well represented in the 'other Gram-negatives' group. Data for collected isolates were reviewed together with LabBase bacteraemia reports to the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Isolates with unusual resistances were subjected to molecular investigation. From 2001 to 2006, the BSAC surveillance collected 1226 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 240 Acinetobacter spp.-125 of them Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/baumannii (Acb) complex-and 165 S. maltophilia. Among P. aeruginosa, non-susceptibility rates to beta-lactams and gentamicin fluctuated, without trend, below 10%; those to ciprofloxacin ranged from 16% to 22%. One P. aeruginosa isolate from 2001 had VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase. For Acb, the BSAC data indicated frequent non-susceptibility, except to imipenem, where only five non-susceptible isolates were collected, all after 2003, four of them belonging to the OXA-23 clone 1 lineage which is prevalent in Southeast England. Reports to the HPA indicated rising imipenem non-susceptibility in Acb (P /=16 mg/L for Acb OXA-23 clone 1. Ceftobiprole had higher MICs than ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa, but 81% of the isolates were inhibited at

  19. Aspectos epidemiológicos de pacientes com lesões ungueais e cutâneas causadas por Scytalidium spp Epidemiological aspects of patients with ungual and cutaneous lesions caused by Scytalidium spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Martins Xavier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: As dermatomicoses causadas por fungos filamentosos não dermatófitos são infecções raras, exceto as onicomicoses, cuja prevalência vem crescendo nos últimos anos. Dentre esses agentes etiológicos destacam-se o Scytalidium dimidiatum e o S. hyalinum, fungos emergentes responsáveis por micoses em unhas e pele. OBJETIVO: Investigar as características epidemiológicas das onicomicoses e micoses de outras localizações causadas pelos fungos do gênero Scytalidium, utilizando-se como parâmetros sexo, idade e localizações das lesões. MÉTODOS: Avaliaram-se 81 amostras com cultura positiva para o gênero em estudo, oriundas de 74 pacientes encaminhados ao Laboratório de Investigação em Dermatologia (ID situado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, no período de 1997 a 2006. As amostras foram submetidas a confirmação diagnóstica por exame direto e cultura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. foi de 0,87%, entre as idades de 41 e 60 anos (48,64%. Em relação à localização das lesões, os pés foram mais acometidos (91,36%, com predomínio do hálux esquerdo. No exame direto, as estruturas mais encontradas foram hifas hialinas; na cultura, a espécie S. dimidiatum foi a mais frequente. CONCLUSÃO: As onicomicoses por Scytalidium spp. são raras e o S. dimidiatum foi a espécie mais isolada neste laboratório no período em estudo.BACKGROUND: Dermatomycoses caused by non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi are rare infections, except for onychomycosis, whose prevalence has increased over the past few years. Among these etiologic agents, we highlight Scytalidium dimidiatum and S. hyalinum, emergent fungi that cause mycoses that affect the nails and skin. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of onychomycosis and other mycoses caused by the fungi Scytalidium spp, using sex, age and site of infection as parameters. METHODS: Eighty-one samples were evaluated showing positive culture for Scytalidium

  20. Infection with Acinetobacter baumannii in an intensive care unit in the Western part of Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăzureanu, Voichița; Poroșnicu, Mirela; Gândac, Ciprian; Moisil, Teodora; Bădițoiu, Luminița; Laza, Ruxandra; Musta, Virgil; Crișan, Alexandru; Marinescu, Adelina-Raluca

    2016-03-08

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in critical condition patients. The pathogen's ability to survive under a wide range of environment conditions and to persist for long periods of time on areas represents a frequent cause of endemic infection hotbeds especially in the Intensive Care Unit. The objectives of the study are: determining the 5-year incidence of A. baumannii infection in patients admitted in the ICU which needed mechanical ventilation; the analysis of these cases regarding pathological antecedents; processing the data regarding these cases; gradual analysis of the susceptibility/resistance of isolated A. baumannii strains; observing the emergence of A. baumannii infection in patients transferred into the ICU. We have performed an observational retrospective study regarding the incidence of Acinetobacter baumannii infections in the Intensive Care Unit of the Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Pneumophtisiology "Victor Babes" Timisoara, Clinic II Infectious Diseases, during June 2011 - June 2015. We have identified a high prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii infection, with an average period of 6 days. Bronchial suction was the most common pathological product in the study (90 % of the cases). Resistance to antimicrobials has been determined: the lowest resistance was recorded for ampicillin + sulbactam (81.1 %), and the highest resistance rate was recorded for ceftazidime and imipenem (94.6 % each). When comparing resistance to third generation cephalosporins, the difference was not statistically significant (94.6 % for ceftazidime vs. 86.5 % for cefoperazone, p = 0.117). Within the present study we were able to observe a significantly high resistance of the germ to carbapenems, with a good sensitivity to aminoglycosides, and to colistin. Only one strain of Acinetobacter baumannii was resistant to all classes of tested antibiotics. Generally, carbapenems represented the elective treatment in

  1. Aspectos que interfieren en la movilidad estudiantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Ramírez-Ordoñez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos que interfieren en la realización de movilidad estudiantil. Materiales y Métodos: Esta investigación es cuantitativa de tipo descriptivo transversal por conveniencia, constituida por 243 estudiantes que hacen parte de un programa de enfermería en una institución de educación superior X, de los cuales se entrevistaron a 237. Para la recolección de la información se diseñó un cuestionario donde se evalúa el aspecto económico, académico y familiar y su interferencia con el programa de movilidad de la institución. Para su estructuración se realizó revisión bibliográfica, evaluación de expertos, alfa de cronbach y prueba piloto. Resultados: El aspecto económico ocupa el primer lugar en interferir en la movilidad estudiantil con un 73%, es importante resaltar que la población encuestada pertenece al estrato 2 por lo tanto cuentan con pocos recursos. El segundo lugar fue para el aspecto académico con un 63.45% y en menor dimensión el aspecto familiar con 26%; el 77% manifiesta tener un interés por participar del programa de movilidad, de los cuales el 43.78% prefiere el nivel internacional, el 29,79 % nacional y ambas opciones el 25,95%. Conclusiones: Al relacionar los aspectos económicos, académicos y familiares con el total de la población se encontró que solo el 12% de los estudiantes cumplen la totalidad de estos requisitos y pueden participar de la movilidad estudiantil.

  2. Acinetobacter baumannii-Infected Vascular Catheters Collected from Horses in an Equine Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Vaneechoutte, Mario; Devriese, Luc A.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lamote, Benedicte; Deprez, Piet; Verschraegen, Gerda; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2000-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from tips clipped from seven intravenous jugular catheters collected from horses in the Ghent University equine clinic. They originated from seven different horses. Three of the seven showed evidence of local infection.

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  4. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobs, Vanessa Cristine; Ferreira, Jéssica Augustini; Bobrowicz, Thaís Alexandra; Ferreira, Leslie Ecker; Deglmann, Roseneide Campos; Westphal, Glauco Adrieno; França, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78), and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71). The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69) showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7) showed susceptibility to carbapenems. The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  5. The Effect of Chronic Alcoholism on the Conjunctival Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Göksel; Gunduz, Abuzer; Polat, Nihat; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Yakupogulları, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of alcohol abuse on the conjunctival flora. The cases were evaluated as two groups. The study group consisted of 55 heavy-drinking males diagnosed with alcohol abuse, while the control group consisted of 55 males without a history of alcohol abuse. Samples were taken from the inferior fornix conjunctiva with sterile cotton-tipped swabs (Amies transport medium) for culture. The samples were inoculated into blood agar, chocolate agar, eosine methylene blue agar and Saboraud-Dextrose agar (Oxoid/UK) with the dilution method. The microorganisms that grew in study group subjects were Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) in 30 (54.5%), Staphylococcus aureus in 14 (25.5%), Moraxella spp. in 3 (5.5%), Streptococcus spp. in 3 (5.5), Bacillus spp. in 3 (5.5%), Corynebacterium spp. in 3 (5.5%), Candida spp. in 3 (5.5%), Haemophilus spp. in 2 (3.6%), Acinetobacter spp. in 2 (3.6%), Neisseria spp. in 1 (1.8%) and Micrococcus spp. in 1 (1.8%). The results for control group were CNS in 31 (56.4%), Bacillus spp. in 7 (12.7%), S. aureus in 5 (9.1%), and Corynebacterium spp. in 2 (3.6%). Moraxella spp., Streptococcus spp., Candida spp., Haemophilus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Micrococcus spp. microorganisms grew in the conjunctival flora samples of the study group but not in the control group. S. aureus colonization was significantly higher in the study group than the control group (p chronic alcoholism is different than the normal population.

  6. Quorum sensing signal profile of Acinetobacter strains from nosocomial and environmental sources Perfil de sensores de quórum en cepas nosocomiales y ambientales de Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. González

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of 43 strains corresponding to 20 classified and unclassified genomic Acinetobacter species was analyzed for the production of typical N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing molecules in culture broths. A large percentage of the strains (74% displayed quorum sensing signals that could be separated into three statistically significantly different chromatographic groups (p Rf2 > Rf1. None of the three signals could be specifically assigned to a particular species in the genus; furthermore, no distinction could be made between the quorum sensing signals secreted by typical opportunistic strains of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex, isolated from patients, with respect to the other species of the genus, except for the Rf1 signal which was present in all the QS positive strains belonging to this complex and DNA group 13 TU. In conclusion, quorum sensors in Acinetobacter are not homogenously distributed among species and one of them is present in most of the A. calcoaceticus-baumannii complex.Se analizó la producción de moléculas típicas de N-acil homoserina lactona con actividad de quorum sensing en cultivos líquidos de un grupo de 43 cepas correspondientes a 20 especies genómicas clasificadas y no clasificadas de Acinetobacter. Un porcentaje alto de las cepas (74% mostraron señales de quorum sensing que pudieron ser separadas en tres grupos cromatográficos significativamente diferentes entre sí (p Rf2 > Rf1. Ninguna de las tres señales pudo ser asignada a una especie en particular dentro del género; es más, no se encontró diferencia entre las señales producidas por las cepas típicamente oportunistas (complejo A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii aisladas de pacientes respecto de las producidas por otras cepas del mismo género, excepto para el caso de Rf1, que se encontró presente en todos los aislamientos quorum sensing positivos del mencionado complejo y en las cepas del grupo de DNA 13TU. En conclusión, los sensores de

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter johnsonii C6, an Environmental Isolate Engaging in Interspecific Metabolic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Mordhorst, Hanne; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii C6 originates from creosote-polluted groundwater and performs ecological and evolutionary interactions with Pseudomonas putida in biofilms. The draft genome of A. johnsonii C6 is 3.7 Mbp and was shaped by mobile genetic elements. It reveals genes facilitating the biodegrad......Acinetobacter johnsonii C6 originates from creosote-polluted groundwater and performs ecological and evolutionary interactions with Pseudomonas putida in biofilms. The draft genome of A. johnsonii C6 is 3.7 Mbp and was shaped by mobile genetic elements. It reveals genes facilitating...

  8. Infecção cutânea rara por Acinetobacter baumannii em imunocompetente: relato de um caso Rare cutaneous infection by Acinetobacter baumannii in an immunocompetent patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vitoriano Cirino

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O Acinetobacter baumanni é patógeno oportunista antigamente considerado de baixa virulência. Atualmente está envolvido em processos infecciosos que acometem pacientes imunocomprometidos,grandes queimados e pacientes em unidades de terapia intensiva que fazem uso de ventilação mecânica. Esse relato de caso chama atenção para infecção cutânea rara por essa bactéria em paciente imunocompetente.Acinetobacter baumannii is an oportunistic pathogen that used to be considered as having low virulence; however, it is currently known to be involved in infectious processes in patients with immunosuppression, large burns and those under mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. This case report emphasizes the possibility of cutaneous infection by A. baumanni in immunocompetent patients.

  9. Colistin-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains with Deficient Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafopoulou, Konstantina; Xavier, Basil Britto; Hotterbeekx, An; Janssens, Lore; Lammens, Christine; Dé, Emmanuelle; Goossens, Herman; Tsakris, Athanasios; Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi

    2015-01-01

    In two pairs of clinical colistin-susceptible/colistin-resistant (Csts/Cstr) Acinetobacter baumannii strains, the Cstr strains showed significantly decreased biofilm formation in static and dynamic assays (P Cstr strain and a frameshift mutation in CarO and the loss of a 47,969-bp element containing multiple genes associated with biofilm production in the other. PMID:26666921

  10. Risk factors for acquiring MDR pathogen in a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noman, F.; Usmani, B.; Imtiaz, A.; Mahmood, F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To find out common risk factors in patients from whose samples Multi-Drug Resistant pathogens were isolated. Study Design Prospective observational study. Setting: Microbiology department of Liaquat National Hospital Karachi, a 750-bedded tertiary care Hospital. Material and Method All multi-drug resistant pathogens (resistant to representative antibiotics of at least three different classes of antimicrobial agents including carbapenems) isolated from samples like blood, bronchial wash, sputum, pus, etc, received from different units of hospital at Microbiology laboratory Liaquat National Hospital from December 2006 through February 2007 were included in this study. Patient information was collected from their personal file and through concerned treating physicians. Results and Conclusion A total of 228 MDR pathogens were isolated from different samples in 3 months, these included: Acinetobacter spp 184 (81 %) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44 (19%). Majority were from lower respiratory tract specimen, followed by blood. Most (86%) patients were in intensive care unit or high dependency unit. Mechanical ventilation was predominant finding in patients with Acinetobacter spp while surgical procedures were more frequently associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only 3% of Acinetobacter spp and 7 % of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated during first 48 hours of hospital stay. (author)

  11. Acinetobacter baumannii displays inverse relationship between meropenem resistance and biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leandro Reus Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    In this study the ability for biofilm production among meropenem (MEM)-resistant and -susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii isolates was verified. MEM susceptibility and biofilm production were screened in 116 isolates. Meropenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates showed a reduced ability to produce biofilms compared to those susceptible to MEM (Pbaumanni isolates.

  12. Biodegradation of 4-nitroaniline by plant-growth promoting Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 and toxicological analysis of its biodegradation metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Vangnai, Alisa S., E-mail: alisa.v@chula.ac.th [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 is a PGPB able to degrade high concentration of 4-NA. • Growth and degradation kinetics for 4-NA removal by AVLB2 were studied. • A novel biodegradation pathway for 4-nitroaniline has been proposed. • Toxicological studies revealed non-toxic nature of 4-NA biodegraded metabolites. • Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 could maintain PGP traits under 4-NA stress. - Abstract: 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) is one of the major priority pollutants generated from industrial productions and pesticide transformation; however very limited biodegradation details have been reported. This work is the first to report 4-NA biodegradation kinetics and toxicity reduction using a newly isolated plant-growth promoting bacterium, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2. The 4-NA-dependent growth kinetics parameters: μ{sub max}, K{sub s} and K{sub i}, were determined to be 0.039 h{sup −1}, 6.623 mg L{sup −1} and 25.57 mg L{sup −1}, respectively using Haldane inhibition model, while the maximum biodegradation rate (V{sub max}) of 4-NA was at 0.541 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1} and 0.551 mg L{sup −1} h{sup −1}, following Michaelis–Menten and Hanes–Woolf models, respectively. Biodegradation pathway of 4-NA by Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 was proposed, and successfully led to the reduction of 4-NA toxicity according to the following toxicity assessments: microbial toxicity using Escherichia coli DH5α, phytotoxicity with Vigna radiata and Crotalaria juncea, and cytogenotoxicity with Allium cepa root-tip cells. In addition, Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2 possess important plant-growth promoting traits, both in the presence and absence of 4-NA. This study has provided a new insight into 4-NA biodegradation ability and concurrent plant-growth promoting activities of Acinetobacter sp. AVLB2, which may indicate its potential role for rhizoremediation, while sustaining crop production even under 4-NA stressed environment.

  13. Real-Time Fluorescence Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinqin; Zhou, Yanbin; Li, Shaoli; Zhuo, Chao; Xu, Siqi; Huang, Lixia; Yang, Ling; Liao, Kang

    2013-01-01

    Background Detection of Acinetobacter baumannii has been relying primarily on bacterial culture that often fails to return useful results in time. Although DNA-based assays are more sensitive than bacterial culture in detecting the pathogen, the molecular results are often inconsistent and challenged by doubts on false positives, such as those due to system- and environment-derived contaminations. In addition, these molecular tools require expensive laboratory instruments. Therefore, establishing molecular tools for field use require simpler molecular platforms. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification method is relatively simple and can be improved for better use in a routine clinical bacteriology laboratory. A simple and portable device capable of performing both the amplification and detection (by fluorescence) of LAMP in the same platform has been developed in recent years. This method is referred to as real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification. In this study, we attempted to utilize this method for rapid detection of A. baumannii. Methodology and Significant Findings Species-specific primers were designed to test the utility of this method. Clinical samples of A. baumannii were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this system compared to bacterial culture and a polymerase chain reaction method. All positive samples isolated from sputum were confirmed to be the species of Acinetobacter by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The RealAmp method was found to be simpler and allowed real-time detection of DNA amplification, and could distinguish A. baumannii from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Acinetobacter genomic species 3. DNA was extracted by simple boiling method. Compared to bacterial culture, the sensitivity and specificity of RealAmp in detecting A. baumannii was 98.9% and 75.0%, respectively. Conclusion The RealAmp assay only requires a single unit, and the assay positivity can be verified by visual inspection. Therefore, this assay has

  14. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter meningitis in neurosurgical patients with intraventricular catheters: assessment of different treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Guardado, A; Blanco, A; Asensi, V; Pérez, F; Rial, J C; Pintado, V; Bustillo, E; Lantero, M; Tenza, E; Alvarez, M; Maradona, J A; Cartón, J A

    2008-04-01

    The treatment of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis is a serious therapeutic problem due to the limited penetration of antibiotics into the CSF. We describe the clinical features and the outcome of a group of patients with nosocomial neurosurgical meningitis treated with different therapeutic options. All patients with nosocomial post-surgical meningitis due to A. baumannii diagnosed between 1990 and 2004 were retrospectively reviewed. During the period of study, 51 cases of this nosocomial infection were identified. Twenty-seven patients were treated with intravenous (iv) monotherapy: carbapenems (21 cases), ampicillin/sulbactam (4 cases) and other antibiotics (2 cases). Four patients were treated with iv combination therapy. Nineteen patients were treated with iv and intrathecal regimens: colistin by both routes (8 cases), carbapenems plus iv and intrathecal (4 cases) or only intrathecal (5 cases) aminoglycosides, and others (2 cases). Seventeen patients died due to the infection. One patient died without treatment. The mean (SD) duration of therapy was 17.4 (8.3) days (range 3-44). Although no patients treated with colistin died, we did not observe statistically significant differences in the mortality among the groups with different treatments. Nosocomial Acinetobacter meningitis has a high mortality. Combined therapy with iv and intrathecal colistin is a useful and safe option in the treatment of nosocomial Acinetobacter meningitis.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in central intensive care unit in Kosova teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    Full Text Available Infections caused by bacteria of genus Acinetobacter pose a significant health care challenge worldwide. Information on molecular epidemiological investigation of outbreaks caused by Acinetobacter species in Kosova is lacking. The present investigation was carried out to enlight molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacterbaumannii in the Central Intensive Care Unit (CICU of a University hospital in Kosova using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. During March - July 2006, A. baumannii was isolated from 30 patients, of whom 22 were infected and 8 were colonised. Twenty patients had ventilator-associated pneumonia, one patient had meningitis, and two had coinfection with bloodstream infection and surgical site infection. The most common diagnoses upon admission to the ICU were politrauma and cerebral hemorrhage. Bacterial isolates were most frequently recovered from endotracheal aspirate (86.7%. First isolation occurred, on average, on day 8 following admission (range 1-26 days. Genotype analysis of A. baumannii isolates identified nine distinct PFGE patterns, with predominance of PFGE clone E represented by isolates from 9 patients. Eight strains were resistant to carbapenems. The genetic relatedness of Acinetobacter baumannii was high, indicating cross-transmission within the ICU setting. These results emphasize the need for measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of A. baumannii in ICU.

  16. Effectiveness of Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum majorana L. essential oils in inhibiting the growth of bacterial strains isolated from the patients with conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Jana Luíza Toscano Mendes de; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Melo; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; Souza, Evandro Leite de; Trajano, Vinícius Nogueira; Santos, Bernadete Helena Cavalcante

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare L. and O. majorana L. essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus, S. coagulase negative, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. isolated from the patients with conjunctivitis. The results showed a prominent inhibitory effect of both the essential oils on all the bacterial strains, noted by the large bacterial growth inhibition zones (15-32mm). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) valu...

  17. Evaluation of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase for the identification of nonfermenting Gram-negative rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombicino, Karina A; Almuzara, Marisa N; Famiglietti, Angela M R; Vay, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the activity of pyrrolidonyl arylamidase (PYR) for the differentiation and identification of nonfermenting gram negative rods (NFGNR), 293 isolates were tested. A 24 h culture of each test organism was prepared. From this a 108-109 cfu/mL suspension was added to 0.25 mL of sterile physiologic solution. A PYR disk was then added and the test was incubated for 30 minutes at 35-37 degrees C, at environmental atmosphere. Reading was done by adding 1 drop of cinnamaldehyde reagent. Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bergeyella zoohelcum, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella hinzii, Brevundimonas diminuta, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Brucella ovis, Brucella spp., Brucella suis, Burkholderia cepacia complex, Moraxella catarrhalis, Moraxella lacunata, Moraxella nonliquefaciens, Moraxella osloensis, Oligella ureolytica, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas mendocina, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas Vb3, Psychrobacter phenylpyruvicus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were PYR negative. On the other hand Achromobacter piechaudii, Achromobacter denitrificans, Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Burkholderia gladioli, Chryseobacterium gleum-indologenes, Comamonas testosroni, Cupriavidus pauculus, Delftia acidovorans, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, Myroides spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Ralstonia pickettii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Shewanella spp., Sphingobacterium multivorum, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, and Weeksella virosa were PYR positive. Finally, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Roseomonas spp., and Sphingomonas paucimobilis-parapaucimobilis were PYR variable. PYR testing should be considered as a useful tool to facilitate the identification of NFGNR.

  18. Extrahuman Epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii in Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafei, Rayane; Hamze, Monzer; Pailhoriès, Hélène; Eveillard, Matthieu; Marsollier, Laurent; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Dabboussi, Fouad

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals is still a controversial issue. The objective of our study was to explore the extrahospital epidemiology of A. baumannii in Lebanon. From February 2012 to October 2013, a total of 73 water samples, 51 soil samples, 37 raw cow milk samples, 50 cow meat samples, 7 raw cheese samples, and 379 animal samples were analyzed by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii. Species identification was performed by rpoB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was investigated, and the A. baumannii population was studied by two genotyping approaches: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing (SBT). A. baumannii was detected in 6.9% of water samples, 2.7% of milk samples, 8.0% of meat samples, 14.3% of cheese samples, and 7.7% of animal samples. All isolates showed a susceptible phenotype against most of the antibiotics tested and lacked carbapenemase-encoding genes, except one that harbored a blaOXA-143 gene. MLST analysis revealed the presence of 36 sequence types (STs), among which 24 were novel STs reported for the first time in this study. blaOXA-51 SBT showed the presence of 34 variants, among which 21 were novel and all were isolated from animal origins. Finally, 30 isolates had new partial rpoB sequences and were considered putative new Acinetobacter species. In conclusion, animals can be a potential reservoir for A. baumannii and the dissemination of new emerging carbapenemases. The roles of the novel animal clones identified in community-acquired infections should be investigated. PMID:25616788

  19. The role of the genetic elements bla oxa and IS Aba 1 in the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in carbapenem resistance in the hospital setting

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    Vanessa Cristine Kobs

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Members of the Acinetobacter genus are key pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections, and they tend to spread and develop new antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Oxacillinases are primarily responsible for resistance to carbapenem antibiotics. Higher rates of carbapenem hydrolysis might be ascribed to insertion sequences, such as the ISAba1 sequence, near bla OXA genes. The present study examined the occurrence of the genetic elements bla OXA and ISAba1 and their relationship with susceptibility to carbapenems in clinical isolates of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex. METHODS: Isolates identified over 6 consecutive years in a general hospital in Joinville, Southern Brazil, were evaluated. The investigation of 5 families of genes encoding oxacillinases and the ISAba1 sequence location relative to bla OXA genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: All isolates presented the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 78, and 91% tested positive for the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 71. The presence of ISAba1 was exclusively detected in isolates carrying the bla OXA-23-like gene. All isolates in which ISAba1 was found upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene (n = 69 showed resistance to carbapenems, whereas the only isolate in which ISAba1 was not located near the bla OXA-23-like gene was susceptible to carbapenems. The ISAba1 sequence position of another bla OXA-23-like-positive isolate was inconclusive. The isolates exclusively carrying the bla OXA-51-like gene (n = 7 showed susceptibility to carbapenems. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the ISAba1 sequence upstream of the bla OXA-23-like gene was strongly associated with carbapenem resistance in isolates of the A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii complex in the hospital center studied.

  20. Characterization of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing nonfermenter bacteria isolated from patients blood samples using phenotypic methods in Shiraz (Iran

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    Maneli Amin Shahidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The emergence of  nonfermenter bacteria that are resistant to multidrug resistant ESBL  are  nowadays a principal problem  for hospitalized patients. The present study aimed at surveying the emergence of nonfermenter bacteria resistant to multi-drug ESBL producing isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood specimens were collected from hospitalized patients in Shiraz (Iran, and positive samples were detected by means of  BACTEC 9240 automatic system. The isolates  containing nonfermenter bacteria were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Antibiotic sensitivity  test was performed  and identification of  ESBL producing strains were done  using phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates(DDST according to CLSI(2013 guidelines.   Results: Out of 4825 blood samples, 1145 (24% specimen were gram-positive using BACTEC system. Among all isolated microorganisms, 206 isolates were non-fermenting gram- negative bacteria. The most common non-fermenter isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48%, Acinetobacter spp. (41.7% ,and Stenotrophomonas spp. (8.2%. Seventy of them (81.4% were  Acinetobacter spp. which were ESBL positive. Among &beta-lactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas spp. showed  the best sensitivity to piperacillin-tazobactam (46.5%.  Conclusion: It was found that  &beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of Pseudomonas spp. infections and 78% Acinetobacter infections. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains that are resistant to most antibiotic classes is a major public health problem in Iran. To resolve this problem using of practical guidelines is critical.

  1. Pesquisa de Acinetobacter sp e Pseudomonas aeruginosa produtores de metalo-β-lactamase em hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Investigation of metallo-β-lactamase-producing Acinetobacter sp and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Vani Dos Santos Laranjeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O aparecimento de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp produtores de metalo-β-lactamases (MBLs é um desafio para os hospitais. MÉTODOS: Verificou-se a produção de MBL em cepas clínicas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp de um hospital de emergência de Porto Alegre pelo método de aproximação de disco e E-test MBL. Os genes bla foram pesquisados pela PCR. RESULTADOS: Duas cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e oito Acinetobacter sp demonstraram fenótipo de MBLs. A amplificação do gene blaSPM-1 confirmou a enzima em P. aeruginosa.. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se ter cautela ao avaliar testes fenotípicos utilizados na detecção rotineira de metalo-enzima.INTRODUCTION: The appearance of metallo-β-lactamase (MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. is a challenge for hospitals. METHODS: The production of MBL in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter sp. From an emergency hospital in Porto Alegre was investigated using the disk approximation test and MBL E-test. The bla genes were determined using PCR. RESULTS: Two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and eight of Acinetobacter sp were shown to be MBL phenotypes. Amplification of the blaSPM-1 gene confirmed the presence of the enzyme in P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: Caution is needed in evaluating phenotype tests used for routine detection of metallo-β-lactamases.

  2. Tn7::In2-8 dispersion in multidrug resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii from Chile Dispersión de Tn7::In2-8 en aislamientos multirresistentes de Acinetobacter baumannii de Chile

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    M. S. Ramírez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is considered an important pathogen in our hospital environment having a well-known capacity to acquire different mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Previous studies in our laboratory had exposed the high dispersion of class 2 integrons in this species. In the present study, we analyzed 7 multiresistant intI2 positive A. baumannii isolates, 6 of which were found to harbour the Tn7::In2-8 element. Our results demonstrate the unusually high distribution of Tn7::In2-8 among different A. baumannii clones from Chile, suggesting a particular behavior of these elements at geographical level.Acinetobacter baumannii, patógeno de importancia clínica en el ámbito hospitalario, es reconocido como un microorganismo que posee la capacidad de evolucionar rápidamente hacia la multirresistencia. Estudios previos efectuados en nuestro laboratorio han demostrado la alta dispersión de los integrones de clase 2 en aislamientos de esta especie. En el presente trabajo se analizaron 7 aislamientos de Acinetobacter baumannii multirresistentes portadores de la integrasa de clase 2, 6 de los cuales portaban el inusual arreglo Tn7::In2-8. Nuestros resultados muestran una elevada frecuencia de dispersión del elemento Tn7::In2-8 en diferentes clones circulantes en Chile, lo que sugiere un comportamiento geográfico particular.

  3. Determination antimicrobial resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Different Part of Taleghani Hospital (Ahvaz, Iran

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    Khadijah Ahmadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The members of the genus Acinetobacter are Gram-negative cocobacilli that are frequently found in the environment but also in the hospital setting where they have been associated with outbreaks of nosocomial infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infection, conjunctivitis, burn wound infection and bacteremia. This organism has been shown resistance to different antimicrobial agents. The aim of this study was to determination antibiotic resistance profile of Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Taleghani hospital (Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 43 Acinetobacter strains isolated from hospitalized patients. Clinical specimens were cultured on microbiological media. Subsequently, drug susceptibility test was performed using the disc diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. Results: Acinetobacter strains were isolated from different specimens consisting biopsy 24 (55.8%, wound 13 (30/2% and blood 6 (14%. In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, colistin exhibited the greatest activity (60.5% against isolated strains. 33 (76/7% isolates demonstrated resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: In outbreak situations, surveillance cultures of patients involved in the outbreak or who are deemed at risk for colonization/infection with the outbreak organism are often parts of the planned intervention.

  4. Genetic Regulation of Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Carsten; Kary, Stefani C.; Schauer, Kristina; Cameron, Andrew D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant microorganisms are forecast to become the single biggest challenge to medical care in the 21st century. Over the last decades, members of the genus Acinetobacter have emerged as bacterial opportunistic pathogens, in particular as challenging nosocomial pathogens because of the rapid evolution of antimicrobial resistances. Although we lack fundamental biological insight into virulence mechanisms, an increasing number of researchers are working to identify virulence factors and to study antibiotic resistance. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the regulation of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. A survey of the two-component systems AdeRS, BaeSR, GacSA and PmrAB explains how each contributes to antibiotic resistance and virulence gene expression, while BfmRS regulates cell envelope structures important for pathogen persistence. A. baumannii uses the transcription factors Fur and Zur to sense iron or zinc depletion and upregulate genes for metal scavenging as a critical survival tool in an animal host. Quorum sensing, nucleoid-associated proteins, and non-classical transcription factors such as AtfA and small regulatory RNAs are discussed in the context of virulence and antibiotic resistance. PMID:28036056

  5. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Falkinham III, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-01-01

    Objective/Background: A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. Method: To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. Results: The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent,...

  6. Isolation of biosurfactant producers, optimization and properties of biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter sp. from petroleum-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Huang, P T; Zhang, K Y; Ding, F R

    2012-04-01

    To screen and identify biosurfactant producers from petroleum-contaminated soil; to use response surface methodology (RSM) for medium optimization to enhance biosurfactant production; and to study the properties of the newly obtained biosurfactant towards pH, temperature and salinity. We successfully isolated three biosurfactant producers from petroleum-contaminated soil and identified them through 16S rRNA sequence analysis, which exhibit the highest similarities to Acinetobacter beijerinckii (100%), Kocuria marina (99%) and Kineococcus marinus (99%), respectively. A quadratic response model was constructed through RSM designs, leading to a 57·5% increase of the growth-associated biosurfactant production by Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 with an optimized medium: beef extract 3·12 g l(-1) ; peptone 20·87 g l(-1) ; NaCl 1·04 g l(-1); and n-hexadecane 1·86 g l(-1). Biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 retained its properties during exposure to a wide range of pH values (5-11), high temperatures (up to 121°C) and high salinities [up to 18% (w/v) Na(+) and Ca(2+) ], which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than Na(+). Two novel biosurfactant producers were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. Biosurfactant from Acinetobacter sp. YC-X 2 has good properties to a wide range of pH, high temperature and high salinity, and its production was optimized successfully through RSM. The fact, an increasing demand of high-quality surfactants and the lack of cost-competitive bioprocesses of biosurfactants for commercial utilization, motivates researchers to develop cost-effective strategies for biosurfactant production through isolating new biosurfactant producers with special surface-active properties and optimizing their cultural conditions. Two novel biosurfactant producers in this study will widen our knowledge about this kind of micro-organism. This work is the first application of RSM designs for cultural optimization of biosurfactant produced by Acinetobacter

  7. Acinetobacter Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated with Debridement and High-Dose Tigecycline.

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    Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Amadio, Claudio; Leiva, Alejandro

    2016-12-01

    Prosthesis retention is not recommended for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter prosthetic joint infection due to its high failure rate. Nevertheless, replacing the prosthesis implies high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization. Although tigecycline is not approved for the treatment of prosthetic joint infection due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, its appropriate use may preclude prosthesis exchange. Since the area under the curve divided by the minimum inhibitory concentration is the best pharmacodynamic predictor of its efficacy, we used tigecycline at high dose, in order to optimize its efficacy and achieve implant retention in 3 patients who refused prosthesis exchange. All patients with prosthetic joint infections treated at our Institution are prospectively registered in a database. Three patients with early prosthetic joint infection of total hip arthroplasty due to multidrug resistant A. baumannii were treated with debridement, antibiotics and implant retention, using a high maintenance dose of tigecycline (100 mg every 12 hours). The cases were retrospectively reviewed. All patients signed informed consent for receiving off-label use of tigecycline. Tigecycline was well tolerated, allowing its administration at high maintenance dose for a median of 40 days (range 30-60). Two patients were then switched to minocycline at standard doses for a median of 3.3 months in order to complete treatment. Currently, none of the patients showed relapse. Increasing the dose of tigecycline could be considered as a means to better attain pharmacodynamic targets in patients with severe or difficult-to-treat infections. Tigecycline at high maintenance dose might be useful when retention of the implant is attempted for treatment for prosthetic joint infections due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter. Although this approach might be promising, off-label use of tigecycline should be interpreted cautiously until prospective data are available. Tigecycline is

  8. Characterization of rhamnolipids produced by non-pathogenic Acinetobacter and Enterobacter bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošková, M.; Schreiberová, O.; Ježdík, R.; Chudoba, J.; Masák, M.; Sigler, Karel; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 130, FEB 2013 (2013), s. 510-516 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/456 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pseudomonas aeruginosa * Acinetobacter calcoaceticus * Enterobacter asburiae Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  9. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Osteossarcoma parosteal: aspectos na radiologia convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Neto,Francisco; Marchiori,Edson; Vianna,Alberto Domingues; Aymoré,Ierecê Lins; Almeida,Ana Luiza Brito de; Irion,Klaus L.; Collares,Felipe Birchal

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados clínicos mais importantes do osteossarcoma parosteal e descrever os seus aspectos mais comuns na radiologia convencional. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 26 pacientes com osteossarcoma parosteal, provenientes do arquivo do Clube do Osso, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, e análise dos principais achados clínicos e aspectos radiológicos. RESULTADOS: A doença predominou em pacientes do sexo feminino e teve idade média de acometimento na terceira década de vida. Os a...

  11. Molecular Typing of Acinetobacter Baumannii Clinical Strains in Tehran by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

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    Neda Farahani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Currently, Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen insofar as its hospital outbreaks have been described from various geographical areas. Since the discrimination of strains within a species is important for delineating nosocomial outbreaks, this study was conducted with the aim of genotyping the A. baumannii clinical strains in Tehran via the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method, which is the most accurate method used for the typing of bacterial species.   Materials & methods: This study was performed on 70 isolates of acinetobacter baumannii isolated from patients from Baqiyatallah, Rasoole Akram, and Milad hospitals in Tehran. Cultural and biochemical methods were used for the identification of the isolates in species level, and then susceptibility tests were carried out on 50 isolates of A. baumannii using the disk diffusion method. The PFGE method was performed on the isolates by Apa I restriction enzyme. Finally, the results of the PFGE were analyzed. Result: Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from hospitals in Tehran showed seven different genetic patterns, two of which were sporadic . Also, genotypic profiles were different in each hospital, and different patterns of genetic resistance to common antibiotics were observed. Conclusion: A lthough diversity was observed among the strains of A. baumannii by the PFGE method in Tehran, no epidemic strains were found among them.  

  12. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  13. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Nazar M; Osman, Amani A; Haimour, Waleed O; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Mohammed, Mohammed N; Zyad, Eyhab M; Al-Ghtani, Abdalla M

    2013-03-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of antibiotics towards nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter species. The study took place during the period Dec. 2011- Dec. 2012 at Assir Central Hospital in collaboration with the department of microbiology, college of medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. A prospective study involving 150 patients presented with nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species detected by bacteriological tests; direct microscopy, culture in blood agar media, fermentation test in MacConkey media and MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibiotics sensitivity using Muller Hinton media and Chemical test using API 20. A 150 nosocomial infections in this study showed gram-negative coccobacilli, non motile, glucose-negative fermentor and oxidase negative. All isolates showed 100% sensitivity to: Imipramine, Meropenem, Colistin. From the rest of tested antibiotics the higher resistant ones were; Nitrofurantoin 87% and Cefoxitin 85%. The least resistant antibiotics; Imipenem 3% and Ticarcillin 7%. While variable resistance in the rest of tested antimicrobials. A 47 patients (31.3%) have used antibiotics prior to this study. The high rate of usage occurred in elder patients. The frequency of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex multi-drugs resistance ABCMDR is rising including almost all commonly used antibiotics. Only few antibiotics exert 100% sensitivity towards these bacteria.

  15. Tigecycline use in two cases with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutuncu, E Ediz; Kuscu, Ferit; Gurbuz, Yunus; Ozturk, Baris; Haykir, Asli; Sencan, Irfan

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of post-surgical meningitis due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is a therapeutic dilemma. The cases of two patients with MDR A. baumannii meningitis secondary to surgical site infections, successfully treated with combination regimens including tigecycline, are presented. Copyright © 2009 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and in vivo analysis of antimicrobial agents alone and in combination against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

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    Songzhe eHE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of tigecycline and other 13 common antimicrobial agents, alone or in combination, against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.MethodsAn in vitro susceptibility test of 101 Acinetobacter baumannii was used to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. A mouse lung infection model of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii,established by the ultrasonic atomization method, was used to define in vivo antimicrobial activities.Results Multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii showed high sensitivity to tigecycline (98% inhibition, polymyxin B (78.2% inhibition, and minocycline (74.2% inhibition. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents in combination with other antimicrobial agents produced synergistic or additive effects. In vivo data showed that white blood cell (WBC counts in drug combination groups C (minocycline + amikacin and D (minocycline + rifampicin were significantly higher than in groups A (tigecycline and B (polymyxin B (P < 0.05, after administration of the drugs 24h post-infection. Lung tissue inflammation gradually increased in the model group during the first 24h after ultrasonic atomization infection; vasodilation, congestion with hemorrhage were observed 48h post infection. After three days of anti-infective therapy in groups A, B, C and D, lung tissue inflammation in each group gradually recovered with clear structures. The mortality rates in drug combination groups (groups C and D were much lower than in groups A and B.ConclusionThe combination of minocycline with either rifampicin or amikacin is more effective against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii than single-agent tigecycline or polymyxin B. In addition, the mouse lung infection by ultrasonic atomization is a suitable model for drug screening and analysis of infection mechanism.

  17. Potensi Trichoderma Spp. Sebagai Agens Pengendali Fusarium Spp. Penyebab Penyakit Layu Pada Tanaman Stroberi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwiastuti, Mutia Erti; Fajri, Melisa N; Yunimar, Yunimar

    2015-01-01

    Layu yang disebabkan oleh Fusarium spp. merupakan salah satu penyakit penting tanaman stroberi (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.) di daerah subtropika, yang dapat menggagalkan panen. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mempelajari potensi Trichoderma spp. dalam mengendalikan Fusarium spp. Isolat Trichoderma spp. diisolasi dari rizosfer tanaman stroberi dan Fusarium spp. diisolasi dari tanaman stroberi yang mengalami layu fusarium. Isolat cendawan dimurnikan, dikarakterisasi, dan dibandingkan dengan isolat c...

  18. Biochemical Characterization of Lipases Obtained from Acinetobacter psychrotolerans Strains

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    Şule SEREN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracellular lipases obtained from Acinetobacter psychrotolerans strains (Xg1 and Xg2 were characterized. The effects of varying pH values (3.0-10.0 and various temperatures (10-90 °C on lipase activities were examined. Also the effects of different metal ions, organic solvents and detergents on lipases were studied. The extracellular crude lipases were concentrated using ultrafiltration. Zymogram analysis of these lipases was performed. Lipases exhibited maximum activity at pH 8 and 30 °C.  While lipase obtained from the Xg1 strain exhibited the highest stability in the presence of various organic solvents, including hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and N,N dietil formamide, lipase obtained from the Xg2 strain was sensitive in the presence of isopropanol, acetonitrile, and butan-1-ol. The lipases of the Xg1 and Xg2 strains were inhibited in the presence of Cu2+ and Zn2+. Also, the lipase of the Xg1 strain was inhibited in the presence of Fe3+. In the presence of EDTA, the lipase activities of the Xg1 and Xg2 strains were partially inhibited. In presence of SDS, they were exactly inhibited. According to the zymogram results, the molecular weights of the lipases obtained from the Acinetobacter psychrotolerans Xg1 and Xg2 strains have been found approximately 37 and 30 kDa, respectively.

  19. Cryo-electron tomography analysis of membrane vesicles from Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC19606(T)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Roman I.; de Breij, Anna; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Nibbering, Peter H.; Koster, Abraham J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for colonization and infection of critically ill patients. Its virulence attributes together with the condition of the host determine the pathogenicity of A. baumannii. These virulence factors may be delivered to host cells by

  20. Towards an explanation for the success of Acinetobacter baumannii in the human host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breij, Anastasia (Anna)

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen responsible for outbreaks of infection worldwide. The studies presented in this thesis aimed to gain further insight into the bacterial and host factors associated with the pathogenesis of A. baumannii to seek an explanation for the

  1. PCR Assay Based on the gyrB Gene for Rapid Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex at Specie Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aline B; Barin, Juliana; Hermes, Djuli M; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2017-05-01

    The genus Acinetobacter sp. comprises more than 50 species, and four are closely related and difficult to be distinguished by either phenotypic or genotypic methods: the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (ABC). The correct identification at species level is necessary mainly due to the epidemiological aspects. We evaluated a multiplex PCR for gyrB gene to identify the species of the ABC using the sequencing of the ITS 16S-23S fragment as a gold standard. Isolates identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii from three hospitals at southern Brazil in 2011 were included in this study. A total of 117 isolates were obtained and 106 (90.6%) were confirmed as A. baumannii, 6 (5.1%) as A. nosocomialis and 4 (3.4%) as A. pittii by PCR for gyrB gene. Only one isolate did not present a product of the PCR for the gyrB gene; this isolate was identified as Acinetobacter genospecie 10 by sequencing of ITS. We also noted that the non-A. baumannii isolates were recovered from respiratory tract (8/72.7%), blood (2/18.2%) and urine (1/9.1%), suggesting that these species can cause serious infection. These findings evidenced that the multiplex PCR of the gyrB is a feasible and simple method to identify isolates of the ABC at the species level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-06-05

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmid-mediated mineralization of 4-chlorobiphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, M.S.; Hooper, S.W.; Sayler, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Alcaligenes and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from a mixed culture already proven to be proficient at complete mineralization of monohalogenated biphenyls. These strains were shown to harbor a 35 x 10(6)-dalton plasmid mediating a complete pathway for 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) oxidation. Subsequent plasmid curing of these bacteria resulted in the abolishment of the 4CB mineralization phenotype and loss of even early 4CB metabolism by Acinetobacter spp. Reestablishment of the Alcaligenes plasmid, denoted pSS50, in the cured Acinetobacter spp. via filter surface mating resulted in the restoration of 4CB mineralization abilities. 4CB mineralization, however, proved to be an unstable characteristic in some subcultured strains. Such loss was not found to coincide with any detectable alteration in plasmid size. Cultures capable of complete mineralization, as well as those limited to partial metabolism of 4CB, produced 4-chlorobenzoate as a metabolite. Demonstration of mineralization of a purified 14 C-labeled chlorobenzoate showed it to be a true intermediate in 4CB mineralization. Unlike the mineralization capability, the ability to produce a metabolite has proven to be stable on subculture. These results indicate the occurrence of a novel plasmid, or evolved catabolic plasmid, that mediates the complete mineralization of 4CB

  4. Infections in patients undergoing craniotomy: risk factors associated with post-craniotomy meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Vakis, Antonis F; Ziakas, Panayiotis; Karabetsos, Dimitris; Potolidis, Evangelos; Christou, Silvana; Samonis, George

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The authors performed a prospective study to define the prevalence and microbiological characteristics of infections in patients undergoing craniotomy and to clarify the risk factors for post-craniotomy meningitis. METHODS Patients older than 18 years who underwent nonstereotactic craniotomies between January 2006 and December 2008 were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological data were systemically recorded. Patient characteristics, craniotomy type, and pre- and postoperative variables were evaluated as risk factors for meningitis RESULTS Three hundred thirty-four procedures were analyzed (65.6% involving male patients). Traumatic brain injury was the most common reason for craniotomy. Almost 40% of the patients developed at least 1 infection. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was the most common infection recorded (22.5%) and Acinetobacter spp. were isolated in 44% of the cases. Meningitis was encountered in 16 procedures (4.8%), and CSF cultures were positive for microbial growth in 100% of these cases. Gram-negative pathogens (Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloaceae, Proteus mirabilis) represented 88% of the pathogens. Acinetobacter and Klebsiella spp. demonstrated a high percentage of resistance in several antibiotic classes. In multivariate analysis, the risk for meningitis was independently associated with perioperative steroid use (OR 11.55, p = 0.005), CSF leak (OR 48.03, p meningitis in this study. Ventilator-associated pneumonia was the most common infection overall. The offending pathogens presented a high level of resistance to several antibiotics.

  5. Niña con erucismo hemorrágico por Lonomia spp.: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peña-Vásquez

    Full Text Available Los accidentes causados por las setas urticantes o venenosas de las orugas de lepidópteros, se conocen como erucismo. Estos accidentes se producen por el contacto accidental, especialmente por los niños, con las cerdas sobre el cuerpo del insecto, conectadas con glándulas venenosas. Los síntomas pueden ser locales o sistémicos, con presentaciones clínicas fatales. El accidente ocasionado por las orugas del género Lonomia spp. puede desencadenar síndromes hemorrágicos, constituyendo estos la forma más grave de erucismo. Se reporta el caso de una niña de 5 años, procedente del poblado de Villarondos, en la Amazonía del Perú, departamento de Huánuco, la cual incidentalmente se hinca con las cerdas de una oruga, cursando luego con anemia hemolítica, plaquetopenia y trastorno de la coagulación. El diagnóstico fue establecido por la anamnesis, cuadro clínico, exámenes de laboratorio y respuesta al suero antilonómico. Se discuten los aspectos clínicos, laboratoriales y terapéuticos de erucismo por Lonomia spp.

  6. Eradication of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a female patient with total hip arthroplasty, with debridement and retention: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beieler Alison M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections, but few reports have addressed Acinetobacter baumannii infections associated with orthopedic devices. The current recommended treatment for complicated infections due to orthopedic devices, including resistant gram-negative rods, consists of antimicrobial therapy with debridement and removal of implants. Case presentation The patient, a 47-year-old woman, had previously had a prior total hip arthroplasty at 16 years of age for a complex femoral neck fracture, and multiple subsequent revisions. This time, she underwent a fifth revision secondary to pain. Surgery was complicated by hypotension resulting in transfer to the intensive care unit and prolonged respiratory failure. She received peri-operative cefazolin but postoperatively developed surgical wound drainage requiring debridement of a hematoma. Cultures of this grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii (sensitive only to amikacin and imipenem. The patient was started on imipenem. Removal of the total hip arthroplasty was not recommended because of the recent surgical complications, and the patient was eventually discharged home. She was seen weekly for laboratory tests and examinations and, after 4 months of therapy, the imipenem was discontinued. She did well clinically for 7 months before recurrent pain led to removal of the total hip arthroplasty. Intra-operative cultures grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but no multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient received ampicillin for 8 weeks and had not had recurrent infection at the time of writing, 37 months after discontinuing imipenem. Conclusion We describe the successful treatment of an acute infection from multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with debridement and retention of the total hip arthroplasty, using

  7. Epidemiology of multiple Acinetobacter outbreaks in The Netherlands during the period 1999-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P. J.; Arends, J.; Bernards, A. T.; De Brauwer, E.; Mascini, E. M.; van der Reijden, T. J. K.; Spanjaard, L.; Thewessen, E. A. P. M.; van der Zee, A.; van Zeijl, J. H.; Dijkshoorn, L.

    An increase in the number of outbreaks of Acinetobacter infection was notified in The Netherlands during 1999-2001. The present study compared the outbreaks at the species and strain levels, and analysed the epidemiology and control measures at the different locations. For each institute, three

  8. Incidence of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant and pan-drug-resistant bacteria in children hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin general hospital Bandung Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrizain, R.; Suryaningrat, F.; Alam, A.; Setiabudi, D.

    2018-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a global issue, with 700,000 deaths attributable to multidrug-resistance (MDR) occurring each year. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) show rapidly increasing rates of infection due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of the study isto describe the incidence of MDR, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pan drug-resistant (PDR) in Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, K. pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumanii, P. aeruginosin, and Enterobacter spp. (ESKAPE) pathogens in children admitted to Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital. All pediatric patients having blood culture drawn from January 2015 to December 2016 were retrospectively studied. Data include the number of drawn blood culture, number of positive results, type of bacteria, sensitivity pattern. International standard definitions for acquired resistance by ECDC and CDC was used as definitions for MDR, XDR and PDR bacteria. From January 2015 to December 2016, 299 from 2.542 (11.7%) blood culture was positive, with Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., respectively 5, 6, 24, 5, 20 with total 60 (20%). The MDR and XDR pathogen found were 47 and 13 patients, respectively.

  9. Antibiotic Resistance and Carriage Integron Classes in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter Baumannii from Isfahan Hospitals, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Nourbakhsh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant nosocomial pathogen around the world, especially in the intensive care unit that most A. baumannii infections are caused by the outbreak strains. Objectives This study has been performed in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, aimed to detect integron classes I, II, III and molecular typing of A. baumannii genes. Methods In this Cross-sectional study, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from 150 patients in Isfahan hospitals then antibiotic resistance pattern was determined by disk diffusion method (Kirby Bauer. The presence of genes coding in antibiotic resistance and integrons class I, II, III were analyzed by using of M-PCR method. The data were analyzed by Chi-square, Fischer’s test and SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Antibiotic resistance pattern for Acinetobacter baumannii show that the high resistance was for ciprofloxacin with frequency of 98.3%, ceftazidime with 89.4%, and tetracycline with frequency of 87.3%. The most sensitive antibiotics were chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin with frequency of 3.5% and 3.2% resistance. The detection of dfrA1 (63.7%, sul1 (68.6%, aac (3-IV (54.4%, tet (B (22.4%, tet (A (78.3%, aadA1 (15.4%, CITM (17. %, vim (12.2%, Qnr (17.1%, blaSHV (19.8%, sim (7.8%, Oxa-24-like (13.2%, Oxa-51-like (11.9%, Oxa-58-like (39.4%, Oxa-23-like (12.6%, imp (9.2%, cmlA (19% and cat1 (8.6% were respectively reported too. Also in this study Frequency of integrons class 1, 2, 3 were (100%, (28%, (6.6% respectively. Conclusions High prevalence of integrons among Acinetobater baumannii isolated from Isfahan hospitals indicate the importance role of integron classes in multidrug resistance. Considering the increasing pattern of MDR infections is one of the important issues of treatment which can be effective strategy for curing.

  10. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Ashshi, A.M.; Mahomed, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  11. Characterization of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter species isolated during the Mars Phoenix spacecraft assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derecho, I; McCoy, K B; Vaishampayan, P; Venkateswaran, K; Mogul, R

    2014-10-01

    The microbiological inventory of spacecraft and the associated assembly facility surfaces represent the primary pool of forward contaminants that may impact the integrity of life-detection missions. Herein, we report on the characterization of several strains of hydrogen peroxide-resistant Acinetobacter, which were isolated during the Mars Phoenix lander assembly. All Phoenix-associated Acinetobacter strains possessed very high catalase specific activities, and the specific strain, A. gyllenbergii 2P01AA, displayed a survival against hydrogen peroxide (no loss in 100 mM H2O2 for 1 h) that is perhaps the highest known among Gram-negative and non-spore-forming bacteria. Proteomic characterizations reveal a survival mechanism inclusive of proteins coupled to peroxide degradation (catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase), energy/redox management (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), protein synthesis/folding (EF-G, EF-Ts, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, DnaK), membrane functions (OmpA-like protein and ABC transporter-related protein), and nucleotide metabolism (HIT family hydrolase). Together, these survivability and biochemical parameters support the hypothesis that oxidative tolerance and the related biochemical features are the measurable phenotypes or outcomes for microbial survival in the spacecraft assembly facilities, where the low-humidity (desiccation) and clean (low-nutrient) conditions may serve as selective pressures. Hence, the spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter, due to the conferred oxidative tolerances, may ultimately hinder efforts to reduce spacecraft bioburden when using chemical sterilants, thus suggesting that non-spore-forming bacteria may need to be included in the bioburden accounting for future life-detection missions.

  12. Hacia lenguajes de metamodelado orientados a aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Reina Quintero, Antonia María; Torres Valderrama, Jesús; Toro Bonilla, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se propone la extensión de los lenguajes de metamodelado con constructores de la orientación a aspectos. Tras justificar brevemente el interés que en la actualidad está teniendo el metamodelado, y sentar las bases necesarias para entender la propuesta, se presenta, a través de ejemplos, la necesidad de extender un lenguaje de metamodelado como Kermeta con conceptos introducidos en el ámbito de la orientación a aspectos

  13. Prophage induction by ultraviolet light in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenstein, D.

    1986-09-01

    UV-induction of prophage P78 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus increased with the UV-dose given to the lysogenic strain from the spontaneous induction frequency of about 0.8% to a maximal frequency of 10%. This 10- to 20-fold increase of induction frequency, as measured by the number of infective centres, was accompanied by a 1000-fold increase in the yield of free phage. This effect was probably due to an increase in burst size under the conditions of lysogenic induction. Unusually, the lysogen was more resistant to UV-irradiation than the corresponding non-lysogenic strain.

  14. Prophage Induction by Ultraviolet Light in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berenstein, D.

    1986-01-01

    UV-induction of prophage P78 of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus increased with the UV-dose given to the lysogenic strain from the spontaneous induction frequency of about 0.8% to a maximal frequency of 10%. This 10- to 20-fold increase of induction frequency, as measured by the number of infective...... centres, was accompanied by a 1000-fold increase in the yield of free phage. This effect was probably due to an increase in burst size under the conditions of lysogenic induction. Unusually, the lysogen was more resistant to UV-irradiation than the corresponding non-lysogenic strain....

  15. Evaluation of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürenburg, Enno; Lang, Melanie; Horstkotte, Matthias A; Laufs, Rainer; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-11-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of the MicroScan ESBL plus confirmation panel using a series of 87 oxyimino-cephalosporin-resistant Gram-negative bacilli of various species. Organisms tested included 57 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) strains comprising Enterobacter aerogenes (3), Enterobacter cloacae (10), Escherichia coli (11), Klebsiella pneumoniae (26), Klebsiella oxytoca (3) and Proteus mirabilis (4). Also included were 30 strains resistant to oxyimino cephalosporins but lacking ESBLs, which were characterized with other resistance mechanisms, such as inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp. (4), hyperproduction of AmpC enzyme in Citrobacter freundii (2), E. aerogenes (3), E. cloacae (3), E. coli (4), Hafnia alvei (1) and Morganella morganii (1), production of plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase in K. pneumoniae (3) and E. coli (3) or hyperproduction of K1 enzyme in K. oxytoca (6). The MicroScan MIC-based clavulanate synergy correctly classified 50 of 57 ESBL strains as ESBL-positive and 23 of 30 non-ESBL strains as ESBL-negative (yielding a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 76.7%, respectively). False negatives among ESBL producers were highest with Enterobacter spp. due to masking interactions between ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases. False-positive classifications occurred in two Acinetobacter spp., one E. coli producing plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase and two K. oxytoca hyperproducing their chromosomal K1 beta-lactamase. The MicroScan clavulanate synergy test proved to be a valuable tool for ESBL confirmation. However, this test has limitations in detecting ESBLs in Enterobacter spp. and in discriminating ESBL-related resistance from the K1 enzyme and from inherent clavulanate susceptibility in Acinetobacter spp.

  16. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Soon Chee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GST were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5 and GST2 (pI 6.2 with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively.

  17. Characterization of Affinity-Purified Isoforms of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1 Glutathione Transferases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chin-Soon; Tan, Irene Kit-Ping; Alias, Zazali

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GST) were purified from locally isolated bacteria, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Y1, by glutathione-affinity chromatography and anion exchange, and their substrate specificities were investigated. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified GST resolved into a single band with a molecular weight (MW) of 23 kDa. 2-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis showed the presence of two isoforms, GST1 (pI 4.5) and GST2 (pI 6.2) with identical MW. GST1 was reactive towards ethacrynic acid, hydrogen peroxide, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and trans,trans-hepta-2,4-dienal while GST2 was active towards all substrates except hydrogen peroxide. This demonstrated that GST1 possessed peroxidase activity which was absent in GST2. This study also showed that only GST2 was able to conjugate GSH to isoproturon, a herbicide. GST1 and GST2 were suggested to be similar to F0KLY9 (putative glutathione S-transferase) and F0KKB0 (glutathione S-transferase III) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain PHEA-2, respectively. PMID:24892084

  18. Studying the Relationship between the Ability of Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical and Environmental Isolates in Tehran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faegheh Teymori

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acinetobacters are aerobic gram-negative bacteria which are distributed widespread in soil and water. The bacteria are isolated from cultured skin, mucous membranes, secretions and hospital environment. Acinetobacter baumannii, is a strain that more frequently isolated. Acinetobacter strains are often resistant against antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: The method of this study was based on field, observation and test. On August and October 2015, samples were isolated from the soil and water of the Sadeghieh Square river in Tehran, respectively, and were transferred to the laboratory in the ice pack. 50 baumannii samples were isolated by biochemical methods (TSI, SIM, OF and gram test. November 1394, 100 clinical samples were isolated from Imam Khomeini hospital by biochemical method, and in the culture media Mueller Hinton agar plates were transferred to the laboratory. Antibiogram test for 150 baumannii samples was performed. Biofilms formation of Acinetobacter baumannii environmental and clinical samples was investigated by Congo red agar and culture plate methods. Results: In all samples (clinical and soil, most of antibiotic resistance was 92% for imipenem and the resistance of water samples to imipenem was 99.9%. Biofilm formation by Congo red agar in water, soil, and clinical samles was resprctively 44%, 40% and 1%. All isolates were negative biofilm culture plate. Conclusion: Considering Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to antibiotics and the lack of biofilm formation of in clinical and environmental isolates, it was concluded that there wasn’t any relationship between antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation.

  19. Acinetobacter Species Infections among Navy and Marine Corps Beneficiaries: 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-20

    microbiology data were used to identify Acinetobacter cases. These isolates were matched to three databases. Microbiology records were matched to...Data Record (SIDR) database to determine exposure associations within the healthcare system. Microbiology records were matched to the Defense...that they could establish a community reservoir. Veterinary nosocomial spread has been described among animals, mainly in veterinary hospital intensive

  20. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  1. O Cultivo do Mogno Africano (Khaya spp. e o Crescimento da Atividade no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Ribeiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O setor florestal brasileiro está em plena expansão e com um aumento gradativo de investidores florestais optando pelo cultivo de espécies de madeira nobre. O mogno africano (Khaya spp. é uma espécie que vêm se destacando na preferência dos empresários como opção no investimento florestal. Porém, estudos e pesquisas sobre a espécie, principalmente no Brasil, são escassos. Assim, a presente revisão procurou reunir diversas fontes de publicação, nacionais e internacionais, abordando aspectos históricos do mogno, buscando aclarar as características da espécie e a experiência de outros países no manejo dessa cultura.

  2. Characterization of wound infections among patients injured during the 2011 Libyan conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dau, A A; Tloba, S; Daw, M A

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have analysed the bacterial pathogenesis of infections associated with war-wound in the Eastern Mediterranean region. We analysed surgical wound infections of 1200 patients injured during the Libyan conflict in 2011 and admitted to the emergency services at Tripoli medical centre. Culture swabs or surgical wound debridement samples were collected and cultures were identified and tested for antimicrobial resistance. Of the 1200 patients studied, 498 (42%) were infected with at least 1 pathogen and 57 with >2 pathogens. The most common species were Acinetobacter spp. (isolated from 144 patients), coagulase-negative staphylococci (122), Escherichia coli (107), Pseudomnonas aeruginosa (92) and Klebsiella spp. (86). A high level of resistance to the antibiotics tested was found, especially among Acinetobacter spp. Multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli were an important complicating factor in wound infections associated with war injuries among injured patients in Libya. Effective policies are needed to control and treat such infections particularly in trauma and emergency services.

  3. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  4. Interactions of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.) on enhanced dissipation of spiked phenanthrene and pyrene in waterlogged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y; Yu, X Z; Wu, S C; Cheung, K C; Tam, N F Y; Qian, P Y; Wong, M H

    2006-12-15

    The effects of cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and PAH-degrading bacteria (Acinetobacter sp.) separately, and in combination, on the dissipation of spiked phenanthrene and pyrene (0, 50+50, 100+100, 200+200 mg kg(-1)) in waterlogged soil were studied using pot trials. The population of introduced PAH-degrading bacteria remained at 10(5) CFU g(-1) dry soil after 20 days of treatment with Acinetobacter sp. only, but increased to 10(6) when planted with rice simultaneously. Shoot and root biomass of rice when grown alone was adversely affected by spiked PAHs, but significantly increased by 2-55% and 8-409%, respectively, when inoculated with Acinetobacter sp.. Phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations in roots ranged from 1-27 and 20-98 mg kg(-1), respectively, while their concentrations in shoots were generally lower than 0.2 mg kg(-1). The dissipation of phenanthrene was mainly due to abiotic loss as 70-78% phenanthrene was lost from the control soil at the end of 80 days, while removal of 86-87% phenanthrene had been achieved after 40 days in the treatment co-cultivated with Acinetobacter sp. and rice. Compared with the control where only 6-15% of pyrene was removed from soil, a much higher dissipation of pyrene (43-62%) was attained for the treatments co-cultivated with Acinetobacter sp. and rice at the end of 80 days. The results demonstrated that co-cultivation of rice and PAH-degrading bacteria may have a great potential to accelerate the bioremediation process of PAH-contaminated soil under waterlogged conditions.

  5. Annual Surveillance Summary: Acinetobacter Species Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Infection Classifications .................................................................. 7 Section B – Antimicrobial Resistance and Use... Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Regional Multidrug Resistance In 2016, the IR of Acinetobacter species infection was 5.34 infections per 100,000 persons...et al. Antimicrobial - resistant pathogens associated with health-associated infections: annual summary of data reported to the National Healthcare

  6. Occurrence of bla genes encoding carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii from Intensive Care Unit in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Jayanthi Siva; Sundaram, Jeya Meenakshi

    2018-01-01

    ICU shows increasing incidence of infection associated with the use of invasive procedures for the diagnostic purpose as well as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species are "very successful" pathogen and the emergence of the Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBL) is becoming a therapeutic challenge. To isolate the Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli from the ICU samples. To identify the metallo betalactamase producers and to detect the bla gene presence among the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii . The Nonfermenting Gram negative bacilli isolates from the ICU samples were taken over for 5 years (2009-2014) in a tertiary care hospital. The isolates of Pseudomonas species and Acinetobacter species were confirmed by API analyser and processed according to standard procedures. Detection of the MBL producers were done by E strip method and subjected for bla gene detection by PCR method. In our study a total of 195 isolates of NFGNB were obtained from various ICU. Of these MBL producers, 26 % were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 25 % were Acinetobacter baumannii . The subtypes of bla VIM MBL producing P.aeruginosa were 26%. The predominant gene coding for MBL activity in A.baumannii were found to be bla OXA gene 11.9%. The gene accession numbers were KF975367, KF975372. We have to control the development and dissemination of these superbugs among the ICU's.

  7. Epidemiology of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp., in the poultry chain production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Realpe-Delgado, María Elena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and L. monocytogenes are zoonotic foodborne pathogens, associated with the consumption of contaminated foods of animal origin. In this study we determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with the presence of these microorganisms at all stages of the production system, in two Colombian poultry companies (EI-EI-I and II. In EI-I, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., were isolated from 10 % and 4.4 % of the specimens, and S. Heidelberg was the predominant serotype. Salmonella spp., was found in 6 % of hands and stool samples of workers. S. Saphra was the most prevalent serotype. In EI-II, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp., from animal specimens was 7 % and 17 %, respectively. L. monocytogenes was not detected. This study established the prevalence of these zoonotic pathogens through the production chain and showed the presence of pathogen carriers among workers/food handlers. “Lack of medical examination of employees in the previous year” was found to be a possible risk factor for carriage of Salmonella spp.

  8. Aspectos gerais do poliestireno

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Ricardo Sá Peixoto; Serfaty, Moysés Elias

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende dar uma visão geral e atualizada do poliestireno, o mais antigo termoplástico fabricado comercialmente no mundo. Apresenta-se uma visão simplificada do cenário mundial, da América do Sul e do Brasil, bem como alguns aspectos das tecnologias de fabricação e ambiental. Bibliografia: p. 136

  9. CHROMagar COL-APSE: a selective bacterial culture medium for the isolation and differentiation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Momin, Muhd Haziq F; Bean, David C; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. A selective chromogenic culture medium for the laboratory isolation and differentiation of colistin resistant Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas and Enterobacteriaceae spp. (CHROMagar COL-APSE) was developed, evaluated and compared to an existing selective bacterial culture......-resistant non-fermentative bacteria (Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas). CHROMagar COL-APSE was also more sensitive in supporting the growth of Enterobacteriaceae with COL resistance associated with the carriage of mcr-1. Conclusion. CHROMagar COL-APSE is a sensitive and specific medium...

  10. Facial ulcerations due to Acinetobacter baumannii: Vessel thrombosis with bacterial mycelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of progressive facial ulcerations that did not respond to cephalexin and topical dexamethasone. Biopsy on the ulcer showed rod-shaped bacteria and actinomycetes-like mycelia in the vessel walls and within thrombi. Tissue culture yielded Acinetobacter baumannii, which was resistant to cephalexin. A favourite outcome was achieved with minocycline treatment. This is the first case report of A. baumannii-related vasculitis.

  11. Molecular characterization of the presence of Eubacterium spp and Streptococcus spp in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A F; Kum, K-Y; Clawson, M L; Barry, J; Abenoja, C; Zhu, Q; Caimano, M; Radolf, J D

    2003-08-01

    Eubacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp. are virulent, commonly identified microorganisms in endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to use molecular methods to identify these organisms in 22 infected root canals that include eight cases with preoperative clinical symptoms and five cases with a history of diabetes mellitus. The presence of Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp. was examined using two sets of PCR primers specific with multiple species within the respective genera. Positive specimens had their PCR products sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed to identify the specific species. Sixteen specimens (73%) contained Eubacterium spp. and nine (41%) were positive for Streptococcus spp. Eubacterium infirmum was the most prevalent Eubacterium sp. This organism was significantly associated with a history of diabetes (OR = 9.6; P = 0.04). Streptococcus anginosus was the most common Streptococcus sp., but neither it nor any of the other streptococci were significantly associated with the clinical parameters evaluated.

  12. A case of community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis - has the threat moved beyond the hospital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowman, Warren; Kalk, Thomas; Menezes, Colin N.; John, Melanie A.; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2008-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a prolific nosocomial pathogen renowned for its multidrug-resistant nature. We report a case of community-acquired meningitis due to A. baumannii. The case highlights the potential pathogenicity of this organism and raises concerns that this highly adaptable organism may

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Non-Fermenters in Human Infections with Special Reference to Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital from North Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Parandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-fermenters are a group of aerobic non-spore forming gram negative bacilli that are either incapable of utilizingcarbohydrates as a source of energy or degrade them via oxidative rather than fermentative pathway. These are increasingly been reported from the cases of nosocomial infections. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken aiming to identify, characterize all nonfermenters and further study of Acinetobacterisolates. Materials and Methods: A total 116 non-fermenters isolated from various specimens obtained from the patients in tertiarycare hospital. Gram negative bacilli which failed to produce acid on Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI were identified by employing battery oftests. The Acinetobacter isolates were further speciated and antimicrobial susceptibility testing done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Non-fermenters isolated were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (69.8%, Acinetobacter species (18.9%,Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.3%, Burkholderia cepacia (3.4%, Alcaligenes fecalis (1.7% and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.7%. Most of the isolates showed susceptibility to imipenem (86.3% whereasnone of the isolates were sensitive to cephalexin and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: This study highlights that, after Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species is the most common non-fermenter. Majority of the isolates of Acinetobacter Species were ofnosocomial origin and were multidrug resistant, which underlines the importance of proper vigilance of these infections in hospital setting.

  14. Infrequent air contamination with Acinetobacter baumannii of air surrounding known colonized or infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Clare; Harris, Anthony D; Johnson, J Kristie; Bischoff, Werner E; Thom, Kerri A

    2015-07-01

    Using a validated air sampling method we found Acinetobacter baumannii in the air surrounding only 1 of 12 patients known to be colonized or infected with A. baumannii. Patients' closed-circuit ventilator status, frequent air exchanges in patient rooms, and short sampling time may have contributed to this low burden.

  15. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mendes Milanesi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed i to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS in eight soybean genotypes; ii morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolates of Trichoderma spp. with better performance in the direct confrontation. The sampling of soil and roots was performed in an experimental area located in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil. In the laboratory, serial dilutions of soil samples, counting of the number of Colony Forming Units (UFCs/g-1 of rhizospheric soil were performed as well as isolation for identification of isolates of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and testing of direct confrontation. There were significant differences between the population of Trichoderma spp. in the rhizosphere of plants with and without symptoms of SDS. For the population of Fusarium spp., significant difference was observed only in the rhizosphere of plants without symptoms of SDS. In diseased roots the following species were identified: F. solani, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. oxysporum and F. verticillioides. In the test of direct confrontation, eight isolates of Trichoderma spp. achieved the best performance in the antagonism to Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. from areas with symptoms of SDS had a higher control efficiency in vitro. These isolates showed high similarity to the species of T. koningii agregate.

  16. Development of Novel Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acinetobacter and Related Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-07

    8217]’ . [ugmL ’] Staphylococcus aureus Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 32 ATCC 12608 2 ATCC 12608+10% serum 2 Bacillus subtilis ATCC 12608 +50% serum...March 1, 2009 to February 28, 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Antibiotics for the Treatment of Acinetobacter and Related Pathogens...novel antibacterial agents. 15. SUBJECT TERMS antibiotics , compound screening, complex small molecules 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT U

  17. Methylobacterium spp. as an indicator for the presence or absence of Mycobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Williams, Myra D; Kwait, Rebecca; Lande, Leah

    2016-06-01

    A published survey of bacteria in showerhead biofilm samples revealed that Methylobacterium spp. and Mycobacterium spp. seldom coexisted in biofilms. To confirm that information, biofilm samples were collected from household plumbing of Mycobacterium avium patients and Methylobacterium spp. and M. avium numbers were measured by direct colony counts. The results demonstrated that if Methylobacterium spp. were present, Mycobacterium spp. were absent, and the opposite. The data demonstrate that microbial populations in biofilms can influence the presence or absence of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and, thereby, increase the range of strategies to reduce exposure to waterborne pathogens. Finally, by assessing for the visual presence of methylobacteria as pink pigmentation on showers and shower curtains, homeowners and managers of hospitals and other buildings can quickly determine whether a premise plumbing biofilm sample has mycobacteria with a high degree of assurance. Copyright © 2016 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Five Fatty Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Enzymes from Marinobacter and Acinetobacter spp. and Structural Insights into the Aldehyde Binding Pocket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Jonathan H.; Mulliner, Kalene M.; Shi, Ke; Plunkett, Mary H.; Nixon, Peter; Serratore, Nicholas A.; Douglas, Christopher J.; Aihara, Hideki; Barney, Brett M.; Parales, Rebecca E.

    2017-04-07

    ABSTRACT

    Enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism play an important role in energy conversion and storage and in the function of structural components such as cell membranes. The fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FAldDH) plays a central function in the metabolism of lipid intermediates, oxidizing fatty aldehydes to the corresponding fatty acid and competing with pathways that would further reduce the fatty aldehydes to fatty alcohols or require the fatty aldehydes to produce alkanes. In this report, the genes for four putative FAldDH enzymes fromMarinobacter aquaeoleiVT8 and an additional enzyme fromAcinetobacter baylyiwere heterologously expressed inEscherichia coliand shown to display FAldDH activity. Five enzymes (Maqu_0438, Maqu_3316, Maqu_3410, Maqu_3572, and the enzyme reported under RefSeq accession no.WP_004927398) were found to act on aldehydes ranging from acetaldehyde to hexadecanal and also acted on the unsaturated long-chain palmitoleyl and oleyl aldehydes. A comparison of the specificities of these enzymes with various aldehydes is presented. Crystallization trials yielded diffraction-quality crystals of one particular FAldDH (Maqu_3316) fromM. aquaeoleiVT8. Crystals were independently treated with both the NAD+cofactor and the aldehyde substrate decanal, revealing specific details of the likely substrate binding pocket for this class of enzymes. A likely model for how catalysis by the enzyme is accomplished is also provided.

    IMPORTANCEThis study provides a comparison of multiple enzymes with the ability

  19. Annual Surveillance Summary: Bacterial Infections in the Military Health System (MHS), 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    prescription practices, and antimicrobial resistance for the following infections among Military Health System (MHS) beneficiaries for calendar year...Frequently Prescribed Drug - Percent Susceptibility Proportion of Healthcare- (HA) and Community- Associated (CA) Cases Acinetobacter spp.b 18

  20. Differential roles of CD14 and toll-like receptors 4 and 2 in murine Acinetobacter pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, Sylvia; Wieland, Catharina W.; Florquin, Sandrine; Pantophlet, Ralph; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Tshimbalanga, Ntambua; Akira, Shizuo; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is increasingly associated with gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia, but the molecular mechanisms that play a role in innate defenses during A. baumannii infection have not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To gain first insight

  1. The sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of Echinococcus SPP., Taenia SPP. and Toxocara SPP. in Portugal : coprologic and molecular diagnosis in canids

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Diogo Ribeiro Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Echinococcus spp., Taenia spp. and Toxocara spp. are important parasites of domestic and wild canids and neglected zoonotic helminths. Despite their relevance in Public Health, little is known about their prevalence in Portugal. An epidemiological study was conducted to clarify the role of canids in the sylvatic and synanthropic cycles of these pathogens in our country. Fecal samples from dog (n = 51), red fox (n = 62) and Iberia...

  2. Research of Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolation From Clinical Samples in Second Step Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keramettin Yanik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Due to existing multi drug resistance and subsequently acquired resistance Acinetobacter genus bacteria continuously actual. Other characteristics are increasing treatment costs, patient hospitalization period, mortality and morbidity. Risk factors like extended hospitalization period, background immune system disorders are increasing isolation frequency of this bacteria from patients. Extended spectrum antibiotic usage is known to be a major risk factor. Aim of our study is to investigate cause of growing A.baumanii isolation rate and cross contamination between this isolates in a state hospital. Material and Method: In this study analysed increasing isolation frequency by years and specimen occurrence in level 2 hospital. At the same time detected amount of used imipenem and meropenem in hospital during last three years. A.baumanii strains isolated from respiratory and sputum specimens of patients from intensive care unit and thoracal departament during last month of 2013 year%u2019s were tested using PFGE method for genotypic similarity. Results: Acinetobacters isolation frequency in years and carbapenem usage are subsequently increased. Specimens are generally from respiratory tract. Genotypic similarity not detected on studied 6 A.baumanii strain%u2019s PFGE image. This condition interpreted like this strains origins not from cross contamination.

  3. CipA of Acinetobacter baumannii Is a Novel Plasminogen Binding and Complement Inhibitory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Arno; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Göttig, Stephan; Wichelhaus, Thomas A; Wallich, Reinhard; Zipfel, Peter F; Kraiczy, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging opportunistic pathogen, responsible for up to 10% of gram-negative, nosocomial infections. The global increase of multidrug-resistant and pan-resistant Acinetobacter isolates presents clinicians with formidable challenges. To establish a persistent infection,A. baumannii must overcome the detrimental effects of complement as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. However, the immune evasion principles underlying serum resistance inA. baumannii remain elusive. Here, we identified a novel plasminogen-binding protein, termed CipA. Bound plasminogen, upon conversion to active plasmin, degraded fibrinogen and complement C3b and contributed to serum resistance. Furthermore, CipA directly inhibited the alternative pathway of complement in vitro, irrespective of its ability to bind plasminogen. A CipA-deficient mutant was efficiently killed by human serum and showed a defect in the penetration of endothelial monolayers, demonstrating that CipA is a novel multifunctional protein that contributes to the pathogenesis ofA. baumannii. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  5. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  6. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  7. Aspectos epidemiológicos da infecção por leptospira spp em caninos urbanos de Araguaína, Tocantins, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    GALVÃO, Samara Rocha

    2009-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de anticorpos anti- Leptospira spp, identificar os sorovares mais prevalentes, bem como avaliar possíveis fatores associados à prevalência sorológica antileptospírica em cães urbanos de Araguaína, Tocantins. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, abrangendo a população canina domiciliada na zona urbana do município. Analisaram-se 275 amostras, tendo sido realizada colheita domiciliar dos soros, em unidades sorteadas, após o consentiment...

  8. The acute-phase response and serum amyloid A inhibit the inflammatory response to Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renckens, Rosemarijn; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Knapp, Sylvia; de Vos, Alex F.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging pathogen in nosocomial pneumonia. Trauma and postsurgical patients display a profound acute-phase protein response and are susceptible to pneumonia. METHODS: To study the way in which the acute-phase response induced by sterile tissue injury

  9. Genomic and proteomic evidences unravel the UV-resistome of the poly-extremophile Acinetobacter sp. Ver3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Daniel; Belfiore, Carolina; Gorriti, Marta F; Cortez, Néstor; Farias, María E; Albarracín, Virginia H

    2015-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation can damage biomolecules, with detrimental or even lethal effects for life. Even though lower wavelengths are filtered by the ozone layer, a significant amount of harmful UV-B and UV-A radiation reach Earth's surface, particularly in high altitude environments. high-altitude Andean lakes (HAALs) are a group of disperse shallow lakes and salterns, located at the Dry Central Andes region in South America at altitudes above 3,000 m. As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. Herein, we present the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m), together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. Comparison with the genomes of other Acinetobacter strains highlighted a number of unique genes, such as a novel cryptochrome. Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. Down-regulated proteins were related to several energy-generating pathways such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids, and electronic respiratory chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a genome from a polyextremophilic Acinetobacter strain. From the genomic and proteomic data, an "UV-resistome" was defined, encompassing the genes that would support the outstanding UV-resistance of this strain.

  10. Genomic and proteomic evidences unravel the UV-resistome of the poly-extremophile Acinetobacter sp. Ver3

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    Daniel eKurth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation can damage biomolecules, with detrimental or even lethal effects for life. Even though lower wavelengths are filtered by the ozone layer, a significant amount of harmful UV-B and UV-A radiation reach Earth’s surface, particularly in high altitude environments. High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL are a group of disperse shallow lakes and salterns, located at the Dry Central Andes region in South America at altitudes above 3,000 m. As it is considered one of the highest UV-exposed environments, HAAL microbes constitute model systems to study UV-resistance mechanisms in environmental bacteria at various complexity levels. Herein, we present the genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. Ver3, a gammaproteobacterium isolated from Lake Verde (4,400 m, together with further experimental evidence supporting the phenomenological observations regarding this bacterium ability to cope with increased UV-induced DNA damage. Comparison with the genomes of other Acinetobacter strains highlighted a number of unique genes, such as a novel cryptochrome. Proteomic profiling of UV-exposed cells identified up-regulated proteins such as a specific cytoplasmic catalase, a putative regulator, and proteins associated to amino acid and protein synthesis. Down-regulated proteins were related to several energy-generating pathways such as glycolysis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and electronic respiratory chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a genome from a polyextremophilic Acinetobacter strain. From the genomic and proteomic data, an UV-resistome was defined, encompassing the genes that would support the outstanding UV-resistance of this strain.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of bacterial isolates from surgical wound infections in Tertiary Care Hospital in Allahabad, India

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    A K Kapoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study to analyze the occurrence and in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from surgical wound infections. Specimens from a total of 129 patients undergoing either emergency or elective surgery were collected from infected sites or stitch lines and inoculated onto appropriate media. The bacterial cultures were identified utilizing standard microbiological and biochemical methods. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. Of 129 patients investigated (62 emergency and 67 elective surgery cases, bacterial isolates were isolated with almost equal frequency both from emergency and elective surgery cases. Of 108 (83.72% culture positive samples, 62 (57.41% were Gram negative, 39 (36.11% Gram positive, and 7 (6.48% showed multiple organisms. Of total 115 bacteria isolated (101 single and 7 double organisms culture positive, 33 (28.69% were Escherichia coli and were also the commonest; followed by Staphylococcus aureus, 30 (26.09% cases. S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. showed maximum susceptibility (100% to linezolid and vancomycin. Maximum susceptibility of E. coli was observed to ciprofloxacin (75.7%, followed by gentamicin (54.5%; of Klebsiella spp. to ceftriaxone and gentamicin (66.6% each, of Proteus spp. to gentamicin (70% followed by ciprofloxacin (60%, and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin (100% and tobramycin (71.4%. E. coli and S. aureus were the most common and Salmonella spp. and Acinetobacter spp. were the least common organism causing surgical site infections. The definitive therapy included ciprofloxacin and gentamicin for E. coli; linezolid and vancomycin for S. aureus and Streptococcus spp; ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin for Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., acinetobacter spp and Salmonella spp.

  12. Spread of carbapenem-resistant international clones of Acinetobacter baumannii in Turkey and Azerbaijan: a collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, S.S.; Alp, E.; Ulu-Kilic, A.; Dinc, G.; Aktas, Z.; Ada, B.; Bagirova, F.; Baran, I.; Ersoy, Y.; Esen, S.; Guven, T.G.; Hopman, J.; Hosoglu, S.; Koksal, F.; Parlak, E.; Yalcin, A.N.; Yilmaz, G.; Voss, A.; Melchers, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemic clones of Acinetobacter baumannii, described as European clones I, II, and III, are associated with hospital epidemics throughout the world. We aimed to determine the molecular characteristics and genetic diversity between European clones I, II, and III from Turkey and Azerbaijan. In this

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

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    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  14. Comparative analysis of Acinetobacters: three genomes for three lifestyles.

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    David Vallenet

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is the source of numerous nosocomial infections in humans and therefore deserves close attention as multidrug or even pandrug resistant strains are increasingly being identified worldwide. Here we report the comparison of two newly sequenced genomes of A. baumannii. The human isolate A. baumannii AYE is multidrug resistant whereas strain SDF, which was isolated from body lice, is antibiotic susceptible. As reference for comparison in this analysis, the genome of the soil-living bacterium A. baylyi strain ADP1 was used. The most interesting dissimilarities we observed were that i whereas strain AYE and A. baylyi genomes harbored very few Insertion Sequence elements which could promote expression of downstream genes, strain SDF sequence contains several hundred of them that have played a crucial role in its genome reduction (gene disruptions and simple DNA loss; ii strain SDF has low catabolic capacities compared to strain AYE. Interestingly, the latter has even higher catabolic capacities than A. baylyi which has already been reported as a very nutritionally versatile organism. This metabolic performance could explain the persistence of A. baumannii nosocomial strains in environments where nutrients are scarce; iii several processes known to play a key role during host infection (biofilm formation, iron uptake, quorum sensing, virulence factors were either different or absent, the best example of which is iron uptake. Indeed, strain AYE and A. baylyi use siderophore-based systems to scavenge iron from the environment whereas strain SDF uses an alternate system similar to the Haem Acquisition System (HAS. Taken together, all these observations suggest that the genome contents of the 3 Acinetobacters compared are partly shaped by life in distinct ecological niches: human (and more largely hospital environment, louse, soil.

  15. Improved Triacylglycerol Production in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 by Metabolic Engineering

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    Karp Matti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triacylglycerols are used in various purposes including food applications, cosmetics, oleochemicals and biofuels. Currently the main sources for triacylglycerol are vegetable oils, and microbial triacylglycerol has been suggested as an alternative for these. Due to the low production rates and yields of microbial processes, the role of metabolic engineering has become more significant. As a robust model organism for genetic and metabolic studies, and for the natural capability to produce triacylglycerol, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 serves as an excellent organism for modelling the effects of metabolic engineering for energy molecule biosynthesis. Results Beneficial gene deletions regarding triacylglycerol production were screened by computational means exploiting the metabolic model of ADP1. Four deletions, acr1, poxB, dgkA, and a triacylglycerol lipase were chosen to be studied experimentally both separately and concurrently by constructing a knock-out strain (MT with three of the deletions. Improvements in triacylglycerol production were observed: the strain MT produced 5.6 fold more triacylglycerol (mg/g cell dry weight compared to the wild type strain, and the proportion of triacylglycerol in total lipids was increased by 8-fold. Conclusions In silico predictions of beneficial gene deletions were verified experimentally. The chosen single and multiple gene deletions affected beneficially the natural triacylglycerol metabolism of A. baylyi ADP1. This study demonstrates the importance of single gene deletions in triacylglycerol metabolism, and proposes Acinetobacter sp. ADP1 as a model system for bioenergetic studies regarding metabolic engineering.

  16. OXA-carbapenemases present in clinical acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex isolates from patients in kurdistan region, Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganjo, A.R. (Aryann R.); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); Mansoor, I.Y. (Isam Y.); Kok, D.J. (Dik J.); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); D. Kreft; Fatah, M.H.; Alnakshabandi, A.A.; Dlnya, A. (Asad); Hammerum, A.M. (Anette M.); Ng, K. (Kim); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn addition to intrinsic resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, many different types of acquired resistance mechanisms have been reported, including the presence of VIM and IMP metallo β-lactamases and also of blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like enzymes. In the Kurdistan region of

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in China from 2011 to 2012.

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    Weimei Ou

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of blaNDM-1 (encoding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 in Enterobacteriaceae and the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ABC in China from July 2011 to June 2012.PCR was used to screen for the presence of blaNDM-1 in all organisms studied. For blaNDM-1-positive strains, 16S rRNA analysis and Analytical Profile Index (API strips were used to identify the bacterial genus and species. The ABCs were reconfirmed by PCR detection of blaOXA-51-like. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the bacteria were assessed by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of them using two-fold agar dilution test, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. Molecular typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. S1 nuclease-pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE and Southern blot hybridization were conducted to ascertain the gene location of blaNDM-1. Conjugation experiments were conducted to determine the transmission of blaNDM-1-positive strains.Among 2,170 Enterobacteriaceae and 600 ABCs, seven Enterobacteriaceae strains and two A. calcoaceticus isolates from five different cities carried the blaNDM-1 gene. The seven Enterobacteriaceae strains comprised four Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Enterobacter cloacae, one Enterobacter aerogen and one Citrobacter freundii. All seven were non-susceptible to imipenem, meropenem or ertapenem. Two A. calcoaceticus species were resistant to imipenem and meropenem. Three K. pneumoniae showed the same PFGE profiles. The blaNDM-1 genes of eight strains were localized on plasmids, while one was chromosomal.Compared with previous reports, the numbers and species containing the blaNDM-1 in Enterobacteriaceae have significantly increased in China. Most of them are able to disseminate the gene, which is cause for concern. Consecutive surveillance should be implemented and should

  18. Mortalidad por Acinetobacter baumannii en unidades de cuidados intensivos en Colombia Acinetobacter baumannii - related mortality in intensive care units in Colombia

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    Elkin V Lemos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la mortalidad en pacientes infectados por Acinetobacter baumannii multisensibles con pacientes infectados por A. baumannii multirresistentes hospitalizados en unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI de Colombia. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, observacional y multicéntrico. Se incluyó a 165 pacientes ingresados en las UCIs participantes entre abril de 2006 y abril de 2010. Se comparó la mortalidad de los pacientes con aislamientos clínicos de A. baumannii multirresistentes frente a aquellos multisensibles al día 14 y 30 de hospitalización. RESULTADOS: De los 165 pacientes adultos que presentaron infecciones asociadas al cuidado en salud (IACS por A. baumannii, en 62 se encontraron bacterias multisensibles y en 103, multirresistentes. No se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la mortalidad al día 14 de hospitalización en UCI. Sí se observaron en cambio diferencias significativas (P OBJECTIVE: Compare mortality in multidrug-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii infected patients and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii-infected patients hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs in Colombia. METHODS: A prospective, observational, and multicenter study. A total of 165 patients admitted to the participating ICUs from April 2006 to April 2010 were included. On day 14 and day 30 of hospitalization, mortality in multidrug-resistant patients with clinical isolates of A. baumannii was compared with that in multidrug-susceptible patients. RESULTS: Of the 165 adult patients who had health care-associated infections (HAI caused by A. baumannii, multidrug-susceptible bacteria were found in 62 patients and multidrug-resistant bacteria in 103. Statistically significant differences in mortality on day 14 of hospitalization in the ICU were not found. On the other hand, significant differences (P < 0.05 in mortality on day 30 of hospitalization were observed between patients with multidrug-resistant isolates and those with

  19. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains

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    Venous Akhavan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Myrtus communis is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leave extract of this plant is tested on Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of antimicrobial evaluation of plants, one of the effecting factors on effectiveness of the microbial inhibition is extraction techniques. In the presents study, the antibacterial activity of the Ethanol, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate extracts of M. communis plant was evaluated at seven different concentrations by broth microdilution method. The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of M. communis extract is concentration dependent. Different extracts were obtained by the maceration method. Extracts of the plant exhibited antibacterial activity at varied levels against A. baumannii. Obtained results from our antibacterial experiments showed that all extracts have anti-bacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted fraction showed the highest level of activity at a MIC 400 mg/ml for A. baumannii. The results of this study indicate that, different extracts had growth inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat Acinetobacter infections.

  20. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furustrand Tafin, U.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Trampuz, A.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical

  1. A data-driven mathematical model of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii transmission in an intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xia; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Yan; Song, Qing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Jingya; Han, Xuelin; Hu, Xiaohua; Grundmann, Hajo; Xiao, Yanni; Han, Li

    2015-01-01

    Major challenges remain when attempting to quantify and evaluate the impacts of contaminated environments and heterogeneity in the cohorting of health care workers (HCWs) on hospital infections. Data on the detection rate of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in a Chinese intensive

  2. Perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas do trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros: resultados do Programa SENTRY, 1997 e 1998

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    SADER HÉLIO S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Pneumonia hospitalar é a mais fatal das infecções hospitalares, com taxas de mortalidade de 30 a 60%. Estima-se que 15% de todas as mortes associadas à hospitalização estejam diretamente relacionadas a pneumonias hospitalares. O SENTRY é um estudo de vigilância de resistência a antimicrobianos envolvendo centros médicos em todo o mundo. Objetivo: Avaliar a sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de bactérias isoladas no trato respiratório baixo de pacientes com pneumonia internados em hospitais brasileiros. Material e métodos: Foram avaliadas 525 amostras bacterianas de 11 hospitais brasileiros, como parte do programa SENTRY. Os isolados foram testados por microdiluição em caldo contra um grande número de antimicrobianos. Resultados: As cinco espécies mais freqüentes foram (n/%: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (158/30,1%, Staphylococcus aureus (103/19,6%, Acinetobacter spp. (68/13,0%, Klebsiella spp. (50/9,5%, e Enterobacter spp. (44/8,4%. Essas cinco espécies representam mais de 80% de toda a amostragem. A P. aeruginosa apresentou altas taxas de resistência à maioria dos antimicrobianos testados. As maiores taxas de sensibilidade foram apresentadas por piperacilina/tazobactam (71,5% e meropenem (69,0%. Os compostos com maior atividade in vitro contra Acinetobacter spp. foram imipenem e meropenem (80,9% de sensibilidade seguido pela tetraciclina (63,2%. A sensibilidade das amostras de Klebsiella spp. foi muito baixa. MICs > ou = 2mig/mL para ceftriaxona ou ceftazidima, indicando produção de ESBL, foram encontrados em 36,0% das amostras. Os antimicrobianos mais ativos contra Klebsiella spp. foram os carbapenens (100% de sensibilidade e as quinolonas (92,0% de sensibilidade. Ceftriaxona foi ativa contra somente 56,8% das amostras de Enterobacter spp. (MIC50, 1mig/mL, enquanto a cefepima foi ativa contra 88,6% destes isolados (MIC50, <= 0,12mig/mL. A resistência à oxacilina foi detectada em 43,7% dos isolados de S. aureus. As

  3. Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii strain PS3 in degradation of food emulsifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc Tuan; Tran, Tuyet Nhung; Ha, Thi Bich Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    Strain SP3 revealed the abilty to utilizes emulsifier which is widely used in the preparation of drugs, vaccines, food, cosmetics and skin care products as its sole carbon and energy source. Generation time ranges from 1.4 to 2.1 h on the polysorbate family. Strain was identified as Acinetobacter baumannii based on 16S rRNA gene and it could dispose 27 % polysorbate 80 within a day. The proposed mechanism for polysorbate utilization belongs to the β-oxidation.

  4. In vitro activity of potential old and new drugs against multidrug-resistant gram-negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizek, Camila; Ferraz, Juliana Rosa; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Giudice, Mauro; Mostachio, Anna Karina; Paez, Jorge; Carrilho, Claudia; Levin, Anna Sara; Costa, Silvia F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of MDR gram-negatives bacteria to old drugs such as polymyxin B, minocycline and fosfomycin and new drugs such as tigecycline. One hundred and fifty-three isolates from 4 Brazilian hospitals were evaluated. Forty-seven Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenens harboring adeB, blaOxA23, blaOxA51, blaOxA143 and blaIMP genes, 48 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including isolates resistant to levofloxacin and/or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole harboring sul-1, sul-2 and qnrMR and 8 Serratia marcescens and 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae resistant to carbapenens harboring blaKPC-2 were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by microdilution to the following drugs: minocycline, ampicillin-sulbactam, tigecycline, and polymyxin B and by agar dilution to fosfomycin according with breakpoint criteria of CLSI and EUCAST (fosfomycin). In addition, EUCAST fosfomycin breakpoint for Pseudomonas spp. was applied for Acinetobacter spp and S. maltophilia, the FDA criteria for tigecycline was used for Acinetobacter spp and S. maltophilia and the Pseudomonas spp polymyxin B CLSI criterion was used for S. maltophilia. Tigecycline showed the best in vitro activity against the MDR gram-negative evaluated, followed by polymyxin B and fosfomycin. Polymyxin B resistance among K. pneumoniae was detected in 6 isolates, using the breakpoint of MIC > 8 ug/mL. Two of these isolates were resistant to tigecycline. Minocycline was tested only against S. maltophilia and A. baumannii and showed excellent activity against both. Fosfomycin seems to not be an option to treat infections due to the A. baumannii and S. maltophilia isolates according with EUCAST breakpoint, on the other hand, showed excellent activity against S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Infecção ou colonização por micro-organismos resistentes: identificação de preditores Infection or colonization with resistant microorganisms: identification of predictors

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    Graciana Maria de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores preditores de infecção ou colonização por micro-organismos resistentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo quantitativo de coorte prospectivo. Foram realizadas a análise descritiva, para conhecimento da população do estudo, e a análise discriminante, para identificação dos fatores preditores. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 85 pacientes com infecções por micro-organismos resistentes: Pseudomonas aeruginosas resistente aos carbapenêmicos (24,7%, Acinetobacter resistente aos carbapenêmicos (21,2%, Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (25,9%, Enterococcus spp. resistente à vancomicina (17,6% e Klebsiella pneumoniae resistente aos carbapenêmicos (10,6%. A análise discriminante identificou transferências de outros hospitais e internação na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva como fatores preditores para ocorrência de infecção pelos grupos S. aureus resistente à meticilina, Acinetobacter resistente aos carbapenêmicos e K. pneumoniae resistente aos carbapenêmicos. Nenhuma das variáveis estudadas foi discriminante para Enterococcus spp. resistente à vancomicina e P. aeruginosas resistente aos carbapenêmico. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores preditores encontrados foram: internação na UTI e a transferências de outros hospitais.OBJECTIVE: Identifying predictors of infection or colonization with resistant microorganisms. METHODS: A quantitative study of prospective cohort was carried out. A descriptive analysis was performed in order to know the population of the study and a discriminant analysis was performed to identify the predictors. RESULTS: In this study were included 85 patients with infections caused by resistant microorganisms: carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosas (24.7%; carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (21.2%; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (17.6% and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (10.6%. The discriminant analysis

  6. Impact of integrated fish farming on antimicrobial resistance in a pond environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Andreas; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Kaewmak, T.

    2002-01-01

    different antimicrobials was found for the indicator organism Acinetobacter spp. isolated from composite water-sediment samples. The initial resistance levels prior to the new production cycle were 1. to 5%. After 2 months the levels of resistance to oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole reached 100...

  7. Transferability of SSR and RGA markers developed in Cynodon spp. to Zoysia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.), which are both used as warm-season turfgrasses in the United States, are members of subfamily Chloridoideae and are reported to be at least 55% genetically similar. To assess if molecular tools between the two species can be interchanged, 93...

  8. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

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    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of metallo β-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in burns and surgical wards in a tertiary care hospital

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    Simit H Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The production of Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs is one of the resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. There is not much Indian data on the prevalence of MBLs in burns and surgical wards. Materials and Methods: A total of 145 non-duplicate isolates of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species, isolated from pus/wound swabs and endotracheal secretions from burns and surgical wards, were tested for MBL production by modified ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA disc synergy and double disc synergy tests. Results: Prevalence of MBLs was 26.9% by both the above tests. All MBL-positive isolates were multidrug resistant. Only 6.06% (2/33 P.aeruginosa and 16.67% (1/06 Acinetobacter species were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and netilmycin, respectively. These patients had multiple risk factors like >8 days hospital stay, catheterization, IV lines, previous antibiotic use, mechanical ventilation, etc. Graft application and surgical intervention were significant risk factors in MBL-positive patients. Overall mortality in MBL-positive patients was 34.21%. Conclusion: Emergence of MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species in this hospital is alarming, which reflect excessive use of carbapenems and at the same time, pose a therapeutic challenge to clinicians as well as to microbiologists. Therefore, a strict antibiotic policy and implementation of proper infection control practices will go a long way to prevent further spread of MBLs. Detection of MBLs should also become mandatory in all hospitals.

  10. Insight into Identification of Acinetobacter Species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the Clinical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Tang, Yanyan; Lu, Xinxin

    2018-04-01

    Currently, the capability of identification for Acinetobacter species using MALDI-TOF MS still remains unclear in clinical laboratories due to certain elusory phenomena. Thus, we conducted this research to evaluate this technique and reveal the causes of misidentification. Briefly, a total of 788 Acinetobacter strains were collected and confirmed at the species level by 16S rDNA and rpoB sequencing, and subsequently compared to the identification by MALDI-TOF MS using direct smear and bacterial extraction pretreatments. Cluster analysis was performed based on the mass spectra and 16S rDNA to reflect the diversity among different species. Eventually, 19 Acinetobacter species were confirmed, including 6 species unavailable in Biotyper 3.0 database. Another novel species was observed, temporarily named A. corallinus. The accuracy of identification for Acinetobacter species using MALDI-TOF MS was 97.08% (765/788), regardless of which pretreatment was applied. The misidentification only occurred on 3 A. parvus strains and 20 strains of species unavailable in the database. The proportions of strains with identification score ≥ 2.000 using direct smear and bacterial extraction pretreatments were 86.04% (678/788) and 95.43% (752/788), χ 2 = 41.336, P clinical samples was deemed reliable. Misidentification occurred occasionally due to the insufficiency of the database rather than sample extraction failure. We suggest gene sequencing should be performed when the identification score is under 2.000 even when using bacterial extraction pretreatment. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Epidemiology of Multiresistant Acinetobacter Infections in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savov, E.; Borisova, M.; Michailova, G.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution of bacteria towards resistance to antimicrobial drugs, including these with multidrug resistance, is very important issue for hospital epidemiology in all over the world. There are many papers about an increasing number of Acinetobacter baumannii blood stream and other type of infections in patients at military medical facilities in the Iraq / Kuwait region and in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom /OEF /. It has now become also a one of the major cause of hospital acquired infections in Bulgaria which due to its remarkable propensity to rapidly acquire resistance determinants to a wide range of antimicrobial drugs. According to the data obtained in Bulgaria, it can be concluded that the majority of the A.baumannii isolates was strikingly resistant, including the 3rd generation of cephalosporins, quinolones and also carbapenems, in the last years. Different methods / phenotypical and molecular methods, including PCR/ for a multidrug A.baumannii investigation and its clonality determination are needed, especially when the strains are not epidemiological related.(author)

  12. Presentación del Libro, “Epilepsia. Aspectos Clínicos y Psicosociales”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medina Malo

    2006-12-01

    aspectos biológicos. Es excelente porque muestra el equipo que reunió el Dr. Medina, a los integrantes de la Liga contra la Epilepsia, que se ve reflejada en ese aspecto biopsicosocial de la persona con epilepsia.

  13. Evaluation of carriage and environmental contamination by carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, A; Lerner, A; Schwartz, D; Carmeli, Y

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of surveillance cultures for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in patients and in their environment. Patients with a CRAB-positive clinical culture were sampled within 7 days; the buccal mucosa and rectum were sampled using swabs, and skin was sampled using pre-moistened sterile sponges. Sponges were also used to sample the surrounding environment. Specimens were inoculated onto CHROMagar MDR Acinetobacter plates both directly and after overnight enrichment. CRAB load was scored semi-quantitatively and composite scores for patient colonization and environmental contamination were calculated. Thirty-four patients were included. Screening sensitivity was 28/34 (82%) for buccal mucosa, 30/34 (88%) for skin, and 25/34 (74%) for rectum. Combined sensitivity was 32/34 (94%). Among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures, sensitivity for buccal mucosa was 20/20 (100%). Direct inoculation had excellent sensitivity: 25/28 (89%) for all three sites combined. In the subgroup of patients who did not have a respiratory source for CRAB, direct inoculation sensitivity was lower than among patients with CRAB-positive respiratory cultures: 5/8 (63%) versus 20/20 (100%). The environment of all patients was contaminated with CRAB. There was a positive correlation between the patient colonization score and the environmental contamination score (r = 0.63, p Environmental contamination is common and can be monitored. Implementing screening may facilitate infection control efforts to limit the spread of CRAB. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Explorando el plegamiento metallo-beta-lactamasa en el genoma de Acinetobacter baumanni

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Calviño, Fabiola

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii fue considerado siempre como un patógeno de relativa baja virulencia, pero durante las dos últimas décadas, este microorganismo oportunista ha emergido como uno de los mayores problemas encarados por el sistema clínico en hospitales de todo el mundo. Como consecuencia inevitable de la presión selectiva impuesta por el uso abusivo de antibióticos en el tratamiento de infecciones, se han descrito cepas clínicas multirresistentes de A. baumannii, con una alta capacidad...

  15. Hubungan antara Sepsis Akibat Acinetobacter baumannii dan Mortalitas pada Pasien Anak dengan Penyakit Kritis di Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) RSUP Haji Adam Malik Medan, 2011-201

    OpenAIRE

    Sardini, Rima Novia

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter sp. is one of the major pathogenic bacteria which are endemic throughout the world. Acinetobacter baumannii’s infections are often involved in a variety of nosocomial infections in the urinary tract, surgical wound infection, infection of the blood vessels, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and meningitis in particular patients with a low immune system that are in the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to determine the relationship of the number of primary disease...

  16. Identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by righ-resolution melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hllytchaikra Ferraz Fehlberg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to standardize the high-resolution melting method for identification and discrimination of Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. by amplification of 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA using a single primer pair. The analyses were performed on individual reactions (containing DNA from a single species of a protozoan, on duplex reactions (containing DNA from two species of protozoa in each reaction, and on a multiplex reaction (containing DNA of four parasites in a single reaction. The proposed method allowed us to identify and discriminate the four species by analyzing the derivative, normalized, and difference melting curves, with high reproducibility among and within the experiments, as demonstrated by low coefficients of variation (less than 2.2% and 2.0%, respectively. This is the first study where this method is used for discrimination of these four species of protozoa in a single reaction.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Vos

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR (DiversiLab and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains. Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis, all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii Complex in a Belgian Burn Wound Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilocq, Florence; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert; Rose, Thomas; Keersebilck, Elkana; Bosmans, Petra; Pieters, Thierry; Hing, Mony; Heuninckx, Walter; De Pauw, Frank; Soentjens, Patrick; Merabishvili, Maia; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Bogaerts, Pierre; Glupczynski, Youri; Pot, Bruno; van der Reijden, Tanny J.; Dijkshoorn, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and its closely related species A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, all members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (Acb) complex, are a major cause of hospital acquired infection. In the burn wound center of the Queen Astrid military hospital in Brussels, 48 patients were colonized or infected with Acb complex over a 52-month period. We report the molecular epidemiology of these organisms, their clinical impact and infection control measures taken. A representative set of 157 Acb complex isolates was analyzed using repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab) and a multiplex PCR targeting OXA-51-like and OXA-23-like genes. We identified 31 rep-PCR genotypes (strains). Representatives of each rep-type were identified to species by rpoB sequence analysis: 13 types to A. baumannii, 10 to A. pittii, and 3 to A. nosocomialis. It was assumed that isolates that belonged to the same rep-type also belonged to the same species. Thus, 83.4% of all isolates were identified to A. baumannii, 9.6% to A. pittii and 4.5% to A. nosocomialis. We observed 12 extensively drug resistant Acb strains (10 A. baumannii and 2 A. nosocomialis), all carbapenem-non-susceptible/colistin-susceptible and imported into the burn wound center through patients injured in North Africa. The two most prevalent rep-types 12 and 13 harbored an OXA-23-like gene. Multilocus sequence typing allocated them to clonal complex 1 corresponding to EU (international) clone I. Both strains caused consecutive outbreaks, interspersed with periods of apparent eradication. Patients infected with carbapenem resistant A. baumannii were successfully treated with colistin/rifampicin. Extensive infection control measures were required to eradicate the organisms. Acinetobacter infection and colonization was not associated with increased attributable mortality. PMID:27223476

  19. Novel use of antimicrobial hand sanitizer in treatment of nosocomial acinetobacter infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Meghan; Watson, Luke R; Torress-Cook, Alfonso; Watson, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    Colonization of wounds with multidrug-resistant organisms is a difficult orthopedic problem. Acinetobacter infections are especially difficult because they are resistant to all currently available antibiotics. We present the use of a novel skin sanitizer, Stay Byotrol Clean (Byotrol Inc, Spartanburg, South Carolina), to treat a multidrug-resistant wound infection. A 31-year-old T10 paraplegic man presented with chronic bilateral stage IV decubitus trochanteric ulcers. Cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. The ulcers were initially treated with irrigation and debridement and vancomycin, levaquin, and cefepime. After 4 months of aggressive treatment, the cultures continued to be positive for Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient was started on amikacin and tigecycline. Despite 1 additional month of aggressive wound care, debridements, and intravenous antibiotics, the cultures continued to grow A baumannii and Pseudomonas aerug. The A baumannii was resistant to all available antibiotics tested. The ulcers were then treated with daily application of Stay Byotrol Clean hand and skin sanitizer. Four days later, cultures were negative for any bacterial growth, with no A baumannii. After 1 week, the ulcers showed new granulation tissue with no visible necrotic tissue. After 3 months of treatment, the ulcers had healed. Stay Byotrol Clean is nonirritating and contains no iodine or alcohol. It is currently being used for decolonization of patients on admission to the hospital, however, there is great potential for its use in wound treatment, preoperative surgical sterilization, and orthopedic devices.

  20. INK128 Exhibits Synergy with Azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lujuan; Sun, Yi; He, Chengyan; Li, Ming; Zeng, Tongxiang; Lu, Qiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml) against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4 μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a potential strategy to

  1. UV light-induced survival response in a highly radiation-resistant isolate of the Moraxella-acinetobacter group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.; Thompson, T.L.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    A highly radiation-resistant member of the Moraxella-Acinetobacter group, isolate 4, obtained from meat, was studied to determine the effect of preexposure to UV radiation on subsequent UV light resistance. Cultures that were preexposed to UV light and incubated for a short time in plate count broth exhibited increased survival of a UV light challenge dose. This response was inhibited in the presence of chloramphenicol. Frequencies of mutation to streptomycin, trimethoprim, and sulfanilamide resistance remained the same after the induction of this survival response and were not altered by treatment with mutagens, with the exception of mutation to streptomycin resistance after γ-irradiation or nitrosoguanidine or methyl methane sulfonate treatment. The results indicated that isolate 4 has a UV light-inducible UV light resistance mechanism which is not associated with increased mutagenesis. The characteristics of the radiation resistance response in this organism are similar to those of certain other common food contaminants. Therefore, considered as part of the total microflora of meat, isolate 4 and the other radiation-resistant Moraxella-Acinetobacter isolates should not pose unique problems in a proposed radappertizaton process

  2. Osmotic Compounds Enhance Antibiotic Efficacy against Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falghoush, Azeza; Beyenal, Haluk; Besser, Thomas E; Omsland, Anders; Call, Douglas R

    2017-10-01

    Biofilm-associated infections are a clinical challenge, in part because a hydrated matrix protects the bacterial community from antibiotics. Herein, we evaluated how different osmotic compounds (maltodextrin, sucrose, and polyethylene glycol [PEG]) enhance antibiotic efficacy against Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm communities. Established (24-h) test tube biofilms (strain ATCC 17978) were treated with osmotic compounds in the presence or absence of 10× the MIC of different antibiotics (50 μg/ml tobramycin, 20 μg/ml ciprofloxacin, 300 μg/ml chloramphenicol, 30 μg/ml nalidixic acid, or 100 μg/ml erythromycin). Combining antibiotics with hypertonic concentrations of the osmotic compounds for 24 h reduced the number of biofilm bacteria by 5 to 7 log ( P baumannii strains were similarly treated with 400-Da PEG and tobramycin, resulting in a mean 2.7-log reduction in recoverable bacteria compared with tobramycin treatment alone. Multivariate regression models with data from different osmotic compounds and nine antibiotics demonstrated that the benefit from combining hypertonic treatments with antibiotics is a function of antibiotic mass and lipophilicity ( r 2 > 0.82; P baumannii and Escherichia coli K-12. Augmenting topical antibiotic therapies with a low-mass hypertonic treatment may enhance the efficacy of antibiotics against wound biofilms, particularly when using low-mass hydrophilic antibiotics. IMPORTANCE Biofilms form a barrier that protects bacteria from environmental insults, including exposure to antibiotics. We demonstrated that multiple osmotic compounds can enhance antibiotic efficacy against Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm communities, but viscosity is a limiting factor, and the most effective compounds have lower molecular mass. The synergism between osmotic compounds and antibiotics is also dependent on the hydrophobicity and mass of the antibiotics. The statistical models presented herein provide a basis for predicting the optimal combination of

  3. Use of Comparative Genomics To Characterize the Diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii Surveillance Isolates in a Health Care Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lalena; Daugherty, Sean C.; Nagaraj, Sushma; Johnson, J. Kristie; Harris, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, little is known about which genomic components contribute to clinical presentation of this important pathogen. Most whole-genome comparisons of A. baumannii have focused on specific genomic regions associated with phenotypes in a limited number of genomes. In this work, we describe the results of a whole-genome comparative analysis of 254 surveillance isolates of Acinetobacter species, 203 of which were A. baumannii, isolated from perianal swabs and sputum samples collected as part of an infection control active surveillance program at the University of Maryland Medical Center. The collection of surveillance isolates includes both carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates. Based on the whole-genome phylogeny, the A. baumannii isolates collected belong to two major phylogenomic lineages. Results from multilocus sequence typing indicated that one of the major phylogenetic groups of A. baumannii was comprised solely of strains from the international clonal lineage 2. The genomic content of the A. baumannii isolates was examined using large-scale BLAST score ratio analysis to identify genes that are associated with carbapenem-susceptible and -resistant isolates, as well as genes potentially associated with the source of isolation. This analysis revealed a number of genes that were exclusive or at greater frequency in each of these classifications. This study is the most comprehensive genomic comparison of Acinetobacter isolates from a surveillance study to date and provides important information that will contribute to our understanding of the success of A. baumannii as a human pathogen. PMID:27458211

  4. Trichoderma spp. dan Penicillium spp. dari Tanah Rizosfer Lahan Rawa Lebak dalam Menginduksi Ketahanan Tanaman Cabai Terhadap Serangan Penyakit Rebah Kecambah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muslim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes associated with rhizosphere are important for promoting plant growth and inducing resistance to diseases. The research was conducted to study the ability of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. isolated from rhizosphere in lowland swampy area for controlling damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Khun. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were cultured in bran, corn meal, and rice straw containing media and applied as inoculum to 2-weeks old seedlings. Application of two fungi isolates effectively induced resistance of chili plants to damping-off disease. Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. were significantly reduced disease incidence by 61.5–100% to 46.2–100%, respectively and disease severity by 50–100% and 30–95.9%, respectively. This experiment showed the potential of Trichoderma spp. and Penicillium spp. as biocontrol agents to control damping-off disease on chili.  

  5. Simultaneous Microcystis Algicidal and Microcystin Degrading Capability by a Single Acinetobacter Bacterial Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Ai, Hainan; Kang, Li; Sun, Xingfu; He, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Measures for removal of toxic harmful algal blooms often cause lysis of algal cells and release of microcystins (MCs). In this study, Acinetobacter sp. CMDB-2 that exhibits distinct algal lysing activity and MCs degradation capability was isolated. The physiological response and morphological characteristics of toxin-producing Microcystis aeruginosa, the dynamics of intra- and extracellular MC-LR concentration were studied in an algal/bacterial cocultured system. The results demonstrated that Acinetobacter sp. CMDB-2 caused thorough decomposition of algal cells and impairment of photosynthesis within 24 h. Enhanced algal lysis and MC-LR release appeared with increasing bacterial density from 1 × 10 3 to 1 × 10 7 cells/mL; however, the MC-LR was reduced by nearly 94% within 14 h irrespective of bacterial density. Measurement of extracellular and intracellular MC-LR revealed that the toxin was decreased by 92% in bacterial cell incubated systems relative to control and bacterial cell-free filtrate systems. The results confirmed that the bacterial metabolite caused 92% lysis of Microcystis aeruginosa cells, whereas the bacterial cells were responsible for approximately 91% reduction of MC-LR. The joint efforts of the bacterium and its metabolite accomplished the sustainable removal of algae and MC-LR. This is the first report of a single bacterial strain that achieves these dual actions.

  6. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  7. Green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using Acinetobacter sp. SW30: optimization, characterization and its anticancer activity in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwani SA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweety A Wadhwani,1 Mahadeo Gorain,2 Pinaki Banerjee,2 Utkarsha U Shedbalkar,3 Richa Singh,1 Gopal C Kundu,2 Balu A Chopade1,4 1Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, 2Laboratory of Tumor Biology, Angiogenesis and Nanomedicine Research, National Center for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune University Campus, Pune, 3Department of Biochemistry, The Institute of Science, Mumbai, 4Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India Abstract: The aim of this study was to synthesize selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs using cell suspension and total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 and optimize its synthesis by studying the influence of physiological and physicochemical parameters. Also, we aimed to compare its anticancer activity with that of chemically synthesized SeNPs in breast cancer cells. Cell suspension of Acinetobacter sp. SW30 was exposed to various physiological and physicochemical conditions in the presence of sodium selenite to study their effects on the synthesis and morphology of SeNPs. Breast cancer cells (4T1, MCF-7 and noncancer cells (NIH/3T3, HEK293 were exposed to different concentrations of SeNPs. The 18 h grown culture with 2.7×109 cfu/mL could synthesize amorphous nanospheres of size 78 nm at 1.5 mM and crystalline nanorods at above 2.0 mM Na2SeO3 concentration. Polygonal-shaped SeNPs of average size 79 nm were obtained in the supernatant of 4 mg/mL of total cell protein of Acinetobacter sp. SW30. Chemical SeNPs showed more anticancer activity than SeNPs synthesized by Acinetobacter sp. SW30 (BSeNPs, but they were found to be toxic to noncancer cells also. However, BSeNPs were selective against breast cancer cells than chemical ones. Results suggest that BSeNPs are a good choice of selection as anticancer agents. Keywords: comparison, selective, 4T1, MCF7

  8. KatG and KatE Confer Acinetobacter Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide but Sensitize Bacteria to Killing by Phagocytic Respiratory Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daqing; Crowell, Sara A.; Harding, Christian M.; De Silva, P. Malaka; Harrison, Alistair; Fernando, Dinesh M.; Mason, Kevin M.; Santana, Estevan; Loewen, Peter C.; Kumar, Ayush; Liu, Yusen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Catalase catalyzes the degradation of H2O2. Acinetobacter species have four predicted catalase genes, katA, katE, katG, and katX. The aims of the present study seek to determine which catalase(s) plays a predominant role in determining the resistance to H2O2, and to assess the role of catalase in Acinetobacter virulence. Main Methods Mutants of A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis with deficiencies in katA, katE, katG, and katX were tested for sensitivity to H2O2, either by halo assays or by liquid culture assays. Respiratory burst of neutrophils, in response to A. nosocomialis, was assessed by chemiluminescence to examine the effects of catalase on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)1 in neutrophils. Bacterial virulence was assessed using a Galleria mellonella larva infection model. Key findings The capacities of A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis to degrade H2O2 are largely dependent on katE. The resistance of both A. baumannii and A. nosocomialis to H2O2 is primarily determined by the katG gene, although katE also plays a minor role in H2O2 resistance. Bacteria lacking both the katG and katE genes exhibit the highest sensitivity to H2O2. While A. nosocomialis bacteria with katE and/or katG were able to decrease ROS production by neutrophils, these cells also induced a more robust respiratory burst in neutrophils than did cells deficient in both katE and katG. We also found that A. nosocomialis deficient in both katE and katG was more virulent than the wildtype A. nosocomialis strain. Significance Our findings suggest that inhibition of Acinetobacter catalase may help to overcome the resistance of Acinetobacter species to microbicidal H2O2 and facilitate bacterial disinfection. PMID:26860891

  9. Bioinformatic analysis of phage AB3, a phiKMV-like virus infecting Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Liu, X; Li, X-J

    2015-01-16

    The phages of Acinetobacter baumannii has drawn increasing attention because of the multi-drug resistance of A. baumanni. The aim of this study was to sequence Acinetobacter baumannii phage AB3 and conduct bioinformatic analysis to lay a foundation for genome remodeling and phage therapy. We isolated and sequenced A. baumannii phage AB3 and attempted to annotate and analyze its genome. The results showed that the genome is a double-stranded DNA with a total length of 31,185 base pairs (bp) and 97 open reading frames greater than 100 bp. The genome includes 28 predicted genes, of which 24 are homologous to phage AB1. The entire coding sequence is located on the negative strand, representing 90.8% of the total length. The G+C mol% was 39.18%, without areas of high G+C content over 200 bp in length. No GC island, tRNA gene, or repeated sequence was identified. Gene lengths were 120-3099 bp, with an average of 1011 bp. Six genes were found to be greater than 2000 bp in length. Genomic alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the RNA polymerase gene showed that similar to phage AB1, phage AB3 is a phiKMV-like virus in the T7 phage family.

  10. Code blue: Acinetobacter baumannii, a nosocomial pathogen with a role in the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, A.M.; Kwaik, Y. Abu; Lamont, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Actinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that can cause a wide range of serious conditions including pneumonia, meningitis, necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis. It is also a major cause of wound infections in military personnel injured during the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, leading to its popular nickname of ‘Iraqibacter’. Contributing to its success in clinical settings is resistance to environmental stresses such as desiccation and disinfectants. Moreover, in recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of A. baumannii strains with resistance to multiple antibiotic classes. Acinetobacter baumannii is an inhabitant of oral biofilms, which can act as a reservoir for pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subgingival colonization by A. baumannii increases the risk of refractory periodontitis. Pathogenesis of the organism involves adherence, biofilm formation and iron acquisition. In addition, A. baumannii can induce apoptotic cell death in epithelial cells and kill hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Virulence factors that have been identified include pili, the outer membrane protein OmpA, phospholipases and extracellular polysaccharide. Acinetobacter baumannii can sense blue light through a blue-light sensing using flavin (BLUF) domain protein, BlsA. The resulting conformational change in BlsA leads to changes in gene expression, including virulence genes. PMID:25052812

  11. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.

    2008-01-01

    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...

  12. A Case of Acinetobacter Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Wade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case Characteristics. An 11-month-old girl presented with fever and breathlessness for 5 days. Patient had respiratory distress with bilateral coarse crepitations. Chest radiograph revealed diffuse infiltrations in the right lung with thick walled cavities in mid and lower zone. Computed tomography showed multiple cystic spaces and emboli. Blood culture grew Acinetobacter species. Intervention. Patient was treated with Meropenem and Vancomycin. Outcome. Complete clinical and radiological recovery was seen in child. Message. Blood cultures and CT of the chest are invaluable in the evaluation of a patient with suspected septic pulmonary embolism. With early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, complete recovery can be expected in patients with septic pulmonary embolism.

  13. PREVALENCE OF BABESIA SPP., EHRLICHIA SPP., AND TICK INFESTATIONS IN OKLAHOMA BLACK BEARS (URSUS AMERICANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Delaina; Mitcham, Jessica R; Starkey, Lindsay A; Noden, Bruce H; Fairbanks, W Sue; Little, Susan E

    2017-10-01

    American black bears (Ursus americanus) are commonly infested with ticks throughout their range, but there are few surveys for tick-borne disease agents in bears. To characterize tick infestations and determine the prevalence of current infection with Babesia spp. and past or current infection with Ehrlichia spp. in newly re-established populations of black bears in east central and southeastern Oklahoma, US, we identified adult (n=1,048) and immature (n=107) ticks recovered from bears (n=62). We evaluated serum and whole blood samples from a subset (n=49) for antibodies reactive to, and characteristic DNA fragments of, Ehrlichia spp., as well as characteristic DNA fragments of Babesia spp. Amblyomma americanum, the most common tick identified, was found on a majority (56/62; 90%) of bears and accounted for 697/1,048 (66.5%) of all ticks recovered. Other ticks included Dermacentor variabilis (338/1,048; 32.3%) from 36 bears, Amblyomma maculatum (9/1,048; 0.9%) from three bears, and Ixodes scapularis (4/1,048; 0.4%) from three bears. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp. were detected in every bear tested (49/49; 100%); maximum inverse titers to Ehrlichia chaffeensis ranged from 64-4,096 (geometric mean titer 1,525). However, PCR failed to identify active infection with E. chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or an Ehrlichia ruminantium-like agent. Infection with Babesia spp. was detected by PCR in 3/49 (6%) bears. Together these data confirm that tick infestations and infection with tick-borne disease agents are common in bears in the southern US. The significance of these infestations and infections to the health of bears, if any, and the identity of the Ehrlichia spp. responsible for the antibody reactivity seen, warrant further evaluation.

  14. OXA beta-lactamase-mediated carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Amudhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii is a significant pathogen in health care settings. In recent years, an increase in carbapenem resistance among A. baumannii due to Ambler class B metallo-beta-lactamases or class D OXA carbapenamases has been reported. In this study we detected the presence of OXA carbapenamases and coproduction of metallo-beta-lactamases (blaVIM and blaIMP by phenotypic and genotypic methods in carbapenem resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. Materials and Methods: A total of 116 consecutive, non-duplicate carbapenem resistant A. baumannii isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. The modified Hodge test and inhibitor potentiated disk diffusion tests were done for the screening of carbapenamase and metallo-beta-lactamase production, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed for the detection of OXA (blaOXA 23 like, blaOXA 24 like, blaOXA-51 like and blaOXA-58 like genes and metallo-beta-lactamases (blaVIM and blaIMP genes. Gene sequencing was performed for representative isolates. Results: Among 116 A. baumannii, OXA genes were detected in 106 isolates. BlaOXA 51 like (n = 99 and blaOXA -23 like (n = 95 were the most common and they coexisted in 89 isolates. blaOXA-24 like gene was detected in two isolates of which one also carried blaOXA-51 like and blaOXA-58 like genes. The modified Hodge test was positive in 113 isolates. The metallo-beta-lactamase screening test was positive in 92 isolates. blavim was detected in 54 isolates of which 1 also carried the blaIMP gene. Conclusions: blaOXA-23 like and bla OXA 51 like genes are the most common types of OXA carbapenamases while the blaVIM type is the most common type of metallo-beta-lactamase contributing to carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The coproduction of OXA and metallo-beta-lactamases is not an uncommon phenomenon in A. baumannii.

  15. Development of novel Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    To develop a new isolation medium with higher recovery rates of Alicyclobacillus spp. SK agar was developed with optimized incubation temperature, pH, acidulant, Tween 80 concentration and divalent cation addition. Results indicate that detection of Alicyclobacillus spp. by SK agar was significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those obtained by K agar, orange serum agar, and potato dextrose agar. Current media used for Alicyclobacillus spp. isolation still resulted in high numbers of false negative products. The sensitivity of SK agar to Alicyclobacillus spp. allows detection of low numbers of Alicyclobacillus spp. and also provides a more higher isolation results compared with currently used media. SK agar will be useful to the fruit juice industry to obtain more accurate numbers of contaminant Alicyclobacillus spp. With this media, false negative samples can be reduced, and the likelihood of exported products being rejected can be greatly reduced.

  16. Enzymic Dehalogenation of 4-Chlorobenzoyl Coenzyme A in Acinetobacter sp. Strain 4-CB1

    OpenAIRE

    Copley, Shelley D.; Crooks, Gwen P.

    1992-01-01

    4-Chlorobenzoate degradation in cell extracts of Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 occurs by initial synthesis of 4-chlorobenzoyl coenzyme A (4-chlorobenzoyl CoA) from 4-chlorobenzoate, CoA, and ATP. 4-Chlorobenzoyl CoA is dehalogenated to 4-hydroxybenzoyl CoA. Following the dehalogenation reaction, 4-hydroxybenzoyl CoA is hydrolyzed to 4-hydroxybenzoate and CoA. Possible roles for the CoA moiety in the dehalogenation reaction are discussed.

  17. Enzymic Dehalogenation of 4-Chlorobenzoyl Coenzyme A in Acinetobacter sp. Strain 4-CB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Shelley D.; Crooks, Gwen P.

    1992-01-01

    4-Chlorobenzoate degradation in cell extracts of Acinetobacter sp. strain 4-CB1 occurs by initial synthesis of 4-chlorobenzoyl coenzyme A (4-chlorobenzoyl CoA) from 4-chlorobenzoate, CoA, and ATP. 4-Chlorobenzoyl CoA is dehalogenated to 4-hydroxybenzoyl CoA. Following the dehalogenation reaction, 4-hydroxybenzoyl CoA is hydrolyzed to 4-hydroxybenzoate and CoA. Possible roles for the CoA moiety in the dehalogenation reaction are discussed. PMID:16348702

  18. ISAba1 Regulated OXA-23 Carbapenem Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Strains in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoba, Esther Eyram; Govinden, Usha; Peer, Abdool Kader Cassim; Osei Sekyere, John; Essack, Sabiha Yusuf

    2018-03-20

    This study investigated the molecular mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in 24 consecutive, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates collected between January and April 2015 by a private sector laboratory in Durban, South Africa. All isolates were resistant to all carbapenems tested. bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-51 genes were found in 23 isolates, while bla OXA-24 , bla OXA-48 , and bla OXA-58 were absent in all isolates. The most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase was TEM-116 (92%). bla ADC was present in 83.3% of isolates, of which two were new variants with three and five amino acid differences compared to Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinase (ADC)-1, the first at positions 64E → K, 341N → T, and 342R → G and the second at positions 24G → D, 167S → P, 283R → F, 341N → T, and 342R → G, respectively. All isolates were negative for bla PER , bla CMY , bla GES , bla KPC , bla CTX-M , and bla SHV . Metallo-β-lactamase IMP and VIM were absent in all isolates, and NDM-1 was present in 1 isolate. ISAba1 was located upstream bla OXA-23 in all isolates and upstream bla ADC (30, 78, 79, 87 and the ADC variants) in 54.2% of the ADC-carrying isolates. None of the isolates had ISAba1 inserted upstream bla OXA-51 gene. Four isolates were clonally related and showed two clusters (A and B), while 20 isolates remained unclustered. There was no direct relationship between the clusters and the hospitals they were isolated from. This study reports the first NDM-1-producing carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolate in South Africa and highlights the presence of OXA-23, the known ADCs (ADC-30, ADC-78, ADC-79, and ADC-87), and two new ADC variants associated with ISAba1 from the private health sector in Durban, South Africa. The complexity and diversity of MDRAB severely limit treatment options.

  19. Characterization of N2-fixing plant growth promoting endophytic and epiphytic bacterial community of Indian cultivated and wild rice (Oryza spp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Avishek; Mukhopadhaya, Subhra Kanti; Dangar, Tushar Kanti

    2016-03-01

    The diversity of endophytic and epiphytic diazotrophs in different parts of rice plants has specificity to the niche (i.e. leaf, stem and root) of different genotypes and nutrient availability of the organ. Inoculation of the indigenous, polyvalent diazotrophs can facilitate and sustain production of non-leguminous crops like rice. Therefore, N2-fixing plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) were isolated from different parts of three Indian cultivated [Oryza sativa L. var. Sabita (semi deep/deep water)/Swarna (rain fed shallow lowland)/Swarna-Sub1(submergence tolerant)] and a wild (O. eichingeri) rice genotypes which respond differentially to nitrogenous fertilizers. Thirty-five isolates from four rice genotypes were categorized based on acetylene reduction assay on nitrogenase activity, biochemical tests, BIOLOG and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bacteria produced 9.36-155.83 nmole C2H4 mg(-1) dry bacteria h(-1) and among them nitrogenase activity of 11 potent isolates was complemented by nifH-sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequencing divided them into five groups (shared 95-100 % sequence homology with type strains) belonging to five classes-alpha (Ancylobacter, Azorhizobium, Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Novosphingobium, spp.), beta (Burkholderia sp.), gamma (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Azotobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas spp.) Proteobacteria, Bacilli (Bacillus, Paenibacillus spp.) and Actinobacteria (Microbacterium sp.). Besides, all bacterial strains possessed the intrinsic PGP traits of like indole (0.44-7.4 µg ml(-1)), ammonia (0.18-6 mmol ml(-1)), nitrite (0.01-3.4 mol ml(-1)), and siderophore (from 0.16-0.57 μmol ml(-1)) production. Inoculation of rice (cv. Swarna) seedlings with selected isolates had a positive impact on plant growth parameters like shoot and root elongation which was correlated with in vitro PGP attributes. The results indicated that the

  20. Effectiveness of Origanum vulgare L. and Origanum majorana L. essential oils in inhibiting the growth of bacterial strains isolated from the patients with conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Luíza Toscano Mendes de Oliveira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Origanum vulgare L. and O. majorana L. essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus, S. coagulase negative, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. isolated from the patients with conjunctivitis. The results showed a prominent inhibitory effect of both the essential oils on all the bacterial strains, noted by the large bacterial growth inhibition zones (15-32mm. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC values were between 5-20µL/mL and 2.5-10 µL/mL for O. vulgare and O. majorana essential oil, respectively. The MIC were able to cause significant (PEste estudo objetivou analisar a atividade antibacteriana do óleo essencial de O. vulgare L. and O. majorana L. sobre cepas bacterianas (Staphylococcus aureus, S. coagulase negative, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. isoladas de pacientes com conjuntivite. Os resultados mostraram um destacável efeito inibitório de ambos os óleos essenciais ensaiadossobre todas as cepas bacterianas, notado pela formação de amplas zonas de inibição do crescimento bacteriano (15-32 mm. Os valores de Concentração Inibitória Mínima - CIM encontradas estiveram entre 5-20µL/mL e 2.5-10 µL/mL para o óleo essencial de O. vulgare e O. majorana, respectivamente. Os valores de CIM foram capazes de causar significante efeito inibitório sobre a viabilidade celular de Klebisiella spp., Proteus spp. e S. aureus causando uma total eliminação do inóculo microbiano em um tempo máximo de 24 h de exposição. Estes resultados mostraram a efetividade antibacteriana dos óleos essenciais de O. vulgare e O. majorana, bem como suporta a possibilidade do uso de tais produtos como fontes de compostos antimicrobianos.

  1. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Comparison between phenotypic and PCR for detection of OXA-23 type and metallo-beta-lactamases producer Acinetobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi, Leila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Resistance to carbapenems is developing around the world and can cause many problems for treatment of patients. Production of metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL is one of the main mechanism for this type of resistance. So, detection of MBL-producer microorganisms can prevent the spread of this type of resistance.Materials and methods: In this study 94 spp. were investigated. Resistance to imipenem was conducted after purification and identification. Combination disc (CD and Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST were performed for phenotypic detection of MBL and the molecular PCR method was done for vim-1, vim-2, imp-1 and OXA-23 genes.Results: According to TSI, SIM and oxidation-fermentation (OF test and PCR assay 93 and one strain were identified. 85% of them were resistant to imipenem. 34% of them have a positive combination disc test (CD while Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST was negative for all of them. The vim-1, vim-2 and imp-1 genes were not detected in PCR molecular method, however in 74% of strains with positive results in combination disc, were positive for the OXA-23 gene after PCR test. This study shows that the blaOXA-23 resistance determinant may become an emerging therapeutic problem.Discussion: According to the results, it seems that combination disc does not have enough specificity for detection of MBL-producer and using Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST can be more convenient.

  3. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmund-Høyer, E.; Norsker, Merete

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... was used to evaluate oro-coecal transit time (OCTT) and fermentation. RESULTS: Fermentation of SPP yielded a measurable increase in end-expiratory H2. The total incremental increase in end expiratory H2 due to SPP was unaffected of whether SPP was served alone, as the raw flour served with bread, or baked...... into bread. The OCTT for raw SPP was significantly delayed compared to lactulose (P = 0.01). The OCTT for SPP baked into bread was significantly delayed compared to raw SPP (P = 0.01), indicating that SPP may be used as a marker of oro-coecal transit time for as well the fluid phase as the solid phase...

  4. Isothermal microcalorimetry for antifungal susceptibility testing of Mucorales, Fusarium spp., and Scedosporium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Meis, Jacques F; Trampuz, Andrej

    2012-08-01

    We evaluated isothermal microcalorimetry for real-time susceptibility testing of non-Aspergillus molds. MIC and minimal effective concentration (MEC) values of Mucorales (n = 4), Fusarium spp. (n = 4), and Scedosporium spp. (n = 4) were determined by microbroth dilution according to the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute M38-A2 guidelines. Heat production of molds was measured at 37 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth inoculated with 2.5 × 10(4) spores/mL in the presence of amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. As determined by microcalorimetry, amphotericin B was the most active agent against Mucorales (MHIC 0.06-0.125 μg/mL) and Fusarium spp. (MHIC 1-4 μg/mL), whereas voriconazole was the most active agent against Scedosporium spp. (MHIC 0.25 to 8 μg/mL). The percentage of agreement (within one 2-fold dilution) between the MHIC and MIC (or MEC) was 67%, 92%, 75%, and 83% for amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin, respectively. Microcalorimetry provides additional information on timing of antifungal activity, enabling further investigation of drug-mold and drug-drug interaction, and optimization of antifungal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH 2 O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10 -3  ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aspectos psicosociales en universitarias embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R.; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar los aspectos psicosociales relacionados con el embarazo en estudiantes universitarias.Metodología A partir de la revisión de archivos y el muestreo intencional, se seleccionaron 68 estudiantes que tuvieron un embarazo adolescente. Mediante relatos de vida y entrevistas en profundidad se analizan las implicaciones del embarazo en la condición personal, familiar y académica.Resultados Durante el primer trimestre de embarazo, se generan crisis y ajustes en la estructura famil...

  7. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections in an endemic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaim, Dror; Levit, Dana; Zigron, Roy; Gordon, Michal; Lazarovitch, Tsillia; Carrico, Joao A; Chalifa-Caspi, Vered; Moran-Gilad, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    The transmission dynamics of Acinetobacter baumannii in endemic settings, and the relation between microbial properties and patients' clinical outcomes, are yet obscure and hampered by insufficient metadata. Of 20 consecutive patients with A. baumannii bloodstream infection that were thoroughly analyzed at a single center, at least one transmission opportunity was evident for 85% of patients. This implies that patient-to-patient transmission is the major mode of A. baumannii acquisitions in health facilities. Moreover, all patients who died immediately (baumannii ST457 lineage compared with other strains.

  8. A survey of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in wild canids in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit Levi, Maayan; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; King, Roni; Baneth, Gad

    2018-03-20

    Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. are apicomplexan parasites that infect a variety of animals, including canids. Their life-cycle includes an invertebrate hematophagous vector as a definitive host and vertebrates as intermediate hosts. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in wild golden jackals (Canis aureus) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Israel and to compare spleen with blood sample polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of infection. Blood and spleen samples from 109 golden jackals and 21 red foxes were tested by PCR for the detection of Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. using primers for the 18S ribosomal (r) RNA gene. Hepatozoon canis was detected in 50/109 (46%) of the jackals and 9/21 (43%) of the foxes. "Babesia vulpes" (the Babesia microti-like piroplasm) was detected in 4/21 (19%) of the foxes and in none of the jackals. A previously unknown genotype termed Babesia sp. MML related to Babesia lengau (96-97% identity) was detected in 1/109 (1%) of the jackals and 4/21 (19%) of the foxes. Further characterization of this genotype carried out by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) indicated that it had only 87% identity with the B. lengau ITS2. Sex (male or female), age (juvenile or adult) and geographic zone (North, Central or South Israel) were not found to be significant risk factors for these protozoan infections. The prevalence of "B. vulpes" and Babesia sp. MML infections was significantly higher in foxes compared to jackals (χ 2  = 15.65, df = 1, P < 0.005), while there was no statistically significant difference in the rate of H. canis infection between these two canid species. A fair agreement beyond chance between identification in the blood and spleen of H. canis was found in 21 animals from which both blood and spleen samples were available (k = 0.33). This study describes a high prevalence of H. canis infection in

  9. Propolis as an antibacterial agent against clinical isolates of mdr-acinetobacter baumannii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, A.; Batool, A.; Qamar, U.; Khalid, F.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important health care problem. The organism is now identified as an important nosocomial pathogen particularly in the intensive care settings. The therapeutic options to treat this pathogen are limited; thus it needs testing for alternatives, like those of plant origin or natural products. Propolis is one of such products which have been tested against this organism. Methods: A. baumannii (n=32) were collected from Fatima Memorial Hospital, Lahore. The isolates were identified on the basis of their morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical profile. The susceptibility of the isolates to various antimicrobials was evaluated as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to (CLSI 2010). An ethanolic extract of propolis was prepared by the ultrasonic extraction method and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion technique. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined by the agar dilution technique. Results: The isolates were found to be resistant to most of the commonly used anti-acinetobacter antimicrobials; doxycycline however was the exception. Propolis from Sargodha (EPS) and Lahore (EPL) showed zones of inhibition of 21.8 ± .29 mm and 15.66 ± 2.18 mm respectively. MIC ranges of EPS and EPL similarly was from 1.5-2.0 mg/ml and 4.0-4.5 mg/ml respectively. Conclusion: It is clear that EPS has potential edge of activity as compared to EPL. Nevertheless the potential efficacy of propolis must be subjected to pharmaceutical kinetics and dynamics to precisely determine its potential antimicrobial usefulness. (author)

  10. Acinetobacter phage genome is similar to Sphinx 2.36, the circular DNA copurified with TSE infected particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longkumer, Toshisangba; Kamireddy, Swetha; Muthyala, Venkateswar Reddy; Akbarpasha, Shaikh; Pitchika, Gopi Krishna; Kodetham, Gopinath; Ayaluru, Murali; Siddavattam, Dayananda

    2013-01-01

    While analyzing plasmids of Acinetobacter sp. DS002 we have detected a circular DNA molecule pTS236, which upon further investigation is identified as the genome of a phage. The phage genome has shown sequence similarity to the recently discovered Sphinx 2.36 DNA sequence co-purified with the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) particles isolated from infected brain samples collected from diverse geographical regions. As in Sphinx 2.36, the phage genome also codes for three proteins. One of them codes for RepA and is shown to be involved in replication of pTS236 through rolling circle (RC) mode. The other two translationally coupled ORFs, orf106 and orf96, code for coat proteins of the phage. Although an orf96 homologue was not previously reported in Sphinx 2.36, a closer examination of DNA sequence of Sphinx 2.36 revealed its presence downstream of orf106 homologue. TEM images and infection assays revealed existence of phage AbDs1 in Acinetobacter sp. DS002.

  11. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S.; Lal, B.

    2004-01-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Assessment of intra-species diversity among strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manab Sarma, P.; Bhattacharya, D.; Krishnan, S. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Center of Bioresources and Biotechnology, New Delhi (India); Lal, B. [TERI School of Advanced Studies, Microbial Biotechnology Division, New Delhi (India)

    2004-06-01

    Intra-species diversity among Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from crude oil-contaminated soils from different geographic regions in India was assessed, including their capability to degrade different fractions of total petroleum hydrocarbons. A total of 96 strains were isolated from five different sites. Of the 96 isolates, 25 strains were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii; all of these strains were biochemically profiled and grouped into eight phenovars on the basis of multivariate analysis of their substrate utilization profiles. All strains were able to degrade the total petroleum hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil. Intraspecies relatedness among the 25 strains was determined using tRNA intergenic spacer length polymorphism. Specific variants among the strains with different degradation capacities for different fractions of crude oil were detected. Environmental influences that cause intra-species diversity, such as functional resilience, within the selected strains of A. baumannii were also noted. It is suggested that such diversities may make it possible to select contaminant-specific strains for efficient biotechnological strategies in environmental remediation. 19 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  13. Antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of plants against gramnegative bacilli isolated from cervicovaginal mucosa of sheep bred in the region of Petrolina-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Félix da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract infections are the main causes of losses from the low reproductive efficiency of sheep. Gram negative bacilli belonging to the normal flora of the genital region can trigger diseases. The pathogenicity of these agents is expressed when females are with weakened immune system, either by food or stress management. Flaws in and concern about antibiotic residues in animal production have prompted research regarding alternatives for the treatment of diseases. The herbal medicine hás been considered in this context is the subject of numerous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol extracts of plants belonging to the flora of the Northeast against gram negative bacilli isolated from cervical-vaginal mucosa of sheep. Six plants were selected from Caatinga biome: Encholirium spectabile, Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata, Amburana cearensis Hymenaea martiana and Selaginella convoluta. The plant material was processed to obtain the crude extract. This was tested by microdilution plate and determining the minimum bactericidal concentration, the second document of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the extracts diluted in water and alcohol. We used 43 gram negative isolates, as follows: 14 E. coli, 10 Enterobacter spp., 10 Acinetobacter spp. 9 and Klebsiella spp. In the aqueous dilution Klebsiella spp. showed response only to species B. laciniosa, S. convoluta and H. martiana. All tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter spp and no activity against E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among the extracts diluted in water H. martiana showed the highest antibacterial activity. In all dilution alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all bacterial genera, but no statistical difference between them.

  14. Extremophilic Acinetobacter Strains from High-Altitude Lakes in Argentinean Puna: Remarkable UV-B Resistance and Efficient DNA Damage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Virginia Helena; Pathak, Gopal P.; Douki, Thierry; Cadet, Jean; Borsarelli, Claudio Darío; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Farias, María Eugenia

    2012-06-01

    High-Altitude Andean Lakes (HAAL) of the South American Andes are almost unexplored ecosystems of shallow lakes. The HAAL are recognized by a remarkably high UV exposure, strong changes in temperature and salinity, and a high content of toxic elements, especially arsenic. Being exposed to remarkably extreme conditions, they have been classified as model systems for the study of life on other planets. Particularly, Acinetobacter strains isolated from the HAAL were studied for their survival competence under strong UV-B irradiation. Clinical isolates, Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter johnsonii, served as reference material. Whereas the reference strains rapidly lost viability under UV-B irradiation, most HAAL-derived strains readily survived this exposure and showed less change in cell number after the treatment. Controls for DNA repair activity, comparing dark repair (DR) or photo repair (PR), gave evidence for the involvement of photolyases in the DNA repair. Comparative measurements by HPLC-mass spectrometry detected the number of photoproducts: bipyrimidine dimers under both PR and DR treatments were more efficiently repaired in the HAAL strains (up to 85 % PR and 38 % DR) than in the controls (31 % PR and zero DR ability). Analysis of cosmid-cloned total genomic DNA from the most effective DNA-photorepair strain (Ver3) yielded a gene (HQ443199) encoding a protein with clear photolyase signatures belonging to class I CPD-photolyases. Despite the relatively low sequence similarity of 41 % between the enzymes from Ver3 and from E. coli (PDB 1DNPA), a model-building approach revealed a high structural homology to the CPD-photolyase of E. coli.

  15. Stereochemical insignificance discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii quorum sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Garner

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is a key aspect of molecular recognition for biological systems. As such, receptors and enzymes are often highly stereospecific, only recognizing one stereoisomer of a ligand. Recently, the quorum sensing signaling molecules used by the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified, and the primary signaling molecule isolated from this species was N-(3-hydroxydodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. A plethora of bacterial species have been demonstrated to utilize 3-hydroxy-acylhomoserine lactone autoinducers, and in virtually all cases, the (R-stereoisomer was identified as the natural ligand and exhibited greater autoinducer activity than the corresponding (S-stereoisomer. Using chemical synthesis and biochemical assays, we have uncovered a case of stereochemical insignificance in A. baumannii and provide a unique example where stereochemistry appears nonessential for acylhomoserine lactone-mediated quorum sensing signaling. Based on previously reported phylogenetic studies, we suggest that A. baumannii has evolutionarily adopted this unique, yet promiscuous quorum sensing system to ensure its survival, particularly in the presence of other proteobacteria.

  16. Effects of Psychrotrophic Bacteria, Serratia liquefaciens and Acinetobacter genomospecies 10 on Yogurt Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Kook; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jong-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proteolytic (Serratia liquefaciens, match %: 99.39) or lipolytic (Acinetobacter genomospecies 10, match %: 99.90) psychrotrophic bacteria (bacterial counts, analysis of free fatty acids (FFA) and analysis of free amino acids) on the microbial and chemical properties (yogurt composition), and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of yogurt during storage. Yogurts were prepared with raw milk preinoculated with each psychrotrophic bacteria. The total solid, fat, and protein content were not affected by preinoculation, but the pH of yogurt preinoculated with psychrotrophic bacteria was higher than in control. There was a dramatic increase in short chain free fatty acids among FFA in yogurt with Acinetobacter genomospecies 10. For 14 d of cold storage condition, SCFFA was 25.3 mg/kg to 34.4 mg/kg (1.36 times increased), MCFFA was 20.4 mg/kg to 25.7 mg/kg (1.26 times increased), and LCFFA was 240.2 mg/kg to 322.8 mg/kg (1.34 times increased). Serratia liquefaciens (match %: 99.39) in yogurt caused a greater accumulation of free amino acids (FAA), especially bitter peptides such as leucine, valine, arginine, and tyrosine, but SDS-PAGE showed that the inoculation of Serratia liquefaciens did not affect the degree of casein degradation during storage. Taken together, the excessive peptides and FFA in yogurt generated from psychrotrophic bacteria could develop off-flavors that degrade the quality of commercial yogurt products. PMID:26761293

  17. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF ORGANISMS CAUSING SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS (SSI

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    Rohini Murlidhar Gajbhiye

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND CDC defines surgical site infection as ‘Infections related to operative procedure that occurs at or near surgical incision within 30 days of operative procedure or within one year if the implant is left in situ’. Surgical site infection (SSI is 3 rd most frequently reported nosocomial infection (12%-16% as per National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance (NNIS. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of organisms causing SSI. MATERIALS AND METHODS During a two year study period in a tertiary care hospital, 19,127 patients underwent surgeries in various surgical departments. Of these 517 (2.7% developed surgical site infection. The surgical wounds were classified by CDC & NNIS criteria into 4 classes. Two wound swabs were taken and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility along with testing of ESBLs, MBLs, AmpCβ lactamases was done for all isolates causing SSI. RESULTS Among 19,127 patients, 517 (2.7% developed SSI. It was highest in patients of perforation peritonitis (11.99%.Among 517 specimens, 340 (65.76% showed growth and 177 (34.23% were culture negative. E.coli (23.33% was the commonest organism isolated followed by Acinetobacter spp. (16%, Klebsiella spp. (15.66%, Pseudomonas spp. (15.33%, S. aureus (10.33%, S. epidermidis(7.3%, Proteus spp. (6.00% and Citrobacter spp. (2.66%.Staphylococcus spp. were 100 % sensitive to Vancomycin & Linezolid. (27.5% S. aureus were MRSA and (17.5% were Inducible Clindamycin resistant (ICR. Enterobacteriaceae isolates showed maximum sensitivity towards Imipenem, Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Amikacin. Klebsiella spp. (40.62%, E.coli (35.89%, Citrobacter spp. (33.33%, Proteus spp. (26.08% were ESBL producers. Klebsiella spp. (17.18%, E.coli (10.25%, Proteus spp. (11.11% and Citrobacter spp. (8.69% were AmpC producers. Acinetobacter spp. (28.57% was commonest MBL producer followed by Klebsiella spp. (20

  18. SPP will decrease price of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Starting next year gas utility Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, a.s., Bratislava (SPP) will decrease the fees for transport of gas to its client from third parties. This decision should have a positive effect mainly on large industrial customers. The fact that SPP decided not to apply the approved ruling to its full extent was the result of negotiations with the regulator and the Ministry of Economy. SPP is not afraid it might lose customers. This decision only gives them a competitive advantage. (Author)

  19. Variation in the complex carbohydrate biosynthesis loci of Acinetobacter baumannii genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna J Kenyon

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are major immunogenic components of the bacterial cell envelope. However, little is known about their biosynthesis in the genus Acinetobacter, which includes A. baumannii, an important nosocomial pathogen. Whether Acinetobacter sp. produce a capsule or a lipopolysaccharide carrying an O antigen or both is not resolved. To explore these issues, genes involved in the synthesis of complex polysaccharides were located in 10 complete A. baumannii genome sequences, and the function of each of their products was predicted via comparison to enzymes with a known function. The absence of a gene encoding a WaaL ligase, required to link the carbohydrate polymer to the lipid A-core oligosaccharide (lipooligosaccharide forming lipopolysaccharide, suggests that only a capsule is produced. Nine distinct arrangements of a large capsule biosynthesis locus, designated KL1 to KL9, were found in the genomes. Three forms of a second, smaller variable locus, likely to be required for synthesis of the outer core of the lipid A-core moiety, were designated OCL1 to OCL3 and also annotated. Each K locus includes genes for capsule export as well as genes for synthesis of activated sugar precursors, and for glycosyltransfer, glycan modification and oligosaccharide repeat-unit processing. The K loci all include the export genes at one end and genes for synthesis of common sugar precursors at the other, with a highly variable region that includes the remaining genes in between. Five different capsule loci, KL2, KL6, KL7, KL8 and KL9 were detected in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates belonging to global clone 2, and two other loci, KL1 and KL4, in global clone 1. This indicates that this region is being substituted repeatedly in multiply antibiotic resistant isolates from these clones.

  20. High prevalence of the PER-1 gene among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M M; Abu Alsoud, N M; Elrobh, M S; Al Johani, S M; Balkhy, H H

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Saudi Arabia and their resistance genetic mechanisms are yet to be identified. We studied the prevalence and genetic diversity of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase genes, particularly the PER-1 gene, among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from patients at a tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2006 and 2014. Fresh subcultured samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Total genomic DNA was extracted from each isolate and further used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping, sequence-based typing (SBT) of PER-1 and OXA-51-like gene, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of positive isolates. Randomly selected clinical isolates (n = 100) were subjected to MLST. A total of 503 isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant (MDR) using the MIC. Isolates were further PCR tested for bla -TEM and bla -PER-1 resistance genes (n = 503). The genotyping results showed that 68/503 (14 %) isolates were positive to bla TEM. The genotyping results of PER-1-like genes showed that 384/503 (76.3 %) were positive among MDR Acinetobacter isolates. Based on SBT, the majority of these isolates were clustered into three main groups including isolates harboring PER-1: AB11 (bla -PER-1 ), isolate AB16 (bla -PER-1 ), and, finally, the plasmid pAB154 (bla -PER-7 ). Remarkably, many isolates were concealing the PER-1 gene and harboring the TEM resistance genes as well. MLST results for selected isolates (n = 100) identified four main sequence types (STs: 2, 19, 20, and 25) and four novel isolates (ST 486-489). We report 76.3 % prevalence of the PER-1 resistance gene among Acinetobacter clinical isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Further work is needed to explore the clinical risks and patient outcome with such resistance related to healthcare-associated infections and investigate the genetic and molecular mechanisms that confer the MDR

  1. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among gram-positive and -negative clinical isolates collected between 2005 and 2012 in Mexico: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) is a global antimicrobial surveillance study of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. This report presents data on antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms collected in Mexico between 2005 and 2012 as part of T.E.S.T., and compares rates between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012. Each center in Mexico submitted at least 200 isolates per collection year; including 65 gram-positive isolates and 135 gram-negative isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2013 CLSI-approved breakpoints. For tigecycline US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoints were applied. Isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae with a MIC for ceftriaxone of >1 mg/L were screened for ESBL production using the phenotypic confirmatory disk test according to CLSI guidelines. The rates of some key resistant phenotypes changed during this study: vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium decreased from 28.6 % in 2005-2007 to 19.1 % in 2008-2012, while β-lactamase production among Haemophilus influenzae decreased from 37.6 to 18.9 %. Conversely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased from 38.1 to 47.9 %, meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 17.7 to 33.0 % and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 25.6 to 49.7 %. The prevalence of other resistant pathogens was stable over the study period, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli (39.0 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.0 %). The activity of tigecycline was maintained across the study years with MIC90s of ≤2 mg/L against Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, H. influenzae, and Acinetobacter spp. All gram

  3. Caspase-11 Plays a Protective Role in Pulmonary Acinetobacter baumannii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shao, Yue; Li, Shengjun; Xin, Na; Ma, Tingxian; Zhao, Chenghai; Song, Min

    2017-10-01

    Activation of caspase-11 by some Gram-negative bacteria triggers the caspase-1/interleukin 1β (IL-1β) pathway, independent of canonical inflammasomes. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative, conditionally pathogenic bacterium that can cause severe pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients. A. baumannii was revealed to activate canonical and noncanonical inflammasome pathways in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Pulmonary infection of caspase-11 -/- mice with A. baumannii showed that caspase-11 deficiency impaired A. baumannii clearance, exacerbated pulmonary pathological changes, and enhanced susceptibility to A. baumannii These data indicate that the caspase-11-mediated innate immune response plays a crucial role in defending against A. baumannii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3200 Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Echinococcus spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3085 Brucella spp... from clinical specimens or to identify antibodies to Brucella spp. in serum. Additionally, some of... to identify Brucella spp. directly from clinical specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical...

  8. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  9. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks infesting cats: a large-scale survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, Florent; Davies, Saran; Filler, Serina; Abdullah, Swaid; Keyte, Sophie; Newbury, Hannah; Helps, Chris R; Wall, Richard; Tasker, Séverine

    2018-03-20

    Ticks derived from cats have rarely been evaluated for the presence of pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella spp., haemoplasma species and Hepatozoon spp. in ticks collected from cats in the UK. Five hundred and forty DNA samples extracted from 540 ticks collected from cats presenting to veterinarians in UK practices were used. Samples underwent a conventional generic PCR assay for detection of Hepatozoon spp. and real-time quantitative PCR assays for detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and three feline haemoplasma species and a generic qPCR for detection of Bartonella spp. Feline 28S rDNA served as an endogenous internal PCR control and was assessed within the haemoplasma qPCR assays. Samples positive on the conventional and quantitative generic PCRs were submitted for DNA sequencing for species identification. Feline 28S rDNA was amplified from 475 of the 540 (88.0%) ticks. No evidence of PCR inhibition was found using an internal amplification control. Of 540 ticks, 19 (3.5%) contained DNA from one of the tick-borne pathogens evaluated. Pathogens detected were: A. phagocytophilum (n = 5; 0.9%), Bartonella spp. (n = 7; 1.3%) [including Bartonella henselae (n = 3; 0.6%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (n = 1; 0.2%)], haemoplasma species (n = 5; 0.9%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" (n = 3; 0.6%), Mycoplasma haemofelis (n = 1; 0.2%), "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" (n = 1; 0.2%), Hepatozoon spp. (n = 2; 0.4%), Hepatozoon felis (n = 1; 0.2%) and Hepatozoon silvestris (n = 1; 0.2%). These data provide important information on the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks infesting cats, with the identification of haemoplasma species, A. phagocytophilum, H. felis and Bartonella spp. (including B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). This study also documents the first report of H. silvestris in ticks collected from domestic cats.

  10. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...

  11. Aspectos subjetivos relacionados con la violencia intrafamiliar. Caso municipio de Sabaneta Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidalis Yadira Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo identifica las interacciones en aspectos familiares y subjetivos. En el artículo se desarrollan los aspectos subjetivos de las dinámicas familiares que justifican el uso y la implementación de la violencia intrafamiliar, se da cuenta de la naturalización de la violencia intrafamiliar en la interacción de los grupos familiares, convirtiéndola en un elemento de la relación que se establece entre los miembros de la familia. En el análisis realizado se identifican aspectos coyunturales asociados a situaciones que se vivieron en la dinámica de la familia de origen, pero que al momento han sido pocas las condiciones que permiten la modi- ficación de estas conductas ya que las familias han asumido estas expresiones de violencia intrafamiliar como parte de sus vidas.

  12. Exploración de repositorios de software y análisis de potenciales extensiones a aspectos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Beatriz Vidal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tanto el Desarrollo basado en Componentes como el Desarrollo de Software orientado a Aspectos son enfoque propuestos para abordar diversos problemas que surgen en el proceso de desarrollo de aplicaciones. Ambos enfoques tienen como objetivo el reuso de software, ante esta situación surge la necesidad de que componentes y aspectos compartan un espacio común en el cual puedan ser publicados, recuperados y reutilizados. Los repositorios actuales parecen no proveer aspectos de manera explícita, en ocasiones los aspectos son utilizados para especificar el componente, pero no son reusables. La tarea de publicar y recuperar componentes es muy compleja, existen diversos métodos de publicación y recuperación a tal fin. En este trabajo se exploraron diferentes repositorios analizando criterios al igual que se exponen los métodos de publicación y recuperación con el fin de determinar si es posible la adaptación o extensión de los repositorios a aspectos.

  13. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

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    Morfin-Otero Rayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%, but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%. Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%. This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen.

  14. Detection of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and Antimicrobial Residues in Raw and Processed Cow Milk from Selected Smallholder Farms of Zimbabwe

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    Tryness Anastazia Mhone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to detect the presence of Salmonella spp., Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., and antimicrobial residues in raw milk (n=120 and processed cow milk (n=20 from smallholder dairy farms from three sites in Zimbabwe. Culture and isolation of Salmonella spp., C. albicans, and Aspergillus spp. were performed using selective media, while antimicrobial residues were detected by a dye reduction test. No Salmonella, but C. albicans (17.5%; 21/120, Aspergillus spp. (0.8%; 1/120, and antimicrobial residues (2.5%; 3/120 were detected from raw milk. C. albicans was isolated from all three sites, while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were detected from sites 1 and 3, respectively. From processed milk, only C. albicans (5% was isolated while Aspergillus spp. and antimicrobial residues were not detected. These results suggested low prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Aspergillus spp. and a relatively high prevalence of C. albicans in raw milk from the smallholder farms. The potential public health risks of C. albicans and the detected antimicrobial residues need to be considered. Thus, educating farmers on improving milking hygiene and storage of milk and establishing programmes for monitoring antimicrobial residues may help to improve the safety of milk from smallholder farms.

  15. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  16. Control potential of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp. using fluorescent Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

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    Marcielly F. Turatto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR have different mechanisms of action in the development of plants, such as growth promotion, production of phytohormones and antibiotic substances and changes in root exudates. These help to control plant diseases. In order to evaluate the potential of microorganisms in the control of Meloidogyne javanica and Ditylenchus spp., five rhizobacteria isolated from rhizosphere of garlic cultivated in the Curitibanos (SC region were tested. Hatching chambers were set on Petri dishes, in which were added 10 mL of bacterial suspension and 1 mL of M. javanica eggs suspension, at the rate of 4500, on the filter paper of each chamber. The same procedure was performed with 300 juvenile Ditylenchus spp. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The evaluations were performed every 72 h for nine days. The antagonized population of nematodes was determined in Peters counting chamber, determining the percentage hatching (for M. javanica and motility (for Ditylenchus spp. Isolates CBSAL02 and CBSAL05 significantly reduced the hatching of M. javanica eggs (74% and 54.77%, respectively and the motility of Ditylenchus spp. (55.19% and 53.53%, respectively in vitro. Isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (CBSAL05 and Bacillus (CBSAL02.

  17. O exercício físico e os aspectos psicobiológicos El ejercicio físico y los aspectos psicobiológicos Physical exercise and the psychobiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Túlio de Mello

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é trazer parte dos estudos sobre um assunto pouco explorado: a relação entre o exercício físico e os aspectos psicobiológicos. A importância da compreensão desses aspectos e como eles afetam a qualidade de vida do ser humano é o que estimula as pesquisas sobre esse assunto. A literatura destaca que a prática regular de exercício físico traz resultados positivos não somente ao sono e aos seus possíveis distúrbios, mas também aos aspectos psicológicos e aos transtornos de humor, como a ansiedade e a depressão, e aos aspectos cognitivos, como a memória e a aprendizagem. Contudo, há indivíduos que se envolvem na prática de exercícios físicos com tal intensidade e/ou freqüência ou, ainda, fazem uso de drogas ilícitas que podem trazer prejuízos à saúde, como, por exemplo, o dependente de exercício físico e o usuário de esteróides anabolizantes. O exercício físico provoca alterações fisiológicas, bioquímicas e psicológicas, portanto, pode ser considerado uma intervenção não-medicamentosa para o tratamento de distúrbios relacionados aos aspectos psicobiológicos.El objetivo de esta revisión es trazer parte de los estudios sobre un asunto poco explorado: la relación ejercicio físico y los aspectos psicobiológicos. La importancia de la comprensión de estos aspectos y como ellos afectan la calidad de vida del ser humano és lo que estimula las pesquisas sobre este asunto. La literatura destaca que la práctica regular del ejercicio físico trae resultados positivos no solamente al sueño y a los posibles distúrbios, más también a los aspectos psicológicos y los trastornos del humor, como la ansiedad y la depresión, y los aspectos cognitivos, como la memoria y el aprendizaje. Con todo hay individuos que se envuelven en la práctica de ejercícios físicos con tal intensidad y / o frecuencia o, donde, hacen usos de drogas ilícitas que pueden traer perjuicios a la salud, como

  18. Pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance affected by potato cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Goyer, Claudia; Zebarth, Bernie J; Burton, David L; Whitney, Sean

    2018-04-16

    Potato cultivars vary in their tolerance to common scab (CS), however how they affect CS-causing Streptomyces spp. populations over time is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of potato cultivar on pathogenic Streptomyces spp. abundance, measured using quantitative PCR, in three spatial locations in a CS-infested field: 1) soil close to the plant (SCP); 2) rhizosphere (RS); and 3) geocaulosphere (GS) soils. Two tolerant (Gold Rush, Hindenburg) and two susceptible cultivars (Green Mountain, Agria) were tested. The abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp. significantly increased in late August compared with other dates in RS of susceptible cultivars in both years. Abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., when averaged over locations and time, was significantly greater in susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars in 2014. Principal coordinates analysis showed that SCP and RS soil properties (pH, organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations) explained 68% and 76% of total variation in Streptomyces spp. abundance among cultivars in 2013, respectively, suggesting that cultivars influenced CS pathogen growth conditions. The results suggested that the genetic background of potato cultivars influenced the abundance of pathogenic Streptomyces spp., with 5 to 6 times more abundant Streptomyces spp. in RS of susceptible cultivars compared with tolerant cultivars, which would result in substantially more inoculum left in the field after harvest.  .

  19. Successfull Treatment of Ventriculitis Caused by Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR Acinetobacter Baumannii with Intraventriculer Colistin Administration: Report of Two Cases

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    Gokhan Karaahmetoglu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumanni is an important nosocomial infection pathogen has emerged worldwide and can causes life-threatening hospital acquired infections, particularly in intensive care units (ICU. After post neurosurgical operations or procedures, this pathogen consists with central nervous system (CNS infections, also. Resistance mechanism of these pathogens against broad-spectrum antimicrobials is the challenging problem and limited penetration of antibiotics to achieve therapeutic concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF has been still controversial issue. Here we report two cases who had ventriculitis after external ventricular drainage (EVD placement procedures. Both of CSF of two cases yielded XDR (Extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanni. Traditional intravenous treatment did not eradicate pathogen exactly, at first. Adjunctive colistimetat sodium every 12 h (10 mg/kg/day by the route of intraventriculer (IVT was admitted and CSF sterilization was achieved thereafter. The option of IVT colistin administration must be considered with IV antibiotherapy to provide satisfactory treatment of those complicated CNS infections. [Dis Mol Med 2014; 2(4.000: 65-69

  20. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, T. E.; Cox, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Dunn, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two years of data collected from the Florida Nematode Assay Laboratory of the Florida Cooperative Extension Service and 4 years of data from the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, were compiled to find out the distribution of Pasteuria spp. on nematodes in Florida soils. Information recorded came from 335 samples and included nematode genera with Pasteuria endospores attached, host plants associated with the samples, and the origins of the samples. Pasteuria spp. were detected on 14 different plant-parasitic nematode genera in 41 Florida counties and associated with over 39 different plant species and in seven fallow fields. Pasteuria-infected nematodes were associated with a wide range of plant hosts, although frequency of associations with these hosts reflected the sample bias of the laboratories involved. Meloidogyne and Hoplolaimus spp. were the two nematode genera most frequently associated with Pasteuria. Pasteuria spp. were observed attached to members of these two genera in 176 and 59 soil samples, respectively. PMID:19279936

  1. Culturing Stool Specimens for Campylobacter spp., Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’ikanatha, Nkuchia M.; Dettinger, Lisa A.; Perry, Amanda; Rogers, Paul; Reynolds, Stanley M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, we surveyed 176 clinical laboratories in Pennsylvania regarding stool specimen testing practices for enteropathogens, including Campylobacter spp. Most (96.3%) routinely test for Campylobacter spp. In 17 (15.7%), a stool antigen test is the sole method for diagnosis. We recommend that laboratory practice guidelines for Campylobacter spp. testing be developed. PMID:22377086

  2. Criptococose pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

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    Silva Ana Carina Gamboa da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A criptococose pulmonar é uma doença causada pelo Criptococcus neoformans, um fungo unimórfico que possui distribuição mundial, existindo na mesma forma tanto no seu habitat natural quanto em animais e humanos. A doença possui apresentações clínica e patológica variáveis e pode manifestar-se tanto em pacientes com a imunidade normal como em imunocomprometidos, que representam a maioria dos casos. Neste trabalho são analisados os aspectos encontrados nas tomografias computadorizadas do tórax de 14 pacientes com criptococose pulmonar confirmada. Os achados mais freqüentes na tomografia do tórax foram as massas e os nódulos pulmonares. Outros aspectos observados foram as áreas de escavação, as consolidações, o espessamento do interstício peribroncovascular e o reticulado difuso. Massa pulmonar foi o achado isolado mais comum (64,2%, seguido dos nódulos isolados ou múltiplos (35,7%. Doença pulmonar difusa foi vista em apenas 14,2% dos casos. Os lobos superiores foram os mais comprometidos, sendo a doença mais comum nas regiões anteriores. A tomografia do tórax permitiu avaliar com precisão o grau de comprometimento do parênquima pulmonar.

  3. Homologs of the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Karl A; Liu, Qi; Henderson, Peter J F; Paulsen, Ian T

    2015-02-10

    Multidrug efflux systems are a major cause of resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria, including those pathogenic to humans, animals, and plants. These proteins are ubiquitous in these pathogens, and five families of bacterial multidrug efflux systems have been identified to date. By using transcriptomic and biochemical analyses, we recently identified the novel AceI (Acinetobacter chlorhexidine efflux) protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that conferred resistance to the biocide chlorhexidine, via an active efflux mechanism. Proteins homologous to AceI are encoded in the genomes of many other bacterial species and are particularly prominent within proteobacterial lineages. In this study, we expressed 23 homologs of AceI and examined their resistance and/or transport profiles. MIC analyses demonstrated that, like AceI, many of the homologs conferred resistance to chlorhexidine. Many of the AceI homologs conferred resistance to additional biocides, including benzalkonium, dequalinium, proflavine, and acriflavine. We conducted fluorimetric transport assays using the AceI homolog from Vibrio parahaemolyticus and confirmed that resistance to both proflavine and acriflavine was mediated by an active efflux mechanism. These results show that this group of AceI homologs represent a new family of bacterial multidrug efflux pumps, which we have designated the proteobacterial antimicrobial compound efflux (PACE) family of transport proteins. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are an important class of resistance determinants that can be found in every bacterial genome sequenced to date. These transport proteins have important protective functions for the bacterial cell but are a significant problem in the clinical setting, since a single efflux system can mediate resistance to many structurally and mechanistically diverse antibiotics and biocides. In this study, we demonstrate that proteins related to the Acinetobacter baumannii AceI transporter are a new class of multidrug

  4. Presence of Borrelia spp. DNA in ticks, but absence of Borrelia spp. and of Leptospira spp. DNA in blood of fever patients in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Frickmann, Hagen; Ehlers, Julian; Krüger, Andreas; Margos, Gabriele; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Kalckreuth, Vera von; Im, Justin; Pak, Gi Deok; Jeon, Hyon Jin; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Heriniaina, Jean Noël; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Konings, Frank; May, Jürgen; Hogan, Benedikt; Ganzhorn, Jörg; Panzner, Ursula; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Dekker, Denise; Marks, Florian; Poppert, Sven

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of tick-borne relapsing fever and leptospirosis in humans in Madagascar remains unclear despite the presence of their potential vectors and reservoir hosts. We screened 255 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 148 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Zebu cattle in Madagascar for Borrelia-specific DNA. Borrelia spp. DNA was detected in 21 Amblyomma variegatum ticks and 2 Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. One Borrelia found in one Rhipicephalus microplus showed close relationship to Borrelia theileri based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses on 16S rRNA and flaB sequences. The borreliae from Amblyomma variegatum could not be identified due to very low quantities of present DNA reflected by high cycle threshold values in real-time-PCR. It is uncertain whether these low numbers of Borrelia spp. are sufficient for transmission of infection from ticks to humans. In order to determine whether spirochaete infections are relevant in humans, blood samples of 1009 patients from the highlands of Madagascar with fever of unknown origin were screened for Borrelia spp. - and in addition for Leptospira spp. - by real-time PCR. No target DNA was detected, indicating a limited relevance of these pathogens for humans in the highlands of Madagascar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Huellas digitales de cepas de Acinetobacter baumannii procedentes de pacientes hospitalizados en la Caja Petrolera de Salud de Obrajes, mediante el método de Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE, La Paz, Bolivia. Marzo 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Rada Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii, worldwide is considered an opportunistic microorganism, present in several cases of hospital-acquired infections. In the Caja Petrolera de Salud of Obrajes Hospital was made the isolation of four Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Identification was confirmed by biochemical tests. Then, the PFGE molecular technique was applied for the identification of genomic fingerprints using Apa I restriction en-zyme.

  6. Prevalence of microorganisms associated with udder infections in dairy goats on small-scale farms in Kenya : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ndegwa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Six hundred and thirty clinically-normal milk samples from dairy goat flocks comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenburg, Saanen and Galla crosses were exam-ined over a 3-month period to determine the prevalence of bacterial organisms. Bacteria were isolated in 28.7 % of the milk samples (181/630 either singly (92.8 % or in combination (7.2 %. The most prevalent bacterial organisms were Staphylococcus spp. (60.3 %, followed by Micrococcus spp. (17.7 %, Acinetobacter spp. (5 %, Actinomyces spp. (5% and Streptococcus spp. (1.1 %. The Staphylococcus spp. were mainly coagulase negative (64.3 %. Coagulase-- negative staphylococci and coagulase-positive staphylococci accounted for 37.5 % and 22.7 % respectively of the total bacteria isolated. The isolation of bacteria, some of which are important in clinical and subclinical mastitis, in apparently normal caprine milk, indicates that particular attention should be given to the management of these dairy goat flocks in order to avoid the development of cases of clinical mastitis.

  7. Contenedores: Aspectos tecnicos, biologicos y economicos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    La elección del contenedor es una de las consideraciones más importantes al establecer un nuevo vivero o empezar a producir una especie nueva. El tipo y tamaño de contenedor no sólo determina la cantidad de agua y nutrientes minerales que están disponibles para el crecimiento de una planta, sino que también afecta otros aspectos operativos del vivero, como el tamaño de...

  8. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  9. Efficacy of lactoferricin B in controlling ready-to-eat vegetable spoilage caused by Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Baruzzi; Pinto, Loris; Quintieri, Laura; Carito, Antonia; Calabrese, Nicola; Caputo, Leonardo

    2015-12-23

    The microbial content of plant tissues has been reported to cause the spoilage of ca. 30% of chlorine-disinfected fresh vegetables during cold storage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial peptides in controlling microbial vegetable spoilage under cold storage conditions. A total of 48 bacterial isolates were collected from ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables and identified as belonging to Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas media, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas jessenii, Pseudomonas koreensis, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas simiae and Pseudomonas viridiflava species. Reddish or brownish pigmentation was found when Pseudomonas strains were inoculated in wounds on leaves of Iceberg and Trocadero lettuce and escarole chicory throughout cold storage. Bovine lactoferrin (BLF) and its hydrolysates (LFHs) produced by pepsin, papain and rennin, were assayed in vitro against four Pseudomonas spp. strains selected for their heavy spoiling ability. As the pepsin-LFH showed the strongest antimicrobial effect, subsequent experiments were carried out using the peptide lactoferricin B (LfcinB), well known to be responsible for its antimicrobial activity. LfcinB significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) spoilage by a mean of 36% caused by three out of four inoculated spoiler pseudomonads on RTE lettuce leaves after six days of cold storage. The reduction in the extent of spoilage was unrelated to viable cell density in the inoculated wounds. This is the first paper providing direct evidence regarding the application of an antimicrobial peptide to control microbial spoilage affecting RTE leafy vegetables during cold storage.

  10. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DAS PRINCIPAIS AMEBAS DE VIDA-LIVRE DE IMPORTÂNCIA MÉDICA

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    Paulo Henrique Matayoshi Calixto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão é de compilar informações sobre os principais aspectos das amebas de vida-livre (AVL. Para tal, foram consultados artigos depositados no PubMed, entre os anos de 1947 a 2014. As AVL são protozoários amplamente distribuídos no ambiente. Apesar de não serem considerados parasitos clássicos, tais como o Trypanosoma cruzi, as AVL são responsáveis por infecções oportunistas e não oportunistas em seres humanos e animais. Entre todas as AVL, apenas três gêneros são conhecidamente capazes de infectar o homem e outros animais, são eles Balamuthia, Naegleria e Acanthamoeba. Felizmente, as infecções por AVL são extremamente raras. Espécies desses gêneros são responsáveis por infecções fatais, tais como: i Acanthamoeba causa a encefalite amebiana granulomatosa (EAG, além de causar ceratites e infecções de pele, rins e pulmões; ii Balamuthia mandrillaris também provoca o mesmo tipo de encefalite; iii Naegleria fowleri é o agente etiológico da meningoencefalite amebiana primária (MAP. Palavras-chave: Amebas de vida-livre; Balamuthia mandrillaris; Naegleria fowleri; Acanthamoeba spp.; encefalite amebiana. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n2p124-129

  11. Pan Drug-Resistant Environmental Isolate of Acinetobacter baumannii from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic-Barisic, Ivana; Seruga Music, Martina; Kovacic, Ana; Tonkic, Marija; Hrenovic, Jasna

    2017-06-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen with also emerging resistance to different antibiotics. Multidrug and pan drug-resistant clinical isolates were reported worldwide. Here we report the first evidence of pan drug-resistant environmental isolate of A. baumannii. The isolate was recovered from the effluent of secondary treated municipal wastewater of the City of Zagreb, Croatia. The isolate was resistant to penicillins/β-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, folate pathway inhibitors, and polymyxins, except intermediately susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline. Intrinsic chromosomally located bla OXA-51-like gene and acquired plasmid-located bla OXA-23-like gene were related to clinical isolates. Pan drug-resistant A. baumannii can occur in natural environments outside of the hospital. Secondary treated municipal wastewater represents a potential epidemiological reservoir of pan drug-resistant A. baumannii and carbapenem resistance gene.

  12. Meningites bacterianas no lactente aspectos neurológicos

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    M. Valeriana L. de Moura-Ribeiro

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e laboratoriais das meningites bacterianas agudas no lactente são criticamente analisados em função da experiência da autora. São apresentadas considerações fisiopatológicas sobre os eventos que ocorrem na fase aguda desses processos.

  13. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins

  14. Structural and bioinformatic characterization of an Acinetobacter baumannii type II carrier protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. Leigh; Gulick, Andrew M., E-mail: gulick@hwi.buffalo.edu [University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented. Microorganisms produce a variety of natural products via secondary metabolic biosynthetic pathways. Two of these types of synthetic systems, the nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs), use large modular enzymes containing multiple catalytic domains in a single protein. These multidomain enzymes use an integrated carrier protein domain to transport the growing, covalently bound natural product to the neighboring catalytic domains for each step in the synthesis. Interestingly, some PKS and NRPS clusters contain free-standing domains that interact intermolecularly with other proteins. Being expressed outside the architecture of a multi-domain protein, these so-called type II proteins present challenges to understand the precise role they play. Additional structures of individual and multi-domain components of the NRPS enzymes will therefore provide a better understanding of the features that govern the domain interactions in these interesting enzyme systems. The high-resolution crystal structure of a free-standing carrier protein from Acinetobacter baumannii that belongs to a larger NRPS-containing operon, encoded by the ABBFA-003406–ABBFA-003399 genes of A. baumannii strain AB307-0294, that has been implicated in A. baumannii motility, quorum sensing and biofilm formation, is presented here. Comparison with the closest structural homologs of other carrier proteins identifies the requirements for a conserved glycine residue and additional important sequence and structural requirements within the regions that interact with partner proteins.

  15. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  16. ASPECTOS NORTEADORES NA ORIENTAÇÃO DE MONOGRAFIA A DISTÂNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    monica seixas mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os aspectos norteadores na orientação de monografia na modalidade a distância a partir de relato de experiência em curso de pó-graduação Lato Sensu em Gestão Pública., constatando-se que na orientação a distância em ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem as interações entre professor e aluno observam os seguintes aspectos: pedagógico, gerencial, social e técnico Palavras-chaves: educação, distância, orientação, monografia, pos-graduação.

  17. Potential of a lytic bacteriophage to disrupt Acinetobacter baumannii biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yannan; Mi, Zhiqiang; Niu, Wenkai; An, Xiaoping; Yuan, Xin; Liu, Huiying; Wang, Yong; Feng, Yuzhong; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Xianglilan; Zhang, Zhiyi; Fan, Hang; Peng, Fan; Li, Puyuan; Tong, Yigang; Bai, Changqing

    2016-10-01

    The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to form biofilms and develop antibiotic resistance makes it difficult to control infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, we explored the potential of a lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms. The potential of the lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms was assessed by performing electron microscopy, live/dead bacterial staining, crystal violet staining and by determining adenosine triphosphate release. The bacteriophage inhibited the formation of and disrupted preformed A. baumannii biofilms. Results of disinfection assay showed that the lytic bacteriophage lysed A. baumannii cells suspended in blood or grown on metal surfaces. These results suggest the potential of the lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms.

  18. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  19. Ocorrência e perfil de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos em Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. em um hospital terciário, no sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mariani Machado

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O principal mecanismo de resistência entre isolados de Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. é a produção de metalo-β-lactamases (MβLs. As MβLs são enzimas capazes de hidrolisar cefalosporinas, penicilinas e carbapenêmicos, mas não monobactâmicos (aztreonam antibióticos que se encontram entre as principais opções terapêuticas para o tratamento de infecções causadas por bactérias não fermentadoras de glicose. MÉTODOS: Um estudo observacional, transversal, descritivo e retrospectivo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a frequência e o perfil de susceptibilidade cepas de P. aeruginosa e Acinetobacter sp. produtoras de MβLs isoladas no Hospital São Vicente de Paulo, Passo Fundo, Brasil. RESULTADOS: A produção de MβLs foi observada em 77,6% (n = 173/223 dos isolados de P. aeruginosa e em 22,4% (n = 50/223 dos isolados de Acinetobacter sp. Dentre as cepas produtoras de MβL, a maioria apresentou mais de 90% de resistência a seis antimicrobianos dos 12 testados, enfatizando a resistência a ceftazidima, gentamicina, aztreonam, piperaciclina/tazobactam, cefepime, ciprofloxacina, meropenem e tobramicina. CONCLUSÕES: Os índices de MβL encontrados confirmam a preocupação mundial com a disseminação desse mecanismo de resistência.

  20. Infecção cutânea rara por Acinetobacter baumannii em imunocompetente: relato de um caso

    OpenAIRE

    Cirino,Pablo Vitoriano; Guimarães,Newton Sales; Follador,Ivonise

    2008-01-01

    O Acinetobacter baumanni é patógeno oportunista antigamente considerado de baixa virulência. Atualmente está envolvido em processos infecciosos que acometem pacientes imunocomprometidos,grandes queimados e pacientes em unidades de terapia intensiva que fazem uso de ventilação mecânica. Esse relato de caso chama atenção para infecção cutânea rara por essa bactéria em paciente imunocompetente.

  1. Biodegradation of Medium Chain Hydrocarbons by Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW Immobilized to Hair-Based Adsorbent Mats (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    open- water oil spills or treatment of large contaminated volumes such as ballast water or holding ponds. The practi- cal application of the mat is...SS, Al-Hasan RH, Salamah S, Al-Dabbous A. Biore- mediation of oily sea water by bacteria immobilized in biofilms coating macroalgae . Int Biodeter...adsorbent, for in situ degradation of hydrocarbons, has practical application in the bioremediation of oil in water emulsions. acinetobacter

  2. Aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & Relacionamento Humano & Sinergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vieira Holtz Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As Tecnologias de Informação (TI estão entre os principais agentes de mudança sociais. Para gerir tais mudanças, uma miríade de áreas do conhecimento humano têm muito a contribuir para a abordagem dos aspectos sociotécnicos das TI e promover sinergia. Como uma organização empresarial atua no sentido de provocar mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, visando a melhoria contínua, esse processo de mudança provocada chama-se aprendizagem. Isto posto, neste artigo apresentaremos resultados observados em empresas em processo de reengenharia e submetidas a utilização de metodologias integradas (PDCA, Método Paulo Freire e Roteiro Integração de Equipes, abordando os aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & relacionamentos humanos pela praxe da pedagogia como elemento de sinergia.

  3. Post-surgical meningitis due to multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Effective treatment with intravenous and/or intraventricular colistin and therapeutic dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramythiotou, E; Karakitsos, D; Aggelopoulou, H; Sioutos, P; Samonis, G; Karabinis, A

    2007-02-01

    Post-surgical meningitis and/or ventriculitis caused by Gram-negative bacteria may be difficult to treat due to the emergence of multiresistant strains. Two patients with multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system infection, successfully treated with either intravenous and/or intraventricular colistin are presented. Unresolved issues such as dose and duration of intraventricular colistin are discussed.

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of Six Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Isolated at Two Major Hospitals in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Kother; Mustafa, Abu Salim; Khan, Mohd Wasif; Purohit, Prashant; Al-Obaid, Inaam; Dhar, Rita; Al-Fouzan, Wadha

    2018-04-19

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunistic pathogen in global health care settings. Its dissemination and multidrug resistance pose an issue with treatment and outbreak control. Here, we present draft genome assemblies of six multidrug-resistant clinical strains of A. baumannii isolated from patients admitted to one of two major hospitals in Kuwait. Copyright © 2018 Nasser et al.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  6. Histological Comparisons of Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. (Nemata: Aphelenchoididae) in Neotropical Ficus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, Barbara J.; Giblin-Davis, Robin M.; Herre, E. Allen; Chung-Schickler, Genevieve C.

    1999-01-01

    Syconia (enclosed infructescences) infested with host-specific species of Schistonchus (Aphelenchoididae) were collected from six species of Ficus (Moraceae) native to Florida or Panama. They were sectioned and histologically examined to assess the effects of parasitism. Parasitism by Schistonchus spp. was associated with hypertrophied cells, tissue necrosis, and the presence of an exudate in all species. Occasional hypertrophy of the outer epidermal cells occurred on seed florets, wasp florets, and on the endothecial cells of male florets in F. aurea (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida. Aberrations of the inner mesocarp occurred under the hypertrophied cells on seed florets. In F. laevigata (subgenus Urostigma) from Florida, Schistonchus sp. infested immature male florets and was associated with hypertrophy of endothecial cells, epidermal cells of the anther filaments, and anthers. Schistonchus sp. also caused aberrations of the anther filament, anthers, and pollen. Ficus poponoei (subgenus Urostigma) and F. glabrata (subgenus Pharmacosycea), both from Panama, had hypertrophied outer epidermal cells on seed florets. Ficus poponoei also had Schistonchus sp. within the pedicel of an aborted floret, with hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. Ficus trigonata (subgenus Urostigma) from Panama had hypertrophy of the outer epidermis of seed florets. When the outer epidermis on these florets was missing, the inner mesocarp was hypertrophied. Ficus maxima (subgenus Pharmacosycea) from Panama had hypertrophy on the outer epidermis of seed and aborted florets. Schistonchus spp. were not found in wasp larvae or pupae in any of the Ficus spp. examined. Hypertrophy was never observed in the absence of Schistonchus spp. PMID:19270912

  7. Emergence and Spread of Plasmid-Borne tet(B)::ISCR2 in Minocycline-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Vilacoba, Elisabet; Almuzara, Marisa; Gulone, Lucía; Traglia, German Matias; Figueroa, Silvia A.; Sly, Gabriela Edith; Fernandez, Analia; Centron, Daniela; Ramirez, Maria Soledad

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to minocycline has emerged in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from Buenos Aires Hospitals. Few reports about the description and dispersion of tet genes were published in this species. We observed the presence of tet(B) in all minocycline resistant isolates. This gene was found associated to the ISCR2 mobile element, which could in part explain its dispersion. Fil: Vilacoba, Elisabet. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Co...

  8. Genotypic and Phenotypic Correlations of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii-A. calcoaceticus Complex Strains Isolated from Patients at the National Naval Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex (ABC) infections have complicated the care of U.S. combat casualties. In this study, 102 ABC isolates from wounded soldiers treated at National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) were characterized by phenotype and genotype to identify clones in this population...

  9. Simultaneous identification of multiple β-lactamases in Acinetobacter baumannii in relation to carbapenem and ceftazidime resistance, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, H.; Mende, K.; Majchrzykiewicz-Koehorst, J.A.; Sedee, N.J.A.; Hulst, A.G.; Jansen, H.J.; Murray, C.K.; Paauw, A.

    2015-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was applied to detect β-lactamases in clinical Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The correlation of the detection of β-lactamase proteins (rather than PCR detection of the corresponding genes) with the resistance

  10. ESCMID and ECMM joint guidelines on diagnosis and management of hyalohyphomycosis: Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorano, A M; Richardson, M; Roilides, E; van Diepeningen, A; Caira, M; Munoz, P; Johnson, E; Meletiadis, J; Pana, Z-D; Lackner, M; Verweij, P; Freiberger, T; Cornely, O A; Arikan-Akdagli, S; Dannaoui, E; Groll, A H; Lagrou, K; Chakrabarti, A; Lanternier, F; Pagano, L; Skiada, A; Akova, M; Arendrup, M C; Boekhout, T; Chowdhary, A; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Guinea, J; Guarro, J; de Hoog, S; Hope, W; Kathuria, S; Lortholary, O; Meis, J F; Ullmann, A J; Petrikkos, G; Lass-Flörl, C

    2014-04-01

    Mycoses summarized in the hyalohyphomycosis group are heterogeneous, defined by the presence of hyaline (non-dematiaceous) hyphae. The number of organisms implicated in hyalohyphomycosis is increasing and the most clinically important species belong to the genera Fusarium, Scedosporium, Acremonium, Scopulariopsis, Purpureocillium and Paecilomyces. Severely immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable to infection, and clinical manifestations range from colonization to chronic localized lesions to acute invasive and/or disseminated diseases. Diagnosis usually requires isolation and identification of the infecting pathogen. A poor prognosis is associated with fusariosis and early therapy of localized disease is important to prevent progression to a more aggressive or disseminated infection. Therapy should include voriconazole and surgical debridement where possible or posaconazole as salvage treatment. Voriconazole represents the first-line treatment of infections due to members of the genus Scedosporium. For Acremonium spp., Scopulariopsis spp., Purpureocillium spp. and Paecilomyces spp. the optimal antifungal treatment has not been established. Management usually consists of surgery and antifungal treatment, depending on the clinical presentation. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Ruiz - Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  12. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    OpenAIRE

    Daysi Ruiz-Fuentes; Rosa Mercedes Almaguer-Torres; Isabel Cristina Torres-Torres; Alejandro Miguel Hernández-Peña

    2014-01-01

    Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  13. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  14. Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii of Human and Animal Origins by a Gene-Specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a notorious nosocomial pathogen known for its ability to cause severe infections, especially in intensive care units. The identification of a conserved gene encoding a hypothetical protein in A. baumannii isolates but not in other Acinetobacter species during a comparative genomic analysis was reported. For the purpose of this study, we call this gene, A.b_hyp gene. The aim of this study was to report the results of screening for the presence of the A.b_hyp gene in a worldwide collection of well-characterized A. baumannii collected from clinical and animal specimens. A total of 83 clinical, animal, and type strains were used. These comprised 73 A. baumannii isolates of clinical (n = 60) and animal origin (n = 13), and ten type strains, including a positive control strain, A. baumannii ATCC 19606. All isolates were examined by PCR amplification of the A.b_hyp gene. The A.b_hyp gene was detected in 72 isolates (99%) of A. baumannii but one clinical isolate failed to produce an amplicon. The control strain, A. baumannii ATCC 19606, was also positive for this gene. No bands were detected in non-A. baumannii species and therefore the isolates are thought to be negative for the gene. No bands were detected in non-A. baumannii isolates and therefore they are thought to be negative for the gene. The PCR A.b_ hyp method provides evidence that detection of this gene can be used as a reliable, easy, and low-cost biomarker for A. baumannii identification.

  15. Chemical Components and Cardiovascular Activities of Valeriana spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Wen Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana spp. is a flowering plant that is well known for its essential oils, iridoid compounds such as monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, amino acids, and lignanoids. Valeriana spp. exhibits a wide range of biological activities such as lowering blood pressure and heart rate, antimyocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmia, and regulation of blood lipid levels. This review focuses on the chemical constituents and cardiovascular activities of Valeriana spp.

  16. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  17. Evaluation of bacterial growth inhibition by mercaptopropionic acid in metallo-β-lactamase detection on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Letícia Eichstaedt; Hörner, Rosmari; Tizotti, Maisa Kräulich; Martini, Rosiéli; Roehrs, Magda Cristina Souza Marques; Kempfer, Cláudia Barbisan

    2012-01-01

    Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) has been reported all over the world. The inhibitory effect of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) on bacterial growth was evaluated by comparison between disk diffusion and broth dilution methodology with determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni strains. MPA significantly inhibited growth of the strains. The use of MPA can affect the results in phenotypic methods of MBL detection.

  18. COST-EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF THE BIO-PLASTIC POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE USING ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATE P39

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Salah Elsayed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Being biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB drew the attention of scientists to substitute synthetic plastics in our daily lives. However, its industrial production is hampered by its high cost. In this study, an extensive screening program was done to isolate bacteria with high PHB productivity from agricultural fields and develop a cost-effective PHB production. A promising bacterial isolate Acinetobacter baumannii P39 was recovered and identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. It produced 24% PHB per dry weight after 48 h. Several experiments were conducted to optimize the composition of the culture medium and environmental factors for the selected isolate. Results revealed that 60% aeration, 28°C incubation temperature and initial pH 7.5 showed the highest productivity. Besides, 0.7% corn oil and 0.1 g/L peptone were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Substituting glucose with corn oil led to a 23% reduction in total input cost and an estimate price for 1kg PHB is 20.5 L.E. Strain improvement by UV mutation succeeded in improving PHB production by two fold in the selected mutant P39M2. Finally, this study valorizes usage of Acinetobacter isolate in PHB production in addition to solving the critical problem of high cost of production.

  19. Aspectos nutricionales de la anorexia nerviosa

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Santirso, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    El estudio que se presentará en las siguientes líneas pretende la actualización de los datos sobre los aspectos nutricionales de uno de los principales Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), la Anorexia Nerviosa (AN), así como aportar información acerca de sus características generales, etiopatogenia, evaluación y diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se centrará fundamentalmente en las medidas higiénico-dietéticas necesarias del tratamiento nutricional y en el establecimiento de la función del di...

  20. Estilo de vida materno e aspectos nutricionais do pré-escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos dos comportamentos de saúde envolvidos no aparecimento das doenças crônicas não comunicáveis são originados na infância sob influência dos pais. A mãe é a pessoa mais envolvida na educação e nos cuidados de saúde da criança. O estilo de vida (EdV) é um determinante social da saúde. Nunca se compreendeu características de EdV materno associadas com aspectos da nutrição infantil. OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação dos EdV materno comportamental e não comportamental com aspectos...

  1. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  2. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Merabishvili

    Full Text Available Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively, high burst size (125 and 145, respectively, stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  3. Aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos parkinsonianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Problemas de prosódia na fala de parkinsonianos têm sido apontados nos estudos sobre parkinsonismo. Contudo, nesses estudos a prosódia é freqüentemente desvinculada dos fatores comunicativos da fala. O propósito deste artigo foi investigar fatores comunicativos relacionados a aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos com doença de Parkinson. As amostras 'de fala foram extraídas de conversas espontâneas de dois sujeitos parkinsonianos, do sexo masculino. A análise mostrou que os elementos prosódicos ocorreram em diversas combinações, possibilitando a identificação de: a atos de fala; b alguns aspectos da organização conversacional; e c diferentes vozes no discurso. Foram destacadas algumas implicações desses resultados para uma melhor compreensão da atividade verbal em condições patológicas, bem como para avaliação, diagnóstico e terapia de parkinsonianos.

  4. Characterization and Testing the Efficiency of Acinetobacter baumannii Phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as an Antibacterial Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ia Kusradze

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is a gram-negative, non-motile bacterium that, due to its multidrug resistance, has become a major nosocomial pathogen .The increasing number of multidrug resistant (MDR strains has renewed interest in phage therapy. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of phage administration in Acinetobacter baumannii wound infections in an animal model to demonstrate phage therapy as non-toxic, safe and alternative antibacterial remedy. Using classical methods for the study of bacteriophage properties, we characterized phage vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7 as a dsDNA myovirus with a 90kb genome size. Important characteristics of vB-GEC_Ab-M-G7include a short latent period and large burst size, wide host range, resistance to chloroform and thermal and pH stability. In a rat wound model, phage application effectively decreased the number of bacteria isolated from the wounds of successfully treated animals. This study highlights the effectiveness of the phage therapy and provides further insight into treating infections caused by MDR strains using phage administration.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3630 Serratia spp... antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Serratia spp. from cultured isolates. The...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3035 Arizona spp... antisera and antigens used to identify Arizona spp. in cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens...

  8. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aspectos ergonômicos e estatísticos no projeto de um carro do metrô

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Neto Pedro Luiz de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve experimentos realizados como parte de um trabalho envolvendo aspectos do projeto de um carro para uma nova linha do Metrô de São Paulo. Nele são considerados aspectos ergonômicos relacionados com a posição de barras de segurança e assentos, bem como aspectos estatísticos relacionados com o fluxo de passageiros entrando e saindo do carro na estação. Nesse estudo, é de particular interesse o uso da técnica do quadrado latino na análise de regressão múltipla, como forma de reduzir o porte do experimento.

  10. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  11. Canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Canada, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, Brian H; Peregrine, Andrew S; Goring, Jonas; Beall, Melissa J; Little, Susan E

    2017-05-19

    Canine test results generated by veterinarians throughout Canada from 2013-2014 were evaluated to assess the geographical distribution of canine infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia spp., and Anaplasma spp. The percent positive test results of 115,636 SNAP® 4Dx® Plus tests from dogs tested were collated by province and municipality to determine the distribution of these vector-borne infections in Canada. A total of 2,844/115,636 (2.5%) dogs tested positive for antibody to B. burgdorferi. In contrast, positive test results for D. immitis antigen and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. were low, with less than 0.5% of dogs testing positive for any one of these three agents nationwide. Provincial seroprevalence for antibodies to B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.5% (Saskatchewan)-15.7% (Nova Scotia); the areas of highest percent positive test results were in proximity to regions in the USA considered endemic for Lyme borreliosis, including Nova Scotia (15.7%) and Eastern Ontario (5.1%). These high endemic foci, which had significantly higher percent positive test results than the rest of the nation (P Canada. Using dogs as sentinels for these pathogens can aid in recognition of the public and veterinary health threat that each pose.

  12. Screening of Gibberellic Acid Production by Pseudomonas SPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Zar Wynn Myint; Khin Mya Lwin; Myo Myint

    2010-12-01

    The microbial gibberellic acid (GA3) production of Pseudomonas spp., was studied and qualitatively indentified by UV spectrophotometer. 20 strains of Pseudomonas spp., were isolated and screened the gibberellic acid productivily in King's B medium. Among them, only four strains can produce microbial gibberellic acid. The Rf values and colour appearance under UV were the same as authentic gibberellic acid. Moreover, the gibberellic acid producer strains were identified as Pseudomonas spp., by cultural, biochemical and drug sensitivity pattern.

  13. Nafion/ZrSPP composite membrane for high temperature operation of PEMFCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Taek; Song, Min-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Park, Seung-Bae; Min, Sung-Kyu; Rhee, Hee-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Nafion/zirconium sulphophenyl phosphate (ZrSPP) composite membranes were prepared to maintain proton conductivity at elevated temperatures. ZrSPP was precipitated by the reaction of Zr 4+ ion and m-sulphophenyl phosphonic (SPP) acid with a stoichiometric ratio P/Zr = 2. The synthesis of ZrSPP was confirmed by phosphonate (P-O) stretching band, assigned at 900-1300 cm -1 in FTIR spectra. The sharp diffraction pattern at 2θ = 5 deg. indicated crystalline α-layered structure of ZrSPP. The proton conductivity of Nafion/ZrSPP (12.5 wt.%) composite membrane reached ca. 0.07 S/cm at 140 deg. C without extra humidification

  14. High resistance rate against 15 different antibiotics in aerobic gram-negative bacteria isolates of cardiology intensive care unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küçükates E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic gram negative bacteria were isolated and examined microbiologically from various clinical samples of 602 patients hospitalized between January 1997 and December 2000 in surgical and coronary intensive care units (ICUs. A total of 827 isolates were obtained from 602 patients. The majority of microorganisms were isolated from the respiratory tract (50.3% and blood (39.9%. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequently isolated gram negative species (32.7%, followed by Acinetobacter spp. (24.0% and Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.4%. High resistance rates to all antibiotics studied were observed. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics against gram negatives.

  15. Infections of Hypostomus spp. by Trypanosoma spp. and leeches: a study of hematology and record of these hirudineans as potential vectors of these hemoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Lima Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Among Kinetoplastida, the Trypanosoma is the genus with the highest occurrence infecting populations of marine fish and freshwater in the world, with high levels of prevalence, causing influences fish health and consequent economic losses, mainly for fish populations in situation stress. This study investigated infections of Hypostomus spp. by Trypanosoma spp. and leeches, as well as blood parameters of this host in the network of tributaries of the Tapajós River in the state of Pará, in the eastern Amazon region in Brazil. Of the 47 hosts examined, 89.4% were parasitized by Trypanosoma spp. and 55.4% also had leeches attached around the mouth. The intensity of Trypanosoma spp. increased with the size of the host, but the body conditions were not influenced by the parasitism. The number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, total number of leukocytes and thrombocytes showed variations and negative correlation with the intensity of Trypanosoma spp. in the blood of the hosts. The results suggest that the leeches were vectors of Trypanosoma spp. in Hypostomus spp.

  16. Antibacterial Effects of Origanum vulgare Essence Against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated From Selected Hospitals of Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saghi; Bahador; Khaledi; Ataee Kachoei; Amiri Dastjerdi; Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection due to Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant challenge to modern healthcare systems. The rapid emergence and global dissemination of A. baumannii as a major nosocomial pathogen is remarkable and it demonstrates its successful adaptation to the 21st century hospital environment. Recent studies have discussed about essential oil of Origanum vulgare against a range of bacteria, including various species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Esc...

  17. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  18. Understanding serine proteases implications on Leishmania spp lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Carlos Roberto; Souza, Raquel Santos de; Charret, Karen Dos Santos; Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro de Castro; Sá-Silva, Matheus Pereira de; Barral-Veloso, Laura; Oliveira, Luiz Filipe Gonçalves; da Silva, Franklin Souza

    2018-01-01

    Serine proteases have significant functions over a broad range of relevant biological processes to the Leishmania spp lifecycle. Data gathered here present an update on the Leishmania spp serine proteases and the status of these enzymes as part of the parasite degradome. The serine protease genes (n = 26 to 28) in Leishmania spp, which encode proteins with a wide range of molecular masses (35 kDa-115 kDa), are described along with their degrees of chromosomal and allelic synteny. Amid 17 putative Leishmania spp serine proteases, only ∼18% were experimentally demonstrated, as: signal peptidases that remove the signal peptide from secretory pre-proteins, maturases of other proteins and with metacaspase-like activity. These enzymes include those of clans SB, SC and SF. Classical inhibitors of serine proteases are used as tools for the characterization and investigation of Leishmania spp. Endogenous serine protease inhibitors, which are ecotin-like, can act modulating host actions. However, crude or synthetic based-natural serine protease inhibitors, such as potato tuber extract, Stichodactyla helianthus protease inhibitor I, fukugetin and epoxy-α-lapachone act on parasitic serine proteases and are promising leishmanicidal agents. The functional interrelationship between serine proteases and other Leishmania spp proteins demonstrate essential functions of these enzymes in parasite physiology and therefore their value as targets for leishmaniasis treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Aspectos Técnicos en la Producción de Caucho Hevea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Henao Alfonso

    1950-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito primordial de este trabajo es el de hacer una exposición de los principales factores o aspectos técnicos que deben tenerse en cuenta en el planeamiento y desarrollo del cultivo de la Hevea, para poder obtener de él en la forma más económica el máximo beneficio. Se ha dacio preferencia a los aspectos técnicos concernientes al Hevea de mayor importancia, sin pretender exponerlos todos. No es pues su objetivo dar a conocer todos aquellos detalles y sistemas aconsejables y necesarios en su explotación que pudieran considerarse como principios elementales, y que más bien vienen a ser prácticas corrientes del cultivo.

  20. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da forma epimastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi em meio LIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available E feito um estudo da ultra-estrutura da forma epismastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi mantida em meio de cultivo acelular. O núcleo das formas em divisão apresenta um aspecto homogêneo. Microtúbulos intranucleares são observados durante a divisão. No entanto, a membrana nuclear permanece íntegra. O citoplasma apresenta-se com vacúolos de dimensões e aspectos variados. Com o método do ácido periódico-tiosemicarbazida-proteinato de prata, polissacaríáeos e/ou glicoproteínas foram localizados na membrana celular e na membrana que delimita certos vacúolos citoplasmáticos.

  1. Detection of OXA-Type Carbapenemase Genes in Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Nosocomial Infections in Isfahan Hospitals, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Vajihe Karbasizade; Leila Heidari; Reyhaneh Jafari

    2016-01-01

    "> Background: Acinetobacter baumannii as one of the causes of nosocomial infections has becomeresistant to almost all antimicrobial agents. The emergence of resistance to carbapenems, one ofthe last drugs on the shelf, is the major concern about A. baumannii antimicrobial resistance.Resistance to carbapenems is mediated by production of class B and D carbapenemases. The aimof this study was to detect the resistance genes including blaOXA-23, 24, 51, and 58 in A. baumanniiisolates from nos...

  2. Clinical and Epidemiological Significance of Carbapenem Resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal-Jasper, Ruthy; Katz, David E; Amrami, Nadav; Ravid, Dor; Avivi, Dori; Zaidenstein, Ronit; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Dadon, Mor; Kaye, Keith S; Marchaim, Dror

    2016-05-01

    Carbapenems are considered the treatment of choice for Acinetobacter baumannii infections. Many facilities implement preventive measures toward only carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB). However, the independent role of the carbapenem resistance determinant on patient outcomes remains controversial. In a 6-year analysis of adults with A. baumannii bloodstream infection (BSI), the outcomes of 149 CRAB isolates were compared to those of 91 patients with carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii In bivariable analyses, CRAB BSIs were significantly associated with worse outcomes and with a delay in the initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy (DAAT). However, in multivariable analyses, carbapenem resistance status was no longer associated with poor outcomes, while DAAT remained an independent predictor. The epidemiological significance of A. baumannii should not be determined by its resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Aspectos de regulación sanitaria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Buzanello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mira a algunos aspectos de la regulación de los servicios de saneamiento en Brasil, específicamente la política de regulación resultante del proceso de reforma del Estado de 1995. Cuestiona los resultados de la productividad de los servicios de agua y alcantarillado de los concesionarios y el alcance de estas medidas al consumismo usuario.

  4. Resistance to Antibiotics in Strains of Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli Isolated from Rectal Swabs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kolář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at determining the level of resistance of selected bacterial species (Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swabs of pigs to antimicrobial agents. The tested strains were isolated from piglets aged 7 to 30 days. Bacterial species were identified by standard microbiological techniques and susceptibility to antibiotics was determined quantitatively by the standard microdilution method. Resistance of the Staphylococcus aureus strain to oxacillin was confirmed by detection of the mecA gene and PBP2a. A total of 115 Staphylococcus spp. isolates were collected. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, the methicillin-resistant strain (MRSA was identified. Moreover, higher frequency of coagulase-negative staphylococci with minimum inhibitory concentration of oxacillin ≥ 0.5 mg/l was noticed. Inducible resistance to clindamycin in the Staphylococcus hominis strain was also detected. The strains of Enterococcus spp. (61 isolates exhibited high resistance to tetracycline (98.5%, erythromycin (86.8% and chloramphenicol (54.4%. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were not isolated. In the case of Escherichia coli strains (111 isolates, higher frequency of resistant strains to tetracycline (81.1% and ampicillin (62.2% was documented. Resistance to fluoroquinolones and production of broad-spectrum β-lactamases was not noticed. The presented study may be considered as a pilot project assessing the prevalence of resistant bacteria in piglets kept on a single farm. It demonstrated the presence of resistant strains of Staphylococcus spp., including one MRSA strain, Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli. These strains may be present as a result of postnatal colonization with both bacterial microflora of dams and environmental microflora.

  5. Insertions in the OCL1 locus of Acinetobacter baumannii lead to shortened lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Pickard, Derek; Dougan, Gordon; Hall, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomes of 82 Acinetobacter baumannii global clones 1 (GC1) and 2 (GC2) isolates were sequenced and different forms of the locus predicted to direct synthesis of the outer core (OC) of the lipooligosaccharide were identified. OCL1 was in all GC2 genomes, whereas GC1 isolates carried OCL1, OCL3 or a new locus, OCL5. Three mutants in which an insertion sequence (ISAba1 or ISAba23) interrupted OCL1 were identified. Isolates with OCL1 intact produced only lipooligosaccharide, while the mutants produced lipooligosaccharide of reduced molecular weight. Thus, the assignment of the OC locus as that responsible for the synthesis of the OC is correct. PMID:24861001

  6. Chitosan as an effective inhibitor of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, E M; Silva, S; Vicente, S; Veiga, M; Tavaria, F; Pintado, M M

    2017-12-15

    Over the last two decades worldwide levels of antibiotic resistance have risen leading to the appearance of multidrug resistant microorganisms. Acinetobacter baumannii is a known skin pathogen which has emerged as a major cause of nosocomial outbreaks due to its capacity to colonize indwelling medical devices and natural antibiotic resistance. With chitosan being an effective antimicrobial agent against antibiotic resistant microorganisms, the aim of this work was to access its potential as an alternative to traditional antimicrobials in the management of A. baumannii growth. What the results showed was that both chitosan MW's tested were active upon A. baumannii's planktonic and sessile growth. For planktonic growth MICs and MBCs were obtained at relatively low concentrations (0.5-2mg/mL) while for sessile growth chitosan proved to be an effective inhibitor of A. baumannii's adhesion and biofilm formation. Considering these results chitosan shows a high potential for control of A. baumannii infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, R; Vejar, C; Bello, H; Domínguez, M; González, G

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms of bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin (mechanisms A and B) upon cells of a strain of Escherichia coli and one strain of Acinetobacter baumannii were investigated under different conditions. The killing of E. coli cells by ciprofloxacin was significantly reduced by chloramphenicol, but this antibiotic showed almost no activity upon killing of A. baumannii cells by this quinolone. Similar results were obtained when rifampicin was added to ciprofloxacin. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon nondividing cells of E. coli was lower and that upon non-dividing cells of A. baumannii was not affected when compared with activity of ciprofloxacin upon dividing cells of both microorganisms. These results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin upon A. baumannii is independent of protein and ARN synthesis, a fact which suggests that this quinolone exerts only bactericidal mechanism B upon A. baumannii. This finding might explain, at least in part, the lower susceptibility of this microorganism to ciprofloxacin.

  8. Aspectos éticos de la obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    de Santiago Martín, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    El sobrepeso y la obesidad se están convirtiendo en uno de los problemas de salud de mayor preocupación, convirtiéndose en los últimos años en una verdadera pandemia mundial. Los objetivos de esta revisión bibliográfica son analizar los aspectos éticos de la obesidad, desde el punto de vista de la familia y la sociedad, las buenas prácticas sanitarias, los principios bioéticos y de los derechos del paciente obeso. Para realizar este trabajo de investigación se accedieron a las bases de ...

  9. Aspectos puntuales del estado vegetativo persistente

    OpenAIRE

    Hodelín Tablada, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    El estado vegetativo persistente es una condición clínica caracterizada por la ausencia completa de conciencia sobre uno mismo y el entorno, unido a ciclos de sueño-vigilia, con preservación total o parcial de las funciones hipotalámicas y autonómicas del tallo encefálico. En el presente artículo, el autor discute aspectos puntuales sobre la entidad clínica, basado en su experiencia y en la revisión de la bibliografía sobre el tema; igualmente se exponen elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos d...

  10. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  11. Emission of extensively-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from hospital settings to the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruga Music, M; Hrenovic, J; Goic-Barisic, I; Hunjak, B; Skoric, D; Ivankovic, T

    2017-08-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading emerging pathogen that is frequently recovered from patients during hospital outbreaks. The role of environmental A. baumannii reservoirs is therefore of great concern worldwide. To investigate the connection between A. baumannii causing hospital outbreaks and environmental isolates from hospital wastewater, urban sewage and river water as the final natural recipient of wastewaters. Clinical isolates from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia and environmental isolates from water were collected during a two-month monitoring period. Recovery of A. baumannii was performed using CHROMagar Acinetobacter plates, incubated at 42°C for 48 h. Identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and analyses of rpoB gene. The antibiotic resistance profiles were interpreted according to criteria given for clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The sequence types (ST) were retrieved by multi-locus sequence typing. Fourteen of 19 isolates recovered from patients, hospital wastewaters, urban sewage and river water belonged to ST-195. The remaining five isolates recovered from patients and river water were assigned to ST-1421. All isolates showed very strong relatedness and clustered into CC92, which corresponds to IC2. All isolates were non-susceptible to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories, and thus were classified as 'extensively-drug-resistant' (XDR). Heteroresistance to colistin was found in two isolates from hospital wastewater. Close relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates suggests the emission of XDR A. baumannii via the untreated hospital wastewater in the natural environment. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbapenem Breakpoints for Acinetobacter baumannii Group: Supporting Clinical Outcome Data from Patients with Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Tzu; Chiang, Mei-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Wang, Yung-Chih; Lee, I-Hsin; Chen, Te-Li; Yang, Ya-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The carbapenem breakpoints set by different organizations for Acinetobacter are discordant, but supporting clinical data are lacking. This study aimed to provide the first clinical outcome data to support the carbapenem breakpoints for Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) group in patients with bacteremia. This study included 117 adults who received carbapenems for treatment of Ab group bacteremia in Taipei Veterans General Hospital over an 8-year period. We analyzed 30-day mortality rates among patient groups acquiring isolates with different carbapenem minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The carbapenem MIC breakpoint derived from classification and regression tree (CART) analysis to delineate the risk of 30-day mortality was between MICs of ≤ 4 mg/L and ≥ 8 mg/L. Mortality rate was higher in patients acquiring isolates with carbapenem MIC ≥ 8 mg/L than ≤ 4 mg/L, by bivariate (54.9% [28/51] vs 25.8% [17/66]; P = 0.003) and survival analysis (P = 0.001 by log-rank test). Multivariate analysis using logistic regression and Cox regression models including severity of illness indices demonstrated that treating patients with Ab group bacteremia caused by isolates with a carbapenem MIC ≥ 8 mg/L with carbapenem was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 5.125; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.946-13.498; P = 0.001, and hazard ratio, 2.630; 95% CI, 1.431-4.834; P = 0.002, respectively). The clinical outcome data confirmed that isolates with MIC ≤ 4 mg/L were susceptible to carbapenem, and those with MIC ≥ 8 mg/L were resistant in patients with Ab group bacteremia.

  13. Aspectos comportamentais na gestão de projetos: uma análise bibliométrica (1988-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Aparecida dos Reis Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo A demanda por gerentes de projetos é crescente. Um dos principais fatores que impactam no desempenho desse profissional relaciona-se ao aspecto comportamental, ou seja, àquele em que as relações e o entendimento entre os indivíduos de um grupo são fundamentais. Ante essa problemática, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma análise bibliométrica sobre aspectos comportamentais na gestão de projetos, buscando identificar as relações entre aspectos comportamentais e o gerenciamento de projetos. Para tanto, utilizou-se a metodologia bibliométrica: as bases de dados que compõem a amostra foram coletadas em ISI Web of Science e Scopus, desde que os artigos da Scopus também estivessem na base principal da ISI Web of Science. As análises sugerem ou evidenciam que os aspectos comportamentais, o “lado humano”, se apresenta como fator essencial para o sucesso na gestão de projetos.

  14. Uso de cal virgem para o controle de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em camas de aviário Quicklime for controlling Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp in litter from floor pens of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Dai Pra

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do uso de cal virgem (CaO para a redução de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp. em cama de aviário. Foram aplicados quatro tratamentos: T1- sem adição de cal virgem (controle, T2- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 300g m-2, T3- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 600g m-2 e T4- aplicação de cal virgem na dose de 900g m-2. Os valores médios observados para o pH da cama após o 12° dia de aplicação de cal virgem foram 8,95 e 9,91, 10,75 e 11,11 para os tratamentos 1, 2, 3 e 4, respectivamente. O número mais provável Log10 (UFC de Salmonella spp. e Clostridium spp foi reduzido em 82 e 97% com a aplicação de cal na dosagem de 300g m-2 e 100% na dosagem de 600 e 900g m-2, ambos diferindo significativamente em relação ao controle (antes da aplicação da cal. A atividade de água da cama reduziu progressivamente (de 0,2 a 3,82% com a utilização de níveis crescentes de cal. Conclui-se que o uso da cal na cama de aviário, mesmo nas doses mais baixas, reduz o número mais provável de Salmonella e Clostridium ssp.This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of quicklime (CaO for reducing Salmonella and Clostridium spp. population in used litter from floor pens of broilers. Four treatments were tested: (T1 control (without quicklime; (T2 300g quicklime m-2; (T3 600g quicklime m-2; and (T4 900g quicklime m-2. The following average pH values were observed 12 days after adding quicklime: 8.95, 9.91, 10.75 and 11.11 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. An 82 and 97% reduction in the most probable number Log10 (CFU of Salmonella and Clostridium spp, respectively, was observed when 300g m-2 of quicklime was added to the used litter from floor pens of broilers. Additionally, a 100% reduction was obtained when both 600 and 900g m-2 of quicklime were added, differing significantly from control (before adding quicklime. A progressive reduction in water activity (from 0.2 to 3.82% was

  15. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. In the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Letícia; Bergamasco, Rosângela; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Mota, Lúcio Tadeu; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of cysts of Giardia spp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in waters of the Ivaí Indigenous Land, Brazil. Samples of river and spring water and of treated water were filtered and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor kit, Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, Ohio). Of 21 samples, 7 from each locality, 3 (3/7, 42.8%) from a river were positive for Giardia (mean concentration 2.57 cysts/L), and 1 (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). From springs, 1 sample (1/7, 14.3%) was positive for Cryptosporidium (6 oocysts/L). One sample (1/7, 14.3%) from treated water was positive for both, with 4 oocysts/L and 2 cysts/L. Giardia was the more frequent protozoan present.

  17. Synergy and mechanism of action of α-mangostin and ceftazidime against ceftazidime-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimchan, T; Maensiri, D; Eumkeb, G

    2017-10-01

    To address the resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii to β-lactam antibiotics, combination therapy between different antibiotic classes is increasingly used. The antibacterial activity of α-mangostin (AMT) alone or in combination with ceftazidime (CTZ) was investigated against ceftazidime-resistant A. baumannii DMST 45378 (CRAB). Initial screening showed that A. baumannii strains possessed AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBL). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of all test agents were >800 μg ml -1 against CRAB. The combination of AMT/CTZ exhibited a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of Type IV β-lactamase was inhibited by AMT. The data suggest that AMT in combination with CTZ is synergistic and efficient against CRAB. The data also indicate that the AMT/CTZ combination may target multiple structures on the bacterial cell surface. This represents the first report of this effect on CRAB and could potentially be expanded into in vivo studies. Significance and Impact of the Study: Acinetobacter baumannii strains cause serious infections, patient mortality, and have been reported to rise of multidrug resistance. This article represents the first report of using α-mangostin plus ceftazidime against these resistant strains and its mechanism of action. α-mangostin has no cytotoxic effects. Therefore, α-mangostin has strong potential for development as a useful, novel adjunct phytopharmaceutical to ceftazidime synergistically for the treatment of these strains. The synergy approach could potentially be a novel tool to combat the resistant strains. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica , the domesticated O . species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated ( O. ficus-indica ) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia -enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  19. Investigation of colistin sensitivity via three different methods in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinirtaş, Melda; Akalin, Halis; Gedikoğlu, Suna

    2009-09-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in life-threatening infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii with multiple antibiotic resistance, which has lead to the use of polymyxins, especially colistin, being reconsidered. The aim of this study was to investigate the colistin sensitivity of A. baumannii isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance via different methods, and to evaluate the disk diffusion method for colistin against multi-resistant Acinetobacter isolates, in comparison to the E-test and Phoenix system. The study was carried out on 100 strains of A. baumannii (colonization or infection) isolated from the microbiological samples of different patients followed in the clinics and intensive care units of Uludağ University Medical School between the years 2004 and 2005. Strains were identified and characterized for their antibiotic sensitivity by Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA). In all studied A. baumannii strains, susceptibility to colistin was determined to be 100% with the disk diffusion, E-test, and broth microdilution methods. Results of the E-test and broth microdilution method, which are accepted as reference methods, were found to be 100% consistent with the results of the disk diffusion tests; no very major or major error was identified upon comparison of the tests. The sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the disk diffusion method were found to be 100%. Colistin resistance in A. baumannii was not detected in our region, and disk diffusion method results are in accordance with those of E-test and broth microdilution methods.

  20. ASPECTOS ERGONÔMICOS E POSTURAIS EM CENTRO DE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Cosía Alexandre

    Full Text Available Determinados fatores ambientais inadequados podem provocar lesões na coluna vertebral. Este trabalho discute certos aspectos ergonômicos e posturais específicos em Centro de Material com o objetivo de desenvolver uma consciência crítica a respeito dos efeitos do local de trabalho sobre a saúde.

  1. Evaluation of bacterial growth inhibition by mercaptopropionic acid in metallo-β-lactamase detection on multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Eichstaedt Mayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metallo-β-lactamase (MBL has been reported all over the world. METHODS: The inhibitory effect of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA on bacterial growth was evaluated by comparison between disk diffusion and broth dilution methodology with determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumanni strains. RESULTS: MPA significantly inhibited growth of the strains. CONCLUSIONS: The use of MPA can affect the results in phenotypic methods of MBL detection.

  2. Ecology and resistance of Moraxella-Acinetobacter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulistani, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The diverse microenvironments of foods, changing with processing and preservation, might provide conditions that would enhance the growth of microorganisms which are the principal cause of spoilage, off-odor and unpleasant flavor in foods. Radiation is a potential process which may provide a product with far superior microbial quality for food preservation, by reduction of microbial population; elimination of food-borne pathogens; extension of shelf-life; and reduction of spoilage. The aim of irradiation at low dose level is to eliminate certain microorganisms, especially spoilage types and those of public health significance. But, the radurization dose allows the outgrowth of radioresistant bacteria. Certain strains of Moraxella-Acinetobacter (M-A) groups have been recognized as radioresistant bacteria (Welch and Maxcy, 1975), which may have gone unnoticed by food microbiologists, since these bacteria have not been associated with problems and are present in relatively small numbers. However, irrradiation with radurization doses reduces the number of organisms and brings the M-A group into prominence, which may cause problems in irradiated foods. When M-A isolate No. 4 was grown in PCB and TSB media at 32 0 C and on PCA at ambient temperature and ambient RH, as well as when its resistance was observed in a film of various soiling materials on stainless steel surfaces at ambient temperature and room RH, it was concluded that these bacteria were resistant under various conditions for long periods of time. Other tests in which M-A isolates were observed were salt tolerance, various pH levels, quats, chlorine, antibiotic sensitivity, effects of dyes and hydrogen peroxide

  3. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  4. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  5. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  6. Aspectos da tomografia computadorizada craniana na neurocisticercose na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam aspectos tomográficos da neurocisticercose na infância a propósito da análise de 27 exames em 18 pacientes, que foram distribuídos em três grupos segundo o quadru clínico e os achados tomográficos. O grupo 1 foi caracterizado basicamente por epilepsias e calcificações. O grupo 2 caracterizou-se por hipertensão intracraniana e diversos aspectos tomográficos: edema, cistos e nódulos em três pacientes; hidrocefalia e calcificações em dois pacientes e normal em um paciente. O grupo 3 consistiu clinicamente de epilepsia e cefaléia, com vários padrões tomográficos. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura disponível.

  7. Community-acquired carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii urinary tract infection just after marriage in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Turkmen, K; Biyik, Z; Genc, N; Yeksan, M

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in renal transplant recipients and may worsen allograft and patient survival. Many risk factors such as age, female gender, immunosuppression, comorbidity, deceased-donor kidney transplantation, and uretheral catheterization are involved in development of UTI. Acinetobacter baumannii has rarely been reported as a causative agent for development of UTI. Here, we present an unusual case of a renal transplant recipient who developed community-acquired carbapenem-resistent A. baumannii UTI. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidum spp. and Giardia spp. in environmental samples in Hanam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram Thuy; Traub, Rebecca J.; Pham, Phuc Duc

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoan parasites that cause human diarrheal disease worldwide. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence and concentrations of these protozoa in environmental samples in Hanam, Vietnam and to assess potential contamination sources using molecular...... Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 25.4% and 35.0% of samples analyzed, respectively. In water, a higher percentage of Cryptosporidium spp. (41.7%; 43/103) contamination was observed compared to that of Giardia spp. 28.2% (29/103). Both Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were found...... contaminating vegetables at the same level, at 15.4% (4/26) each. Concentrations of Cryptosporidium in samples ranged from 10 to 1900 oocysts per 100 ml water or 100 g vegetable/composted waste sample with a median number of 100 oocysts per 100 ml/g. The concentration of Giardia cysts ranged from 10 to 1836 per...

  9. Algunos aspectos éticos en la práctica de la obstetricia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. P. Sergio Valenzuela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La obstetricia ejercida en el contexto clínico asistencial es una fuente permanente de cuestionamientos éticos para los especialistas. En este artículo, que tiene carácter de ensayo, se aborda una primera parte introductoria, que da cuenta de la dimensión antropológica del cuidado obstétrico. Luego se destaca la necesidad de referirse a un número mayor de principios en la fundamentación del quehacer obstétrico. Por último, profundiza principalmente en los aspectos éticos de su ejercicio como obstetricia de urgencia y la ética del diagnóstico; quedando aspectos importantes para discutir en una futura oportunidad.

  10. Planificación estratégica: aspectos introductorios (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Reyes, Fuensanta Carmen; De la Varga Salto, José María

    2016-01-01

    Transparencias como material docente para la asignatura de Administración de Organizaciones. Se corresponden con la etapa primera del proceso administrativo de las organizaciones, la planificación estratétiga. En concreto, incluyen aspectos introductorios relacionados con los conceptos y elementos principales de la planificación estratégica. Planificación estratégica

  11. Indications of a new antibiotic in clinical practice: results of the tigecycline initial use registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Curcio

    Full Text Available Tigecycline is the first of a new class of antibiotics named glycylcyclines and it was approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated skin and skin structure infections. Notwithstanding this, tigecycline's pharmacological and microbiological profile which includes multidrug-resistant pathogens encourages physicians' use of the drug in other infections. We analyzed, during the first months after its launch, the tigecycline prescriptions for 113 patients in 12 institutions. Twenty-five patients (22% received tigecycline for approved indications, and 88 (78% for "off label" indications (56% with scientific support and 22% with limited or without any scientific support. The most frequent "off label" use was ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP (63 patients. The etiology of infections was established in 105 patients (93%. MDR-Acinetobacter spp. was the microorganism most frequently isolated (50% of the cases. Overall, attending physicians reported clinical success in 86 of the 113 patients (76%. Our study shows that the "off label" use of tigecycline is frequent, especially in VAP. due to MDR-Acinetobacter spp., where the therapeutic options are limited (eg: colistin. Physicians must evaluate the benefits/risks of using this antibiotic for indications that lack rigorous scientific support.

  12. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride shows bactericidal advantages over chlorhexidine digluconate against ESKAPE bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Wei, Dafu; Lu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    More information regarding the bactericidal properties of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) against clinically important antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens needs to be provided for its uses in infection control. The bactericidal properties of PHMG and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) were compared based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations, and time-course-killing curves against clinically important antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE pathogens. Results showed that PHMG exhibited significantly higher bactericidal activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter spp. than CHG. A slight bactericidal advantage over CHG was obtained against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, ciprofloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In previous reports, PHMG had higher antimicrobial activity against almost all tested Gram-negative bacteria and several Gram-positive bacteria than CHG using MIC test. These studies support the further development of covalently bound PHMG in sterile-surface materials and the incorporation of PHMG in novel disinfectant formulas. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. due to Klebsiella spp.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary acute conununity-acquired pneumonia was unconunon. ... organisms such as Klebsiella spp. are frequent causes of nosocomial infections."o The larrer ... Accepted 11 Sep 1992. recognised cause of community-acquired Gram-nega-.

  14. Natural production of Tuber aestivum in central Spain: Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp. brûlés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Garcia-Montero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Tuber aestivum is the most widespread edible truffle, with increasing commercial interest. This species can produce carpophores with conifer hosts, in contrast with the inability of Pinus spp. to induce fruiting in other truffle species such as Tuber melanosporum. Therefore the objective is to compare the characteristics and carpophore production of T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus spp. versus Quercus spp.Area of study: We studied the natural habitats of T. aestivum in the Alto Tajo Nature Reserve in central Spain.Material and methods: During 5 years, we monitored the production of carpophores and brûlé size of 145 T. aestivum brûlés associated with Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota and Q. faginea hosts. Statistical treatment was performed using the Statistica Program v. 6.Main Results: The size of brûlés associated with Pinus was significantly smaller than that of brûlés associated with Quercus. However, carpophore production per brûlé, and especially for brûlés of similar size, was greater when the host plant was a pine. After accounting for brûlé size, the production of brûlés associated with Pinus spp. was 2.23 (95% CI, between 1.35 and 3.69 and 1.61 (95% CI, between 1.02 and 2.54 times greater than the production of brûlés associated with Quercus faginea and Q. ilex subsp. ballota, respectively.Research highlights: The considerable ability of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmanni and P. sylvestris to form effective brûlés and to produce carpophores of Tuber aestivum in natural conditions was clearly demonstrated, and suggest that those species can be of use in the culture of T. aestivum.Key words: Summer truffle; Tuber aestivum; truffle culture; truffle ecology; Pinus spp.; Quercus spp.

  15. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3355 Listeria spp... from clinical specimens. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of Listeria spp. antisera... clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of listeriosis, a disease caused by bacteria...

  16. Aspectos sociales de la malaria importada en Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Rodríguez-Morales

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available La malaria continúa siendo un grave problema de salud pública mundial, ya no sólo en países endémicos, sino comenzando a representar un dilema médico en países distantes por la llegada de casos importados. Ahora bien, aun cuando en términos de las disciplinas médicas convencionales se ha publicado muchos estudios clínico-epidemiológicos y reportes de caso, los aspectos sociales, que parecerían obvios en el contexto de la malaria importada por supeditarse a la migración de la población, no han sido exhaustivamente explorados en relación con este fenómeno. Por estas razones, en esta revisión se analiza los aspectos sociales relacionados con el fenómeno de la malaria importada con énfasis al contexto epidemiológico de América Latina.

  17. Aspectos éticos en Pediatría, las inmunodeficiencias primarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Leonor Paradoa Pérez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las inmunodeficiencias primarias son enfermedades genéticas, caracterizadas por infecciones crónicas devastadoras que conllevan a la muerte, al desarrollo de tumores y a enfermedades autoinmunes, y la mayoría de estas enfermedades cursan en la edad pediátrica. Desde la última década del pasado siglo, el desarrollo de la tecnología, el surgimiento del Proyecto del Genoma Humano y la profundización en los aspectos bioéticos, han dado lugar a especificidades en la atención médica e investigativa del paciente pediátrico y del que desarrolla una enfermedad inmunológica. Este trabajo recoge los aspectos bioéticos más importantes y los dilemas éticos con los que se enfrenta el inmunólogo pediátrico en la atención al paciente con inmunodeficiencia primaria, el cual demanda la atención de, prácticamente, todas las especialidades pediátricas.

  18. Endemic Acinetobacter baumannii in a New York hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Weisenberg

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly multidrug-resistant (MDR cause of hospital-acquired infections, often associated with limited therapeutic options. We investigated A. baumannii isolates at a New York hospital to characterize genetic relatedness.Thirty A. baumannii isolates from geographically-dispersed nursing units within the hospital were studied. Isolate relatedness was assessed by repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR. The presence and characteristics of integrons were assessed by PCR. Metabolomic profiles of a subset of a prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were characterized and compared.We detected a hospital-wide group of closely related carbapenem resistant MDR A. baumannii isolates. Compared with sporadic isolates, the prevalent strain isolates were more likely to be MDR (p = 0.001. Isolates from the prevalent strain carried a novel Class I integron sequence. Metabolomic profiles of selected prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were similar.The A. baumannii population at our hospital represents a prevalent strain of related MDR isolates that contain a novel integron cassette. Prevalent strain and sporadic isolates did not segregate by metabolomic profiles. Further study of environmental, host, and bacterial factors associated with the persistence of prevalent endemic A. baumannii strains is needed to develop effective prevention strategies.

  19. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Santos Díaz, María; Barba de la Rosa, Ana-Paulina; Héliès-Toussaint, Cécile; Guéraud, Françoise

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica) Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice) exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate), pigments (carotenoids, betalains), and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers) have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine. PMID:28491239

  20. Opuntia spp.: Characterization and Benefits in Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Socorro Santos Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia species have been used for centuries as food resources and in traditional folk medicine for their nutritional properties and their benefit in chronic diseases, particularly diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. These plants are largely distributed in America, Africa, and the Mediterranean basin. Opuntia spp. have great economic potential because they grow in arid and desert areas, and O. ficus-indica, the domesticated O. species, is used as a nutritional and pharmaceutical agent in various dietary and value-added products. Though differences in the phytochemical composition exist between wild and domesticated (O. ficus-indica Opuntia spp., all Opuntia vegetatives (pear, roots, cladodes, seeds, and juice exhibit beneficial properties mainly resulting from their high content in antioxidants (flavonoids, ascorbate, pigments (carotenoids, betalains, and phenolic acids. Other phytochemical components (biopeptides, soluble fibers have been characterized and contribute to the medicinal properties of Opuntia spp. The biological properties of Opuntia spp. have been investigated on cellular and animal models and in clinical trials in humans, allowing characterization and clarification of the protective effect of Opuntia-enriched diets in chronic diseases. This review is an update on the phytochemical composition and biological properties of Opuntia spp. and their potential interest in medicine.

  1. Aspectos geopolíticos en el desarrollo de la zona franca industrial de Ilo

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto; Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto

    1994-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis enfatiza el aspecto geopolítico en el desarrollo de la Zona franca Industrial de Ilo (ZOFRI-IL0). La razón de tal énfasis es simple: por este aspecto específicamente es que se creó la ZOFRI-ILO. En consecuencia, el tratamiento del tema tiene que ver con la influencia geopolítica en las sucesivas etapas de su desarrollo, considerando sus posibilidades de desarrollo a futuro en el marco de las tendencias internacionales de la globalización de la economía mundial. ...

  2. Glucose availability enhances lipopolysaccharide production and immunogenicity in the opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Elio; Longo, Francesca; Barbagallo, Marialuisa; Peano, Clelia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Pietrelli, Alessandro; Jaillon, Sebastian; Garlanda, Cecilia; Landini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii can cause sepsis with high mortality rates. We investigated whether glucose sensing might play a role in A. baumannii pathogenesis. We carried out transcriptome analysis and extracellular polysaccharide determination in an A. baumannii clinical isolate grown on complex medium with or without glucose supplementation, and assessed its ability to induce production of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Growth in glucose-supplemented medium strongly enhanced A. baumannii sugar anabolism, resulting in increasing lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. In addition, glucose induced active shedding of lipopolysaccharide, in turn triggering a strong induction of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages. Finally, hemolytic activity was strongly enhanced by growth in glucose-supplemented medium. We propose that sensing of exogenous glucose might trigger A. baumannii pathogenesis during sepsis.

  3. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Yan, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Zhaojun; Zhou, Qiming; Zhou, Jinchun; Wakeland, Edward K; Fang, Xiangdong; Xuan, Zhenyu; Shen, Dingxia; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology. Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet) resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI) of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715. Our comparative analysis on currently completed Acinetobacter baumannii

  4. Complete genome analysis of three Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates in China for insight into the diversification of drug resistance elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiang Zhu

    Full Text Available The emergence and rapid spreading of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains has become a major health threat worldwide. To better understand the genetic recombination related with the acquisition of drug-resistant elements during bacterial infection, we performed complete genome analysis on three newly isolated multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains from Beijing using next-generation sequencing technology.Whole genome comparison revealed that all 3 strains share some common drug resistant elements including carbapenem-resistant bla OXA-23 and tetracycline (tet resistance islands, but the genome structures are diversified among strains. Various genomic islands intersperse on the genome with transposons and insertions, reflecting the recombination flexibility during the acquisition of the resistant elements. The blood-isolated BJAB07104 and ascites-isolated BJAB0868 exhibit high similarity on their genome structure with most of the global clone II strains, suggesting these two strains belong to the dominant outbreak strains prevalent worldwide. A large resistance island (RI of about 121-kb, carrying a cluster of resistance-related genes, was inserted into the ATPase gene on BJAB07104 and BJAB0868 genomes. A 78-kb insertion element carrying tra-locus and bla OXA-23 island, can be either inserted into one of the tniB gene in the 121-kb RI on the chromosome, or transformed to conjugative plasmid in the two BJAB strains. The third strains of this study, BJAB0715, which was isolated from spinal fluid, exhibit much more divergence compared with above two strains. It harbors multiple drug-resistance elements including a truncated AbaR-22-like RI on its genome. One of the unique features of this strain is that it carries both bla OXA-23 and bla OXA-58 genes on its genome. Besides, an Acinetobacter lwoffii adeABC efflux element was found inserted into the ATPase position in BJAB0715.Our comparative analysis on currently completed

  5. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  6. Detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto ou tratado: avaliação crítica dos métodos Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw and effluent wastewater: critical evaluation of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Urbano dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência dos métodos centrífugo-concentração e filtração em membrana, na detecção de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. e cistos de Giardia spp. em amostras de esgoto bruto e tratado, provenientes de um sistema de lodos ativados (estação de tratamento de esgoto, Samambaia, Campinas, em São Paulo. As amostras foram coletadas quinzenalmente por dois anos: 53 amostras de esgoto bruto (AFL, 53 de efluente tratado sem desinfecção por luz ultravioleta (EFL e 38 de efluente tratado e desinfetado por luz ultravioleta (EFL+UV. Cistos de Giardia spp. foram encontrados em 90,5% das amostras AFL; em 96,2%, de EFL; e em 94,7%, de EFL+UV. Oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foram detectados em 6,4% das amostras AFL e em 2,6 % de EFL+UV. Ambos os métodos mostraram-se eficientes na detecção destes protozoários em todos os tipos de amostras, além de apresentarem baixo custo por análise.In this study, the efficiency of centrifuge-concentration and membrane filtrated methods was evaluated in the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia spp. cysts in raw or treated wastewater samples, from activated sludge systems (ETE - Samambaia, Campinas, in São Paulo. The samples were collected once a fortnight for two years: 53 samples of influent (AFL, 53 samples of treated effluent without ultraviolet disinfection (EFL, and 38 samples of treated effluent with ultraviolet disinfection (EFL+UV. Giardia spp. cysts were found in 90.5% of the AFL samples; in 96.2% of the samples, EFL; and in 94.7%, EFL+UV. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 6.4% of AFL samples and 2.6% of EFL+UV. Both methods showed efficiency when detecting protozoa in all types of samples, besides having low costs by analysis.

  7. Emergence of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 and other carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex among patients in hospitals in Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, D.N.; Tran, H.H.; Matsui, M.; Suzuki, M.; Suzuki, S.; Shibayama, K.; Pham, T.D.; Phuong, T.T. Van; Dang, D.A.; Trinh, H.S.; Loan, C.T.; Nga, L.T.; Doorn, H.R. van; Wertheim, H.F.L.

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of multidrug-resistant hospital acquired infections in the world. Here, we investigate the presence of NDM-1 and other carbapenemases among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolated between August 2010 and December 2014 from three large hospitals in

  8. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

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    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  9. Clonal spread of blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Han-Yueh; Hsu, Po-Jui; Chen, Jiann-Yuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lu, Chia-Wei; Chen, Chang-Hua; Liou, Ming-Li

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report to show an insidious outbreak of armA- and blaOXA-72-carrying Acinetobacter baumannii sequence type 512 (ST512) at a study hospital in northern Taiwan. Multilocus sequence typing revealed that this was a ST512 clone. All of the isolates with ST512 carried a novel 12,056-bp repGR2 in combination with a repGR12-type plasmid. This plasmid, designated pAB-ML, had one copy of the blaOXA-72 gene that was flanked by XerC/XerD-like sites and conferred resistance to carbapenems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernberg, I.; Ursing, J.

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author)

  11. Clinical strains of acinetobacter classified by DNA-DNA hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjernberg, I; Ursing, J [Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Lund, Malmoe General Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1989-01-01

    A collection of Acinetobacter strains consisting of 168 consecutive clinical strains and 30 type and reference strains was studied by DNA-DNA hybridization and a few phenotypic tests. The field strains could be allotted to 13 DNA groups. By means of reference strains ten of these could be identified with groups described by Bouvet and Grimont (1986), while three groups were new; they were given the numbers 13-15. The type strain of A. radioresistens- recently described by Nishimura et al. (1988) - was shown to be a member of DNA group 12, which comprised 31 clinical isolates. Of the 19 strains of A. junii, eight showed hemolytic acitivity on sheep and human blood agar and an additional four strains on human blood agar only. Strains of this species have previously been regarded as non-hemolytic. Reciprocal DNA pairing data for the reference strains of the DNA gropus were treated by UPGMA clustering. The reference strains for A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii and DNA groups 3 and 13 formed a cluster with about 70% relatedness within the cluster. Other DNA groups joined at levels below 60%. (author).

  12. Pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii among hospitalized patients: genetic relationships, risk factors and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu Jun; Pan, Chu Zhi; Fang, Chang Quan; Zhao, Zhu Xiang; Chen, Hui Ling; Guo, Peng Hao; Zhao, Zi Wen

    2017-05-30

    The clonal spread of multiple drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging problem in China. We analysed the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumanni isolates at three teaching hospitals and investigated the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by extensive drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) infection in Guangzhou, China. Fifty-two A. baumannii isolates were collected. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to assess the genetic relationships among the isolates. The bla OXA-51-like gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. The resistance phenotypes were determined using the disc diffusion method. A retrospective case-control study was performed to determine factors associated with XDRAB pneumonia. Most of the 52 A. baumannii isolates (N = 37, 71.2%) were collected from intensive care units (ICUs). The respiratory system was the most common bodily site from which A. baumannii was recovered (N = 45, 86.5%). Disc diffusion classified the isolates into 17 multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 35 extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. MLST grouped the A. baumannii isolates into 5 existing sequence types (STs) and 7 new STs. ST195 and ST208 accounted for 69.2% (36/52) of the isolates. The clonal relationship analysis showed that ST195 and ST208 belonged to clonal complex (CC) 92. According to the sequence-based typing (SBT) of the bla OXA-51-like gene, 51 A. baumannii isolates carried OXA-66 and the rest carried OXA-199. There were no significant differences with respect to the resistance phenotype between the CC92 and non-CC92 strains (P = 0.767). The multivariate analysis showed that the APACHE II score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiac disease were independent risk factors for XDRAB pneumonia (P < 0.05). The mortality rate of XDRAB pneumonia was high (up to 42.8%), but pneumonia caused by XDRAB was not associated with in

  13. Relationship between Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria spp. in seafood processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Walid Q; Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes as an outcome and Listeria spp. as an explanatory variable by food products, food contact surfaces, and nonfood contact surfaces in seafood processing plants by using peer-reviewed published data. Nine sets of prevalence data of L. monocytogenes and Listeria spp. were collected from published studies and used for the analyses. Based on our analysis, the relationship between L. monocytogenes prevalence and Listeria spp. prevalence in food products (incoming raw materials and finish products) was significant (P = 0.04) with (low) R² = 0.36. Furthermore, Listeria spp. were not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes when testing food contact surfaces (R² = 0.10). Listeria spp. were a good indicator for L. monocytogenes only on nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.90). On the other hand, the presence of Listeria spp. on food contact surfaces (R² = 0.002) and nonfood contact surfaces (R² = 0.03) was not a good indicator for L. monocytogenes presence in food products. In general, prevalence of Listeria spp. does not seem to be a good indicator for L. monocytogenes prevalence in seafood processing plants.

  14. Spread of imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii co-expressing OXA-23 and GES-11 carbapenemases in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoudi, D; Moubareck, C Ayoub; Hakime, N; Houmani, M; Barakat, A; Najjar, Z; Suleiman, M; Fayad, N; Sarraf, R; Sarkis, D Karam

    2015-07-01

    The acquisition of carbapenemases by Acinetobacter baumannii is reported increasingly worldwide, but data from Lebanon are limited. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii in Lebanon, identify resistance determinants, and detect clonal relatedness. Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii were collected from nine Lebanese hospitals during 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility, the cloxacillin effect, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) synergy were determined. Genes encoding carbapenemases and insertion sequence ISAba1 were screened via PCR sequencing. ISAba1 position relative to genes encoding Acinetobacter-derived cephalosporinases (ADCs) and OXA-23 was studied by PCR mapping. Clonal linkage was examined by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR). Out of 724 A. baumannii isolated in 2012, 638 (88%) were imipenem-resistant. Of these, 142 were analyzed. Clavulanic acid-imipenem synergy suggested carbapenem-hydrolyzing extended-spectrum β-lactamase. A positive cloxacillin test indicated ADCs, while EDTA detection strips were negative. Genotyping indicated that 90% of isolates co-harbored blaOXA-23 and blaGES-11. The remaining strains had blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaGES-11, or blaOXA-24 with blaGES-11. ISAba1 was located upstream of blaADC and blaOXA-23 in 97% and 100% of isolates, respectively. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed 18 pulsotypes spread via horizontal gene transfer and clonal dissemination. This survey established baseline evidence of OXA-23 and GES-11-producing A. baumannii in Lebanon, indicating the need for further surveillance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. [Nosocomial infection/colonization of the respiratory tract caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas Coronas, J; Cabezas Fernández, T; Alvarez-Ossorio García de Soria, R; Rogado González, M C; Delgado Fernández, M; Díez García, F

    2002-10-01

    To present the epidemiology of the outbreak and the description of patients with infection or colonization of the respiratory tract caused by A. baumannii in an Internal Medicine ward. 20 consecutively patients hospitalized in the Internal Medicine ward were studied during 18 months with isolation of multiresistant A. baumanni in respiratory tract specimens with or without clinical signs of infection. Starting on an index case, that was a patient coming from other hospital with diagnosis of nosocomial Acinetobacter pneumonia, we detected 20 patients. The age of the patients ranged from 48 to 95 years, with a mean of 71.4 years. Eighty percent were males. The clinical features were similar: advanced age, with chronic diseases (35 percent diabetics, 45 percent with chronic lung diseases), and use of broad-spectrum antibiotics agents, fundamentally third generation cephalosporin (70 percent), clarithromycin (55 percent) and quinolones (30 percent). 75 percent of patients were in the same ward. Eight (40 percent) of the patients with chronic lung diseases were subjects with COPD, two with asthma and chronic glucocorticoids treatment, and one with a sleep apnea. In four cases the isolation was considered a colonization. The mean stay was 26.15 days, and the mortality 40 percent. The nosocomial infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is responsible of a high morbi-mortality between the patients hospitalized in an Internal Medicine ward, and produce an increase in length of stay. It is necessary a combination of control measures to prevent the transmission in the hospital and the outbreak of new multiresistant strains.

  16. [TYPING OF LEPTOSPIRA SPP. STRAINS BASED ON 16S rRNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostankova, Yu V; Semenov, A V; Stoyanova, N A; Tokarevich, N K; Lyubimova, N E; Petrova, O A; Ananina, Yu V; Petrov, E M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative typing of Leptospira spp. strain collection based on analysis of 16S RNA fragment. 2 pairs of primers were used for PCR, that jointly flank 1423b.p. sized fragment. Sequences of Leptospira spp. strain 16S rRNA, presented in the international database, were used for phylogenetic analysis. A high similarity, including interspecies, of the 16S fragment in Leptospira spp. strains was shown independently of the source, serovar and serogroup. Heterogeneity of the primary matrix, spontaneous mutations of hotspots and erroneous nucleotide couplings, characteristic for 16S sequence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. strains, are discussed. Molecular-genetic characteristic of certain reference Leptospira spp. strains by 16S sequence is obtained. Results of the studies give evidence on expedience of introduction into clinical practice of identification of Leptospira spp. by 16S sequence directly from the clinical material, that would allow to significantly reduce identification time, dismiss complex type-specific sera and other labor-intensive methods.

  17. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  18. Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Isolated from Various Ticks in Southeastern and Northwestern Regions of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar Bekloo, Ahmad; Ramzgouyan, Maryam Roya; Shirian, Sadegh; Faghihi, Faezeh; Bakhshi, Hassan; Naseri, Fatemeh; Sedaghat, Mehdi; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh

    2018-05-01

    Anaplasma/Ehrlichia species are tick-transmitted pathogens that cause infections in humans and numerous domestic and wild animal species. There is no information available on the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic position of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. isolated from tick species from different geographic locations in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, molecular characteristics, and phylogenetic relationship of both Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in tick species isolated from different domestic animals from two different geographical locations of Iran. A total of 930 ticks were collected from 93 cattle, 250 sheep, and 587 goats inhabiting the study areas. The collected ticks were then investigated for the presence of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. using nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene, followed by sequencing. Sequence analysis was done based on the data published in the GenBank on Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. isolates using bioinformatic tools such as the standard nucleotide BLAST. Genome of Anaplasma or Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 14 ticks collected in Heris, including 5 Dermacentor marginatus, 1 Haemaphysalis erinacei, 3 Hyalomma anatolicum, and 4 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, also in 29 ticks collected in Chabahar, including 14 R. sanguineus, 8 D. marginatus, 3 Hyalomma Anatolicum, and 4 Hyalomma dromedarii. Partial analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of positive samples collected from goats and sheep showed that they were infected with Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. that were 94-98% identical to ovine Anaplasma and 91-96% identical to Neoehrlichia and Ehrlichia spp. The various ticks identified in this study suggest the possible emergence of tick-borne diseases in animals and humans in these regions. R. sanguineus and D. marginatus seem to be predominant vectors responsible for anaplasmosis in these regions. Partial sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that A. ovis is genetically polymorphic in these regions. Furthermore, an

  19. Aspectos “Subjetivos” do Fetichismo da Mercadoria Cultural no Ensaio Sobre Música Popular de T. W. Adorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio César da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresento uma leitura do ensaio Sobre Música Popular (1941 de T. W. Adorno (1903-1969, enfatizando os aspectos “subjetivos” do fetichismo da mercadoria cultural. Considero aspectos “subjetivos” do fetichismo quando se enfatiza o consumo de mercadorias. Esse ensaio fez parte dos resultados de pesquisa de rádio da Universidade de Princeton, feita nos Estados Unidos entre 1938 a 1940, cujo objetivo era analisar as programações radiofônicas. Focarei a leitura na seção Teoria do Ouvinte, pois nela Adorno enfatizou esses aspectos “subjetivos” por meio de análises específicas do consumo da música popular americana supondo seus modos de recepção.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Carbapenem Non-Susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, Katy; Diancourt, Laure; Vaux, Sophie; Thouverez, Michelle; Ribeiro, Amandina; Coignard, Bruno; Courvalin, Patrice; Brisse, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii have emerged globally. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clonal diversity and resistance mechanisms of imipenem non-susceptible A. baumannii isolates in France. Between December 2010 and August 2011, 132 notifications were collected, including 37 outbreaks corresponding to 242 cases (2 to 55 per cluster). Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterisation of carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed on 110 non-repetitive isolates. Gene bla OXA-23 was the most frequently detected (82%), followed by bla OXA-24 (11%) and bla OXA-58 (7%). Eleven sequence types (ST) were distinguished, among which sequence types ST1, ST2 (64%), ST20, ST25, ST85 and ST107. Isolates from epidemiological clusters had the same ST and resistance genes, indicating probable transmission within centres. In contrast, PFGE types of isolates differed among centres, arguing against transmission among centers. This study provides the first epidemiological snapshot of the population of A. baumannii with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems from France, and further underlines the predominance of international clones. PMID:25517732

  1. Práticas de uso e manejo tradicional de Carapa spp. (andiroba na Reserva Extrativista do Rio Jutaí, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Cardona Calle

    Full Text Available Na Reserva Extrativista (RESEX do Rio Jutaí, Amazonas, os moradores têm manifestado expectativas e aspiram mudanças quanto ao manejo da andiroba (Carapa spp.. Na presente pesquisa, foram formuladas perguntas sobre as razões dessas mudanças e como elas estão acontecendo. Aspectos socioeconômicos e de manejo foram estudados em 31 unidades familiares de dez comunidades da RESEX. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação participante e avaliação de tempo e esforço de trabalho. A população local atribuiu relevante significado para a espécie em razão do valor de uso, destacando-se as aplicações medicinais, na pesca de matrinxã (Brycon spp. e de outras quatro espécies de peixe. O manejo da andiroba é realizado, principalmente, em áreas de floresta primária e é complementado pela maioria das famílias na forma de plantios, comercializando parte da produção no interior da RESEX. Análises multivariadas discriminaram um grupo que investe maior tempo e número de pessoas na coleta, tendo maior produção, no entanto com menor rendimento. Não existe tendência à especialização das atividades, pois as famílias são pluriativas. O fenômeno estudado se encaixa na proposta conceitual do neoextrativismo, na medida em que as práticas estão em transformação e incluem cultivo e beneficiamento.

  2. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha; Surif, Salmijah; Ahmad, Wan Azlina

    2007-01-01

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L -1 of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min -1 . The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment

  3. Biological detoxification of Cr(VI) using wood-husk immobilized Acinetobacter haemolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, Zainul Akmar; Zakaria, Zainoha [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Surif, Salmijah [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Wan Azlina [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)], E-mail: azlina@kimia.fs.utm.my

    2007-09-05

    Acinetobacter haemolyticus, a Gram-negative aerobic locally isolated bacterium, immobilized on wood-husk showed the ability to detoxify Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Wood-husk, a natural cellulose-based support material, packed in an upward-flow column was used as support material for bacterial attachment. Around 97% of the Cr(VI) in wastewater containing 15 mg L{sup -1} of Cr(VI) was reduced at a flow rate of 8.0 mL min{sup -1}. The wastewater containing Cr(VI) was added with liquid pineapple wastewater as nutrient source for the bacteria. Electron microscopic examinations of the wood-husk after 42 days of column operation showed gradual colonization of the wood-husk by bacterial biofilm. The use of 0.1% (v/v) formaldehyde as a disinfecting agent inhibited growth of bacteria present in the final wastewater discharge. This finding is important in view of the ethical code regarding possible introduction of exogenous bacterial species into the environment.

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 行男; 村上, 賢

    2007-01-01

    A total of 291 fecal samples from 252 wild reptiles and 39 pet reptiles were examined for the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Japan. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 29 (11.5%) of 252 wild reptiles and 22 (55.6%) of 39 pet reptiles. The isolates were identified into subspecies I to IV. The majority of isolates (43.6%) belonged to subspecies I and these isolates could be identified into 9 serovars. The serovars isolated were found to be S. Newport, S. Litchifield and S. Thompson which cause...

  5. Some ecological aspects of the fungi trichoderma spp and bliocladium spp in Palma de Vino soils farm, la Dorada, Caldas, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viteri, Silvio E; Zarta, D; Salgado, N

    2000-01-01

    Trichoderma spp and Gliocladium spp have been reported as control agents of some of the fungi that cause root rot diseases in various crops. Despite this potential the there is no information on their ecology in tropical soils. This study was conducted at the Palma de Vino farm, La Dorada, Caldas with the aim of contributing to the understanding of their ecology in their natural habitat in the tropics. Representative soil and rhizosphere samples were collected and analyzed for some physical, chemical, and biological properties. The results showed clearly that: 1) both genera, form part of the native microflora of those soils. 2) The Trichoderma spp population fluctuated between 5.7x10 2 and 6.4x10 3 and between 7.4x10 2 and 2x10 4 UFC g - 1 in the soil and rhizoplane, respectively; the Gliocladium spp population could not be estimated, probably due to their low numbers. 3) Within the genus Trichoderma the species T. Hamatum, T. Harzianum, and T. Koningu could be identified. 4) The Trichoderma spp populations, especially those from de rhizoplane, showed a clear relation with de soil pH. As far as we know, these results represent the first source of information on the ecology of these two agronomic important fungi, under tropical conditions

  6. Ecological Factors Determining Abundance of Parasitic Mites on Aedes spp. Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhadi Eko Firmansyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ability to infestation and abundance of parasitic mites in Aedes spp. larvae cannot be separated from the influence of various factors. Ecological factors have been suggested to play a role determine the presence of parasitic mites that under certain conditions become a key factor in determining the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae. The aim of this study to determine the ecological factors affect the abundance of parasitic mites on Aedes spp. larvae in Bogor Regency. Capturing of Aedes spp. larvae was performed directly on the habitats found in indoor and outdoor. Capturing mites in the body of Aedes spp. larvae was performed using insect forceps. Ecological factors measured were dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, temperature, and total dissolved solid (TDS. The influence of ecological factors was analyzed using regression and correlation analysis. The result of mite identification has been obtained three species of mites that are Halacarus sp., Histiostoma sp., and Hydrozetes sp. The result indicated that total dissolved solid (TDS and temperature was the factors that determined the abundance of mites. The factors of pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO did not determine the abundance of parasitic mites of Aedes spp. larvae. The research result can be further developed as a new alternative to Dengue Hemorraghic Fever control and provide information on parasitic mites that infest Aedes spp. larvae. In addition, this results become an early step in controlling of Aedes spp. strategy platform by the parasitic mites.

  7. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  8. Los aspectos socioculturales de la migración en la frontera norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Priego Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available México se considera el país de emigrantes más importante del mundo y Estados Unidos el principal país de inmigrantes. Su posición geográfica en la frontera Norte lo convierten atractivo para los flujos migratorios de los países centroamericanos. Hoy enfrenta los retos de la crisis financiera internacional de los últimos años que afecta las economías y las relaciones bilaterales. Este trabajo consiste en realizar un estudio de la problemática de los aspectos socioculturales provocada por la migración de personas, analizar fortalezas y debilidades, identificar los nuevos aspectos de la migración y proponer alternativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los migrantes mexicanos.

  9. Molecular survey of occurrence and quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in municipal drinking water storage tank sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Yelton, S; Ashbolt, N

    2015-07-01

    To examine the occurrence and quantity of potential pathogens and an indicator of microbial contamination in the sediments of municipal drinking water storage tanks (MDWSTs), given the absence of such data across the United States. Sediment samples (87 MDWST) from eighteen locations across ten states of the United States were collected and assayed by qPCR for a range of potential enteric and opportunistic microbial pathogens and a sewage-associated Bacteroides marker. Potential opportunistic pathogens dominated, with the highest detection of occurrence (per cent positive detection; average cell equivalence (CE)) being Mycobacterium spp. (88·9%; 6·7 ± 8·5 × 10(4) CE g(-1) ), followed by Legionella spp. (66·7%; 5·2 ± 5·9 × 10(3) CE g(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22·2%; 250 ± 880 CE g(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (38·9%; 53 ± 70 CE g(-1) ), with no detected Naegleria fowleri. Most enteric pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis) were not detected, except for a trace signal for Campylobacter spp. There was significant correlation between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Acanthamoeba spp. (R(2) = 0·61, n = 87, P = 0·0001). Diverse Legionella spp. including Leg. pneumophila, Leg. pneumophila sg1 and Leg. anisa were identified, each of which might cause legionellosis. These results imply that potential opportunistic pathogens are common within MDWST sediments and could act as a source of microbial contamination, but need downstream growth to be of potential concern. The results imply that opportunistic pathogen risks may need to be managed by regular tank cleaning or other management practices. 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. PCR detection of Bartonella spp. in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Konvalinová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed at using PCR to identify the incidence of Bartonella spp. in blood of dogs. Altogether 286 dogs of 92 breeds aged 3 month to 17 years were tested from October 2008 to December 2009. Healthy dogs as well as dogs with various clinical symptoms of disease were included in the group. Samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR specific for the presence of Bartonella spp. Following the DNA examination in 286 dogs by PCR and subsequent sequencing, two samples were identified as Bartonella henselae (0.7%. Other species of Bartonella were not found. It was the first time in the Czech Republic when incidence of Bartonella spp. was determined in dogs.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation followed by moderate temperature a buse on the psychrotrophic and mesophilic microbial association of frozen chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    commercially scalded, plucked and eviscerated broilers, aerobically packed into polyethylene bags were irradiated at -18 C. A dose of 2.5 kilo gay was effective in the elimination of salmonella spp and staphylococcus aureus. Psychrotrophic and mesophilic aerobic colony counts of the non-irradiated chicken were of the order 10 4 and 10 5 g -1 , respectively. Radiation resulted in approximately tow long cycles reduction in the count. The surviving microflora in frozen chicken after irradiation consisted mainly of lactobacillus spp. and micrococcus spp. which dominated the mesophilic flora. moraxella spp.amounted to 70% of the total Psychrotrophic flora. The microflora of frozen chicken after temperature abuse at 12 C were mainly of the moraxella-acinetobacter group and to a lesser extent of pseudomonas spp. The results demonstrated that the microflora after temperature abuse irradiated chicken was similar to the microflora of non-abuse irradiated chicken. This supports the view that irradiation of chicken dose not entail a hazard, resulting from a shift in the microflora in case frozen chicken are thawed and stored at increased temperatures.(Author)

  12. Effect of gamma irrigation followed by moderate temperature abuse on the psychrotrophic and mesophilic microbial association of frozen chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Commercially scalded, plucked and eviscerated broilers, aerobically packed into polyethylene bags were irradiated at - 18 deg C. A dose of 2.5 kilogay was effective in the elimination of salmonella spp. and staphylococcus aureus. Psychrotrophic and mesophilic aerobic colony counts of the non-irradiated chicken were of the order 10**4 and 10**5 gE-1, respectively. Radiation resulted in approximately two long cycles reduction in the count. The surviving microflora in frozen chicken after irradiation consisted mainly of lactobacillus spp. and micrococcus spp. which dominated the mesophilic flora. Moraxella spp. amounted to 70% of the total psychrotrophic flora. The microflora of frozen chicken after temperature abuse at 12 deg C were maily of the moraxella-acinetobacter group and to a lesser extent of Pseudomonas spp. The results demonstrated that the microflora after temperature abuse of irradiated chicken was similar to the microflora of non-irradiated chicken. This supports the view that irradiation of chicken does not entail a hazard, resulting from a shift in the micrflora in case frozen chicken are thawed and stored at increased temperatures

  13. Legionella spp. in dental unit waterlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlata Juraskova, E; Sedlackova, H; Janska, J; Holy, O; Lalova, I; Matouskova, I

    2017-01-01

    To determine the current presence of Legionella spp. in the output water of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and examine its mitigation by disinfection at the Institute of Dentistry and Oral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc and University Hospital Olomouc. The first stage of our survey involved collecting samples of DUWL output water from 50 dental chair units (DCUs), and 2 samples of the incoming potable water. In October 2015, a one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) of DUWLs was conducted. This was followed by collecting 10 control samples (survey stage 2). From the total of 50 samples (survey stage 1), 18 samples (36.0 %) tested positive for Legionella spp. Following the disinfection, nine of the ten samples no longer showed any presence of Legionella. Based on culture results, the one-time disinfection (1 % Stabimed) was effective. We are unable to comment on the duration of positive effect of disinfection on the occurrence of Legionella spp. in the outlet water. It was a one-time survey (Tab. 2, Ref. 32).

  14. Molecular identification and characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakara, Shetty Thimmappa; Santosh, Parthasarathy; Aiyaz, Mohammed; Ramana, Mudili Venkata; Hariprasad, Puttaswamy; Nayaka, Siddaih Chandra; Niranjana, Siddapura Ramachandrappa

    2014-04-01

    Fusarium spp. are not only pathogenic to plants but are also known as toxin producers that negatively affect animal and human health. The identification of Fusarium spp. remains one of the most critical issues in fungal taxonomy. In this study, different strains of Fusarium spp. were isolated from sorghum seed samples and identified at the molecular level by tef-1α gene amplification. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to differentiate toxigenic and non-toxigenic Fusarium spp. by designing a primer for the Fum21 gene along with the Fum1 and Fum8 genes. A competitive direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) was employed to assess the fumonisin-producing ability of Fusarium spp. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial sequences of tef-1α and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers of different Fusarium spp. All 27 isolates of Fusarium spp. were positive for the tef-1α gene and revealed the presence of F. verticillioides, F. thapsina and F. cf. incarnatum-equiseti complex. The standardized mPCR assay distinguished toxigenic and non-toxigenic F. verticillioides. Further, mPCR fumonisin-positive F. verticillioides isolates were also positive by CD-ELISA. The tef-1α gene sequence was found to be useful in revealing intraspecific polymorphism to some extent. ISSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism among different isolates of Fusarium spp., and the dendrogram of ISSR analyses grouped the 27 isolates into two major clusters. The present method provided rapid and reliable detection of fumonisin-producing Fusarium spp. The mPCR assay could be an alternative strategy to current conventional mycotoxin analytical techniques and a reliable tool for high-throughput monitoring of major mycotoxin-producing fungi during the processing steps of food and feed commodities. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Relationships between leukocytes and Hepatozoon spp. In green frogs, Rana clamitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutler, Dave; Smith, Todd G; Robinson, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on amphibian leukocyte profiles, and relationships between amphibian leukocytes and parasites are even less well known. Using counts from 35 pairs of blood smears taken 2 days apart, we tested for correlations between leukocyte proportions and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. (either Hepatozoon catesbianae or Hepatozoon clamatae) in green frogs (Rana clamitans). On average (SE), we counted 65.4 (1.7) lymphocytes, 14.0 (1.3) neutrophils, 19.3 (1.6) eosinophils, 0.9 (0.1) monocytes, and 0.4 (0.1) basophils per 100 leukocytes. All frogs harbored Hepatozoon spp. (median seven parasites per 100 leukocytes; range 1-250). Significant relationships were not observed between numbers of leukocytes and infection intensities of Hepatozoon spp. Among the possible explanations for these null results are that Hepatozoon spp. is benign, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to evade detection by the immune system, that Hepatozoon spp. is able to manipulate leukocyte investment, or that other unmeasured or undetected parasites were more important in affecting immune response.

  16. RNA-Mediated cis Regulation in Acinetobacter baumannii Modulates Stress-Induced Phenotypic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Carly; Gozzi, Kevin; Heinemann, Björn; Chai, Yunrong; Godoy, Veronica G

    2017-06-01

    In the nosocomial opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii , RecA-dependent mutagenesis, which causes antibiotic resistance acquisition, is linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). Notably, unlike the Escherichia coli paradigm, recA and DDR gene expression in A. baumannii is bimodal. Namely, there is phenotypic variation upon DNA damage, which may provide a bet-hedging strategy for survival. Thus, understanding recA gene regulation is key to elucidate the yet unknown DDR regulation in A. baumannii Here, we identify a structured 5' untranslated region (UTR) in the recA transcript which serves as a cis -regulatory element. We show that a predicted stem-loop structure in this 5' UTR affects mRNA half-life and underlies bimodal gene expression and thus phenotypic variation in response to ciprofloxacin treatment. We furthermore show that the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR influences intracellular RecA protein levels and, in vivo , impairing the formation of the stem-loop structure of the recA 5' UTR lowers cell survival of UV treatment and decreases rifampin resistance acquisition from DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. We hypothesize that the 5' UTR allows for stable recA transcripts during stress, including antibiotic treatment, enabling cells to maintain suitable RecA levels for survival. This innovative strategy to regulate the DDR in A. baumannii may contribute to its success as a pathogen. IMPORTANCE Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen quickly gaining antibiotic resistances. Mutagenesis and antibiotic resistance acquisition are linked to the DNA damage response (DDR). However, how the DDR is regulated in A. baumannii remains unknown, since unlike most bacteria, A. baumannii does not follow the regulation of the Escherichia coli paradigm. In this study, we have started to uncover the mechanisms regulating the novel A. baumannii DDR. We have found that a cis -acting 5' UTR regulates recA transcript stability, RecA protein levels, and DNA

  17. Transposons and integrons in colistin-resistant clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii with epidemic or sporadic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Sonia M; Quiroga, María Paula; Ramírez, María Soledad; Merkier, Andrea Karina; Errecalde, Laura; Di Martino, Ana; Smayevsky, Jorgelina; Kaufman, Sara; Centrón, Daniela

    2012-10-01

    Multiple transposons, integrons and carbapenemases were found in Klebsiella pneumoniae colistin-resistant isolates as well as a genomic resistance island of the AbaR type in Acinetobacter baumannii colistin-resistant isolates from different hospitals from Buenos Aires City. PFGE analysis showed a polyclonal dissemination of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms among K. pneumoniae isolates, while in A. baumannii isolates the epidemic clone 1 from South America was found. Resistance determinants associated with horizontal gene transfer are contributing to the evolution to pandrug resistance in both epidemic and sporadic clones.

  18. Planificación estratégica: aspectos introductorios (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Reyes, Fuensanta Carmen; De la Varga Salto, José María

    2016-01-01

    Transparencias como material docente para la asignatura de Administración de Organizaciones. Se corresponden con la etapa primera del proceso administrativo de las organizaciones, la planificación estratégica. En concreto, incluyen aspectos introductorios relacionados con el análisis del entorno y el análisis interno, así como con el concepto y las características de los objetivos estratégicos.

  19. In vitro activity of aminoglycosides against clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii complex and other nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli causing healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jyh-You; Wang, Fu-Der; Ho, Mao-Wang; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liu, Jien-Wei; Wang, Jann-Tay; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hseuh, Po-Ren; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2016-12-01

    Aminoglycosides possess in vitro activity against aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli. However, nationwide surveillance on susceptibility data of Acinetobacter baumannii complex and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to aminoglycosides was limited, and aminoglycoside resistance has emerged in the past decade. We study the in vitro susceptibility of A. baumannii complex and other nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) to aminoglycosides. A total of 378 NFGNB blood isolates causing healthcare-associated bloodstream infections during 2008 and 2013 at four medical centers in Taiwan were tested for their susceptibilities to four aminoglycosides using the agar dilution method (gentamicin, amikacin, tobramycin, and isepamicin) and disc diffusion method (isepamicin). A. baumannii was highly resistant to all four aminoglycosides (range of susceptibility, 0-4%), whereas >80% of Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter pittii blood isolates were susceptible to amikacin (susceptibility: 96% and 91%, respectively), tobramycin (susceptibility: 92% and 80%, respectively), and isepamicin (susceptibility: 96% and 80%, respectively). All aminoglycosides except gentamicin possessed good in vitro activity (>94%) against P. aeruginosa. Amikacin has the best in vitro activity against P. aeruginosa (susceptibility, 98%), followed by A. nosocomialis (96%), and A. pittii (91%), whereas tobramycin and isepamicin were less potent against A. pittii (both 80%). Aminoglycoside resistances were prevalent in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia complex blood isolates in Taiwan. Genospecies among the A. baumannii complex had heterogeneous susceptibility profiles to aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides, except gentamicin, remained good in vitro antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa. Further in vivo clinical data and continuous resistance monitoring are warranted for clinical practice guidance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity of Piper spp. in Hainan Island (China ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic variation of Piper spp. from Hainan, China. 247 polymorphic bands out of a total of 248 (99.60%) were generated from 74 individual plants of Piper spp. The overall level of genetic diversity among Piper spp. in Hainan was high, with the mean ...

  1. Factors associated with fecal-shedding of Salmonella spp by horses on US operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional national study that included 972 operations with > 3 horses on 1/1/98 in 28 states in the USA, 8,417 fecal specimens were collected from horses and cultured to test for the presence of Salmonella spp. Operations were characterized as Salmonella spp-positive if at least one fecal specimen tested positive for Salmonella spp. Percentages of Salmonella spp-positive operations were computed by management and other factors (collected from operation-level questionnaires that were hypothesized to be related to fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. A logistic-regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with horses? shedding Salmonella spp in feces on an operation. The odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive increased as the number of resident horses increased. In addition, the following factors were found to be associated with increased odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive: horses were used primarily for breeding; operation cleanliness was characterized as poor by the data collector; and new resident equids had been added to the operation without routine quarantine.

  2. Preliminary findings of Salmonella spp. in captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and their environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M A; Shane, S M

    2000-06-12

    Captive reptiles are routinely identified as reservoirs of Salmonella spp. and reports of reptile-associated salmonellosis are increasing. Unfortunately, little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. and green iguanas. We did a limited survey of a green-iguana farm in El Salvador to identify sources of Salmonella spp. in green iguanas and their environment. A limited number of samples for microbiological culture were collected from iguanas (adult, hatchling, and embryos) and their environment (food, water, soil, shelter, insects, and wild-caught lizards). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the intestine of both adult (3/20) and hatchling iguanas (8/20). There was no evidence of Salmonella spp. in the reproductive tracts of female iguanas (0/10). Salmonella spp. was isolated from the surface of 40% (7/16) of the egg surfaces tested. Salmonella spp. was not identified from the externalized yolk-sac of the iguana embryos tested. Soil samples from a breeding pen and a nest were both positive for Salmonella spp. Eight different Salmonella spp. serotypes were identified in this survey. These results suggest that horizontal transmission of Salmonella spp. is a potential source of exposure to hatchling iguanas at this facility.

  3. Biology of Acinetobacter baumannii: Pathogenesis, Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms, and Prospective Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ro; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Moonhee; Park, Kwang Seung; Bae, Il Kwon; Kim, Young Bae; Cha, Chang-Jun; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is undoubtedly one of the most successful pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired nosocomial infections in the modern healthcare system. Due to the prevalence of infections and outbreaks caused by multi-drug resistant A. baumannii, few antibiotics are effective for treating infections caused by this pathogen. To overcome this problem, knowledge of the pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii is important. In this review, we summarize current studies on the virulence factors that contribute to A. baumannii pathogenesis, including porins, capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, phospholipases, outer membrane vesicles, metal acquisition systems, and protein secretion systems. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of this organism, including acquirement of β-lactamases, up-regulation of multidrug efflux pumps, modification of aminoglycosides, permeability defects, and alteration of target sites, are also discussed. Lastly, novel prospective treatment options for infections caused by multi-drug resistant A. baumannii are summarized. PMID:28348979

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the phosphoglycerate kinase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baretta, Kayla; Garen, Craig; Yin, Jiang; James, Michael N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately five decades have passed with only one or two new antibiotics making it into clinical use. Phosphoglycerate kinase from A. baumanii has been selected as a potential target for antibiotic development; this paper presents the initial structural biological results from this research. Acinetobacter baumannii is a common multidrug-resistant clinical pathogen that is often found in hospitals. The A. baumannii phosphoglycerate kinase (AbPGK) is involved in the key energy-producing pathway of glycolysis and presents a potential target for antibiotic development. AbPGK has been expressed and purified; it was crystallized using lithium sulfate as the precipitant. The AbPGK crystals belonged to space group P222 1 . They diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å using synchrotron radiation at the Canadian Light Source

  5. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Capped Silver Nanoparticle Inhibits Infection of Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii in the Human Pulmonary Epithelial Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishvanath Tiwari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic ESKAPE pathogen, causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Pathogenicity of Acinetobacter is significantly influenced by its ability to infect and survive in human pulmonary cells. Therefore, it is important to study the infection of A. baumannii in human pulmonary host cell (A-549, monitoring surface interacting and internalized bacteria. It was found that during infection of A. baumannii, about 40% bacteria adhered to A-549, whereas 20% got internalized inside pulmonary cell and induces threefold increase in the reactive oxygen species production. We have synthesized polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-capped AgNPs using chemical methods and tested its efficacy against carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. PVP-capped silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs (30 µM have shown antibacterial activity against carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii and this concentration does not have any cytotoxic effect on the human pulmonary cell line (IC50 is 130 µM. Similarly, PVP-AgNPs treatment decreases 80% viability of intracellular bacteria, decreases adherence of A. baumannii to A-549 (40 to 2.2%, and decreases intracellular concentration (20 to 1.3% of A. baumannii. This concludes that PVP-AgNPs can be developed as a substitute for carbapenem to control the infection caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii.

  6. [Inventory building of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wounds of patients with severe burn and related characteristic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z C; Deng, L Y; Gong, Y L; Yin, S P; Jiang, B; Huang, G T; Peng, Y Z; Hu, F Q

    2016-09-20

    To build inventory of phages against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU and analyze related characteristics. In 2014 and 2015, 131 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from one hospital in Chongqing. In 2015, 98 strains of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii were isolated from wounds of inpatients of burn ICU from 6 hospitals in Guangdong province. Above-mentioned 229 strains were collected for conducting experiments as follows: (1) Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of strains isolated from Chongqing and Guangdong province was analyzed. (2) Sewage co-culture method was applied for isolation of phages with above-mentioned strains and sewage from Chongqing and Guangdong province. Numbers of isolated phages and times of successful isolation and unsuccessful isolation were recorded. (3) The most prevalent subtypes of strains from Chongqing and Guangdong province in 2015 were collected, and their phages respectively underwent cross infection with all strains from Chongqing and those from Guangdong province. The lysis ability of phage was observed when phage underwent cross infection with the same subtype of strain or not the same, and the lytic ratio was calculated. (4) Fluid of phage in one type was randomly selected and equally divided into 3 parts, and its titer was determined by double dilution method. Then each part of phage fluid was subdivided into 3 small parts, which were cultured with LB fluid medium and respectively stored under the condition of -20 ℃, 4 ℃, and room temperature. After being stored for 1 month and 2 months, the titer of phage was determined for evaluating stability of phage. Data were processed with Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and one-way analysis of variance. (1) The major type of strains from Chongqing in 2014 was ST368 (45%, 31/69), and major types of strains from Chongqing

  7. A Novel Low-Temperature Alkaline Lipase from Acinetobacter johnsonii LP28 Suitable for Detergent Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Kuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain LP28 that produces alkaline and low-temperature lipase was isolated from the soil collected from the Bay of Bohai, PR China and identified as Acinetobacter johnsonii using 16S rDNA sequencing. The lipase was purified to homogeneity by centrifugation, followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ion exchange chromatography on cellulose DE-52 and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-75. The enzyme was purified about 34-fold with a final yield of 13 % and the relative molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 53 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme exhibited maximum activity at 30 °C and pH=9.0, and retained 94.53 % of its maximum activity at 20 °C. The enzyme was stable at 50 °C and retained 80.9 % of its original activity for 30 min. It was also highly stable in a pH range of 8.0–11.0. The enzyme hydrolyzed a wide range of oils and showed a high level of lipase activity in hydrolyzing tributyrin. The enzyme activity was promoted in the presence of Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+ and sodium citrate. Ba2+, Mn2+, Cr3+ and Co2+ did not affect the enzyme activity, whereas the presence of Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+ and EDTA reduced the enzyme activity. Regarding the stability of detergent process, the enzyme was highly stable in the presence of various oxidizing agents, some commercial detergents and alkaline protease, and its activity was also promoted by most of the surfactants, viz. Tween 20, Tween 80, sodium cholate, sodium taurocholate and saponin. For these characteristics, the lipase from Acinetobacter johnsonii LP28 showed good potential as an additive in laundry detergent formulation.

  8. Population structure of Legionella spp. from environmental samples in Gabon, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Jonas; Alabi, Abraham S; Kuczius, Thorsten; Tsombeng, Francis Foguim; Becker, Karsten; Kremsner, Peter G; Schaumburg, Frieder; Esen, Meral

    2015-07-01

    Aquatic environments are the most important source for Legionella spp. infections such as Legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever. The reservoirs of Legionella spp. are mostly unclear in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study, conducted in 2013, was to identify geographical areas of an increased risk for exposure to Legionella spp., and to describe the population structure of Legionella spp. from different water sources in a cross-sectional study in Gabon. Fresh water samples (n = 200) were cultured on Legionella selective agar; species were confirmed by MALDI-TOF, a Legionella pneumophila specific real-time PCR and 16S RNA gene sequencing. Serogroups were identified by agglutination test. The population structure was assessed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Legionella spp. isolates (n = 29) were frequently found in the hospital setting particularly in hot water systems. Open water bodies (i.e. rivers, lakes) were not contaminated with Legionella spp. Isolated L. pneumophila mainly belonged to serogroups 2-14 (n = 19) and MLST sequence type ST1, ST75 (and related STs) and ST1911. In conclusion, hospitalized patients might have an increased risk to become infected with Legionella spp. in the studied areas in Gabon, particularly if they have risk factors such as comorbidities. Both broadly extended (ST1, ST75) and local lineages (ST1911) were present in our setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the bacterial community structures in the intestine of Lampetra morii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingying; Xie, Wenfang; Li, Qingwei

    2016-07-01

    The metagenomic analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing method were used to investigate the bacterial community in the intestines of Lampetra morii. The bacterial community structure in L. morii intestine was relatively simple. Eight different operational taxonomic units were observed. Chitinophagaceae_unclassified (26.5 %) and Aeromonas spp. (69.6 %) were detected as dominant members at the genus level. The non-dominant genera were as follows: Acinetobacter spp. (1.4 %), Candidatus Bacilloplasma (2.5 %), Enterobacteria spp. (1.5 %), Shewanella spp. (0.04 %), Vibrio spp. (0.09 %), and Yersinia spp. (1.8 %). The Shannon-Wiener (H) and Simpson (1-D) indexes were 0.782339 and 0.5546, respectively. The rarefaction curve representing the bacterial community richness and Shannon-Wiener curve representing the bacterial community diversity reached asymptote, which indicated that the sequence depth were sufficient to represent the majority of species richness and bacterial community diversity. The number of Aeromonas in lamprey intestine was two times higher after stimulation by lipopolysaccharide than PBS. This study provides data for understanding the bacterial community harboured in lamprey intestines and exploring potential key intestinal symbiotic bacteria essential for the L. morii immune response.

  10. Oral flora of Python regius kept as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, L; Russo, T P; Calabria, M; De Rosa, L; Capasso, M; Menna, L F; Borrelli, L; Fioretti, A

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the oral bacterial flora of 60 Python regius kept as pets by culture and biochemical methods. All isolates were also submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the disc diffusion method. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria mainly constituted by Pseudomonas spp., Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, but also by Salmonella spp. Staphylococcus spp. was the commonest Gram-positive isolates, and various anaerobic Clostridium species were also found. The most effective antimicrobial agents were enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, followed by doxycycline and gentamicin. The oral cavity of snakes sampled harboured a wide range of bacteria. Our results suggest that people who come in contact with snakes could be at risk of infection and should follow proper hygiene practices when handling these reptiles. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Eugenia vinculada a aspectos bioéticos: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o que versam as produções científicas sobre eugenia, vinculando-as com aspectos bioéticos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura. Os dados foram coletados nas bases de dados Lilacs e SciELO, por meio dos descritores: eugenia, etnia e saúde, ética e bioética. Para a análise e posterior síntese dos artigos foi utilizada figura sinóptica. Verificou-se que a eugenia viola os direitos humanos, contradiz com o princípio da solidariedade e coloca em risco a diversidade humana. Conclui-se que houve déficit de artigos que abordem aspectos bioéticos vinculados à eugenia, assim, este estudo poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre essa articulação.

  12. EKOLOGI Anopheles spp. DI KABUPATEN LOMBOK TENGAH

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    Majematang Mading

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a public health problem in West Nusa Tenggara Province. Central Lombok District is one of the areas with high case of malaria. Annual Malaria Incidence (AMI was increased from 5.9 ‰ in 2006, 6.7‰ up to 8.1‰ in 2008. The objective of the study is to describe the ecological condition of Anopheles spp. through observation, measurement of environmental variables, larvae and adult collection. This research was an observational research with cross-sectional study. The population of this study is all mosquitos and breeding habitats of Anopheles spp. that exist in the research location. Ecological observations carried out on anopheles breeding habitats including acidity, salinity, shaded places and aquatic biota. Air temperature and humidity measured at the adult mosquitoes trapping sites. The result showed that pH values of water is around 9.00, salinity in the breeding habitats around 14 ppm, and water biota (i.e. moss, grass, shrimps, fishes, tadpoles and crabs surrounded by bushes with larvae density 0,1-28,8 each dipping. The air measurement at the time was between 23°-27° Celsius and 65%-84% humidity. This research concludes that ecology and environmental conditions were supporting the development of larvae and adult mosquito of Anopheles spp.Keywords: ecology, Anopheles spp., Central Lombok

  13. Aspectos valorizados por porfissionais de enfermagem na higiene pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elóide André Oliveira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Survey descritivo, com o qual se objetivou identificar que aspectos da higiene corporal são valorizados pelos componentes da equipe de enfermagem, na higiene corporal pessoal e na higiene corporal do paciente. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em oito instituições públicas de saúde e a amostra foi composta por 126 profissionais de enfermagem, correspondendo a 12,8% do total de 986 componentes das equipes de enfermagem destas instituições. Na higiene corporal pessoal, chamou a atenção o fato de que os cuidados com as unhas e com os cabelos tenham suplantado, no número de citações dos profissionais de enfermagem, aspectos básicos como o cuidado com as mãos. Na higiene corporal do paciente, o banho foi o aspecto considerado mais importante pelas três categorias profissionais; a higiene oral, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e auxiliares de enfermagem; e as unhas, pelas(os enfermeiras(os e técnicas(os de enfermagem.

  14. High prevalence of extensively drug-resistant and metallo beta-lactamase-producing clinical Acinetobacter baumannii in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspi, Hossein; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2016-09-01

    Acinetobacter species particularly Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) have been widely reported as broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant pathogens. Expression of various types of metallo beta-lactamases (MBL), classified as Ambler class B, has been associated with carbapenem resistance. Here, we attempted to assess the frequency of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and MBL-producing A. baumannii among clinical isolates. 86 clinical A. baumannii strains were collected from 2014 to 2015 and their susceptibility to meropenem (10 μg), imipenem (10 μg), azteronem (30 μg), pipracillin (100 μg) tazobactam (110 μg), tobramycin (10 μg), fosfomycin (200 μg), rifampicin (5 μg), colistin (10 μg), tigecycline (15 μg), sulbactam/ampicillin (10 μg + 10 μg) and polymixin B (300 U) was evaluated using disk diffusion method. The MBL-producing isolates were screened using combined disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the presence of blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM, blaSIM and blaNDM was detected by PCR. 34.9% of isolates were recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). 81 (94.2%) and 62 (71.2%) isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) and XDR, respectively. 44 (51.2%) and 65 (75.6%) isolates were MBL-producing strains with resistance to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. 2 (2.3%), 13 (15.1%), 2 (2.3%), 4 (4.7%) and 2 (2.3%) isolates carried blaVIM, blaIMP, blaSPM, blaGIM and blaSIM genes, respectively. Our data showed that the rate of XDR and MBL A. baumannii is on the rise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Response to Bile Salts in Clinical Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii Lacking the AdeABC Efflux Pump: Virulence Associated with Quorum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez, Maria; Blasco, Lucia; Gato, Eva; Perez, Astrid; Fern?ndez-Garcia, Laura; Mart?nez-Martinez, Luis; Fern?ndez-Cuenca, Felipe; Rodr?guez-Ba?o, Jes?s; Pascual, Alvaro; Bou, German; Tom?s, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen associated with multiple infections. This pathogen usually colonizes (first stage of microbial infection) host tissues that are in contact with the external environment. As one of the sites of entry in human hosts is the gastrointestinal tract, the pathogen must be capable of tolerating bile salts. However, studies analyzing the molecular characteristics involved in the response to bile salts in clinical strains of ...

  16. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Philippe; Cornet, Jean-Paul; Sanogo, Yibayiri Osée; Miller, R Scott; Thien, Huynh Van; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Raoult, Didier; Telford III, Sam R; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2003-04-01

    A total of 650 ticks, including 13 species from five genera, were collected from animals, from people, or by flagging of the vegetation at sites on the Thai-Myanmar border and in Vietnam. They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp. strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnAj360, which was obtained from Amblyomma javanense ticks collected on a pangolin; and (iii) Anaplasma sp. strain AnHl446, which was closely related to Anaplasma bovis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis lagrangei ticks collected from a bear. Three Ehrlichia spp. were identified, including (i) Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52, which was obtained from Boophilus microplus ticks collected from cattle from Thailand; (ii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh324, which was closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis and which was detected in Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam; and (iii) Ehrlichia sp. strain EHh317, which was closely related to Ehrlichia sp. strain EBm52 and which was also detected in H. hystricis ticks collected from wild pigs in Vietnam. Two Rickettsia spp. were detected in Thailand, including (i) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla420, which was detected in Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from a bear, and (ii) Rickettsia sp. strain RDla440, which was identified from two pools of Dermacentor larvae collected from a wild pig nest. Finally, two bacteria named Eubacterium sp. strain Hw124 and Eubacterium sp. strain Hw191 were identified in Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks collected from chicken in Thailand; these strains could belong to a new group of bacteria.

  18. Aspectos bioéticos del consentimiento informado en investigación con población vulnerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Garzón Díaz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es el resultado de 10 años de investigación en el tema del Consentimiento Informado en Investigación Biomédica. Este artículo presenta un análisis sistemático de los aspectos teóricos y prácticos del consentimiento informado en personas y poblaciones vulnerables. Aborda la cuestión a partir de todos los ángulos pertinentes, desde el histórico hasta el jurídico, pasando por la fundamentación filosófica, psicológica, antropológica y didáctica del consentimiento informado. La profundidad en el recorrido por los aspectos teóricos se ve complementada por la presentación de los aspectos más prácticos, que llega hasta la formulación de propuestas muy concretas para la mejora del consentimiento informado.

  19. In Vitro Activity of Imipenem-Relebactam against Gram-Negative ESKAPE Pathogens Isolated by Clinical Laboratories in the United States in 2015 (Results from the SMART Global Surveillance Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lob, Sibylle H; Hackel, Meredith A; Kazmierczak, Krystyna M; Young, Katherine; Motyl, Mary R; Karlowsky, James A; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-06-01

    Relebactam (formerly MK-7655) is an inhibitor of class A and C β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), and is currently in clinical development in combination with imipenem-cilastatin. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the in vitro activities of imipenem-relebactam, imipenem, and seven routinely tested parenteral antimicrobial agents against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (including Klebsiella pneumoniae , n = 689; Acinetobacter baumannii , n = 72; Pseudomonas aeruginosa , n = 845; and Enterobacter spp., n = 399) submitted by 21 clinical laboratories in the United States in 2015 as part of the SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) global surveillance program. Relebactam was tested at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml in combination with doubling dilutions of imipenem. Imipenem-relebactam MICs were interpreted using CLSI imipenem breakpoints. The respective rates of susceptibility to imipenem-relebactam and imipenem were 94.2% (796/845) and 70.3% (594/845) for P. aeruginosa , 99.0% (682/689) and 96.1% (662/689) for K. pneumoniae , and 100% (399/399) and 98.0% (391/399) for Enterobacter spp. Relebactam restored imipenem susceptibility to 80.5% (202/251), 74.1% (20/27), and 100% (8/8) of isolates of imipenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa , K. pneumoniae , and Enterobacter spp. Relebactam did not increase the number of isolates of Acinetobacter spp. susceptible to imipenem, and the rates of resistance to all of the agents tested against this pathogen were >30%. Further development of imipenem-relebactam is warranted given the demonstrated ability of relebactam to restore the activity of imipenem against current clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa that are nonsusceptible to carbapenems and its potential as a therapy for treating patients with antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2017 American

  20. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections in Brazilian Pediatric Patients: Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Alberto Pires; Marra, Alexandre R.; Camargo, Luis Fernando Aranha; Pignatari, Antônio Carlos Campos;