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Sample records for acids increase cardiovascular

  1. Uric acid increases erythrocyte aggregation: Implications for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloop, Gregory D; Bialczak, Jessica K; Weidman, Joseph J; St Cyr, J A

    2016-10-05

    Uric acid may be a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, although the data conflict and the mechanism by which it may cause cardiovascular disease is uncertain. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that uric acid, an anion at physiologic pH, can cause erythrocyte aggregation, which itself is associated with cardiovascular disease. Normal erythrocytes and erythrocytes with a positive direct antiglobulin test for surface IgG were incubated for 15 minutes in 14.8 mg/dL uric acid. Erythrocytes without added uric acid were used as controls. Erythrocytes were then examined microscopically for aggregation. Aggregates of up to 30 erythrocytes were noted when normal erythrocytes were incubated in uric acid. Larger aggregates were noted when erythrocytes with surface IgG were incubated in uric acid. Aggregation was negligible in controls. These data show that uric acid causes erythrocyte aggregation. The most likely mechanism is decreased erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte aggregates will increase blood viscosity at low shear rates and increase the risk of atherothrombosis. In this manner, hyperuricemia and decreased zeta potential may be risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  2. Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Jean-Michel

    2009-05-01

    Fatty acids have been classified into "good" or "bad" groups according to their degree of unsaturation or whether they are "animal fat" or "vegetable fat". Today, it appears that the effects of fatty acids are complex and vary greatly according to the dose and the nature of the molecule. Monounsaturated fatty acids are still considered as having a "neutral" status, but any benefits may be related to the chemical environment of the source food or the associated overall food pattern. Controversy surrounds omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, because even though they lower LDL cholesterol levels, excessive intakes do not appear to be correlated with cardiovascular benefit. The omega-3 fatty acids are known to exert cardiovascular protective effects. Dairy fat and its cardiovascular impact are being evaluated. This review examines the existing literature on the relationships between the different fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Effect of an increased intake of alpha-linolenic acid and group nutritional education on cardiovascular risk factors : the Mediterranean Alpha-linolenic Enriched Groningen Dietary Intervention (MARGARIN) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.; Broer, J.; Feskens, E.J.; Smit, A.J.; Muskiet, F.A.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Bom, V.J.; May, J.F.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    Background: The effect of long-term increased intakes of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) on cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the effect of increased ALA intakes on cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)

  4. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Leslie G; Ogletree, Richard L

    2013-06-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) have an FDA indication for triglyceride lowering in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Some European agencies have also approved omega-3 fatty acids for cardiovascular risk modification. Several major societies in the US also recommend their use following myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review was to assimilate available evidence from randomized controlled trials into one systematic review to determine the association between omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes. Systematic review of randomized, controlled trials with meta-analysis PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (up to August 2012) were searched using a predefined algorithm. All randomized trials evaluating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in adults were considered. Trials selected were all randomized, controlled against another diet or placebo, and implemented in primary or secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention settings. Trials with duration less than 1 year were excluded. Outcomes eligible for review included all-cause mortality, cardiac death, sudden death, MI, and all types of stroke. Fatty acids could be given through diet or through supplements. Additionally, references listed in reviews were screened. Two investigators independently extracted data. Another investigator resolved discrepancies. After retrieving 3,625 citations, 20 studies involving 68,680 participants were included. Two trials used dietary counseling to provide omega-3 fatty acids. The rest used supplements. In the 2 trials using dietary fatty acids, all-cause mortality and cardiac death were assessed and showed associations in opposite directions; therefore, with these discrepancies, quantitative synthesis of these trials was not performed.

  5. Bile acids and cardiovascular function in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voiosu, Andrei; Wiese, Signe; Voiosu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    identified in cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cellswhere theyseem to play an important role in cellular metabolism. Chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal levels of circulating bile acids alters the normal signaling pathways and contributes to the development of profound......Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the hyperdynamic syndrome are clinically important complications of cirrhosis but their exact pathogenesis is still partly unknown. Experimental models have proven the cardiotoxic effects of bile acidsand recent studies of their varied receptor-mediated functions offer...... cardiovascular disturbances. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the role of bile acids and their receptors in the generation of cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Fatty acids and associated cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    LE GOFF, Caroline; Kaux, Jean-François; Leroy, Ludovic; Pincemail, Joël; Chapelle, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne

    2013-01-01

    Background: A fatty acid (FA) is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Recently, the role of FA and particularly omega-3 and -6 has emerged as cardiovascular risk factor in the literature. The aim of our study was to establish reference values for these FA and to compare them with data obtained in a population of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Materials and methods: Hundred thirty five healthy subjects (59.38 ± 27.12 yo, 75 m...

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  8. Increased susceptibility to cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapcaicin in resuscitated rats. Cardiovascular effects of dihydrocapsaicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the extern...... and internal environment of the cardiovascular system as compared to the healthy situation.......Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the external...

  9. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have ...

  10. Secondary cardiovascular prevention: omega-3 fatty acids ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis of comparative clinical trials including about 20,000 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease showed that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation did not reduce the risk of a subsequent cardiovascular event.

  11. Effects of kynurenic acid on cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Kozłowska, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Kozłowski Piotr, Kozłowska Magdalena, Kozłowska Karolina. Effects of kynurenic acid on cardiovascular system. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(8):525-536. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.885954 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4766 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and...

  12. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The

  13. Fatty Acids, Cardiovascular Diseases, and Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qianyi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause for mortality and morbidity around the world. Meanwhile, diabetes mellitus (DM) has become an emerging epidemic, causing 1.5 million deaths in 2012, with 80% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Substantial evidence has linked both lifestyle and metabolic risk factors to increased risk of CVD and death, with suboptimal diet being the single leading modifiable cause of poor health (Lim. SS, et al, Lancet 2012). Of 20 top individual...

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Are There Benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Kate J.; Harris, William S.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2016-01-01

    Opinion statement Early secondary prevention trials of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) capsules reported beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, including all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death. These clinical findings, as well as observational and experimental data, demonstrated that omega-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of coronary outcomes and overall mortality and were the basis for recommendations made in the early 2000s to increase omega-3 PUFA int...

  15. Efectos cardiovasculares de los ácidos grasos Omega-3 y alternativas para incrementar su ingesta Cardiovascular effects of omega-3-fatty acids and alternatives to increase their intake

    OpenAIRE

    Carrero, J.J.; E. Martín-Bautista; L. Baró; J. Fonollá; Jiménez, J.; Boza, J.J; López-Huertas, E

    2005-01-01

    Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de mortalidad en Europa, Estados Unidos y gran parte de Asia. Existen varios factores de riesgo asociados a las enfermedades cardiovasculares, entre ellos están el colesterol total, la homocisteína y los triglicéridos elevados, la hipertensión, la diabetes y niveles reducidos de colesterol HDL. Muchos de estos factores de riesgo son influenciables por la dieta. A pesar de la gran cantidad de alimentos enriquecidos en ácidos grasos n-3 d...

  16. Alpha-Linolenic Acid: Is It Essential to Cardiovascular Health?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Goede, de J.; Brouwer, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large body of scientific evidence that has been confirmed in randomized controlled trials indicating a cardioprotective effect for omega-3 fatty acids from fish. For alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the omega-3 fatty acid from plants, the relation to cardiovascular health is less

  17. [Acetylsalicylic acid in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, K

    1997-12-10

    This year acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) celebrates its 100-year anniversary. While the drug was previously used mainly as an antipyretic and a pain-killer, aspirin has, during the last 10-15 years, become one of the most important agents in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In addition to being one of our oldest drugs, aspirin is one of the most interesting and widely used remedies. The antithrombotic property of aspirin is mainly related to its irreversible inhibition of the production of platelet-derived thromboxane A2, which possesses aggregatory and vasoconstrictive properties. Aspirin reduces the risk in patients with overt cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, i.e. chronic stable and unstable angina pectoris. It also reduces the risk in the acute phase of and following a myocardial infarction and after a transient ischemic attack or stroke. The use of the drug is controversial in primary cardiovascular prevention. Overall mortality is not reduced, and side-effects, such as increased bleeding tendency, may be serious. This side-effect is dose-dependent, and smaller doses (75-160 mg) which have the same effect as higher doses should be preferred.

  18. Metabolic Effects of Dietary Proteins, Amino Acids and The Other Amine Consisting Compounds on Cardiovascular System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Uğur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.

  19. [Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro-Corrales, Guadalupe; Lago Rivero, N; Culebras-Fernández, Jesús M

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids, in addition to its known energy value and its structural function, have other beneficial properties. In particular, the polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3 acting on the cardiovascular apparatus through many channels exerting a protective effect against cardiovascular risk. The benefits associated with the reduction in cardiac mortality and sudden death particular, are related to the incorporation of EPA and DHA in phospholipid membrane of cardiomyocytes. An index is established that relates the percentage of EPA + DHA of total fatty acids in erythrocytes and risk of death from cardiovascular disease may layering in different degrees. Therefore, the primary source of fatty fish w-3 PUFA, behaves like a reference food in cardiosaludables diets. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. DIETARY FATTY ACIDS. EFFECTS ON THE RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The world publications data about the impact of consumption and the fatty acids ratio in consumed fats on the development of cardiovascular diseases and acute complications due to atherothrombosis is presented. The role of some fat characteristics is discussed: hydrogenous saturation with different number of double bonds, various lengths of hydrocarbonic chains and molecule geometry , etc. Fat structure is more crucial for cardiovascular risk than total amount of consumed saturated fat. Favorable fat structure should include physiologic amounts of saturated fatty acids (8-10%, polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially n-3 long-chain, a significant amount (up to 20% of calories of monounsaturated fatty acids, a very small amount of trans fatty acid form. Such a fatty product is useful in antiatherogenic diets.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump, Donald B.; Depner, Christopher M.; Tripathy, Sasmita

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies on Greenland Inuits in the 1970s and subsequent human studies have established an inverse relationship between the ingestion of omega-3 fatty acids [C20–22 ω 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)], blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA, and mortality associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). C20–22 ω 3 PUFA have pleiotropic effects on cell function and regulate multiple pathways controlling blood lipids, inflammatory factors, and cellular events in cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. The hypolipemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic properties of these fatty acids confer cardioprotection. Accordingly, national heart associations and government agencies have recommended increased consumption of fatty fish or ω 3 PUFA supplements to prevent CVD. In addition to fatty fish, sources of ω 3 PUFA are available from plants, algae, and yeast. A key question examined in this review is whether nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA are as effective as fatty fish-derived C20–22 ω 3 PUFA at managing risk factors linked to CVD. We focused on ω 3 PUFA metabolism and the capacity of ω 3 PUFA supplements to regulate key cellular events linked to CVD. The outcome of our analysis reveals that nonfish sources of ω 3 PUFA vary in their capacity to regulate blood levels of C20–22 ω 3 PUFA and CVD risk factors. PMID:22904344

  2. Smoking interacts with sleep apnea to increase cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz

    2008-03-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and so is cigarette smoking. In both atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in 70 non-smoking and smoking patients with sleep apnea. Thirty-five sleep apnea patients aged 20-60 years who smoke 20 or more cigarettes/day and for at least 5 years were individually matched by gender, age (+/-5 years), body mass index (BMI; categorized as, 'normal weight', 'overweight', and 'obese'), sleep apnea severity (categorized as 'mild', 'moderate', and 'severe'), and presence of cardiovascular diseases, with 35 patients who never smoked. Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fasting for determination of lipids profile, oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, peroxides and paraoxonase-1 and inflammatory markers C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Smokers showed significantly higher levels of C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin and triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than non-smokers. There was a significant interaction effect between smoking and apnea severity on ceruloplasmin and HDL levels. Smokers with severe sleep apnea had the highest level of ceruloplasmin and the lowest level of HDL. There is a synergistic effect between cigarette smoking and sleep apnea on some of the biochemical cardiovascular risk markers. Patients with severe sleep apnea who smoke are at a greater cardiovascular risk than smokers with mild-moderate sleep apnea and patients who do not smoke.

  3. [New populations at increased cardiovascular risk: Cardiovascular disease in dermatological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Gijón, Elena; Meseguer-Yebra, Carmen; Palacio-Aller, Lucía; Godoy-Rocati, Diego Vicente; Lahoz-Rallo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The increased cardiovascular risk in some dermatological diseases has been demonstrated in recent decades. Diseases such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus are currently included in the guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Other diseases such as androgenic alopecia, polycystic ovary syndrome, hidradenitis suppurativa or lichen planus have numerous studies that point to an increased risk, however, they have not been included in these guidelines. In this article we review the evidence supporting this association, in order to alert the clinician to the need for greater control in cardiovascular risk factors in these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Fatty Acid Oxidation and Cardiovascular Risk during Menopause: A Mitochondrial Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo J. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Menopause is a consequence of the normal aging process in women. This fact implies that the physiological and biochemical alterations resulting from menopause often blur with those from the aging process. It is thought that menopause in women presents a higher risk for cardiovascular disease although the precise mechanism is still under discussion. The postmenopause lipid profile is clearly altered, which can present a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Due to the role of mitochondria in fatty acid oxidation, alterations of the lipid profile in the menopausal women will also influence mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation fluxes in several organs. In this paper, we propose that alterations of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the heart, consequence from normal aging and/or from the menopausal process, result in decreased fatty acid oxidation and accumulation of fatty acid intermediates in the cardiomyocyte cytosol, resulting in lipotoxicity and increasing the cardiovascular risk in the menopausal women.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids, mercury, and selenium in fish and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyong; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2010-11-01

    Fish consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Some fish species also contain methylmercury, which may increase cardiovascular risk, as well as selenium, a trace element that could counter the effects of methylmercury or have beneficial effects itself. These potentially conflicting effects have created public confusion about the risks and benefits of fish consumption in adults. We examined the evidence for cardiovascular effects of fish consumption, particularly effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids, methylmercury, and selenium. Compelling evidence indicates that modest fish consumption substantially reduces cardiovascular risk, in particular cardiac mortality, related at least partly to benefits of omega-3 fatty acids. In contrast, observational studies and (for selenium) clinical trials demonstrate mixed and inconclusive results for cardiovascular effects of methylmercury and selenium. Net health benefits of overall fish consumption in adults are clear. Quantitative risk-benefit analyses of cardiovascular effects of consuming specific fish species, based on joint contents of fatty acids, methylmercury, and selenium, cannot currently be performed until the cardiovascular effects of methylmercury and selenium are established.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids: role in metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Philipp A; Gouni-Berthold, Ioanna; Berneis, Kaspar

    2013-01-01

    The inverse association of cardiovascular risk with intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was suspected early in populations that are known to have a high consumption of fish and fish oil. Subsequent cohort studies confirmed such associations in other populations. Further evidence of possible beneficial effects on metabolism and cardiovascular health was provided by many studies that were able to show specific mechanisms that may underlie these observations. These include improvement of the function of tissues involved in the alterations occurring during the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as adipose tissue, the liver and skeletal muscle. Direct action on the cardiovascular system was not only shown regarding vascular function and the formation of atherosclerotic plaques, but also by providing antiarrhythmic effects on the heart. Data on these effects come from in vitro as well as in vivo studies that were conducted in animal models of disease, in healthy humans and in humans suffering from cardiovascular disease. To define prophylactic as well as treatment options in primary and secondary prevention, large clinical trial assessed the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on end points as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, so far these trials provided ambiguous data that do allow recommendations regarding the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in higher dosages and beyond the dietary advice of regular fish intake only in few clinical situations, such as severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. [Acetylsalicylic acid in primary prevention of cardiovascular events; literature study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Thien, Th.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate literature data on the use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as a primary prevention measure for cardiovascular events. DESIGN: Literature search. METHOD: Using Medline, all randomised placebo-controlled trials of ASA published between 1985 and 1 May 2001, and which used

  8. [N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Idalia

    2006-01-01

    The role of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids in prevention of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, is becoming more and more important. In the article most important, selected by the author, studies on their legitimacy of application in prevention of coronary heart disease, sudden death and general cardio-protection are presented.

  9. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M.B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes.

  11. Trans fatty acids – A risk factor for cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items. Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article. PMID:24639860

  12. Trans fatty acids - A risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2014-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are produced either by hydrogenation of unsaturated oils or by biohydrogenation in the stomach of ruminant animals. Vanaspati ghee and margarine have high contents of TFA. A number of studies have shown an association of TFA consumption and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This increased risk is because TFA increase the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization have come up with the recommendation that the contents of TFA in human dietary fat should be reduced to less than 4%. There is high prevalence of CVD in Pakistan. High consumption of vanaspati ghee which contains 14.2-34.3% of TFA could be one of the factors for this increased burden of CVD in Pakistan. Consumption of dietary fat low in TFA would be helpful in reducing the risk of CVD in South Asia. Denmark by banning the sale of food items with TFA has brought down the number of deaths due to coronary heart disease by nearly 50% over a period of 20 years. Public awareness about the adverse effects of TFA on human health would be extremely important. Media can play a very effective role in educating the masses and advocating the policy for the sale of only low TFA food items. Literature sources: Google and US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health were the sources of papers cited in this review article.

  13. The relation of saturated fatty acids with low-grade inflammation and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Nunez, Begona; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2016-01-01

    The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight,

  14. Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Couet, C.; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.; Steingrimsdottir, L.; Amorim Cruz, J.A.; Moreiras, O.; Becker, W.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Vidal-Jessel, S.; Salminen, I.; Moschandreas, J.; Sigfússon, N.; Martins, I.; Carbajal, A.; Ytterfors, A.; Poppel, G. van

    2000-01-01

    Background: High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undersirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Design: Cross-sectional study in

  15. Uric acid level as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venícius Djalma da Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases, resulting in a causal relationship, increased cardiovascular morbidity and improving clinical outcomes by means of pharmacotherapy for reducing uric acid levels. Though still uncertain, most studies suggest that levels of uric acid might be a useful and inexpensive biomarker for diagnosis and / or prognosis. Therefore, this literature review presents the most recent major evidence of uric acid related to cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, myocardial infarction and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The most controversial data refer to coronary artery disease, possibly because it is a syndrome that includes two conditions - unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction - which makes the analysis low in specificity. Several articles have demonstrated that uric acid, especially hyperuricemia, is a good diagnosis predictor (hypertension and acute myocardial infarction and prognosis (coronary artery disease and heart failure, however few studies have evaluated the performance of the marker in terms of ROC curve, making it impossible to deliver well-founded conclusions in this regard. Considering the results of most of the evidence, accessibility and low cost of measurements of uric acid levels, we recommend to integrate both the evaluation of hyperuricemia and the analysis of other risk factors.

  16. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yong; Lu, Lei; Liang, Jun; Liu, Min; Li, Xianchi; Sun, RongRong; Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Peiying

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing dramatically especially in developing countries like India. CVD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. There has been a growing awareness of the role of nutrients in the prevention of CVD. One specific recommendation in the battle against CVD is the increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which are polyunsaturated fatty acids. Studies have reported inverse associations of CVD with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids supplementation might exert protective effects on CVD. They exert their cardioprotective effect through multiple mechanisms. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy has shown promise as a useful tool in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. This review briefly summarizes the effects of omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of CVD.

  17. Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Gislason, Gunnar; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease that affects 2-3% of the population and shares pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors with cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested psoriasis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and Danish guidelines...... on cardiovascular risk factor modification in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have recently been published. We provide a short review of the current evidence and the Danish guidelines....

  18. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementati...

  19. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Are There Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Kate J; Harris, William S; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2016-11-01

    Early secondary prevention trials of fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) capsules reported beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes, including all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death. These clinical findings, as well as observational and experimental data, demonstrated that omega-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of coronary outcomes and overall mortality and were the basis for recommendations made in the early 2000s to increase omega-3 PUFA intake. In the last 6 years, however, results from both primary and secondary prevention trials have generally failed to show a beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation, bringing current recommendations into question. Several possible reasons for these null findings have been proposed, including short treatment periods, relatively low doses of omega-3 PUFAs, small sample sizes, higher background omega-3 intakes, and the concurrent use of modern pharmacotherapy for CVD prevention. At least one of these caveats is being assessed in major clinical trials, with two omega-3 PUFA pharmacological agents being tested at doses of 4 g/day (instead of the more common omega-3 PUFAs "are ineffective" in general, only that they were not effective in the context in which they were tested. Accordingly, higher intakes of omega-3 PUFAs, either from fatty fish or from supplements, if continued for decades (as the epidemiological data support) are likely to contribute towards lower risk for CVD. At this time, evidence supports the consumption of a healthy dietary pattern with at least two servings per week of fatty fish. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation is a reasonable alternative for those who do not consume fish, although fish is the preferred source of omega-3 PUFAs because it also provides additional nutrients, some of which are often under-consumed.

  20. Artificial Cold Air Increases the Cardiovascular Risks in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojian Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the effects of artificial cold air on cardiovascular risk in hypertensive subjects. An artificial cold air was simulated with hourly ambient temperature data of a real moderate cold air in China. Twenty-four male SHR rats were randomly divided into the minimum temperature (Tmin group, the rewarming temperature (Tr group and two concurrent control groups with six rats in each (Tmin and Tr represent two cold air time points, respectively. Tmin and Tr groups were exposed to the cold air that was stopped at Tmin and Tr, respectively. After cold air exposure, blood pressure, heart rate and body weight were monitored, blood was collected for the detection of some indexes like fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid. Results demonstrated that blood pressure, whole blood viscosity, blood fibrinogen, total cholesterol and uric acid increased significantly both in the Tmin and Tr groups; low density lipoprotein/high density lipoprotein increased significantly only in Tr group; there was higher level of blood fibrinogen in the Tr group than the Tmin group; higher levels of creatine kinase-MB was found in both the Tmin and Tr groups. These results suggest that cold air may increase the cardiovascular risks in hypertensive subjects indirectly through its effects on the sympathetic nervous system and renin angiotensin system, blood pressure and atherosclerosis risk factors like blood viscosity and fibrinogen, lipids and uric acid in the blood.

  1. Exercise Increases the Cardiovascular Stimulus Provided by Artificial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, M. S.; Moore, F. B.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Jezova, D.; Diedrich, A.; Ferris, M. B.; Schlegel, T. T.; Pathwardhan, A. R.; Knapp, C. F.; Evans, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated fluid shifts and regulatory responses to variations of posture, exercise, Gz level and radius of rotation in subjects riding NASA Ames 20G centrifuge. Results are from 4 protocols that address radius and exercise effects only. Protocol A: After 10 min supine control, 12 healthy men (35 plus or minus 9 yr, 82.8 plus or minus 7.9 kg) were exposed to rotational 1 Gz (2.5 m radius) for 2 min followed by 20 min alternating between 1 and 1.25 Gz. Blood samples were taken pre and post spin. Protocol B: Same as A, but lower limb exercise (70% V02max) preceded ramps to 1.25 Gz. Protocol C: Same as A but radius of rotation 8.3 m. Protocol D: Same as B but at 8.3 m. The 8 subjects who completed all protocols, increased heart rate (HR) from control, on average, by: A: 5, B: 39, C: 11, D: 44 bpm. For thoracic fluid volume, (bioimpedance), the 8 subjects changed from control, on average: A: -394, B: -548, C: -537, D: -708 mL. For thigh fluid volume, changes from control, on average, were: A: -137, B: 129, C: -75, D: 159 mL. Hematocrit changes from control were: A: 2.3, B: 3.5, C: 2.3, D: 4.3 %. Radius effects were mild and included greater loss of fluid from the thorax, less fluid loss from the thigh and increased heart rate at the longer radius. Pre-acceleration exercise effects were more dramatic and included additional loss of fluid from the chest, increased fluid volume of the thigh, increased hematocrit and greater heart rate increases. We propose that short bouts of intense exercise can be used to magnify the cardiovascular stress delivered by artificial gravity (AG) training and the combination of AG with exercise training can be fine-tuned to preserve orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during spaceflight.

  2. Hyperuricaemia: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients: analysis of the ACT-CVD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Inger L.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2014-01-01

    Background Gout and hyperuricaemia may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but analyses in different populations show conflicting results. This study investigates the impact of serum uric acid, inflammation and traditional CV risk parameters on CV event risk in patients with gouty

  3. Hyperuricaemia: a marker of increased cardiovascular risk in rheumatic patients: analysis of the ACT-CVD cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, I.L.; Vonkeman, H.E.; Laar, M.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gout and hyperuricaemia may be associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but analyses in different populations show conflicting results. This study investigates the impact of serum uric acid, inflammation and traditional CV risk parameters on CV event risk in patients with gouty

  4. Specific plasma oxylipins increase the odds of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Stephanie P B; Aukema, Harold M; Ravandi, Amir; Lavallée, Renée; Guzman, Randy; Pierce, Grant N

    2017-08-01

    Oxylipins and fatty acids may be novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. The objective was to determine if plasma oxylipins or fatty acids can influence the odds of cardiovascular/cerebrovascular events. In 98 patients (25 female, 73 male) with peripheral artery disease, the prevalence of transient ischemic attacks, cerebrovascular accidents, stable angina, and acute coronary syndrome was n = 16, 10, 16, and 24, respectively. Risk factors such as being male, diagnosed hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia were not associated with events. Plasma fatty acids and oxylipins were analyzed with gas chromatography and HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. None of 24 fatty acids quantified were associated with events. In contrast, 39 plasma oxylipins were quantified, and 8 were significantly associated with events. These 8 oxylipins are known regulators of vascular tone. For example, every 1 unit increase in Thromboxane B2/Prostaglandin F1α and every 1 nmol/L increase in plasma 16-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, thromboxane B2, or 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (DiHETrE) increased the odds of having had ≥2 events versus no event (p < 0.05). The greatest predictor was plasma 8,9-DiHETrE, which increased the odds of acute coronary syndrome by 92-fold. In conclusion, specific oxylipins were highly associated with clinical events and may represent specific biomarkers and (or) therapeutic targets of cardiovascular disease.

  5. Lysophosphatidic acid metabolism and elimination in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salous, Abdelghaffar Kamal

    The bioactive lipids lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are present in human and mouse plasma at a concentration of ~0.1-1 microM and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system including atherothrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and immune function, edema formation, and permeability. PPAP2B, the gene encoding LPP3, a broad activity integral membrane enzyme that terminates LPA actions in the vasculature, has a single nucleotide polymorphism that been recently associated with coronary artery disease risk. The synthesis and signaling of LPA and S1P in the cardiovascular system have been extensively studied but the mechanisms responsible for their elimination are less well understood. The broad goal of this research was to examine the role of LPP3 in the termination of LPA signaling in models of cardiovascular disease involving vascular wall cells, investigate the role of LPP3 in the elimination of plasma LPA, and further characterize the elimination of plasma LPA. The central hypothesis is that LPP3 plays an important role in attenuating the pathological responses to LPA signaling and that it mediates the elimination of exogenously applied bioactive lipids from the plasma. These hypotheses were tested using molecular biological approaches, in vitro studies, synthetic lysophospholipid mimetics, modified surgical procedures, and mass spectrometry assays. My results indicated that LPP3 played a critical role in attenuating LPA signaling mediating the pathological processes of intimal hyperplasia and vascular leak in mouse models of disease. Additionally, enzymatic inactivation of lysophospholipids by LPP and PLA enzymes in the plasma was not a primary mechanism for the rapid elimination of plasma LPA and S1P. Instead, evidence strongly suggested a transcellular uptake mechanism by hepatic non-parenchymal cells as the predominant mechanism for elimination of these molecules. These results support a model in

  6. Ácidos graxos e doenças cardiovasculares: uma revisão Fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Emília Leite de LIMA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a prevalência de doenças cardiovasculares tem aumentado progressivamente, tornando-se um grave problema de saúde pública. Alguns estudos têm demonstrado haver uma associação positiva entre a ingestão de gordura saturada e a prevalência dessas doenças, bem como uma associação negativa com a ingestão de gorduras insaturadas. Esses conhecimentos motivaram uma evolução nas recomendações dos ácidos graxos, visando melhor utilização destes e respeitando-se uma proporção adequada na dieta, a fim de diminuir a prevalência das doenças cardiovasculares. Este trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma revisão da literatura médica sobre os estudos desenvolvidos com ácidos graxos e seus possíveis efeitos em doenças cardiovasculares, bem como evolução de suas recomendações através do tempo, tendências de consumo e perspectivas futuras.During the last decades the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases has increased progressively, becoming a serious public health problem. Some studies have shown a positive association between saturated fatty acid intake and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, and a negative association with unsaturated fatty acids intake. These studies indicate a need to evaluate the different kinds of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and their effects, aiming at a better utilization and maintaining a suitable proportion in the diet in order to diminish the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this paper is to accomplish a review of the medical literature regarding fatty acids and their effects on cardiovascular diseases, as well as the evolution of their requirements through time, consumption trends and future perspectives.

  7. Type 2 diabetes: postprandial hyperglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ajikumar V Aryangat; John E Gerich

    2010-01-01

    Ajikumar V Aryangat, John E GerichUniversity of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USAAbstract: Hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for both the microvascular and macrovascular complications in  patients with type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the cardiovascular results of large outcomes trials in diabetes and presents new evidence on the role of hyperglycemia, with particular emphasis on postprandial hyperglycemia, in adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabet...

  8. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Morris; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease, even after controlling for traditional risk factors. Shift workers frequently undergo circadian misalignment (i.e., misalignment between the endogenous circadian system and 24-h environmental/behavioral cycles). This misalignment has been proposed to explain, in part, why shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. However, the impact of circadian misalignment pe...

  9. [Fish and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Hori, Miyuki; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2013-09-01

    A reason for low rate of heart disease in Japan has been considered due to high consumption of fish/w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids among Japanese. Yet, there are growing concerns that Japanese has not consumed much fish compared with 10 years ago, based on the national statistics. Meanwhile, the incidence of myocardial infarction has been increasing among middle-aged men in some urban communities. In this review, we summarized several epidemiological studies which focused on fish/w-3 fatty acids and risk of cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease, sudden cardiac death and heart failure.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography. The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether omega-3-fatty acids protect from cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the associations of erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acids with mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography. Erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acid proportions were measured at baseline in 3259 participants of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC) using the HS-Omega-3 Index method. Associations of omega-3 fatty acid proportions with mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 9.9 years, 975 patients (29.9%) died, 614 patients (18.8%) from cardiovascular causes. Proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were inversely associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in models adjusted for conventional cardiovascular risk factors. The strongest association was observed for EPA with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.89 (0.83-0.96) per increase of one standard deviation. Furthermore, we obtained evidence for a non-linear relation between EPA and mortality. EPA and DHA were associated with reduced mortality in LURIC, independent of other risk factors, with the association of EPA with mortality being non-linear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uric Acid as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Overweight/Obese Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak-Nielsen, Helle; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Finer, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The predictive value of serum uric acid (SUA) for adverse cardiovascular events among obese and overweight patients is not known, but potentially important because of the relation between hyperuricaemia and obesity.......The predictive value of serum uric acid (SUA) for adverse cardiovascular events among obese and overweight patients is not known, but potentially important because of the relation between hyperuricaemia and obesity....

  12. Marine OMEGA-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2017-11-01

    Omega-6 (ω6) and omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids are two classes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from linoleic acid (18:2ω6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3ω3), respectively. Enzymatic metabolism of linoleic and α-linolenic acids generates arachidonic acid (20:4ω6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω3; EPA), respectively, both of which are substrates for enzymes that yield eicosanoids with multiple and varying physiological functions. Further elongation and desaturation of EPA yields the 22-carbon fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω3; DHA). The main dietary source of EPA and DHA for human consumption is fish, especially oily fish. There is considerable evidence that EPA and DHA are protective against cardiovascular disease (heart disease and stroke), particularly in individuals with pre-existing disease. ω3 Fatty acids benefit multiple risk factors including blood pressure, blood vessel function, heart function and blood lipids, and they have antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. ω3 Fatty acids do not adversely interact with medications. Supplementation with ω3 fatty acids is recommended in individuals with elevated blood triglyceride levels and patients with coronary heart disease. A practical recommendation for the general population is to increase ω3 fatty acid intake by incorporating fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake. Health authorities recommend the general population should consume at least two oily fish meals per week. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular diseases, depression disorders and potential effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebatická, J; Dukát, A; Ďuračková, Z; Muchová, J

    2017-07-18

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depressive disorders (DD) are two of the most prevalent health problems in the world. Although CVD and depression have different origin, they share some common pathophysiological characteristics and risk factors, such as the increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, endothelial dysfunction, blood flow abnormalities, decreased glucose metabolism, elevated plasma homocysteine levels, oxidative stress and disorder in vitamin D metabolism. Current findings confirm the common underlying factors for both pathologies, which are related to dramatic dietary changes in the mid-19th century. By changing dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids from 1:1 to 15-20:1 some changes in metabolism were induced, such as increased pro-inflammatory mediators and modulations of different signaling pathways following pathophysiological response related to both, cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders.

  14. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: do formulation, dosage & comparator matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Meier, Pascal; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Multiple trials over the past two decades testing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have shown substantial benefits for reducing major coronary heart disease (CHD) events, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) death, sudden cardiac death (SCD), and stroke. However, recent trials testing omega-3s have generally failed to confirm these benefits. While increased fish and fish oil intake among the general population, increased use of optimal medical therapy (including statins, aspirin, and modern antihypertensive medications) probably make it more challenging for fish oil supplementation to show additional benefits, there might be further explanations in the formulation, dosage, and comparator used in these recent omega-3 trials.

  15. More Americans Living Longer With Cardiovascular Disease Will Increase Costs While Lowering Quality Of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Cutler, David

    2013-01-01

    In the past several decades some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased--factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans’ average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer--factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact ...

  16. The Protective Effect of Lipoic Acid on Selected Cardiovascular Diseases Caused by Age-Related Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Skibska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is considered to be the primary cause of many cardiovascular diseases, including endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Oxidative stress increases during the aging process, resulting in either increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production or decreased antioxidant defense. The increase in the incidence of cardiovascular disease is directly related to age. Aging is also associated with oxidative stress, which in turn leads to accelerated cellular senescence and organ dysfunction. Antioxidants may help lower the incidence of some pathologies of cardiovascular diseases and have antiaging properties. Lipoic acid (LA is a natural antioxidant which is believed to have a beneficial effect on oxidative stress parameters in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  17. Fish Consumption, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jinnie J; Kim, Eunjung; Buring, Julie E; Kurth, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Data on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to cardiovascular disease are limited in women. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal relations of tuna and dark fish, α-linolenic acid, and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake with incident major cardiovascular disease in women. This was a prospective cohort study of U.S. women participating in the Women's Health Study from 1993 to 2014, during which the data were collected and analyzed. A total of 39,876 women who were aged ≥45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline provided dietary data on food frequency questionnaires. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between fish and energy-adjusted omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and the risk of major cardiovascular disease, defined as a composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, in 38,392 women in the final analytic sample (96%). During 713,559 person years of follow-up, 1,941 cases of incident major cardiovascular disease were confirmed. Tuna and dark fish intake was not associated with the risk of incident major cardiovascular disease (p-trend >0.05). Neither α-linolenic acid nor marine omega-3 fatty acid intake was associated with major cardiovascular disease or with individual cardiovascular outcomes (all p-trend >0.05). There was no effect modification by age, BMI, or baseline history of hypertension. In this cohort of women without history of cardiovascular disease, intakes of tuna and dark fish, α-linolenic acid, and marine omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with risk of major cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Its Association with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Altamirano Ufion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating different metabolism functions and multiple organs’ performance. Changes in the thyroid hormone axis can lead to profound effects on the stability of vital organs and systems, especially the cardiovascular system. Hypothyroidism is classified according to the clinical presentation as overt and subclinical. There is some evidence supporting the benefits of thyroxine hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism on cardiovascular mortality outcomes. However, the clinical relevance of measuring and treating high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH levels in newly diagnosed heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction requires further study. In this report, we review the current evidence regarding the prognostic significance of subclinical hypothyroidism in heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction.

  19. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-03-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  20. [The role of omega-3 fatty acids from fish in prevention of cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Eljko; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Stajminger, Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Fish and fish oil are rich sources of omega-3 fatty acids--essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. These acids in doses of 1 g per day have been shown to significantly reduce the all-cause mortality in post myocardial infarction (MI) patients and the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias. One of the recently most studied mechanisms that may contribute to this benefits of omega-3 fatty acids is their anti-arrhythmic effect. Namely, these acids influence membrane ion channels, increase ventricular fibrillation threshold and increase heart rate variability. Although the data concerning primary prevention is less straightforward than the data relating secondary prevention, it seems that the use of omega-3 fatty acids in primary prevention might be justified as well. In higher doses (2 to 4 g per day) they are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia. Potential mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may reduce risk for cardiovascular disease include also antithrombotic (they decrease platelet aggregation/reactivity, reduce plasma viscosity, enhance fibrinolysis) and anti-inflammatory effects (e.g. they decrease IL-6, MCP-1, TNF), improving vascular endothelial cell function (e.g. they increase availability of nitric oxide), reducing expression of endothelial cells adhesion molecules, inhibiting smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation, and reducing blood pressure. Based upon clinical studies the use of omega-3 fatty acids should be considered today at least as a part of comprehensive secondary prevention strategy in post-MI patients. It has been also shown that adding highly concentrated omega-3 fatty acids to standard treatment in the secondary prevention of MI is cost effective versus standard treatment alone. Particularly important is that there are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids.

  1. Potential role of uric acid in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, kidney injury, and cardiovascular diseases: is it time for reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Zohreh; Rasheed, Kashaf; Kapusta, Daniel R; Reisin, Efrain

    2013-06-01

    Elevated serum uric acid concentration is a common laboratory finding in subjects with metabolic syndrome/obesity, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular events. Hyperuricemia has been attributed to hyperinsulinemia in metabolic syndrome and to decreased uric acid excretion in kidney dysfunction, and is not acknowledged as a main mediator of metabolic syndrome, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder development. However, more recent investigations have altered this traditional view and shown, by providing compelling evidence, to support an independent link between hyperuricemia and increased risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorders. However, despite these new findings, controversy regarding the exact role of uric acid in inducing these diseases remains to be unfolded. Furthermore, recent data suggest that the high-fructose diet in the United State, as a major cause of hyperuricemia, may be contributing to the metabolic syndrome/obesity epidemic, diabetes, hypertension, kidney disease and cardiovascular disorder. Our focus in this review is to discuss the available evidence supporting a role for uric acid in the development of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, renal disease, and cardiovascular disorder; and the potential pathophysiology mechanisms involved.

  2. Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid versus ϵ-aminocaproic acid in cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falana, Olabisi; Patel, Gourang

    2014-12-01

    Blood conservation is a major concern in the management of surgical patients because of transfusion-related complications, limited supply, and health care costs. Tranexamic acid (TXA) and ϵ-aminocaproic acid (ϵACA) are lysine analogue antifibrinolytics used to reduce surgical bleeding and transfusions. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TXA compared with ϵACA in the management of cardiovascular surgical bleeding at an academic medical center. This single-center, retrospective, observational cohort study included 120 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with or without cardiopulmonary bypass, who received at least 1 dose of perioperative TXA or ϵACA. The efficacy outcome-massive perioperative bleeding-was a composite end point of chest tube drainage >1500 mL in any 8-hour period after surgery, perioperative transfusion of 10 or more units of packed red blood cells, reoperation for bleeding, or death from hemorrhage within 30 days. The safety outcomes were incidence of thromboembolic events, postoperative renal dysfunction, seizure, and 30-day all-cause mortality. The primary end point-massive perioperative bleeding-occurred in 10 patients (16.7%) in the TXA group compared with 5 patients (8.3%) in the ϵACA group (P = 0.17). There were no significant differences in the secondary end points of 30-day all-cause mortality, thromboembolic events, renal dysfunction, and seizure. There were no differences in the efficacy and safety outcomes between TXA and ϵACA in the management of cardiovascular surgical bleeding at our institution. Considering the substantial cost difference and comparable efficacy and safety, ϵACA may have better value over TXA for reducing cardiovascular surgical bleeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Vargas-Robles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD. Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications.

  4. Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    in cities, and with other ethnicity than Danish, while the opposite was true for positive statin-related news stories and for baseline cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Early statin discontinuation was also associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular disease....

  5. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

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    Sven O. E. Ebbesson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although saturated fatty acids (FAs have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD, presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods: In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin. Results: The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6 and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions: The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs.

  6. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jackie; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.......The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown....

  7. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas-Melo, Filipa; Sereno, José; Teixeira-Lemos, Edite; Rocha-Pereira, Petronila; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR) in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause) were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol (total-c), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL), HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1). Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations. PMID:24167352

  8. Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effect of gender and menopause in cardiovascular risk (CVR in a healthy population based on both classical and nontraditional markers. Methods. 56 men and 68 women (48 pre- and 20 postmenopause were enrolled in the study. The following markers were analyzed: blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, glucose, total cholesterol (total-c, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, oxidized-LDL (Ox-LDL, HDL-c and subpopulations, paraoxonase-1 activity, hsCRP, uric acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, adiponectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and intercellular adhesion molecular 1 (ICAM1. Results. Relative to the women, men present significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, total-c, TGs, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, uric acid, and TNF-α and reduced adiponectin and total and large HDL-c. The protective profile of women is lost after menopause with a significantly increased BMI, WC, BP, glucose, LDL-c, Ox-LDL, hsCRP, and VEGF and decreased total and large HDL-c. Significant correlations were found in women population and in postmenopausal women between Ox-LDL and total, large, and small HDL-c and between TNF-α and total, large, and small HDL-c, LDL-c, and Ox-LDL. Conclusions. Men present higher CVR than women who lost protection after menopause, evidenced by nontraditional markers, including Ox-LDL and HDL subpopulations.

  9. A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceride levels

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    Clemens von Schacky

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clemens von SchackyMedizinische Klinik and Poliklinik Innenstadt, University of Munich, Munich, GermanyAbstract: The two marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, prevalent in fish and fish oils, have been investigated as a strategy towards prophylaxis of atherosclerosis. While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent. Although slight differences in biological activity exist between EPA and DHA, both exert a number of positive actions against atherosclerosis and its complications. EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events. As a consequence, relevant cardiac societies recommend using 1 g/day of EPA and DHA for cardiovascular prevention, after a myocardial infarction and for prevention of sudden cardiac death.Keywords: sudden cardiac death, major adverse cardiac events, cardiovascular prevention, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid

  10. Hepatitis C virus coinfection independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montero, J V; Barreiro, P; de Mendoza, C; Labarga, P; Soriano, V

    2016-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease despite successful antiretroviral therapy. Likewise, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic complications, including cardiovascular disease. However the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been formally examined in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. A retrospective study was carried out to assess the influence of HCV coinfection on the risk of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of HIV-infected patients recruited since year 2004. A composite event of cardiovascular disease was used as an endpoint, including myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke or death due to any of them. A total of 1136 patients (567 HIV-monoinfected, 70 HCV-monoinfected and 499 HIV/HCV-coinfected) were analysed. Mean age was 42.7 years, 79% were males, and 46% were former injection drug users. Over a mean follow-up of 79.4 ± 21 months, 3 patients died due to cardiovascular disease, whereas 29 suffered a first episode of coronary ischaemia or stroke. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients had a greater incidence of cardiovascular disease events and/or death than HIV-monoinfected individuals (4% vs 1.2%, P = 0.004) and HCV-monoinfected persons (4% vs 1.4%, P = 0.5). After adjusting for demographics, virological parameters and classical cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, hypertension, diabetes, high LDL cholesterol), both HIV/HCV coinfection (HR 2.91; CI 95%: 1.19-7.12; P = 0.02) and hypertension (HR 3.65; CI 95%: 1.34-9.94; P = 0.01) were independently associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or death in HIV-infected patients. Chronic hepatitis C and hypertension are independently associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk in HIV-infected patients. Therefore, treatment of chronic hepatitis C should be prioritized in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients regardless of any liver fibrosis staging. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exploration into Uric and Cardiovascular Disease: Uric Acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) Project, A Study Protocol for a Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, Giovambattista; Virdis, Agostino; Casiglia, Edoardo; Borghi, Claudio

    2018-02-09

    The relevance of cardiovascular role played by levels of serum uric acid is dramatically growing, especially as cardiovascular risk factor potentially able to exert either a direct deleterious impact or a synergic effect with other cardiovascular risk factors. At the present time, it still remains undefined the threshold level of serum uric acid able to contribute to the cardiovascular risk. Indeed, the available epidemiological case studies are not homogeneous, and some preliminary data suggest that the so-called "cardiovascular threshold limit" may substantially differ from that identified as a cut-off able to trigger the acute gout attack. In such scenario, there is the necessity to clarify and quantify this threshold value, to insert it in the stratification of risk algorithm scores and, in turn, to adopt proper prevention and correction strategies. The clarification of the relationship between circulating levels of uric acid and cardio-nephro-metabolic disorders in a broad sample representative of general population is critical to identify the threshold value of serum uric acid better discriminating the increased risk associated with uric acid. The Uric acid Right for heArt Health (URRAH) project has been designed to define, as primary objective, the level of uricemia above which the independent risk of cardiovascular disease may increase in a significantly manner in a general Italian population.

  12. Do prescription stimulants increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events?: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westover Arthur N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern that prescription stimulants may be associated with adverse cardiovascular events such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and sudden death. Public health concerns are amplified by increasing use of prescription stimulants among adults. Methods The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the evidence of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Google Scholar searches were conducted using key words related to these topics (MESH: ADHD; Adults; Amphetamine; Amphetamines; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Cardiovascular Diseases; Cardiovascular System; Central Nervous Stimulants; Cerebrovascular; Cohort Studies; Case–control Studies; Death; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Dextroamphetamine; Drug Toxicity; Methamphetamine; Methylphenidate; Myocardial Infarction; Stimulant; Stroke; Safety. Eligible studies were population-based studies of children, adolescents, or adults using prescription stimulant use as the independent variable and a hard cardiovascular outcome as the dependent variable. Results Ten population-based observational studies which evaluated prescription stimulant use with cardiovascular outcomes were reviewed. Six out of seven studies in children and adolescents did not show an association between stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In contrast, two out of three studies in adults found an association. Conclusions Findings of an association between prescription stimulant use and adverse cardiovascular outcomes are mixed. Studies of children and adolescents suggest that statistical power is limited in available study populations, and the absolute risk of an event is low. More suggestive of a safety signal, studies of adults found an increased risk for transient ischemic attack and sudden death/ventricular arrhythmia. Interpretation was limited due to differences in population, cardiovascular outcome

  13. Omega 6 fatty acids for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khudairy, Lena; Hartley, Louise; Clar, Christine; Flowers, Nadine; Hooper, Lee; Rees, Karen

    2015-11-16

    Omega 6 plays a vital role in many physiological functions but there is controversy concerning its effect on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. There is conflicting evidence whether increasing or decreasing omega 6 intake results in beneficial effects. The two primary objectives of this Cochrane review were to determine the effectiveness of:1. Increasing omega 6 (Linoleic acid (LA), Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA), Arachidonic acid (AA), or any combination) intake in place of saturated or monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates for the primary prevention of CVD.2. Decreasing omega 6 (LA, GLA, DGLA, AA, or any combination) intake in place of carbohydrates or protein (or both) for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases up to 23 September 2014: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library (Issue 8 of 12, 2014); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to September week 2, 2014); EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid) (1947 to September 2014); Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters) (1990 to September 2014); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment Database, and Health Economics Evaluations Database on the Cochrane Library (Issue 3 of 4, 2014). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews for further studies. We applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions stating an intention to increase or decrease omega 6 fatty acids, lasting at least six months, and including healthy adults or adults at high risk of CVD. The comparison group was given no advice, no supplementation, a placebo, a control diet, or continued with their usual diet. The outcomes of interest were CVD clinical events (all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal end points) and CVD risk factors (changes in blood pressure, changes in blood lipids, occurrence of type 2 diabetes). We excluded trials involving

  14. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Yasuda, S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Shimokawa, H.

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular

  15. Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

  16. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sara Jean

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) play an important role in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Clinicians should strongly consider therapy with ω-3 PUFAs for individuals at risk for CVD and with known CVD, particularly individuals who are at increased risk for sudden cardiac death. The amount of ω-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, which is the ω-3 index, could prove to be a modifiable risk factor for CVD. This review outlines potential mechanisms of action, the ω-3 index, results of clinical and prevention trials, and recommendations for ω-3 PUFA therapy in CVD. The majority of epidemiologic and controlled interventional studies have demonstrated that marine- and plant-derived ω-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on CVD. The ω-3 index may prove to be a valuable tool for assessing an individual's need for increased ω-3 PUFAs through diet or supplementation.

  17. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Pblood pressure is an independent risk factor for blood pressure increase and incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk...... of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular......, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake...

  19. Acute exercise in elite rugby players increases the circulating level of the cardiovascular biomarker GDF-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliera, Emanuela; Lombardi, Giovanni; Marazzi, Monica G; Grasso, Dalila; Vianello, Elena; Pozzoni, Roberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M

    2014-09-01

    Intense training can lead to a pathophysiological change in serum concentration of a variety of biomarkers. Traditional biomarkers of cardiac injury are very useful in monitoring CVD patients, but in healthy subjects or athletes they cannot be informative enough about the cardiovascular risk, because in these cases their serum levels do not increase over the pathological limit. Therefore novel cardiovascular biomarkers are required in order to allow a better monitoring of sport performance, prediction of overtraining and diagnosis of sport-related cardiac injuries. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is emerging as a powerful cardiovascular injury risk indicator. In this study we investigate the effect of intense physical training of on the circulating levels of GDF-15 in rugby professional players. Serum GDF-15, Erythropoietin, IL-6, the cardiovascular parameter ST-2, NT-proBNP and routine hematological parameters were measured in a group of 30 rugby players before and after a session of intense training. While ST-2, IL-6 and hsCRP displayed no significant changes after intense training, NT-proBNP and GDF-15 showed a significant increase, even without reaching the pathological level. The measure of GDF-15 in professional rugby players could be a useful tool to monitoring their cardiovascular status during training and competition session in order to prevent the onset of collateral cardiovascular adverse event due to the intense training and, in the case of cardiac injury, it could possibly allow a very early diagnosis at the beginning of the pathogenic process.

  20. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  1. Enhanced blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene subjected to hydrochloric acid treatment for cardiovascular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Mohandas, Hemanth; Sivakumar, Gunalan; Kasi, Palaniappan; Sudheer, Theertha; Avineri Veetil, Sruthi; Murugesan, Selvakumar; Supriyanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE) was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P < 0.05) after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  2. Baseline plasma fatty acids profile and incident cardiovascular events in the SU.FOL.OM3 trial: the evidence revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezeu, Léopold K; Laporte, François; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Blacher, Jacques; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma fatty acids profile and the risk of future major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischemic stroke. Baseline plasma fatty acids as well as established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2,263 patients enrolled in the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids randomized controlled trial. Incident major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events were ascertained during the 4.7 years of follow up. Hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. During the follow-up, 154, 379 and 84 patients had major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events respectively. Upon adjustment for gender, initial event, baseline age and BMI, the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event decreased significantly in successive quartiles of arachidonic acid (P trendomega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trendacid (P trendacid (P trendacid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trendacid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trendacid (P trendacid remained inversely associated with the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event (P trendacid was inversely associated with the risk a cerebrovascular event (P trendomega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with recurrence of Cardiovascular diseases was mainly driven by well-known cardiovascular risk factors. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN41926726.

  3. Fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease: do they really work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kromhout, Daan; Yasuda, Satoshi; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, which are found abundantly in fish oil, exert pleiotropic cardiometabolic effects with a diverse range of actions. The results of previous studies raised a lot of interest in the role of fish oil and omega-3 fatty acids in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The present review will focus on the current clinical uses of omega-3 fatty acids and provide an update on their effects. Since recently published trials in patients with coronary artery diseases or post-myocardial infarction did not show an effect of omega-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular endpoints, this review will examine the limitations of those data and suggest recommendations for the use of omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:21933782

  4. Plasma branched-chain amino acids and incident cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B.; Hruby, Adela; Liang, Liming; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Fitó, Montserrat; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that baseline BCAA concentrations predict future risk of CVD and that a Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) intervention may counteract this effect. Methods We developed a case-cohort study within the “PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea” (PREDIMED), with 226 incident CVD cases and 781 non-cases. We used LC-MS/MS to measure plasma BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine and valine), both at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was a composite of incident stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, baseline leucine and isoleucine concentrations were associated with higher CVD risk: the hazard ratios (HRs) for the highest vs. lowest quartile were 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.05–2.76) and 2.09 (1.27–3.44), respectively. Stronger associations were found for stroke. For both CVD and stroke, we found higher HRs across successive quartiles of BCAAs in the control group than in the MedDiet groups. Using stroke as the outcome, a significant interaction (P=0.009) between the baseline BCAA score and the intervention with MedDiet was observed. No significant effect of the intervention on 1-yr changes in BCAAs nor any association between 1-year changes in BCAAs and CVD were observed. Conclusions Higher concentrations of baseline BCAAs were associated with increased risk of CVD, especially stroke, in a high cardiovascular risk population. A Mediterranean-style diet had a negligible effect on 1-year changes in BCAAs, but it may counteract the harmful effects of BCAAs on stroke. PMID:26888892

  5. Increased Peripheral Proinflammatory T Helper Subsets Contribute to Cardiovascular Complications in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-xing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD is one of the major concerns in type 2 diabetes (T2D. The systemic chronic inflammation has been postulated to bridge the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and T2D. We formulated that increased peripheral proinflammatory T helper subsets contributed to the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. Methods. The frequencies of peripheral total CD4+ T helper cells, proinflammatory Th1, Th17, and Th22 subsets were determined by flow cytometry in diabetic patients with or without CHD (n=42 and 67, resp.. Results. Both peripheral frequencies and total numbers of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells were further increased in diabetic patients with CHD. Logistic regression and categorical cross-table analysis further confirmed that increased proinflammatory Th subsets, especially Th22, were independent risk factors of cardiovascular complication in diabetes. Elevated Th subsets also correlated with increased CRP levels and the atherogenic index of plasma. Moreover, Th1 frequency and Th22 numbers demonstrated remarkable potential in predicting CHD in diabetes. Conclusions. Increased peripheral proinflammatory T helper subsets act in concert and contribute to the increased prevalence of diabetic cardiovasculopathy. The recently identified Th22 cells might play an independent role in CHD and represent a novel proxy for cardiovascular risks in diabetes.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease--an uphill battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schacky, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    In cardiology, results of recent large intervention trials with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements were neutral. In contrast, in epidemiologic studies, an inverse relation between clinical events and intake of EPA+DHA was found which was steeper for higher levels of EPA+DHA. A standardized way of determining levels is the Omega-3 Index, which is the percentage of EPA+DHA of a total of 26 fatty acids measured in erythrocytes. According to current criteria, a low Omega-3 Index is a cardiovascular risk factor. What can explain this contradiction? Trial participants were recruited irrespective of their baseline status in EPA+DHA - an important predictor of events. Levels of EPA+DHA have a statistically normal distribution; together with the large inter-individual variability of levels' responding to increased intake, this created a large overlap of EPA+DHA levels between intervention and control groups. Moreover, trial participants were advised to take EPA+DHA supplements with breakfast, frequently a low fat meal, resulting in poor bioavailability. As a result, there is an urgent need for new intervention trials in cardiology, for which participants with a low baseline omega-3 index are recruited, and then treated with individually tailored doses of EPA+DHA to a prespecified target range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential impact of milk fatty acid profiles on cardiovascular risk biomarkers in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpuech-Brugère, C; Mouriot, J; Boue-Vaysse, C; Combe, N; Peyraud, J-L; LeRuyet, P; Chesneau, G; Morio, B; Chardigny, J-M

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of three specific ruminant (R) milk fats resulting from modification of the cow's diet on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy volunteers. R-milk fats were characterized by increased content in total trans fatty acids (R-TFAs) and parallel decrease in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). A total of 111 healthy, normolipemic men and women have been recruited for a monocentric, randomized, double-blind and parallel intervention, 4-week controlled study. Volunteers consumed three experimental products (butter, dessert cream and cookies) made with one of the three specific milk fats (55 g fat per day). During the first week (run-in period), the subjects consumed on a daily basis dairy products containing 72% SFA/2.85% R-TFA (called 'L0'). For the next 3 weeks of the study (intervention period), the first group continued to consume L0 products. The second group received dairy products containing 63.3% SFA/4.06% R-TFA (called 'L4'), and the third group received dairy products containing 56.6% SFA/12.16% R-TFA (called 'L9'). Plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were not significantly altered by either diet (P=0.38). Compared to L0 diet, L4 diet contributed to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (-0.14+/-0.38 mmol/l, P=0.04), total cholesterol (-0.13+/-0.50 mmol/l, P=0.04), LDL-cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.14+/-0.36, P=0.03) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol (-0.18+/-0.44, P=0.02). Different milk fat profiles can change cardiovascular plasma parameters in human healthy volunteers. A limited increase of the R-TFA/SFA ratio in dairy products is associated with an improvement in some cardiovascular risk factors. However, a further increase in R-TFA/SFA ratio has no additional benefit.

  8. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  9. Protective effect of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid 1:1 ratio on cardiovascular disease risk markers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluís, Laura; Taltavull, Núria; Muñoz-Cortés, Mònica; Sánchez-Martos, Vanesa; Romeu, Marta; Giralt, Montse; Molinar-Toribio, Eunice; Torres, Josep Lluís; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Pazos, Manuel; Méndez, Lucía; Gallardo, José M; Medina, Isabel; Nogués, M Rosa

    2013-10-01

    High consumption of fish carries a lower risk of cardiovascular disease as a consequence of dietary omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA; especially EPA and DHA) content. A controversy exists about the component/s responsible of these beneficial effects and, in consequence, which is the best proportion between both fatty acids. We sought to determine, in healthy Wistar rats, the proportions of EPA and DHA that would induce beneficial effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress, and cardiovascular disease risk. Female Wistar rats were fed for 13 weeks with 5 different dietary supplements of oils; 3 derived from fish (EPA/DHA ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 1:2) plus soybean and linseed as controls. The activities of major antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPX, and GR) were determined in erythrocytes and liver, and the ORAC test was used to determine the antioxidant capacity in plasma. Also measured were: C reactive protein (CRP), endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM and sICAM), prothrombotic activity (PAI-1), lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol, HDLc, LDLc, Apo-A1, and Apo-B100), glycated haemoglobin and lipid peroxidation (LDL-ox and MDA values). After three months of nutritional intervention, we observed statistically significant differences in the ApoB100/ApoA1 ratio, glycated haemoglobin, VCAM-1, SOD and GPx in erythrocytes, ORAC values and LDL-ox. Supplementation with fish oil derived omega-3 PUFA increased VCAM-1, LDL-ox and plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC). Conversely, the ApoB100/ApoA1 ratio and percentage glycated haemoglobin decreased. Our results showed that a diet of a 1:1 ratio of EPA/DHA improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD and GPx in erythrocytes), plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and cardiovascular risk factors (glycated haemoglobin) relative to the other diets.

  10. Vascular Stiffness and Increased Pulse Pressure in the Aging Cardiovascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Steppan; Viachaslau Barodka; Berkowitz, Dan E; Daniel Nyhan

    2011-01-01

    Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe pulse wave velocity as a method to measure vascular stiffness and review the impact of increased vascular stiffness as an in...

  11. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for cardiovascular diseases: present, past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The ongoing long-term CV interventional outcome studies investigate high-dose, prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids. The results are expected to clarify the potential role of omega-3 fatty acids in reducing CV risk. The anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids are also important. Future clinical trials should also focus on the role of these anti-inflammatory mediators in human arteriosclerotic diseases as well as inflammatory diseases.

  12. Oleanolic acid increases plasma ANP levels via an accentuation of cardiac ANP synthesis and secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Yoom; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-06-15

    Oleanolic acid is known to have beneficial effects on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. The present study was designed to identify the effects of oleanolic acid on plasma levels and atrial synthesis and secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Experiments were performed in rats and isolated perfused beating rat atria. ANP was measured using a selective radioimmunoassay. ANP mRNA expression was measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Administration of oleanolic acid increased plasma ANP levels in a dose-related manner. Similarly, oleanolic acid increased atrial ANP content and ANP mRNA expression. To evaluate the effects of oleanolic acid on ANP secretion, atrial stretch and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation were applied to the atria from rats chronically treated with oleanolic acid. Baseline levels of ANP secretion were higher in the atria from rats treated with oleanolic acid compared to rats treated with vehicle. Furthermore, oleanolic acid treatment enhanced the stretch-induced increase in ANP secretion. Acetylcholine in the presence of isoproterenol increased ANP secretion. The acetylcholine-induced increase in ANP secretion was also enhanced in the atria from rats treated with oleanolic acid compared to atria from rats treated with vehicle. The present findings indicate that oleanolic acid increases plasma ANP levels via increased ANP synthesis and secretion in rats. It is proposed that an accentuation of the ANP system is involved in the beneficial effects of oleanolic acid on the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevation of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein after cardiac catheterization related to cardiovascular events

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    Kamijo-Ikemori A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atsuko Kamijo-Ikemori,1,3 Nobuyuki Hashimoto,2 Takeshi Sugaya,1 Katsuomi Matsui,1 Mikako Hisamichi,1 Yugo Shibagaki,1 Fumihiko Miyake,2 Kenjiro Kimura1 1Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anatomy, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan Purpose: Contrast medium (CM induces tubular hypoxia via endothelial damage due to direct cytotoxicity or viscosity. Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP increases along with tubular hypoxia and may be a detector of systemic circulation injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of detecting increases in urinary L-FABP levels due to administration of CM, as a prognostic biomarker for cardiovascular disease in patients without occurrence of CM-induced nephropathy undergoing cardiac catheterization procedure (CCP. Methods: Retrospective longitudinal analyses of the relationship between urinary L-FABP levels and occurrence of cardiovascular events were performed (n=29. Urinary L-FABP was measured by ELISA before CCP, and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after CCP. Results: Urinary L-FABP levels were significantly higher at 12 hours (P<0.05 and 24 hours (P<0.005 after CCP compared with before CCP, only in the patients with occurrence of cardiovascular events (n=17, but not in those without cardiovascular events (n=12. The parameter with the largest area under the curve (0.816 for predicting the occurrence of cardiovascular events was the change in urinary L-FABP at 24 hours after CCP. The difference in urinary L-FABP levels (ΔL-FABP ≥11.0 µg/g creatinine between before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP was a risk factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.27–19.13; P=0.021. Conclusion: Measurement of urinary L-FABP before CCP and at 24 hours after CCP in patients with mild to moderate renal dysfunction may be an important indicator for risk

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome and early-onset preeclampsia : reproductive manifestations of increased cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman-Verhulst, Susanne M.; van Rijn, Bas B.; Westerveld, H. Egbertine; Franx, Arie; Bruinse, Hein W.; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Goverde, Angelique J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women is a major healthcare issue. Detection of premenopausal women with increased risk of CVD could enhance prevention strategies and reduce first event-related morbidity and mortality. In this study, we argue that an unfavorable

  15. Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acid: Its Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bibhuti B Kakoti; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G.; Manjir S Kataki; Kajri eShah; Yashwant ePathak; Panguluri, Siva K

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and omega 3 fatty acids. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factor associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties has been p...

  16. Genetic variation in fatty acid elongases is not associated with intermediate cardiovascular phenotypes or myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elongases 2, 4 and 5, encoded by genes ELOVL2, ELOVL4 and ELOVL5, have a key role in the biosynthesis of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To date, few studies have investigated the associations between elongase polymorphisms and cardiovascular health. We investigated whether ELOV...

  17. The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite a large amount of research in the past decades, the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke is still debated. Inconsistent findings in epidemiological studies may be due to

  18. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk in observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fat is a valuable component of the diet and essential for the human body. Over time it has become clear that certain types of fat(ty acids) are also potentially harmful for our health. For example, we know from intervention studies that saturated fat and trans-fat have unfavourable effects

  19. Does high sugar consumption exacerbate cardiometabolic risk factors and increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease?

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    David E. Laaksonen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar has been relatively high in the Nordic countries; the impact of sugar intake on metabolic risk factors and related diseases has been debated. The objectives were to assess the effect of sugar intake (sugar-sweetened beverages, sucrose and fructose on association with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic risk factors (impaired glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, blood pressure, uric acid, inflammation markers, and on all-cause mortality, through a systematic review of prospective cohort studies and randomised controlled intervention studies published between January 2000 and search dates. The methods adopted were as follows: the first search was run in PubMed in October 2010. A second search with uric acid as risk marker was run in April 2011. The total search strategy was rerun in April 2011 in SveMed+. An update was run in PubMed in January 2012. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion from the 2,743 abstracts according to predefined eligibility criteria. The outcome was that out of the 17 studies extracted, 15 were prospective cohort studies and two were randomised controlled crossover trials. All of the studies included only adults. With respect to incident type 2 diabetes (nine studies, four of six prospective cohort studies found a significant positive association for sugar-sweetened beverage intake. In general, larger cohort studies with longer follow-up more often reported positive associations, and BMI seemed to mediate part of the increased risk. For other metabolic or cardiovascular risk factors or outcomes, too few studies have been published to draw conclusions. In conclusion, data from prospective cohort studies published in the years 2000–2011 suggest that sugar-sweetened beverages probably increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. For related metabolic risk factors, cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality and other types of sugars, too few studies

  20. The association between dietary omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular death: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Angela S; Pan, An; Wang, Renwei; Odegaard, Andrew O; Pereira, Mark A; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2015-03-01

    Although studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids intake may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk, few studies have differentiated dietary eicosapentaenoic/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and epidemiological research in Asian populations is limited. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was measured at recruitment using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mortality information was identified via registry linkage up to 31 December 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. We documented 4780 cardiovascular deaths (including 2697 coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths and 1298 stroke deaths) during 890,473 person-years of follow up. Omega-3 fatty acids intake was monotonically associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. Compared to the lowest quartile, the HR was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.81-0.96), 0.88 (95% CI 0.80-0.97), and 0.83 (95% CI 0.74-0.92) for the second, third, and highest quartile, respectively (p-trend = 0.003). Both EPA/DHA and ALA were independently associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality: HR comparing extreme quartiles was 0.86 (95% CI 0.77-0.96, p-trend = 0.002) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.90, p-trend omega-3 fatty acids are both associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality in a Chinese population. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

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    Jozan Peter

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Methods Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. Results We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  2. Increased risk of cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease: a possible role of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, Agnieszka; Dudka, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Leptin is a small peptide hormone (16 kDa), a product of the obesity gene (Ob), and is mainly synthesized and secreted by adipocytes. It is removed from the blood by the kidneys. The kidney is not only a site of leptin clearance, but also a target organ for its action in different pathophysiological states. Several studies have documented a strong relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD) defined as a cardiorenal syndrome. Patients with stage 3 and 4 CKD develop cardiovascular complications and are at increased risk of death from CVD. Renal dysfunction promotes several mechanisms responsible for exacerbation of cardiovascular disease. These include activation of the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), low-grade inflammation with increased circulating cytokines, and dyslipidemia. Recently, it has been observed that plasma leptin level is elevated in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. In obesity, hyperleptinemia combined with selective leptin resistance appear to have a critical role in the development and progression of kidney disease, CVD and metabolic syndrome. This has clinical implications for the treatment of obesity-related hypertension and kidney disease. In this paper the role of leptin in chronic kidney disease and accelerated cardiovascular disease is out lined. The link between hyperleptinemia and development and progression of morphologic changes that effect kidney in obese patients is also discussed.

  3. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary--impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Sandor; Papp, Renata; Jozan, Peter; Csaszar, Albert

    2010-07-15

    During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascular mortality rates, as a main cause of death and the increase in cardio-metabolic prescriptions and possible changes in lifestyle behavior. Analyses were conducted on national data concerning cardiovascular mortality and the number of cardio-metabolic drug prescription per capita. The association between yearly rates of cardiovascular events and changes in antihypertensive, antilipidemic and antidiabetic prescription rates was analyzed. The changes in other cardiovascular risk factors, like lifestyle were also considered. We observed a remarkable decline of mortality due to stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The fall was significantly associated with all prescription rates. The proportion of each treatment type responsible for suppression of specific mortality rates is different. All treatment types comparably improved stroke mortality, while antilipidemic therapy improved AMI outcome. These results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive strategy that maximizes the population coverage of effective treatments. Hungary appears to be at the beginning of the fourth stage of epidemiologic transition, i.e. it has entered the stage of delayed chronic noninfectious diseases.

  4. Not only cardiovascular, but also coordinative exercise increases hippocampal volume in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eNiemann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular activity has been shown to be positively associated with grey and white matter volume of, amongst others, frontal and temporal brain regions in older adults. This is particularly true for the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in learning and memory, and whose decline has been related to the development of Alzheimer´s disease. In the current study, we were interested in whether not only cardiovascular activity but also other types of physical activity, i.e., coordination training, were also positively associated with the volume of the hippocampus in older adults. For this purpose we first collected cross-sectional data on metabolic fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength and motor fitness (e.g, balance, movement speed, fine coordination. Second, we performed a 12-month randomized controlled trial. Results revealed that motor fitness but not metabolic fitness was associated with hippocampal volume. After the 12-month intervention period, both, cardiovascular and coordination training led to increases in hippocampal volume. Our findings suggest that a high motor fitness level as well as different types of physical activity were beneficial to diminish age-related hippocampal volume shrinkage or even increase hippocampal volume.

  5. Do omega-3 polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent cardiovascular disease? A review of the randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmig, Lucas M; Karalis, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil is rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Numerous epidemiological studies and several large randomized clinical trials have shown that modest doses of omega-3 PUFAs significantly reduce the risk of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death as well as death in coronary artery disease and heart failure patients. Based on the scientific evidence, the American Heart Association (AHA) has recommended all individuals eat fish at least twice a week to prevent cardiovascular disease. For individuals with coronary artery disease, the recommended dose of omega-3 PUFAs is 1 g of EPA and DHA daily. To lower triglyceride levels, much higher doses are needed. However, more recent randomized clinical trials have questioned the cardiovascular benefits of fish oil. These studies have contributed to the uncertainty health care providers face when recommending omega-3 PUFA supplementation according to clinical guidelines. The purpose of this review is to examine the randomized clinical trials and scientific evidence between omega-3 PUFAs and cardiovascular outcomes to better understand the current role of omega-3 PUFAs in improving cardiovascular health.

  6. Impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on vascular function and blood pressure: Relevance for cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, G; Catena, C; Novello, M; Bertin, N; Sechi, L A

    2017-03-01

    To overview the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on blood vessels and blood pressure (BP) and their relevance for cardiovascular prevention. The importance of omega-3 PUFA for the cardiovascular system has come under the spotlight during the last decades. These fatty acids are present in variable amounts in cell membranes of mammal species, and their content affects a variety of cellular functions. Evidence obtained in animal and human studies suggests that omega-3 PUFA affect many steps of the atherosclerotic process. In blood vessels, omega-3 PUFA improve endothelial function; promote vasodilatation through relaxation of smooth muscle cells; exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic actions; delay development of plaques and increase their stability; and decrease wall stiffening. Omega-3 PUFA might affect BP, and studies conducted with ambulatory monitoring suggest that supplementation with these fatty acids decreases the average 24-h BP levels. This effect on BP is related to the pretreatment membrane content of omega-3 PUFA, and this might explain some inconsistencies among intervention trials. Meta-analyses indicate that omega-3 PUFA have a mild but significant BP lowering effect. While encouraging results were initially obtained with the use of omega-3 PUFA supplements in secondary prevention trials, meta-analyses have not confirmed the ability of these fatty acids to decrease the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 PUFA are associated with significant improvement in vascular function and lowering of BP. However, the evidence currently supporting the role of these fatty acids in cardiovascular prevention is weak and needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  7. cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos que más discusión ha suscitado en los últimos tiempos entre quienes nos dedicamos al estudio de la emoción tiene que ver con la eventual asociación entre percepción, valoración y respuesta fisiológica. Esto es, siguiendo la máxima aristotélica, cabría cuestionar si las cosas son como son o son como cada quien las percibe. El objetivo de este experimento ha sido establecer la existencia de una conexión entre percepción de control y responsividad cardiovascular. La muestra estudiada ha estado conformada por estudiantes de la Universidad de Castellón; todos ellos han participado de forma voluntaria. La prueba de estrés ha consistido en un examen real de una asignatura troncal de la titulación que cursaban los participantes. Así pues, utilizando una situación de estrés real, hipotetizamos que las respuestas cardiovasculares (medidas a través de la tasa cardiaca, la presión sanguínea sistólica y la presión sanguínea diastólica dependen de la percepción de control que el individuo tiene, o cree tener, sobre la situación.

  8. Prevention of angiotensin II-induced hypertension, cardiovascular hypertrophy and oxidative stress by acetylsalicylic acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong; Laplante, Marc-André; De Champlain, Jacques

    2004-04-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced oxidative stress has been suspected to play an important part in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) possesses potent antioxidative properties. To evaluate the pathogenetic role of oxidative stress in Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Chronic infusion of Ang II (200 ng/kg per min for 12 days) increased the aortic and cardiac tissue production of superoxide anion (O2) (lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method) by 77 and 35%, respectively. These effects were associated with progressive increases in systolic blood pressure (from 135 to 194 mmHg) and heart/body weight ratio (from 2.25 to 2.69). Chronic treatment with oral ASA alone (100 mg/kg per day for 12 days) significantly reduced aortic and cardiac production of O2 (by 31 and 33%, respectively), without alteration in blood pressure and heart/body weight ratio in control normotensive animals. However, concurrent treatment with ASA in Ang II-infused rats completely prevented the Ang II-induced production of O2, in addition to hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Similar protective effects were observed in cultured aortic smooth muscle cells, in which increases in O2 production and [H]leucine incorporation (221 and 38%, respectively) induced by Ang II (10 mol/l) were totally prevented by concurrent incubation with ASA (10 mol/l). Losartan, but not PD 123319, also blocked the Ang II-induced oxidative and hypertrophic effects in those cells. Other anti-inflammatory drugs, such as salicylic acid, indomethacin and ibuprofen, did not show similar anti-Ang II and antioxidative effects in vivo. Oxidative stress plays a major part in chronic Ang II-induced hypertension and cardiovascular hypertrophy. Chronic concurrent treatment with ASA was found to prevent those Ang II-induced effects on the cardiovascular system, presumably through its antioxidative properties.

  9. Benfotiamine and Alpha-Lipoic Acid in the Treatment of Diabetic Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy (Review of Literature and Own Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Sergiyenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of current views on the mechanisms of fat-soluble form of vitamin B1 (benfotiamine and α-lipoic acid action, in particular features of their impact on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, hemodynamics, vessel stiffness in cardiovascular diseases, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus, was perfomed. The results of experimental, randomized and own studies confirmed the value of the combined administration of benfotiamine and α-lipoic acid for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, in particular cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Courtney P; Barry, Arden R; Koshman, Sheri L

    2016-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have purported protective cardiovascular (CV) effects. We sought to assess the evidence available for the use of omega-3 PUFAs for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE from 1999 to 2015. Placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled over 1000 patients with follow-up greater than 1 year and meta-analyses of RCTs were included. Eight RCTs and 2 meta-analyses were included. In patients with preexisting CVD, only 1 of 5 included RCTs demonstrated a reduction in CV events with omega-3 PUFAs; however, the effect size was minimal, and the study was limited by an open-label design and lack of placebo control. Two meta-analyses concluded omega-3 PUFAs do not reduce CV events in addition to standard, evidence-based therapy in patients after myocardial infarction. Of the 3 predominantly primary prevention RCTs, only 1 demonstrated a minor reduction in major coronary events; however, it was also an open-label study. Furthermore, the safety of omega-3 PUFAs should be considered. While data from RCTs have not demonstrated serious safety concerns, omega-3 PUFAs can increase the risk of bleeding and may interact with other medications that affect hemostasis, such as antiplatelet agents and warfarin. There is currently a lack of evidence to support the routine use of omega-3 PUFAs in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Pharmacists are ideally situated to engage patients in the discussion of the lack of benefit and possible risk of omega-3 PUFA supplements.

  11. Data on gender and subgroup specific analyses of omega-3 fatty acids in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E.; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    This paper contains additional data related to the research article “Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography – The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study” (Kleber et al., in press) [1]. The data shows characteristics of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study according to tertiles of omega-3 fatty acids as well as stratified by gender. The association of proportions of omega-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte membrane...

  12. Improvement of Processing Speed in Executive Function Immediately following an Increase in Cardiovascular Activity

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    Nicoladie D. Tam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the acute effects of physical exercise on specific cognitive functions immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. Stair-climbing exercise is used to increase the cardiovascular output of human subjects. The color-naming Stroop Test was used to identify the cognitive improvements in executive function with respect to processing speed and error rate. The study compared the Stroop results before and immediately after exercise and before and after nonexercise, as a control. The results show that there is a significant increase in processing speed and a reduction in errors immediately after less than 30 min of aerobic exercise. The improvements are greater for the incongruent than for the congruent color tests. This suggests that physical exercise induces a better performance in a task that requires resolving conflict (or interference than a task that does not. There is no significant improvement for the nonexercise control trials. This demonstrates that an increase in cardiovascular activity has significant acute effects on improving the executive function that requires conflict resolution (for the incongruent color tests immediately following aerobic exercise more than similar executive functions that do not require conflict resolution or involve the attention-inhibition process (for the congruent color tests.

  13. Association of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein with cardiovascular risk factors and all-cause mortality in the general population: the Takahata study.

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    Yoichiro Otaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite many recent advances in medicine, preventing the development of cardiovascular diseases remains a challenge. Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP is a marker of ongoing myocardial damage and has been reported to be a useful indicator for future cardiovascular events. However, it remains to be determined whether H-FABP can predict all-cause and cardiovascular deaths in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: This longitudinal cohort study included 3,503 subjects who participated in a community-based health checkup with a 7-year follow-up. Serum H-FABP was measured in registered subjects. The results demonstrated that higher H-FABP levels were associated with increasing numbers of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. There were 158 deaths during the follow-up period, including 50 cardiovascular deaths. Deceased subjects had higher H-FABP levels compared to surviving subjects. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed that H-FABP is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular deaths after adjustments for confounding factors. Subjects were divided into four quartiles according to H-FABP level, and Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the highest H-FABP quartile was associated with the greatest risks for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. Net reclassification index and integrated discrimination index were significantly increased by addition of H-FABP to cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: H-FABP level was increased in association with greater numbers of cardiovascular risk factors and was an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. H-FABP could be a useful indicator for the early identification of high-risk subjects in the general population.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids and cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids in cardiovascular diseases: Which actions and interactions modulate hemodynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafini, Sara; Fava, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Increasing interest is focused on omega-3 fatty acids (FA) because of their potential beneficial effects, particularly in cardiovascular disease prevention. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), two major omega-3 FA, are mainly consumed through diet, particularly from fish and seafood intake, whereas alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is present in high amounts in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. The hypothesis of a cardiovascular protective action of omega-3 FA derives mainly from observational studies, whereas the evidence from interventional studies is not always consistent. Nonetheless, clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate a positive action, at minimum on blood pressure (BP). Omega-3 FA may act through different biological pathways; however, in our review, we seek to revisit, most notably, the role of their metabolites via cytochrome P450 (CYP450) in hemodynamic modulation. We emphasize that the effect of omega-3 FA may depend on their balance with other dietary compounds, particularly omega-6 FA, which compete for the same pathways, thus modulating the production of metabolites. Furthermore, the biological activity of omega-3 FA might be better explained by the complex balance and interactions between a variety of nutrients and polymorphisms of genes implicated in specific metabolic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients : A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Stijger, Astrid; Tromp, Jan A. H.; van Dijk, Johan L.; Vissink, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  16. Increased Prevalence of Cardiovascular and Autoimmune Diseases in Periodontitis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesse, Willem; Dijkstra, P.U.; Abbas, Frank; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Stijger, A.; Tromp, J.A.H.; van Dijk, J.L.; Vissink, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases are most often assessed in patients with a particular cardiovascular or autoimmune disease. To prevent selection bias, this study assesses the existence of associations between periodontitis and cardiovascular

  17. Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes: Increasing Awareness of the Adverse Cardiovascular Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary: Chronic cardiovascular disease imposes a significant health and economic burden on individuals and communities. Despite decades of improvement in cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular disease and stroke remain the leading cause of death in the U.S. and disparities i...

  18. Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Robert K.; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn − 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n − 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n − 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, −22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n − 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n − 6) was significantly lower (−12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (−19%, P = 0.04) but not female (−13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn − 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:23533712

  19. High Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Levels Increase Proinflammatory and Cardiovascular Markers in Patients with Extreme Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime Héctor; Mendoza-Zubieta, Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Molina-Ayala, Marío Antonio; Valladares-Sálgado, Adán; Suárez-Sánchez, Fernando; de Jesús Peralta-Romero, Jose; Cruz, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is an important health problem worldwide and many studies have suggested a relationship between obesity and thyroid function, with controversial results. Interestingly, high TSH levels have been involved with the presence of inflammatory state and risk for developing cardiovascular diseases in hypothyroid and obese patients. The aim in this work was to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity and to determine whether their TSH levels were related to increased serum levels of inflammatory and cardiovascular markers. A cross-sectional study in 101 patients with extreme obesity (BMI ≥40) was performed. Anthropometric (weight, height and waist circumference) and biochemical (fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and insulin) parameters were measured. TSH and FT4 levels as well as clinical exploration for diagnosis of hypothyroidism were carried out. Serum concentration of IL-10, IL-6, adiponectin, resistin, leptin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin were determined. A high prevalence for diabetes (37.6%), prediabetes (50.5%), dyslipidemia (74.3%), hypertension (61.4%) and hypothyroidism (48.5%) was observed in patients with extreme obesity. The presence of hypothyroidism increased serum concentration of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and leptin and decreased the antiinflammatory cytokine adiponectin. In addition, serum TSH levels showed a correlation for waist circumference, weight, BMI, A1c, insulin, IL-6, leptin, ICAM-1 and E-selectin. There is a high prevalence for hypothyroidism in patients with extreme obesity. High levels of TSH contribute to elevate proinflammatory and cardiovascular risk markers, increasing the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids, polymorphisms and lipid related cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Inuit population.

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    Rudkowska, Iwona; Ouellette, Catherine; Dewailly, Eric; Hegele, Robert A; Boiteau, Véronique; Dubé-Linteau, Ariane; Abdous, Belkacem; Proust, Françoise; Giguère, Yves; Julien, Pierre; Château-Degat, Marie-Ludivine; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-12

    Tissue concentrations of fatty acids (FAs) and genetic variations are well-known factors which affect the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective was to examine whether the genetic variability of 20 candidate genes and red blood cells (RBCs) percentage of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a biomarker of dietary n-3 PUFA intake, modulate lipid related CVD risk factors in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n = 553) were analysed via multivariate regression models with 40 known polymorphisms, RBCs percentage of n-3 PUFA, and the interaction term to take into account the effect on plasma lipid and apolipoporotein levels. Individuals being heterozygotes for CETP C-4502T (rs183130) or G-971A (rs4783961) together with higher n-3 PUFA had lower triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations compared to homozygotes for the minor allele. Further, effects of a stronger beneficial association between n-3 PUFA in RBCs and plasma lipid parameters- including lower total cholesterol (TC), lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations- were associated with AGT M235T (rs699) TT genotype, CETP G-971A (rs4783961) AG genotype, T allele carriers of CETP C-4502T (rs183130), and T allele carriers of CETP Ile405Val (rs5882). In contrast, higher n-3 PUFA in RBCs were associated with adverse lipid profiles- including increased LDL-C, increased apolipoprotein B100 or decreased HDL-C concentrations- in G allele carriers of the APOA5 -3 A/G (rs651821), C allele carriers of APOA5 T-1131C (rs662799), G carriers of APOC3 SstI (rs5128) and G carriers of APOA4 Asn147Ser (rs5104). Overall, these results suggest that percentage of total n-3 PUFA of RBCs are associated with lipids related CVD risk factors conferred by genetic variations in the Inuit population.

  1. Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. The beneficial effects of fish oil are attributed to their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; also known as omega-3 fatty acids) content, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA influences the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids that, in turn, may affect cardiac cell functions in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may exert beneficial effects by affecting a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms. Pathways involved in calcium homeostasis in the heart may be of particular importance. L-type calcium channels, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are the most obvious key signaling pathways affecting the cardiovascular system; however, recent studies now suggest that other signaling pathways involving activation of phospholipases, synthesis of eicosanoids, regulation of receptor-associated enzymes and protein kinases also play very important roles in mediating n-3 PUFA effects on cardiovascular health. This review is therefore focused on the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by n-3 PUFAs in relation to their cardioprotective effects.

  2. Oleic acid increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and decreases endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in cultured endothelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmels, Hendrik; Bevers, Lonneke M.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Braam, Branko; Jan Van Zonneveld, Anton; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Joles, Jaap A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This may be related to FFA-induced elevation of oxidative stress in endothelial cells. We hypothesized that, in addition to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species, endothelial nitric

  3. Dynamic vessel wall properties and their reproducibility in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; Thien, T

    1998-06-01

    To determine reproducibility figures of dynamic arterial wall properties such as cross-sectional compliance (CC) and distensibility (DC) in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk, in comparison with healthy adults. A total of 34 persons were divided into three groups with varying cardiovascular risk factors. Diameters (D) and diameter changes (deltaD) during the heart cycle of both common carotid (CCA) and right common femoral (CFA) arteries were measured by a vessel wall movement detector system. Blood pressures (BP) were recorded non-invasively by a semi-automated oscillometric device. CC (=piD(deltaD/2deltaP) in unit mm2/kPa) and DC (=2deltaD/D)/deltaP in unit 10(-3)/kPa) were calculated from the above-mentioned parameters. Measurements were performed twice during one visit and twice again with a time interval of at least 3 days to determine intra-observer intra- and intersession variability. Reproducibility figures of CC and DC of the CCA varied between 8 and 12%, and between 13 and 22% for the CFA. Intra-observer intra- and intersession variability were similar in the three groups. In our studies the reproducibility of dynamic vascular wall properties determined by ultrasound was good. Despite differences in the absolute values for CC and DC in groups with increased cardiovascular risk, mean reproducibility figures remained at a similar level (8-12%) as in healthy volunteers.

  4. Trans-fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Trans-fatty acids (TFAs) are generated by the food industry and also occur naturally in trace amounts in dairy products. For the latter, beneficial health effects have been claimed, while there are numerous reports about TFA of industrial origin being hazardous to human health. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of TFA with mortality in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study. The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was analysed using the HS-Omega-3 Index(®) methodology in 3259 participants of the LURIC study at baseline. During a median of 10.0 years of follow-up, a total of 975 (29.9%) study participants died, 614 (18.8%) from cardiovascular causes including 254 (7.8%) sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs). Association of TFA with clinical outcome was investigated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Total TFAs were inversely associated with mortality due to cardiovascular causes or SCD. This was mainly driven by the naturally occurring TFA C16:1n-7t (trans-palmitoleic acid). The reduced risk of SCD associated with C16:1n-7t persisted after multivariate adjustment with a hazard ratio of 0.63 (0.46-0.86) for the third tertile compared with the first tertile. There was no association of any TFA subgroup with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. In contrast to previous findings, the low concentrations of total TFAs found in LURIC were inversely associated with adverse cardiac outcomes. While the naturally occurring TFA C16:1n-7t was associated with reduced risk, no increased risk was found for industrially produced TFAs. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Oilseeds native to the Cerrado have fatty acid profile beneficial for cardiovascular health

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    Aline Medeiros ALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the fatty acid composition of edible seeds and a nut native to the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah to that of traditional oilseeds. Methods: Baru almonds, Cerrado cashew nuts, and pequi almonds were extracted from the fruits using appropriate equipment. All edible seeds and nuts were roasted, except for the Brazil nut. The sample lipids were extracted via cold pressing. The fatty acids were esterified, and the fatty acid esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results: The native and traditional edible seeds and nuts contain mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (42.72 g to 63.44 g/100 g, except for the Brazil nut, which showed predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.48 g/100 g. Pequi almond had the highest saturated fatty acid content (36.14 g/100 g. The fatty acids with the highest concentration were oleic and linoleic acids, and palmitic acid was also found in considerable concentration in the oilseeds studied. The Cerrado cashew nut and the traditional cashew nut have similar fatty acid profiles. As for the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3, the baru almond showed the highest ratio, 9:1, which was the closest to the recommended intake of these fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile of the edible seeds and nuts native to the cerrado is similar to those of traditional oilseeds. We suggest the inclusion of native oilseeds in the diet aiming at reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially the baru almond and the cerrado cashew nut, due to the fact they have high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

  6. Uric acid in the pathogenesis of metabolic, renal, and cardiovascular diseases: A review

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    Usama A.A. Sharaf El Din

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between uric acid (UA on one side and systemic hypertension (Htn, dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, overweight, fatty liver, renal disease and cardiovascular disease (CVD on the other side is well recognized. However, the causal relationship between UA and these different clinical problems is still debatable. The recent years have witnessed hundreds of experimental and clinical trials that favored the opinion that UA is a probable player in the pathogenesis of these disease entities. These studies disclosed the strong association between hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome (MS, obesity, Htn, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease (CKD, coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure and increased mortality among cardiac and CKD patients. The association between UA and nephrolithiasis or preeclampsia is a non-debatable association. Recent experimental trials have disclosed different changes in enzyme activities induced by UA. Nitric oxide (NO synthase, adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK, adenosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (AMPD, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-oxidase are affected by UA. These changes in enzymatic activities can lead to the observed biochemical and pathological changes associated with UA. The recent experimental, clinical, interventional, and epidemiologic trials favor the concept of a causative role of UA in the pathogenesis of MS, renal, and CVDs.

  7. Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease Are Associated with Decreased Serum Selenium Concentrations and Increased Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Aguilar-Tablada, Teresa; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Quesada Granados, Javier; Samaniego Sánchez, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José Ángel; Nogueras-Lopez, Flor

    2016-12-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated oxidative stress is increasing. The antioxidant mineral selenium (Se) was measured in serum samples from 106 IBD patients (53 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 53 with Crohn's disease (CD)) and from 30 healthy controls. Serum Se concentrations were significantly lower in UC and CD patients than in healthy controls (p nutritional (protein, albumin, prealbumin, cholinesterase and total cholesterol) and iron status-related (hemoglobin, Fe and hematocrit) parameters (p nutritional Se status is important in IBD patients to minimize the cardiovascular risk associated with increased inflammation biomarkers, especially in undernourished CD patients, and is also related to an improved nutritional and body iron status.

  8. Increased risk of acute cardiovascular events after partner bereavement: a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Iain M; Shah, Sunil M; DeWilde, Stephen; Harris, Tess; Victor, Christina R; Cook, Derek G

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE The period immediately after bereavement has been reported as a time of increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, this risk has not been well quantified, and few large population studies have examined partner bereavement. OBJECTIVE To compare the rate of cardiovascular events between older individuals whose partner dies with those of a matched control group of individuals whose partner was still alive on the same day. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Matched cohort study using a UK primary care database containing availale data of 401 general practices from February 2005 through September 2012. In all, 30 447 individuals aged 60 to 89 years at study initiation who experienced partner bereavement during follow-up were matched by age, sex, and general practice with the nonbereaved control group (n = 83 588) at the time of bereavement. EXPOSURES Partner bereavement. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was occurrence of a fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke within 30 days of bereavement. Secondary outcomes were non-MI acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism. All outcomes were compared between the groups during prespecified periods after bereavement (30, 90, and 365 days). Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) from a conditional Poisson model were adjusted for age, smoking status, deprivation, and history of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS Within 30 days of their partner's death, 50 of the bereaved group (0.16%) experienced an MI or a stroke compared with 67 of the matched nonbereaved controls (0.08%) during the same period (IRR, 2.20 [95% CI, 1.52-3.15]). The increased risk was seen in bereaved men and women and attenuated after 30 days. For individual outcomes, the increased risk was found separately for MI (IRR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.20-3.81]) and stroke (2.40 [1.22-4.71]). Associations with rarer events were also seen after bereavement, including elevated risk of non-MI acute coronary syndrome (IRR, 2.20 [95% CI, 1

  9. Desphospho-Uncarboxylated Matrix-Gla Protein Is Increased Postoperatively in Cardiovascular Risk Patients

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    Sofia Dahlberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix Gla protein (MGP is an extrahepatic protein that is dependent on glutamate carboxylation, a vitamin K-dependent process. Its dysfunctional form, desphospho-uncarboxylated-MGP, has been associated with increased arterial calcification and stiffness. The aim of this study was to measure the degree of postoperative carboxylation of MGP and two other Gla proteins in patients scheduled for abdominal or orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Forty patients undergoing abdominal or orthopaedic surgery were included. Blood samples were collected preoperatively and four days after the surgery. Desphospho-carboxylated MGP (dp-cMGP, desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP, carboxylated osteocalcin (OC (cOC, uncarboxylated OC (ucOC, and uncarboxylated prothrombin (PIVKA-II were analysed. Results: Preoperatively, 29 patients had dp-ucMGP levels above the reference values. Patients with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities had higher dp-ucMGP preoperatively compared with patients with no record of cardiovascular disease. Postoperatively, this number increased to 36 patients, and median dp-ucMGP levels increased (p < 0.0001 and correlated to a PIVKA-II increase (r = 0.44. On the other hand, dp-cMGP levels did not significantly alter. Decreased levels of ucOC and cOC were seen after surgery (p = 0.017 and p = 0.0033, respectively. Comorbidities, possible nutritional defects, and complications affecting Gla protein activity and function were identified. Conclusions. Dp-ucMGP was high preoperatively, and had further increased postoperatively. This pattern was linked to several comorbidities, possible nutritional defects, and postoperative complications, which motivates further research about potential interactions between perioperative corrective treatments with vitamin K supplements, cardiovascular biomarkers, and incidents of stroke and myocardial infarction events.

  10. Hypothesis: cadmium explains, in part, why smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eric M; Landy, David C; Ahn, Soyeon; Hlaing, WayWay M; Hennekens, Charles H

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease via acute and chronic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. One plausible but untested hypothesis concerns cadmium (Cd), a component of cigarette smoke, which is injurious to vascular endothelial cells and is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. To contribute to the formulation of this hypothesis, we performed a meta-analysis of the available data that consisted of cross-sectional studies useful to formulate but not test hypotheses. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched by combining the terms smoking, Cd, correlation, blood, human, and tobacco. Following abstract review, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. We compared serum Cd levels between smokers and nonsmokers using standardized mean differences (SMDs) as well as correlation coefficients between smoking and Cd. The estimated overall random effects SMD in Cd between smokers and nonsmokers was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], .70-1.56) with significant heterogeneity (Q = 8.6, P hypothesis that Cd explains, in part, why smokers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Further research, including analytic studies designed a priori are necessary to test the hypothesis.

  11. Consumo de ácidos grasos trans y riesgo cardiovascular Consumption of trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk

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    Fernando Manzur J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los ácidos grasos con configuración trans poco se encuentran en los alimentos de manera natural, sino que se incorporan a éstos como consecuencia de modificaciones principalmente debidas a los procesos industriales de hidrogenación a que se someten los aceites para convertirlos en grasas sólidas. Aún cuando su estructura incluye dobles enlaces, el tipo de configuración permite un comportamiento biológico similar al de los ácidos grasos saturados, con efectos negativos sobre múltiples funciones celulares. La evidencia demuestra que son perjudiciales para la salud, en especial a lo que se refiere a riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, razón por la cual es importante disminuir su consumo. Teniendo en consideración la evidencia obtenida de investigaciones sobre las alteraciones del metabolismo producidas por los ácidos grasos trans, es posible plantear una precaución lógica hacia el consumo de dietas ricas en dichos ácidos. Sus efectos deletéreos serían incluso peores en aquellas poblaciones que consumen bajas cantidades de ácidos grasos esenciales. De ahí surge la importancia de iniciar con prontitud políticas sanitarias orientadas a controlar la aterosclerosis en nuestro país. Las mismas deben estar necesariamente sustentadas sobre un conocimiento profundo de las características o condiciones particulares a las que nuestra población se encuentra sometida. Sólo así podrá darse inicio a una intervención efectiva sobre nuestros cuestionados hábitos alimentarios.Trans fatty acids are scarcely found naturally in food; they are incorporated to it as a result of modifications mainly due to hydrogenation industrial processes to which oils are submitted in order to obtain solid fats. Even when its structure includes double bonds, the type of configuration allows a biological behavior similar to that of saturated fatty acids, with negative effects on multiple cellular functions. The evidence shows that they are harmful to health

  12. Insulin resistance, serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome are linked to cardiovascular dysfunction in pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Giulia; Menegon, Veronica; Secco, Gioel Gabrio; Sonzini, Michela; Martelli, Massimiliano; Castagno, Matteo; Ricotti, Roberta; Monzani, Alice; Aronici, Michele; Grossini, Elena; Di Mario, Carlo; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta; Prodam, Flavia

    2017-12-15

    Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular abnormalities but little is known on the potential correlation between early cardiovascular and metabolic alterations. Aims of this study were 1) to evaluate early cardiovascular abnormalities in a large population of obese children and adolescents compared with a normal weight counterpart, 2) to investigate their potential association with insulin resistance (IR), serum uric acid (sUA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a single-center case-control study. Eighty obese (OB) subjects (6-16years) and 20 normal weight (NW) matched controls were consecutively recruited. In the whole population we performed an anthropometric and a cardiovascular assessment. OB patients also underwent an OGTT and biochemical evaluations. OB children showed greater left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) dimensions and mass and higher carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), compared with NW controls. The BMI z-score, waist circumference, IR and sUA were positively related with LA and LV dimensions and mass. OB subjects with MetS (46.3%) showed greater LA diameter (p=0.001) and LV area (p=0.01) and volume (p=0.04) compared with OB children without MetS. LA diameter and LV dimensions and mass were significantly dependent on the number of criteria for MetS. Mets, sUA and IR were significant predictors of left heart dimensions and mass in obese children. Obesity and MetS are associated with abnormal cardiovascular response during childhood. Hyperuricemia can be an early marker of cardiovascular dysfunction and the routine determination of circulating levels of sUA should be implemented during risk stratification among pediatric age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 and omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa-Caparrós, Esther; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Marín, Francisco; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2017-11-02

    A lipid excess produces a systemic inflammation process due to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein synthesis. Simultaneously, this fat excess promotes the appearance of insulin resistance. All this contributes to the development of atherosclerosis and increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). On the other hand, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (omega 3), and arachidonic acid (omega 6) have shown anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, an inverse relationship between omega-3 fatty acids, inflammation, obesity and CVDs has been demonstrated. To check fatty acids effect, the levels of some inflammation biomarkers have been analyzed. Leptin, adiponectin and resistin represent a group of hormones associated with the development of CVDs, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and are modified in obese/overweight people comparing to normal weight people. Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to decrease the production of inflammatory mediators, having a positive effect in obesity and diabetes mellitus type-2. Moreover, they significantly decrease the appearance of CVD risk factors. Regarding omega-6 PUFA, there is controversy whether their effects are pro- or anti-inflammatory. The aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive overview about the role of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in CVDs and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Bupropion response on sleep quality in patients with depression: implications for increased cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Preetam J; Poland, Russell E; Rao, Uma

    2014-02-01

    Depression could be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We assessed bupropion response in depressed patients by polysomnography (PSG) and cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) variables. Nineteen subjects participated in a two-session, two consecutive night PSG protocol. Participants received either placebo or bupropion-SR 150 mg, orally, in a randomized, double-blind cross-over fashion on night two. Outcome variables were: sleep stages, REM latency, stable, unstable sleep and very low frequency coupling (VLFC). CPC analysis uses heart rate variability and the electrocardiogram's R-wave amplitude fluctuations associated with respiration to generate frequency maps. Bupropion increased REM latency (p=0.043) but did not impact PSG sleep continuity, architecture and CPC variables. A trend (p=0.092) was observed towards increasing VLFC duration. Bupropion increased the number of stable-unstable sleep transitions (p=0.036). Moderate to strong correlations between PSG and CPC variables were found on placebo and bupropion nights. Limitations include a small sample size, limited power to detect CPC changes and lack of normal controls for comparison. Increased stable-unstable sleep transitions and VLFC duration may indicate vulnerability to cardiovascular disease due to their association with low heart rate variability that has been associated with increased mortality raising the question whether the beneficial effects of the antidepressant medication outweighs the impact on cardiopulmonary dynamics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP All rights reserved.

  15. Bupropion response on sleep quality in patients with depression: implications for increased cardiovascular disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Preetam J.; Poland, Russell E.; Rao, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Depression could be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We assessed bupropion response in depressed patients by polysomnography (PSG) and cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) variables. Nineteen subjects participated in a two-session, two consecutive night PSG protocol. Participants received either placebo or bupropion-SR 150 mg, orally, in a randomized, double-blind cross-over fashion on night two. Outcome variables were: sleep stages, REM latency, stable, unstable sleep and very low frequency coupling (VLFC). CPC analysis uses heart rate variability and the electrocardiogram’s R-wave amplitude fluctuations associated with respiration to generate frequency maps. Bupropion increased REM latency (p=0.043) but did not impact PSG sleep continuity, architecture and CPC variables. A trend (p=0.092) was observed towards increasing VLFC duration. Bupropion increased the number of stable-unstable sleep transitions (p=0.036). Moderate to strong correlations between PSG and CPC variables were found on placebo and bupropion nights. Limitations include a small sample size, limited power to detect CPC changes and lack of normal controls for comparison. Increased stable-unstable sleep transitions and VLFC duration may indicate vulnerability to cardiovascular disease due to their association with low heart rate variability that has been associated with increased mortality raising the question whether the beneficial effects of the antidepressant medication outweighs the impact on cardiopulmonary dynamics. PMID:24239431

  16. The Structure of Fats and Fatty Acid Consumption in Elderly People with Cardiovascular System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Kolarzyk, Emilia; Zając, Joanna; Jaworska, Jagoda; Załęska-Żyłka, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cardiovascular system diseases having their origin in arteriosclerosis require special dietetic treatment. Among many nutritional components, fats in the diet (both their quantity and quality) play a very important role in primary and secondary prevention of these diseases. The aim of the study was the estimation of total fats participation (saturated fatty acids, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol) in the Daily Nutritional Ration (DNR) of elderly people with cardiovascular system diseases. The study included 128 persons (66 women and 62 men, mean age 73.2 ± 6.9) hospitalized in the 1st Clinic of Cardiology and Hypertension, UJCM in Kraków. Daily intakes of energy were estimated using the 24-h nutritional recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire. A higher consumption of fats and fatty acids was observed in men's diet than in women's diet. The percentage of energy from saturated fatty acids (10.6% M and W) was higher than dietary recommendations. The consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids was in accordance with nutritional recommendations. The participation in the diet of polyunsaturated fatty acids was insufficient versus the newest nutritional recommendations and was determined as 4.6% of energy in DNR in men and 4.1% of energy of DNR in women. The excessive amount of saturated fatty acids together with the insufficient amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet are the result of the excessive consumption of products which are a source of animal fat and insufficient consumption of plant fat, fish and seafood.

  17. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feairheller, Deborah L.; Aichele, Kristin R.; Oakman, Joyann E.; Neal, Michael P.; Cromwell, Christina M.; Lenzo, Jessica M.; Perez, Avery N.; Bye, Naomi L.; Santaniello, Erica L.; Hill, Jessica A.; Evans, Rachel C.; Thiele, Karla A.; Chavis, Lauren N.; Getty, Allyson K.; Wisdo, Tia R.; McClelland, JoAnna M.; Sturgeon, Kathleen; Chlad, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP) and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm) and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3 ± 0.5 mm versus 3.7 ± 0.6 mm), but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2 ± 6.4 mmHg versus 122.4 ± 6.8 mmHg), submaximal exercise (150.4 ± 18.8 mmHg versus 137.3 ± 9.5 mmHg), maximal exercise (211.3 ± 25.9 mmHg versus 191.4 ± 19.2 mmHg), and 24-hour BP (124.9 ± 6.3 mmHg versus 109.8 ± 3.7 mmHg). Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6 ± 6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6 ± 5.8 mg/dL), lower HDL (36.5 ± 11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1 ± 14.8 mg/dL), and higher body fat percentage (29.2 ± 7.9% versus 23.2 ± 7.0%). Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:26904291

  19. Burden of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients receiving low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, Peter; Pratt, Stephen; Elkin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users.......Continuous low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin; ASA) is a mainstay of cardiovascular (CV) risk management. It is well established, however, that troublesome upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are commonly experienced among low-dose ASA users....

  20. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, Artemis P.

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:26950145

  1. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation. Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity. Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.

  2. Cardiovascular and Other Outcomes Postintervention With Insulin Glargine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ORIGINALE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Outcome Reduction With Initial Glargine Intervention (ORIGIN) trial reported neutral effects of insulin glargine on cardiovascular outcomes and cancers and reduced incident diabetes in high-cardiovascular risk adults with dysglycemia after 6.2 years of active treatment. Omega-3 fatty acids had neutral effects on cardiovascular outcomes. The ORIGIN and Legacy Effects (ORIGINALE) study measured posttrial effects of these interventions during an additional 2.7 years. Surviving ORIGIN participants attended up to two additional visits. The hazard of clinical outcomes during the entire follow-up period from randomization was calculated. Of 12,537 participants randomized, posttrial data were analyzed for 4,718 originally allocated to insulin glargine (2,351) versus standard care (2,367), and 4,771 originally allocated to omega-3 fatty acid supplements (2,368) versus placebo (2,403). Posttrial, small differences in median HbA1c persisted (glargine 6.6% [49 mmol/mol], standard care 6.7% [50 mmol/mol], P = 0.025). From randomization to the end of posttrial follow-up, no differences were found between the glargine and standard care groups in myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death (1,185 vs. 1,165 events; hazard ratio 1.01 [95% CI 0.94-1.10]; P = 0.72); myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death, revascularization, or hospitalization for heart failure (1,958 vs. 1,910 events; 1.03 [0.97-1.10]; P = 0.38); or any cancer (524 vs. 529 events; 0.99 [0.88-1.12]; P = 0.91) or between omega-3 and placebo groups in cardiovascular death (688 vs. 700; 0.98 [0.88-1.09]; P = 0.68) or other outcomes. During >6 years of treatment followed by >2.5 years of observation, insulin glargine had neutral effects on health outcomes and salutary effects on metabolic control, whereas omega-3 fatty acid supplementation had no effect. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and

  3. Contribution of dietary amino acids composition to incidence of cardiovascular outcomes: A prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Bahadoran, Z; Ghasemi, A; Azizi, F

    2017-07-01

    Considering the limited data on the cardiovascular effects of dietary amino acid intakes, we assessed possible association of dietary amino acids with the risk of cardiovascular (CVD) events in a prospective population-based study. Participants without CVD (n = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 6.7 years. Dietary protein and amino acid intakes were assessed at baseline (2006-2008); demographic, lifestyle and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examination (2012-2014). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary amino acids. Mean total protein intake was 76.9 ± 27.5 g/d, and dietary protein had no significant association with the risk of CVD (HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.65-2.31, and HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.19-1.41, in the second and third tertiles, respectively). After adjustment of potential confounders, the amino acid pattern with higher load of glycine, cysteine, arginine and tryptophan, was negatively associated with CVD (HR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.88, P for trend = 0.08). Higher intake of sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine), and potentially cardioprotective amino acids (arginine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, leucine and tyrosine) corresponded to 73% (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.86) and 74% (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78) decreased risk of CVD events. Higher intake of glutamic acid and proline (% of dietary total protein) increased the risk of CVD (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.03-1.64, and HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.10-1.60, respectively). These novel data provide evidence to suggest that amino acid composition of diet may modify the risk of CVD events. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of

  4. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-11-22

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p exercise and α-lipoic acid in combination attenuates LDL oxidation. Furthermore, in the α-lipoic acid supplement plus exercise training group, total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p exercise training (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished. © 2011 McNeilly et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  5. Valor del ácido épsilon aminocaproico en anestesia cardiovascular pediátrica Value of the aminocaproic epsilon acid in pediatric cardiovascular anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El sangrado persistente luego de la circulación extracorpórea es una de las complicaciones más frecuentes en la cirugía cardiovascular e implica la administración de repetidas transfusiones de sangre, con aumento significativo de la morbilidad y la mortalidad. El enfoque terapéutico de esta complicación incluye diferentes medidas, entre las cuales el suministro de antifibrinolíticos desempeña un importante rol preventivo. Se realizó un estudio en 50 niños con operaciones cardiovasculares bajo circulación extracorpórea, realizadas en el Cardiocentro del Hospital Pediátrico “William Soler” durante el período comprendido entre los meses de enero de 2001 a febrero de 2002. Antes de la circulación extracorpórea se administró 100 mg/kg de ácido épsilon aminocaproico como dosis inicial durante 20 min y se mantuvo luego a razón de 15 mg/kg/h hasta el cierre de la piel. No hubo complicaciones con la administración de este agente, a pesar de que se empleó en dosis altas al inicio. No hubo sangrado prolongado ni evidencia de trastornos significativos de la coagulación, lo cual atribuimos a las medidas preventivas adoptadasThe persistent bleeding after the extracorporeal circulation is one of the most frequent complications in cardiovascular surgery and implies the administration of repeated blood transfusions with a significant increase of morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic approach of this complication includes different measures, among which the administration of antifibrinolytics plays an important preventive role. A study of 50 children that underwent cardiovascular surgery under extracorporeal circulation performed at the Heart Center of “William Soler” Children's Hospital from January 2001 to February 2002, was conducted. 100 mg/kg of aminocaproic epsilon acid were administered before the extracorporeal circulation as an initial dose for 20 min. It was maintained then at a rate of 15 mg/kg/h until the closure of

  6. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assies, J; Mocking, R J T; Lok, A; Ruhé, H G; Pouwer, F; Schene, A H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. Method We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Results Oxidative stress, mainly generated in mitochondria, is implicated in both psychiatric and cardiovascular pathophysiology. Oxidative stress affects the intrinsically linked FA and 1-C cycle metabolism: FAs decrease in chain length and unsaturation (particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated FAs), and lipid peroxidation products increase; the 1-C cycle shifts from the methylation to transsulfuration pathway (lower folate and higher homocysteine and antioxidant glutathione). Interestingly, corresponding alterations were reported in psychiatric disorders and CVD. Potential mechanisms through which FA and 1-C cycle metabolism may be involved in brain (neurocognition, mood regulation) and cardiovascular system functioning (inflammation, thrombosis) include membrane peroxidizability and fluidity, eicosanoid synthesis, neuroprotection and epigenetics. Conclusion While oxidative-stress-induced alterations in FA and 1-C metabolism may initially enhance oxidative stress resistance, persisting chronically, they may cause damage possibly underlying (co-occurrence of) psychiatric disorders and CVD. This might have implications for research into diagnosis and (preventive) treatment of (CVD in) psychiatric patients. PMID:24649967

  7. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscitti, Piero; Cipriani, Paola; Masedu, Francesco; Romano, Silvio; Berardicurti, Onorina; Liakouli, Vasiliki; Carubbi, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Paola; Alvaro, Saverio; Penco, Maria; Valenti, Marco; Giacomelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs) and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV) and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis. We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS), at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis. Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  8. Dyslipidemia and Diabetes Increase the OPG/TRAIL Ratio in the Cardiovascular System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Toffoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dyslipidemia and diabetes are two of the most well established risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Both of them usually activate a complex range of pathogenic pathways leading to organ damage. Here we hypothesized that dyslipidemia and diabetes could affect osteoprotegerin (OPG and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL expression in the vessels and the heart. Materials and Methods. Gene and protein expression of OPG, TRAIL, and OPG/TRAIL ratio were quantified in the aorta and the hearts of control mice, dyslipidemic mice, and diabetic mice. Results. Diabetes significantly increased OPG and the OPG/TRAIL ratio expression in the aorta, while dyslipidemia was the major determinant of the changes observed in the heart, where it significantly increased OPG and reduced TRAIL expression, thus increasing cardiac OPG/TRAIL ratio. Conclusions. This work shows that both dyslipidemia and diabetes affect OPG/TRAIL ratio in the cardiovascular system. This could contribute to the changes in circulating OPG/TRAIL which are observed in patients with diabetes and CVD. Most importantly, these changes could mediate/contribute to atherosclerosis development and cardiac remodeling.

  9. Prematurity at birth and increased cardiovascular risk: is a metabolomic approach the right solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Bassareo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, steady progress in the field of physiopathology and the use of increasingly sophisticated technological procedures have resulted in an increase in the survival rates of babies born preterm. However, some of these individuals, although surviving, may at times be faced with severe consequences. Some conditions may be manifested at an early age (particularly dysmorphisms as well as neurological and ophthalmological conditions, whilst others (namely renal and cardiovascular events, evolve gradually and are manifested only years later. In a number of reports in literature it has been demonstrated how prematurity and consequent low weight at birth are risk factors for developing hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, QTc interval prolongation at basal electrocardiogram, early endothelial dysfunction, structural and functional cardiac modifications, and increased death rates from coronary heart disease. Even some drugs used in the neonatal management of preterm babies may have a detrimental effect on their future cardiac function. The aim of this narrative review was to overview the up to know few reports about metabolomics (a new and promising technique which allows the systematic study of the complete set of metabolites in a biological sample applied to the identification of a possible future cardiovascular system involvement in subjects born preterm. An outlook of the requirements for future researches has been also discussed.

  10. Abnormal clearance of exogenous acid and increased acid sensitivity of the proximal duodenum in dyspeptic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samsom, M.; Verhagen, M. A.; vanBerge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although acid is likely to play a role in the genesis of symptoms in dyspeptic patients, most studies have failed to show an increase in gastric acid secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate clearance of acid from the duodenum and its relationship with symptoms in

  11. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  12. Paradoxical Association of Enhanced Cholesterol Efflux With Increased Incident Cardiovascular Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Min; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson; Mosior, Marian K.; Huang, Ying; Wu, Yuping; Matter, William; Gao, Vivian; Schmitt, David; DiDonato, Joseph A.; Fisher, Edward A.; Smith, Jonathan D.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diminished cholesterol efflux activity of apolipoprotein B (apoB)–depleted serum is associated with prevalent coronary artery disease, but its prognostic value for incident cardiovascular events is unclear. We investigated the relationship of cholesterol efflux activity with both prevalent coronary artery disease and incident development of major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke). Approach and Results Cholesterol efflux activity from free cholesterol–enriched macrophages was measured in 2 case– control cohorts: (1) an angiographic cohort (n=1150) comprising stable subjects undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography and (2) an outpatient cohort (n=577). Analysis of media from cholesterol efflux assays revealed that the high-density lipoprotein fraction (1.063cholesterol released, with the majority found within the lipoprotein particle–depleted fraction, where ≈60% was recovered after apolipoprotein A1 immunoprecipitation. Albumin immunoprecipitation recovered another ≈30% of radiolabeled cholesterol within this fraction. Enhanced cholesterol efflux activity from ATP-binding cassette transporter A1–stimulated macrophages was associated with reduced risk of prevalent coronary artery disease in unadjusted models within both cohorts; however, the inverse risk relationship remained significant after adjustment for traditional coronary artery disease risk factors only within the outpatient cohort. Surprisingly, higher cholesterol efflux activity was associated with increase in prospective (3 years) risk of myocardial infarction/stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.02–4.74) and major adverse cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–3.06). Conclusions Heightened cholesterol efflux to apoB-depleted serum was paradoxically associated with increased prospective risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. The majority of released

  13. Urbanization is Associated with Increased Trends in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Indigenous Populations: the PAI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Anderson da Costa; Ladeia, Ana Marice Teixeira; Marques, Juracy; Armstrong, Dinani Matoso Fialho de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Marconi Leandro da; Morais Junior, Jeová Cordeiro de; Barral, Aldina; Correia, Luis Claudio Lemos; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Lima, João A C

    2018-02-19

    The cardiovascular risk burden among diverse indigenous populations is not totally known and may be influenced by lifestyle changes related to the urbanization process. To investigate the cardiovascular (CV) mortality profile of indigenous populations during a rapid urbanization process largely influenced by governmental infrastructure interventions in Northeast Brazil. We assessed the mortality of indigenous populations (≥ 30 y/o) from 2007 to 2011 in Northeast Brazil (Bahia and Pernambuco states). Cardiovascular mortality was considered if the cause of death was in the ICD-10 CV disease group or if registered as sudden death. The indigenous populations were then divided into two groups according to the degree of urbanization based on anthropological criteria:9,10 Group 1 - less urbanized tribes (Funi-ô, Pankararu, Kiriri, and Pankararé); and Group 2 - more urbanized tribes (Tuxá, Truká, and Tumbalalá). Mortality rates of highly urbanized cities (Petrolina and Juazeiro) in the proximity of indigenous areas were also evaluated. The analysis explored trends in the percentage of CV mortality for each studied population. Statistical significance was established for p value < 0.05. There were 1,333 indigenous deaths in tribes of Bahia and Pernambuco (2007-2011): 281 in Group 1 (1.8% of the 2012 group population) and 73 in Group 2 (3.7% of the 2012 group population), CV mortality of 24% and 37%, respectively (p = 0.02). In 2007-2009, there were 133 deaths in Group 1 and 44 in Group 2, CV mortality of 23% and 34%, respectively. In 2009-2010, there were 148 deaths in Group 1 and 29 in Group 2, CV mortality of 25% and 41%, respectively. Urbanization appears to influence increases in CV mortality of indigenous peoples living in traditional tribes. Lifestyle and environmental changes due to urbanization added to suboptimal health care may increase CV risk in this population.

  14. Elevated uric acid and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors among hypertensive youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Lauren D; Miller, Edgar R; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Loeffler, Lauren F; Holmes, Kathryn W; Appel, Lawrence J; Brady, Tammy M

    2015-12-01

    Uric acid (UA) is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents and with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults. We sought to determine if UA is independently associated with CVD risk factors and left ventricular mass (LVM) over time in hypertensive youth. This was a 1-year prospective observational study of hypertensive children aged 3-19 years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of serum UA with CVD risk factors and LVM were explored. Of the 49 children who completed both the baseline and 12-month assessments, at baseline the mean age was 13.8 years and mean UA was 5.5 mg/dL; 24% had elevated UA, 51% were overweight/obese and 39% had LVH. Measures of adiposity, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, LVM and LVH were all significantly associated with elevated UA at baseline, but not with change over time. Each 1 mg/dL increase in baseline UA was associated with a 2.5 g/m(2.7) increase in the LVM index at follow-up (95% confidence interval 0.64, 4.39; p = 0.01); after adjustment for age, sex, race, body mass index z-score, change in UA, time, blood pressure and medication use, this association was no longer significant. Hypertensive children with elevated UA have a higher prevalence of obesity-related CVD risk factors. Among hypertensive children, UA may be a marker of adiposity and not an independent CVD risk factor.

  15. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation on some cardiovascular risk factors with a ketogenic Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-02-13

    the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD's positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD-4.7 kg, KDO3-4.03 kg, body fat KD-5.41 kg, KDO3-5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

  16. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3) Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Moro, Tatiana; Bosco, Gerardo; Bianco, Antonino; Grimaldi, Keith A.; Camporesi, Enrico; Mangar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Background: the ketogenic diet (KD) has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3) supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3) or without (KD) ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg). There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra), creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state. PMID:25689563

  17. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ketogenic diet (KD has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3 or without (KD ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg. There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

  18. Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierbeck, Louise Lind; Rejnmark, Lars; Tofteng, Charlotte Landbo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome.......To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status in healthy women and cardiovascular outcome....

  19. Social stress increases blood pressure and cardiovascular pathology in a normotensive rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Ellen; Jenkins, Cathleen; Seachrist, Darcie; Dunphy, Gail; Ely, Daniel

    2003-02-01

    Territorial stress (TS) elevates blood pressure (BP) in several mammalian species. However, cardiovascular pathology following chronic stress has not been consistently shown in a non-genetic hypertension model. Therefore, the hypothesis tested was that social stress would directly increase: BP, collagen deposition in coronary and mesenteric arteries, and myocardial fibrosis. Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) male rats, four weeks of age, were divided into one of three groups: controls (n = 9), territorial stress (TS, n = 12), and social isolation followed by territorial stress (SITS, n = 11). Blood pressure was measured biweekly, and blood samples biweekly for serum testosterone, corticosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Blood pressure significantly increased in the TS (130 mmHg, p stress treatments increased BP and cardiac pathology in a normotensive rat strain.

  20. The impact of fatty acid desaturase genotype on fatty acid status and cardiovascular health in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colette M; Minihane, Anne-Marie

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this review was to determine the impact of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genotype on plasma and tissue concentrations of the long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA, including EPA and DHA, which are associated with the risk of several diet-related chronic diseases, including CVD. In addition to dietary intakes, which are low for many individuals, tissue EPA and DHA are also influenced by the rate of bioconversion from α-linolenic acid (αLNA). Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, encoded for by FADS1 and FADS2 genes, are key desaturation enzymes involved in the bioconversion of essential fatty acids (αLNA and linoleic acid (LA)) to longer chained PUFA. In general, carriers of FADS minor alleles tend to have higher habitual plasma and tissue levels of LA and αLNA, and lower levels of arachidonic acid, EPA and also to a lesser extent DHA. In conclusion, available research findings suggest that FADS minor alleles are also associated with reduced inflammation and CVD risk, and that dietary total fat and fatty acid intake have the potential to modify relationships between FADS gene variants and circulating fatty acid levels. However to date, neither the size-effects of FADS variants on fatty acid status, nor the functional SNP in FADS1 and 2 have been identified. Such information could contribute to the refinement and targeting of EPA and DHA recommendations, whereby additional LC n-3 PUFA intakes could be recommended for those carrying FADS minor alleles.

  1. An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Artemis P. Simopoulos

    2016-01-01

    In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher. This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Experimental studies have sugg...

  2. A high dietary glycemic index increases total mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. RESULTS: We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths. As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04; P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Free fatty acids increase hepatic glycogen content in obese males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G.; Sprangers, F.; Weverling, G. J.; Ackermans, M. T.; Meijer, A. J.; Romijn, J. A.; Endert, E.; Bisschop, P. H.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased hepatic glycogen content. In vivo and in vitro data suggest that plasma free fatty acids (FFA) may cause this increase. In this study we investigated the effect of physiological plasma FFA levels on hepatic glycogen metabolism by studying intrahepatic glucose

  4. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to creatine, glycerol and alpha lipoic acid in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyviou Thelma P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that supplementation with creatine (Cr and glycerol (Gly, when combined with glucose (Glu necessary for the enhancement of Cr uptake by skeletal muscle, induces significant improvements in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses during exercise in the heat. Purpose To determine whether Cr/Gly-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses are maintained when the majority (~75% of the Glu in the Cr/Gly supplement is replaced with the insulintropic agent alpha lipoic acid (Ala. Methods 22 healthy endurance trained cyclists were randomly assigned to receive either 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly and 150 g/day (4 × 37.5 g/day of Glu or 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr monohydrate, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly (100 g/day (4 × 25 g/day of Glu and 1000 mg/day (4 × 250 mg/day of Ala for 7 days for 7 days. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation and involved 40 min of constant-load cycling exercise at 70% O2 max by a self-paced 16.1 km time trial at 30°C and 70% relative humidity. Results Median and range values of TBW increased significantly by 2.1 (1.3-3.3 L and 1.8 (0.2-4.6 L in Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala groups respectively (P = 0.03 and of BM not significantly by 1.8 (0.2-3.0 kg and 1.2 (0.5-2.1 kg in Cr/Gly/Glu and in Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively (P = 0.75. During constant load exercise, heart rate (HR and core temperature (Tcore were significantly lower post-supplementation: HR was reduced on average by 3.3 ± 2.1 beats/min and by 4.8 ± 3.3 beats/min (mean ± SD and Tcore by 0.2 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD in the Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively The reduction in HR and Tcore was not significantly different between the supplementation groups. Conclusions In comparison to the established hyper hydrating Cr

  5. The potential role of omega-3 fatty acids supplements in increasing athletic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Șerban GLIGOR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that cannot be produced by the body itself and therefore must be provided through nutrition. Omega-6 and particularly omega-3 fatty acids have important roles in the organism, contributing to the maintenance and promotion of health. The optimal proportion of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids is 2:1, or even better 1:1. They are involved in normal growth and development, play a role in the prevention of coronary and cardiovascular diseases, of diabetes mellitus, of arterial hypertension, arthritis and cancer. Omega-3 fatty acids mainly have an anti-inflammatory effect, but also act as hypolipidemic and antithrombotic agents. A potential role of omega-3 fatty acids is that of increasing physical performance. Their role in the physical activity refers on one side to the global health of athletes and on the other side to their anti-inflammatory effect, as high intensity physical exercise induces increased free-radical production and microtraumas, with the induction of an inflammatory status. The anti-inflammatory effect of these fatty acids manifests through an increased production of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, through decreasing the production of prostaglandins metabolites, decreasing the production of leukotriene B4, etc. They are also effective on reducing muscle pain post eccentric exercise and on decreasing the severity of bronchoconstriction induced by exercise, as well as improving pulmonary function variables. In conclusion it seems that supplementing diets with omega-3 fatty acids, apart from having benefic effects on health and on the prevention and management of certain affections, proves to be a beneficial for physical activity and athletic performance.

  6. Ways of Coping and Biomarkers of an Increased Atherothrombotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Elderly Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland von Känel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between coping and atherothrombotic biomarkers of an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in the elderly. Methods. We studied 136 elderly caregiving and noncaregiving men and women who completed the Ways of Coping Checklist to assess problem-focused coping, seeking social support (SSS, blamed self, wishful thinking, and avoidance coping. They had circulating levels of 12 biomarkers measured. We also probed for potential mediator and moderator variables (chronic stress, affect, health behavior, autonomic activity for the relation between coping and biomarkers. Results. After controlling for demographic and CVD risk factors, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated levels of serum amyloid A (P=0.001, C-reactive protein (CRP (P=0.002, vascular cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 (P=0.021, and D-dimer (P=0.032. There were several moderator effects. For instance, greater use of SSS was associated with elevated VCAM-1 (P<0.001 and CRP (P=0.001 levels in subjects with low levels of perceived social support and positive affect, respectively. The other coping styles were not significantly associated with any biomarker. Conclusions. Greater use of SSS might compromise cardiovascular health through atherothrombotic mechanisms, including elevated inflammation (i.e., serum amyloid A, CRP, VCAM-1 and coagulation (i.e., D-dimer activity. Moderating variables need to be considered in this relationship.

  7. Vascular smooth muscle dysfunction induced by monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III): a contributing factor to arsenic-associated cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Chung, Seung-Min; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2008-11-01

    While arsenic in drinking water is known to cause various cardiovascular diseases in human, exact mechanism still remains elusive. Recently, trivalent-methylated arsenicals, the metabolites of inorganic arsenic, were shown to have higher cytotoxic potential than inorganic arsenic. To study the role of these metabolites in arsenic-induced cardiovascular diseases, we investigated the effect of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III), a major trivalent-methylated arsenical, on vasomotor tone of blood vessels. In isolated rat thoracic aorta and small mesenteric arteries, MMA III irreversibly suppressed normal vasoconstriction induced by three distinct agonists of phenylephrine (PE), serotonin and endothelin-1. Inhibition of vasoconstriction was retained in aortic rings without endothelium, suggesting that MMA III directly impaired the contractile function of vascular smooth muscle. The effect of MMA III was mediated by inhibition of PE-induced Ca2+ increase as found in confocal microscopy and fluorimeter in-lined organ chamber technique. The attenuation of Ca2+ increase was from concomitant inhibition of release from intracellular store and extracellular Ca2+ influx via L-type Ca2+ channel, which was blocked by MMA III as shown in voltage-clamp assay in Xenopus oocytes. MMA III did not affect downstream process of Ca2+, as shown in permeabilized arterial strips. In in vivo rat model, MMA III attenuated PE-induced blood pressure increase indeed, supporting the clinical relevance of these in vitro findings. In conclusion, MMA III-induced smooth muscle dysfunction through disturbance of Ca2+ regulation, which results in impaired vasoconstriction and aberrant blood pressure change. This study will provide a new insight into the role of trivalent-methylated arsenicals in arsenic-associated cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  9. Genome-Wide Interaction Study of Omega-3 PUFAs and Other Fatty Acids on Inflammatory Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Health in the Framingham Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Jenna; Kalsbeek, Anya; Westra, Jason; Disselkoen, Craig; Smith, Caren; Tintle, Nathan

    2017-08-18

    Numerous genetic loci have been identified as being associated with circulating fatty acid (FA) levels and/or inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular health (e.g., C-reactive protein). Recently, using red blood cell (RBC) FA data from the Framingham Offspring Study, we conducted a genome-wide association study of over 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 22 RBC FAs (and associated ratios), including the four Omega-3 FAs (ALA, DHA, DPA, and EPA). Our analyses identified numerous causal loci. In this manuscript, we investigate the extent to which polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels moderate the relationship of genetics to cardiovascular health biomarkers using a genome-wide interaction study approach. In particular, we test for possible gene-FA interactions on 9 inflammatory biomarkers, with 2.5 million SNPs and 12 FAs, including all Omega-3 PUFAs. We identified eighteen novel loci, including loci which demonstrate strong evidence of modifying the impact of heritable genetics on biomarker levels, and subsequently cardiovascular health. The identified genes provide increased clarity on the biological functioning and role of Omega-3 PUFAs, as well as other common fatty acids, in cardiovascular health, and suggest numerous candidate loci for future replication and biological characterization.

  10. Impact of omega-6 fatty acids on cardiovascular outcomes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Shweta; Kelly, Laura; Malik, Richa; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Srinath

    2013-02-01

    Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have usually been associated with beneficial health effects on early life and later life disease such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Emerging evidence, however, suggests that PUFA species (n-3, n-6) have differential health effects. N-6 PUFAs, in particular, have sparked a scientific debate regarding their role in human physiological processes. Current dietary recommendations for n-6 fatty acids have been based on animal studies, insufficient epidemiological evidence and mixed PUFA interventions, therefore, require reconsideration. This review has analyzed human epidemiological and interventional studies, published in the last five years, focusing on n-6 fatty acids' impact on CVD outcomes (CVD events, blood lipids, blood pressure, inflammation, oxidative stress/atherosclerosis). The evidence is mixed, with differential effects within the n-6 fatty acid series. These outcomes are also dependent on ethnicity and background health status. Further, data from developing countries are sparse, thus, well designed intervention trials and population based studies in developing country settings on specific n-6 fatty acid intake and health effects are desired.

  11. Ursolic acid plays a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ya-Mei; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Chan, Hsu-Chin; Lee, Ming-Fen

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic disturbance of obesity is one of the most common risk factors of atherosclerosis. Resistin, an obesity-induced adipokine, can induce the expression of cell adhesion molecules and the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid found in fruits and many herbs, exhibits an array of biological effects such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms of the effect of ursolic acid on resistin-induced adhesion of U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data indicated that ursolic acid suppressed the adhesion of U937 to HUVECs and downregulated the expression of adhesion molecules, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin, in resistin-induced HUVECs by decreasing the production of intracellular reaction oxygen species (ROS) and attenuating the nuclear translocation of NFκB. Ursolic acid appeared to inhibit resistin-induced atherosclerosis, suggesting that ursolic acid may play a protective role in obesity-induced cardiovascular diseases.

  12. History and future of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Laurence S; Nelson, John R

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological, diet-based, and some interventional outcomes studies suggest that polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs), specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), confer cardiovascular protection in some patient populations. This review examines the historical context of OM3FAs in cardiovascular disease and future perspectives on the place of OM3FA products in reducing cardiovascular risk. Relevant articles were identified via PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar searches through 2015 and through reference lists of selected publications. Articles determined by the authors to be relevant to the topic of this review were included. Review of the identified articles indicated that inconsistent results among interventional outcomes studies have been attributed to use of low doses of OM3FAs, patient cohorts with non-elevated triglyceride (TG) levels, differential use of concomitant statin therapy, and study designs with insufficient statistical power. Several prescription OM3FA products are now approved as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG levels in adults with severe (≥500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. Most formulations contain both EPA and DHA; one formulation contains purified EPA. In randomized controlled trials, these products significantly reduced TG levels in patients with very high TG levels (≥500 mg/dL [≥13.0 mmol/L]) and in statin-treated patients with high TG levels (200-499 mg/dL [5.2-12.9 mmol/L]). The DHA-containing products raised LDL-C levels in these studies, whereas the EPA-only product had no effect on LDL-C, suggesting that all OM3FA prescription products are not therapeutically equivalent. Besides lowering TG levels, OM3FAs (particularly EPA) exert anti-inflammatory effects and may slow multiple atherogenic processes. Two well designed interventional outcomes studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are evaluating prescription-strength, high-dose OM3FAs (4 g/day) in statin-treated patients with persistently

  13. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  14. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    P>Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  15. Impact of fumaric acid esters on cardiovascular risk factors and depression in psoriasis: a prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Astrid; Poppe, Manuel; Hametner, Christian; Meyer-Schraml, Hanna; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa; Findeisen, Peter; Benoit, Sandrine; Bauer, Boris; Schmid, Sybille; Goebeler, Matthias; Goerdt, Sergij; Ludwig-Peitsch, Wiebke K

    2015-07-01

    Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease that is partly attributable to chronic systemic inflammation. The aim of our prospective pilot study was to investigate the impact of fumaric acid esters (FAE), a first-line systemic antipsoriatic treatment in Germany, on cardiovascular risk parameters. Participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis from the University Medical Center Mannheim and the University Hospital Würzburg were treated with FAE for 16 weeks according to standard dosage recommendations. Disease severity, life quality and depression scores as well as biomarkers of inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were assessed prior to initiation of FAE and after 16 weeks. Out of 39 participants recruited, 27 completed the study. 44% of all participants and 63% of those completing the 16-week treatment achieved PASI 50 response and 27 or 37% PASI 75 response. Clinical improvement was paralleled by significant improvement in quality of life, high treatment satisfaction and significant reduction of depressive symptoms. Adverse events, most frequently mild gastrointestinal complaints, flush and lymphocytopenia occurred in 89%. FAE did not modify glucose metabolism or inflammatory parameters substantially. However, a highly significant increase in serum levels of the atheroprotective cytokine adiponectin was noted after 16 weeks (median 4.7 vs. 8.9 µg/ml; p = 0.0002). Our study demonstrates a significant beneficial impact of FAE on adiponectin, indicating a potential cardioprotective effect. It will be interesting to verify this finding in larger cohorts and to assess the long-term influence of FAE on cardiovascular risk and disease.

  16. Current evidence and future perspectives of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Evangelos C; Elisaf, Moses S

    2013-04-15

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been traditionally used for the prevention of major cardiovascular events in patients with or without a history of cardiovascular disease. Their main mechanism of action is to lower triglyceride levels, but they also exert anti-arrythmic and anti-inflammatory properties, they reduce blood pressure levels and stabilize the atherosclerotic plaques. There is a vast amount of evidence derived from randomized studies that seems to question their benefit for the prevention of major cardiovascular events. Upcoming trials will help to better clarify their use in certain indications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  18. Association between Carotid Intima Media Thickness and Heart Rate Variability in Adults at Increased Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu C. Baltatu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerotic carotid intima-media thickness (IMT may be associated with alterations in the sensitivity of carotid baroreceptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between carotid IMT and the autonomic modulation of heart rate variability (HRV.Methods: A total of 101 subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. The carotid IMT was determined by duplex ultrasonography. The cardiac autonomic function was determined through HRV measures during the Deep Breathing Test. Linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, body mass index, waist-hip-ratio, and left ventricular ejection fraction were used to evaluate the association between HRV parameters and carotid IMT.Results: Participants had a mean age of 60.4 ± 13.4 years and an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD risk score (using the Pooled Cohort Equations of 16.4 ± 17. The mean carotid media thickness was highest (0.90 ± 0.19 mm in the first quartile of the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN (19.7 ± 5.1 ms and progressively declined in each subsequent quartile to 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, 0.81 ± 0.16 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.19 in quartiles 2 (36.5 ± 5.9 ms, 3 (57.7 ± 6.2 ms and 4 (100.9 ± 22.2 ms, respectively. In multivariable adjusted models, there was a statistical significant association between SDNN and carotid IMT (OR −0.002; 95%CI −0.003 to −0.001, p = 0.005. The same significant association was found between carotid IMT and other measures of HRV, including coefficient of variation of RR intervals (CV and dispersion of points along the line of identity (SD2.Conclusions: In a cohort of individuals at increased cardiovascular risk, carotid IMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with alterations of HRV indicating an impaired cardiac autonomic control, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  20. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  1. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeilly Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise. The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p p p p p > 0.05. These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  2. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age: a prospective study in a large national cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women in lowest versus highest LCn3FA intake group: 1.91 [95% CI: 1.26-2.90]). Restricting the sample to women who had consistently reported similar frequencies of fish intake across 3 different dietary assessment occasions tended to strengthen the relationship (hazard ratio for lowest versus highest intake: 2.91 [95% CI: 1.45-5.85]). Furthermore, the observed associations were consistent in supplementary analyses where LCn3FA intake was averaged across the 3 dietary assessment occasions, and the associations were persistent for all 3 of the individual outcomes. Our findings based on a large prospective cohort of relatively young and initially healthy women indicated that little or no intake of fish and LCn3FAs was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Cardiovascular responses to lead are biphasic, while methylmercury, but not inorganic mercury, monotonically increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Mirhosseini, Naghmeh; Siciliano, Steven D; Weber, Lynn P

    2015-02-03

    Cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attack and stroke, are the major cause of death worldwide. It is well known that a high number of environmental and physiological risk factors contribute to the development of cardiovascular diseases. Although risk factors are additive, increased blood pressure (hypertension) is the greatest risk factor. Over the last two decades, a growing number of epidemiological studies associate environmental exposure to lead or mercury species with hypertension. However, cardiovascular effects beyond blood pressure are rarely studied and thresholds for effect are not yet clear. To explore effects of lead or mercury species on the cardiovascular system, normal male Wistar rats were exposed to a range of doses of lead, inorganic mercury or methylmercury through the drinking water for four weeks. High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure heart and vascular function (carotid artery blood flow) at baseline and at the end of the exposure, while blood pressure was measured directly in the femoral artery at the end of the 4-week exposure. After 4 weeks, blood pressure responses to lead were biphasic. Low lead levels decreased blood pressure, dilated the carotid artery and increased cardiac output. At higher lead doses, rats had increased blood pressure. In contrast, methylmercury-exposed rats had increased blood pressure at all doses despite dilated carotid arteries. Inorganic mercury did not show any significant cardiovascular effects. Based on the current study, the benchmark dose level 10% (BMDL10s) for systolic blood pressure for lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury are 1.1, 1.3 and 1.0 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively. However, similar total mercury blood levels attributed to inorganic mercury or methylmercury produced strikingly different results with inorganic mercury having no observable effect on the cardiovascular system but methylmercury increasing systolic and pulse pressures. Therefore, adverse cardiovascular effects cannot be

  4. Cytochrome p450 enzymes in the bioactivation of polyunsaturated Fatty acids and their role in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Christina; Konkel, Anne; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Various members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily have the capacity of metabolizing omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 and n-3 PUFAs). In most mammalian tissues, CYP2C and CYP2J enzymes are the major PUFA epoxygenases, whereas CYP4A and CYP4F subfamily members function as PUFA hydroxylases. The individual CYP enzymes differ in their substrate specificities as well as regio- and stereoselectivities and thus produce distinct sets of epoxy and/or hydroxy metabolites, collectively termed CYP eicosanoids. Nutrition has a major impact on the endogenous CYP-eicosanoid profile. "Western diets" rich in n-6 PUFAs result in a predominance of arachidonic acid-derived metabolites, whereas marine foodstuffs rich in n-3 PUFAs shift the profile to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid-derived metabolites. In general, CYP eicosanoids are formed as second messengers of numerous hormones, growth factors and cytokines regulating cardiovascular and renal function, and a variety of other physiological processes. Imbalances in the formation of individual CYP eicosanoids are linked to the development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, acute kidney injury, stroke and inflammatory disorders. The underlying mechanisms are increasingly understood and may provide novel targets for the prevention and treatment of these disease states. Suitable pharmacological agents are under development and first proofs of concept have been obtained in animal models.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of the 2016 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Ethan M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2017-08-11

    We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength of evidence, based on numerous trials, of no significant effects of marine oils on systolic or diastolic blood pressures, but there are small, yet statistically significant increases in high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. The clinical significance of these small changes, particularly in combination, is unclear. The strongest effect of marine oils is on triglyceride concentrations. Across studies, this effect was dose-dependent and related to studies' mean baseline triglyceride concentration. In observational studies, there is low strength of evidence that increased marine oil intake lowers ischemic stroke risk. Among randomized controlled trials and observational studies, there is evidence of variable strength of no association with increased marine oil intake and lower CVD event risk. Evidence regarding alpha-linolenic acid intake is sparser. There is moderate strength of evidence of no effect on blood pressure or lipoprotein concentrations and low strength of evidence of no association with coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

  6. Impaired fasting glucose is associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular event rates in patients undergoing major non-cardiothoracic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekkeşin Ahmet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is a well-established risk factor for perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. However, the impact of preoperative glucose levels on perioperative cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing nonemergent, major noncardiothoracic surgery is unclear. Methods and Results A total of 680 patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery were prospectively evaluated. Patients older than 18 years who underwent an elective, nonday case, open surgical procedure were enrolled. Electrocardiography and cardiac biomarkers were obtained 1 day before surgery, and on days 1, 3 and 7 after surgery. Preoperative risk factors and laboratory test results were measured and evaluated for their association with the occurrence of in-hospital perioperative cardiovascular events. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG defined as fasting plasma glucose values of 100 to 125 mg/dl; DM was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl and/or plasma glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl or the current use of blood glucose-lowering medication, and glucose values below 100 mg/dl were considered normal. Plasma glucose levels were significantly higher in patients with perioperative cardiovascular events (n = 80, 11.8% in comparison to those without cardiovascular events (131 ± 42.5 vs 106.5 ± 37.5, p Conclusions Not only DM but also IFG is associated with increased perioperative cardiovascular event rates in patients undergoing noncardiothoracic surgery.

  7. Association between plasma omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garneau, Véronique; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been linked to reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between n-3 FA in plasma phospholipid (PL) levels and CVD risk factors. n-3 FA levels in plasma PL were determined using gas chromatography in 100 obese (body mass index (BMI), ≥30 kg·m(-2)) and 100 nonobese selected individuals from the Quebec City metropolitan area. The CVD risk factors analysed were BMI, blood pressure, plasma lipids levels, and fasting plasma glucose. Significantly higher levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were observed in obese subjects, whereas significantly higher levels of DHA were observed in nonobese subjects. For CVD risk factors, ALA levels were positively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentrations and negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure. None of the CVD risk factors studied was linked to EPA levels. In addition, DPA was negatively related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and positively correlated with the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio. DHA levels were negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas a positive association was observed with HDL-C levels. Total n-3 FA percentages were negatively correlated with BMI. In conclusion, higher DHA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more favourable CVD risk profile, whereas higher DPA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more deteriorated CVD risk profile.

  8. Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acid: Its Implications in Cardiovascular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Hernandez-Ontiveros, Diana G; Kataki, Manjir Sarma; Shah, Kajri; Pathak, Yashwant; Panguluri, Siva Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present review aims at summarizing the major therapeutic roles of resveratrol and omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) along with their related pathways. This article reviews some of the key studies involving the health benefits of resveratrol and O3FAs. Oxidative stress has been considered as one of the most important pathophysiological factors associated with various cardiovascular disease conditions. Resveratrol, with the potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties, has been proven to be a significantly protective compound in restoring the normal cardiac health. A plethora of research also demonstrated the reduction of the risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and stroke, and their complications by O3FAs derived from fish and fish oils. This review describes the potential cardioprotective role of resveratrol and O3FAs in ameliorating the endoplasmic reticulum stress.

  9. Increased risk of venous thromboembolism and arterial cardiovascular events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole; Lindhardsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This focused review describes the current knowledge of the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and as well as venous thromboembolism this disease shares inflammatory mechanisms with IBD. Patients...

  10. Increased cardiovascular risk in rats with primary renal dysfunction; mediating role for vascular endothelial function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, M. K.; Buikema, J. H.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Koster, J.; van der Velden, J.; Hamdani, N.; Hillege, J. L.; Schoemaker, R. G.

    Primary chronic kidney disease is associated with high cardiovascular risk. However, the exact mechanisms behind this cardiorenal interaction remain unclear. We investigated the interaction between heart and kidneys in novel animal model for cardiorenal interaction. Normal Wistar rats and Munich

  11. Increased Cardiac Sympathetic Activity and Oxidative Stress in Habitual Electronic Cigarette Users: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Yin, Fen; Peters, Kacey M; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained unprecedented popularity, but virtually nothing is known about their cardiovascular risks. To test the hypothesis that an imbalance of cardiac autonomic tone and increased systemic oxidative stress and inflammation are detectable in otherwise healthy humans who habitually use e-cigarettes. Cross-sectional case-control study of habitual e-cigarette users and nonuser control individuals from 2015 to 2016 at the University of California, Los Angeles. Otherwise healthy habitual e-cigarette users between the ages of 21 and 45 years meeting study criteria, including no current tobacco cigarette smoking and no known health problems or prescription medications, were eligible for enrollment. Healthy volunteers meeting these inclusion criteria who were not e-cigarette users were eligible to be enrolled as control individuals. A total of 42 participants meeting these criteria were enrolled in the study including 23 self-identified habitual e-cigarette users and 19 self-identified non-tobacco cigarette, non-e-cigarette user control participants. Heart rate variability components were analyzed for the high-frequency component (0.15-0.4 Hz), an indicator of vagal activity, the low-frequency component (0.04-0.15 Hz), a mixture of both vagal and sympathetic activity, and the ratio of the low frequency to high frequency, reflecting the cardiac sympathovagal balance. Three parameters of oxidative stress were measured in plasma: (1) low-density lipoprotein oxidizability, (2) high-density lipoprotein antioxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity, and (3) paraoxonase-1 activity. Of the 42 participants, 35% were women, 35% were white, and the mean age was 27.6 years. The high-frequency component was significantly decreased in the e-cigarette users compared with nonuser control participants (mean [SEM], 46.5 [3.7] nu vs 57.8 [3.6] nu; P = .04). The low-frequency component (mean [SEM], 52.7 [4.0] nu vs 39.9 [3.8] nu; P = .03) and the low

  12. Increased occurrence of cardiovascular events and comorbidities in a general rheumatology cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohammad, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To identify cardiovascular and other comorbidities in a general rheumatology cohort. METHODS: Interviews\\/retrospective chart audits were conducted on 1,000 patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of a university teaching hospital. Comorbidities were classified using the Charlson comorbidity index (Ambrose et al. in Ir J Med Sci 178(1):53-55, 2009). RESULTS: Mean age 58 +\\/- 15.3 years, mean BMI 26. Of the patients, 400 (40%) were diagnosed with dyslipidemia and hypertension (p = 0.002), 160 (16%) with obesity and 80 (8%) with hypothyroidism. Overall 160 (16%) patients were diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). Of these, 120 (75%) had RA (p = 0.001), 100 (63%) were male, mean age 60 +\\/- 15.8 years, 120 (75%) had dyslipidemia and BMI > 30 (p = 0.002), 112 (70%) were smokers (p = 0.002), 40 (25%) were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and 20 (12%) with hypothyroidism. CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of these comorbidities may serve as a reminder to the rheumatologists that many of their patients will have coexistent disease of which they need to be aware to properly plan their management.

  13. Goat Milk Fat Naturally Enriched with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Increased Lipoproteins and Reduced Triacylglycerol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Goat milk is source of different lipids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. CLA reduces body fat and protect against cardiovascular diseases. In the present study fat from goat milk naturally enriched with CLA was used. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups that received during a 10 week diet with different lipid sources: soybean oil (CON, coconut oil (CO and goat milk fat naturally enriched with CLA (GM-CLA. We evaluated the effects of a GM-CLA on biochemistry parameters - high density lipoprotein (HDL, triacylglycerol (TAG, TAG/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and glucose -, body weight and histopathological aspects of the intestine and liver. GM-CLA increased body weight from the second to the fifth week of the experiment compared to CON. Feed intake differed between the CON group and GM-CLA early in the first to third week of the experiments and later between the ninth and tenth week. The CLA-diet group showed increased levels of HDL, reduced levels of TAG and TAG/HDL ratio and no effect on LDL, but enhanced total cholesterol. Serum glucose of the GM-CLA group showed no difference from the control group. Thus, a GM-CLA diet promoted growth in young rats and acted as protector of cardiovascular function, but further studies are still needed to clarify these effects.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  15. Data on gender and subgroup specific analyses of omega-3 fatty acids in the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Marcus E; Delgado, Graciela E; Lorkowski, Stefan; März, Winfried; von Schacky, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    This paper contains additional data related to the research article "Omega-3 fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography - The Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study" (Kleber et al., in press) [1]. The data shows characteristics of the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study according to tertiles of omega-3 fatty acids as well as stratified by gender. The association of proportions of omega-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte membranes with different causes of death is investigated with a special focus on modeling the association of EPA with mortality in a nonlinear way. Further, the association of omega-3 fatty acids with all-cause mortality adjusted for high-sensitive C-reactive protein as a marker of systemic inflammation is examined as well as the association of EPA with cause-specific death.

  16. Effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid- and one-carbon-metabolism in psychiatric and cardiovascular disease comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Christianne A

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive resp......-occurrence of) psychiatric disorders and CVD. This might have implications for research into diagnosis and (preventive) treatment of (CVD in) psychiatric patients. © 2014 The Authors.......Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in severe psychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia). Here, we provide evidence of how the effects of oxidative stress on fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon (1-C) cycle metabolism, which may initially represent adaptive...... responses, might underlie comorbidity between CVD and psychiatric disorders. Method: We conducted a literature search and integrated data in a narrative review. Results: Oxidative stress, mainly generated in mitochondria, is implicated in both psychiatric and cardiovascular pathophysiology. Oxidative stress...

  17. Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae fatty acid composition for increased tolerance to octanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada-Lombana, Pamela B; Fernandez-Moya, Ruben; Fenster, Jacob; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2017-07-01

    Biorenewable chemicals such as short and medium chain fatty acids enable functional or direct substitution of petroleum-derived building blocks, allowing reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases while meeting market needs of high-demand products like aliphatic alcohols and alpha olefins. However, producing these fatty acids in microorganisms can be challenging due to toxicity issues. Octanoic acid (C8) can disrupt the integrity of the cell membrane in yeast, and exogenous supplementation of oleic acid has been shown to help alleviate this. We recently engineered the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase by replacing serine residue 1157 with alanine to prevent deactivation by phosphorylation. Expression of Acc1 S1157A in S. cerevisiae resulted in an increase in total fatty acid production, with the largest increase for oleic acid. In this study, we evaluated the effect of this modified lipid profile on C8 toxicity to the yeast. Expression of Acc1 S1157A in S. cerevisiae BY4741 increased the percentage of oleic acid 3.1- and 1.6-fold in the absence and presence of octanoic acid challenge, respectively. Following exposure to 0.9 mM of C8 for 24 h, the engineered yeast had a 10-fold higher cell density relative to the baseline strain. Moreover, overexpressing Acc1 S1157A allowed survival at C8 concentrations that were lethal for the baseline strain. This marked reduction of toxicity was shown to be due to higher membrane integrity as an 11-fold decrease in leakage of intracellular magnesium was observed. Due to the increase in oleic acid, this approach has the potential to reduce toxicity of other valuable bioproducts such as shorter chain aliphatic acids and alcohols and other membrane stressors. In an initial screen, increased resistance to n-butanol, 2-propanol, and hexanoic acid was demonstrated with cell densities 3.2-, 1.8-, and 29-fold higher than the baseline strain, respectively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1531-1538. © 2017 Wiley

  18. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    Amino acids modulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon; the composition of dietary protein therefore has the potential to influence the balance of glucagon and insulin activity. Soy protein, as well as many other vegan proteins, are higher in non-essential amino acids than most animal-derived food proteins, and as a result should preferentially favor glucagon production. Acting on hepatocytes, glucagon promotes (and insulin inhibits) cAMP-dependent mechanisms that down-regulate lipogenic enzymes and cholesterol synthesis, while up-regulating hepatic LDL receptors and production of the IGF-I antagonist IGFBP-1. The insulin-sensitizing properties of many vegan diets--high in fiber, low in saturated fat--should amplify these effects by down-regulating insulin secretion. Additionally, the relatively low essential amino acid content of some vegan diets may decrease hepatic IGF-I synthesis. Thus, diets featuring vegan proteins can be expected to lower elevated serum lipid levels, promote weight loss, and decrease circulating IGF-I activity. The latter effect should impede cancer induction (as is seen in animal studies with soy protein), lessen neutrophil-mediated inflammatory damage, and slow growth and maturation in children. In fact, vegans tend to have low serum lipids, lean physiques, shorter stature, later puberty, and decreased risk for certain prominent 'Western' cancers; a vegan diet has documented clinical efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Low-fat vegan diets may be especially protective in regard to cancers linked to insulin resistance--namely, breast and colon cancer--as well as prostate cancer; conversely, the high IGF-I activity associated with heavy ingestion of animal products may be largely responsible for the epidemic of 'Western' cancers in wealthy societies. Increased phytochemical intake is also likely to contribute to the reduction of cancer risk in vegans. Regression of coronary stenoses has been documented during low-fat vegan diets

  19. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: summary of the 2016 agency of healthcare research and quality evidence review

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength o...

  20. Depression, anxiety and cardiovascular disease: which symptoms are associated with increased risk in community dwelling older adults?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, Damien

    2012-12-15

    Depression is a risk factor for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). It has been reported that somatic symptoms of depression and not cognitive symptoms are associated with increased risk although findings have been inconsistent. Few studies have examined whether co-morbid anxiety confers additive risk.

  1. CD4 Decline Is Associated With Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and Death in Virally Suppressed Patients With HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten Schade

    2013-01-01

    cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate......Background. The clinical implications of a considerable CD4 decline despite antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a major CD4 decline could be a marker of cardiovascular disease or undiagnosed cancer. Methods. Patients with human...... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline...

  2. Bariatric surgery reduces fasting total fatty acids and increases n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in morbidly obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Anders; Nestvold, Torunn; Bohov, Pavol; Trøseid, Marius; Aukrust, Pål; Berge, Rolf K; Waage-Nielsen, Erik; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is a global pandemic leading to increased mortality and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Bariatric surgery is an established treatment of obesity leading to weight loss and reduction of mortality. To further elucidate how bariatric surgery improves metabolic control, we explored the fatty acid (FA) profiles in morbidly obese subjects treated with lifestyle intervention and subsequent bariatric surgery. The intervention group consisted of 34 morbidly obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery and the control group of 17 non-obese patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic procedures. The intervention group had to undergo lifestyle changes preoperatively. Fasting blood samples were drawn at admission, after lifestyle intervention and 1 year after bariatric surgery. At admission, the morbidly obese patients had significantly higher levels of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) and lower levels of n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) and n-3 PUFAs than healthy controls (all p-values <.05). In the intervention group, there was a significantly lower level of total FAs after lifestyle intervention, and from admission to 1 year after surgical intervention (both, p < .05), primarily reflecting a lower proportion of saturated FAs (SFAs). Following bariatric surgery, but not after lifestyle changes, there was an increase in the proportion of n-3 PUFA (p < .05) reaching levels not significantly different from healthy controls. Our findings suggest that a reduced proportion of the proposed anti-atherogenic n-3 PUFAs characterizes morbidly obese individuals, and that this FA profile is reversed by bariatric surgery, but not by lifestyle intervention.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of B-vitamins and/or N-3 fatty acids: the SU.FOL.OM3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jacques; Czernichow, Sébastien; Paillard, François; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2013-07-31

    Mechanisms involved in coronary stenosis evolution are different than those involved in clinical events. Because of differential vascular effects, N-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) and B vitamins could have differential effects on different types of cardiovascular clinical events in high-risk patients. We analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA and of B vitamins on both coronary revascularization and on hard coronary events risks in a subgroup of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled secondary prevention trial. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with the use of Cox proportional-hazards models. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 ± 1.0 years among the 1,863 participants with coronary heart disease, 163 coronary revascularizations were performed, and 95 patients experienced a hard coronary event. Neither treatment with n-3 PUFA, nor treatment with B vitamins was associated with any significant effect on the occurrence of hard coronary events. Allocation to n-3 PUFA was not associated with any significant effect on coronary revascularization. However, treatment with B vitamins was associated with a statistically significant 52% increase in the risk of coronary revascularization (multivariate HR: 1.52; 95% CI: [1.11-2.10]; p=0.01). Neither n-3 PUFA, nor B vitamins reduced the rates of hard coronary events and of coronary revascularization. Furthermore, B vitamins significantly increased the rate of coronary revascularization. Consistent with the findings of previous trials, our results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing n-3 PUFA and argue against using dietary supplements containing B-vitamins in coronary patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Regenerative Antioxidant Protocol of Vitamin E and α-Lipoic Acid Ameliorates Cardiovascular and Metabolic Changes in Fructose-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is a major cause of cardiovascular disease. We have determined whether the metabolic and cardiovascular changes induced by a diet high in fructose in young adult male Wistar rats could be prevented or reversed by chronic intervention with natural antioxidants. We administered a regenerative antioxidant protocol using two natural compounds: α-lipoic acid together with vitamin E (α-tocopherol alone or a tocotrienol-rich fraction, given as either a prevention or reversal protocol in the food. These rats developed glucose intolerance, hypertension, and increased collagen deposition in the heart together with an increased ventricular stiffness. Treatment with a fixed combination of vitamin E (either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction, 0.84 g/kg food and α-lipoic acid (1.6 g/kg food normalized glucose tolerance, blood pressure, cardiac collagen deposition, and ventricular stiffness in both prevention and reversal protocols in these fructose-fed rats. These results suggest that adequate antioxidant therapy can both prevent and reverse the metabolic and cardiovascular damage in type 2 diabetes.

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists: Do They Increase Cardiovascular Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Aljada

    2009-01-01

    agonists, and their primary benefit appears to be the prevention of diabetic complications by improving glycemic control and lipid profile. Recently, the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone was brought to center stage following meta analyses and the interim analysis of the RECORD trial. Current evidence points to rosiglitazone having a greater risk of myocardial ischemic events than placebo, metformin, or sulfonylureas. This review article discusses the mechanism of action of PPAR agonists and correlates it with clinical and laboratory outcomes in the published literature. In addition, this review article attempts to discuss some of the molecular mechanisms regarding the association between TZDs therapy and the nontraditional cardiovascular risks.

  6. Increased quinolinic acid in peripheral mononuclear cells in Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Mandy; Hettler, Vanessa; Fischer, Victoria; Mawrin, Christian; Hartig, Roland; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bogerts, Bernhard; Frodl, Thomas; Busse, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    The role of monocytes and macrophages in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) is poorly understood. Recently, we have shown that the number of CD14+ monocytes remained constant during healthy aging and in AD patients. Although only little is known about the function of activated macrophages and microglia in AD, one important mechanism involves the expression of quinolinic acid (QUIN), an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDA-R) agonist which mediates excitotoxicity especially in the hippocampus. We used immunofluorescence stainings of PBMCs to determine the expression of quinolinic acid (QUIN) and the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR in peripheral monocytic cells in 51 healthy volunteers aged 22-87 years and 43 patients with AD at diagnosis (0 weeks) and during the course of rivastigmine treatment at 0.25 year (12 weeks), 0.5 year (30 weeks), 1 year, and 1.5 years. The number of QUIN+ HLA-DR+ cells rises in healthy persons aged 30-40 years compared to persons aged 60-70 years, indicating that this cell population increases with aging. AD patients at diagnosis had an increased frequency of QUIN+, QUIN+ HLA-DR+, and QUIN+ HLA-DR+/HLA-DR+ cells compared to aged-matched controls. These cell populations remained increased in AD for up to one year after initiation of treatment with rivastigmine; no alterations were detected in aged healthy persons. We conclude that the expression of the neurotoxic agent QUIN is increased in peripheral monocytes from AD patients. These cells could enter the brain and contribute to excitotoxicity.

  7. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed...

  8. Are women with polycystic ovary syndrome at increased cardiovascular disease risk later in life?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning, M. N.; Fauser, B. C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world’s leading cause of death amongst women is cardiovascular disease. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile in early life. Apart from dyslipidemia, obesity and onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, androgens are thought to influence

  9. Dust Storms in the United States are Associated with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Extreme weather events such as dust storms are predicted to become more frequent as the global climate warms through the 21st century. Studies of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian dust storms have found associations with cardiovascular and total non-accidental...

  10. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; de Jong, Pim A; Thomassen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ((18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na(18)F PET/...

  11. Insufficient physical activity increases cardiovascular risk in women with low birth mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czajkowska Anna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between low birth mass and concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP as a cardiovascular risk factor in young women with various levels of physical activity.

  12. Circulating omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and total and cause-specific mortality: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; King, Irena B; Song, Xiaoling; Psaty, Bruce M; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-10-07

    Although omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) have been recommended to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD), controversy remains about benefits versus harms, including concerns over theorized proinflammatory effects of n-6 PUFA. We investigated associations of circulating n-6 PUFA including linoleic acid (the major dietary PUFA), γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid, with total and cause-specific mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based U.S. cohort. Among 2792 participants(aged ≥65 years) free of cardiovascular disease at baseline, plasma phospholipid n-6 PUFA were measured at baseline using standardized methods. All-cause and cause-specific mortality, and total incident CHD and stroke, were assessed and adjudicated centrally. Associations of PUFA with risk were assessed by Cox regression. During 34 291 person-years of follow-up (1992-2010), 1994 deaths occurred (678 cardiovascular deaths), with 427 fatal and 418 nonfatal CHD, and 154 fatal and 399 nonfatal strokes. In multivariable models, higher linoleic acid was associated with lower total mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratio =0.87 (P trend=0.005). Lower death was largely attributable to cardiovascular disease causes, especially nonarrhythmic CHD mortality (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.82; P trend=0.001). Circulating γ-linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid were not significantly associated with total or cause-specific mortality (eg, for arachidonic acid and CHD death, the extreme-quintile hazard ratio was 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-1.34; P trend=0.87). Evaluated semiparametrically, linoleic acid showed graded inverse associations with total mortality (P=0.005). There was little evidence that associations of n-6 PUFA with total mortality varied by age, sex, race, or plasma n-3 PUFA. Evaluating both n-6 and n-3 PUFA, lowest risk was evident with highest levels of both. High circulating

  13. Orthostatic hypotension does not increase cardiovascular risk in the elderly at a population level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Caffi, Sandro; Boschetti, Giovanni; Giordano, Nunzia; Guidotti, Federica; Segato, Federico; Mazza, Alberto; Grasselli, Carla; Saugo, Mario; Rigoni, Giulio; Guglielmi, Francesco; Martini, Bortolo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The general belief that orthostatic hypotension (OH) predisposes to cardiovascular events is based on sparse and contradictory data, rarely derived from population studies. A total of 1,016 men and women aged ≥65 years was studied in a 12-year epidemiological population-based study. Cardiovascular events were detected in subjects with and without OH (blood pressure (BP) decrease ≥20mm Hg for systolic or ≥10mm Hg for diastolic), and Cox analysis was performed including OH as an independent variable. In univariate analysis, coronary (20.2% vs. 13.1%, P = 0.05), cerebrovascular (13.1% vs. 8.4%, P = 0.05), and heart failure (HF) events (20.2% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.03) were apparently more incidental in subjects with OH than in those without OH. Nevertheless, after adjusting for age, gender, and systolic BP as confounders, OH did not act as a cardiovascular predictor (relative risk for cerebrovascular events 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-2.2, for coronary events 1.25, CI 0.82-1.88, for HF 1.07, CI 0.71-1.62, for arrhythmias 0.82, CI 0.40-1.37, and for syncope 0.58, CI 0.13-2.71). Although OH seems to be a predictor of coronary, cerebrovascular, and HF events, no predictive role was found in models that include biological confounders. Independent of the cause of OH, age and systolic BP, which are positively associated with OH, fully explain the greater incidence of cardiovascular events and the greater cardiovascular risk observed in subjects with OH.

  14. Fetal growth, omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids, and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: preventing fetal origins of disease? The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Mikkilä, Vera; Würtz, Peter; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Sim, Kyra A; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J; Viikari, Jorma S A; Juonala, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Kähönen, Mika; Celermajer, David S; Raitakari, Olli T

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fetal growth is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events in adulthood. Prevention strategies that can be implemented during adulthood have not been identified. The objective was to determine whether habitual omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid intake is associated with the rate of increase of carotid intima-media thickness during adulthood in individuals with impaired fetal growth. This was a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1573 adults in Finland. Carotid intima-media thickness was assessed in 2001 (at ages 24-39 y) and in 2007. Participants were categorized as having had impaired fetal growth (term birth with birth weight Omega-3 fatty acid intake was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire and on the basis of serum fatty acid concentrations. In multivariable models, the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness was inversely associated with dietary omega-3 fatty acids in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04). Similarly, serum omega-3 fatty acid concentrations were inversely associated with the 6-y progression of carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth (P = 0.04) but were not noted in those with normal fetal growth (P = 0.94 and P = 0.26, respectively). Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids is associated with a slower rate of increase in carotid intima-media thickness in those with impaired fetal growth.

  15. Does rosmarinic acid underestimate as an experimental cardiovascular drug? Seria o ácido rosmarínico subestimado como droga cardiovascular experimental?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Garros Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The rationale of the present review is to analize the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis in the the cardiovascular system METHODS: A MEDLINE database search (from January 1970 to December 2011 using only rosmarinic acid as searched term. RESULTS: The references search revealed 509 references about rosmarinic acid in 40 years (the first reference is from 1970. There is a powerful prevalence of antioxidant and cancer studies. Other diseases are few cited, as inflammation, brain (Alzheimer and Parkinson disease and, memory; allergy; diabetes; atherosclerosis, and; hypertension. It is necessary to consider the complete absence of studies on coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, heart failure or ischemia/reperfusion injury. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinic acid is underestimated as an experimental cardiovascular drug and deserves more attention.OBJETIVO: A justificativa da revisão é analisar a atividade de Rosmarinus officinalis no sistema cardiovascular MÉTODOS: Uma busca de banco de dados MEDLINE (de janeiro de 1970 a dezembro de 2011, utilizando apenas o ácido rosmarínico como termo pesquisado. RESULTADOS: A busca referências revelou 509 referências sobre o ácido rosmarínico em 40 anos (a primeira referência é de 1970. Há uma prevalência poderoso antioxidante e estudos do câncer. Outras doenças são citados alguns, como o cérebro, inflamação (de Alzheimer e doença de Parkinson e, a memória, hipertensão, alergia, diabetes, aterosclerose, e. É necessário ter em conta a ausência completa de estudos sobre a doença de artéria coronária, isquemia do miocárdio, insuficiência cardíaca ou isquemia / lesão de reperfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O ácido rosmarínico é subestimado como uma droga experimental cardiovascular e merece mais atenção.

  16. Double blind randomized clinical trial controlled by placebo with an alpha linoleic acid and prebiotic enriched cookie on risk cardiovascular factor in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; de la Fuente, B; Izaola, O; Conde, R; Gutiérrez, S; Morillo, M; Teba Torres, C

    2011-01-01

    Inulin and FOS are prebiotics with potential benefit in cardiovascular risk factors. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the metabolic precursor of the long chain n-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20: 5n-3), this fatty acid has anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of our study was to evaluate the response of the cardiovascular risk profile in obese patients after inclusion in the diet of an ALA, FOS and inulin enriched-cookie. 36 patients were randomized in both branches: group I (inulin, FOS and ALA enriched cookie) Gullon SL(®) and group II (control cookie). Previous and after 1 month of the treatment, a nutritional and biochemical study was realized. 15 patients finished the procotol in each group. In group I, a significantly increase in soluble fiber (2.3 ± 0.8 g/day vs 7.7 ± 0.8 g/day: p cookie, improved total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and C reactive protein levels in obese males. As far as we know, this is the first study that has evaluated the effect on risk factors of an ALA enriched cookies.

  17. Confronting the residual cardiovascular risk beyond statins: the role of fibrates, omega-3 fatty acids, or niacin, in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Georgios A; Rizos, Evangelos C; Mpechlioulis, Aris; Penzo, Carlo; Pacchioni, Andrea; Nikas, Dimitrios N

    2014-01-01

    Diabetics are regarded a special category of patients known to experience higher rates of cardiovascular complications as compared to the non-diabetic ones. Despite substantial efforts to minimize these risks, with aggressive antiplatelet and lipid lowering therapy, some of the diabetic patients still have a considerable residual risk for cardiovascular adverse events. Important preclinical data with potent lipid-lowering agents, like fibrates, omega-3-fatty acids, and niacin, have shown that they can provide sufficient help in reducing rates of cardiovascular events. In the present review, we are aim to explain their basic mechanisms of action, to present all the available clinical data regarding the efficacy of those agents, and to identify specific diabetic patients' subsets, in whom supplementary therapy with those agents could provide substantial benefit in terms of clinical outcome and not only lipid profile improvement.

  18. ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID IN LOW DOSES FOR SECONDARY PREVENTION OF CARDIO-VASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Dmitrieva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of evidence based medicine which confirm efficacy of acetylsalicylic acid (ACA in cardiologic practice are presented. The special attention is given to generic drugs of ACA. Their application has increased essentially recently. Some of generics are comparable with original drugs on clinical efficacy but have economic advantages.

  19. Hyaluronic acid metabolism is increased in unstable plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Pieter T.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Goumans, Marie-José; Strijder, Chaylendra; Moll, Frans L.; de Vries, Jean-Paul; Pals, Steven T.; de Kleijn, Dominique P.; Piek, Jan J.; Hoefer, Imo E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Background Hyaluronic acid is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, but its exact role in atherosclerotic disease remains unknown. As degradation of hyaluronic acid by hyaluronidase into low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW-HA) is associated with inflammation and Matrix Metalloproteinase

  20. Aumento de los depósitos de hierro y su relación con la enfermedad cardiovascular Increased iron store and its relationship with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Meroño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, se ha avanzado considerablemente en el control de varios de los denominados factores de riesgo aterogénico tradicionales, a pesar de lo cual la incidencia de la enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV continúa siendo elevada. Entre las diversas condiciones asociadas a ECV, podría ubicarse también a la sobrecarga de hierro. Su estudio ha cobrado relevancia desde que se planteó la "hipótesis del hierro", la cual postula que bajos niveles de hierro ejercerían un efecto protector del sistema cardiovascular. No obstante, hasta el presente, los resultados de los estudios diseñados para probar esta hipótesis han sido controversiales. Por otro lado, se lograron numerosos avances en el conocimiento del metabolismo del hierro a partir del descubrimiento de la hormona reguladora hepcidina. Los estudios sobre las funciones fisiológicas de esta hormona permitieron elaborar nuevas hipótesis que explican los resultados de los estudios clínicos anteriormente concebidos como contradictorios. El objetivo de la presente actualización es exponer, a la luz de los últimos avances sobre la regulación del metabolismo del hierro y su vinculación con la inflamación, el estado actual del conocimiento sobre el posible rol del exceso de hierro como factor de riesgo de ECV.In the last years, great advance has been achieved in the control of several of the classic atherogenic risk factors; nonetheless, the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD still remains high. Among the disorders which are associated with CVD, increased iron stores have been described as one of them. Its study gained relevance since the "iron hypothesis", which postulates that low iron levels exert a protective effect on cardiovascular system, was elaborated. In spite of the numerous studies carried out to test this hypothesis, the results have been controversial. On the other hand, much knowledge regarding iron metabolism has been gained since the description of the

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: new developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William S; Dayspring, Thomas D; Moran, Terrance J

    2013-11-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) found in fish oils, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively), have been extensively studied therapeutically in a wide variety of disease conditions, but in none more than cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our review summarizes mechanisms of action, recent meta-analyses of CVD outcome trials, sources (fish and supplements), and recommendations for use of omega-3 FA in clinical practice. With the ability to now measure the omega-3 FA biostatus through blood tests, patients can achieve cardioprotective levels by either taking fish oil supplements or simply eating more oily fish. Two omega-3 FA formulations (both in the ethyl ester form) have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with very high triglyceride levels (> 500 mg/dL); one contains both EPA and DHA, whereas the other contains only EPA. The agents have been extensively tested in 2 patient populations, those with very high triglycerides and those with triglycerides between 200 and 500 mg/dL while on background statin therapy. In general, treatment with EPA+DHA appears to lower patient triglycerides more effectively, but in those patients with very high triglyceride levels, use of EPA+DHA also raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas EPA alone did not. Both formulations, at doses that do not lower triglycerides, have been shown to reduce CVD events in some, but not all, studies. Given the favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for these essentially nutritional agents, use is expected to continue to expand.

  2. Emerging nutrition science on fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: nutritionists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Fleming, Jennifer A

    2015-05-01

    Recent dietary guidance for heart health recommends a reduction (by ∼50%) in saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to reduce LDL cholesterol and to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends substituting unsaturated fat [both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and MUFAs, respectively)] for SFAs. There are many dietary options that can be implemented to replace SFAs, given the different sources of unsaturated fats in the food supply. Compelling evidence exists for the cardioprotective benefits of n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs, both marine- and plant-derived. In addition, the evidence of cardioprotective benefits of n-6 (ω-6) PUFAs is strong, whereas that for MUFAs is mixed, although there is emerging evidence of benefits. Quantitatively, lowering SFAs by 50% will require, in part, substituting food sources of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs for food sources of SFAs. The use of n-3 PUFAs as a replacement for SFAs will result in a shortfall in reaching the SFA goal because of the relatively low amounts that can be incorporated in the diet, even with very high n-3 PUFA substitution. SFAs also can be replaced with dietary carbohydrate and/or protein. Replacing SFAs with carbohydrate, specifically refined sources, however, has little impact on reducing CVD risk. There is evidence about the health benefits of dietary protein on CVD risk, which merits study. Dietary guidelines have advanced considerably with the "replacement of SFA with unsaturated fat message" instead of recommending decreasing SFAs alone. A key question that remains is what is the optimal mix of macronutrients to maximally reduce CVD risk. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Emerging Nutrition Science on Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Nutritionists’ Perspectives12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Fleming, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Recent dietary guidance for heart health recommends a reduction (by ∼50%) in saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to reduce LDL cholesterol and to decrease risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends substituting unsaturated fat [both polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and MUFAs, respectively)] for SFAs. There are many dietary options that can be implemented to replace SFAs, given the different sources of unsaturated fats in the food supply. Compelling evidence exists for the cardioprotective benefits of n–3 (ω-3) PUFAs, both marine- and plant-derived. In addition, the evidence of cardioprotective benefits of n–6 (ω-6) PUFAs is strong, whereas that for MUFAs is mixed, although there is emerging evidence of benefits. Quantitatively, lowering SFAs by 50% will require, in part, substituting food sources of n–6 and n–3 PUFAs and MUFAs for food sources of SFAs. The use of n–3 PUFAs as a replacement for SFAs will result in a shortfall in reaching the SFA goal because of the relatively low amounts that can be incorporated in the diet, even with very high n–3 PUFA substitution. SFAs also can be replaced with dietary carbohydrate and/or protein. Replacing SFAs with carbohydrate, specifically refined sources, however, has little impact on reducing CVD risk. There is evidence about the health benefits of dietary protein on CVD risk, which merits study. Dietary guidelines have advanced considerably with the “replacement of SFA with unsaturated fat message” instead of recommending decreasing SFAs alone. A key question that remains is what is the optimal mix of macronutrients to maximally reduce CVD risk. PMID:25979506

  4. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R; Tasali, Esra

    2015-04-01

    Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss.

  5. Sleep restriction increases free fatty acids in healthy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Chapotot, Florian; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Delebecque, Fanny; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Sleep loss is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, yet underlying mechanisms are not understood. Elevation of circulating non-esterified (i.e. free) fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations can lead to insulin resistance and plays a central role in the development of metabolic diseases. Circulating NEFA in healthy individuals shows a marked diurnal variation with maximum levels occurring at night, yet the impact of sleep loss on NEFA levels across the 24 h cycle remains unknown. We hypothesised that sleep restriction would alter hormones that are known to stimulate lipolysis and lead to an increase in NEFA levels. Methods We studied 19 healthy young men under controlled laboratory conditions with four consecutive nights of 8.5 h in bed (normal sleep) and 4.5 h in bed (sleep restriction) in randomised order. The 24 h blood profiles of NEFA, growth hormone (GH), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucose and insulin were simultaneously assessed. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Results Sleep restriction relative to normal sleep resulted in increased NEFA levels during the nocturnal and early-morning hours. The elevation in NEFA was related to prolonged nocturnal GH secretion and higher early-morning noradrenaline levels. Insulin sensitivity was decreased after sleep restriction and the reduction in insulin sensitivity was correlated with the increase in nocturnal NEFA levels. Conclusions/interpretation Sleep restriction in healthy men results in increased nocturnal and early-morning NEFA levels, which may partly contribute to insulin resistance and the elevated diabetes risk associated with sleep loss. PMID:25702040

  6. Natural postmenopause is associated with an increase in combined cardiovascular risk factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejsková, M.; Alušík, Š.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Adámková, S.; Piťha, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2012), s. 587-596 ISSN 0862-8408 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NS10511 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : menopause * metabolic syndrome * dyslipidemia * cardiovascular disease * central obesity Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23098660

  7. Increased plasma soluble endoglin levels as an indicator of cardiovascular alterations in hypertensive and diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Salgado Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoglin is involved in the regulation of endothelial function, but there are no studies concerning its relation with hypertension- and diabetes-associated pathologies. Thus, we studied the relationship between plasma levels of soluble endoglin and cardiovascular alterations associated with hypertension and diabetes. Methods We analyzed 288 patients: 64 with type 2 diabetes, 159 with hypertension and 65 healthy patients. We assessed the relationship of soluble endoglin plasma levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with basal glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction (assessed by pressure wave velocity, hypertensive retinopathy (by Keith-Wagener classification, left ventricular hypertrophy (by Cornell and Sokolow indexes, cardiovascular risk and target organ (heart, vascular, kidney damage. Results There are significant correlations between endoglin and glycemia, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, pressure wave velocity and electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy. Endoglin levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetes who had nondipper and extreme dipper circadian blood pressure patterns than in dipper circadian patterns, in patients with hypertension and diabetes who had riser pattern than in the other patients, and in patients with diabetes but not hypertension who had extreme dipper pattern than in dipper, nondipper and riser groups. There was also a significant correlation between plasma-soluble endoglin and lower levels of systolic night-day ratio. Higher endoglin levels were found in patients with diabetes who had retinopathy, in patients with diabetes who had a high probability of 10-year cardiovascular risk, and in patients with diabetes and hypertension who had three or more damaged target organs (heart, vessels, kidney than in those with no organs affected. Conclusions This study shows that endoglin is an indicator of

  8. Smokeless tobacco use and increased cardiovascular mortality among Swedish construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinder, G; Alfredsson, L; Englund, A; de Faire, U

    1994-03-01

    Little is known about the risks of cardiovascular disease associated with the use of smokeless tobacco, which produces blood nicotine levels similar to those caused by cigarette smoking. Male Swedish construction industry employees (n = 135,036) who attended a health examination were followed by studying cause-specific mortality during a 12-year period. The study population comprised 6297 smokeless tobacco users, 14,983 smokers of fewer than 15 cigarettes per day, 13,518 smokers of 15 or more cigarettes per day, 17,437 ex-smokers, 50,255 "other" tobacco users, and 32,546 nonusers. The age-adjusted relative risk of dying from cardiovascular disease was 1.4 for smokeless tobacco users and 1.9 for smokers of 15 or more cigarettes per day, compared with nonusers. Among men aged 35 through 54 years at the start of follow-up, the relative risk was 2.1 for smokeless tobacco users and 3.2 for smokers. When data were adjusted for body mass index, blood pressure, and history of heart symptoms, the results were essentially unchanged. Cancer mortality was not raised in smokeless tobacco users. Both smokeless tobacco users and smokers face a higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease than nonusers. Although the risk is lower for smokeless tobacco users than for smokers, the excess risk gives cause for preventive actions.

  9. Dietary guanidinoacetic acid increases brain creatine levels in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Ostojic, Jelena; Drid, Patrik; Vranes, Milan; Jovanov, Pavle

    2017-01-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is an experimental dietary additive that might act as a creatine source in tissues with high-energy requirements. In this case study, we evaluated brain levels of creatine in white matter, gray matter, cerebellum, and thalamus during 8 wk oral GAA administration in five healthy men and monitored the prevalence and severity of side effects of the intervention. Volunteers were supplemented daily with 36 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GAA for the first 4 wk of the intervention; afterward GAA dosage was titrated ≤60 mg/kg BW of GAA daily. At baseline, 4, and 8 wk, the participants underwent brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy, clinical chemistry studies, and open-ended questionnaire for side-effect prevalence and severity. Brain creatine levels increased in similar fashion in cerebellum, and white and gray matter after GAA supplementation, with an initial increase of 10.7% reported after 4 wk, and additional upsurge (7.7%) from the weeks 4 to 8 follow-up (P creatine levels decreased after 4 wk for 6.5% (P = 0.02), and increased nonsignificantly after 8 wk for 8% (P = 0.09). GAA induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate levels at 8-wk follow-up in all brain areas evaluated (P creatine pool in the human brain. This might be relevant for restoring cellular bioenergetics in disorders characterized by low brain creatine and functional enzymatic machinery for creatine synthesis, including neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, or cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acid-activated biochar increased sulfamethazine retention in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Zhang, Ming; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-02-01

    Sulfamethazine (SMZ) is an ionizable and highly mobile antibiotic which is frequently found in soil and water environments. We investigated the sorption of SMZ onto soils amended with biochars (BCs) at varying pH and contact time. Invasive plants were pyrolyzed at 700 °C and were further activated with 30 % sulfuric (SBBC) and oxalic (OBBC) acids. The sorption rate of SMZ onto SBBC and OBBC was pronouncedly pH dependent and was decreased significantly when the values of soil pH increased from 3 to 5. Modeled effective sorption coefficients (K D,eff) values indicated excellent sorption on SBBC-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils for 229 and 183 L/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the low sorption values were determined for OBBC- and BBC700-treated loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Kinetic modeling demonstrated that the pseudo second order model was the best followed by intra-particle diffusion and the Elovich model, indicating that multiple processes govern SMZ sorption. These findings were also supported by sorption edge experiments based on BC characteristics. Chemisorption onto protonated and ligand containing functional groups of the BC surface, and diffusion in macro-, meso-, and micro-pores of the acid-activated BCs are the proposed mechanisms of SMZ retention in soils. Calculated and experimental q e (amount adsorbed per kg of the adsorbent at equilibrium) values were well fitted to the pseudo second order model, and the predicted maximum equilibrium concentration of SBBC for loamy sand soils was 182 mg/kg. Overall, SBBC represents a suitable soil amendment because of its high sorption rate of SMZ in soils.

  11. Elevated Markers of Death Receptor-Activated Apoptosis are Associated with Increased Risk for Development of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Yao Mattisson

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrates an association between several cardiovascular risk factors and elevated levels of circulating markers of apoptotic cell death. It also shows that subjects with high levels of these biomarkers have increased risk of diabetes and CVD. This implies that soluble death receptors are markers of β-cell and vascular injury and potentially could be used as surrogate markers of therapeutic efficiency in risk factor interventions.

  12. Serum uric acid and subsequent cognitive performance in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Molshatzki

    Full Text Available High serum uric acid (UA levels are associated with numerous vascular risk factors, and vascular disease, that predispose patients to cognitive impairment, yet UA is also a major natural antioxidant and higher levels have been linked to slower progression of several neurodegenerative disease. In-order to test the association between UA and subsequent cognitive performance among patients that carry a high vascular burden, UA levels were determined by calorimetric enzymatic tests in a sub-cohort of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease who previously participating in a secondary prevention trial. After an average of 9.8±1.7 years, we assessed cognitive performance (Neurotrax Computerized Cognitive Battery as well as cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. Among 446 men (mean age 62.3±6.4 yrs mean UA levels were 5.8±1.1 mg/dL. Adjusted linear regression models revealed that low UA levels (bottom quintile were associated with poorer cognitive performance. Adjusted differences between the bottom quintile and grouped top UA quintiles were (B coefficient±SE -4.23±1.28 for global cognitive scores (p = 0.001, -4.69±1.81 for memory scores (p = 0.010, -3.32±1.43 for executive scores (p = 0.020 and -3.43±1.97 for visual spatial scores (p = 0.082. Significant difference was also found for attention scores (p = 0.015. Additional adjustment for impaired CVR and high common carotid IMT slightly attenuated the relationship. Stronger UA effect on cognitive performance was found for older (age>65 patients with significant age interaction for global cognitive score (p = 0.016 and for executive (p = 0.018 and attention domains (p<0.001. In conclusion, we demonstrate that low UA levels in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease are associated with poorer cognitive function a decade later. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of age

  13. The increased level of COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Miller, Elzbieta; Bijak, Michal; Saluk, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Platelet activation is increasingly postulated as a possible component of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), especially due to the increased risk of cardiovascular events in MS. Arachidonic acid cascade metabolized by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key pathway of platelet activation. The aim of our study was to investigate the COX-dependent arachidonic acid metabolic pathway in blood platelets from secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SP MS) patients. The blood samples were obtained from 50 patients (man n = 22; female n = 28), suffering from SP MS, diagnosed according to the revised McDonald criteria. Platelet aggregation was measured in platelet-rich plasma after arachidonic acid stimulation. The level of COX activity and thromboxane B2 concentration were determined by ELISA method. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring the level of malondialdehyde. The results were compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. We found that blood platelets obtained from SP MS patients were more sensitive to arachidonic acid and their response measured as platelet aggregation was stronger (about 14 %) relative to control. We also observed a significantly increased activity of COX (about 40 %) and synthesis of thromboxane B2 (about 113 %). The generation of malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation was about 10 % higher in SP MS than in control. Cyclooxygenase-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism is significantly increased in blood platelets of patients with SP MS. Future clinical studies are required to recommend the use of low-dose aspirin, and possibly other COX inhibitors in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in MS.

  14. Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bridget M. Stroup; Emily A. Sawin; Sangita G. Murali; Neil Binkley; Karen E. Hansen; Denise M. Ney

    2017-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design...

  15. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of ?-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blo...

  17. Effects of 1-Year Intervention with a Mediterranean Diet on Plasma Fatty Acid Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in a Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisaguano, Maribel; Castellote, Ana I.; Estruch, Ramón; Covas, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa; Ros, Emilio; López-Sabater, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become an important public concern due to its increasing prevalence. An altered fatty acid composition has been associated with MetS, but the Mediterranean diet has been shown to have a protective effect. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as assessed by the biomarkers of food supplied, on the plasma fatty acid composition and its relation with MetS after 1 year of intervention. Methods A total of 424 subjects were randomly selected from the PREDIMED randomized dietary trial after completing a 1-year intervention program. Participants aged 55 to 80 years and at high risk of cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to three dietary interventions: Mediterranean diet supplemented with virgin olive oil or nuts, or a low-fat diet. Results After 1 year of intervention participants in the virgin olive oil group showed significantly increased plasma concentrations of palmitic and oleic acids, but reduced proportions of margaric, stearic, and linoleic acids. In turn, subjects in the nut group showed significantly increased levels of palmitic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids, but reduced proportions of myristic, margaric, palmitoleic, and dihommo-γ-linoleic acids. Increases in the biomarkers of foods supplied to the Mediterranean diet groups, i.e., oleic and α-linolenic acids, were beneficially associated with the incidence, reversion and prevalence of MetS. No weight changes were observed among participants. Conclusions The nut and olive oil diets induced a fatty acid composition that has been shown to be beneficial in the face of MetS. Therefore, a Mediterranean diet rich in fats of vegetable origin may be a useful tool for the management of MetS without the need for concerns over weight gain due to its high fat content. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN35739639 PMID:24651160

  18. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  19. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jian [East Lansing, MI; Kleff, Susanne [East Lansing, MI; Guettler, Michael V [Holt, MI

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  20. The Cardiovascular and Subjective Effects of Methamphetamine Combined with γ-vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) in Non-Treatment Seeking Methamphetamine-dependent Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; Heinzerling, Keith G.; Nusinowitz, Steve; London, Edythe D.; Shoptaw, Steven; Moody, David E.; Newton, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    γ-Vinyl-γ-aminobutyric acid (GVG) elevates central nervous system γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. An open-label clinical trial in humans suggested that GVG may reduce cocaine and methamphetamine use. To test safety and to obtain preliminary data on efficacy of GVG for treating methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study of GVG interaction with the cardiovascular and subjective effects produced by methamphetamine. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers received either GVG (N=8) or placebo (N=9) by random assignment. GVG treatment was initiated at 1 g/day and increased to 5 g/day. After reaching the target dose of 5 g/day, participants received methamphetamine (15 + 30 mg, IV), and cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. No serious adverse events were noted, and the total number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. Considering the full time-course and peak effects independently, no significant differences were detected between the groups for systolic or diastolic blood pressures, or heart rate following methamphetamine exposure. Some methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular changes approached significance (p<0.10) and may warrant attention in future trials. Methamphetamine-induced subjective effects (“any drug effect”, “high”, “crave methamphetamine” were statistically similar between GVG and placebo treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GVG treatment did not alter methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels, and there was no association between methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels and peak cardiovascular effects. Taken together, the data indicate that GVG treatment is generally well tolerated but not efficacious in attenuating the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory. PMID:19698734

  1. The cardiovascular and subjective effects of methamphetamine combined with gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) in non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Richard; Zorick, Todd; Heinzerling, Keith G; Nusinowitz, Steve; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Moody, David E; Newton, Thomas F

    2009-11-01

    Gamma-vinyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid (GVG) elevates central nervous system gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels by irreversibly inhibiting GABA transaminase. An open-label clinical trial in humans suggested that GVG may reduce cocaine and methamphetamine use. To test safety and to obtain preliminary data on efficacy of GVG for treating methamphetamine dependence, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of GVG interaction with the cardiovascular and subjective effects produced by methamphetamine. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent volunteers received either GVG (N=8) or placebo (N=9) by random assignment. GVG treatment was initiated at 1 g/day and increased to 5 g/day. After reaching the target dose of 5 g/day, participants received methamphetamine (15+30 mg, IV), and cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed. No serious adverse events were noted, and the total number of adverse events was similar between the treatment groups. Considering the full time course and peak effects independently, no significant differences were detected between the groups for systolic or diastolic blood pressures, or heart rate, following methamphetamine exposure. Some methamphetamine-induced cardiovascular changes approached significance (p<0.10) and may warrant attention in future trials. Methamphetamine-induced subjective effects ("any drug effect", "high", "crave methamphetamine") were statistically similar between GVG and placebo treatment groups. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that GVG treatment did not alter methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels, and there was no association between methamphetamine or amphetamine plasma levels and peak cardiovascular effects. Taken together, the data indicate that GVG treatment is generally well tolerated but not efficacious in attenuating the positive subjective effects of methamphetamine in the laboratory.

  2. Association between polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Gehringer, Marcella Omena; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; Kovacs, Cristiane; Alves, Renata; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Weber, Bernardete; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory biomarkers among patients in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this cross-sectional substudy from BALANCE Program Trial, we have collected data from 364 patients with established CVD. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and plasma FA concentrations were analyzed to estimate the FA intake. Inflammatory biomarkers measurement consisted of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-α. After log-transformation of inflammatory biomarkers, multivariate-adjusted general linear model was used to examine the effect of FA intake. The association was adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, energy, smoking status, age, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, physical activity, and calcium channel blockers. PUFAs were inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.006) and with IL-1 β. The increase of 1 g/1000 kcal in PUFAs, omega-3, and omega-6 reduces, on average, 6%, 48%, and 8% respectively, the mean concentration of IL-1 β. Omega-3 and omega-6 FA intakes are inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers among CVD patients. Additional studies on omega-3 and omega-6 intake in relation to inflammatory biomarkers in patients in secondary prevention of CVD are needed, particularly regarding dietary patterns that are rich in some sources of PUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  4. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...

  5. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, carotenoids, endogenous ascorbic acid and antioxidant enzyme activities. Moreover, vitamin C alone ...

  6. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Mæhre, Hanne K; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Elvevoll, Edel Oddny; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2015-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent liter...

  8. Ghrelin and orotic acid increased in subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, F; Aydin, S; Kaygusuzoglu, E; Yildiz, H; Erulas, F A; Ozkan, Y

    2008-07-01

    Hormone ghrelin and orotic acid accelerate wound healing as well as controlling inflammation and immunity. We have, therefore, investigated the serum and milk levels of ghrelin and orotic acid in dairy cows with (n = 21) or without (n = 21) subclinical mastitis. Acylated and des-acylated ghrelin as well as orotic acid concentration were detected by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that ghrelin level in milk and serum was significantly higher in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis than that of dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. This was also the case when the orotic acid concentrations in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis were compared with those dairy cows without subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, ghrelin and orotic acid occur in particularly high concentrations in subclinical mastitis, and might, therefore, be required in greater amounts for tissue repair and may be also used as a indicator for subclinical mastitis.

  9. Protection from Cardiovascular Disease Due to Increased High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in African Black Populations: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudberg, Nicholas J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2016-10-20

    The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa has increased over the last decade. Despite this, African Black populations present with relatively low incidences of coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease, which may be attributed to their lower total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, compared with White populations. Commensurate with these lower lipid levels, it was believed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations would be higher in Black populations compared with their White counterparts. This is based on data from previous studies of African and African American populations; however, recent studies conducted in Africa found similar or lower HDL-C concentrations in Black compared with White individuals. Current research, therefore, suggests that HDL-C may not be a good indicator of cardiovascular risk and future research should focus on HDL quality (vs quantity), by measuring HDL functionality and subclass.

  10. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet function in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Chen, Walter; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2013-02-01

    Hyperactivation and aggregation of platelets play a major role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on platelet function. Light transmission aggregometry and flow cytometric analyses of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid 520 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 120 mg) supplementation. In total, 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) completed the study. In healthy subjects, omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced (maximum amplitude, 77.0% ± 3.2% vs. 71.6% ± 3.4%, p = 0.036; maximum slope, 86.3 ± 1.8 vs. 80.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.014) and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation (maximum slope, 42.8 ± 2.7 vs. 37.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.013; lag time, 00:21 ± 00:02 vs. 00:31 ± 00:03 s, p = 0.002). Omega-3 PUFA also reduced P-selectin expression (40.5% ± 2.9% vs. 34.4% ± 2.4%, p = 0.049) on platelets and platelet-monocyte aggregates (38.5% ± 2.6% vs. 31.4% ± 2.5%, p = 0.022) after activation with ADP 0.5 µM. There were fewer changes in platelet aggregation and activation found in subjects with CVD. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the slope of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation (13.21 ± 6.41 vs. 4.88 ± 3.01, p = 0.009) and increased lag time for U46619 (00:16 ± 00:00 vs. 00:29 ± 00:07 s, p = 0.018) induced platelet aggregation. Thus, 4-week supplementation of 640 mg omega-3 PUFA reduced measures of platelet aggregation and activation in healthy subjects but effects were less evident in patients with existing CVD. Our findings support the recommendation that the omega-3 PUFA dose be higher in CVD than among healthy subjects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. CD4 decline is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death in virally suppressed patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleberg, Marie; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Court; Obel, Niels; Gerstoft, Jan

    2013-07-01

    The clinical implications of a considerable CD4 decline despite antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are unknown. We aimed to test the hypothesis that a major CD4 decline could be a marker of cardiovascular disease or undiagnosed cancer. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were followed in the Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study in the period 1995-2010 with quarterly CD4 measurements. Associations between a CD4 decline of ≥30% and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death were analyzed using Poisson regression with date of CD4 decline as a time-updated variable. We followed 2584 virally suppressed HIV patients for 13 369 person-years (PY; median observation time, 4.7 years). Fifty-six patients developed CD4 decline (incidence rate, 4.2/1000 PY [95% confidence interval {CI}, 3.2-5.4]). CD4 counts dropped from a median of 492 cells/µL to 240 cells/µL. CD8, CD3, and total lymphocyte counts dropped concomitantly. No HIV-related factors, apart from treatment with didanosine, were associated with CD4 decline. The risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death increased markedly ≤6 months after CD4 decline (incidence rate ratio, 11.7 [95% CI, 3.6-37.4] and 13.7 [95% CI, 4.3-43.6], respectively, and mortality rate ratio 4.3 [95% CI, 1.1-17.6]). A major decline in CD4 count is associated with a marked increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and death among virally suppressed HIV patients.

  12. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (Fish Oil) Supplementation and the Prevention of Clinical Cardiovascular Disease: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siscovick, David S; Barringer, Thomas A; Fretts, Amanda M; Wu, Jason H Y; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Costello, Rebecca B; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Jacobson, Terry A; Engler, Mary B; Alger, Heather M; Appel, Lawrence J; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-04-11

    Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have assessed the effects of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, commonly called fish oils) on the occurrence of clinical cardiovascular diseases. Although the effects of supplementation for the primary prevention of clinical cardiovascular events in the general population have not been examined, RCTs have assessed the role of supplementation in secondary prevention among patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes, patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, and those with prevalent coronary heart disease. In this scientific advisory, we take a clinical approach and focus on common indications for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements related to the prevention of clinical cardiovascular events. We limited the scope of our review to large RCTs of supplementation with major clinical cardiovascular disease end points; meta-analyses were considered secondarily. We discuss the features of available RCTs and provide the rationale for our recommendations. We then use existing American Heart Association criteria to assess the strength of the recommendation and the level of evidence. On the basis of our review of the cumulative evidence from RCTs designed to assess the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on clinical cardiovascular events, we update prior recommendations for patients with prevalent coronary heart disease, and we offer recommendations, when data are available, for patients with other clinical indications, including patients with diabetes mellitus and prediabetes and those with high risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Attenuates Cardiovascular Effects in Healthy Older Volunteers Exposed to Concentrated Ambient Fine and UltrafineParticulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiology study reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the response of study participants to PM. Our study was des...

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jane Pei-Chen; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Yang, Hui-Ting; Palani, Mahalakshmi; Chen, Chun-Ping; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are commonly comorbid with depression and vice versa. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to mediate in CVDs and depression in cross-sectional and observational studies. With the patients of CVDs, we investigated the role of depression on the effect of PUFAs. Forty-four patients with CVDs were recruited and assessed with Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD). Patients' CVDs markers were measured by electrocardiogram and their red blood cell (RBC) samples were collected for PUFAs analyses. The data of 44 subjects were analyzed; where 10 participants (23%) with CVDs had moderate or severe depression, defined by a HAMD score more than 19 points. The moderate depression group had lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), omega-3 (N3) and omega-6(N6) to N3 (N6/N3) ratio than non-depression group (HAMD score less than 8), while no differences between the 2 groups in terms of corrected QT (QTc) intervals and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Furthermore, when we analyzed the data with an inclusion of a more heterogeneous depression group, where HAMD score is greater than or equal to 10 (mild depression group, N=24), the differences in PUFAs levels between the 2 groups disappear. Secondary analysis of the moderate depression group showed a positive correlation between DHA, N3 PUFAs, and N6/N3 ratio and total HAMD scores, a positive correlation between N3 PUFAs and QTc intervals in non-depression group. Moderate depression group of patients with CVDs had lower levels of DHA, N3, and N6/N3 ratio than non-depression group, while both groups had no differences in QTc and hsCRP. On the other hand, the differences in PUFAs levels disappear in the mild depression group after inclusion of patients with CVDs with greater heterogeneity of depression. Hence, the role of N3 PUFAs is implicated in depression of patients with CVDs if the depression status is more strictly defined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids in high-risk cardiovascular patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielinski Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple randomized controlled trials (RCTs have examined the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acids and have provided unexplained conflicting results. A meta-analysis of these RCTs to estimate efficacy and safety and potential sources of heterogeneity may be helpful. Methods The Cochrane library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched to identify all interventional trials of omega-3 fatty acids compared to placebo or usual diet in high-risk cardiovascular patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were coronary restenosis following percutaneous coronary intervention and safety. Meta-analyses were carried out using Bayesian random-effects models, and heterogeneity was examined using meta-regression. Results A total of 29 RCTs (n = 35,144 met our inclusion criteria, with 25 reporting mortality and 14 reporting restenosis. Omega-3 fatty acids were not associated with a statistically significant decreased mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.88, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] = 0.64, 1.03 or with restenosis prevention (RR = 0.89, 95% CrI = 0.72, 1.06, though the probability of some benefit remains high (0.93 and 0.90, respectively. However in meta-regressions, there was a >90% probability that larger studies and those with longer follow-up were associated with smaller benefits. No serious safety issues were identified. Conclusions Although not reaching conventional statistical significance, the evidence to date suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may result in a modest reduction in mortality and restenosis. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting these benefits as results were attenuated in higher quality studies, suggesting that bias may be at least partially responsible. Additional high quality studies are required to clarify the role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  16. THE COMPETITION BETWEEN METHYLMERCURY RISKS AND OMEGA-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID BENEFITS: A REVIEW OF CONFLICTING EVIDENCE ON FISH CONSUMPTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2006-10-31

    The health concerns of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination of seafood have recently been extended to include cardiovascular effects, especially premature mortality. Although the fatty acids (fish oils) found in most species are thought to confer a wide range of health benefits, especially to the cardiovascular system, some epidemiological studies have suggested that such benefits may be offset by adverse effects of MeHg. This comprehensive review is based on searches of the NIH MEDLINE database and compares and contrasts 145 published studies involving cardiovascular effects and exposures to mercury and other fish contaminants, intake of fatty acids including dietary supplements of fish oils, and rates of seafood consumption. Since few of these studies include adequate simultaneous measurements of all of these potential predictor variables, we summarized their effects separately, across the available studies of each, and then drew conclusions based on the aggregated findings. It is important to realize that studies of seafood consumption encompass the net effects of all of these predictor variables, but that seafood intake studies are rarely supported by human biomarker measurements that reflect the actual uptake of harmful as well as beneficial fish ingredients. As a result, exposure measurement error is an issue when comparing studies and predictor variables. It is also possible that the observed benefits of eating fish may relate more to the characteristics of the consumers than to those of the fish. We found the evidence for adverse cardiovascular effects of MeHg to be sparse and unconvincing. Studies of cardiovascular mortality show net benefits, and the findings of adverse effects are mainly limited to studies Finland at high mercury exposure levels. By contrast, a very consistent picture of beneficial effects is seen for fatty acids, after recognizing the effects of exposure uncertainties and the presence of threshold effects. Studies based on measured

  17. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs...

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  19. Increased serum renalase in peritoneal dialysis patients: Is it related to cardiovascular disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Akoglu, Hadim; Ulusal Okyay, Gulay; Karaveli Gursoy, Guner; Yildirim, Tolga; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Cimen, Tolga; Canbakan, Basol; Yeter, Ekrem; Ayli, M Deniz

    Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, is implicated in degradation of catecholamines; which suggests novel mechanisms of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney diseases. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been found to correlate with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in dialysis patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the association of serum renalase levels with EAT thickness and other CVD risk factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The study included 40 PD patients and 40 healthy controls. All subjects underwent blood pressure and anthropometric measurements. Serum renalase was assessed by using a commercially available assay. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure EAT thickness and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in all subjects. The median serum renalase level was significantly higher in the PD patients than in the control group [176.5 (100-278.3) vs 122 (53.3-170.0)ng/ml] (p=0.001). Renalase was positively correlated with C-reactive protein (r=0.705, p<0.001) and negatively correlated with RRF (r=-0.511, p=0.021). No correlation was observed between renalase and EAT thickness or LVMI. There was a strong correlation between EAT thickness and LVMI in both the PD patients and the controls (r=0.848, p<0.001 and r=0.640, p<0.001 respectively). This study indicates that renalase is associated with CRP and residual renal function but not with EAT thickness as CVD risk factors in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Tour de tailleaugmenté et facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire [Increased waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salima TALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity evaluated by body mass index (BMI is a recognized cardiovascular risk factor. Studies have shown that adipose tissue deposition in visceral level, reflected by increased waist circumference itself was a cardiometabolic risk factor. Objective. The relationship was studied between a high waist circumference and a cardiovascular risk. Material and Methods. A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted among 200 subjects in 2014 in Tebessa. The questionnaire allowed us to gather the following information: anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, physical activity, smoking, personal and family history ... Blood sample was realized to determine some biochemical parameters. Results. In this study, 60.5% of the subjects had a pathological waist, women were more affected than men (72.86% vs 31.67%, p <0.0001. This prevalence peaked between 47-66 years (p <0.0001. Pathological waist circumference was a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, (RR = 1.71, P = 0.028. This study revealed that 16.53% of subjects with a pathologicalwaistlines had diabetes, 55.5% were hypertensive, 49% had hypertriglyceridemia, 46% low HDL, and 18 % high LDL. In normal weight subjects, 22% had pathological waistline. Conclusion. The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher among patients consulting in private practice in Tébessa, this requires screening and awareness of people with pathological waistline.

  1. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas F J; Bergin, David A; Kent, Etaoin M; Manning, Fiona; Reeves, Emer P; Dicker, Patrick; McElvaney, Noel G; Sreenan, Seamus; Malone, Fergal D; McDermott, John H

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk. Our objective was to ascertain whether EPC number or function was reduced in mothers of low-birthweight infants. This was a prospective cohort study in a general antenatal department of a university maternity hospital. Twenty-three mothers of small for gestational age (SGA) infants (birthweight mothers of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (birthweight ≥ 10th centile) were recruited. Maternal EPC number and function, conventional cardiovascular risk markers, and cord blood adiponectin were measured. Median EPC count was lower (294 vs. 367, P = 0.005) and EPC migration was reduced (0.91 vs. 1.59, P < 0.001) in SGA compared with AGA infants, with no difference in EPC adhesion (0.221 vs. 0.284 fluorescence units, P = 0.257). Maternal triglyceride levels were higher in SGA than AGA infants (0.98 vs. 0.78 mmol/liter, P = 0.006), but there was no difference in cholesterol, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, adiponectin, or blood pressure. There was a moderate monotone (increasing) relationship between birthweight and umbilical cord blood adiponectin (r = 0.475, P = 0.005). Giving birth to an SGA infant was associated with lower maternal EPC number and reduced migratory function. Cord blood adiponectin was significantly correlated with birthweight.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical t...

  3. Increased ophthalmic acid production is supported by amino acid catabolism under fasting conditions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Sho; Lee, Jaeyong; Takao, Toshifumi; Fujii, Junichi

    2017-09-23

    Glutathione (GSH) plays pivotal roles in antioxidation and detoxification. The transsulfuration pathway, in conjunction with methionine metabolism, produces equimolar amounts of cysteine (Cys) and 2-oxobutyric acid (2OB). The resulting 2OB is then converted into 2-aminobutyric acid (2AB) by a transaminase and is utilized as a substitute for Cys by the GSH-synthesizing machinery to produce ophthalmic acid (OPT). By establishing a method for simultaneously measuring Cys, GSH, and OPT by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that fasting causes an elevation in OPT levels in the liver and blood plasma, even though the levels of Cys and GSH are decreased. Autophagy was activated, but the levels of GSH/OPT-synthesizing enzymes remained unchanged. After 6 h of fasting, the mice were given 1% 2AB and/or 5% glucose in the drinking water for an additional 24 h and the above metabolites analyzed. 2AB administration caused an increase in OPT levels, and, when glucose was co-administered with 2AB, the levels of OPT were elevated further but GSH levels were decreased somewhat. These results suggest that, while Cys is utilized for glyconeogenesis under fasting conditions, reaching levels that were insufficient for the synthesis of GSH, 2OB was preferentially converted to 2AB via amino acid catabolism and was utilized as a building block for OPT. Thus the consumption of Cys and the parallel elevation of 2AB under fasting conditions appeared to force γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase to form γ-glutamyl-2AB, despite the fact that the enzyme has a higher Km value for 2AB than Cys. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Saturated fatty acids, palm oil and cardiovascular health – where do we stand today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Khosla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For  almost  sixty years dietary fat  has  been  the  focal  point  for reducing the risk  from  coronary  heart  disease (CHD.  With  evidence  based  largely on  animal  and  observational  studies documenting that  saturated fatty acids (SFA  increase LDL-C (with the latter being associated with increased CHD risk, the notion that SFA increased CHD, became etched in folklore. As a consequence,   decreasing   SFA   to   <10%   of   total   calories,   became   the corner-stone   of   global   dietary recommendations. Ironically, the fact that SFA increased the large buoyant LDL particles (as opposed to small-dense atherogenic LDL particles, or that they increased the cardio-protective HDL-C and in some instances, lowered the atherogenic Lp(a, went largely unnoticed. However a spate of studies starting in 2009 has dramatically challenged our thinking on the “widely accepted” role of SFA.  Twenty year follow up data from prospective epidemiologic studies suggest that only two classes of fatty acids affect CHD risk, namely trans monounsaturated fatty acids (resulting principally from the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA – which increase and decrease risk, respectively. These studies suggested that when  replacing/removing  SFA   from  the  diet,  the  replacement  nutrient  may  be  as important. Thus SFA replacement with PUFA may provide small benefits, but the replacement represents a dramatic shift in dietary regimen. The effects of replacing SFA with MUFA were inconclusive. If SFA are replaced with carbohydrates, then the quality of the carbohydrate (as measured by the glycemic index is also important. Earlier this year, a highly publicized study found no benefit on CHD even when SFA were replaced by PUFA, and questioned the usefulness of this public health message. The data on SFA has had a profound effect on the perceived role of

  5. Supplementation of arachidonic acid-enriched oil increases arachidonic acid contents in plasma phospholipids, but does not increase their metabolites and clinical parameters in Japanese healthy elderly individuals: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakutani Saki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of arachidonic acid (ARA among the elderly has recently gained increased attention. The effects of ARA supplementation in the elderly are not fully understood, although ARA is considered to be associated with various diseases. We investigate whether ARA supplementation to Japanese elderly subjects affects clinical parameters involved in cardiovascular, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. We also examine the levels of ARA metabolites such as prostanoids during intervention. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled parallel group intervention trial. ARA-enriched oil (240 or 720 mg ARA per day or placebo was administered to Japanese healthy men and women aged 55-70 years for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. The fatty acid contents of plasma phospholipids, clinical parameters, and ARA metabolites were determined at baseline, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Results The ARA content in plasma phospholipids in the ARA-administrated groups increased dose-dependently and was almost the same at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks. The elevated ARA content decreased to nearly baseline during a 4-week washout period. During the supplementation and washout periods, no changes were observed in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents. There were no changes in clinical blood parameters related to cardiovascular, inflammatory and allergic diseases. ARA supplementation did not alter the level of ARA metabolites such as urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2, 2,3-dinor-6-keto prostaglandin (PG F1α and 9,15-dioxo-11α-hydroxy-13,14-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostan-1,20-dioic acid (tetranor-PGEM, and plasma PGE2 and lipoxin A4. ARA in plasma phospholipids was not correlated with ARA metabolite levels in the blood or urine. Conclusion These results indicate that ARA supplementation, even at a relatively high dose, does not increase ARA metabolites, and suggest that it does not induce cardiovascular

  6. Comprehensive lipid tetrad index, atherogenic index and lipid peroxidation: Surrogate markers for increased cardiovascular risk in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, S; Rajappa, Medha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Munisamy, Malathi; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the concept of "psoriatic march" has come to the fore, in which chronic cutaneous inflammation in psoriasis leads to systemic inflammation which, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress, triggers a cascade of events resulting in increased cardiovascular risk in patients with severe psoriasis. We, therefore, decided to study the levels of some biochemical cardiovascular risk markers: lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), lipoprotein (a), lipid indices and atherogenic index, in patients with psoriasis and their association with disease severity. Forty five patients with psoriasis and 45 age and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this cross-sectional study. Disease severity was assessed by the Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Serum malondialdehyde, lipoprotein (a) and fasting lipid profile were estimated in all study subjects. Lipoprotein ratios were computed using standard formulae. Atherogenic index was calculated as ratio of lipoprotein (a)/high-density lipoprotein. In psoriasis, we observed significantly higher levels of malondialdehyde, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), lipid ratios, atherogenic index and comprehensive lipid tetrad index, compared to controls. These levels were directly proportional to disease severity. Serum levels of malondialdehyde correlated positively with serum lipoprotein (a), comprehensive lipid tetrad index and atherogenic index. Different morphological types of psoriasis were not included and follow-up post-therapy was not done. A larger sample size would have validated the results further. Our results indicate that psoriasis, especially the severe variants, are associated with increased oxidative stress and dyslipidemia, which correlate positively with atherogenic index and hence, an increased cardiovascular risk.

  7. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  8. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Rosenberger, Thad A; Johnson, LuAnn K; Wolters, William W; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Enhanced n-3 fatty acid intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (eg, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized three-period crossover-designed trial (4-week treatment, 4- to 8-week washout) to compare the effects of twice per week consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women (mean age 40 to 65 years) and a body mass index between 25 and 34.9. All study visits were conducted at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. Eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 concentrations were increased (Pfarmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice per week for 4 weeks at portions of 180 g and 270 g modifies phospholipid fatty acid proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep restriction increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases by augmenting proinflammatory responses through IL-17 and CRP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessel M A van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep restriction, leading to deprivation of sleep, is common in modern 24-h societies and is associated with the development of health problems including cardiovascular diseases. Our objective was to investigate the immunological effects of prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep, by simulating a working week and following recovery weekend in a laboratory environment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: After 2 baseline nights of 8 hours time in bed (TIB, 13 healthy young men had only 4 hours TIB per night for 5 nights, followed by 2 recovery nights with 8 hours TIB. 6 control subjects had 8 hours TIB per night throughout the experiment. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol and serum C-reactive protein (CRP were measured after the baseline (BL, sleep restriction (SR and recovery (REC period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected at these time points, counted and stimulated with PHA. Cell proliferation was analyzed by thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by ELISA and RT-PCR. CRP was increased after SR (145% of BL; p<0.05, and continued to increase after REC (231% of BL; p<0.05. Heart rate was increased after REC (108% of BL; p<0.05. The amount of circulating NK-cells decreased (65% of BL; p<0.005 and the amount of B-cells increased (121% of BL; p<0.005 after SR, but these cell numbers recovered almost completely during REC. Proliferation of stimulated PBMC increased after SR (233% of BL; p<0.05, accompanied by increased production of IL-1beta (137% of BL; p<0.05, IL-6 (163% of BL; p<0.05 and IL-17 (138% of BL; p<0.05 at mRNA level. After REC, IL-17 was still increased at the protein level (119% of BL; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: 5 nights of sleep restriction increased lymphocyte activation and the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1beta IL-6 and IL-17; they remained elevated after 2 nights of recovery sleep, accompanied by increased heart rate and serum CRP, 2 important risk

  10. Increases in Plasma Tryptophan Are Inversely Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edward; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Zheng, Yan; Toledo, Estefania; Clish, Clary B; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Liang, Liming; Wang, Dong D; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montse; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Cofán, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Romaguera, Dora; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Sorlí, Jose V; Hu, Frank B; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-01

    Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied.Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern.Methods: We used a case-cohort design nested in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized controlled trial. There were 231 CVD cases (stroke, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death) among 985 participants over a median of 4.7 y of follow-up [mean ± SD age: 67.6 ± 6.1 y; 53.7% women; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 29.7 ± 3.7]. We assessed plasma tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and quinolinic acid concentrations at baseline and after 1 y of intervention with a MedDiet. We combined these metabolites in a kynurenine risk score (KRS) by weighting each metabolite by the adjusted coefficient of its associations with CVD. Cox models were used in the primary analysis.Results: Increases in tryptophan after 1 y were associated with a lower risk of composite CVD (HR per SD: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.98). The baseline kynurenic acid concentration was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease death but not stroke. A higher KRS was more strongly associated with CVD in the control group than in the 2 intervention groups (P-interaction = 0.003). Adjustment for changes in plasma tryptophan attenuated the inverse association between MedDiet+EVOO and CVD.Conclusions: An increase in the plasma tryptophan concentration was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CVD. A Med

  11. Humic acids of vermicompost as an ecological pathway to increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discussed the potential role of humic acids (HA) in preventing oxidative stress in rice plants submitted to water stress. The rice seedlings (Oryza sativa L. cv. IACUB-30) was grown in nutrient solution and HA were extracted from vermicompost and analysed using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic ...

  12. Apparent increase of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) levels in potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) levels in Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers purchased from shops and open markets in Cardiff, U.K. were determined in the raw, boiled and fried (chips) pieces by 2,6, Dichlorophenolindophenol dye (DCP) method in the laboratory. The chips were prepared in sunflower oil, corn oil and ...

  13. Engineering lactic acid bacteria for increased industrial functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on their spoilage-preventing and flavor-contributing characteristics, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed as starter cultures for the fermentation of foods and feeds. In addition, several specific LAB strains are marketed on basis of their beneficial effects on the consumer's health,

  14. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    solo culture, L. sakei 171 was superior in cell growth, lactate production and the release of amino acids .... The bacteria were grown under anaerobic conditions in the MRS broth containing glucose. The medium composition per liter was as follows: (a) 10 g peptone, 10 g beef extract, 5 g yeast extract, 3 g diammonium.

  15. Prevalence of hyperuricemia and relation of serum uric acid with cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamlaye C

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has rarely been investigated in developing countries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and the association between uric acid levels and the various cardiovascular risk factors in a developing country with high average blood pressures (the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, population mainly of African origin. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Seychelles. It included 1011 subjects aged 25 to 64 years. Blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides and serum uric acid were measured. Data were analyzed using scatterplot smoothing techniques and gender-specific linear regression models. Results The prevalence of a serum uric acid level >420 μmol/L in men was 35.2% and the prevalence of a serum uric acid level >360 μmol/L was 8.7% in women. Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in men as well as in women (r = 0.73 in men and r = 0.59 in women, p Conclusions This study shows that the prevalence of hyperuricemia can be high in a developing country such as the Seychelles. Besides alcohol consumption and the use of antihypertensive therapy, mainly diuretics, serum uric acid is markedly associated with parameters of the metabolic syndrome, in particular serum triglycerides. Considering the growing incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome worldwide and the potential link between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular complications, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia in developing countries.

  16. Stochastic resonance whole body vibration increases perceived muscle relaxation but not cardiovascular activation: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Burger, Christian; Schade, Volker; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-11-18

    To investigate the acute effects of stochastic resonance whole body vibration (SR-WBV), including muscle relaxation and cardiovascular activation. Sixty-four healthy students participated. The participants were randomly assigned to sham SR-WBV training at a low intensity (1.5 Hz) or a verum SR-WBV training at a higher intensity (5 Hz). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and self-reported muscle relaxation were assessed before and immediately after SR-WBV. Two factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant interaction between pre- vs post-SR-WBV measurements and SR-WBV conditions for muscle relaxation in the neck and back [F(1,55) = 3.35, P = 0.048, η2 = 0.07]. Muscle relaxation in the neck and back increased in verum SR-WBV, but not in sham SR-WBV. No significant changes between pre- and post-training levels of SBD, DBD and HR were observed either in sham or verum SR-WBV conditions. With verum SR-WBV, improved muscle relaxation was the most significant in participants who reported the experience of back, neck or shoulder pain more than once a month (P < 0.05). A single session of SR-WBV increased muscle relaxation in young healthy individuals, while cardiovascular load was low. An increase in musculoskeletal relaxation in the neck and back is a potential mediator of pain reduction in preventive worksite SR-WBV trials.

  17. Does subclinical atherosclerosis burden identify the increased risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among United Kingdom Indian Asians? A population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Navtej S; Lim, Tiong K; Jain, Piyush; Chambers, John C; Kooner, Jaspal S; Senior, Roxy

    2011-09-01

    Indian Asians living in the United Kingdom have a >50% higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death compared with native European whites. The mechanisms underlying their excess mortality are not clear, and there are no validated tools capable of identifying this increased risk. The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis detected in the carotid arteries is an established prognosticator for major CVD events. We hypothesized that the increased prevalence of CVD among Indian Asians would be reflected by their having a greater burden of subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with European whites. We studied 2,288 healthy subjects and 148 patients with known CVD from the London Life Sciences Prospective Population study who underwent carotid ultrasonography for assessment of intima-media thickness (IMT), plaque prevalence, and plaque echogenicity. The prevalence of CVD was significantly higher among Indian Asians compared with European whites (odds ratio 1.72, 95% CI 1.2-2.3). Intima-media thickness was slightly higher in European whites compared with that of Indian Asians (0.66 vs 0.65 mm, P = .06), reflecting their higher Framingham Risk Score. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, there were no significant differences in IMT, plaque prevalence, or plaque echogenicity between the 2 ethnic groups regardless of CVD status. The burden of carotid atherosclerosis does not identify the markedly increased risk of CVD among United Kingdom Indian Asians. Other markers and mechanisms of disease require investigation in this high-risk group. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmans, Tara-Eileen J P; van Houten, Chantal B; Kasius, Annemieke; Kouznetsova, Ouliana I; Nguyen, Ly A; Rooijmans, Sanne V; Voormolen, Daphne N; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Franx, Arie; Koster, M P H Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the long-term risk of developing type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two search strategies were used in PubMed and Embase to determine the long-term risks of developing T2D and CVD after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. After critical appraisal of the papers found, 11 papers were included, involving a total of 328,423 patients. Absolute and relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Eight studies (n=276,829) reported on the long-term risk of T2D and 4 (n=141,048) on the long-term risk of CVD. Follow-up ranged from 3.5 to 11.5 years for T2D and from 1.2 to 74.0 years for CVD. Women with gestational diabetes had a risk of T2D varying between 9.5% and 37.0% and a risk of CVD of between 0.28% and 15.5%. Women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of T2D (weighted RR: 13.2; 95% CI: 8.5-20.7) and CVD (weighted RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) compared to women without gestational diabetes. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus have a significantly increased risk of developing T2D and CVD. It is very important that gestational diabetes is recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor in daily practice. It would be desirable to screen this group of women for the presence of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is required to be able to specify the long-term risk of T2D and CVD and to demonstrate whether such screening is cost-effective.

  19. A randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of manufacturers’ recommended doses of omega-3 fatty acids from different sources in facilitating cardiovascular disease risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Omega-3 fatty acids confer beneficial health effects, but North Americans are lacking in their dietary omega-3-rich intake. Supplementation is an alternative to consumption of fish; however, not all omega-3 products are created equal. The trial objective was to compare the increases in blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids after consumption of four different omega-3 supplements, and to assess potential changes in cardiovascular disease risk following supplementation. Methods This was an open-label, randomized, cross-over study involving thirty-five healthy subjects. Supplements and daily doses (as recommended on product labels) were: Concentrated Triglyceride (rTG) fish oil: EPA of 650 mg, DHA of 450 mg Ethyl Ester (EE) fish oil: EPA of 756 mg, DHA of 228 mg Phospholipid (PL) krill oil: EPA of 150 mg, DHA of 90 mg Triglyceride (TG) salmon oil: EPA of 180 mg, DHA of 220 mg. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume one of four products, in random order, for a 28-day period, followed by a 4-week washout period. Subsequent testing of the remaining three products, followed by 4-week washout periods, continued until each subject had consumed each of the products. Blood samples before and after supplementation were quantified for fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography, and statistically analysed using ANOVA for repeated measures. Results At the prescribed dosage, the statistical ranking of the four products in terms of increase in whole blood omega-3 fatty acid levels was concentrated rTG fish oil > EE fish oil > triglyceride TG salmon oil > PL krill oil. Whole blood EPA percentage increase in subjects consuming concentrated rTG fish oil was more than four times that of krill and salmon oil. Risk reduction in several elements of cardiovascular disease was achieved to a greater extent by the concentrated rTG fish oil than by any other supplement. Krill oil and (unconcentrated) triglyceride oil were relatively unsuccessful in this aspect of the

  20. A randomized clinical trial to determine the efficacy of manufacturers' recommended doses of omega-3 fatty acids from different sources in facilitating cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Maggie; Cockerline, Carla A; Rowe, William J

    2014-06-21

    Omega-3 fatty acids confer beneficial health effects, but North Americans are lacking in their dietary omega-3-rich intake. Supplementation is an alternative to consumption of fish; however, not all omega-3 products are created equal. The trial objective was to compare the increases in blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids after consumption of four different omega-3 supplements, and to assess potential changes in cardiovascular disease risk following supplementation. This was an open-label, randomized, cross-over study involving thirty-five healthy subjects. Supplements and daily doses (as recommended on product labels) were:Concentrated Triglyceride (rTG) fish oil: EPA of 650 mg, DHA of 450 mgEthyl Ester (EE) fish oil: EPA of 756 mg, DHA of 228 mgPhospholipid (PL) krill oil: EPA of 150 mg, DHA of 90 mgTriglyceride (TG) salmon oil: EPA of 180 mg, DHA of 220 mg.Subjects were randomly assigned to consume one of four products, in random order, for a 28-day period, followed by a 4-week washout period. Subsequent testing of the remaining three products, followed by 4-week washout periods, continued until each subject had consumed each of the products. Blood samples before and after supplementation were quantified for fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography, and statistically analysed using ANOVA for repeated measures. At the prescribed dosage, the statistical ranking of the four products in terms of increase in whole blood omega-3 fatty acid levels was concentrated rTG fish oil > EE fish oil > triglyceride TG salmon oil > PL krill oil. Whole blood EPA percentage increase in subjects consuming concentrated rTG fish oil was more than four times that of krill and salmon oil. Risk reduction in several elements of cardiovascular disease was achieved to a greater extent by the concentrated rTG fish oil than by any other supplement. Krill oil and (unconcentrated) triglyceride oil were relatively unsuccessful in this aspect of the study. For the general population

  1. Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Abdul Aziz, Tuan Azlin; Teh, Lay Kek; Md Idris, Muhd Hanis; Bannur, Zakaria; Ashari, Lydiatul Shima; Ismail, Adzrool Idzwan; Ahmad, Aminuddin; Isa, Kamarudzaman Md; Nor, Fadzilah Mohd; Rahman, Thuhairah Hasrah Abdul; Shaari, Syahrul Azlin Binti; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan; Mohamad, Nornazliya; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-03-24

    Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700). These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli. A total of 191 Orang Asli from different villages in Peninsular Malaysia and 115 healthy urban Malays were recruited. Medical examinations and biochemical analyses were conducted. Framingham risk scores were determined. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 20.0. A higher percentage of the Orang Asli showed high insulin levels and hsCRP compared to the healthy Malays denoting possible risk of insulin resistance. High incidences of low HDL-c levels were observed in all the Orang Asli from the six subtribes but none was detected among the urban Malays. A higher percentage of inlanders (21.1% of the males and 4.2% of the females) were categorized to have high Framingham Risk Score. Orang Asli staying both in the inlands and peripheries are predisposed to cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance diabetes mellitus. The perception of Orang Asli being healthier than the urban people no longer holds. We believed that this information is important to the relevant parties in strategizing a healthier community of the Orang Asli to avoid the vanishing of the vulnerable group(s).

  2. Increased risks of cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance among the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Azlin Tuan Abdul Aziz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the strategic development plan by the authorities for the Orang Asli, there are six subtribes of which their population numbers are small (less than 700. These minorities were not included in most of the health related studies published thus far. A comprehensive physiological and biomedical updates on these small subtribes in comparison to the larger subtribes and the urban Malay population is timely and important to help provide appropriate measures to prevent further reduction in the numbers of the Orang Asli. Methods A total of 191 Orang Asli from different villages in Peninsular Malaysia and 115 healthy urban Malays were recruited. Medical examinations and biochemical analyses were conducted. Framingham risk scores were determined. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 20.0. Results A higher percentage of the Orang Asli showed high insulin levels and hsCRP compared to the healthy Malays denoting possible risk of insulin resistance. High incidences of low HDL-c levels were observed in all the Orang Asli from the six subtribes but none was detected among the urban Malays. A higher percentage of inlanders (21.1 % of the males and 4.2 % of the females were categorized to have high Framingham Risk Score. Conclusions Orang Asli staying both in the inlands and peripheries are predisposed to cardiovascular diseases and insulin resistance diabetes mellitus. The perception of Orang Asli being healthier than the urban people no longer holds. We believed that this information is important to the relevant parties in strategizing a healthier community of the Orang Asli to avoid the vanishing of the vulnerable group(s.

  3. Serum uric acid concentration as non-classic cardiovascular risk factor in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: effect of treatment with ethinyl-estradiol plus cyproterone acetate versus metformin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Uriol Rivera, Miguel Giovanni; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum uric acid levels have emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor, and interventions aimed to decrease its level have been related with an improvement in clinical and non-clinical cardiovascular outcomes...

  4. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio Alberto; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K.; Fulman, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fis...

  5. Endothelial progenitor cells in mothers of low-birthweight infants: a link between defective placental vascularization and increased cardiovascular risk?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    King, Thomas F J

    2013-01-01

    Offspring birthweight is inversely associated with future maternal cardiovascular mortality, a relationship that has yet to be fully elucidated. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to play a key role in vasculogenesis, and EPC numbers reflect cardiovascular risk.

  6. Indications for Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul; Clifton, Peter; Colquhoun, David; Noakes, Manny; Mori, Trevor A; Sullivan, David; Thomas, Beth

    2015-08-01

    The National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHFA) 2008 review on omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) made recommendations with respect to supplementation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Since then, new findings have been published regarding the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including supplementation, and cardiovascular health. A literature search was undertaken in PubMed and Medline, for literature published between January 1, 2007 and August 31, 2013. A total of eight research questions were developed and, using the National Health and Medical Research Council's evidence assessment framework, conclusions were made in relation to dietary intake of fish and omega-3 LCPUFA for cardiovascular health. In the evidence published since 2007, this summary of evidence concludes that dietary intake of fish was found to be mostly consistent with respect to protection from heart disease and stroke. Higher fish intake was associated with lower incident rates of heart failure in addition to lower sudden cardiac death, stroke and myocardial infarction. In relation to omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation, neither a beneficial nor adverse effect was demonstrated in primary or secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). Although the evidence continues to be positive for the role of omega-3 LCPUFA in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia and a modest positive benefit in heart failure. No further evidence was found to support the consumption of 2g alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)/day over the current Australian guidelines for 1 g/day. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  8. Fatty Acids Composition of Vegetable Oils and Its Contribution to Dietary Energy Intake and Dependence of Cardiovascular Mortality on Dietary Intake of Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Orsavova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizations of fatty acids composition in % of total methylester of fatty acids (FAMEs of fourteen vegetable oils—safflower, grape, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut oil—were obtained by using gas chromatography (GC. Saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, palmitic acid (C16:0; 4.6%–20.0%, oleic acid (C18:1; 6.2%–71.1% and linoleic acid (C18:2; 1.6%–79%, respectively, were found predominant. The nutritional aspect of analyzed oils was evaluated by determination of the energy contribution of SFAs (19.4%–695.7% ERDI, PUFAs (10.6%–786.8% ERDI, n-3 FAs (4.4%–117.1% ERDI and n-6 FAs (1.8%–959.2% ERDI, expressed in % ERDI of 1 g oil to energy recommended dietary intakes (ERDI for total fat (ERDI—37.7 kJ/g. The significant relationship between the reported data of total fat, SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs intakes (% ERDI for adults and mortality caused by coronary heart diseases (CHD and cardiovascular diseases (CVD in twelve countries has not been confirmed by Spearman’s correlations.

  9. ANGPTL2 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Barnabas; Thorin-Trescases, Nathalie; Sosner, Philippe; Gand, Elise; Saulnier, Pierre-Jean; Ragot, Stéphanie; Fraty, Mathilde; Laugier, Stéphanie; Ducrocq, Grégory; Montaigne, David; Llaty, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Zaoui, Philippe; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Roussel, Ronan; Thorin, Eric; Hadjadj, Samy

    2016-11-01

    A high serum angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) concentration is an independent risk factor for developing diabetes and is associated with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In this work, we have examined the impact of serum ANGPTL2 on improving cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification in patients with type 2 diabetes. A prospective, monocentric cohort of consecutive type 2 diabetes patients (the SURDIAGENE cohort; total of 1353 type 2 diabetes patients; 58% men, mean ± SD age 64 ± 11 years) was followed for a median of 6.0 years for death as primary endpoint and major adverse CV events (MACE; i.e. CV death, myocardial infarction or stroke) as a secondary endpoint. Patients with end-stage renal disease, defined as a requirement for dialysis or a history of kidney transplantation, were excluded. Patients were grouped into quartiles according to ANGPTL2 concentrations at inclusion: 19.5 (Q4) ng/ml. During follow up, 367 patients (representing 4.5% of the total person-years) died and 290 patients (representing 3.7% of the total person-years) presented with MACE. Both the survival and MACE-free survival rates were significantly different between ANGPTL2 quartiles (logrank 82.12, p < 0.0001 for death; and logrank 65.14, p < 0.0001 for MACE). Patients with ANGPTL2 concentrations higher than 19.5 ng/ml (Q4) had a significantly higher risk of death and MACE than those with ANGPTL2 levels of 19.5 ng/ml or less (Q1-3) (HR for death 2.44 [95% CI 1.98, 3.00], p < 0.0001; HR for MACE 2.43 [95% CI 1.92, 3.06], p < 0.0001) after adjustment for sex, age and established CV risk factors. Using ANGPTL2 concentrations, prediction of the risk of mortality, as assessed by integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), was significantly improved (IDI 0.006 ± 0.002, p = 0.0002). In patients with type 2 diabetes, serum ANGPTL2 concentrations were independently associated with death and MACE. Therefore, ANGPTL2 is a promising candidate biomarker for

  10. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.R.B.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Klungel, O.H.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Recent secondary prevention trials have failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular outcomes, which may be due to the growing use of statins since the mid-1990s. The aim of the present study was to assess whether statins modify the effects of n-3 fatty acids

  11. The effects of short-chain fatty acids on the cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, L.B.; Li, M.; van Esch, B.C.A.M.; Garssen, J.; Folkerts, G.

    2016-01-01

    The development of cardiovascular diseases is often attributable to loss of endothelial functions of the vascular tissue or to decreased contractile function of the heart muscle. These disturbances are often caused by imbalances in lipid and glucose metabolism. For instance, these imbalances can

  12. New arguments for beneficial effects of alpha-lipoic acid on the cardiovascular system in the course of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworacka, Marzena; Chukanova, Galina; Iskakova, Saule; Kurmambayev, Yergen; Wesołowska, Anna; Frycz, Bartosz A; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Dworacki, Grzegorz

    2018-02-07

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), widely known as an antioxidant, modifies also serum levels of angiogenic factors in type 2 diabetic patients. These pharmacological activities may influence the status of the cardiovascular system. Taking into consideration that diabetes is related to the increased cardiovascular risk we investigated several effects of ALA on angiogenic factors in the myocardium and in the aortal wall using a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a fat-rich diet and by intraperitoneal injection of a small dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg). Animals were divided into 3 groups: ALA-treated type 2 diabetes rat model, placebo-treated type 2 diabetes rat model and placebo-treated non-diabetic rats. ALA was administered orally once a day, 20 mg/kg, for 8 consecutive weeks. mRNA VEGF, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 expression was measured in the myocardium and the aortal wall, simultaneously with circulating VEGF and circulating endothelial cells (cEC) and endothelial progenitor cells (cEPC). ALA induced pro-angiogenic effect in the myocardium of rats with diabetes increasing mRNA VEGF expression and decreasing mRNA VEGFR-1 expression, while in the aortal wall ALA increased mRNA VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-1 expression. cVEGF in the ALA-treated group was higher comparing to both control groups. It was revealed that cEC percentage in the ALA-treated group was decreased with no effect on the percentage of cEPC. In summary, the current data provide novel findings about potential beneficial effects of ALA on angiogenic factors in the cardiovascular system, especially on myocardium, in the course of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased reactive oxygen metabolites is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular endothelial damage in middle-aged Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Sugiura1, Yasuaki Dohi1, Hiroyuki Takase2, Sumiyo Yamashita1, Satoru Tanaka1, Genjiro Kimura11Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Hamamatsu, JapanBackground: Vascular endothelium, a provider of nitric oxide, is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy vascular systems. Increased oxidative stress promotes vascular inflammation and is a common pathway involved in endothelial damage. The present study sought to investigate the usefulness of derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM as an oxidative stress marker for detecting endothelial damage in the clinical setting in subjects with early-stage atherosclerosis.Methods: Study 1 investigated the relationship between serum d-ROM levels and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects (n = 1992, 49 ± 8 years who participated in our health checkup program. Study 2 analyzed the association between d-ROM levels and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation and that between d-ROM levels and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in middle-aged outpatients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular risk (n = 43, 40 ± 5 years.Results: In study 1, the d-ROM level was independently correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and brain natriuretic peptide in univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In study 2, the d-ROM level was correlated positively with the hs-CRP level and inversely with the flow-mediated dilation value. Patients in the highest tertile of d-ROM had significantly lower flow-mediated dilation values compared with patients in the other tertiles. Moreover, after subdivision of patients into four groups according to d-ROM and hs-CRP levels, patients with high levels of both d-ROM and hs-CRP showed

  14. Increasing the percentage of energy from dietary sugar, fats, and alcohol in adults is associated with increased energy intake but has minimal association with biomarkers of cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Krueger, Patrick M

    2013-10-01

    The optimal diet composition to prevent obesity and its complications is unknown. Study aims were to determine the association of diet composition with energy intake, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Data were from the NHANES for eligible adults aged 20-74 y from 2005 to 2006 (n = 3073). Energy intake and diet composition were obtained by dietary recall. HOMA-IR was calculated from fasting insulin and glucose concentrations, and CRP was measured directly. Changes for a 1-point increase in percentage of sugar, saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and alcohol were determined across their means in exchange for a 1-point decrease in percentage of nonsugar carbohydrates. Regression analyses were performed, and means ± SEs were estimated. Increasing the percentage of sugar was associated with increased energy intake in men (23 ± 5 kcal; P Obesity was associated with increased HOMA-IR and CRP in both genders (all P ≤ 0.001). Increasing PUFAs was associated with decreasing CRP in men (P = 0.02). In conclusion, increasing the percentage of calories from sugar, fats, and alcohol was associated with substantially increased energy intake but had minimal association with HOMA-IR and CRP.

  15. Regular consumption of cocoa powder with milk increases HDL cholesterol and reduces oxidized LDL levels in subjects at high-risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N; Monagas, M; Andres-Lacueva, C; Casas, R; Urpí-Sardà, M; Lamuela-Raventós, R M; Estruch, R

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that regular consumption of cocoa-containing products may confer cardiovascular protection, reducing the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, studies on the effects of cocoa on different cardiovascular risk factors are still scarce. The aim of this study was too evaluate the effects of chronic cocoa consumption on lipid profile, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) particles and plasma antioxidant vitamin concentrations in high-risk patients. Forty-two high-risk volunteers (19 men and 23 women, mean age 69.7 ± 11.5 years) were included in a randomized, crossover feeding trial. All received 40g of cocoa powder with 500 mL of skimmed milk/day(C + M) or only 500 mL/day of skimmed milk (M) for 4 weeks in a random order. Before and after each intervention period, plasma lipids, oxLDL and antioxidant vitamin concentrations were measured, as well as urinary cocoa polyphenols metabolites derived from phase II and microbial metabolisms. Compared to M, C + M intervention increases HDLc [2.67 mg/dL (95% confidence intervals, CI, 0.58-4.73; P = 0.008)] and decreases oxLDL levels [-12.3 U/L (CI,-19.3 to -5.2;P = 0.001)]. No changes between intervention groups were observed in vitamins B1, B6, B12, C and E, or folic acid concentrations. In addition, subjects who showed higher increments in urinary cocoa polyphenol metabolites exhibited significant increases in HDLc and significant decreases in oxLDL levels (P risk subjects for CHD. In addition, the relationship observed between the urinary excretion of cocoa polyphenol metabolites and plasma HDLc and oxLDL levels suggests a beneficial role for cocoa polyphenols in lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increase in the permeability of tonoplast of garlic (Allium sativum) by monocarboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Li, Lei; Hu, Xiaosong; Wang, Zhengfu; Zhao, Guanghua

    2006-10-18

    Immersion of intact aged garlic (Allium sativum) cloves in a series of 5% weak organic monocarboxylate solutions (pH 2.0) resulted in green color formation. No color was formed upon treatment with other weak organic acids, such as citric and malic acids, and the inorganic hydrochloric acid under the same conditions. To understand the significance of monocarboxylic acids and their differing function from that of other acids, acetic acid was compared with organic acids citric and malic and the inorganic hydrochloric acid. The effects of these acids on the permeability of plasma and intracellular membrane of garlic cells were measured by conductivity, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Except for hydrochloric acid, treatment of garlic with all three organic acids greatly increased the relative conductivity of their respective pickling solutions, indicating that all tested organic acids increased the permeability of plasma membrane. Moreover, a pickling solution containing acetic acid exhibited 1.5-fold higher relative conductivity (approximately 90%) as compared to those (approximately 60%) of both citric and malic acids, implying that exposure of garlic cloves to acetic acid not only changed the permeability of the plasma membrane but also increased the permeability of intracellular membrane. Exposure of garlic to acetic acid led to the production of precipitate along the tonoplast, but no precipitate was formed by citric and malic acids. This indicates that the structure of the tonoplast was damaged by this treatment. Further support for this conclusion comes from results showing that the concentration of thiosulfinates [which are produced only by catalytic conversion of S-alk(en)yl-l-cysteine sulfoxides in cytosol by alliinase located in the vacuole] in the acetic acid pickling solution is 1.3 mg/mL, but almost no thiosulfinates were detected in the pickling solution of citric and malic acids. Thus, all present results suggest that damage of

  17. High serum n6 fatty acid proportion is associated with lowered LDL oxidation and inflammation: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, J E; Kresanov, P; Ahotupa, M; Jula, A; Mikkilä, V; Viikari, J S A; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Raitakari, O T

    2014-04-01

    The intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is generally linked with a reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but an elevated n6PUFA intake, without simultaneous n3PUFA supply, may elevate the risk. PUFAs are suspected as being easily oxidized and have a potential role in lipoprotein oxidation and inflammation. Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are resistant to oxidation. However, in a Western diet, their most important source is red meat, a food stuff rich in heme iron which can catalyze oxidative reactions. Therefore, different serum fatty acid (FA) proportions (free + esterified) were correlated with the status of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vivo (conjugated dienes = oxLDLlipids and antibody-based oxidized proteins = oxLDLprot) and inflammation (serum CRP) in 2196 Finnish subjects (age: 24-39 years) using CVD risk factor-adjusted linear regression models. High n6PUFA, PUFA/SFA and n6/n3 ratios, and low SFA and MUFA were all associated with reduced levels of oxLDLlipids, oxLDLprot, and CRP. These findings at the population level suggest that PUFAs are negatively and SFAs and MUFAs positively related with LDL oxidation and inflammation; these conclusions are in line with previous observations linking PUFAs, particularly n6PUFAs, with lower CVD risk, and SFAs with increased risk.

  18. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  19. Plasma Fatty Acids in Zambian Adults with HIV/AIDS: Relation to Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher K. Nyirenda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether 24 hr dietary recalls (DR are a good measure of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake when compared to plasma levels, and whether plasma PUFA is associated with markers of HIV/AIDS progression and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In a cross-sectional study among 210 antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected adults from Lusaka, Zambia, we collected data on medical history and dietary intake using 24 hr DR. We measured fatty acids and markers of AIDS progression and CVD risk in fasting plasma collected at baseline. Results. PUFA intakes showed modest correlations with corresponding plasma levels; Spearman correlations were 0.36 (p0.05 between total plasma PUFA and C-reactive protein (CRP or lipid levels, plasma arachidonic acid was inversely associated with CRP and triglycerides and positively associated with HDL-C, CD4+ T-cell count, and plasma albumin (p<0.05. Plasma saturated fatty acids (SFA were positively associated with CRP (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.40, p=0.003 and triglycerides (β = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.12, p<0.01. Conclusions. Our data suggest that a single DR is inadequate for assessing PUFA intake and that plasma arachidonic acid levels may modulate HIV/AIDS progression and CVD risk.

  20. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  1. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs, metabolic syndrome (MS, and other cardiovascular (CV risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai’an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (P<0.0001. Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold (P<0.0001 in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029.

  2. Association between serum uric acid levels and cardiovascular risk among university workers from the State of Mexico: a nested case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Cerecero, Patricia; Hern?ndez-Prado, Bernardo; Denova, Edgar; Vald?s, Roxana; V?zquez, Gilberto; Camarillo, Eneida; Huitr?n, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that serum uric acid (SUA) can be an inexpensive and easy-to-obtain indicator of cardiovascular risk (CR). This is especially important in developing countries with high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association between SUA levels and 10-year global CR among university workers from the State of Mexico, Mexico. Methods A case?control study nested within a cohort was conducted between 2004 and 2006. Anthropometric measures, lifestyle v...

  3. Experimental and computational studies of poly-L-lactic acid for cardiovascular applications: recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Raasti; Zhao, Liguo; Liu, Yang; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2017-12-01

    Stents are commonly used in medical procedures to alleviate the symptoms of coronary heart disease, a prevalent modern society disease. These structures are employed to maintain vessel patency and restore blood flow. Traditionally stents are made of metals such as stainless steel or cobalt chromium; however, these scaffolds have known disadvantages. An emergence of transient scaffolds is gaining popularity, with the structure engaged for a required period whilst healing of the diseased arterial wall occurs. Polymers dominate a medical device sector, with incorporation in sutures, scaffolds and screws. Thanks to their good mechanical and biological properties and their ability to degrade naturally. Polylactic acid is an extremely versatile polymer, with its properties easily tailored to applications. Its dominance in the stenting field increases continually, with the first polymer scaffold gaining FDA approval in 2016. Still some challenges with PLLA bioresorbable materials remain, especially with regard to understanding their mechanical response, assessment of its changes with degradation and comparison of their performance with that of metallic drug-eluting stent. Currently, there is still a lack of works on evaluating both the pre-degradation properties and degradation performance of these scaffolds. Additionally, there are no established material models incorporating non-linear viscoelastic behaviour of PLLA and its evolution with in-service degradation. Assessing these features through experimental analysis accompanied by analytical and numerical studies will provide powerful tools for design and optimisation of these structures endorsing their broader use in stenting. This overview assesses the recent studies investigating mechanical and computational performance of poly(l-lactic) acid and its use in stenting applications.

  4. Ocean acidification increases fatty acids levels of larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Catalán, Ignacio A; Palmer, Miquel; Faulk, Cynthia K; Fuiman, Lee A

    2015-07-01

    Rising levels of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are acidifying the oceans and producing diverse and important effects on marine ecosystems, including the production of fatty acids (FAs) by primary producers and their transfer through food webs. FAs, particularly essential FAs, are necessary for normal structure and function in animals and influence composition and trophic structure of marine food webs. To test the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on the FA composition of fish, we conducted a replicated experiment in which larvae of the marine fish red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) were reared under a climate change scenario of elevated CO2 levels (2100 µatm) and under current control levels (400 µatm). We found significantly higher whole-body levels of FAs, including nine of the 11 essential FAs, and altered relative proportions of FAs in the larvae reared under higher levels of CO2. Consequences of this effect of OA could include alterations in performance and survival of fish larvae and transfer of FAs through food webs. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Saskia A.; Dijick-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Doornbos, Bennard; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Schaafsma, Anne; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Djick-Brouwer, D.A.J.

    Introduction: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are important for neurodevelopment. Maternal diet influences milk DHA, whereas milk AA seems rather constant. We investigated milk AA, DHA and DHA/AA after supplementation of AA plus DHA, or DHA alone during pregnancy and lactation.

  6. Continued improvement of cardiovascular mortality in Hungary - impact of increased cardio-metabolic prescriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Balogh, Sandor; Papp, Renata; Jozan, Peter; Csaszar, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last 35 years the poor ranking of Hungary on the list of life expectancy at birth among European countries, has not changed. In 1970 our lag behind the leading European countries was the smallest. The gap was growing between 1970 and 1993 but from 1994 onwards the life expectancy at birth in Hungary has increased continuously and somewhat faster than in other European countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between decreasing cardiovascul...

  7. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. ... Compared to exposure to acid stress only, pre-adaptation to cold stress decreased the redox balance ratio and the formation of hydroxyl radicals, indicating a change in aerobic respiration and oxidative ...

  8. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) with age in HIV-positive men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Reiss, P; Ryom, L

    2014-01-01

    equations. METHODS: We analysed three endpoints: myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD: MI or invasive coronary procedure) and CVD (CHD or stroke). We fitted a number of parametric age effects, adjusting for known risk factors and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. The best-fitting age...... effect was determined using the Akaike information criterion. We compared the ageing effect from D:A:D with that from the general population risk equations: the Framingham Heart Study, CUORE and ASSIGN risk scores. RESULTS: A total of 24 323 men were included in analyses. Crude MI, CHD and CVD event...... rates per 1000 person-years increased from 2.29, 3.11 and 3.65 in those aged 40-45 years to 6.53, 11.91 and 15.89 in those aged 60-65 years, respectively. The best-fitting models included inverse age for MI and age + age(2) for CHD and CVD. In D:A:D there was a slowly accelerating increased risk of CHD...

  9. Exercise training increases sarcolemmal and mitochondrial fatty acid transport proteins in human skeletal muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talanian, Jason L; Holloway, Graham P; Snook, Laelie A; Heigenhauser, George J F; Bonen, Arend; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2010-01-01

    ... examined. Therefore, we determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increased total skeletal muscle, sarcolemmal, and mitochondrial membrane fatty acid transport protein contents...

  10. IDH1 mutations alter citric acid cycle metabolism and increase dependence on oxidative mitochondrial metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grassian, Alexandra R; Parker, Seth J; Davidson, Shawn M; Divakaruni, Ajit S; Green, Courtney R; Zhang, Xiamei; Slocum, Kelly L; Pu, Minying; Lin, Fallon; Vickers, Chad; Joud-Caldwell, Carol; Chung, Franklin; Yin, Hong; Handly, Erika D; Straub, Christopher; Growney, Joseph D; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Murphy, Anne N; Pagliarini, Raymond; Metallo, Christian M

    2014-01-01

    .... We observed that under hypoxic conditions, IDH1-mutant cells exhibited increased oxidative tricarboxylic acid metabolism along with decreased reductive glutamine metabolism, but not IDH2-mutant cells...

  11. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Formulations in Cardiovascular Disease: Dietary Supplements are Not Substitutes for Prescription Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkow, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid products are available as prescription formulations (icosapent ethyl, omega-3-acid ethyl esters, omega-3-acid ethyl esters A, omega-3-carboxylic acids) and dietary supplements (predominantly fish oils). Most dietary supplements and all but one prescription formulation contain mixtures of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Products containing both EPA and DHA may raise low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). In clinical trials, the EPA-only prescription product, icosapent ethyl, did not raise LDL-C compared with placebo. To correct a common misconception, it is important to note that omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements are not US FDA-approved over-the-counter drugs and are not required to demonstrate safety and efficacy prior to marketing. Conversely, prescription products are supported by extensive clinical safety and efficacy investigations required for FDA approval and have active and ongoing safety monitoring programs. While omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements may have a place in the supplementation of diet, they generally contain lower levels of EPA and DHA than prescription products and are not approved or intended to treat disease. Perhaps due to the lack of regulation of dietary supplements, EPA and DHA levels may vary widely within and between brands, and products may also contain unwanted cholesterol or fats or potentially harmful components, including toxins and oxidized fatty acids. Accordingly, omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements should not be substituted for prescription products. Similarly, prescription products containing DHA and EPA should not be substituted for the EPA-only prescription product, as DHA may raise LDL-C and thereby complicate the management of patients with dyslipidemia.

  12. Increasing the intracellular availability of all-trans retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, J. L.; Ruiz, M.; Boddy, A V; Redfern, C P F; Pearson, A D J; Veal, G J

    2005-01-01

    Recent data indicate that isomerisation to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is the key mechanism underlying the favourable clinical properties of 13-cis retinoic acid (13cisRA) in the treatment of neuroblastoma. Retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is thought to contribute to resistance, and strategies to modulate this may increase the clinical efficacy of 13cisRA. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that retinoids, such as acitretin, which bind preferentially to cellular retinoic acid bi...

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with interdialytic weight gain and increased long-term cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Rebeca R; De Lima, Jose Jayme G; Drager, Luciano F; Portilho, Natanael P; Costa-Hong, Valéria; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Canziani, Maria Eugênia F

    2017-12-24

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The reasons for the high prevalence and whether OSA is associated with vascular impairment, end-organ damage, and prognosis are not completely clear. We evaluated patients with low cardiovascular risk on HD, not treated by CPAP. Laboratory tests, sleep questionnaires (Berlin and Epworth) and polysonography studies, echocardiography, and markers of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis were performed. After the initial evaluation, patients were followed up until cardiovascular events, renal transplantation, or death. Fifty-five patients (49% male, 50 ± 9 years, body mass index 24.7 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were included. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 5 events/h) occurred in 73% of the patients. The proportion of patients with interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg was higher in patients with OSA than those without OSA (96 vs. 55%; p = 0.002). Left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness (10.0 ± 1.9 vs. 11.3 ± 1.8 mm; p = 0.04) and LV diastolic diameter (48 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 5 mm; p = 0.003) were higher in patients with OSA than in patients without OSA, respectively. Sleep questionnaires did not predict OSA. No significant differences were found in pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness, and ankle-brachial index between the groups. Multivariate analysis showed that interdialytic weight gain > 2 kg and LV diastolic diameter were independently associated with OSA. On follow-up (median 45 months), OSA was found to be associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) events (28 vs. 7%, log-rank = 0.042). OSA was associated with increased risk of CV events. Significant (> 2 kg) interdialytic weight gain was independently associated with OSA.

  14. Directed evolution increases desaturation of a cyanobacterial fatty acid desaturase in eukaryotic expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuangyi; Wallis, James G; Denolf, Peter; Browse, John

    2016-07-01

    Directed evolution of a cyanobacterial Δ9 fatty acid desaturase (DSG) from Synechococcus elongatus, PCC6301 created new, more productive desaturases and revealed the importance of certain amino acid residues to increased desaturation. A codon-optimized DSG open reading frame with an endoplasmic-reticulum retention/retrieval signal appended was used as template for random mutagenesis. Increased desaturation was detected using a novel screen based on complementation of the unsaturated fatty acid auxotrophy of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant ole1Δ. Amino acid residues whose importance was discovered by the random processes were further examined by saturation mutation to determine the best amino acid at each identified location in the peptide chain and by combinatorial analysis. One frequently-detected single amino acid change, Q240R, yielded a nearly 25-fold increase in total desaturation in S. cerevisiae. Several other variants of the protein sequence with multiple amino acid changes increased total desaturation more than 60-fold. Many changes leading to increased desaturation were in the vicinity of the canonical histidine-rich regions known to be critical for electron transfer mediated by these di-iron proteins. Expression of these evolved proteins in the seed of Arabidopsis thaliana altered the fatty acid composition, increasing monounsaturated fatty acids and decreasing the level of saturated fatty acid, suggesting a potential application of these desaturases in oilseed crops. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1522-1530. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The limited effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk in patients with impaired glucose metabolism: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tengfei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yushu; Liu, Wennan; Wang, Zhihao; Shang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Zhong, Ming

    2014-04-01

    The impacts of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on cardiovascular risk are not well known. We conducted this meta-analysis to determine the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and reference lists of relevant papers for high quality randomized controlled trials comparing dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with placebo in IGM patients. Data was extracted and quality assessed independently by two reviewers. Authors were contacted for missing information. Overall estimates were calculated using a random-effects model or a fixed-effects model, and the possibility of publication bias was examined using a funnel plot. Subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the association between the risk markers and study characteristics. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies, 24,788 patients. Compared with placebo, n-3 PUFAs had no statistically significant reduce effect on cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality or composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for cardiovascular cause, however it can significantly reduce the level of triglycerides (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.25mmol/L; 95% CI -0.37 to -0.13: pfatty acids have no protective effect on cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality and composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for cardiovascular cause in IGM patients, but can reduce triglyceride level. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Esomeprazole for prevention and resolution of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients treated with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid for cardiovascular protection: the OBERON trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiman, James M; Herlitz, Johan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander J; Lanas, Angel; Agewall, Stefan; Nauclér, Emma C; Svedberg, Lars-Erik; Nagy, Péter

    2013-03-01

    Although low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for prevention of cardiovascular events in at-risk patients, its long-term use can be associated with the risk of peptic ulcer and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms that may impact treatment compliance. This prespecified secondary analysis of the OBERON study (NCT00441727) determined the efficacy of esomeprazole for prevention/resolution of low-dose ASA-associated upper GI symptoms. A post hoc analysis of predictors of symptom prevention/resolution was also conducted. Helicobacter pylori-negative patients taking low-dose ASA (75-325 mg) for cardiovascular protection who had ≥1 upper GI risk factor were eligible. The patients were randomized to once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, 20 mg, or placebo, for 26 weeks; 2303 patients (mean age 67.6 years; 36% aged >70 years) were evaluable for upper GI symptoms. The proportion of patients with dyspeptic or reflux symptoms (self-reported Reflux Disease Questionnaire) was significantly lower (P esomeprazole versus in those treated with placebo. Treatment with esomeprazole (P 70 years (P esomeprazole is effective in preventing and resolving patient-reported upper GI symptoms in low-dose ASA users at increased GI risk.

  18. Trans fatty acids, HDL-cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease risk : effects of dietary changes on vascular reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids increases the risk of coronary heart disease, even more so than saturated fatty acids. We wanted to investigate whether this higher risk was caused by the decrease in serum HDL-cholesterol by

  19. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan C. Whatnall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS (0–5. Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI, %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18–35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2. The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41, blood pressure 0% (n = 0, total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11, HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17, LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10, and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2. Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = −0.011%, p = 0.005, diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031 and waist circumference (β = −0.013 cm, p = 0.029. Most participants (59.2%, n = 29 had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health.

  20. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatnall, Megan C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2016-08-19

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0-5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18-35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m². The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = -0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = -0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health.

  1. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers...... of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with hypertriglyceridemia and high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Marcela A; Medeiros, Fernanda; Trindade, Michelle; Cohen, Célia; Oigman, Wille; Neves, Mario Fritsch

    2017-01-01

    Association between hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular (CV) disease is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare omega-3 and ciprofibrate effects on the vascular structure and function in low and high CV risk hypertensive patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Twenty-nine adults with triglycerides 150-499 mg/dL were divided into low (omega-3 fatty acids 1800 mg/d or ciprofibrate 100 mg/d for 12 weeks. Treatment was switched after 8-week washout. Clinical evaluation and vascular tests were assessed at baseline and after intervention. Peripheral (131 ± 3 to 125 ± 3 mm Hg, P omega-3. In conclusion, omega-3 improved arterial stiffness and endothelial function, pointing out the beneficial effect of this therapy on vascular aging, in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pain and beyond: fatty acid amides and fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitors in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillarisetti, Sivaram; Alexander, Christopher W; Khanna, Ish

    2009-12-01

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for the hydrolysis of several important endogenous fatty acid amides (FAAs), including anandamide, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide. Because specific FAAs interact with cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, they are often referred to as 'endocannabinoids' or 'endovanilloids'. Initial interest in this area, therefore, has focused on developing FAAH inhibitors to augment the actions of FAAs and reduce pain. However, recent literature has shown that these FAAs - through interactions with unique receptors (extracellular and intracellular) - can induce a diverse array of effects that include appetite suppression, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, vasodilation, cardiac function and inflammation. This review gives an overview of FAAs and diverse FAAH inhibitors and their potential therapeutic utility in pain and non-pain indications.

  4. A highly bioavailable omega-3 free fatty acid formulation improves the cardiovascular risk profile in high-risk, statin-treated patients with residual hypertriglyceridemia (the ESPRIT trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Orloff, David G; Nicholls, Stephen J; Dunbar, Richard L; Roth, Eli M; Curcio, Danielle; Johnson, Judith; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    A novel omega-3 formulation in free fatty acid form (OM3-FFA) has as much as 4-fold greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms and reduces triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of adding OM3-FFA (2 or 4 g/d) to statin therapy for lowering non-HDL-C and TG levels in subjects with persistent hypertriglyceridemia and at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this double-blind, parallel-group study, 647 diet-stable patients with fasting TG levels ≥ 200 mg/dL and <500 mg/dL (treated with a maximally tolerated dose of statin or statin with ezetimibe) and at high risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to 6 weeks of treatment with capsules of control (olive oil [OO]) 4 g/d, OM3-FFA 2 g/d (plus 2 g/d OO), or OM3-FFA 4 g/d. Assessments included fasting serum levels of lipids and apolipoproteins (apo); plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid; and laboratory safety values and adverse events. In the 627 subjects in the intention to treat sample, non-HDL-C levels were reduced with OM3-FFA 2 g/d and OM3-FFA 4 g/d (-3.9% and -6.9%, respectively) compared with OO (-0.9%) (both, P < 0.05), as were TG levels (-14.6% and -20.6%, respectively, vs -5.9%; both, P < 0.001). LDL-C levels increased with OM3-FFA 2 g/d (4.6%) compared with OO (1.1%) (P = 0.025) but not with OM3-FFA 4 g/d (1.3%). Total cholesterol and VLDL-C concentrations were reduced compared with OO with both OM3-FFA dosages, and the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio and apo AI and apo B levels were significantly lowered with OM3-FFA 4 g/d only (all at least P < 0.05). Percent changes from baseline in HDL-C did not differ between OO and either OM3-FFA group. Plasma concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid were significantly increased and arachidonic acid was significantly reduced in both OM3-FFA treatment

  5. Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with a low risk for cardiovascular disease. Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC cine CMR) can assess coronary flow reserve (CFR). The present study investigates the relationship between CFR evaluated by PC cine CMR and the serum EPA. Methods We studied 127 patients (male, 116 (91%); mean age, 72.2 ± 7.4 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). X-ray coronary angiography revealed no significant coronary arterial stenoses (defined as luminal diameter reduction ≥50% on quantitative coronary angiogram (QCA) analysis) in all study participants. Breath-hold PC cine CMR images of the coronary sinus (CS) were acquired to assess blood flow of the CS both at rest and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion. We calculated CFR as CS blood flow during ATP infusion divided by that at rest. Patients were allocated to groups according to whether they had high (n = 64, EPA ≥ 75.8 μg/mL) or low (n = 63, EPA  2.5, which is the previously reported lower limit of normal flow reserve without obstructive CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that EPA is an independent predictor of CFR > 2.5 (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 – 1.02, p = 0.008). Conclusions The serum EPA is significantly correlated with CFR in CAD patients without significant coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24359564

  6. Statin treatment prevents increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gorm B; Hilden, Jørgen; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    In the CLARICOR trial, significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in stable patients with coronary heart disease were observed after a short course of clarithromycin. We report on the impact of statin treatment at entry on the CV and all-cause mortality. The multicenter...... CLARICOR trial randomized patients to oral clarithromycin (500 mg daily; n = 2172) versus matching placebo (daily; n = 2201) for 2 weeks. Patients were followed through public databases. In the 41% patients on statin treatment at entry, no significant effect of clarithromycin was observed on CV (hazard...... ratio [HR], 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.22; P = 0.20) or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.71-1.65; P = 0.72) at 2.6-year follow up. In the patients not on statin treatment at entry, clarithromycin was associated with a significant increase in CV (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34-2.67; P = 0...

  7. Is greater acculturation associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latinos in South Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia; Ilangovan, Kumar; Li, Hua; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alonzo, Yisel; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association of acculturation with various cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among Latinos with diabetes in South Florida. In a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 300 Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes we measured acculturation using the Marin Short Acculturation Scale. We examined correlations between acculturation and the following 7 CRFs: hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake. Cubans made up 38% of our population; no other Latino subgroup represented over 17% of the sample. Of the 8 outcomes examined, only smoking was associated with increased acculturation; 12% of Latinos in the 2 lowest acculturation groups were current smokers versus 25% in the highest acculturation group (P=0.02). Furthermore, Cuban Americans from our sample had over double the prevalence of smoking compared with non-Cubans in both the lowest and highest acculturation groups. With the exception of smoking, our data does not support a link between increased acculturation and higher prevalence of CRFs in Latinos with diabetes. Smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Latinos and particularly among Cubans are needed.

  8. Beta-blockers are associated with increased risk of first cardiovascular events in non-diabetic hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Frederieke M; Courteau, Josiane; Cohen, Alan A; Farand, Paul; Cloutier, Lyne; Asghari, Shabnam; Vanasse, Alain

    2014-11-01

    Although treatment should be considered for elderly patients with hypertension (HTN), the effectiveness of beta-blockers (BBs) compared with other medications is less clear. This study's objective is to assess the relative effectiveness of BBs in elderly primary prevention patients with uncomplicated HTN. This is a population-based nested case-control study. The cohort is composed of 94,844 elderly patients followed through 2009 and diagnosed with HTN between 2000 and 2004, without recent antecedents of diabetes, renal disease, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individuals with a CVD outcome were considered cases, and controls were matched to cases according to age, sex, date of cohort entry, and comorbidity index. Patients whose treatment included a BB were compared with patients on other HTN drug(s). The BB use by patients was associated with an increased risk for CVD events (odds ratio (OR) = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.31-1.40) compared with patients using antihypertensive therapies without BBs. Sensitivity analyses suggest that this increased risk is not due to differences in prescription patterns on the basis of perceived disease severity. In real-world settings, antihypertensive therapies that include BBs are associated with less effective prevention of adverse outcomes in elderly hypertensive patients in primary prevention compared with antihypertensive therapies without BBs. Pending further studies, we recommend caution when prescribing BBs in primary prevention except when otherwise indicated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Point Mutation in the Stalk of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Causes a Dramatic Increase in Serum Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme But No Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Kramers; S.M. Danilov; J. Deinum (Jacob); I.V. Balvasnikova; N. Scharenborg; M. Looman; M.B. de Keijzer; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); S. Martin (Sandra); F. Soubrier; G.J. Adema (Gosse J.); F. Boomsma (Frans)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes many small peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Elevated serum ACE is claimed to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Previously, two families with dramatically increased serum

  10. Point mutation in the stalk of angiotensin-converting enzyme causes a dramatic increase in serum angiotensin-converting enzyme but no cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Danilov, S.M.; Deinum, J.; Balyasnikova, I.V.; Scharenborg, N.M.; Looman, M.W.G.; Boomsma, F.; Keijzer, M.H. de; Duijn, C.M. van; Martin, S.; Soubrier, F.; Adema, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) metabolizes many small peptides and plays a key role in blood pressure regulation. Elevated serum ACE is claimed to be associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Previously, two families with dramatically increased serum ACE were

  11. The Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Is Not Increasing Over Time Despite Aging and Higher Comorbidity Burden of Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ngan N; Kim, S Joseph; Knoll, Gregory A; McArthur, Eric; Lentine, Krista L; Naylor, Kyla L; Li, Alvin H; Shariff, Salimah Z; Ribic, Christine M; Garg, Amit X

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular death remains the leading cause of mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Cardiovascular events are associated with significant morbidity. However, current trends in cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation are poorly understood. We conducted a retrospective study using healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada, to determine whether the incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation has changed from 1994 to 2009. Our primary endpoint was a 3-year composite outcome of posttransplant death or major cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, stroke). Recipients (n = 4954) were older and had more baseline comorbidity in recent years. A total of 445 recipients (9.0%) died or experienced a major cardiovascular event within 3 years of transplantation. There was no significant change in the incidence of the composite outcome or death-censored cardiovascular events over time (P = 0.41 and 0.92, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of death or major cardiovascular event steadily declined across the years of transplant (2006-2009 adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; P = 0.009; referent 1994-1997). When recipients were matched on age, sex, and date of cohort entry to members of the general population and to the chronic kidney disease population, the risk was lowest in the general population and highest in the chronic kidney disease population. Despite transplant centers accepting recipients who are older with more comorbidities in recent years, the 3-year cumulative incidence of death or major cardiovascular event has remained stable over time.

  12. A fatty acid condensing enzyme from Physaria fendleri increases hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic oilseeds of Camelina sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snapp, Anna R; Kang, Jinling; Qi, Xiaoli; Lu, Chaofu

    2014-09-01

    Co-expression of a lesquerella fatty acid elongase and the castor fatty acid hydroxylase in camelina results in higher hydroxy fatty acid containing seeds with normal oil content and viability. Producing hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) in oilseed crops has been a long-standing goal to replace castor oil as a renewable source for numerous industrial applications. A fatty acid hydroxylase, RcFAH, from Ricinus communis, was introduced into Camelina sativa, but yielded only 15 % of HFA in its seed oil, much lower than the 90 % found in castor bean. Furthermore, the transgenic seeds contained decreased oil content and the germination ability was severely affected. Interestingly, HFA accumulation was significantly increased in camelina seed when co-expressing RcFAH with a fatty acid condensing enzyme, LfKCS3, from Physaria fendleri, a native HFA accumulator relative to camelina. The oil content and seed germination of the transgenic seeds also appeared normal compared to non-transgenics. LfKCS3 has been previously characterized to specifically elongate the hydroxylated ricinoleic acid to lesquerolic acid, the 20-carbon HFA found in lesquerella oil. The elongation reaction may facilitate the HFA flux from phosphatidylcholine (PC), the site of HFA formation, into the acyl-CoA pool for more efficient utilization in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. This was demonstrated by increased HFA accumulation in TAG concurrent with reduced HFA content in PC during camelina seed development, and increased C20-HFA in HFA-TAG molecules. These effects of LfKCS3 thus may effectively relieve the bottleneck for HFA utilization in TAG biosynthesis and the feedback inhibition to fatty acid synthesis, result in higher HFA accumulation and restore oil content and seed viability.

  13. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo-Ruiz Verónica

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altered sialylation has been observed during oncogenic transformation. Sialylated oligosaccharides of glycoproteins and glycolipids have been implicated in tumor progression and metastases. In the cervical cancer high levels of sialic acid have been reported in the patients serum, and an increased of total sialic acid concentration has been reported for the cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue. Methods Lectin histochemistry was used to examine the expression and distribution of sialic acid in different grades of cervical neoplasia. We applied Maackia amurensis lectin, which interacts with α2,3-linked sialic acid and Sambucus nigra lectin specific for α2,6-linked sialic acid. Results The histochemical analysis showed that α2,3-linked sialic acid and α2,6- linked sialic acid increased in intensity and distribution in concordance with the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL. These results are in concordance with a previous study that reports increased RNAm levels of three sialyltransferases. Conclusions These results show that the change in sialylation occurs before cancer development and may play an important role in cellular transformation. These findings provide the basis for more detailed studies of the possible role of cell surface glycoconjugates bearing sialic acid in the cellular cervix transformation.

  14. Increased mortality in schizophrenia due to cardiovascular disease – a non-systematic review of epidemiology, possible causes and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Andreas eRingen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed.Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors experience from clinical work and research in the field.Results: In most countries, the standardized mortality rate (SMR in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40-50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of life-style interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. Discussion: The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task.

  15. Increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase level and development of established cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimba, Sachiyo; Nakagami, Tomoko; Oya, Junko; Wasada, Taro; Endo, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Yasuhiko

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the predictive value of changes in serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Japanese. A total of 1514 adult participants in a general health examination program were followed for 3 years until January, 2006. The subjects were divided into two groups according to whether their serum GGT level had decreased ( or =1 U/L) from the baseline level of GGT during the study period. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the relationship between increases in GGT levels and the incidence of diabetes (DM), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), dyslipidemia, and hypertension (HT). The mean value of GGT level was significantly higher at baseline than the 3-year follow-up point (47 +/- 41 versus 41 +/- 51, P < 0.0001), and the average 3-year GGT change was -5.7 +/- 32.3 U/L. The subjects with an increased GGT over the 3 years had an increased risk of developing DM, IFG, high triglyceride (TG) levels, and HT, in comparison with that of the subjects with a decreased GGT level, with an odds ratios (OR) of 6.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.83-13.25), 2.70 (1.68-4.34), 2.65 (1.76-3.99), and 1.54 (1.12-2.13), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, and alcohol habits. Further adjustments for baseline GGT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), and 3-year changes in BMI did not alter these associations. The increased change in GGT over 3 years was a significant and an independent risk factor for the development of high TG, HT, IFG, and DM in Japanese.

  16. Cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavagan, Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The primary care physician is in a position to advise patients on the efficacy of alternative and complementary therapies as they relate to cardiovascular diseases. Anti-oxidant vitamin supplementation has not been shown to be efficacious in decreasing cardiovascular events. N-3 fatty acids appear to be beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events but their use in primary prevention is not clear. Adoption of vegetable-based diets, including whole grains, can be recommended to decrease cardiovascular events, lower cholesterol and help lower blood pressure. For patients with hypercholesterolemia, cholestin, a red-yeast rice supplement, has been shown to be effective. Garlic supplements may have some mild cholesterol-lowering effect, but this effect is not significant enough to recommend clinically. Herbal therapies with hawthorn and ubiquinone (Q10) are of possible benefit in congestive heart failure. An integrated program of rigorous diet, exercise and stress reduction in motivated patients with cardiovascular disease may have value as an alternative to cardiovascular medications and surgical interventions.

  17. Serum n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tetsuo; Kakiya, Ryusuke; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Sonoda, Mika; Shima, Hideaki; Mori, Katsuhito; Fukumoto, Shinya; Tahara, Hideki; Shioi, Atushi; Tabata, Tsutomu; Emoto, Masanori; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-09-01

    Unlike the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) arachidonic acid (AA), n-3-PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) appear to have beneficial effects on inflammation, thrombosis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined possible alterations in serum PUFA profiles in patients on maintenance hemodialysis therapy and its association with CVD risk. An observational study including cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Single-center study of 517 maintenance hemodialysis patients in an urban area in Japan. Serum EPA, DHA, and AA concentrations and EPA:AA, DHA:AA, and (EPA+DHA):AA ratios. CVD events, including ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, pulmonary edema, and valve disease. Hemodialysis patients showed lower (EPA+DHA):AA, EPA:AA, and DHA:AA ratios than 122 controls similar in age and sex. During follow-up, 190 CVD events were recorded. (EPA+DHA):AA ratio was not associated significantly with CVD in unadjusted analysis, but was associated significantly and inversely with CVD in Cox models adjusted for age and other confounding variables, with HRs in the range of 1.71-1.99 in the lowest versus highest quartile of (EPA+DHA):AA ratios. Similarly, EPA:AA and DHA:AA ratios showed inverse associations with CVD, whereas serum EPA, DHA, and AA concentrations were not predictive of CVD. No information for dietary intake, use of dietary supplements, or cell membrane PUFA content. In hemodialysis patients, serum PUFA profile is unfavorably altered, and the low n-3-PUFA:AA ratios are independent predictors of CVD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Circulating Omega‐3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Subclinical Brain Abnormalities on MRI in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Siscovick, David S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Longstreth, William T.; Spiegelman, Donna; Rimm, Eric B.; King, Irena B.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish, is associated with fewer subclinical brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated the association between plasma phospholipid omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), objective biomarkers of exposure, and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI. Methods and Results In the community‐based Cardiovascular Health Study, 3660 participants aged ≥65 underwent brain MRI in 1992–1994, and 2313 were rescanned 5 years later. MRIs were centrally read by neuroradiologists in a standardized, blinded manner. Participants with recognized transient ischemic attacks or stroke were excluded. Phospholipid PUFAs were measured in stored plasma collected in 1992–1993 and related to cross‐sectional and longitudinal MRI findings. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio for having a prevalent subclinical infarct was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82; P for trend=0.001) in the highest versus lowest long‐chain omega‐3 PUFA quartile. Higher long‐chain omega‐3 PUFA content was also associated with better white matter grade, but not with sulcal or ventricular grades, markers of brain atrophy, or with incident subclinical infarcts. The phospholipid intermediate‐chain omega‐3 PUFA alpha‐linolenic acid was associated only with modestly better sulcal and ventricular grades. However, this finding was not supported in the analyses with alpha‐linolenic acid intake. Conclusions Among older adults, higher phospholipid long‐chain omega‐3 PUFA content was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and better white matter grade on MRI. Our results support the beneficial effects of fish consumption, the major source of long‐chain omega‐3 PUFAs, on brain health in later life. The role of plant‐derived alpha‐linolenic acid in brain health requires further investigation. PMID:24113325

  19. Circulating omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K; Siscovick, David S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Longstreth, William T; Spiegelman, Donna; Rimm, Eric B; King, Irena B; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-10-10

    Consumption of tuna or other broiled or baked fish, but not fried fish, is associated with fewer subclinical brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We investigated the association between plasma phospholipid omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), objective biomarkers of exposure, and subclinical brain abnormalities on MRI. In the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study, 3660 participants aged ≥ 65 underwent brain MRI in 1992-1994, and 2313 were rescanned 5 years later. MRIs were centrally read by neuroradiologists in a standardized, blinded manner. Participants with recognized transient ischemic attacks or stroke were excluded. Phospholipid PUFAs were measured in stored plasma collected in 1992-1993 and related to cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI findings. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio for having a prevalent subclinical infarct was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82; P for trend = 0.001) in the highest versus lowest long-chain omega-3 PUFA quartile. Higher long-chain omega-3 PUFA content was also associated with better white matter grade, but not with sulcal or ventricular grades, markers of brain atrophy, or with incident subclinical infarcts. The phospholipid intermediate-chain omega-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid was associated only with modestly better sulcal and ventricular grades. However, this finding was not supported in the analyses with alpha-linolenic acid intake. Among older adults, higher phospholipid long-chain omega-3 PUFA content was associated with lower prevalence of subclinical infarcts and better white matter grade on MRI. Our results support the beneficial effects of fish consumption, the major source of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs, on brain health in later life. The role of plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid in brain health requires further investigation.

  20. Coronary fluorine-18-sodium fluoride uptake is increased in healthy adults with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn A; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A

    2017-01-01

    in healthy adults at low cardiovascular risk. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and coronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for the development of cardiovascular disease, on the basis of the Framingham Risk Score......OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery fluorine-18-sodium fluoride (F-NaF) uptake reflects coronary artery calcification metabolism and is considered to be an early prognostic marker of coronary heart disease. This study evaluated the relationship between coronary artery F-NaF uptake and cardiovascular risk...... of cardiovascular disease was on average 2.4 times higher in adults with coronary artery F-NaF uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (8.0 vs. 3.3%, Pcoronary artery F-NaF PET/CT imaging is feasible in healthy...

  1. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression: Implications for co-morbidity with cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assies, J.; Mocking, R.J.; Lok, A.; Koeter, M.W.; Bockting, C.L.H.; Visser, I.; Pouwer, F.; Ruhe, H.G.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced interactions between fatty acid (FA) and one-carbon metabolism may be involved in co-occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which have been scarcely studied together. In 137 recurrent MDD-patients vs. 73 age- and sex-matched healthy

  2. Increased hepatic fatty acids uptake and oxidation by LRPPRC-driven oxidative phosphorylation reduces blood lipid levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is one of the major risk factors of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of leucine rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phoshorylation on blood lipid levels. The hepatic LRPPRC level was modulated by liver-specific transgenic or adeno-associated virus 8 carried shRNA targeting Lrpprc (aav-shLrpprc. Mice were fed with a high fat diet to induce obesity. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and / or western blot. The hepatic ATP level, hepatic and serum lipids contents, and mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were measured using specific assay kits. The uptake and oxidation of fatty acid by hepatocytes were assessed using 14C-palmitate. LRPPRC regulated the expression of genes encoded by mitochondrial genome but not those by nuclear genome involved in mitochondria biogenesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and lipid metabolism. Increased oxidative phosphorylation in liver mediated by LRPPRC resulted in the increase of hepatic ATP level. Lrpprc promoted palmitate uptake and oxidation by hypatocytes. The hepatic and serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were inversely associated with the hepatic LRPPRC level. These data demonstrated that LRPPRC-driven hepatic oxidative phosphorylation could promote fatty acids uptake and oxidation by hepatocytes and reduce both hepatic and circulating triglyceride and cholesterol levels.

  3. Xenon does not increase heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval in volunteers and in patients free of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirchen, Martin; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Kern, Carolin; Brett, Sarah; Werdehausen, Robert; Rellecke, Philipp; Reyle-Hahn, Matthias; Kienbaum, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Impaired cardiac repolarization, indicated by prolonged QT interval, may cause critical ventricular arrhythmias. Many anesthetics increase the QT interval by blockade of rapidly acting potassium rectifier channels. Although xenon does not affect these channels in isolated cardiomyocytes, the authors hypothesized that xenon increases the QT interval by direct and/or indirect sympathomimetic effects. Thus, the authors tested the hypothesis that xenon alters the heart rate-corrected cardiac QT (QTc) interval in anesthetic concentrations. The effect of xenon on the QTc interval was evaluated in eight healthy volunteers and in 35 patients undergoing abdominal or trauma surgery. The QTc interval was recorded on subjects in awake state, after their denitrogenation, and during xenon monoanesthesia (FetXe > 0.65). In patients, the QTc interval was recorded while awake, after anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil, and during steady state of xenon/remifentanil anesthesia (FetXe > 0.65). The QTc interval was determined from three consecutive cardiac intervals on electrocardiogram printouts in a blinded manner and corrected with Bazett formula. In healthy volunteers, xenon did not alter the QTc interval (mean difference: +0.11 ms [95% CI, -22.4 to 22.7]). In patients, after anesthesia induction with propofol/remifentanil, no alteration of QTc interval was noted. After propofol was replaced with xenon, the QTc interval remained unaffected (417 ± 32 ms vs. awake: 414 ± 25 ms) with a mean difference of 4.4 ms (95% CI, -4.6 to 13.5). Xenon monoanesthesia in healthy volunteers and xenon/remifentanil anesthesia in patients without clinically relevant cardiovascular disease do not increase QTc interval.

  4. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  5. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  6. Increased biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis by reduced overconsumption of amino acids and increased catalytic activities of enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarel Adamberg

    Full Text Available Steady state cultivation and multidimensional data analysis (metabolic fluxes, absolute proteome, and transcriptome are used to identify parameters that control the increase in biomass yield of Lactococcus lactis from 0.10 to 0.12 C-mol C-mol(-1 with an increase in specific growth rate by 5 times from 0.1 to 0.5 h(-1. Reorganization of amino acid consumption was expressed by the inactivation of the arginine deiminase pathway at a specific growth rate of 0.35 h(-1 followed by reduced over-consumption of pyruvate directed amino acids (asparagine, serine, threonine, alanine and cysteine until almost all consumed amino acids were used only for protein synthesis at maximal specific growth rate. This balanced growth was characterized by a high glycolytic flux carrying up to 87% of the carbon flow and only amino acids that relate to nucleotide synthesis (glutamine, serine and asparagine were consumed in higher amounts than required for cellular protein synthesis. Changes in the proteome were minor (mainly increase in the translation apparatus. Instead, the apparent catalytic activities of enzymes and ribosomes increased by 3.5 times (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. The apparent catalytic activities of glycolytic enzymes and ribosomal proteins were seen to follow this regulation pattern while those of enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism increased more than the specific growth rate (over 5.5 times. Nucleotide synthesis formed the most abundant biomonomer synthetic pathway in the cells with an expenditure of 6% from the total ATP required for biosynthesis. Due to the increase in apparent catalytic activity, ribosome translation was more efficient at higher growth rates as evidenced by a decrease of protein to mRNA ratios. All these effects resulted in a 30% decrease of calculated ATP spilling (0.1 vs 0.5 h(-1. Our results show that bioprocesses can be made more efficient (using a balanced metabolism by varying the growth conditions.

  7. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Costa, André G V; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zabala, María; Martínez, J Alfredo; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-09-01

    The present review aims to illustrate current knowledge about the efficacy of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in treating/preventing several metabolic pathologies. We reviewed systematically the published evidence on the effectiveness of n-3 LC-PUFAs fish consumption or n-3 LC-PUFAs supplementation on prevention/treatment of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Most of the reviewed studies were randomized-controlled interventional trials, although some relevant prospective and cross-sectional studies as well as some meta-analysis were also reviewed. Supplementation with n-3 LC-PUFAs might improve some obesity-associated metabolic syndrome features such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia by decreasing plasma triglycerides. Moreover, the blood pressure-lowering and anti-inflammatory properties of these fatty acids and their benefits in vascular function might confer cardioprotection. However, the efficacy of n-3 LC-PUFA on reducing myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, cardiac and sudden death, or stroke is controversial. Due to the beneficial actions of n-3 LC-PUFAs, several worldwide government and health organizations have established some recommendations of n-3 LC-PUFAs intake for groups of population. In general, the recommended levels for diseases prevention are lower than those advised for particular treatments. However, more clinical trials are necessary to recommend the most effective dosages and formulas (type of n-3 LC-PUFA, EPA/DHA ratio) for specific pathologies.

  8. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura D; Rozance, Paul J; Thorn, Stephanie R; Friedman, Jacob E; Hay, William W

    2012-08-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia and euaminoacidemia), or saline. Fetal leucine metabolism was measured under steady-state conditions followed by a fetal muscle biopsy to quantify insulin signaling. In CON, increasing amino acid delivery rates to the fetus by 100% increased leucine oxidation rates by 100%. In IUGR, amino acid infusion completely suppressed fetal protein breakdown rates but increased leucine oxidation rate by only 25%, resulting in increased protein accretion rates by 150%. Acute insulin infusion, however, had very little effect on amino acid delivery rates, fetal leucine disposal rates, or fetal protein accretion rates in CON or IUGR fetuses despite robust signaling of the fetal skeletal muscle insulin-signaling cascade. These results indicate that, when amino acids are given directly into the fetal circulation independently of changes in insulin concentrations, IUGR fetal sheep have suppressed protein breakdown rates, thus increasing net fetal protein accretion.

  9. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, Iris J. A. M.; Smelt, Augustinus H. M.; Princen, Hans M. G.; Kuipers, Folkert; Romijn, Johannes A.; Boverhof, Renze; Masclee, Ad A. M.; Stellaard, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of

  10. Fish oil increases bile acid synthesis in male patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, IJAM; Princen, HMG; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Boverhof, R; Masclee, AAM; Stellaard, F

    Fibrates are drugs of choice in patients with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), but may increase the risk for gallstones by decreasing bile acid synthesis. Fish oil might be a therapeutic alternative, but its effect on bile acid metabolism in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of

  11. Uric Acid Secretion from Adipose Tissue and Its Increase in Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Yu; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Nakatsuji, Hideaki; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Nagao, Hirofumi; Shirakura, Takashi; Kato, Kenta; Imaizumi, Keiichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Mizuho; Maeda, Norikazu; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by hyperuricemia. However, purine metabolism in various tissues, especially regarding uric acid production, has not been fully elucidated. Here we report, using mouse models, that adipose tissue could produce and secrete uric acid through xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and that the production was enhanced in obesity. Plasma uric acid was elevated in obese mice and attenuated by administration of the XOR inhibitor febuxostat. Adipose tissue was one of major organs that had abundant expression and activities of XOR, and adipose tissues in obese mice had higher XOR activities than those in control mice. 3T3-L1 and mouse primary mature adipocytes produced and secreted uric acid into culture medium. The secretion was inhibited by febuxostat in a dose-dependent manner or by gene knockdown of XOR. Surgical ischemia in adipose tissue increased local uric acid production and secretion via XOR, with a subsequent increase in circulating uric acid levels. Uric acid secretion from whole adipose tissue was increased in obese mice, and uric acid secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased under hypoxia. Our results suggest that purine catabolism in adipose tissue could be enhanced in obesity. PMID:23913681

  12. Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-cold stress increases acid stress resistance and induces amino acid homeostasis in Lactococcus lactis. NZ9000. Taher Khakpour Moghaddam1,2, Juan Zhang1,2, Guocheng Du1,2*. 1Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, 2School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi,. Jiangsu ...

  13. Dietary oleic acid increases M2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding in...

  14. Association of Osteoarthritis With Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Elderly: Findings From the Progetto Veneto Anziano Study Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Trevisan, Caterina; De Rui, Marina; Bolzetta, Francesco; Maggi, Stefania; Zambon, Sabina; Musacchio, Estella; Sartori, Leonardo; Perissinotto, Egle; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The possible relevance of osteoarthritis (OA) as a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor is still debated. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OA and the onset of CVD in older individuals. Among a sample of 3,099 elderly subjects, 2,158 were identified as having no CVD at baseline and were followed up for a mean ± SD 4.4 ± 1.2 years. OA was defined using a standardized algorithm that investigated disease history, medical documentation (including radiographic reports), symptoms, and physical examination of the joints. Incident CVD was defined as the onset of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke/transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, and CVD-related hospitalization or mortality. At baseline, 1,336 (61.9%) of the 2,158 study participants had OA. Participants with OA had more potential CVD risk factors, including obesity, hypertension, high levels of low-density lipoprotein, greater severity of inflammation, and worse renal function, than did those without OA. During the follow-up, 47.8% of the subjects with OA developed a new CVD event, compared to 41.3% of those without OA. Using an adjusted Cox regression analysis, the presence of OA significantly increased the risk of CVD (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.49; P = 0.04). The association between OA and CVD was stronger when the hip or knee was affected, and also was stronger in women than in men and when ≥2 joints were involved. Considering single CVD outcomes, the presence of OA significantly increased the risk of new coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hospitalization for CVD. OA may be a significant predictor of the onset of CVD in elderly individuals, particularly in women with OA and when OA affects the lower limbs or ≥2 joints are involved. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Low phytic acid lentils (Lens culinaris L.): a potential solution for increased micronutrient bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Vandenberg, Albert

    2009-10-14

    Phytic acid is an antinutrient present mainly in seeds of grain crops such as legumes and cereals. It has the potential to bind mineral micronutrients in food and reduce their bioavailability. This study analyzed the phytic acid concentration in seeds of 19 lentil ( Lens culinaris L.) genotypes grown at two locations for two years in Saskatchewan, Canada. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the levels of phytic acid in commercial lentil genotypes and (2) the impact of postharvest processing and (3) the effect of boiling on the stability of phytic aid in selected lentil genotypes. The phytic acid was analyzed by high-performance anion exchange separation followed by conductivity detection. The Saskatchewan-grown lentils were naturally low in phytic acid (phytic acid = 2.5-4.4 mg g(-1); phytic acid phosphorus = 0.7-1.2 mg g(-1)), with concentrations lower than those reported for low phytic acid mutants of corn, wheat, common bean, and soybean. Decortication prior to cooking further reduced total phytic acid by >50%. As lowering phytic acid intake can lead to increased mineral bioavailability, dietary inclusion of Canadian lentils may have significant benefits in regions with widespread micronutrient malnutrition.

  16. High dietary glycemic load and glycemic index increase risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged women : a population-based follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W. J.; de Bruijne, Leonie M.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this work was to assess whether high dietary glycemic load and glycemic index are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Background The associations of dietary glycemic index and glycemic load with risk of CVD are not well established, particularly

  17. Expression of dehydratase domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase increases the production of fatty acids in Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola-Robles, Delise; Rullán-Lind, Carlos; Carballeira, Néstor M.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the production of fatty acids by microbial fermentation remains an important step towards the generation of biodiesel and other portable liquid fuels. In this work, we report an Escherichia coli strain engineered to overexpress a fragment consisting of four dehydratase domains from the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase enzyme complex from the deep-sea bacterium, Photobacterium profundum. The DH1-DH2-UMA enzyme fragment was excised from its natural context within a multi-enzyme PKS and expressed as a stand-alone protein. Fatty acids were extracted from the cell pellet, esterified with methanol and quantified by GC-MS analysis. Results show that the E. coli strain expressing the DH tetradomain fragment was capable of producing up to a 5-fold increase (80.31 mg total FA/L culture) in total fatty acids over the negative control strain lacking the recombinant enzyme. The enhancement in production was observed across the board for all the fatty acids that are typically made by E. coli. The overexpression of the DH tetradomain did not affect E. coli cell growth, thus showing that the observed enhancement in fatty acid production was not a result of effects associated with cell density. The observed enhancement was more pronounced at lower temperatures (3.8-fold at 16 °C, 3.5-fold at 22 °C and 1.5-fold at 30 °C) and supplementation of the media with 0.4% glycerol did not result in an increase in fatty acid production. All these results taken together suggest that either the dehydration of fatty acid intermediates are a limiting step in the E. coli fatty acid biosynthesis machinery, or that the recombinant dehydratase domains used in this study are also capable of catalyzing thioester hydrolysis of the final products. The enzyme in this report is a new tool which could be incorporated into other existing strategies aimed at improving fatty acid production in bacterial fermentations towards accessible biodiesel precursors. PMID:24411456

  18. Involvement of neurons and retinoic acid in lymphatic development: new insights in increased nuchal translucency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.B.; Stuurman, K.E.; Kok, E.; Konijn, T.; Schooneman, D.; Niederreither, K.; Coles, M.; Agace, W.W.; Christoffels, V.M.; Mebius, R.E.; Pavert, S.A. van de; Bekker, M.N.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased nuchal translucency originates from disturbed lymphatic development. Abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration may be involved in lymphatic development. Because both neuronal and lymphatic development share retinoic acid (RA) as a common factor, this study investigated the

  19. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie B. Hjerpsted

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved.

  20. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  1. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  2. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  3. Urotensin II in cardiovascular regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser D Russell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fraser D RussellSchool of Health and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Cardiovascular function is modulated by neuronal transmitters, circulating hormones, and factors that are released locally from tissues. Urotensin II (UII is an 11 amino acid peptide that stimulates its’ obligatory G protein coupled urotensin II receptors (UT to modulate cardiovascular function in humans and in other animal species, and has been implicated in both vasculoprotective and vasculopathic effects. For example, tissue and circulating concentrations of UII have been reported to increase in some studies involving patients with atherosclerosis, heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, renal disease and liver disease, raising the possibility that the UT receptor system is involved in the development and/or progression of these conditions. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of UT receptor antagonists to animal models of cardiovascular disease have revealed improvements in cardiovascular remodelling and hemodynamics. However, recent studies have questioned this contributory role of UII in disease, and have instead postulated a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. For example, high concentrations of circulating UII correlated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with renal disease or myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to consider the regulation of the cardiovascular system by UII, giving consideration to methodologies for measurement of plasma concentrations, sites of synthesis and triggers for release.Keywords: urotensin II, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, hypertension

  4. Elevated lactate dehydrogenase activity and increased cardiovascular mortality in the arsenic-endemic areas of southwestern Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Ya-Tang [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Li, Wan-Fen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Ling-I [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Li-Yu; Huang, Yeou-Lih [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Taiwan (China); Sun, Chien-Wen [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wei J., E-mail: wjchen@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China); Genetic Epidemiology Core Laboratory, National Taiwan University Center for Genomic Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shu-Li, E-mail: slwang@nhri.org.tw [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-01

    Arsenic ingestion has been linked to increasing global prevalence of and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD); arsenic can be removed from drinking water to reduce related health effects. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is used for the evaluation of acute arsenic toxicity in vivo and in vitro, but it is not validated for the evaluation of long-term, chronic arsenic exposure. The present study examined the long-term effect of chronic arsenic exposure on CVD and serum LDH levels, after consideration of arsenic metabolism capacity. A total of 380 subjects from an arseniasis-endemic area and 303 from a non-endemic area of southwestern Taiwan were recruited in 2002. Various urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and hydride generation systems. Fasting serum was used for quantitative determination of the total LDH activity. A significant dose–response relationship was observed between arsenic exposure and LDH elevation, independent of urinary arsenic profiles (P < 0.001). Furthermore, abnormal LDH elevation was associated with CVD mortality after adjustment for Framingham risk scores for 10-year CVD and arsenic exposure (hazard ratio, 3.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–14.81). LDH was elevated in subjects with arsenic exposure in a dose-dependent manner. LDH is a marker of arsenic toxicity associated with CVD mortality. Results of this study have important implications for use in ascertaining long-term arsenic exposure risk of CVD. -- Highlights: ► We showed that arsenic exposure was correlated with LDH elevation. ► LDH elevation was related to arsenic methylation capacity. ► Abnormal LDH elevation can be a marker of susceptibility to CVD mortality.

  5. Playful Interventions Increase Knowledge about Healthy Habits and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Children: The CARDIOKIDS Randomized Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Fátima H.; Pena, Daniela B.; Pellanda, Lucia C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is an important health problem worldwide. In this context, there is a need for the development and evaluation of innovative educational interventions targeting prevention and formation of health habits. Objectives To ascertain the impact of ludic workshops on children’s knowledge, self-care, and body weight. Methods This was a randomized, clinical study with 79 students aged 7-11 years, conducted from March to November 2012. Anthropometric measurements were collected and two questionnaires (Typical Day of Physical Activities and Food Intake, in Portuguese, and the CARDIOKIDS, a questionnaire of knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors) were applied at baseline, at the end of intervention, and three months thereafter. The intervention consisted of eight playful workshops, which involved the presentation of a play. Results Seventy-nine students were randomized to the intervention (n = 40) or the control group (n = 39). Mean age was 10.0 ± 1.1 years. After eight weeks, the intervention group showed significant improvement in the knowledge score (p < 0.001). There was an increase in physical activity scores in both groups, but with no difference between the groups at the end of intervention (p = 0.209). A reduction in the BMI percentile was observed in the intervention group, but there was no significant statistical difference between the two groups after the intervention. Conclusions Playful interventions may improve knowledge and physical activity levels in children and, when combined with other strategies, may be beneficial to prevent child obesity and improve self-care. PMID:28746521

  6. Western dietary pattern increases risk of cardiovascular disease in Iranian adults: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Vakili, Azita Zadeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the association of major dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Middle Eastern countries. We aimed to evaluate the association of major dietary patterns, using factor analysis, with the risk of CVD. Participants without CVD (n = 2284) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 4.7 years. Dietary intake of participants was assessed at baseline (2006-2008); biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and follow-up examination. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate risk of CVD across tertiles of dietary pattern scores. Linear regression models were used to indicate association of dietary pattern scores with changes of CVD risk factors over the study period. Two major dietary patterns, Western and traditional, were identified. During a mean 4.7 ± 1.4 years of follow-up, 57 participants experienced CVD-related events. In the fully adjusted model, we observed an increased risk of CVD-related events in the highest compared to the lowest tertile category of Western dietary pattern score (HR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.03-4.18, P for trend = 0.01). Traditional dietary pattern was not associated with incidence of CVD or CVD risk factors. A significant association was observed between the Western dietary pattern and changes in serum insulin (β = 5.88, 95% CI = 0.34-11.4). Our findings confirm that the Western dietary pattern, characterized by higher loads of processed meats, salty snacks, sweets, and soft drinks, is a dietary risk factor for CVD in the Iranian population.

  7. Thoracic aorta calcification but not inflammation is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk: results of the CAMONA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomberg, Bjoern A. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Lam, Marnix G.E.; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Thomassen, Anders [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); Vach, Werner [University Medical Center Freiburg, Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biometry and Medical Informatics, Freiburg (Germany); Olsen, Michael H. [Odense University Hospital, The Cardiovascular and Metabolic Preventive Clinic, Department of Endocrinology, Center for Individualized Medicine in Arterial Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Narula, Jagat [Mount Sinai Hospital, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul F. [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense C (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Clinical Research, Odense (Denmark)

    2017-02-15

    Arterial inflammation and vascular calcification are regarded as early prognostic markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study we investigated the relationship between CVD risk and arterial inflammation ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging), vascular calcification metabolism (Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging), and vascular calcium burden (CT imaging) of the thoracic aorta in a population at low CVD risk. Study participants underwent blood pressure measurements, blood analyses, and {sup 18}F-FDG and Na{sup 18}F PET/CT imaging. In addition, the 10-year risk for development of CVD, based on the Framingham risk score (FRS), was estimated. CVD risk was compared across quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, Na{sup 18}F uptake, and calcium burden on CT. A total of 139 subjects (52 % men, mean age 49 years, age range 21 - 75 years, median FRS 6 %) were evaluated. CVD risk was, on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with thoracic aorta Na{sup 18}F uptake in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile of the distribution (15.5 % vs. 4.2 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was on average, 3.7 times higher among subjects with a thoracic aorta calcium burden on CT in the highest quartile compared with those in the lowest two quartiles of the distribution (18.0 % vs. 4.9 %; P < 0.001). CVD risk was similar in subjects in all quartiles of thoracic aorta {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Our findings indicate that an unfavourable CVD risk profile is associated with marked increases in vascular calcification metabolism and vascular calcium burden of the thoracic aorta, but not with arterial inflammation. (orig.)

  8. Association of pre-eclampsia with metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women: A systemic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, I C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women globally. Preeclampsia has been linked to increased risk of developing heart disease later in life. The best approach for the prevention of CVD after preeclampsia is yet unclear. Studies assessing CVD risk post preeclampsia have included metabolic risk factors that define the metabolic syndrome (MS). This review quantifies the association between preeclampsia and CVD in the context of metabolic risk factors that define the MS. PubMed database was searched for relevant articles from 1999 to March 2015. The search phrase was "preeclampsia and MS." After two levels of screening by title and abstract, case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies that included at least 50 subjects were selected. Twenty-four articles that reported the prevalence or odds for MS and its components following a history of preeclampsia and the prevalence of preeclampsia in women with prepregnancy MS were selected. A total of 9 case-control, 11 cohort, and four cross-sectional studies were included. The prevalence of MS ranged from 10.9% to 27.3% after a preeclamptic pregnancy. About 88% of the case-control studies showed a statistically significant difference in prevalence of MS post preeclampsia whereas 75% of the cohort studies reported prevalence values >10% for the prevalence of MS post preeclampsia. The odds for developing MS post preeclampsia ranged from 1.23 to 3.60 and 83% of the studies reported an odds ratio >2. The prevalence of developing preeclampsia in women with prepregnancy MS ranged from 26.7% to 45% compared to 4.7% to 17% among controls. The prevalence and odds for developing MS after a preeclamptic pregnancy are high suggesting that MS may be involved in the pathogenesis of CVD following preeclampsia. This will provide evidence on the potential health benefits of a modifiable CVD risk screening program for women with a history of preeclampsia.

  9. Systemic endotoxin increases L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid content of mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, M P; Quearry, B J; Markey, S P

    1989-07-03

    Systemic infections and injection of endotoxin are known to increase L-tryptophan release from skeletal muscle and increase systemic L-tryptophan catabolism through the kynurenine pathway. To investigate the effects of systemically administered endotoxin on brain L-tryptophan metabolites. C57BL6/6NCR mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 10 micrograms of lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella abortus equii and samples of serum and cerebral cortex collected. After 9 h, serum L-tryptophan concentration was decreased by 51%. At 9 h and 24 h, increases in L-tryptophan metabolites in cerebral cortex were: L-tryptophan, 42% and 39%; 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 38% and 67%; 3-hydroxykynurenine, 235% and 381%; and quinolinic acid, 76% and 306%. Cortical quinolinic acid concentration was still elevated at 48 h (88%) and 72 h (79%) after lipopolysaccharide. No significant changes in cortical serotonin concentrations were found at the time points examined. When L-tryptophan (0.37 mmol/kg) was administered systemically to either normal or lipopolysaccharide-treated mice, increases in cortical L-tryptophan, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine concentrations were largest in mice treated with both lipopolysaccharide and L-tryptophan. These results suggest that disturbances in L-tryptophan metabolism that follow systemic endotoxin administration extend to the central nervous system. The consequences of these changes in L-tryptophan metabolites remain to be determined.

  10. Adherence with statins in a real-life setting is better when associated cardiovascular risk factors increase: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedieu Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the factors for poor adherence for treatment with statins have been highlighted, the impact of their combination on adherence is not clear. Aims To estimate adherence for statins and whether it differs according to the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Methods A cohort study was conducted using data from the main French national health insurance system reimbursement database. Newly treated patients with statins between September 1 and December 31, 2004 were included. Patients were followed up 15 months. The cohort was split into three groups according to their number of additional cardiovascular risk factors that included age and gender, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (using co-medications as a proxy. Adherence was assessed for each group by using four parameters: (i proportion of days covered by statins, (ii regularity of the treatment over time, (iii persistence, and (iv the refill delay. Results 16,397 newly treated patients were identified. Of these statin users, 21.7% did not have additional cardiovascular risk factors. Thirty-one percent had two cardiovascular risk factors and 47% had at least three risk factors. All the parameters showed a sub-optimal adherence whatever the group: days covered ranged from 56% to 72%, regularity ranged from 23% to 33% and persistence ranged from 44% to 59%, but adherence was better for those with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions The results confirm that long-term drug treatments are a difficult challenge, particularly in patients at lower risk and invite to the development of therapeutic education.

  11. Metabolic Fate of the Increased Yeast Amino Acid Uptake Subsequent to Catabolite Derepression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Hothersall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catabolite repression (CCR regulates amino acid permeases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a TOR-kinase mediated mechanism. When glucose, the preferred fuel in S. cerevisiae, is substituted by galactose, amino acid uptake is increased. Here we have assessed the contribution and metabolic significance of this surfeit of amino acid in yeast undergoing catabolite derepression (CDR. L-[U-14C]leucine oxidation was increased 15 ± 1 fold in wild type (WT strain grown in galactose compared to glucose. Under CDR, leucine oxidation was (i proportional to uptake, as demonstrated by decreased uptake and oxidation of leucine in strains deleted of major leucine permeases and (ii entirely dependent upon the TCA cycle, as cytochrome c1 (Cyt1 deleted strains could not grow in galactose. A regulator of amino acid carbon entry into the TCA cycle, branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, was also increased 29 ± 3 fold under CCR in WT strain. Protein expression of key TCA cycle enzymes, citrate synthase (Cs, and Cyt1 was increased during CDR. In summary, CDR upregulation of amino acid uptake is accompanied by increased utilization of amino acids for yeast growth. The mechanism for this is likely to be an increase in protein expression of key regulators of the TCA cycle.

  12. Omega 3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease risk factors: An updated systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Huerta, Oscar D; Gil, Angel

    2017-05-19

    Several studies and reviews regarding the supplementation of omega-3 LC-PUFAs have been developed during the last years. Indeed, the evidence states that high doses omega-3 LC-PUFAs produce a small but significant decrease in blood pressure in older and hypertensive subjects. Due to the increasing interest in the benefits of LC-PUFAs, we aimed to evaluate the scientific evidence provided in the past five years (2012-2016) on the effects of the intake of omega-3 LC-PUFAs on cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation and oxidative stress, through a systematic review in PubMed database. Twenty-eight articles were related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are included in this systematic review. The studies included healthy subjects and CVD patients; we included the number of subjects, type of study, type and doses of omega-3 LC-PUFAs, primary outcomes, and results. The use of omega-3 LC-PUFAs for ameliorating CVD risk factors can be recommended. However, the administration of omega-3 does not seem to show any benefit for the management of CVD or associated complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... was determined in patients with chronic kidney disease (n=32; median age, 63 years; inter-quartile range, 51 to 73 years). Serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used to determine central...... in chronic kidney disease....

  14. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  15. High hydrostatic pressure increases amino acid requirements in the piezo-hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cario, Anaïs; Lormières, Florence; Xiang, Xiao; Oger, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    We have established a defined growth medium for the piezophilic hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus barophilus, which allows growth yields of ca. 10(8) cells/ml under both atmospheric and high hydrostatic pressure. Our results demonstrate a major impact of hydrostatic pressure on amino acid metabolism, with increases from 3 amino acids required at atmospheric pressure to 17 at 40 MPa. We observe in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales a similar discrepancy between the presence/absence of amino acid synthesis pathways and amino acid requirements, which supports the existence of alternate, but yet unknown, amino acid synthesis pathways, and may explain the low number of essential amino acids observed in T. barophilus and other Thermococcales. T. barophilus displays a strong metabolic preference for organic polymers such as polypeptides and chitin, which may constitute a more readily available resource of carbon and energy in situ in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. We hypothesize that the low energy yields of fermentation of organic polymers, together with energetic constraints imposed by high hydrostatic pressure, may render de novo synthesis of amino acids ecologically unfavorable. Induction of this metabolic switch to amino acid recycling can explain the requirement for non-essential amino acids by Thermococcales for efficient growth in defined medium. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

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    Jennifer Manuela Díaz-Monroy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n=12. Group I (control; Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2, 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2, and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2, respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution.

  17. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  18. [Nicotinic acid increases cellular transport of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.

  19. Ascorbic acid increases demethylation in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos of the pig (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Minghui; Hur, Tai-Young; No, Jingu; Nam, Yoonseok; Kim, Hyeunkyu; Im, Gi-Sun; Lee, Seunghoon

    2017-07-01

    Investigated the effect and mechanism of ascorbic acid on the development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Porcine embryos were produced by SCNT and cultured in the presence or absence of ascorbic acid. Ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3) in oocytes was knocked down by siRNA injection. After ascorbic acid treatment, reprogramming genes were analyzed by realtime reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, relative 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content in pronucleus were detected by realtime PCR. Ascorbic acid significantly increased the development of porcine embryos produced by SCNT. After SCNT, transcript levels of reprogramming genes, Pou5f1 , Sox2 , and Klf were significantly increased in blastocysts. Furthermore, ascorbic acid reduced 5-methylcytosine content in pronuclear embryos compared with the control group. Knock down of TET3 in porcine oocytes significantly prevents the demethylation of somatic cell nucleus after SCNT, even if in the presence of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid enhanced the development of porcine SCNT embryos via the increased TET3 mediated demethylation of somatic nucleus.

  20. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  1. Smoking modifies the associated increased risk of future cardiovascular disease by genetic variation on chromosome 9p21.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hamrefors

    Full Text Available AIMS: Genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease (CVD is likely to be modified by environmental exposures. We tested if the associated risk of CVD and CVD-mortality by the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4977574 on chromosome 9p21 is modified by life-style factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 24,944 middle-aged subjects (62% females from the population-based Malmö-Diet-and-Cancer-Cohort were genotyped. Smoking, education and physical activity-levels were recorded. Subjects were followed for 15 years for incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD; N = 2309, ischemic stroke (N = 1253 and CVD-mortality (N = 1156. Multiplicative interactions between rs4977574 and life-style factors on endpoints were tested in Cox-regression-models. We observed an interaction between rs4977574 and smoking on incident CAD (P = 0.035 and CVD-mortality (P = 0.012. The hazard ratios (HR per risk allele of rs4977574 were highest in never smokers (N = 9642 for CAD (HR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.13-1.40; P<0.001 and for CVD-mortality (HR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.20-1.63; P<0.001, whereas the risk increase by rs4977574 was attenuated in current smokers (N = 7000 for both CAD (HR = 1.05; 95%CI 0.95-1.16; P = 0.326 and CVD-mortality (HR = 1.08; 95%CI 0.94-1.23; P = 0.270. A meta-analysis supported the finding that the associated increased risk of CAD by the risk-allele was attenuated in smokers. Neither education nor physical activity-levels modified the associated risk of CAD, ischemic stroke and CVD mortality conferred by rs4977574. CONCLUSION: Smoking may modify the associated risk of CAD and CVD-mortality conferred by genetic variation on chromosome 9p21. Whether the observed attenuation of the genetic risk reflects a pathophysiological mechanism or is a result of smoking being such a strong risk-factor that it may eliminate the associated genetic effect, requires further investigation.

  2. Cardiovascular Effects Caused by Increasing Concentrations of Diesel Exhaust in Middle-Aged Healthy GSTM1 Null Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to ambient PM in urban areas. This study was designed to e...

  3. Low Serum Glutathione Peroxidase Activity Is Associated with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality in Individuals with Low HDLc’s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, B.; Lee, D.H.; Steffen, L.; Erickson, R.R.; Luepker, R.V.; Jacobs, D.R.; Holtzman, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Since oxidized LDL is thought to initiate atherosclerosis and the serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx3) reduces oxidized lipids, we investigated whether high GPx3 activity reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Methods We determined GPx3 in stored samples from the Minnesota Heart

  4. Optical Method for Cardiovascular Risk Marker Uric Acid Removal Assessment during Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Holmar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of uric acid (UA optically by using the original and processed ultraviolet (UV absorbance spectra of spent dialysate. Also, the effect of using several wavelengths (multi-wavelength algorithms for estimation was examined. This paper gives an overview of seven studies carried out in Linköping, Sweden, and Tallinn, Estonia. A total of 60 patients were monitored over their 188 dialysis treatment procedures. Dialysate samples were taken and analysed by means of UA concentration in a chemical laboratory and with a double-beam spectrophotometer. The measured UV absorbance spectra were processed. Three models for the original and three for the first derivate of UV absorbance were created; concentrations of UA from the different methods were finally compared in terms of mean values and SD. The mean concentration (micromol/L of UA was 49.7±23.0 measured in the chemical laboratory, and 48.9±22.4 calculated with the best estimate among all models. The concentrations were not significantly different (P≥0.17. It was found that using a multi-wavelength and processed signal approach leads to more accurate results, and therefore these approaches should be used in future.

  5. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...... with cheese intake. Conclusion We were not able to confirm the hypothesis that calcium from cheese increases the excretion of fecal bile acids. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for the lowering of cholesterol concentrations with cheese compared to butter intake remains unresolved....

  6. Prospective association of fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway with risk of type 2 diabetes: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Wu, Jason H Y; Wang, Qianyi; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Djoussé, Luc; King, Irena B; Song, Xiaoling; Biggs, Mary L; Delaney, Joseph A; Kizer, Jorge R; Siscovick, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) affects insulin homeostasis via synthesis of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Few prospective studies have used fatty acid biomarkers to assess associations with type 2 diabetes. We investigated associations of major circulating SFAs [palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0)] and MUFA [oleic acid (18:1n-9)] in the DNL pathway with metabolic risk factors and incident diabetes in community-based older U.S. adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We secondarily assessed other DNL fatty acid biomarkers [myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), 7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-9), and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7)] and estimated dietary SFAs and MUFAs. In 3004 participants free of diabetes, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were measured in 1992, and incident diabetes was identified by medication use and blood glucose. Usual diets were assessed by using repeated food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to assess associations with metabolic risk factors and incident diabetes, respectively. At baseline, circulating palmitic acid and stearic acid were positively associated with adiposity, triglycerides, inflammation biomarkers, and insulin resistance (P-trend < 0.01 each), whereas oleic acid showed generally beneficial associations (P-trend < 0.001 each). During 30,763 person-years, 297 incident diabetes cases occurred. With adjustment for demographics and lifestyle, palmitic acid (extreme-quintile HR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.83; P-trend = 0.001) and stearic acid (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.41; P-trend = 0.006) were associated with higher diabetes risk, whereas oleic acid was not significantly associated. In secondary analyses, vaccenic acid was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.83; P-trend = 0.005). Other fatty acid biomarkers and estimated dietary SFAs or MUFAs were not significantly associated with

  7. Role of fatty acids of milk and dairy products in cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are increasing global concerns about the role of foods in health and chronic diseases. Milk and dairy products are important sources of dietary protein and fat in the diets of many cultures including African communities. However, questions are being raised concerning the role of milk-nutrients in chronic diseases ...

  8. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W.C.; Broersen, Laus M.

    2016-01-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined...

  9. Efficient increase of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in tomato fruits by targeted mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nonaka, Satoko; Arai, Chikako; Takayama, Mariko; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that has hypotensive effects. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world and contains higher levels of GABA than other major crops. Increasing these levels can further enhance the blood pressure-lowering function of tomato fruit. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA biosynthesis; it has a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain that regulates enzymatic function...

  10. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmandas, E.L.; Heuvel, C.N.A.M. van den; Damen, M.S.M.A.; Cleophas, M.C.P.; Netea, M.G.; Crevel, R. van

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with

  11. Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic Acids Increase ROS Production by Fibroblasts via NADPH Oxidase Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Elaine; Dermargos, Alexandre; Hirata, Aparecida Emiko; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Carpinelli, Angelo Rafael; Newsholme, Philip; Armelin, Hugo Aguirre; Curi, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on ROS production by 3T3 Swiss and Rat 1 fibroblasts was investigated. Using lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, a dose-dependent increase in extracellular superoxide levels was observed during the treatment of fibroblasts with oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids. ROS production was dependent on the addition of β-NADH or NADPH to the medium. Diphenyleneiodonium inhibited the effect of oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids on fibroblast superoxide release by 79%, 92% and 82%, respectively. Increased levels of p47phox phosphorylation due to fatty acid treatment were detected by Western blotting analyses of fibroblast proteins. Increased p47phox mRNA expression was observed using real-time PCR. The rank order for the fatty acid stimulation of the fibroblast oxidative burst was as follows: γ-linolenic > linoleic > oleic. In conclusion, oleic, linoleic and γ-linolenic acids stimulated ROS production via activation of the NADPH oxidase enzyme complex in fibroblasts. PMID:23579616

  12. Effect of Bile Acid Sequestrants on the Risk of Cardiovascular Events: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie; D'Mello, Matthew; Anand, Sonia S; Eikelboom, John; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Samani, Nilesh J; Roberts, Robert; Paré, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    Statins lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but they may be ineffective or not tolerated. Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce LDL-C, yet their clinical efficacy on CAD remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effect of cholestyramine and colesevelam. We then used Mendelian randomization to estimate the effect of BAS on reducing the risk of CAD. First, we quantified the effect of rs4299376 (ABCG5/ABCG8), which affects the intestinal cholesterol absorption pathway targeted by BAS and then we used these estimates to predict the effect of BAS on CAD. Nineteen randomized controlled trials with a total of 7021 study participants were included. Cholestyramine 24 g/d was associated with a reduction in LDL-C of 23.5 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI] -26.8,-20.2; N=3806) and a trend toward reduced risk of CAD (odds ratio 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-1.02; P=0.07; N=3806), whereas colesevelam 3.75 g/d was associated with a reduction in LDL-C of 22.7 mg/dL (95% CI -28.3, -17.2; N=759). Based on the findings that rs4299376 was associated with a 2.75 mg/dL decrease in LDL-C and a 5% decrease in risk of CAD outcomes, we estimated that cholestyramine was associated with an odds ratio for CAD of 0.63 (95% CI 0.52-0.77; P=6.3×10(-6)) and colesevelam with an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.52-0.79, P=4.3×10(-5)), which were not statistically different from BAS clinical trials (P>0.05). The cholesterol lowering effect of BAS may translate into a clinically relevant reduction in CAD. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! – A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Soumia; Chopra, Sandeep; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV) health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias. PMID:23869297

  14. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Soumia; Chopra, Sandeep; Jacob, Jubbin J

    2013-05-01

    Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV) health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  15. A fish a day, keeps the cardiologist away! - A review of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumia Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.

  16. Increased susceptibility of HIF-1 alpha heterozygous-null mice to cardiovascular malformations associated with maternal diabetes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Škvorová, Lada; Sedmera, David; Semenza, G.L.; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 60, Jul (2013), s. 129-141 ISSN 0022-2828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Diabetic embryopathy * Heart defect * Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery (FGU-C) Impact factor: 5.218, year: 2013

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid or omega 3 fatty acids increase mitochondrial biosynthesis and metabolism in skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Roger A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are popular dietary supplements advertised to contribute to weight loss by increasing fat metabolism in liver, but the effects on overall muscle metabolism are less established. We evaluated the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA or combination omega 3 on metabolic characteristics in muscle cells. Methods Human rhabdomyosarcoma cells were treated with either DMSO control, or CLA or combination omega 3 for 24 or 48 hours. RNA was determined using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Mitochondrial content was determined using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Metabolism was quantified by measuring extracellular acidification and oxygen consumption rates. Results Omega 3 significantly induced metabolic genes as well as oxidative metabolism (oxygen consumption, glycolytic capacity (extracellular acidification, and metabolic rate compared with control. Both treatments significantly increased mitochondrial content. Conclusion Omega 3 fatty acids appear to enhance glycolytic, oxidative, and total metabolism. Moreover, both omega 3 and CLA treatment significantly increase mitochondrial content compared with control.

  18. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

  19. Male Sex Associated with Increased Long-term Cardiovascular Mortality after Peripheral Vascular Surgery for Atherosclerosis Despite Optimal Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budtz-Lilly, J W; Petersen, C N; Pedersen, T F; Eldrup, N

    2015-12-01

    The cardiovascular burden and consequences of peripheral atherosclerosis appear to differ between men and women. Data regarding long-term outcomes, including the impact of medical prophylactic treatment, are insufficient. This study examined long-term outcomes according to sex following primary vascular surgery, adjusted for multiple variables as well as recommended medical prophylaxis. All Danish patients who underwent peripheral vascular surgery from January 2000 to December 2007 were stratified into five procedural groups: (a) aorto-iliac bypass or thromboendarterectomy, (b) femoro-femoral crossover, (c) thromboendarterectomy of the femoral arteries, (d) infrainguinal bypass, or (e) axillo- uni-, and bifemoral bypass. Data were analyzed according to sex for differences in myocardial infarction, stroke, and death, individually and combined, after surgery. A total of 11,234 patients were included: 6,289 males and 4,945 females. The overall adjusted hazard ratio for male patients compared with female patients for death was 1.11 (95% CI 1.06-1.17), for MI was 1.16 (95% CI 1.04-1.29), for stroke was 0.99 (95% CI 0.89-1.11), and for any major adverse cardiovascular event was 1.10 (95% CI 1.05-1.16). These findings show that, despite indication, severity, and concomitant medical treatment of peripheral artery disease, men have a higher risk of mortality and adverse cardiovascular events following surgery for peripheral arterial disease. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bile acid receptors as targets for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease: Thematic Review Series: New Lipid and Lipoprotein Targets for the Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Porez, Geoffrey; Prawitt, Janne; Gross, Barbara; Staels, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and atherosclerosis. When dyslipidemia coincides with other metabolic disorders such as obesity, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, defined as the metabolic syndrome (MS), individuals present an elevated risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as CVD. Because the MS epidemic represents a growing public health problem worldwide, the development of therapies remains a major challenge. Alterations of bile acid po...

  1. Noninvasive detection of increased carotid artery temperature in patients with coronary artery disease predicts major cardiovascular events at one year: Results from a prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Benetos, Georgios; Koutagiar, Iosif; Barampoutis, Nikolaos; Mitropoulou, Fotini; Davlouros, Periklis; Sfikakis, Petros P; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Siores, Elias; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2017-07-01

    Limited prospective data have been reported regarding the impact of carotid inflammation on cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Microwave radiometry (MWR) is a noninvasive, simple method that has been used for evaluation of carotid artery temperature which, when increased, predicts 'inflamed' plaques with vulnerable characteristics. We prospectively tested the hypothesis that increased carotid artery temperature predicts future cerebro- and cardiovascular events in patients with CAD. Consecutive patients from 3 centers, with documented CAD by coronary angiography, were studied. In both carotid arteries, common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque thickness were evaluated by ultrasound. Temperature difference (ΔT), measured by MWR, was considered as the maximal temperature along the carotid artery minus the minimum; ΔT ≥0.90 °C was assigned as high. Major cardiovascular events (MACE, death, stroke, myocardial infarction or revascularization) were recorded during the following year. In total, 250 patients were studied; of them 40 patients (16%) had high ΔT values in both carotid arteries. MACEs occurred in 30% of patients having bilateral high ΔT versus 3.8% in the remaining patients (p<0.001). Bilateral high ΔT was independently associated with increased one-year MACE rate (HR = 6.32, 95% CI 2.42-16.53, p<0.001, by multivariate cox regression hazard model). The addition of ΔT information on a baseline model based on cardiovascular risk factors and extent of CAD significantly increased the prognostic value of the model (c-statistic increase 0.744 to 0.845, p dif  = 0.05) CONCLUSIONS: Carotid inflammation, detected by MWR, has an incremental prognostic value in patients with documented CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sorption behavior of selenium on humic acid under increasing selenium concentration or increasing solid/liquid ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei-Ishikawa, Nao [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: nao@nirs.go.jp; Nakamaru, Yasuo [Department of Bioproduction, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Yasaka 196, Abashiri, Hokkaido 099-2493 (Japan)], E-mail: y3nakama@bioindustry.nodai.ac.jp; Tagami, Keiko [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: k_tagami@nirs.go.jp; Uchida, Shigeo [Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: s_uchida@nirs.go.jp

    2008-06-15

    The sorption of selenium (Se) on humic acid (HA) was investigated in order to better understand the fate of stable and radioactive Se in soils and sediments. An ultrafiltration technique was used to determine size distributions of HA-sorbed-Se when increasing Se concentration and solid/liquid ratio. The results showed that the Se sorption onto HA followed the Freundlich isotherm. No solid/liquid ratio-dependence was observed especially when <3 kDa molecular size fraction was used from solid/liquid separation. The Freundlich isotherm parameters K{sub F} and n obtained using the <3 kDa molecular size fraction for solid/liquid separation were 3.7 x 10{sup 2} and 0.82, respectively. In addition, since dissolved HA increased with decreased ionic strength in the HA suspension, ionic strength could promote aggregation of HA. The conformational change of HA could affect the sorption behavior of Se on HA.

  3. Association between Increased Gastric Juice Acidity and Sliding Hiatal Hernia Development in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kishikawa

    Full Text Available Several clinical factors; overweight, male gender and increasing age, have been implicated as the etiology of hiatal hernia. Esophageal shortening due to acid perfusion in the lower esophagus has been suggested as the etiological mechanism. However, little is known about the correlation between gastric acidity and sliding hiatus hernia formation. This study examined whether increased gastric acid secretion is associated with an endoscopic diagnosis of hiatal hernia.A total of 286 consecutive asymptomatic patients (64 were diagnosed as having a hiatal hernia who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Clinical findings including fasting gastric juice pH as an indicator of acid secretion, age, sex, body mass index, and Helicobacter pylori infection status determined by both Helicobacter pylori serology and pepsinogen status, were evaluated to identify predictors in subjects with hiatal hernia.Male gender, obesity with a body mass index >25, and fasting gastric juice pH were significantly different between subjects with and without hiatal hernia. The cut-off point of fasting gastric juice pH determined by receiver operating curve analysis was 2.1. Multivariate regression analyses using these variables, and age, which is known to be associated with hiatal hernia, revealed that increased gastric acid secretion with fasting gastric juice pH 25 (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.77-6.91 and age >65 years (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00-3.45, were also significantly associated with hiatal hernia.This study suggests that increased gastric acid secretion independently induces the development of hiatal hernia in humans. These results are in accordance with the previously reported hypothesis that high gastric acid itself induces hiatal hernia development.

  4. Association between Increased Gastric Juice Acidity and Sliding Hiatal Hernia Development in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kayoko; Ito, Asako; Arahata, Kyoko; Takarabe, Sakiko; Kaida, Shogo; Kanai, Takanori; Miura, Soichiro; Nishida, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Several clinical factors; overweight, male gender and increasing age, have been implicated as the etiology of hiatal hernia. Esophageal shortening due to acid perfusion in the lower esophagus has been suggested as the etiological mechanism. However, little is known about the correlation between gastric acidity and sliding hiatus hernia formation. This study examined whether increased gastric acid secretion is associated with an endoscopic diagnosis of hiatal hernia. A total of 286 consecutive asymptomatic patients (64 were diagnosed as having a hiatal hernia) who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were studied. Clinical findings including fasting gastric juice pH as an indicator of acid secretion, age, sex, body mass index, and Helicobacter pylori infection status determined by both Helicobacter pylori serology and pepsinogen status, were evaluated to identify predictors in subjects with hiatal hernia. Male gender, obesity with a body mass index >25, and fasting gastric juice pH were significantly different between subjects with and without hiatal hernia. The cut-off point of fasting gastric juice pH determined by receiver operating curve analysis was 2.1. Multivariate regression analyses using these variables, and age, which is known to be associated with hiatal hernia, revealed that increased gastric acid secretion with fasting gastric juice pH hiatal hernia. Moreover, previously reported risk factors including male gender (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.35), body mass index >25 (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 1.77-6.91) and age >65 years (OR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.00-3.45), were also significantly associated with hiatal hernia. This study suggests that increased gastric acid secretion independently induces the development of hiatal hernia in humans. These results are in accordance with the previously reported hypothesis that high gastric acid itself induces hiatal hernia development.

  5. Folic acid supplementation increases cutaneous vasodilator sensitivity to sympathetic nerve activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Greaney, Jody L; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2017-05-01

    During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66 ± 1 yr, 8 male/6 female) ingested folic acid (5 mg/day) or placebo for 6 wk in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. In protocol 1, esophageal temperature (Tes) was increased by 1.0°C (water-perfused suit) while SSNA (peroneal microneurography) and red cell flux in the innervated dermatome (laser Doppler flowmetry; dorsum of the foot) were continuously measured. In protocol 2, two intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the lateral calf for graded infusions of acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10) to 10(-1) M) with and without nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blockade (20 mM nitro-l-arginine methyl ester). Folic acid improved reflex vasodilation (46 ± 4% vs. 31 ± 3% CVCmax for placebo; P Folic acid increased the slope of the SSNA-to-CVC relation (0.08 ± 0.02 vs. 0.05 ± 0.01 for placebo; P Folic acid augmented ACh-induced vasodilation (83 ± 3% vs. 66 ± 4% CVCmax for placebo; P = 0.002); however, there was no difference between treatments at the NOS-inhibited site (53 ± 4% vs. 52 ± 4% CVCmax for placebo; NS). These data demonstrate that folic acid supplementation enhances reflex vasodilation by increasing the sensitivity of skin arterioles to central sympathetic nerve outflow during hyperthermia in aged human subjects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is associated with increased uric acid concentrations: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Iftach; Salman, Amjad Abu; Kezerle, Louise; Erez, Offer; Yoel, Idan; Barski, Leonid

    Peri-partum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a clinical heart failure that usually develops during the final stage of pregnancy or the first months following delivery. High maternal serum uric acid concentrations have been previous associated with heart failure and preeclampsia. 1) To explored the clinical characteristics of PPCM patients; and 2) to determine the association between maternal serum uric acid concentrations and PPCM. This is a retrospective population based case control study. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 (for gestational age, medical history of cardiac conditions and creatinine); conditional logistic regression was used to identify clinical parameters that were associated with PPCM. The prevalence of peripartum cardiomyopathy at our institution was 1-3832 deliveries (42/160,964). In a matched multivariate analysis high maternal serum uric acid concentrations were associated with PPCM (O.R 1.336, 95% C.I 1.003-1.778). Uric acid concentrations were higher within the Non-Jewish patients and mothers of male infant with PPCM in compare to those without PPCM (p value 0.003 and 0.01 respectively). PPCM patients had increased maternal serum uric acid concentrations. This observation aligns with previous report regarding the increased uric acid concentration in women with preeclampsia and congestive heart failure, suggestive of a common underlying mechanism that mediates the myocardial damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  8. C-Myc Induced Compensated Cardiac Hypertrophy Increases Free Fatty Acid Utilization for the Citric Acid Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Aaron; Ledee, Dolena; Iwamoto, Kate; Kajimoto, Masaki; O' Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The protooncogene C-Myc (Myc) regulates cardiac hypertrophy. Myc promotes compensated cardiac function, suggesting that the operative mechanisms differ from those leading to heart failure. Myc regulation of substrate metabolism is a reasonable target, as Myc alters metabolism in other tissues. We hypothesize that Myc-induced shifts in substrate utilization signal and promote compensated hypertrophy. We used cardiac specific Myc-inducible C57/BL6 male mice between 4-6 months old that develop hypertrophy with tamoxifen (tam). Isolated working hearts and 13Carbon (13C )-NMR were used to measure function and fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle by using perfusate containing 13C-labeled free fatty acids, acetoacetate, lactate, unlabeled glucose and insulin. Studies were performed at pre-hypertrophy (3-days tam, 3dMyc), established hypertrophy (7-days tam, 7dMyc) or vehicle control (cont). Non-transgenic siblings (NTG) received 7-days tam or vehicle to assess drug effect. Hypertrophy was confirmed by echocardiograms and heart weights. Western blots were performed on key metabolic enzymes. Hypertrophy occurred in 7dMyc only. Cardiac function did not differ between groups. Tam alone did not affect substrate contribution in NTG. Substrate utilization was not significantly altered in 3dMyc versus cont. The free fatty acid FC was significantly greater in 7dMyc vs cont with decreased unlabeled Fc, which is predominately exogenous glucose. Free fatty acid flux to the citric acid cycle increased while lactate flux was diminished in 7dMyc compared to cont. Total protein levels of a panel of key metabolic enzymes were unchanged; however total protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in 7dMyc. Substrate utilization changes did not precede hypertrophy; therefore they are not the primary signal for cardiac growth in this model. Free fatty acid utilization and oxidation increase at established hypertrophy. Understanding the mechanisms whereby this change maintained

  9. Ncb5or Deficiency Increases Fatty Acid Catabolism and Oxidative Stress*

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ming; Wang, Wenfang; Frontera, Jennifer R.; Neely, Melanie C.; Lu, Jianghua; Aires, Daniel; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Turk, John; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Carlson, Susan E; Zhu, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-associated NADH cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) is widely distributed in animal tissues. Ncb5or−/− mice develop diabetes at age 7 weeks and have increased susceptibility to the diabetogenic oxidant streptozotocin. Ncb5or deficiency also results in lipoatrophy and increased hepatocyte sensitivity to cytotoxic effects of saturated fatty acids. Here we investigate the mechanisms of these phenomena in prediabetic Ncb5or−/− mice and find that, despite increased rate...

  10. Increased carnitine-dependent fatty acid uptake into mitochondria of human colon cancer cells induces apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Uwe; Nickel, Alexander; Daniel, Hannelore

    2005-06-01

    Carnitine-dependent fatty acid import into mitochondria and beta-oxidation seem to be impaired in tumor cells. In the present study we show that a supply of palmitoylcarnitine together with L-carnitine potently induces apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cells as a consequence of accelerated fatty acid oxidation. Caspase-3-like activities, measured by the cleavage rate of a fluorogenic tetrapeptide substrate and nuclear fragmentation determined after DNA labeling in fixed cells by fluorescence microscopy, served as indicators of apoptosis. Neither L-carnitine nor palmitoylcarnitine alone were able to increase caspase-3-like activities and DNA fragmentation, but when provided together, apoptosis occurred. That exogenous carnitine was indeed able to enhance fatty acid uptake into mitochondria was demonstrated by an increased influx of a fluorescent palmitic acid analog. Enhanced fatty acid availability in mitochondria led to an increased generation of O*2-, as detected by a O*2- -sensitive fluorogenic dye, indicating oxidation of delivered substrates. Benzoquinone, an O*2- scavenger, blocked O*2- generation and prevented apoptosis as initiated by the combination of palmitoylcarnitine and carnitine. The lack of effect of the ceramide synthesis inhibitor fumonisin on palmitoylcarnitine/carnitine-induced apoptosis further supports the notion that apoptotic cell death is specifically due to fatty acid oxidation. In contrast to HT-29 cells, nontransformed human colonocytes did not respond to exogenous palmitoylcarnitine/carnitine and no apoptosis was observed. In conclusion, our studies provide evidence that a limited mitochondrial fatty acid import in human colon cancer cells prevents high rates of mitochondrial O*2- production and protects colon cancer cells from apoptosis that can be overcome by an exogenous carnitine supply.

  11. Measurement of platelet reactivity of patients with cardiovascular disease on-treatment with acetyl salicylic acid: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awidi, Abdalla; Saleh, Akram; Dweik, Manar; Kailani, Baraah; Abu-Fara, Mohammed; Nabulsi, Rinad; Bener, Abdulbari

    2011-09-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel are extensively used in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, the responsiveness to ASA treatment may vary among individuals. This study was conducted to investigate the profile and prevalence of ASA resistance in cardiac patients. From August 2007 to August 2008, a total of 282 cardiac patients were enrolled. Two study groups were identified: patients taking 100 mg ASA daily but without clopidogrel, and patients taking both 100 mg ASA and 75 mg clopidogrel daily. Platelet function was determined with the Multiplate analyzer to determine platelet responsiveness. Salicylate blood level was measured for all patients on ASA. Seventy-three patients (26%) were determined to be nonresponsive to ASA, and 45 patients (16%) were partially responsive, whereas 164 patients (58.2%) were responsive to ASA. Myocardial infarction and coronary obstruction were both strongly associated with ASA nonresponsiveness (p < 0.001). ASA resistance occurred more in female patients (p = 0.002). The salicylate blood level was found to be low in ASA-resistant patients (35.33 ± 50.22 mg/l) and higher in sensitive patients (54.26 ± 18.7 mg/l; p < 0.001). Quantitative assessment of platelet functions is predictive of ASA treatment failure in individual patients. Dual antiplatelet treatment with clopidogrel and ASA was found to have greater inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation than either agent alone. Non-adherence may be a significant mediator of poor outcome.

  12. Overexpression of a Gene Involved in Phytic Acid Biosynthesis Substantially Increases Phytic Acid and Total Phosphorus in Rice Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tagashira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation of seed phosphorus is important for seedling growth and environmental P sustainability in agriculture. The mechanism of regulating P content in seed, however, is poorly understood. To study regulation of total P, we focused on phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate; InsP6 biosynthesis-related genes, as InsP6 is a major storage form of P in seeds. The rice (Oryza sativa L. low phytic acid mutant lpa1-1 has been identified as a homolog of archael 2-phosphoglycerate kinase. The homolog might act as an inositol monophosphate kinase, which catalyzes a key step in InsP6 biosynthesis. Overexpression of the homolog in transgenic rice resulted in a significant increase in total P content in seed, due to increases in InsP6 and inorganic phosphates. On the other hand, overexpression of genes that catalyze the first and last steps of InsP6 biosynthesis could not increase total P levels. From the experiments using developing seeds, it is suggested that the activation of InsP6 biosynthesis in both very early and very late periods of seed development increases the influx of P from vegetative organs into seeds. This is the first report from a study attempting to elevate the P levels of seed through a transgenic approach.

  13. Uric acid: A new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The urate redox shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topical role of uric acid and its relation to cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and hypertension is rapidly evolving. Its important role both historically and currently in the clinical clustering phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome (MS, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, atheroscleropathy, and non-diabetic atherosclerosis is of great importance. Results Uric acid is a marker of risk and it remains controversial as to its importance as a risk factor (causative role. In this review we will attempt to justify its important role as one of the many risk factors in the development of accelerated atherosclerosis and discuss its importance of being one of the multiple injurious stimuli to the endothelium, the arterial vessel wall, and capillaries. The role of uric acid, oxidative – redox stress, reactive oxygen species, and decreased endothelial nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction cannot be over emphasized. In the atherosclerotic prooxidative environmental milieu the original antioxidant properties of uric acid paradoxically becomes prooxidant, thus contributing to the oxidation of lipoproteins within atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of their origins in the MS, T2DM, accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy, or non-diabetic vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. In this milieu there exists an antioxidant – prooxidant urate redox shuttle. Conclusion Elevations of uric acid > 4 mg/dl should be considered a "red flag" in those patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and should alert the clinician to strive to utilize a global risk reduction program in a team effort to reduce the complications of the atherogenic process resulting in the morbid – mortal outcomes of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Roles of gibberellic acid and zinc sulphate in increasing size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... 2005), litchi (Stern and Gazit, 2000; Chang and Lin,. 2006), guava (El-Sharkawy et al., 2005), and pear. (Zhang et al., 2007). In all species so far studied, gibberellins had the potential for increasing fruit size. The beneficial effects of Gibberellic acid (GA3) and nutrient elements sprays specially zinc on yield ...

  15. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were

  16. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F.M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Marianne; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; Leeuw, de Peter W.; Baak, van Marleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were

  17. Increased urinary imidazolepropionic acid, n-acetylhistamine and other imidazole compounds in patients with intestinal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiden, C. van der; Wadman, S.K.; Bree, P.K. de; Wauters, E.A.K.

    In 26 out of a large group of patients with gastrointestinal disorders abnormal urinary imidazole excretion patterns were found. Most frequently excessive or increased amounts of imidazolepropionic acid (ImPA) occurred, and as next N-acetylhistamine was excreted in excess. In a number of cases the

  18. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    ), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  19. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Zoledronic acid acutely increases sclerostin serum levels in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Antonino; Morabito, Nancy; Basile, Giorgio; Brancatelli, Santa; Cucinotta, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino

    2013-05-01

    Sclerostin is a circulating inhibitor of the Wnt-signaling pathway produced by osteocytes, which acts as a negative regulator of bone formation. Effects of zoledronic acid on sclerostin serum levels in postmenopausal osteoporosis are unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sclerostin serum levels after zoledronic acid administration and correlate variations with bone turnover markers. We conducted a prospective intervention study in an ambulatory care setting. Forty women (mean age 62.6 ± 4.9 years) with postmenopausal osteoporosis were enrolled in this study and randomized into 2 groups to receive zoledronic acid (5 mg) or placebo. At baseline and then at 2, 7, 30, and 360 days after zoledronic acid or placebo administration, serum levels of sclerostin, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), as a bone formation marker, and serum C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), as a bone resorption marker, were measured. Sclerostin serum levels increased by day 2, reached a peak at day 7 (3-fold baseline, P < .001), and then decreased at day 30 and returned near to baseline after 360 days in the zoledronic acid group. Both CTX and BSAP were reduced, and a significant negative correlation was observed between the percentage changes of sclerostin and the variation in BSAP and CTX at all time points in the zoledronic acid group (P < .05). No changes were observed in the placebo group. Our data demonstrate that zoledronic acid increases sclerostin serum levels and that sclerostin could play a role in coupling bone resorption to bone formation.

  1. The influence of adding tomato extract and acetylsalicylic acid to hypotensive therapy on the daily blood pressure profiles of patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osińska, Angelika N; Begier-Krasińska, Beata; Rzymski, Piotr; Krasińska, Aleksandra; Tykarski, Andrzej; Krasiński, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Arterial hypertension (HT) is one of the most common diseases around the world and constitutes a significant medical, social, and economic problem. Lifestyle changes, including adequate fruit and vegetable consumption, play an important role in controlling blood pressure (BP) and other cardiovascular risk factors. To compare the influence of adding acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or standardized tomato extract (STE) to standard hypotensive therapy on the values of arterial pressure and the daily blood pressure profiles of patients with hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. The study included 65 patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk. High-risk patients with primary hypertension were randomly allocated in a blinded fashion to one of two groups (ASA or STE). In each case, two visits were made: the first - before the treatment, and the second - after 4 weeks of treatment. During each visit, the patients underwent a clinical measurement of arterial pressure and an ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM). Blood platelet aggregation was assessed using the VerifyNow analyzer. After 4 weeks of treatment, the blood pressure values during the day (p blood pressure (DBP) (by 6.5%) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (by 3.3%). The use of STE is significant in HT patients with high total cardiovascular risk; it is associated with better BP control and improvements in the daily BP profile.

  2. Increases in duodenal glutamic acid supply linearly increase small intestinal starch digestion but not nitrogen balance in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, E J; Anderson, D E; Brake, D W

    2016-12-01

    Small intestinal starch digestion (SISD) in cattle is often limited; however, greater postruminal flow of high-quality protein (e.g., casein) can increase SISD, and Glu can mimic responses to casein for SISD. We evaluated effects of increasing Glu flows to the duodenum on SISD and N retention in cattle. Cattle received (DM basis) continuous duodenal infusion of raw cornstarch (1.5 ± 0.08 kg/d) and 0, 30.9 ± 0.6, 62.4 ± 1.2, or 120.4 ± 3.4 g/d Glu or 387.9 ± 17.5 g/d casein. As expected, the positive control (i.e., casein) increased ( = 0.05) SISD. Interestingly, SISD linearly increased ( = 0.02) with increasing amounts of Glu. Starch flow to the ileum linearly decreased ( = 0.04) in response to greater postruminal Glu and tended to decrease ( = 0.07) with duodenal casein infusion. Ileal flow of ethanol-soluble starch was not affected by duodenal Glu ( = 0.16) or casein ( = 0.42). There was a tendency ( = 0.08) for a quadratic response to Glu for ileal glucose flow with greater flows for intermediate levels of Glu, but casein had no effect ( = 0.81) on glucose flows to the ileum. Greater postruminal supplies of Glu (linear, = 0.05) and casein ( = 0.02) decreased fecal starch flow. Postruminal starch digestion was increased by both casein ( = 0.03) and Glu (linear, = 0.05). Nitrogen intake from feed was not different among treatments ( ≥ 0.23). By design, infusate N increased from 0 to 13 ± 1.5 g/d with greater amounts of Glu, and casein provided 61 ± 1.3 g N/d. Urinary N excretion was not affected ( ≥ 0.30) by postruminal Glu flow, but urine N was increased by casein ( < 0.01). Glutamic acid did not affect N retention ( ≥ 0.34), but casein increased N retention ( < 0.01). However, N retained as a percent of N intake (26.7 ± 1.7%) was not different when cattle were provided Glu ( ≥ 0.16) or casein ( = 0.38).

  3. Increasing abscisic acid levels by immunomodulation in barley grains induces precocious maturation without changing grain composition

    OpenAIRE

    Staroske, Nicole; Conrad, Udo; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, G?tz; Radchuk, Ruslana; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulates in seeds during the transition to the seed filling phase. ABA triggers seed maturation, storage activity, and stress signalling and tolerance. Immunomodulation was used to alter the ABA status in barley grains, with the resulting transgenic caryopses responding to the anti-ABA antibody gene expression with increased accumulation of ABA. Calculation of free versus antibody-bound ABA reveals large excess of free ABA, increasing signficantly in caryopses from 10 d...

  4. Cheese and cardiovascular health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of mortality worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a well-known risk factor of CVD which increases after the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Cheese is a dietary product commonly consumed in Western countries and known...... to contain high amounts of SFA. However, cheese also contributes with several nutrients in the diet such as essential amino acids and calcium. The aim of this thesis was to examine the effect of cheese intake on CVD risk through evidence from both observational, intervention and explorative studies....... By reviewing results from published observational studies it was concluded that cheese does not seem to increase CVD risk, despite of the high SFA content of most cheeses. A human cross-over intervention study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the effect of hard cheese intake on risk markers...

  5. Acid retention with reduced glomerular filtration rate increases urine biomarkers of kidney and bone injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Donald E; Pruszynski, Jessica; Cai, Wendy; Simoni, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Diets high in acid of developed societies that do not cause metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease nevertheless appear to cause acid retention with associated morbidity, particularly in those with reduced glomerular filtration rate. Here we used a rat 2/3 nephrectomy model of chronic kidney disease to study induction and maintenance of acid retention and its consequences on indicators of kidney and bone injury. Dietary acid was increased in animals eating base-producing soy protein with acid-producing casein and in casein-eating animals with added ammonium chloride. Using microdialysis to measure the kidney cortical acid content, we found that nephrectomized animals had greater acid retention than sham-operated animals when both ate the soy diet. Each increment in dietary acid further increased acid retention more in nephrectomized than in sham rats. Nephrectomized and sham animals achieved similar steady-state daily urine net acid excretion in response to increments in dietary acid but nephrectomized animals took longer to do so, contributing to greater acid retention that was maintained until the increased dietary acid was stopped. Acid retention was associated with increased urine excretion of both N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and deoxypyridinoline, greater in nephrectomized than control rats, consistent with kidney tubulointerstitial and bone matrix injury, respectively. Greater acid retention in nephrectomized than control animals was induced by a slower increase in urinary net acid excretion rate in response to the increment in dietary acid and also maintained until the dietary acid increment was stopped. Thus, acid retention increased biomarkers of kidney and bone injury in the urine, supporting untoward consequences to these two tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. All-trans retinoic acid increases oxidative metabolism in mature adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercader, Josep; Madsen, Lise; Felipe, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In rodents, retinoic acid (RA) treatment favors loss of body fat mass and the acquisition of brown fat features in white fat depots. In this work, we sought to examine to what extent these RA effects are cell autonomous or dependent on systemic factors. METHODS: Parameters of lipid......), and to an increased expression of proteins favoring fat oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha, uncoupling protein 2, fasting-induced adipose factor, enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation). These changes paralleled inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein and were...

  7. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  8. Depletion of retinoic acid receptors initiates a novel positive feedback mechanism that promotes teratogenic increases in retinoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico D'Aniello

    Full Text Available Normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis require precise levels of retinoic acid (RA signaling. Despite the importance of appropriate embryonic RA signaling levels, the mechanisms underlying congenital defects due to perturbations of RA signaling are not completely understood. Here, we report that zebrafish embryos deficient for RA receptor αb1 (RARαb1, a conserved RAR splice variant, have enlarged hearts with increased cardiomyocyte (CM specification, which are surprisingly the consequence of increased RA signaling. Importantly, depletion of RARαb2 or concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and RARαb2 also results in increased RA signaling, suggesting this effect is a broader consequence of RAR depletion. Concurrent depletion of RARαb1 and Cyp26a1, an enzyme that facilitates degradation of RA, and employment of a novel transgenic RA sensor line support the hypothesis that the increases in RA signaling in RAR deficient embryos are the result of increased embryonic RA coupled with compensatory RAR expression. Our results support an intriguing novel mechanism by which depletion of RARs elicits a previously unrecognized positive feedback loop that can result in developmental defects due to teratogenic increases in embryonic RA.

  9. Moderate intensity supine exercise causes decreased cardiac volumes and increased outer volume variations: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Jablonowski, Robert; Arvidsson, Per M

    2013-01-01

    The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study ...... was to determine if LV, RV and total heart volumes (THV) as well as cardiac pumping mechanisms change during physical exercise compared to rest using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).......The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study...

  10. Stable angina pectoris with no obstructive coronary artery disease is associated with increased risks of major adverse cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lasse; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Z

    2012-01-01

    (MACE), defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure, and all-cause mortality. Significantly more women (65%) than men (32%) had no obstructive CAD (Pdiabetes, smoking, and use of lipid...... arteries and 1.85 (1.51-2.28) for patients with diffuse non-obstructive CAD compared with the reference population. For all-cause mortality, normal coronary arteries and diffuse non-obstructive CAD were associated with HRs of 1.29 (1.07-1.56) and 1.52 (1.24-1.88), respectively.......ConclusionPatients with stable angina and normal coronary arteries or diffuse non-obstructive CAD have elevated risks of MACE and all-cause mortality compared with a reference population without ischaemic heart disease....

  11. Distribuição por gênero de ácido úrico sérico e fatores de risco cardiovascular: estudo populacional Distribución por género del ácido úrico sérico y factores de riesgo cardiovascular: estudio poblacional Gender distribution of serum uric acid and cardiovascular risk factors: population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Lamego Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    las mujeres. La SM estuvo positivamente asociada con el AUS elevado, independientemente del género. La obesidad abdominal y la hipertrigliceridemia fueron los principales factores asociados con la hiperuricemia incluso en los individuos normotensos, lo que puede añadirle un riesgo mayor a la hipertensión.BACKGROUND: There is no data concerning the epidemiology of hyperuricemia in Brazilian population-based studies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of serum uric acid and its relationship with demographics and cardiovascular variables. MEHTODS: We studied 1,346 individuals. Hyperuricemia was defined as > 6.8 and > 5.4 mg/dL for men and women, respectively. Metabolic syndrome (MS was defined with NCEP ATP III criteria. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 13.2%. The association of serum uric acid (SUA with cardiovascular risk factors was gender-specific: in women, higher SUA was associated with increasing BMI, even after adjustments for age-systolic blood pressure (SBP. In men, the relationship of SUA with HDLc was mediated by BMI, whereas in women, SUA was similar and dependent on BMI, regardless of glucose levels and presence of hypertension. In men, triglycerides, waist circumference (WC and SBP explained 11%, 4% and 1% of SUA variability, respectively. In women, WC and triglycerides explained 9% and 1% of SUA variability, respectively. Compared to the first quartile, men and women in the fourth quartile had a 3.29 fold and 4.18 fold increase of MS risk, respectively. Women had almost three fold higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Normotensive men with MS presented higher SUA, regardless of BMI. CONCLUSION: Our results seem to justify the need for gender-based evaluation regarding the association of SUA with cardiovascular risk factors, which was more pronounced in women. MS was positively associated with increasing SUA, regardless of gender. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were the main factors associated with hyperuricemia even in

  12. Oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Ascorbic acid and low pH increase oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Meyer, Anne S.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of ascorbic acid (0-4000 ppm) and pH (3.8-6.2) on oxidation and levels of iron and copper in various fractions of mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil was investigated. Ascorbic acid induced release of iron from the assumed oil- water interface into the aqueous phase at all pH levels......, but this effect of ascorbic acid was strongest at low pH (pH 3.8- 4.2). Ascorbic acid generally promoted formation of volatile oxidation compounds and reduced the peroxide value in mayonnaises. Peroxide values and total volatiles generally increased with decreasing pH values, suggesting that low pH promoted...... oxidation. It is proposed that iron bridges between the egg yolk proteins low-density lipoproteins, lipovitellin, and phosvitin at the oil-water interface are broken at low pH values, whereby iron ions become accessible as oxidation initiators. In the presence of ascorbic acid, oxidation is further enhanced...

  13. [Conjugated linoleic acid lowers hypercholesterolemia but increases the risk for biliary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V; Macarulla, Ma T; Chávarri, Ma; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Puy Portillo, Ma

    2005-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a series of linoleic acid isomers present in meat and diary products from ruminants that have their double bonds in a conjugated position. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of a CLA isomer, trans-10,cis-12, on cholesterolemia and biliary lithiasis risk in an animal model of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia. For that, two groups of hamsters were fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with 0.5% linoleic acid or with the trans-10,cis-12 CLA isomer, respectively. Daily food intake and weight were determined and, 6 weeks later, serum and bile samples were obtained, and livers and spleens were dissected and weighted. Cholesterolemia, hepatic and splenic cholesterol content, and biliary cholesterol phosnolipid and bileacid concentrations were determined; Biliary Lithogenic Index was calculated, and presence of gallstones was assessed. CLA did not modify energetic intake or final body weight, spleen size or spleen cholesterol content, but it did significantly reduce total serum cholesterol (-18%) at the expense of c-LDL (-66%), and it also significantly reduced hepatic content of free cholesterol (-26%), without changes in esterified cholesterol. Besides, CLA produced a 32% increase in biliary cholesterol concentration, a 28% increase in Lithogenic Index, and a higher incidence of biliary lithiasis. Therefore, the present study shows that the CLA trans-10,cis-12 isomer is hypercholesterolemic since it increases, at least in part, cholesterol secretion to the bile. As a consequence, this effect increases the risk for biliary lithiasis.

  14. Fortification of Ogi with Whey Increases Essential Amino Acids Content of Fortified Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Omole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inability of humans to synthesize essential amino acids (EAA necessitates the need to increase the levels of these nutrient molecules in certain foods in which they are deficient. Maize ogi is a typical food product for both infants and adults in Africa, but with poor EAA content. This study therefore sought to assess the possibility of increasing the EAA content in maize ogi by processing it with cheese whey instead of water. Maize ogi and whey-fortified ogi were prepared by the usual procedure of grain soaking, milling, and drying. Samples from both treatments were subjected to proximate composition and amino acid profile analyses using Waters 616/626 LC (HPLC instrument. L-lysine, L-trytophan, and L-methionine contents in maize ogi remarkably increased from 0.52, 0.15, and 0.90 mg/100 gm sample, respectively, to 0.90, 240, and 1.320 mg/100 gm sample in whey-fortified ogi. There were also significant increases in other EAA contents of whey-fortified ogi relative to its counterpart (normal maize ogi. The sum increase in EAA contents (9,405 mg correlates with the increase in protein (1 gm per gram sample. This study demonstrates that cheese whey increases EAA content in maize ogi and suggests that whey-fortified maize ogi may be a preferred alternative to water processed maize ogi.

  15. Acidic pH increases airway surface liquid viscosity in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao Xiao; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Hoegger, Mark J.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Karp, Philip H.; McMenimen, James D.; Choudhury, Biswa; Varki, Ajit; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) disrupts respiratory host defenses, allowing bacterial infection, inflammation, and mucus accumulation to progressively destroy the lungs. Our previous studies revealed that mucus with abnormal behavior impaired mucociliary transport in newborn CF piglets prior to the onset of secondary manifestations. To further investigate mucus abnormalities, here we studied airway surface liquid (ASL) collected from newborn piglets and ASL on cultured airway epithelia. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the viscosity of CF ASL was increased relative to that of non-CF ASL. CF ASL had a reduced pH, which was necessary and sufficient for genotype-dependent viscosity differences. The increased viscosity of CF ASL was not explained by pH-independent changes in HCO3– concentration, altered glycosylation, additional pH-induced disulfide bond formation, increased percentage of nonvolatile material, or increased sulfation. Treating acidic ASL with hypertonic saline or heparin largely reversed the increased viscosity, suggesting that acidic pH influences mucin electrostatic interactions. These findings link loss of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator–dependent alkalinization to abnormal CF ASL. In addition, we found that increasing Ca2+ concentrations elevated ASL viscosity, in part, independently of pH. The results suggest that increasing pH, reducing Ca2+ concentration, and/or altering electrostatic interactions in ASL might benefit early CF. PMID:26808501

  16. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Mercury diminishes the cardiovascular protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the modern diet of Inuit in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue Feng; Laird, Brian D; Chan, Hing Man

    2017-01-01

    Inuit in Canada have low reported incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) because of their traditional rich n-3 fatty acids marine diet. They are experiencing rapid nutrition transition and ischemic heart disease is now becoming a health concern. Our goal was to describe the modern Inuit diet, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and methyl mercury (MeHg) intake and estimate their contributions to the risk of MI. We also estimated the effect of promoting the consumption of more traditional food on Inuit's MI risk. We estimated the effect of Inuit diet on MI risk with modelling. Model formulas and assumptions were extracted from various epidemiology studies and literatures. International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a comprehensive health and nutrition survey conducted in 2007-8 with 2072 participants (aged 18-79) in Canada. Traditional food intake, blood biomarkers values from the IHS served as the baseline parameters of model input. Inuit traditional diet contained both high level of EPA, DHA and MeHg and their combined net effect was estimated to reduce the relative risk of MI by 1% for men and 2% for women. Arctic char meat provided the largest amount of EPA and DHA. Ringed seal liver was the main source for MeHg. Increase intake of selected fish, like salmon, herring and Arctic char by 75g per day can reduce the relative risk of MI (RR 0.70, 0.78 and 0.90 respectively). In the Inuit diet, the beneficial effect on MI of EPA and DHA is diminished by the adverse effect of MeHg. Promoting the increase consumption of fish species with high EPA+DHA and low MeHg may help to prevent MI among Inuit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid-enriched canola oil increases adiponectin concentrations: a randomized crossover controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril-Gravel, L; Labonté, M-E; Couture, P; Vohl, M-C; Charest, A; Guay, V; Jenkins, D A; Connelly, P W; West, S; Kris-Etherton, P M; Jones, P J; Fleming, J A; Lamarche, B

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of various dietary fatty acids on pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. We investigated the effect of 5 oils containing various amounts of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid (OA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma inflammatory biomarkers and expression levels of key inflammatory genes and transcription factors in whole blood cells. In a randomized, crossover controlled nutrition intervention, 114 adult men and women with abdominal obesity and at least one other criterion for the metabolic syndrome consumed 5 experimental isoenergetic diets for 4 weeks each, separated by 4-week washout periods. Each diet provided 60 g/3000 kcal of different oils: 1) control corn/safflower oil blend (CornSaff; LA-rich), 2) flax/safflower oil blend (FlaxSaff; ALA-rich), 3) conventional canola oil (Canola; OA-rich), 4) high oleic canola oil (CanolaOleic; highest OA content), 5) DHA-enriched high oleic canola oil (CanolaDHA; OA- and DHA-rich). Gene expression in whole blood cells was assessed in a subset of 62 subjects. CanolaDHA increased plasma adiponectin concentrations compared with the control CornSaff oil treatment (+4.5%, P = 0.04) and FlaxSaff (+6.9%, P = 0.0008). CanolaDHA also reduced relative expression levels of interleukin (IL)1B compared with CornSaff and Canola (-11% and -13%, respectively, both P = 0.03). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations were lower after Canola than after FlaxSaff (-17.8%, P = 0.047). DHA-enriched canola oil exerts anti-inflammatory effects compared with polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  20. Humic substances increase survival of freshwater shrimp Caridina sp. D to acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2013-02-01

    Humic substances (HS) are known to decrease the toxicity of heavy metals to aquatic organisms, and it has been suggested that they can provide buffering protection in low pH conditions. Despite this, little is known about the ability for HS to increase survival to acid mine drainage (AMD). In this study, the ability of HS to increase survival of the freshwater shrimp (Caridina sp. D sensu Page et al. in Biol Lett 1:139-142, 2005) to acid mine drainage was investigated using test waters collected from the Mount Morgan open pit in Central Queensland with the addition of Aldrich humic acid (AHA). The AMD water from the Mount Morgan open pit is highly acidic (pH 2.67) as well as contaminated with heavy metals (1780 mg/L aluminum, 101 mg/L copper [Cu], 173 mg/L manganese, 51.8 mg/L zinc [Zn], and 51.8 mg/L iron). Freshwater shrimp were exposed to dilutions in the range of 0.5 % to 5 % AMD water with and without the addition of 10 or 20 mg/L AHA. In the absence of HS, all shrimp died in the 2.5 % AMD treatment. In contrast, addition of HS increased survival in the 2.5 % AMD treatment by ≤66 % as well as significantly decreased the concentration of dissolved Cu, cobalt, cadmium, and Zn. The decreased toxicity of AMD in the presence of HS is likely to be due to complexation and precipitation of heavy metals with the HS; it is also possible that HS caused changes to the physiological condition of the shrimp, thus increasing their survival. These results are valuable in contributing to an improved understanding of potential role of HS in ameliorating the toxicity of AMD environments.

  1. Liming increases alfalfa yield and crude protein content in an acidic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A three year field trial examined the effect of three hydrated lime (HL, Ca(OH)2) rates (0, 1.5 and 3 Mg HL ha-1) on yield and quality characteristics of alfalfa on an acid soil (pHwater 1:2.5 4.7) in Western Serbia. Lime was applied only once. Total dry mass yields of a new planting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) increased up to ...

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong; Koh, Kwang Kon

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids co...

  3. Increasing fatty acid oxidation remodels the hypothalamic neurometabolome to mitigate stress and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W McFadden

    Full Text Available Modification of hypothalamic fatty acid (FA metabolism can improve energy homeostasis and prevent hyperphagia and excessive weight gain in diet-induced obesity (DIO from a diet high in saturated fatty acids. We have shown previously that C75, a stimulator of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1 and fatty acid oxidation (FAOx, exerts at least some of its hypophagic effects via neuronal mechanisms in the hypothalamus. In the present work, we characterized the effects of C75 and another anorexigenic compound, the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT inhibitor FSG67, on FA metabolism, metabolomics profiles, and metabolic stress responses in cultured hypothalamic neurons and hypothalamic neuronal cell lines during lipid excess with palmitate. Both compounds enhanced palmitate oxidation, increased ATP, and inactivated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Lipidomics and untargeted metabolomics revealed that enhanced catabolism of FA decreased palmitate availability and prevented the production of fatty acylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesterol esters, lipids that are associated with lipotoxicity-provoked metabolic stress. This improved metabolic signature was accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and yet favorable changes in oxidative stress, overt ER stress, and inflammation. We propose that enhancing FAOx in hypothalamic neurons exposed to excess lipids promotes metabolic remodeling that reduces local inflammatory and cell stress responses. This shift would restore mitochondrial function such that increased FAOx can produce hypothalamic neuronal ATP and lead to decreased food intake and body weight to improve systemic metabolism.

  4. Increases in seizure latencies induced by subcutaneous docosahexaenoic acid are lost at higher doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Taha, Ameer Y; Mantha, Rebecca L; Ciobanu, Flaviu A; Zeng, Qiudi H; Tchkhartichvili, George M; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2012-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which has been found to have anticonvulsant properties. Our group has previously reported in a pilot study that the acute administration of subcutaneous (s.c.) DHA increases seizure latencies in the maximal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure test, however it loses its effect at higher doses. The purpose of the present experiments was (1) to confirm that DHA loses its effect at higher doses, (2) to correlate the anticonvulsant properties of DHA with DHA levels in the different lipid pools of serum and (3) to evaluate whether an anticonvulsant dose of DHA resulted in an increase in DHA release from the brain phospholipids following induction of seizure. In the first experiment, male Wistar rats were injected s.c. with 200, 300, 400 or 600 mg/kg of DHA, or 400mg/kg oleic acid (OA, isocaloric control), and seizure tested with the maximal PTZ test 1h post injection (Experiment 1). In a second experiment, subjects received either: (1) an effective dose of DHA (400mg/kg), (2) a higher, non-effective dose (600 mg/kg; based on the findings of Experiment 1), or (3) OA (400mg/kg). Subjects were sacrificed 1h post injection and blood was collected for fatty acid analysis (Experiment 2). In the third experiment, subjects were injected with either the effective dose of DHA (400mg/kg) or OA (400mg/kg). One hour post lipid injection, animals received either PTZ or saline, and animals were euthanized via microwave fixation. Brain were extracted and unesterified fatty acid concentrations were measured (Experiment 3). Experiment 1 confirmed that DHA loses its effects at higher doses in the maximal PTZ test. The 400mg/kg dose was maximally effective but effects were lost at 600 mg/kg. Experiment 2 showed that only the unesterified DHA pool in serum was statistically increased by an acute injection of s.c. DHA (P0.05). Curiously, unesterified DHA levels were similar in both the 400mg/kg and 600 mg/kg dosage groups

  5. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  6. Dietary fatty acid enrichment increases egg size and quality of yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M; Masdeu, M; Hale, P; Sibbons, C M; Holt, W V

    2014-02-01

    Seahorses populations in the wild have been declining and to restore them a better knowledge of seahorse reproduction is required. This study examines the effect of dietary quality on seahorse fecundity and egg quality. Two different diets were tested with Hippocampus kuda females: frozen mysis (control) and frozen mysis enriched with a liposome spray containing essential fatty acids. Diets were given to females (two groups of five) over a seven week period. After this period, males (fed the control diet) and females were paired and the eggs dropped by the females were collected. Fatty acid profile were analysed and eggs were counted and measured. Results showed that females fed on enriched mysis had larger eggs and that these had a higher content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids. The size of the egg was especially affected in the first spawn, where egg size for females fed the enriched diet was significantly higher than the egg size from control females. This effect was reduced in the following spawning where no significant differences were found. Egg size is an important quality descriptor as seahorse juveniles originating from smaller eggs and/or eggs of poor quality will have less chances of overcoming adverse conditions in the wild and consequently have lower survival and growth rates. This study shows that enriching frozen mysis with polyunsaturated fatty acids increases egg size and egg quality of H. kuda. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined transgenic expression of Punica granatum conjugase (FADX) and FAD2 desaturase in high linoleic acid Arabidopsis thaliana mutant leads to increased accumulation of punicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Miles, Robin; Wickramarathna, Aruna; Sahibollah, Ariff Firman; Greer, Michael S; Chen, Guanqun; Weselake, Randall J

    2014-09-01

    Arabidopsis was engineered to produce 21.2 % punicic acid in the seed oil. Possible molecular factors limiting further accumulation of the conjugated fatty acid were investigated. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ) is a conjugated linolenic acid isomer and is a main component of Punica granatum (pomegranate) seed oil. Medical studies have shown that punicic acid is a nutraceutical with anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. It has been previously demonstrated that the conjugated double bonds in punicic acid are produced via the catalytic action of fatty acid conjugase (FADX), which is a homolog of the oleate desaturase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of the Δ(12)-double bond of linoleic acid (18:2Δ(9cis,12cis) ) into conjugated Δ(11trans) and Δ(13cis) -double bonds. Previous attempts to produce punicic acid in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds overexpressing P. granatum FADX resulted in a limited accumulation of punicic acid of up to 4.4 %, accompanied by increased accumulation of oleic acid (18:1∆(9cis) ), suggesting that production of punicic acid in some way inhibits the activity of oleate desaturase (Iwabuchi et al. 2003). In the current study, we applied a new strategy to enhance the production of punicic acid in a high linoleic acid A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant background using the combined expression of P. granatum FADX and FAD2. This approach led to the accumulation of punicic acid at the level of 21 % of total fatty acids and restored the natural proportion of oleic acid observed in the A. thaliana fad3/fae1 mutant. In addition, we provide new insights into the high oleate phenotype and describe factors limiting the production of punicic acid in genetically engineered plants.

  8. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  9. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  10. Efficient increase of ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in tomato fruits by targeted mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Satoko; Arai, Chikako; Takayama, Mariko; Matsukura, Chiaki; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that has hypotensive effects. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is among the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetables in the world and contains higher levels of GABA than other major crops. Increasing these levels can further enhance the blood pressure-lowering function of tomato fruit. Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a key enzyme in GABA biosynthesis; it has a C-terminal autoinhibitory domain that regulates enzymatic function, and deleting this domain increases GAD activity. The tomato genome has five GAD genes (SlGAD1-5), of which two (SlGAD2 and SlGAD3) are expressed during tomato fruit development. To increase GABA content in tomato, we deleted the autoinhibitory domain of SlGAD2 and SlGAD3 using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9 technology. Introducing a stop codon immediately before the autoinhibitory domain increased GABA accumulation by 7 to 15 fold while having variable effects on plant and fruit size and yield. This is the first study describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to increase GABA content in tomato fruits. Our findings provide a basis for the improvement of other types of crop by CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic modification.

  11. Betel nut chewing is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Long-Teng; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Kuo-Chin

    2008-05-01

    Betel nut chewing is related to several kinds of cancer, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Whether it is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between betel nut chewing and CVD and all-cause mortality. A baseline cohort of 56,116 male participants > or = 20 y old were recruited from 4 nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan in 1998 and 1999. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of CVD and all-cause mortality for betel nut chewers during an 8-y follow-up period. There were 1549 deaths during the follow-up period, 309 of which were due to CVD. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, lipids, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% CI) of CVD and all-cause mortality among the former betel nut chewers were 1.56 (1.02, 2.38) and 1.40 (1.17, 1.68), respectively, and those among current chewers were 2.02 (1.31, 3.13) and 1.40 (1.16, 1.70), respectively, compared with persons who had never chewed betel quid. Current and former betel nut chewers had a higher risk of CVD mortality (RR: 2.10; P betel nut chewing was associated with greater CVD and all-cause mortality. Betel nut chewing was independently associated with a greater risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men. Regular screening for betel nut chewing history may help prevent excess deaths in the future. An anti-betel nut chewing program is urgently warranted for current chewers.

  12. Tenfold risk increase of major cardiovascular events after high limb amputation with non-compliance for secondary prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaeva, Evgeniya V; Saner, Hugo; Janabaev, Bakhtiyor B; Shalaeva, Aleksandra V

    2017-05-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of compliance with lifestyle recommendations and medication on 1-year prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) after trans-femoral amputation (TFA). Methods In this prospective single-center interventional cohort study, 179 consecutive T2D patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent 1-year follow-up examination after TFA in 2013. Lower limb and coronary artery CT angiography were provided before surgery; physical examination and laboratory tests were performed at baseline and every month after TFA for 1 year. A total of 77 patients (43%) were defined as compliant. They followed all recommendations, including >80% drug intake (anti-diabetic, antihypertensive drugs, dual antiplatelet and statin treatment), healthy diet, smoking cessation, physical exercise ≥30 min/day. A total of 102 patients (57%) were non-compliant (drug intake ≤80%, and did not fully follow lifestyle change recommendations). Results There were no significant differences at baseline between the two groups. Fuster-BEWAT score in 1 year was 9.83 ± 3.1 in compliant and 7.74 ± 2.9 in non-compliant patients ( p = 0.0001). At 1-year follow-up, there were 43 myocardial infarctions (40 patients (93%) were non-compliant) and 28 deaths (26 cases (92.8%) were non-compliant). Patients from the non-compliant group with three- and two-vessel obstructive CAD had higher 1-year MACE rate than those with one-vessel obstructive and non-obstructive CAD (95.24% and 70.5% versus 17.2% and 8.6%; p risk for MACE within 1 year after TFA.

  13. Increased levels of resistin in rotating shift workers: a potential mediator of cardiovascular risk associated with circadian misalignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgueño, Adriana; Gemma, Carolina; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos Jose

    2010-06-01

    Shift work schedule has been associated with several health problems, including deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. The present study aimed to evaluate the circulating levels of four biomarkers of atherosclerosis (soluble CD40 ligand [sCD40L], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1], resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1]) in a population-based sample of young adult men exposed to rotating shift work schedule in comparison with day workers. A total of 439 men aged 34.4+/-8.6 years were included in a cross-sectional study comparing 255 day workers with 184 rotating shift workers. Circulating levels of the biomarkers were measured in duplicate by ELISA using monoclonal specific antibodies. Rotating shift workers had elevated (6440+/-4510 pg/mL) (mean+/-SD) circulating levels of resistin in comparison with day workers (5450+/-3780 pg/mL), and significance remains after adjusting for age and blood leukocyte count (pShift work schedule explains 1% of the proportion of the total variation in the circulating resistin levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that resistin levels significantly correlate with rotating shift work (pcardiovascular risk %. Circulating levels of sCD40L, MCP-1, and PAI-1 did not significantly differ between day workers and shift workers. Shift work schedule was significantly associated with elevated plasma resistin levels. Resistin, which is probably produced by leukocytes, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of early metabolic syndrome components in young men chronically exposed to circadian misalignment. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism since young adulthood increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Huan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging patients with bipolar disorder (BD are at a high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. However, few studies have directly examined the association between metabolic risks and CVDs in patients with BD across the lifespan. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine lifetime metabolic risk factors for CVDs in patients with BD. We recruited BD-I patients who were more than 50 years old and had had at least one psychiatric hospitalization. Patients who had a cardiologist-confirmed CVD diagnosis (ICD-9 code 401–414 were assigned to the case group. Fifty-five cases were matched with 55 control patient without CVDs based on age and sex. Clinical data were obtained by retrospectively reviewing 30 years of hospital records. Compared to control subjects, a significantly higher proportion of cases had impaired fasting glucose between ages 31 and 40 (44.0% versus 17.4%, p = 0.046, diabetes mellitus between ages 41 and 50 (25.6% versus 8.6%, p = 0.054, and diabetes mellitus after age 51 (36.3% versus 12.7%, p = 0.005. No significant difference was found in overweight, obesity, or dyslipidemia. After adjusting for years of education, first episode as mania, and second generation antipsychotic use, lifetime diabetes mellitus remained a risk factor for CVDs (OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.89–10.66, p = 0.001. The findings suggest that glucose dysregulation across the adult age span is probably the major metabolic risk contributing to CVDs in patients with BD. Clinicians therefore have to notice the serum fasting glucose levels of BD patients since young adulthood.

  15. Progesterone increases glomerular filtration rate, urinary kallikrein excretion and uric acid clearance in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A N; Guimarães, J A; Gebara, M; Sustovich, D R; Martinez, T R; Camano, L

    1988-01-01

    In pregnancy there is a rise in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), plasma aldosterone levels, uric acid clearance and urinary kallikrein excretion. In toxemia all the above parameters tend to decrease. Progesterone has a diuretic effect which is usually related to aldosterone antagonism. We administered progesterone to normal women and observed that GFR, uric acid clearance and kallikrein excretion increased significantly, GFR from 103.0 +/- 13.7 ml/min to 118.0 +/- 18.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), uric acid clearance from 9.0 +/- 3.6 ml/min to 14.3 +/- 4.0 ml/min (P less than 0.01), and urinary kallikrein excretion from 165 +/- 156 mU to 432 +/- 220 mU (P less than 0.01). Natriuresis and potassium excretion also increased from 15.9 +/- 6.4 mEq to 33.4 +/- 10.9 mEq (P less than 0.01) and from 7.6 +/- 2.7 mEq to 14.0 +/- 5.4 mEq, (P less than 0.01), respectively, suggesting that in this situation aldosterone antagonism is not relevant to explain the diuretic effects of progesterone.

  16. Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jeffrey B; Bury, David C; Richardson, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. One-third of these deaths may be preventable through healthy lifestyle choices including diet and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality, whereas the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. Substituting dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes, although exogenous supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. There is an association between increased sodium intake and cardiovascular risk, but reducing dietary sodium has not consistently shown a reduction in cardiovascular risk. Physical activity recommendations for adults are at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or an equivalent combination. Increases in physical activity by any level are associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Introducing muscle-strengthening activities at least twice per week in previously inactive adults is associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes. Inactive adults without known CVD can gradually increase activity to a moderate-intensity level without consulting a physician. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends behavioral counseling to promote healthy diet and physical activity in adults at high risk of CVD. Evidence of benefit for counseling patients at average risk is less established.

  17. Increasing Extracellular Free Fatty Acid Production in Escherichia coli by Disrupting Membrane Transport Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Soo; Lee, Sung Kuk

    2017-12-27

    Transposon mutagenesis was used to identify three mutants of E. coli that exhibited increased free fatty acid (FFA) production, which resulted from the disruption of genes related to membrane transport. Deletion of envR, gusC, and mdlA individually in a recombinant E. coli strain resulted in 1.4-, 1.8-, and 1.2-fold increases in total FFA production, respectively. In particular, deletion of envR increased the percentage of extracellular FFA to 46%, compared with 29% for the control strain. Multiple deletion of envR, gusC, mdlA, ompF, and fadL had a synergistic effect on FFA production, resulting in high extracellular FFA production, comprising up to 50% of total FFA production. This study has identified new membrane proteins involved in FFA production and showed that genetic engineering targeting these membrane transporters is important to increase both total FFA and extracellular FFA production.

  18. Diabetes Mellitus and Increased Tuberculosis Susceptibility: The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmandas, Ekta; van den Heuvel, Corina N A M; Damen, Michelle S M A; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Netea, Mihai G; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus confers a threefold increased risk for tuberculosis, but the underlying immunological mechanisms are still largely unknown. Possible mediators of this increased susceptibility are short-chain fatty acids, levels of which have been shown to be altered in individuals with diabetes. We examined the influence of physiological concentrations of butyrate on cytokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Butyrate decreased Mtb-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses, while it increased production of IL-10. This anti-inflammatory effect was independent of butyrate's well-characterised inhibition of HDAC activity and was not accompanied by changes in Toll-like receptor signalling pathways, the eicosanoid pathway, or cellular metabolism. In contrast blocking IL-10 activity reversed the effects of butyrate on Mtb-induced inflammation. Alteration of the gut microbiota, thereby increasing butyrate concentrations, can reduce insulin resistance and obesity, but further studies are needed to determine how this affects susceptibility to tuberculosis.

  19. Biomarkers of Dairy Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Otto, de M.C.; Nettleton, J.A.; Lemaitre, R.N.; Steffen, L.M.; Kromhout, D.; Rich, R.L.; Tsai, M.Y.; Jacobs, D.R.; Mozaffarian, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the role of dairy fat intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been mixed and inconclusive. Most earlier studies have used self-reported measures of dietary intake and focused on relatively racially homogeneous populations. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat in a

  20. MTHFR C677T genotype and cardiovascular risk in a general population without mandatory folic acid fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Skaaby, Tea; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analyses have suggested an effect of MTHFR C677T genotype (rs1801133), a proxy for blood total homocysteine, on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in populations with low population dietary folate. The aim was to examine the association and effect modification by serum folate and vitamin B12 levels...

  1. Raspberry ketone increases both lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2010-10-01

    Raspberry ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound of the red raspberry. The dietary administration of RK to male mice has been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes. To elucidate a possible mechanism for the antiobesity action of RK, its effects on the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, lipolysis, and fatty acid oxidation in 3T3-L1 were investigated. Treatment with 10 µM of RK increased lipolysis significantly in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. An immunoassay showed that RK increased both the expression and the secretion of adiponectin, an adipocytokine mainly expressed and secreted by adipose tissue. In addition, treatment with 10 µM of RK increased the fatty acid oxidation and suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings suggest that RK holds great promise as an herbal medicine since its biological activities alter the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Addition of methionine and low cultivation temperatures increase palmitoleic acid production by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisaka, Yasushi; Kimura, Kazuyoshi; Uemura, Hiroshi; Yamaoka, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoleic acid (POA) has recently gained attention for its health benefits and as a potential resource for industrial feedstock. This study focused on the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a high POA content but low lipid content, for POA production. We created an oleaginous S. cerevisiae as a dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1p lacking the N-terminal 29 amino acids (Dga1∆Np). This was performed to further increase POA content in the oleaginous S. cerevisiae through optimization of culture conditions and genetic modifications. We found that high concentrations of methionine (2.0 g/l) increased POA production in a concentration-dependent way, while other amino acids such as cysteine, glycine, and glutamine showed no effect. It was not clear if the effect of methionine was mediated through S-adenosylmethionine, mainly because its addition did not increase POA content as did the addition of methionine. We increased POA content up to 55% by incubation of the dga1 transformant in a medium containing 2 g/l methionine at lower than normal temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 °C. Cultivation at such temperatures increased dry cell weight, but did not affect the lipid content, thereby increasing total POA production. The effects of methionine and low temperatures (20-25 °C) on POA content were more apparent in the strains overexpressing Dga1∆Np than those harboring empty vectors, which was consistent with the observation that POA was enriched in triacylglycerol. Overexpression of Ole1p, the enzyme responsible for POA production, did not increase POA content of the dga1 mutant overexpressing Dga1∆Np, but increased that of the wild-type strain overexpressing Dga1∆Np. The results suggested that genomic Ole1p in the dga1 mutant was active enough to achieve the optimal POA production under these conditions. Finally, the POA production by the S. cerevisiae transformant was increased 2.5-fold, which demonstrates that oleaginous S. cerevisiae is a potential source

  3. Ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle and brown fat and decreases diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D Kunkel

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle Akt activity stimulates muscle growth and imparts resistance to obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease. We recently found that ursolic acid increases skeletal muscle Akt activity and stimulates muscle growth in non-obese mice. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ursolic acid might increase skeletal muscle Akt activity in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We studied mice that consumed a high fat diet lacking or containing ursolic acid. In skeletal muscle, ursolic acid increased Akt activity, as well as downstream mRNAs that promote glucose utilization (hexokinase-II, blood vessel recruitment (Vegfa and autocrine/paracrine IGF-I signaling (Igf1. As a result, ursolic acid increased skeletal muscle mass, fast and slow muscle fiber size, grip strength and exercise capacity. Interestingly, ursolic acid also increased brown fat, a tissue that shares developmental origins with skeletal muscle. Consistent with increased skeletal muscle and brown fat, ursolic acid increased energy expenditure, leading to reduced obesity, improved glucose tolerance and decreased hepatic steatosis. These data support a model in which ursolic acid reduces obesity, glucose intolerance and fatty liver disease by increasing skeletal muscle and brown fat, and suggest ursolic acid as a potential therapeutic approach for obesity and obesity-related illness.

  4. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Whitmore, Bonny; Haddad, Ella; Sabaté, Joan; Rajaram, Sujatha

    2014-03-27

    Plant and marine n-3 fatty acids (FA) may favorably modify select markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Whether supplementing the habitual diet of lacto-ovo-vegetarians (LOV) with walnuts (containing α-linolenic acid, ALA) and n-3 FA enriched eggs (containing primarily docosahexaenoic acid, DHA and ALA) would have equivalent effects on CVD risk factors is explored in this study. In this study, 20 healthy free-living LOVs following their habitual diet were randomly assigned in a crossover design to receive one of three supplements: n-3 FA enriched egg (6/week), walnuts (28.4 g, 6/week) or a standard egg, 6/week (control) for 8 weeks each with 4-wk washout between treatments. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids, serum lipids and inflammatory markers were measured at the end of each treatment. Dietary compliance was observed by an expected increase in erythrocyte membrane ALA following the walnut treatment and in DHA following the n-3 FA enriched egg treatment. Walnut treatment lowered serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and Apo B (p vegetarian.

  5. The impact of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on the incidence of cardiovascular events and complications in peripheral arterial disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Jennifer E; Yeganeh, Azadeh; Zarychanski, Ryan; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Friesen, Carol; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2014-05-31

    Individuals with peripheral arterial disease are at higher risk for cardiovascular events than the general population. While supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been shown to improve vascular function, it remains unclear if supplementation decreases serious clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events and complications in adults with peripheral arterial disease. We searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) from inception to 6 December 2013 to identify randomized trials of omega-3 PUFA supplementation (from fish or plant oils) that lasted ≥12 weeks in adults with peripheral arterial disease. No language filters were applied. Data on trial design, population characteristics, and health outcomes were extracted. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events; secondary outcomes included myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, stroke, angina, amputation, revascularization procedures, maximum and pain-free walking distance, adverse effects of the intervention, and quality of life. Trial quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Of 741 citations reviewed, we included five trials enrolling 396 individuals. All included trials were of unclear or high risk of bias. There was no evidence of a protective association of omega-3 PUFA supplementation against major adverse cardiac events (pooled risk ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.22 to 2.41, I2 75%, 2 trials, 288 individuals) or other serious clinical outcomes. Adverse events and compliance were poorly reported. Our results showed that insufficient evidence exists to suggest a beneficial effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation in adults with peripheral arterial disease with regard to cardiovascular events and other serious clinical outcomes.

  6. Does exposure to aircraft noise increase the mort