WorldWideScience

Sample records for acids electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  2. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  3. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  4. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  5. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  6. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  8. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  11. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  12. Electron transport chains of lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally considered facultative anaerobic obligate fermentative bacteria. They are unable to synthesize heme. Some lactic acid bacteria are unable to form menaquinone as well. Both these components are cofactors of respiratory (electron transport) chains of prokaryotic

  13. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  14. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  15. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  16. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  17. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  18. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  19. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  20. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  1. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  2. Electronic coupling through natural amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Beckham, Gregg T., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov; Crowley, Michael F., E-mail: michael.crowley@nrel.gov, E-mail: gregg.beckham@nrel.gov [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Bioenergy Center, 15013 Denver West Pkwy, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Myriad scientific domains concern themselves with biological electron transfer (ET) events that span across vast scales of rate and efficiency through a remarkably fine-tuned integration of amino acid (AA) sequences, electronic structure, dynamics, and environment interactions. Within this intricate scheme, many questions persist as to how proteins modulate electron-tunneling properties. To help elucidate these principles, we develop a model set of peptides representing the common α-helix and β-strand motifs including all natural AAs within implicit protein-environment solvation. Using an effective Hamiltonian strategy with density functional theory, we characterize the electronic coupling through these peptides, furthermore considering side-chain dynamics. For both motifs, predictions consistently show that backbone-mediated electronic coupling is distinctly sensitive to AA type (aliphatic, polar, aromatic, negatively charged and positively charged), and to side-chain orientation. The unique properties of these residues may be employed to design activated, deactivated, or switch-like superexchange pathways. Electronic structure calculations and Green’s function analyses indicate that localized shifts in the electron density along the peptide play a role in modulating these pathways, and further substantiate the experimentally observed behavior of proline residues as superbridges. The distinct sensitivities of tunneling pathways to sequence and conformation revealed in this electronic coupling database help improve our fundamental understanding of the broad diversity of ET reactivity and provide guiding principles for peptide design.

  3. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  4. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  5. Leaching of Electronic Waste Using Biometabolised Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Saidan; B. Brown; M. Valix

    2012-01-01

    The revolution in information and communication technology has brought huge technical benefits and wealth, but has created a major global problem: the generation of vast amounts of electronic waste, or e-waste through product obsolesce. The challenge in managing e-waste will be in developing sustainable recycling tech- nologies that are able to address the volume and complexity of this waste using cost effective and ecologically sen-sitive methods. In this study, the capability or microorganism metabolic acids in dissolving the metallic tractions from waste printed circuit boards was examined. Several factors were considered in the examination of the activityof the acids-including secondary reactions, solution pH, temperature and the nature of ligands in solutions (or bioacid constituents). The leaching tests were cgnducted ex-situ, using synthetic organic acids. Leaching was performed for periods of up to 6 hat 70-90 ℃ and 1000 r-min-1.

  6. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  7. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  8. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  9. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  10. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  11. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  12. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  13. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  14. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  15. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  16. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  17. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  18. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  19. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  20. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  1. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  2. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  3. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  4. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  6. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  7. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  8. Resonant electron capture by aspartame and aspartic acid molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftakhov, M V; Shchukin, P V

    2016-12-30

    The processes for dissociative electron capture are the key mechanisms for decomposition of biomolecules, proteins in particular, under interaction with low-energy electrons. Molecules of aspartic acid and aspartame, i.e. modified dipeptides, were studied herein to define the impact of the side functional groups on peptide chain decomposition in resonant electron-molecular reactions. The processes of formation and decomposition of negative ions of both aspartame and aspartic acid were studied by mass spectrometry of negative ions under resonant electron capture. The obtained mass spectra were interpreted under thermochemical analysis by quantum chemical calculations. Main channels of negative molecular ions fragmentation were found and characteristic fragment ions were identified. The СООН fragment of the side chain in aspartic acid is shown to play a key role like the carboxyl group in amino acids and aliphatic oligopeptides. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  10. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  11. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  12. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  13. Electronic-state control of amino acids on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masato; Nakayama, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    Electronic structures of amino acids on the Si(1 1 1) surfaces are investigated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that among various polar amino acids, a histidine is the only one that can be positively ionized when hole carriers are supplied in the Si substrate, by transferring the hole charge from Si substrate to an amino acid. This result indicates that the ionization of a histidine, which will activate the protein functions, can be controlled electrically by producing amino acid/Si junctions

  14. Detecting Electron Transport of Amino Acids by Using Conductance Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiong Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The single molecular conductance of amino acids was measured by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM break junction. Conductance measurement of alanine gives out two conductance values at 10−1.85 G0 (1095 nS and 10−3.7 G0 (15.5 nS, while similar conductance values are also observed for aspartic acid and glutamic acid, which have one more carboxylic acid group compared with alanine. This may show that the backbone of NH2–C–COOH is the primary means of electron transport in the molecular junction of aspartic acid and glutamic acid. However, NH2–C–COOH is not the primary means of electron transport in the methionine junction, which may be caused by the strong interaction of the Au–SMe (methyl sulfide bond for the methionine junction. The current work reveals the important role of the anchoring group in the electron transport in different amino acids junctions.

  15. Challenges in recovering resources from acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Bowell, Robert J.; Campbell, Kate M.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2017-01-01

    Metal recovery from mine waters and effluents is not a new approach but one that has occurred largely opportunistically over the last four millennia. Due to the need for low-cost resources and increasingly stringent environmental conditions, mine waters are being considered in a fresh light with a designed, deliberate approach to resource recovery often as part of a larger water treatment evaluation. Mine water chemistry is highly dependent on many factors including geology, ore deposit composition and mineralogy, mining methods, climate, site hydrology, and others. Mine waters are typically Ca-Mg-SO4±Al±Fe with a broad range in pH and metal content. The main issue in recovering components of these waters having potential economic value, such as base metals or rare earth elements, is the separation of these from more reactive metals such as Fe and Al. Broad categories of methods for separating and extracting substances from acidic mine drainage are chemical and biological. Chemical methods include solution, physicochemical, and electrochemical technologies. Advances in membrane techniques such as reverse osmosis have been substantial and the technique is both physical and chemical. Biological methods may be further divided into microbiological and macrobiological, but only the former is considered here as a recovery method, as the latter is typically used as a passive form of water treatment.

  16. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Jaksch, S.; Martins, G.; Dang, H. M.; Dampc, M.; Denifl, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Ellis, A. M.; Scheier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by

  17. Reactivity of H atoms and hydrated electrons with chlorobenzoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zona, Robert [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Solar, Sonja [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Getoff, Nikola [Department of Nutritional Sciences, Section Radiation Biology, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Sehested, Knud; Holcman, Jerzy [Environmental Science and Technology Department, RISO National Laboratory, DK-4000, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2008-02-15

    H radicals react with chlorobenzoic acids and chlorobenzene (k(H{sup {center_dot}}+substrates)=(0.7-1.5)x10{sup 9} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}) by addition to the benzene ring forming H adducts with characteristic absorption bands in the range of 310-360 nm. The rate constants for their second-order decay are 2k=(3.5-6)x10{sup 8} dm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. By reduction with e{sub aq}{sup -} fragmentation and chloride release was established for 2- and 4-chlorobenzoic acid, for 3-chlorobenzoic acid the addition of electrons to the carboxylate group was observed by pulse radiolysis. By gamma radiolysis could be proved that these radical anions undergo intramolecular electron transfer and quantitave dechlorination. The efficiency in degradation was 4-chlorobenzoic acid>3-chlorobenzoic acid>2-chlorobenzoic acid. Benzoic acid was found as final product for all substrates.

  18. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Fárník, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid-water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4)m(H2O)n clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- and (H2O)nH2SO4-. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2O)n clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO4)2(H2O)n this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2O)nH2SO4- cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid-water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid-water aerosols are discussed.

  19. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  20. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to non-random types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Radiation-induced electron migration in nucleic acids has been examined using oligonucleotides containing 5-bromouracil (5-BrU). Interaction of 5-BrU with solvated electrons results in release of bromide ions and formation of uracil-5-yl radicals. Monitoring either bromide ion release or uracil formation provides an opportunity to study electron migration processes in model nucleic acid systems. Using this approach we have discovered that electron migration along oligonucleotides is significantly influenced by the base sequence and strandedness. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution, which compares with mean migration distances of 6-10 bp for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 bp for E. coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5' to 3' direction along a double-stranded oligonucleotide containing a region of purine bases adjacent to the 5-BrU moiety. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation. (Author)

  1. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  2. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  3. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  4. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  5. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lengyel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid–water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4m(H2On clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− and (H2OnH2SO4−. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2On clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO42(H2On this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2OnH2SO4− cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid–water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid–water aerosols are discussed.

  7. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  8. Structural and electronic properties of L-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, P. R.; Clark, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    The structural and electronic properties of four L-amino acids alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and the generalized gradient approximation. Within the crystals, it is found that the constituent molecules adopt zwitterionic configurations, in agreement with experimental work. Lattice constants are found to be in good agreement with experimentally determined values, although certain discrepancies do exist due to the description of van der Waals interactions. We find that these materials possess wide DFT band gaps in the region of 5 eV, with electrons highly localized to the constituent molecules. It is found that the main mechanisms behind crystal formation are dipolar interactions and hydrogen bonding of a primarily electrostatic character, in agreement with current biochemical understanding of these systems. The electronic structure suggests that the amine and carboxy functional groups are dominant in determining band structure.

  9. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  10. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  11. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  12. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, W.; Sari, Yessie W.; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent

  13. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  14. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  15. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  16. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  17. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  18. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  19. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  20. Acid Rain in Niger Delta Region: Implication on Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research focused on the effect of acid rain on the water quality of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Three hundred water samples were collected: 100 water samples from rain, 100 from open wells and 100 from rivers. The water samples were analysed using the paired t-test and multiple correlation analysis to ascertain ...

  1. Modeling molecular acidity with electronic properties and Hammett constants for substituted benzoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Liu, Lianghong; Liu, Wanhui; Liu, Shaogang; Liu, Shubin

    2011-12-29

    Molecular acidity is an important physiochemical property essential in many fields of molecular studies, but an efficient and reliable computational approach to make accurate predictions is still missing. In this work, based on our previous studies to use gas phase electronic properties such as molecular electrostatic potential and valence natural atomic orbitals of the acidic atom and leaving proton, we demonstrate here that different approaches can be employed to tackle this problem. To that end, we employ 196 singly, doubly, and triply substituted benzoic acids for the study. We show that two different approaches are possible, one focusing on the carboxyl group through its localized electronic properties and the other on the substituting groups via Hammett constants and their additivity rule. Our present results clearly exhibit that with the linear models built from the singly substituted species, one can accurately predict the pK(a) values for the doubly and triply substituted species with both of these two approaches. The predictions from these approaches are consistent with each other and agree well with the experimental data. These intrinsically different approaches are the two manifestations of the same molecular acidity property, both valid and complementary to each other. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  3. Progress of succinic acid production from renewable resources: Metabolic and fermentative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Min; Ma, Jiangfeng; Wu, Mingke; Liu, Rongming; Liang, Liya; Xin, Fengxue; Zhang, Wenming; Jia, Honghua; Dong, Weiliang

    2017-12-01

    Succinic acid is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid, which has attracted much interest due to its abroad usage as a precursor of many industrially important chemicals in the food, chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Facing the shortage of crude oil supply and demand of sustainable development, biological production of succinic acid from renewable resources has become a topic of worldwide interest. In recent decades, robust producing strain selection, metabolic engineering of model strains, and process optimization for succinic acid production have been developed. This review provides an overview of succinic acid producers and cultivation technology, highlight some of the successful metabolic engineering approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of renewable resources into lactic acid: an industrial view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A K; Chaudhari, A B; Kothari, R M

    2011-03-01

    Lactic acid, an anaerobic product of glycolysis, can be theoretically produced by synthetic route; however, it is commercially produced by homo-fermentative batch mode of operations. Factors affecting its production and strategies improving it are considered while devising an optimized protocol. Although a hetero-fermentative mode of production exists, it is rarely used for commercial production. Attempts to use Rhizopus sp. for lactic acid production through either hetero-fermentative or thermophilic conditions were not economical. Since almost 70% of the cost of its production is accounted by raw materials, R & D efforts are still focused to find economically attractive agri-products to serve as sources of carbon and complex nitrogen inputs to meet fastidious nutrient needs for microbial growth and lactic acid production. Therefore, need exists for using multi-pronged strategies for higher productivity. Its present production and consumption scenario is examined. Its optically active isomers and chemical structure permit its use for the production of several industrially important chemicals, health products (probiotics), food preservatives, and bio-plastics. In addition, its salts and esters appear to have a variety of applications.

  5. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  6. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  7. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  8. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  9. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  10. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  11. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  12. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  13. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  14. Electron donating and acid-base properties of cerium oxide and its mixed oxides with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugunan, S.; Jalaja, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The electron donating properties of cerium oxide activated at 300, 500 and 800 degC and of its mixed oxides with alumina were examined based on the adsorption of electron acceptors exhibiting different electron affinities. The surface acidity/basicity of the oxides was determined by titrimetry; the H 0,max values are given. The limit of electron transfer from the oxide surface lies within the region of 1.77 and 2.40 eV in terms of the electron affinity of the electron acceptor. Cerium oxide promotes the electron donor nature of alumina while leaving the limit of electron transfer unchanged. 2 tabs., 4 figs., 13 refs

  15. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  16. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Metabolism of Fructophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from the Apis mellifera L. Bee Gut: Phenolic Acids as External Electron Acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Addante, Rocco; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) are strongly associated with the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of Apis mellifera L. worker bees due to the consumption of fructose as a major carbohydrate. Seventy-seven presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from GITs of healthy A. mellifera L. adults, which were collected from 5 different geographical locations of the Apulia region of Italy. Almost all of the isolates showed fructophilic tendencies: these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus kunkeei (69%) or Fructobacillus fructosus (31%). A high-throughput phenotypic microarray targeting 190 carbon sources was used to determine that 83 compounds were differentially consumed. Phenotyping grouped the strains into two clusters, reflecting growth performance. The utilization of phenolic acids, such as p-coumaric, caffeic, syringic, or gallic acids, as electron acceptors was investigated in fructose-based medium. Almost all FLAB strains showed tolerance to high phenolic acid concentrations. p-Coumaric acid and caffeic acid were consumed by all FLAB strains through reductases or decarboxylases. Syringic and gallic acids were partially metabolized. The data collected suggest that FLAB require external electron acceptors to regenerate NADH. The use of phenolic acids as external electron acceptors by the 4 FLAB showing the highest phenolic acid reductase activity was investigated in glucose-based medium supplemented with p-coumaric acid. Metabolic responses observed through a phenotypic microarray suggested that FLAB may use p-coumaric acid as an external electron acceptor, enhancing glucose dissimilation but less efficiently than other external acceptors such as fructose or pyruvic acid. IMPORTANCE Fructophilic lactic acid bacteria (FLAB) remain to be fully explored. This study intends to link unique biochemical features of FLAB with their habitat. The quite unique FLAB phenome within the group lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may have practical relevance

  18. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  19. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  20. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacill...

  1. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  2. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  3. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooijmans, R.J.W.; Smit, B.; Santos, dos F.; Riel, van J.; Vos, de W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait.

  4. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  5. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  6. Hydroxycinnamic acids used as external acceptors of electrons: an energetic advantage for strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Pasquale; Gobbetti, Marco; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    The metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (19 strains) was investigated as a potential alternative energy route. Lactobacillus curvatus PE5 was the most tolerant to hydroxycinnamic acids, followed by strains of Weissella spp., Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, for which the MIC values were the same. The highest sensitivity was found for Lactobacillus rossiae strains. During growth in MRS broth, lactic acid bacteria reduced caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids into dihydrocaffeic, phloretic, and dihydroferulic acids, respectively, or decarboxylated hydroxycinnamic acids into the corresponding vinyl derivatives and then reduced the latter compounds to ethyl compounds. Reductase activities mainly emerged, and the activities of selected strains were further investigated in chemically defined basal medium (CDM) under anaerobic conditions. The end products of carbon metabolism were quantified, as were the levels of intracellular ATP and the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Electron and carbon balances and theoretical ATP/glucose yields were also estimated. When CDM was supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids, the synthesis of ethanol decreased and the concentration of acetic acid increased. The levels of these metabolites reflected on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetate kinase activities. Overall, some biochemical traits distinguished the common metabolism of strictly heterofermentative strains: main reductase activity toward hydroxycinnamic acids, a shift from alcohol dehydrogenase to acetate kinase activities, an increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and the accumulation of supplementary intracellular ATP. Taken together, the above-described metabolic responses suggest that strictly heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria mainly use hydroxycinnamic acids as external acceptors of electrons. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  8. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  9. New nucleic acid testing devices to diagnose infectious diseases in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffert, P; Reverchon, S; Nasser, W; Rozand, C; Abaibou, H

    2017-10-01

    Point-of-care diagnosis based on nucleic acid testing aims to incorporate all the analytical steps, from sample preparation to nucleic acid amplification and detection, in a single device. This device needs to provide a low-cost, robust, sensitive, specific, and easily readable analysis. Microfluidics has great potential for handling small volumes of fluids on a single platform. Microfluidic technology has recently been applied to paper, which is already used in low-cost lateral flow tests. Nucleic acid extraction from a biological specimen usually requires cell filtration and lysis on specific membranes, while affinity matrices, such as chitosan or polydiacetylene, are well suited to concentrating nucleic acids for subsequent amplification. Access to electricity is often difficult in resource-limited areas, so the amplification step needs to be equipment-free. Consequently, the reaction has to be isothermal to alleviate the need for a thermocycler. LAMP, NASBA, HDA, and RPA are examples of the technologies available. Nucleic acid detection techniques are currently based on fluorescence, colorimetry, or chemiluminescence. For point-of-care diagnostics, the results should be readable with the naked eye. Nowadays, interpretation and communication of results to health professionals could rely on a smartphone, used as a telemedicine device. The major challenge of creating an "all-in-one" diagnostic test involves the design of an optimal solution and a sequence for each analytical step, as well as combining the execution of all these steps on a single device. This review provides an overview of available materials and technologies which seem to be adapted to point-of-care nucleic acid-based diagnosis, in low-resource areas.

  10. UPS and DFT investigation of the electronic structure of gas-phase trimesic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisberg, L., E-mail: rebban@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Pärna, R. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Fotongatan 2, 225 94 Lund (Sweden); Kikas, A.; Kuusik, I.; Kisand, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Hirsimäki, M.; Valden, M. [Surface Science Laboratory, Optoelectronics Research Centre, Tampere University of Technology, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Nõmmiste, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, W. Oswaldi 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • In the current study outer valence band electronic structure of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was interpreted. • Experimental and calculated trimesic acid (TMA) spectrum were compared to ones of benzene and benzoic acid. • It is shown that similarities between MO energies and shapes for benzene and TMA exists. • Addition of carboxyl groups to the benzene ring clearly correlates with increasing binding energy of HOMO. - Abstract: Benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (trimesic acid, TMA) molecules in gas-phase have been investigated by using valence band photoemission. The photoelectron spectrum in the binding energy region from 9 to 22 eV is interpreted by using density functional theory calculations. The electronic structure of TMA is compared with benzene and benzoic acid in order to demonstrate changes in molecular orbital energies induced by addition of carboxyl groups to benzene ring.

  11. Alcohol production through volatile fatty acids reduction with hydrogen as electron donor by mixed cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed

  12. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  13. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  14. Reactivity of H atoms and hydrated electrons with chlorobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zona, R.; Solar, S.; Getoff, N.

    2008-01-01

    H radicals react with chlorobenzoic acids and chlorobenzene (k(H-center dot + substrates) = (0.7-1.5) x 10(9) dm(3) Mol(-1) s(-1)) by addition to the benzene ring forming H adducts with characteristic absorption bands in the range of 310-360 nm. The rate constants for their second-order decay are 2...

  15. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Filipe

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Results Heme- (and menaquinone stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. Conclusion We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species.

  16. Heme and menaquinone induced electron transport in lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooijmans, Rob; Smit, Bart; Santos, Filipe; van Riel, Jan; de Vos, Willem M; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2009-05-29

    For some lactic acid bacteria higher biomass production as a result of aerobic respiration has been reported upon supplementation with heme and menaquinone. In this report, we have studied a large number of species among lactic acid bacteria for the existence of this trait. Heme- (and menaquinone) stimulated aerobic growth was observed for several species and genera of lactic acid bacteria. These include Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacilllus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Streptococcus entericus and Lactococcus garviae. The increased biomass production without further acidification, which are respiration associated traits, are suitable for high-throughput screening as demonstrated by the screening of 8000 Lactococcus lactis insertion mutants. Respiration-negative insertion-mutants were found with noxA, bd-type cytochrome and menaquinol biosynthesis gene-disruptions. Phenotypic screening and in silico genome analysis suggest that respiration can be considered characteristic for certain species. We propose that the cyd-genes were present in the common ancestor of lactic acid bacteria, and that multiple gene-loss events best explains the observed distribution of these genes among the species.

  17. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  18. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  19. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  20. Hexuronic Acid Stereochemistry Determination in Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides by Electron Detachment Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Perlow, Jacob; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has previously provided stereo-specific product ions that allow for the assignment of the acidic C-5stereochemistry in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but application of the same methodology to an epimer pair in the chondroitin sulfate glycoform class does not provide the same result. A series of experiments have been conducted in which glycosaminoglycan precursor ions are independently activated by electron detachment dissociation (EDD), electron induced dissociation (EID), and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to assign the stereochemistry in chondroitin sulfate (CS) epimers and investigate the mechanisms for product ion formation during EDD in CS glycoforms. This approach allows for the assignment of electronic excitation products formed by EID and detachment products to radical pathways in NETD, both of which occur simultaneously during EDD. The uronic acid stereochemistry in electron detachment spectra produces intensity differences when assigned glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages are compared. The variations in the intensities of the doubly deprotonated 0,2X3 and Y3 ions have been shown to be indicative of CS-A/DS composition during the CID of binary mixtures. These ions can provide insight into the uronic acid composition of binary mixtures in EDD, but the relative abundances, although reproducible, are low compared with those in a CID spectrum acquired on an ion trap. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) presents a multivariate approach to determining the uronic acid stereochemistry spectra of these GAGs by taking advantage of the reproducible peak distributions produced by electron detachment.

  1. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  2. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  3. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  4. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  5. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  7. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  9. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  10. Electron autoradiographic study of intracellular conversion of fatty acids into glycogen in rats with alloxan diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebkova, N.P.; Bobkov, Y.I.; Gorbonova, V.D.; Kolesova, O.E.

    1985-01-01

    An electron-autoradiographic study was undertaken of the intracellular distribution of hydrogen of fatty acids in alloxan diabetes. Alloxan diabetes was induced in rats; between 2 weeks and 2 months after development of the disease 0.1 ml of tritium-oleic or tritium-arachidonic acid was injected into the caudel vein of the rats. After decapitation, myocardial tissue from the subendocardial zone of the left ventricle, liver tissue, and glycogen isolated from the liver by a biochemical method, were taken for electron-autoradiographic investigation. Analysis of the data showed that a radioactive isotope, injected into the blood stream of the animals in the form of oleic or arachidonic acids, is incorporated into various structures of hepatocytes and cardiomyocytes. Direct proof is obtained to show that glycogen in hepatocytes and cardiomyoctyes of diabetic rats may be formed from fatty acids

  11. The Physical Characterization of Liposome Salicylic Acid Using Transmission Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elman Panjaitan

    2008-01-01

    The physical characterization of liposome, formulated from salicylic acid using thin film hydration methods with cholesterol and soybean lecithin, has been done. The formula was characterized by optical microscopes and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The observation result shows that the salicylic acid can be formulated to liposomes. Soybean lecithin combined with cholesterol (600 mg : 20 mg) was the best formula and the liposome was spherical vesicle like with dimension about 70 nm unit 800 nm. (author)

  12. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Macías Macías

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP. To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L.

  13. Electron transfer reactions of ruthenium(II) complexes with polyphenolic acids in micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, Angusamy [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Chemistry, Fatima College, Madurai 625 018 (India); Ramdass, Arumugam [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Research Department of Chemistry, Aditanar College of Arts and Science, Tiruchendur 628 216 (India); Muthu Mareeswaran, Paulpandian [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India); Department of Industrial Chemistry, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rajagopal, Seenivasan, E-mail: rajagopalseenivasan@yahoo.com [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021 (India)

    2016-02-15

    The electron transfer in a microhetrogeneous system is a perfect mimic of biological electron transfer. The electron transfer between biologically important phenolic acids and ruthenium (II) complexes is systematically studied in the presence of anionic and cationic micelles. The photophysical properties of these ruthenium (II) complexes with anionic and cationic micelles and their binding abilities with these two type of micelles are also studies using absorption, emission and excited state lifetime spectral techniques. Pseudophase Ion Exchange (PIE) Model is applied to derive mechanism of electron transfer in two types of micelles. - Highlights: • Effect of microhetrogeneous system is studied using ruthenium (II) complexes and gallic acid is studied. • Pseudophase Ion exchange model is applied to derive the mechanism. • Binding constants are in the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} M{sup −1}.

  14. Graphene for amino acid biosensing: Theoretical study of the electronic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, S. J.; Makinistian, L.; Albanesi, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The study of biosensors based on graphene has increased in the last years, the combination of excellent electrical properties and low noise makes graphene a material for next generation electronic devices. This work discusses the application of a graphene-based biosensor for the detection of amino acids histidine (His), alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), and tyrosine (Tyr). First, we present the results of modeling from first principles the adsorption of the four amino acids on a graphene sheet, we calculate adsorption energy, substrate-adsorbate distance, equilibrium geometrical configurations (upon relaxation) and densities of states (DOS) for each biomolecule adsorbed. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the effects of amino acid adsorption on the electronic transport of graphene, we modeled a device using first-principles calculations with a combination of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Nonequilibrium Greens Functions (NEGF). We provide with a detailed discussion in terms of transmission, current-voltage curves, and charge transfer. We found evidence of differences in the electronic transport through the graphene sheet due to amino acid adsorption, reinforcing the possibility of graphene-based sensors for amino acid sequencing of proteins.

  15. Experimental evidence of nitrous acid formation in the electron beam treatment of flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetzing, H.; Namba, H.; Tokunaga, O.

    1994-01-01

    In the Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing (EBDS) process, flue gas from fossil fuel burning power plants is irradiated with accelerated (300-800 keV) electrons. Thereby, nitrogen oxide (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) traces are transformed into nitric and sulfuric acids, respectively, which are converted into particulate ammonium nitrate and sulfate upon the addition of ammonia. The powdery product can be filtered from the main gas stream and can be sold as agricultural fertilizer. A lot of experimental investigations have been performed on the EBDS process and computer models have been developed to interpret the experimental results and to predict economic improvements. According to the model calculations, substantial amounts of intermediate nitrous acid (HNO 2 ) are formed in the electron beam treatment of flue gas. The first experimental investigation about the formation of nitrous acid in an irradiated mixture of NO in synthetic air has been undertaken. Under these conditions, aerosol formation is avoided. UV spectra of the irradiated gas were recorded in the wavelength range λ = 345-375 nm. Both NO 2 and HNO 2 have characteristic absorption bands in this wavelength range. Calibration spectra of NO 2 were subtracted from the sample spectra. The remaining absorption bands can clearly be assigned to nitrous acid. The concentration of nitrous acid was determined by differential optical absorption. It was found lower than the model prediction. The importance of nitrous acid formation in the EBDS process needs to be clarified. (author)

  16. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  18. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process

  19. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  20. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  1. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  2. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  3. Dissociative electron attachment and anion-induced dimerization in pyruvic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zawadzki, Mateusz; Ranković, Miloš; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Fedor, Juraj

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2018), s. 6838-6844 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-04844S; GA ČR GJ16-10995Y Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : pyruvic acid * electron attachment * dimerization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  4. Studies on effective atomic number, electron density and kerma for some fatty acids and carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2008-01-01

    The effective atomic number, Z(eff), the effective electron density, N-el, and kerma have been calculated for some fatty acids and carbohydrates for photon interaction in the extended energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the WinXCo...

  5. Investigation of crafting polymerization of acrylic acid to cellulose materials under the action of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiev, A.; Bazhenov, L.G.; Asamov, M.K.; Sagatov, Eh.A.

    1996-01-01

    Crafting polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) to cellulose materials in the presence of copper, zinc and silver salts under the action of accelerated electrons has been investigated with the aim to attach anti microbe properties to these materials. (author). 2 refs., 1 tab

  6. Phonon assisted electronic transition in telluric acid ammonium phosphate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Muraikhi, M.; Kassem, M. E.; Al-Houty, L.

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on the absorption optical spectra of telluric acid ammonium phosphate single crystals (TAAP) has been studied, in the wave length of 200-600 nm, for samples irradiated by various doses up to 10 Mrad. The results show that the electron phonon coupling constant increases with the irradiation dose.

  7. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  8. Optical Absorption and Electron Injection of 4-(Cyanomethylbenzoic Acid Based Dyes: A DFT Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT calculations were carried out to study the ground state geometries, electronic structures, and absorption spectra of 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes (AG1 and AG2 used for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The excited states properties and the thermodynamical parameters of electron injection were studied. The results showed that (a two dyes have uncoplanar structures along the donor unit and conjugated bridge space, (b two sensitizers exhibited intense absorption in the UV-Vis region, and (c the excited state oxidation potential was higher than the conduction band edge of TiO2 photoanode. As a result, a solar cell based on the 4-(cyanomethylbenzoic acid based dyes exhibited well photovoltaic performance. Furthermore, nine dyes were designed on the basis of AG1 and AG2 to improve optical response and electron injection.

  9. CHANGES IN SELECTIVITY OF GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID FORMATION EFFECTED BY FERMENTATION CONDITIONS AND MICROORGANISMS RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kovalovská

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we observe the effect of fermentation conditions and resources of microorganisms for production of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. The content of produced GABA depends on various conditions such as the amount of precursor, an addition of salt, enzyme and the effect of pH. The highest selectivity of GABA (74.0 % from the precursor (L-monosodium glutamate has been determinate in the follow conditions: in the presence of pre-cultured microorganisms from Encián cheese in amount 1.66 % (w/v the source of microorganisms/volume of the fermentation mixture, after the addition of 0.028 % (w/v of CaCl2/volume of the fermentation mixture, 100 μM of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P and the GABA precursor concentration in the fermentation mixture 2.6 mg ml-1 in an atmosphere of gas nitrogen. Pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria increased the selectivity of GABA by an average of 20 % compared with bacteria from the path of Encián.

  10. Effect of three Electron Shuttles on Bioreduction of Ferric Iron in two Acidic and Calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Sharifi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron cycle is one of the most important biogeochemical processes which affect the availability of iron in soils. Ferric iron oxides are the most abundant forms of iron in soils and sediments. Ferric iron is highly insoluble at circumneutral pH. Present investigations have shown that the structural ferric iron bound in clay minerals is reduced by some microorganisms. Anaerobic bacteria reduce ferric iron which bound to soil clay minerals under anaerobic conditions. They have the ability to use ferric iron as a terminal electron acceptor. Many studies presented that dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB mediate the transfer of electrons from small organic molecules like acetate and glucose to various humic materials (electron shuttles which then pass electrons abiotically to ferric iron oxyhydroxide and phyllosilicate minerals. Electron shuttles like AQDS, a tricyclic quinone, increase the rate of iron reduction by iron reducing bacteria on sites of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides. By increasing the rate of bioreduction of ferric iron, the solubility and availability of iron enhanced meaningfully. Royer et al. (2002 showed that bioreduction of hematite (common iron mineral in soils increased more than three times in the presence of AQDS and Shewanella putrefaciens comparedto control treatments. Previous works have mostly used synthetic minerals as electron acceptor in bioreduction process. Furthermore, the effect of quinones as electron acceptor for microorganisms were studied with poorly crystalline ferric iron oxides . The main objective of this study was to study the effect of AQS, humic acid and fulvic acid (as electron shuttle and Shewanella sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on bioreduction of native ferric iron in two acidic and calcareous soils. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and three replications in vitro condition. The soil samples collected

  11. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  12. Electron detachment of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain guanine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The photoelectron spectra of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain-guanine complexes has been studied at the partial third order (P3) self-energy approximation of the electron propagator theory. The correlation between the vertical electron detachment energy and the charge distributions on the guanine moiety reveals that the vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) increases as the positive charge distribution on the guanine increases. The low VDE values determined for the negatively charged complexes of the guanine-side-chain-group of Asp/Glu suggest that the influence of the H-bonded anionic groups on the VDE of guanine could be more important than that of the anionic backbone structure. The even lower vertical electron detachment energy for guanine is thus can be expected in the H-bonded protein-DNA systems.

  13. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  14. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  15. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, Francois; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, LABTOX, Depto. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, CEP: 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan, E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae. In this study, we exposed the green microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta to OA concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 {mu}M in order to evaluate its effects on cell division, reactive oxygen species production and photosynthetic electron transport. After 72 h of treatment under continuous illumination, OA concentrations higher than 0.10 {mu}M decreased culture cell density, induced oxidative stress and inhibited photosystem II electron transport capacity. OA effect in D. tertiolecta was strongly light dependent since no oxidative stress was observed when D. tertiolecta was exposed to OA in the dark. In the absence of light, the effect of OA on culture cell density and photosystem II activity was also significantly reduced. Therefore, light appears to have a significant role in the toxicity of OA in microalgae. Our results indicate that the site of OA interaction on photosynthetic electron transport is likely to be at the level of the plastoquinone pool, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress when light absorbed by the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II cannot be dissipated via photochemical pathways. These findings allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of OA toxicity in microalgae. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposition of Dunaliella tertiolecta to okadaic acid in light conditions results in reactive oxygen species formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of photosystem II is dependent on oxidative stress and effects of okadaic acid on the plastoquinone pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis increase okadaic acid effect on cell density in light conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Okadaic acid induces toxicity in algae via both light-dependent and light

  17. Pilot test of pollution control and metal resource recovery for acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bo; Mai, Ge; Chen, Tao; Lei, Chang; Xiao, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    The study was undertaken in order to recover the metal resources from acid mine drainage (AMD). A 300 m(3)/d continuous system was designed and fractional precipitation technology employed for the main metals Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn recovery. The system was operated for six months using actual AMD in situ. The chemicals' input and also the retention time was optimized. Furthermore, the material balance was investigated. With the system, the heavy metals of the effluent after the Mn neutralization precipitation were below the threshold value of the Chinese integrated wastewater discharge limit. The precipitates generated contained 42%, 12%, 31%, and 18% for Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, and the recovery rates of Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn were 82%, 79%, 83%, and 83%, respectively. The yield range of the precipitate had significant correlation with the influent metal content. Using the X-ray diffraction analysis, the refinement for Fe, Cu, and Zn could be achieved through the processes of roasting and floatation. Cost-benefit was also discussed; the benefit from the recycled metal was able to pay for the cost of chemical reagents used. Most important of all, through the use of this technology, the frustrating sludge problems were solved.

  18. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  19. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  20. Proton-coupled electron transfer promotes the reduction of ferrylmyoglobin by uric acid under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Cardoso, Daniel R.; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2017-01-01

    The hypervalent muscle pigment ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O, is not reduced by urate monoanions at physiological conditions despite a strong driving force of around 30 kJ mol1 while for low pH, uric acid was found to reduce protonated ferrylmyoglobin, MbFe(IV)]O,H+, efficiently in a bimolecular...... reaction with k1 ¼ 1.1 0.1 103 L mol1 s1, DH‡ ¼ 66.1 0.1 kJ mol1 and DS‡ ¼ 35.2 0.2 J mol1 K1. For intermediate pH, like for anaerobic muscles and for meat, proton-oupled electron transfer occurs in a transition state, {MbFe(IV)]O/H+/urate}‡, which is concluded to be formed from uric acid and Mb...... in uric acid concentration may serve as an inherent protection against radical formation by ferrylmyoglobin...

  1. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  2. Probing the molecular and electronic structure of the lichen metabolite usnic acid: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galasso, V.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: DFT calculations of structural preferences, acidic properties, carbonyl vibrations, 13 C NMR chemical shifts, and absorption spectrum account for the unique structural backbone, chemical behaviour, and spectroscopic properties of usnic acid, the cortical pigment and potent reactive of lichens. - Abstract: The molecular structure of usnic acid was investigated by the density functional theory (DFT). Two keto-enol tautomers are nearly isoenergetic and more stable than other tautomers. Noteworthy is the energy difference among the three intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The DFT/PCM calculated dissociation constants account for the acidic sequence of the three OH-groups. The electronic structure was also studied by calculating IR/Raman, NMR, and absorption features. A reliable assignment of the 'fingerprint' carbonyl stretching modes was supported by calculations on related molecules. The calculated NMR chemical shifts fit expectation in terms of a fast interconversion between the two most preferred tautomers. A variety of π → π* and n → π* excitations, localized on a single ring or involving a charge-transfer between the two lateral rings of the molecule, gives rise to the broad UV-absorption bands. This property accounts for the efficient protection against damaging solar radiation provided by usnic acid for lichens.

  3. Probing the molecular and electronic structure of the lichen metabolite usnic acid: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galasso, V., E-mail: galasso@univ.trieste.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-08-23

    Graphical abstract: DFT calculations of structural preferences, acidic properties, carbonyl vibrations, {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts, and absorption spectrum account for the unique structural backbone, chemical behaviour, and spectroscopic properties of usnic acid, the cortical pigment and potent reactive of lichens. - Abstract: The molecular structure of usnic acid was investigated by the density functional theory (DFT). Two keto-enol tautomers are nearly isoenergetic and more stable than other tautomers. Noteworthy is the energy difference among the three intramolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The DFT/PCM calculated dissociation constants account for the acidic sequence of the three OH-groups. The electronic structure was also studied by calculating IR/Raman, NMR, and absorption features. A reliable assignment of the 'fingerprint' carbonyl stretching modes was supported by calculations on related molecules. The calculated NMR chemical shifts fit expectation in terms of a fast interconversion between the two most preferred tautomers. A variety of {pi} {yields} {pi}* and n {yields} {pi}* excitations, localized on a single ring or involving a charge-transfer between the two lateral rings of the molecule, gives rise to the broad UV-absorption bands. This property accounts for the efficient protection against damaging solar radiation provided by usnic acid for lichens.

  4. Adsorption of acid red from dye wastewater by Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs and the resource of adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Tianshan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhang, Zhang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Umar, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadumar786@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices (PCSED), Najran University, P.O. Box 1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Yan, Xingru; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Zhanhu [Integrated Composites Laboratory, Dan F Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX 77710 (United States); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: qiang.wang.ox@gmail.com [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • High removal efficiency of acid red 97 from dye wastewater was achieved by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs adsorbent. • The resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) was proposed for the first time. • The thermal stability of PP was significantly improved by introducing only small amount of LDH adsorbent sludge. • The resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers is a very promising option. -- Abstract: In this contribution, we report the removal of acid red 97 (AC97) from simulated dye wastewater by using Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides (LDHs) adsorbent, and the resource of the LDH adsorbent sludge as nanofiller for polypropylene (PP) for the first time. The obtained Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDH was analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis, confirming the formation of pure and platelike LDH nanoparticles. The effects of adsorption time and initial dye concentration on the removal of AC97 from wastewater were systematically investigated, showing that the Zn{sub 2}Al-NO{sub 3} LDHs is very efficient in removing AC97. The saturated adsorption capacity of water washed and acetone washed Zn{sub 2}Al-LDHs is 204.4 and 299.5 mg/g, respectively. Finally, the LDH adsorbent sludge was added into PP using a modified solvent mixing method. Thermal gravimetric analysis and ultraviolet (UV) absorption analysis of PP/Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDHs nanocomposites suggested that the Zn{sub 2}Al-AC97 LDH can significantly improve the thermal stability and UV shielding ability of PP. This data demonstrated that it is very promising to resource the dye adsorbent sludge as multifunctional nanofiller for polymers.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes, Francisco J., E-mail: fjcervantes@ipicyt.edu.mx [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico); Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica (IPICyT), Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a. Seccion, San Luis Potosi, SLP, 78216 Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. {yields} Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. {yields} Several species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 {mu}M of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 {+-} 27 micro-electron equivalents ({mu}Eq) L{sup -1}, linked to the reduction of 619 {+-} 81 {mu}Eq L{sup -1} of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two {gamma}-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes {beta}-, {delta}- and {gamma}-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  6. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by enriched consortia with humic acids as terminal electron acceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, Francisco J.; Mancilla, Ana Rosa; Toro, E. Emilia Rios-del; Alpuche-Solis, Angel G.; Montoya-Lorenzana, Lilia

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Enriched consortia were able to couple the anaerobic degradation of benzene to the reduction of humic acids. → Electron-equivalents derived from anaerobic benzene oxidation were highly recovered as reduced humic acids. → Several species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria were enriched during the anaerobic degradation of benzene. - Abstract: The anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of humic acids (HA) was demonstrated in two enriched consortia. Both inocula were able to oxidize benzene under strict anaerobic conditions when the humic model compound, anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was supplied as terminal electron acceptor. An enrichment culture originated from a contaminated soil was also able to oxidize benzene linked to the reduction of highly purified soil humic acids (HPSHA). In HPSHA-amended cultures, 9.3 μM of benzene were degraded, which corresponds to 279 ± 27 micro-electron equivalents (μEq) L -1 , linked to the reduction of 619 ± 81 μEq L -1 of HPSHA. Neither anaerobic benzene oxidation nor reduction of HPSHA occurred in sterilized controls. Anaerobic benzene oxidation did not occur in soil incubations lacking HPSHA. Furthermore, negligible reduction of HPSHA occurred in the absence of benzene. The enrichment culture derived from this soil was dominated by two γ-Proteobacteria phylotypes. A benzene-degrading AQDS-reducing enrichment originated from a sediment sample showed the prevalence of different species from classes β-, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria. The present study provides clear quantitative demonstration of anaerobic degradation of benzene coupled to the reduction of HA.

  7. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A., E-mail: jimfield@email.arizona.edu

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Algal biomass can serve as an electron donor to drive reduction of sulfate to sulfide. • Biogenic sulfide precipitates Cu{sup 2+} as stable sulfide mineral. • Cu{sup +2} removal in sulfidogenic bioreactors amended with algal biomass exceeded 99.5%. • Acidity in synthetic acid rock drainage was consumed by sulfate reduction. - Abstract: This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Cu{sup 2+}. Sulfate, sulfide, Cu{sup 2+} and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123 d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7 mg SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} d{sup −1}) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu{sup 2+} removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu{sup 2+} was precipitated with biogenic H{sub 2}S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry.

  8. Electrochemically enhanced microbial CO conversion to volatile fatty acids using neutral red as an electron mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chae Ho; Kim, Changman; Song, Young Eun; Oh, Sang-Eun; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Kim, Jung Rae

    2018-01-01

    Conversion of C1 gas feedstock, including carbon monoxide (CO), into useful platform chemicals has attracted considerable interest in industrial biotechnology. Nevertheless, the low conversion yield and/or growth rate of CO-utilizing microbes make it difficult to develop a C1 gas biorefinery process. The Wood-Ljungdahl pathway which utilize CO is a pathway suffered from insufficient electron supply, in which the conversion can be increased further when an additional electron source like carbohydrate or hydrogen is provided. In this study, electrode-based electron transference using a bioelectrochemical system (BES) was examined to compensate for the insufficient reducing equivalent and increase the production of volatile fatty acids. The BES including neutral red (BES-NR), which facilitated electron transfer between bacteria and electrode, was compared with BES without neutral red and open circuit control. The coulombic efficiency based on the current input to the system and the electrons recovered into VFAs, was significantly higher in BES-NR than the control. These results suggest that the carbon electrode provides a platform to regulate the redox balance for improving the bioconversion of CO, and amending the conventional C1 gas fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  10. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  11. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  12. Electron beam treatment technology for exhaust gas for preventing acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Recently, accompanying the increase of the use of fossil fuel, the damage due to acid rain such as withering of trees and extinction of fishes and shells has occurred worldwide, and it has become a serious problem. The sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contained in exhaust gas are oxidized by the action of sunbeam to become sulfuric acid and nitric acid mists, which fall in the form of rain. Acid rain is closely related to the use of the coal containing high sulfur, and it hinders the use of coal which is rich energy source. In order to simplify the processing system for boiler exhaust gas and to reduce waste water and wastes, Ebara Corp. developed the dry simultaneous desulfurizing and denitrating technology utilizing electron beam in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The flow chart of the system applied to the exhaust gas treatment in a coal-fired thermal power station is shown. The mechanism of desulfurization and denitration, and the features of this system are described. The demonstration plant was constructed in a coal-fired thermal power station in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, and the trial operation was completed in July, 1987. The test results are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  14. Electron inductive effects in the radiolysis of substituted phenylboronic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.; Fitch, P.G.; Sangster, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of phenylboronic acid PhB(OH) 2 and its m-nitro and m-amino derivatives has been investigated. The transient optical absorption spectra indicate the presence of three intermediate species absorbing with independent maxima at 297, 317 and 400 nm. The 297-nm band has been assigned to the anion formed in an electron capture reaction, i.e. PhB(OH) 2 +epsilonsub(aq) - → PhB(OH) 2 - and the 317-nm band to cyclohexadienyl radicals formed from OH and H attack on OhB(OH) 2 . Hydroxyphenylboronic acid has been identified as the major stable radiation product. For each of the systems studied the respective yield and reactivity of observed intermediate species can be interpreted relative to the inductive effects of substituent groups in agreement with the Hammett relationship. (author)

  15. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  16. Electron impact scattering study of hypohalous acids HOX (X = F, Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hitesh; Bhutadia, Harshad; Prajapati, Dinesh; Desai, Hardik; Vinodkumar, Minaxi; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2018-05-01

    In this article we aim to report total cross sections (TCS) QT, total elastic cross sections (Qel), total inelastic cross sections (Qinel) i.e. (total ionizations cross sections (Qion)+total electronic excitation cross sections (Qexc)) from threshold of the target to 5000 eV energy range. We have used a well-defined theoretical methodology Spherical Complex Optical Potential (SCOP) to compute QT, Qel and Qinel and Complex Scattering Potential - ionization contribution (CSP - ic) method to report the (Qion). The cross-sectional data reported here for the Hypohalous Acids is for the first time and the present data can become a guideline for the experimentalist to study these targets.

  17. Electron beam curing of dimer acid-based urethane acrylates for pressure sensitive adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Takeda, Satoe; Shiraishi, Katsutoshi.

    1995-01-01

    Polyester urethane diacrylate prepolymers prepared from dimer acids (DUA) were cured with low energy electron beams to investigate adhesive properties of cured films. Among various type monomers added, monofunctional methacrylates such as isobornyl methacrylate (IBXMA) were effective for higher peel strength cured films although the dose-to-cure for the mixtures increased to 100 kGy or more. The increase in the molecular weight of prepolymers resulted in lower curing rates but higher peel strength. Aging tests up to 80degC for four weeks proved good stability in peel strength of the stored products. (author)

  18. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  19. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  20. Exploitation of genetic resources for improvement of unsaturated fatty acid in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, U.A.; Mehmood, K.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five inbred lines (Cytoplasmic male sterile and 12 fertility restorer) annuus synthesized at the oilseeds research institute Faisalabad. Pakistan were analyzed on gas chromatograph for their fatty acid status. The palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid ranged form 5.62-11.02% 1.09-3.08%, 21.40-50.70% and 40.60-69.10% respectively. The saturate fatty acid may increase the cholesterol level in the blood. This deposition of cholestrol in the blood vesels is a major cause of heart attack. By screening our germplasm on the basis of fatty acid profile, we can use their inbred lines having low percentage of saturated high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids which may benefit sunflower industry through increased consumer performance for a low saturated fatty acid sunflower products. RL-58, RL-52, ORI-85 and ORI-2 are recommended for the development of commercial hybrids with quality edible oil. (author)

  1. Usability Testing of a Multimedia e-Learning Resource for Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf; Grimmer-Somers, Karen; Halperin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The usability of computer interfaces may have a major influence on learning. Design approaches that optimize usability are commonplace in the software development industry but are seldom used in the development of e-learning resources, especially in medical education. We conducted a usability evaluation of a multimedia resource for teaching…

  2. Free radicals produced by the oxidation of gallic acid: An electron paramagnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Brett A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid is found in a wide variety of plants; it is extensively used in tanning, ink dyes, as well as in the manufacturing of paper. The gallate moiety is a key component of many functional phytochemicals. In this work electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR was used to detect the free radicals generated by the air-oxidation of gallic acid. Results We found that gallic acid produces two different radicals as a function of pH. In the pH range between 7-10, the spectrum of the gallate free radical is a doublet of triplets (aH = 1.00 G, aH = 0.23 G, aH = 0.28 G. This is consistent with three hydrogens providing hyperfine splitting. However, in a more alkaline environment, pH >10, the hyperfine splitting pattern transforms into a 1:2:1 pattern (aH (2 = 1.07 G. Using D2O as a solvent, we demonstrate that the third hydrogen (i.e. aH = 0.28 G at lower pH is a slowly exchanging hydron, participating in hydrogen bonding with two oxygens in ortho position on the gallate ring. The pKa of this proton has been determined to be 10. Conclusions This simple and novel approach permitted the understanding of the prototropic equilibrium of the semiquinone radicals generated by gallic acid, a ubiquitous compound, allowing new insights into its oxidation and subsequent reactions.

  3. Enhanced D-lactic acid production from renewable resources using engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V; Kumar, Amit; Hardwidge, Philip R; Govind, Revathi; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    D-lactic acid is used as a monomer in the production of poly-D-lactic acid (PDLA), which is used to form heat-resistant stereocomplex poly-lactic acid. To produce cost-effective D-lactic acid by using all sugars derived from biomass efficiently, xylose-assimilating genes encoding xylose isomerase and xylulokinase were cloned into an L-lactate-deficient strain, Lactobacillus plantarum. The resulting recombinant strain, namely L. plantarum NCIMB 8826 ∆ldhL1-pLEM-xylAB, was able to produce D-lactic acid (at optical purity >99 %) from xylose at a yield of 0.53 g g(-1). Simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose to produce D-lactic acid was also achieved by this strain, and 47.2 g L(-1) of D-lactic acid was produced from 37.5 g L(-1) glucose and 19.7 g L(-1) xylose. Corn stover and soybean meal extract (SBME) were evaluated as cost-effective medium components for D-lactic acid production. Optimization of medium composition using response surface methodology resulted in 30 % reduction in enzyme loading and 70 % reduction in peptone concentration. In addition, we successfully demonstrated D-lactic acid fermentation from corn stover and SBME in a fed-batch fermentation, which yielded 61.4 g L(-1) D-lactic acid with an overall yield of 0.77 g g(-1). All these approaches are geared to attaining high D-lactic acid production from biomass sugars to produce low-cost, highly thermostable biodegradable plastics.

  4. Acid Rain: A Resource Guide for Classroom, Laboratory, Field, and Debate Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoss, Frederick W.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a partially annotated bibliography of journals and book chapters which deal with acid rain. Includes selections which provide background information, ideas for introducing acid rain into science or social studies curricula, inventories of audio-visual aids, and non-print media to supplement classroom, laboratory, and field instruction.…

  5. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  6. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  7. Size effects in electronic and catalytic properties of unsupported palladium nanoparticles in electrooxidation of formic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei Ping; Lewera, Adam; Larsen, Robert; Masel, Rich I; Bagus, Paul S; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-07-13

    We report a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA) study of formic acid electrooxidation on unsupported palladium nanoparticle catalysts in the particle size range from 9 to 40 nm. The CV and CA measurements show that the most active catalyst is made of the smallest (9 and 11 nm) Pd nanoparticles. Besides the high reactivity, XPS data show that such nanoparticles display the highest core-level binding energy (BE) shift and the highest valence band (VB) center downshift with respect to the Fermi level. We believe therefore that we found a correlation between formic acid oxidation current and BE and VB center shifts, which, in turn, can directly be related to the electronic structure of palladium nanoparticles of different particle sizes. Clearly, such a trend using unsupported catalysts has never been reported. According to the density functional theory of heterogeneous catalysis, and mechanistic considerations, the observed shifts are caused by a weakening of the bond strength of the COOH intermediate adsorption on the catalyst surface. This, in turn, results in the increase in the formic acid oxidation rate to CO2 (and in the associated oxidation current). Overall, our measurements demonstrate the particle size effect on the electronic properties of palladium that yields different catalytic activity in the HCOOH oxidation reaction. Our work highlights the significance of the core-level binding energy and center of the d-band shifts in electrocatalysis and underlines the value of the theory that connects the center of the d-band shifts to catalytic reactivity.

  8. Studies on effective atomic number, electron density and kerma for some fatty acids and carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohara, S R; Hanagodimath, S M; Gerward, L

    2008-01-01

    The effective atomic number, Z eff , the effective electron density, N el , and kerma have been calculated for some fatty acids and carbohydrates for photon interaction in the extended energy range from 1 keV to 100 GeV using an accurate database of photon-interaction cross sections and the WinXCom program. The significant variation of Z eff and N el is due to the variations in the dominance of different interaction processes in different energy regions. The maximum values of Z eff and N el are found in the low-energy range, where photoelectric absorption is the main interaction process. The minimum values of Z eff and N el are found at intermediate energies, typically 0.05 MeV eff is equal to the mean atomic number of the bio-molecule. Wherever possible, the calculations are compared with experimental results. A comparison is also made with the single values of the Z eff and N el provided by the program XMuDat. It is also observed that carbohydrates have a larger kerma than fatty acids in the low-energy region, where photoelectric absorption dominates. In contrast, fatty acids have a larger kerma than carbohydrates in the MeV range, where Compton scattering is the main interaction process. (note)

  9. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: direct.beest@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin, E-mail: direct.tinsin@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure.

  10. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the structural properties of polylactic acid/polyethylene blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Wong, Wai-Kien; Lee, Jiuun-Xiang; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electron beam irradiation on polyethylene (LDPE) and polylactic acid (PLA) blends. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE blends exhibit structural rearrangement to highly ordered structure. •Irradiated PLA/LDPE matrix extends continuity of polymer matrix with larger fibrils diameter. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of electron beam irradiation on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) blends. The PLA were compounded with 20–80% LDPE and were exposed to electron beam irradiation dosages of 20–120 kGy. The results from gel content and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the addition of LDPE to PLA effectively increased the gel content and crystallinity. However, an increasing percentage of LDPE reduced the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of the PLA/LDPE samples due to the lower intermolecular bonding of LDPE than of PLA. Moreover, an increase in irradiation dosages gradually decreased the mechanical properties of low-LDPE PLA/LDPE. In contrast, the increasing irradiation dosage enhanced the mechanical properties of higher-LDPE PLA/LDPE. These results indicate that higher amounts of LDPE effectively react with the release of free radicals within the amorphous phase if the blends are subjected to irradiation. The higher amounts of free radicals induce the formation of three-dimensional cross-linked networks in the polymer matrix and thus increase the gel content. The irradiation-induced cross-linking in PLA/LDPE samples improves the mechanical properties and crystallinity by promoting a structural rearrangement of the polymer matrix into a highly ordered structure

  11. Algae as an electron donor promoting sulfate reduction for the bioremediation of acid rock drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Parra, Pedro; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-11-05

    This study assessed bioremediation of acid rock drainage in simulated permeable reactive barriers (PRB) using algae, Chlorella sorokiniana, as the sole electron donor for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Lipid extracted algae (LEA), the residues of biodiesel production, were compared with whole cell algae (WCA) as an electron donor to promote sulfate-reducing activity. Inoculated columns containing anaerobic granular sludge were fed a synthetic medium containing H2SO4 and Cu(2+). Sulfate, sulfide, Cu(2+) and pH were monitored throughout the experiment of 123d. Cu recovered in the column packing at the end of the experiment was evaluated using sequential extraction. Both WCA and LEA promoted 80% of sulfate removal (12.7mg SO4(2-) d(-1)) enabling near complete Cu removal (>99.5%) and alkalinity generation raising the effluent pH to 6.5. No noteworthy sulfate reduction, alkalinity formation and Cu(2+) removal were observed in the endogenous control. In algae amended-columns, Cu(2+) was precipitated with biogenic H2S produced by sulfate reduction. Formation of CuS was evidenced by sequential extraction and X-ray diffraction. LEA and WCA provided similar levels of electron donor based on the COD balance. The results demonstrate an innovative passive remediation system using residual algae biomass from the biodiesel industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ciliary body toxicities of systemic oxcarbazepine and valproic acid treatments: electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göktaş, Güleser; Aktaş, Zeynep; Erdoğan, Deniz; Seymen, Cemile Merve; Karaca, Emine Esra; Cansu, Ali; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Kaplanoğlu, Gülnur Take

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary body is responsible for humour aqueous production in posterior chamber. Valproic acid (VPA) has been widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric diseases such as bipolar disease and major depression. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is a new anti-epileptic agent that has been used recently for childhood epilepsies such as VPA. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of VPA and OXC treatments used as antiepileptic in ciliary body by electron microscopy. In our study, 40 Wistar rats (21 days old) were divided equally into four groups which were applied saline (group 1), VPA (group 2), OXC (group 3) and VPA + OXC (group 4). The as-prepared ocular tissues were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique in scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM-TEM) (Carl Zeiss EVO LS10). The results confirmed that VPA caused dense ciliary body degeneration. Additionally, ciliary body degeneration in group 4 was supposed to be due to VPA treatment. Ciliary body damage and secondary outcomes should be considered in patients with long-term VPA therapy.

  13. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  14. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  15. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  16. Analysis of naphthenic acid mixtures as pentafluorobenzyl derivatives by gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Villagomez, Juan Manuel; Vázquez-Martínez, Juan; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Trudeau, Vance L

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report for the first time the efficiency of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr) for naphthenic acid (NA) mixtures derivatization, and the comparison in the optimal conditions to the most common NAs derivatization reagents, BF 3 /MeOH and N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA). Naphthenic acids are carboxylic acid mixtures of petrochemical origin. These compounds are important for the oil industry because of their corrosive properties, which can damage oil distillation infrastructure. Moreover, NAs are commercially used in a wide range of products such as paint and ink driers, wood and fabric preservatives, fuel additives, emulsifiers, and surfactants. Naphthenic acids have also been found in sediments after major oils spills in the United States and South Korea. Furthermore, the toxicity of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), product of the oil sands extraction activities in Canada's oil sands, has largely been attributed to NAs. One of the main challenges for the chromatographic analysis of these mixtures is the resolution of the components. The derivatization optimization was achieved using surface response analysis with molar ratio and time as factors for derivatization signal yield. After gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS) analysis of a mixture of NA standards, it was found that the signal produced by PFB-derivatives was 2.3 and 1.4 times higher than the signal produced by methylated and MTBS-derivatives, respectively. The pentafluorobenzyl derivatives have a characteristic fragment ion at 181m/z that is diagnostic for the differentiation of carboxylic and non-carboxylic acid components within mixtures. In the analysis of a Sigma and a Merichem derivatized oil extract NA mixtures, it was found that some peaks lack the characteristic fragment ion; therefore they are not carboxylic acids. Open column chromatography was used to obtain a hexane and a methanol fraction of the Sigma and

  17. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  18. The effects of solvents and structure on the electronic absorption spectra of the isomeric pyridine carboxylic acid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drmanić Saša Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultraviolet absorption spectra of the carboxyl group of three isomeric pyridine carboxylic acids N-oxides (picolinic acid N-oxide, nicotinic acid N-oxide and isonicotinic acid N-oxide were determined in fourteen solvents in the wavelength range from 200 to 400 nm. The position of the absorption maxima (λmax of the examined acids showed that the ultraviolet absorption maximum wavelengths of picolinic acid N-oxide are the shortest, and those of isonicotinic acid N-oxide acid are the longest. In order to analyze the solvent effect on the obtained absorption spectra, the ultraviolet absorption frequencies of the electronic transitions in the carboxylic group of the examined acids were correlated using a total solvatochromic equation of the form max = v0 + sπ + aα+ bβ, where υmax is the absorption frequency (1/λmax, p is a measure of the solvent polarity, β represents the scale of solvent hydrogen bond acceptor basicities and α represent the scale of solvent hydrogen bond donor acidities. The correlation of the spectroscopic data was carried out by means of multiple linear regression analysis. The solvent effects on the ultraviolet absorption maximums of the examined acids were discussed.

  19. Chopped basalt fibres: A new perspective in reinforcing poly(lactic acid to produce injection moulded engineering composites from renewable and natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tamas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reinforcing of Poly(lactic acid with chopped basalt fibres by using silane treated and untreated basalt fibres. Composite materials with 5–10–15–20–30–40 wt% basalt fibre contents were prepared from silane sized basalt fibres using extrusion, and injection moulding, while composites with 5–10–15 wt% basalt fibre contents were also prepared by using untreated basalt fibres as control. The properties of the injection moulded composites were extensively examined by using quasi-static (tensile, three-point bending and dynamic mechanical tests (notched and unnotched Charpy impact tests, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, heat deflection temperature (HDT analysis, dimensional stability test, as well as melt flow index (MFI analysis and scanning electron microscopic (SEM observations. It was found that silane treated chopped basalt fibres are much more effective in reinforcing Poly(lactic acid than natural fibres; although basalt fibres are not biodegradable but they are still considered as natural (can be found in nature in the form of volcanic rocks and biologically inert. It is demonstrated in this paper that by using basalt fibre reinforcement, a renewable and natural resource based composite can be produced by injection moulding with excellent mechanical properties suitable even for engineering applications. Finally it was shown that by using adequate drying of the materials, composites with higher mechanical properties can be achieved compared to literature data.

  20. Fumaric acid production using renewable resources from biodiesel and cane sugar production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Papapostolou, Harris; Alexandri, Maria; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; de Castro, Aline Machado; Freire, Denise M G; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2018-04-13

    The microbial production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus arrhizus NRRL 2582 has been evaluated using soybean cake from biodiesel production processes and very high polarity (VHP) sugar from sugarcane mills. Soybean cake was converted into a nutrient-rich hydrolysate via a two-stage bioprocess involving crude enzyme production via solid state fermentations (SSF) of either Aspergillus oryzae or R. arrhizus cultivated on soybean cake followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean cake. The soybean cake hydrolysate produced using crude enzymes derived via SSF of R. arrhizus was supplemented with VHP sugar and evaluated using different initial free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/L) in fed-batch cultures for fumaric acid production. The highest fumaric acid concentration (27.3 g/L) and yield (0.7 g/g of total consumed sugars) were achieved when the initial FAN concentration was 200 mg/L. The combination of VHP sugar with soybean cake hydrolysate derived from crude enzymes produced by SSF of A. oryzae at 200 mg/L initial FAN concentration led to the production of 40 g/L fumaric acid with a yield of 0.86 g/g of total consumed sugars. The utilization of sugarcane molasses led to low fumaric acid production by R. arrhizus, probably due to the presence of various minerals and phenolic compounds. The promising results achieved through the valorization of VHP sugar and soybean cake suggest that a focused study on molasses pretreatment could lead to enhanced fumaric acid production.

  1. Experimental Electron Density Distribution in Two Cocrystals of Betaines with p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Owczarzak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental determination of electron density distribution in crystals by means of high-resolution X-ray diffraction allows, among others, for studying the details of intra- and inter-molecular interactions. In case of co-crystals, this method may help in finding the conditions of creating such species. The results of such analysis for two co-crystals containing betaines, namely trigonelline (TRG: nicotinic acid N-methylbetaine, IUPAC name: 1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate and N-methylpiperidine betaine (MPB: 1-methylpiperidinium-1-yl-carboxylate with p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA are reported. TRG-HBA crystallizes as a hydrate. For both of the co-crystals, high-quality diffraction data were collected up to sinθ/λ = 1.13 Å−1. Hansen-Coppens multipolar model was then applied for modelling the electron density distribution and Atoms-In-Molecules approach was used for detailed analysis of interactions in crystals. A number of intermolecular interactions was identified, ranging from strong O-H···O hydrogen bonds through C-H···O to C-H···π and π···π interactions. Correlations between the geometrical characteristics of the contacts and the features of their critical points were analyzed in detail. Atomic charges show that in zwitterionic species there are regions of opposite charges, rather than charges that are localized on certain atoms. In case of MPB-HBA, a significant charge transfer between the components of co-crystal (0.5 e was found, as opposed to TRG-HBA, where all of the components are almost neutral.

  2. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  4. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  5. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  6. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  7. Localization of (/sup 3/H). gamma. -aminobutyric acid in the cochlea. Light and electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richrath, W; Kraus, H; Fromme, H G [Muenster Univ. (F.R. Germany). Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenklinik; Muenster Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik)

    1974-01-01

    In guinea pigs, 1 h after intraarterial and local administration of /sup 3/H-GABA, autoradiographs of the cochlea and the brain were performed. As a parameter of distribution of this substance, silver grain density was examined by means of light and electron microscopy. Intraarterial injection was not followed by any activity neither in brain nor in the cochlea, an observation suggesting the existence of a blood-perilymph barrier additional to the blood-brain barrier. Perfusion of the cochlea produced a marked activity in the spiral ganglion. Different from other tritium labelled amino acids, /sup 3/H-GABA activity could be found only in glia cells but not in nerve cell bodies or axons. The significance of this finding is open to question. In the organ of Corti a selective labelling of efferent nerve fibres could be found by means of light microscopy, additionally, using electron microscopy, only efferent synapses proved to be labelled. Most of silver grains were attached to vesicles and mitochondria, some grains to the synaptie deft. Afferent synapses remained unlabelled. Comparing with publications concerning GABA localization and concentration in the brain, we conclude that the efferent system of the Organ of Corti contains a high concentration of GABA. As present electrophysiological results are contradictory the GABA distribution alone gives no convincing evidence that this substance may serve as a transmitter.

  8. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  9. The Investigation of Electron Beam Catalytical Oxidation Process Efficiency with Potassium Persulfate in Removal Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2015-05-01

    Results: Based on the results, changes in pH had little effect on the Humic acid removal efficiency. The average, with increasing of pH from 4 to 10, the removal efficiency of humic acid from 72.59% to 73.36% increased, respectively. The results showed that increasing of the dose from 1 to 15 kGy, humic acid removal efficiency increases. Based on results by increasing of persulfate concentration, the removal efficiency increased so that with increasing of concentration of potassium persulfate from 0.1 to 0.5 mmol/100cc, removal efficiency from 69.43% to 83.82% was increased. Kinetic experiments showed that the decomposition of humic acid by electron beam radiation followed the second-order kinetic. Conclusion: The data from this study showed that the aqueous solution containing acid Humic is decomposed effectively by electron beams irradiation. Addition of potassium persulfate can be have significant improvements in removal efficiency of humic acid in the presence of electron beam.

  10. Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of the biocorrosion of copper by alginic acid polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, John G.; Geesey, Gill G.; Hankins, Michael R.; Wright, Randy B.; Wichlacz, Paul L.

    1989-08-01

    Thin films (3.4 nm) of copper on germanium substrates were exposed to 2% alginic acid polysaccharide aqueous solution. Pre- and post-exposure characterization were done by Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ancillary graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the removal process of the copper thin film from the germanium substrate. Results indicate that some of the copper was oxidized by the alginic acid solution. Some of the copper was removed from the Cu/Ge interface and incorporated into the polymer matrix. Thus, biocorrosion of copper was exhibited by the alginic acid polysaccharide.

  11. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  12. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  13. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2002-01-01

    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10 4 cells mL -1 rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications

  14. Carboxymethyl starch cross-linked by electron beam radiation in presence of acrylic acid sensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan Binh; Nguyen Thanh Duoc; Pham Thi Thu Hong

    2013-01-01

    Carboxymethyl starch (CMS) can be cross-linked by electron beam radiation to form a biocompatible and environment-friendly hydrogel at a high absorbed dose and a condensed CMS concentration. Acrylic acid (AAc) can be used as a sensitizer in order to reduce the absorbed doses to an acceptable certain level. At an absorbed dose of 3-4 kGy, the gel content of crosslinked CMS can be obtained about 50% with 5% (w/w) AAc concentration used. The compressive strength of CMS samples increased with increasing their cross-linked densities due to raising absorbed doses. The swelling ratio of cross-linked CMS was also attainable at a maximum of 50 times in the distilled water. The enzymatic degradation of cross-linked CMS was carried out in acetate buffer pH 4.6 with 0.1% α-amylase enzymatic solution incubated at 40℃ for 6 h. The crosslinked CMS samples were degraded slower than uncrosslinked CMS ones. The results indicated that the highly cross-linked CMS was almost fully degradable when the enzymatic hydrolysis was performed during 6 h. The FT IR spectra of cross-linked CMS in the presence of AAc were examined to observe the carboxyl group of AAc in the structure of cross-linked CMS. The hydrophilic of cross-linked CMS surface was determined by a contact-angle analysis. (authors)

  15. Electronic spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid and in lithium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhail, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in nitric acid have been described. There is a characteristic change in the absorption spectra of Pu v in lithium nitrate solutions. In 2 M-lithium nitrate a new peak at 969 nm and high absorption at 1200 nm are noticed. A decrease in the absorption by about 20% and the appearance of a new shoulder at 1120 nm in 6 M-lithium nitrate are found. There is no change in the spectrum in 4 M-lithium nitrate. The absorption spectra of plutonium ions in the spectral range 200 - 400 nm are interesting. All plutonium ions have an intense band in the region 250 - 260 nm as well as a less intense and rather diffuse band at 320 - 330 nm in lithium nitrate solutions the sharp band at 250 - 260 nm has disappeared. This suggests that this band is very sensitive to the environmental field. The band is probably produced by 5 F q → 5 f q-1 6 d transition as well as electron transfer. It is believed that the spectrum of Pu V at pH 6.5 represents the hydrolysis product Pu O 2 (O H). 9 fig., 4 tab

  16. Conformational, structural, vibrational, electronic and quantum chemical investigations of cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V.; Anitha, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of cis-2-methoxycinnamic acid have been measured in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. Complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data. The geometry was optimised without any symmetry constrains using the DFT/B3LYP method utilising 6-311++G∗∗ and cc-pVTZ basis sets. The thermodynamic stability and chemical reactivity descriptors of the molecule have been determined. The exact environment of C and H of the molecule has been analysed by NMR spectroscopies through 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule. The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals have also been determined. Complete NBO analysis was also carried out to find out the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energy. The vibrational frequencies which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from density functional theory (DFT) gradient calculations employing the B3LYP/6-311++G∗∗ and cc-pVTZ methods.

  17. Electrochemical and conversion electron Moessbauer study of corrosion induced by acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, C.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Vertes, A.; Meisel, W.; Guetlich, P.

    1993-01-01

    The passivation of low carbon steel was studied in aqueous solution of 0.5M Na 2 SO 4 +0.001M NaHSO 3 (pH 3.5, 6.5 and 8.5) which can be considered as a model of acid rain. The used conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) with the complementary electrochemical investigations proved that the sulfite ions induce pitting corrosion at pH 3.5 and 6.5, while the measurements showed much weaker pitting at pH 8.5. The compositions and thicknesses of the passive films formed during the electrochemical treatments are determined from the CEM spectra. Only γ-FeOOH was found on the surface of the samples at pH 6.5 and 8.5. Nevertheless, at pH 3.5 the sextet belonging to Fe 3 C appears in the spectra, and also FeSO 4 .H 2 O could be detected in low concentration. (orig.)

  18. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  19. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  20. Training for cervical cancer prevention programs in low-resource settings: focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, P D; Lauterbach, M; Sellors, J W; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2005-05-01

    The modern approach to cervical cancer prevention, characterized by use of cytology and multiple visits for diagnosis and treatment, has frequently proven challenging and unworkable in low-resource settings. Because of this, the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has made it a priority to investigate and assess alternative approaches, particularly the use of visual screening methods, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), for precancer and cancer detection and the use of cryotherapy as a precancer treatment method. As a result of ACCP experience in providing training to nurses and doctors in these techniques, it is now widely agreed that training should be competency based, combining both didactic and hands-on approaches, and should be done in a clinical setting that resembles the service-delivery conditions at the program site. This article reviews ACCP experiences and perceptions about the essentials of training in visual inspection and cryotherapy and presents some lessons learned with regard to training in these techniques in low-resource settings.

  1. Preparation of New Adsorbent Containing Hydroxamic Acid Groups by Electron Beam-Induced Grafting for Metal Ion Adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A new adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups was synthesized by electron beam-induced graft copolymerization of methyl acrylate (MA) onto nonwoven fabric composed of polyethylene-coated polypropylene fiber. Conversion of ester groups of the grafted copolymer into the hydroxamic groups was performed by treatment with an alkaline solution of hydroxylamine (HA). Adsorbent containing hydroxamic acid groups can adsorb 99% of UO2 2+ , 98% of V5+, 97% of Pb2+ and 96% of Al3+ at pH, 5, 4, 6, and 4, respectively, after coming into contact with 100 ppb metal solution for 24 h

  2. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  3. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  4. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  5. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  6. One-electron redox reactions of water-soluble vitamins. IV. Thiamin (vitamin B1), biotin, and pantothenic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, P.N.; Hayon, E.

    1977-01-01

    The technique of pulse radiolysis and kinetic absorption spectrophotometry was used to study the one-electron reduction of thiamin, thiazole, 4-aminopyrimidine, biotin, and pantothenic acid in aqueous solution. The acetone ketyl radical and e/sub aq/ - were used as the one-electron reducing agents. The reaction rate constants of e/sub aq/ - and (CH 3 ) 2 COH with these compounds were determined at different pH values, taking into account the dissociation constants of the substrates. The transient optical absorption spectra of the intermediates produced, their extinction coefficients, decay kinetics, and ionization constants were determined. One-electron reduction of the thiazolium ring of thiamin is suggested, based on the formation of dihydrothiamin as a final product. Other assignments for these radicals are suggested and discussed. The reaction of OH radicals with biotin and pantothenic acid leads, primarily, to H atom abstraction at various sites in the molecule. The formation and ionization of the -C(OH)CONH- radical from pantothenic acid, pK/sub a/ = 6.0 +- 0.3, is proposed

  7. Dual patterning of a poly(acrylic acid) layer by electron-beam and block copolymer lithographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Anthony C; Linford, Matthew R; Harb, John N; Davis, Robert C

    2013-06-18

    We show the controllable patterning of palladium nanoparticles in both one and two dimensions using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching of a thin film of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). After the initial patterning of the PAA, a monolayer of polystyrene-b-poly-2-vinylpyridine micelles is spun cast onto the surface. A short reactive ion etch is then used to transfer the micelle pattern into the patterned poly(acrylic acid). Finally, PdCl2 is loaded from solution into the patterned poly(acrylic acid) features, and a reactive-ion etching process is used to remove the remaining polymer and form Pd nanoparticles. This method yields location-controlled patches of nanoparticles, including single- and double-file lines and nanoparticle pairs. A locational accuracy of 9 nm or less in one direction was achieved by optimizing the size of the PAA features.

  8. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  9. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  10. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  11. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  12. IPN's of Acrylic Acid and N-Isopropylacrylamide by Gamma and Electron Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burillo, G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, temperature and pH sensitive hydrogels have been investigated widely because of their unique properties and versatile applications in medicine and biotechnology, as well as drug delivery. However a serious limitation of hydrogels in many applications is the low mechanical strength of such gels when highly swollen. To overcome this problem, sensitive hydrogels were prepared with satisfactory mechanical properties as a semi-interpenetranting network, where one of them is a mechanically stable polymer. In this work temperature sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and a pH sensitive monomer, acrylic acid (AAc) were prepared as an interpenetranting network by a sequential method. Poly (AAc) hydrogels were prepared in glass tubes 3 mm inner diameter, at room temperature from an aqueous solutions 50%vol under argon atmosphere, and irradiated with a Co 6 0 gamma source, at doses from 5 to 30 kGy and dose rate of 3 kGy/h. Poly (AAc) hydrogels were also prepared by electron beam irradiation with a Van de Graaff at a dose rate of 19.4 kGy/min, and radiation doses from 10 to 30 kGy. After polymerization and crosslinking, the gels were washed in water during 48 h, and dried in vacuo to constant weight. Poly (NIPAAm) as secondary gel was synthetized directly within the primary gels in aqueous solution with the croslinker N, N' methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), the accelerator N,N,N , N tetramethyl ethylenediamidne TMEDA, and potasium persulfate as initiator. Equilibrium swelling properties of hydrogels were studied in pH 2.2-8 range and temperature 10-45degree; LCST and pH critic point of the IPN's were determined; the composition of the interpenetrating network was measured by elemental analysis, and the morphological structure characterized by SEM. The volume of the cells of PAAC hydrogels decreased with increase in radiation dose, their mechanic hardness increased and they lost elasticity. The interpenetrating networks of samples with PAAc irradiated

  13. Electron-beam-induced post-grafting polymerization of acrylic acid onto the surface of Kevlar fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Hu, Jiangtao; Ma, Hongjuan; Wu, Guozhong

    2018-04-01

    The surface of Kevlar fibers was successfully modified by electron beam (EB)-induced post-grafting of acrylic acid (AA). The generation of radicals in the fibers was confirmed by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements, and the concentration of radicals was shown to increase as the absorbed dose increased, but decrease with increasing temperature. The influence of the synthesis conditions on the degree of grafting was also investigated. The surface microstructure and chemical composition of the modified Kevlar fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The SEM images revealed that the surface of the grafted fibers was rougher than those of the pristine and irradiated fibers. XPS analysis confirmed an increase in C(O)OH groups on the surface of the Kevlar fibers, suggesting successful grafting of AA. These results indicate that EB-induced post-grafting polymerization is effective for modifying the surface properties of Kevlar fibers.

  14. Influence of electron beam irradiation in the organic acids profile of Portuguese chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carocho, Márcio; Antonio, Amilcar L.; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C.M.; Bento, Albino; Rafalski, Andrzej; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids are primary metabolites that play important roles in plant metabolism and confer distinct flavors in fruits. Their consumption is beneficial for humans, namely against certain illnesses. The food industry uses them as preservatives and flavor enhancers. In fruits conservation and transport, organic acids should be preserved at all costs in order to maintain physical quality and pleasant flavors until they reach the consumer. In 2010, due to European legislation, meth...

  15. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  16. Development and evaluation of a multimedia e-learning resource for electrolyte and acid-base disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mogamat Razeen; Chikte, Usuf M E; Halperin, Mitchell L

    2011-09-01

    This article reports on the development and evaluation of a Web-based application that provides instruction and hands-on practice in managing electrolyte and acid-base disorders. Our teaching approach, which focuses on concepts rather than details, encourages quantitative analysis and a logical problem-solving approach. Identifying any dangers to the patient is a vital first step. Concepts such as an "appropriate response" to a given perturbation and the need for electroneutrality in body fluids are used repeatedly. Our Electrolyte Workshop was developed using Flash and followed an iterative design process. Two case-based tutorials were built in this first phase, with one tutorial including an interactive treatment simulation. Users select from a menu of therapies and see the impact of their choices on the patient. Appropriate text messages are displayed, and changes in body compartment sizes, brain size, and plasma sodium concentrations are illustrated via Flash animation. Challenges encountered included a shortage of skilled Flash developers, budgetary constraints, and challenges in communication between the authors and the developers. The application was evaluated via user testing by residents and specialists in internal medicine. Satisfaction was measured with a questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale. The mean System Usability Scale score was 78.4 ± 13.8, indicating a good level of usability. Participants rated the content as being scientifically sound; they liked the teaching approach and felt that concepts were conveyed clearly. They indicated that the application held their interest, that it increased their understanding of hyponatremia, and that they would recommend this learning resource to others.

  17. Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering studies of copper in 2024-T3 aluminum following electrochemical anodization in phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of the electrochemical anodization of dioxidized 2024-T3 aluminum on copper were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. Anodization was performed in phosphoric acid at constant potential. Data is presented which shows that constant potential anodization of 2024-T3 is more efficient than aluminum in terms of oxide growth rates for short anodization times. However the maximum anodic oxide thickness achievable on the alloy is less than the pure metal. Copper is shown to be enriched at the oxide metal interface because of its diffusion from the bulk during anodization. The presence of copper at the oxide-metal interface is shown to affect oxide morphology.

  18. Study of the electronic structure at the interface between fluorene-1-carboxylic acid molecules and Cu(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fei; Mao Hongying; Guan Dandan; Dou Weidong; Zhang Hanjie; Li Haiyang; He Pimo; Bao Shining; Hofmann, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The interface electronic properties of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid (FC-1) adsorbed on Cu(110) have been studied by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and first-principles calculations. Both the molecular orbitals and the Cu valence band are significantly modified upon adsorption. FC-1 is chemically bonded to Cu(110) through charge donation and back donation involving the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the molecule. An observed reduction of the work function can be attributed to the adsorption induced charge redistribution, and the positive interface dipole.

  19. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%.

  20. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Hon-Meng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Bee, Soo-Tueen, E-mail: beest@utar.edu.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnam, C.T. [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Rahmat, A.R. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples.

  1. Effectiveness of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate for the electron-beam-irradiation-induced cross-linking of polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Hon-Meng; Bee, Soo-Tueen; Ratnam, C.T.; Sin, Lee Tin; Phang, Yee-Yao; Tee, Tiam-Ting; Rahmat, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on electron beam irradiated PLA. • Irradiated PLA blends were weakened by incorporation of high amount of TMPTMA. • TMPTMA interacts with polymer free radicals to build crosslinking network. -- Abstract: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of various loading levels of trimethylopropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) on the properties of polylactic acid (PLA) cross-linked via electron-beam irradiation. PLA was compounded with 3–5 wt.% of TMPTMA to induce cross-linking upon subjection to electron-beam irradiation doses of 25–250 kGy. The physical properties of the PLA samples were characterised by means of X-ray diffraction, gel fraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses on fractured surfaces after tensile tests. The presence of TMPTMA in PLA was found to effectively increase the crystallite size and gel fraction. However, higher loading levels of TMPTMA could compromise the properties of the PLA/TMPTMA samples, indicating that a larger amount of monomer free radicals might promote degradation within the substantially cross-linked amorphous phase. Irradiation-induced cross-linking in the samples could improve the cross-linking density while decreasing the elongation and interfering with the crystallisation. These effects are caused by the intensive irradiation-induced chain scission that is responsible for the deterioration of the mechanical and crystalline properties of the samples

  2. Absence of cell communication for fluorescein and dansylated amino acids in an electronic coupled cell system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venrooij, G.E.P.M. van; Hax, W.M.A.; Schouten, V.J.A.; Denier van der Gon, J.J.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    1975-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the diffusion process of sodium fluorescein and dansylated amino acids in the salivary gland of the larvae of Drosophila hydei reveals that the differences in specific permeability between the junctional and nonjunctional membranes, as found for small ions, do not apply to

  3. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  4. Project on comparison of structural parameters and electron density maps of oxalic acid dihydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Philip; Dam, J.; Harkema, Sybolt; Feil, D.

    1984-01-01

    Results obtained from four X-ray and five neutron data sets collected under a project sponsored by the Commission on Charge, Spin and Momentum Densities are analyzed by comparison of thermal parameters, positional parameters and X - N electron density maps. Three sets of theoretical calculations are

  5. Synthesis and inhibitory effect on photosynthetic electron transport of 1,3,5-triazinylcarboxylic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujimori, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Okano, R.; Hiraki, M.; Rensen, van J.J.S.; Boger, P.; Kohno, H.; Wakabayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study relates to the modification of 2-benzylamino-4-methyl-6-trifluoromethyl-1,3,5-triazine. New 1,3,5-triazine compounds with an electron-withdrawing carboxyl group, e.g. ester group, substituted for the trifluoromethyl group, were synthesized and assayed for activity to inhibit

  6. Electron donation characteristics and interplays of major volatile fatty acids from anaerobically fermented organic matters in bioelectrochemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jiamiao; Hao, Xiaoxuan; Gu, Zaoli; Xia, Siqing

    2018-02-23

    Anaerobic fermentation liquid of waste organic matters (WOMs) is rich in volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be treated with bioelectrochemical systems for both electrical energy recovery and organics removal. In this work, four major VFAs in the fermented WOMs supernatant were selected to examine their electron donation characteristics for power output and their complicated interplays in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Results indicated a priority sequence of acetate, propionate, n-butyrate and i-valerate when served as the sole electron donor for electricity generation. The MFC solely fed with acetate showed the highest coulombic efficiency and power density, and the longest period for electricity production. When two of the VFAs were added with equal proportion, both acids contributed positively to electricity generation, while the selective or competitive use of substrates by diverse microorganisms behaved as an antagonism effect to prolong the degradation time of each VFA. When acetate and propionate, the preferable substrates for electricity generation, were mixed in various proportions, their large concentration difference led to improved electrical performance but decreased organic removal rate.

  7. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  8. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of ∼ 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO 2 dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 microm) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions

  9. Antimony leaching in plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) with various acids and gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostar, Sandra; Stenvall, Erik; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R St J

    2013-06-01

    There has been a recent interest in antimony since the availability in readily mined areas is decreasing compared to the amounts used. It is important in many applications such as flame retardants and in the production of polyester, which can trigger an investigation of the leachability of antimony from plastics using different acids. In this paper, different types of acids are tested for their ability to leach antimony from a discarded computer housing, made of poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), which is a common plastic type used in electrical and electronic equipment. The acid solutions included sodium hydrogen tartrate (0.5M) dissolved in either dimethyl sulfoxide or water (at ca. 23°C and heated to ca. 105°C). The metal content after leaching was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The most efficient leaching medium was the heated solution of sodium hydrogen tartrate in dimethyl sulfoxide, which leached almost half of the antimony from the poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene). Gamma irradiation, which is proposed to improve the mechanical properties in plastics, was used here to investigate the influence of antimony leaching ability. No significant change in the amount of leached antimony could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  11. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  12. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  13. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M1-immunosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rameil, Steffen; Schubert, Peter; Grundmann, Peter; Dietrich, Richard; Maertlbauer, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M 1 -immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M 1 antibody (pAb-AFM 1 ), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B 1 conjugate (HRP-AFB 1 conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL -1 and allowed detection of 500 pg mL -1 (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M 1 (AFM 1 ) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL -1 AFM 1 .

  14. Interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase on poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode and glucose sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuechou; Tan, Bingcan; Zheng, Xinyu; Kong, Dexian; Li, Qinglu

    2015-11-15

    The interfacial electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) on a poly(glutamic acid)-modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/GCE) was investigated. The redox peaks measured for GOx and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are similar, and the anodic peak of GOx does not increase in the presence of glucose in a mediator-free solution. These indicate that the electroactivity of GOx is not the direct electron transfer (DET) between GOx and PGA/GCE and that the observed electroactivity of GOx is ascribed to free FAD that is released from GOx. However, efficient electron transfer occurred if an appropriate mediator was placed in solution, suggesting that GOx is active. The PGA/GCE-based biosensor showed wide linear response in the range of 0.5-5.5 mM with a low detection limit of 0.12 mM and high sensitivity and selectivity for measuring glucose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and Antimicrobial Property of Poly(Acrylic Acid Nanogel Containing Silver Particle Prepared by Electron Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Bae Choi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a one step process to synthesize nanogel containing silver nanoparticles involving electron beam irradiation. Water-soluble silver nitrate powder is dissolved in the distilled water and then poly(acrylic acid (PAAc and hexane are put into this silver nitrate solution. These samples are irradiated by an electron beam to make the PAAc nanogels containing silver nanoparticles (Ag/PAAc nanogels. The nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. In addition, the particle size and zeta-potential were confirmed by a particle size analyzer (PSA. The antibacterial properties of the nanogels were evaluated by paper diffusion test. The Ag/PAAc nanogels had an antibacterial effect against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The nanogels also demonstrated a good healing effect against diabetic ulcer. The size of the Ag/PAAc nanogels decreased with increasing irradiation doses, and the absolute value of the zeta potential increased with increasing irradiation doses. Also, the Ag/PAAc nanogels exhibited good antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In in vivo wound healing, the Ag/PAAc nanogels have a good healing effect.

  16. Modelling fragmentations of amino-acids after resonant electron attachment: quantum evidence of possible direct -OH detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panosetti, C.; Sebastianelli, F.; Gianturco, F.A. [Department of Chemistry and CNISM, University of Rome -La Sapienza-, Roma (Italy); Baccarelli, I. [CASPUR, Supercomputing Consortium for University and Research, Roma (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    We investigate some aspects of the radiation damage mechanisms in biomolecules, focusing on the modelling of resonant fragmentation caused by the attachment of low-energy electrons (LEEs) initially ejected by biological tissues when exposed to ionizing radiation. Scattering equations are formulated within a symmetry-adapted, single-center expansion of both continuum and bound electrons, and the interaction forces are obtained from a combination of ab initio calculations and a nonempirical model of exchange and correlation effects developed in our group. We present total elastic scattering cross-sections and resonance features obtained for the equilibrium geometries of glycine, alanine, proline and valine. Our results at those geometries of the target molecules are briefly shown to qualitatively explain some of the fragmentation patterns obtained in experiments. We further carry out a one-dimensional (1D) modeling for the dynamics of intramolecular energy transfers mediated by the vibrational activation of selected bonds: our calculations indicate that resonant electron attachment to glycine can trigger direct, dissociative evolution of the complex into (Gly-OH)- and -OH losses, while they also find that the same process does not occur via a direct, 1D dissociative path in the larger amino acids of the present study. (authors)

  17. 4D-Qsar Study of Some Pyrazole Pyridine Carboxylic Acid Derivatives by Electron Conformational-Genetic Algorithm Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzun, Burak; Yavuz, Sevtap Caglar; Sabanci, Nazmiye; Saripinar, Emin

    2018-05-13

    In the present work, pharmacophore identification and biological activity prediction for 86 pyrazole pyridine carboxylic acid derivatives were made using the electron conformational genetic algorithm approach which was introduced as a 4D-QSAR analysis by us in recent years. In the light of the data obtained from quantum chemical calculations at HF/6-311 G** level, the electron conformational matrices of congruity (ECMC) were constructed by EMRE software. Comparing the matrices, electron conformational submatrix of activity (ECSA, Pha) was revealed that are common for these compounds within a minimum tolerance. A parameter pool was generated considering the obtained pharmacophore. To determine the theoretical biological activity of molecules and identify the best subset of variables affecting bioactivities, we used the nonlinear least square regression method and genetic algorithm. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the experimental data presented in the literature. The model for training and test sets attained by the optimum 12 parameters gave highly satisfactory results with R2training= 0.889, q2=0.839 and SEtraining=0.066, q2ext1 = 0.770, q2ext2 = 0.750, q2ext3=0.824, ccctr = 0.941, ccctest = 0.869 and cccall = 0.927. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Reactivity of OH· and e-aq from electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions of EDTA and aminopolycarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vel Leitner, N.K.; Guilbault, I.; Legube, B.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions of EDTA, EDDA NN', NTA, IDA and Cu-EDTA was performed in the presence of scavengers for the hydroxyl radicals (methanol) or for the solvated electrons (hydrogen peroxide). Experiments showed that for each molecule, the G-value decreases as the radiation dose increases from 1 to 25 kGy, and for EDTA, when the initial concentration decreases from 10 to 0.1 mmol l -1 . At pH 8 and for 5 kGy, the G-values of NTA, IDA, EDTA and EDDA NN' removal ascribed to OH · radicals are, respectively, 0.06, 0.06, 0.15 and 0.20 μmol J -1 , whereas for the solvated electrons the G-values were, respectively, 0.01, 0.01, 0.06 and 0.04 μmol J -1 . The rate constants of hydroxyl radicals and solvated electrons were determined by comparison with one competitor. For each active species (hydroxyl radical or solvated electron), the reactivity is connected to the number of nitrogen atoms and acetate groups. The rate constants of OH · radicals are above 10 10 and 8.6x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 for EDDA NN' and EDTA, respectively, 2.1x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 for IDA and 6.1x10 8 l mol -1 s -1 for NTA. The reactivity of solvated electrons is smaller and the rate constants are in the range 1.9x10 6 -3.7x10 6 l mol -1 s -1 for NTA, IDA and EDDA NN' and equal 1.4x10 7 l mol -1 s -1 for EDTA. The reactivity of the complex Cu-EDTA towards OH · does not differ to a large extent from EDTA whereas with e - aq the reactivity of Cu-EDTA is better than EDTA since k e - /Cu-EDTA reaches 2.2x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 . It follows that when both active entities (OH · and e - aq ) are involved in the electron beam irradiation process, the removal of free aminopolycarboxylic acids is mainly due to OH · radicals. However, the complex Cu-EDTA is concerned by both e - aq and OH · radicals

  19. Electronic absorption spectral studies of Pr(III) chelates with some amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhawa, Chanchal; Solanki, Kanika; Bhandari, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    Investigations on Pr(III) systems with 1:1 metal-ligand stoichiometric ratio have been carried out in different solvents. β - Alanine, Taurine and anthranilic acid have been opted as ligands for the investigations. The Study is based on doped crystal phenomenon. The Slater-Condon, spin-orbit, nephelauxetic, bonding, Racah and Judd-Ofelt parameters have been explored during the study. Four bands for Pr(III) have been observed and recorded in the region 350 nm to 900nm. Partial regression method has been used for calculations. Use of computational chemistry has been explored in order to develop better and easier methods of calculations.

  20. A study on the swelling behavior of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels obtained by electron beam crosslinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, N.; Jalili, L.; Anvari, F.

    2010-06-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels were prepared by using electron beam (EB) crosslinking of PAA homopolymer from its aqueous solutions. The swelling behavior of the hydrogels was studied as a function of the concentration of PAA solution, radiation dose, pH of the swelling medium and swelling time. Also the environmental pH effect on the water diffusion mode into hydrogels was investigated. These hydrogels clearly showed pH-sensitive swelling behavior with Fickian type of diffusion in the stomach-like pH medium (pH 1.3) and non-Fickian type in the intestine-like pH medium (pH 6.8).

  1. A study on the swelling behavior of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels obtained by electron beam crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.; Jalili, L.; Anvari, F.

    2010-01-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels were prepared by using electron beam (EB) crosslinking of PAA homopolymer from its aqueous solutions. The swelling behavior of the hydrogels was studied as a function of the concentration of PAA solution, radiation dose, pH of the swelling medium and swelling time. Also the environmental pH effect on the water diffusion mode into hydrogels was investigated. These hydrogels clearly showed pH-sensitive swelling behavior with Fickian type of diffusion in the stomach-like pH medium (pH 1.3) and non-Fickian type in the intestine-like pH medium (pH 6.8).

  2. A recovery of gold from electronic scrap by mechanical separation, acid leaching and electrowinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, K.I.; Lee, J.C.; Lee, C.K.; Joo, K.H.; Yoon, J.K.; Kang, H.R.; Kim, Y.S.; Sohn, H.J.

    1995-12-31

    A series of processes to recover the gold from electronic scrap which contains initially about 200--600 ppm Au have been developed. First, mechanical beneficiation including shredding, crushing and screening was employed. Results showed that 99 percent of gold component leaves in the fraction of under 1 mm of crushed scrap and its concentration was enriched to about 800 ppm without incineration. The scrap was leached in 50% aqua regia solution and gold was dissolved completely at 60 C within 2 hours. Other valuable metals such as silver, copper, nickel and iron were also dissolved. This resulting solution was boiled to remove nitrous compounds in the leachate. Finally, a newly designed electrolyzer was tested to recover the gold metal. More than 99% of gold and silver were recovered within an hour in electrowinning process.

  3. DFT approach to (benzylthio)acetic acid: Conformational search, molecular (monomer and dimer) structure, vibrational spectroscopy and some electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    The DFT studies were carried out with the B3LYP method utilizing the 6-31G and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets depending on whether the aim of calculations was to gain the geometry at equilibrium, or to calculate the optimized molecular structure of (benzylthio)acetic acid (Hbta) in the forms of monomer and dimer. The minimum conformational energy search was followed by the potential energy surface (PES) scan of all rotary bonds existing in the acid molecule. The optimized geometrical monomeric and dimeric structures of the title compound were compared with the experimental structural data in the solid state. The detailed vibrational interpretation of experimental infrared and Raman bands was performed on the basis of theoretically simulated ESFF-scaled wavenumbers calculated for the monomer and dimer structures of Hbta. The electronic characteristics of Hbta is also presented in terms of Mulliken atomic charges, frontier molecular orbitals and global reactivity descriptors. Additionally, the MEP and ESP surfaces were computed to predict coordination sites for potential metal complex formation.

  4. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  5. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  6. Scanning electron microscopic study of the hydrolytic degradation of poly(glycolic acid) suture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.C.; Campbell, N.D.

    1982-01-01

    This article reports the morphological observations on the surface changes of poly-(glycolic acid) sutures which have been exposed to various dosages of gamma irradiation (0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 20 and 40 Mrad) and duration of immersion (0, 7, 14, 28, 48, 60, and 90 days) in a physiological saline buffer. The most important gross morphological characteristics of PGA suture hydrolytic degradation is the formation of surface cracks on the filaments. The regularity of the surface cracks increased with an increase in the gamma irradiation and the duration of hydrolysis. Surface cracks were not observed in irradiated sutures that had not been subjected to hydrolytic degradation. The arrangement of the surface cracks, their orientation on the filaments, and the direction of crack propagation provide very useful information for depicting the mechanism of hydrolytic degradation in this class of fibrous material. The microfibrillar model of fiber structure has been used as the basis for the proposed degradation mechanism of PGA in vitro. It is believed that hydrolysis occurs initially in the amorphous regions sandwiched between two crystalline zones, as tie-chain segments, free chain ends, and chain folds in these regions degrade into fragments. As degradation proceeds, the size of the fragments reaches the stage at which they can be dissolved into the buffer medium. This dissolution removes the fragments from the amorphous regions, and surface cracks appeared

  7. Luminescence and Electronic Spectral Studies of Some Synthesized Lanthanide Complexes Using Benzoic Acid Derivative and o-Phenanthroline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wankar, Sneha; Limaye, S N

    2015-07-01

    Lanthanide complexes of p-nitrobenzoic acid(p-NBA) and o-phenanthroline(o-phen) namely [Ln2(Phen)2(p-NBA)3(NO3)2].2H2O where, Ln = Sm(III),Tb(III),Dy(III) and [Eu2(Phen)2(p-NBA)3].4H2O were synthesized and further characterized by Elemental analysis, UV spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, (1)HNMR spectroscopy. Luminescence measurements were performed on all compounds in ethanolic solution. These complexes have showed narrow emission indicating that the organic ligands are better energy absorber and capable of transferring energy to the Ln (III) ion. Furthermore, we reported electronic spectral studies on [Eu2 (Phen)2 (p-NBA)3].4H2O in order to calculate following parameters, viz: Oscillator strength (f), Judd-Ofelt parameters Ωλ (λ = 2,4,6) and Radiative parameters. [Eu2 (o-Phen)2 (p-NBA)3].4H2O showed the strongest emission at 613 nm corresponds to (5)D0→(7)F2 hypersensitive transition, this emission is very sensitive to the environment. However, the larger value of Ω2 supports the presence of the hypersensitive transition (5)D0→(7)F2 which strictly depends on the nature of ligand. All electronic spectral parameters were calculated systemically.

  8. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation

  9. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  10. Activity and Phylogenetic Diversity of Bacterial Cells with High and Low Nucleic Acid Content and Electron Transport System Activity in an Upwelling Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Longnecker, K.; Sherr, B. F.; Sherr, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters...

  11. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  12. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  13. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  15. Electronically Stabilized Copoly(Styrene-Acrylic Acid Submicrocapsules Prepared by Miniemulsion Copolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation and characterization of poly(styrene-acrylic acid (St/AA submicrocapsules by using the miniemulsion copolymerization method. AA was introduced to miniemulsion polymerization of St to increase the zeta potential and the resulting electrostatic stability of St/AA submicrocapsules. Phytoncide oil was adopted as the core model material. Miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was conducted at a fixed monomer concentration (0.172 mol with a varying monomer feed ratio [AA]/[St] (0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5, and 1.0. Concentrations of initiator (azobisisobutyronitrile; 1.0 × 10−3, 2.0 × 10−3, 3.0 × 10−3, and 4.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer and surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; 0.6 × 10−3, 1.0 × 10−3, and 1.4 × 10−3 mol were also controlled to optimize the miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Dynamic light scattering and microscopic analyses confirmed the optimum condition of miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA. Long-term colloidal stability of aqueous St/AA submicrocapsule suspension was evaluated by using TurbiscanTM Lab. In this work, the optimum condition for miniemulsion copolymerization of St and AA was determined ([AA]/[St] = 0.33; [SDS] = 1.0 × 10−3 mol; [AIBN] = 2.0 × 10−3 mol/mol of monomer. St/AA submicrocapsules prepared at the optimum condition (392.6 nm and −55.2 mV of mean particle size and zeta potential, respectively showed almost no variations in backscattering intensity (stable colloids without aggregation.

  16. ETMB-RBF: discrimination of metal-binding sites in electron transporters based on RBF networks with PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Wu, Sheng-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose and is a very important biological process in living cell. As cells do cellular respiration, they need a pathway to store and transport electrons, the electron transport chain. The function of the electron transport chain is to produce a trans-membrane proton electrochemical gradient as a result of oxidation-reduction reactions. In these oxidation-reduction reactions in electron transport chains, metal ions play very important role as electron donor and acceptor. For example, Fe ions are in complex I and complex II, and Cu ions are in complex IV. Therefore, to identify metal-binding sites in electron transporters is an important issue in helping biologists better understand the workings of the electron transport chain. We propose a method based on Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) profiles and significant amino acid pairs to identify metal-binding residues in electron transport proteins. We have selected a non-redundant set of 55 metal-binding electron transport proteins as our dataset. The proposed method can predict metal-binding sites in electron transport proteins with an average 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 93.2% and 93.1% for metal-binding cysteine and histidine, respectively. Compared with the general metal-binding predictor from A. Passerini et al., the proposed method can improve over 9% of sensitivity, and 14% specificity on the independent dataset in identifying metal-binding cysteines. The proposed method can also improve almost 76% sensitivity with same specificity in metal-binding histidine, and MCC is also improved from 0.28 to 0.88. We have developed a novel approach based on PSSM profiles and significant amino acid pairs for identifying metal-binding sites from electron transport proteins. The proposed approach achieved a significant improvement with independent test set of metal-binding electron transport proteins.

  17. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  18. Side chain effect on electronic structure of spin-coated films of [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and its bis-adduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaike, Kouki; Kanai, Kaname; Ouchi, Yukio; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electronic structure of spin-coated films of PCBM and bis-PCBM was investigated. ► Ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. ► Electron donation from the side chain to C 60 -backbone raises the HOMO and LUMO. ► Open circuit voltages of PCBM-based solar cells relates to electron affinities. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic structure of spin-coated films of two soluble fullerenes; [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its bis-adduct (bis-PCBM) using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The ionization energy and electron affinity of spin-coated films of bis-PCBM were determined to be 6.01 eV and 3.4 eV, respectively. Analysis of electron density suggested the stronger electron donation from the two side chains to fullerene-backbone in a bis-PCBM molecule, compared with PCBM. The electron donation raises the energies of the frontier orbitals of bis-PCBM, which mainly consist of π-orbitals of fullerene-backbone. As a result, the ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. Moreover, we also concluded that the larger open circuit voltage observed for bis-PCBM based organic photovoltaics was explained by the higher-lying unoccupied molecular orbital of bis-PCBM

  19. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  20. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Ding; Bo Du; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu; Dehua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12...

  1. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bsat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM, can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M and immersion times (6, 24 h of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200–300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  2. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bsat, Suzan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Munsch, Maximilian; Valstar, Edward R; Zadpoor, Amir A

    2015-04-08

    Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM), can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be bio-functionalized to promote bone growth. In the current work, EBM porous Ti6Al4V alloy was exposed to an alkali acid heat (AlAcH) treatment to bio-functionalize the surface of the porous structure. Various molar concentrations (3, 5, 10M) and immersion times (6, 24 h) of the alkali treatment were used to determine optimal parameters. The apatite forming ability of the samples was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion testing. The micro-topography and surface chemistry of AlAcH treated samples were evaluated before and after SBF testing using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The AlAcH treatment successfully modified the topographical and chemical characteristics of EBM porous titanium surface creating nano-topographical features ranging from 200-300 nm in size with a titania layer ideal for apatite formation. After 1 and 3 week immersion in SBF, there was no Ca or P present on the surface of as manufactured porous titanium while both elements were present on all AlAcH treated samples except those exposed to 3M, 6 h alkali treatment. An increase in molar concentration and/or immersion time of alkali treatment resulted in an increase in the number of nano-topographical features per unit area as well as the amount of titania on the surface.

  3. Photoinduced electron transfer involving eosin-tryptophan conjugates. Long-lived radical pair states for systems incorporating aromatic amino acid side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G. II; Farahat, C.W.; Oh, C. (Boston Univ., MA (United States))

    1994-07-14

    The electron-transfer photochemistry of the covalent derivatives of the dye eosin, in which the xanthene dye is covalently attached to the amino acid L-tryptophan via the thiohydantoin derivative, the tryptophan dipeptide, and an ethyl ester derivative, has been investigated. The singlet excited state of the dye is significantly quenched on attachment of the aromatic amino acid residue. Dye triplet states are also intercepted through intramolecular interaction of excited dye and amino acid pendants. Flash photolysis experiments verify that this interaction involves electron transfer from the indole side chains of tryptophan. Rate constants for electron transfer are discussed in terms of the distance relationships for the eosin chromophore and aromatic redox sites on peptide derivatives, the pathway for [sigma]-[pi] through-bond interaction between redox sites, and the multiplicity and state of protonation for electron-transfer intermediates. Selected electron-transfer photoreactions were studied under conditions of binding of the peptide derivatives in a high molecular weight, water-soluble, globular polymer, poly(vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone). 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  5. Thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data related with the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the production of 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystals as part of the research article entitled “Green production of cocrystals using a new solvent-free approach by spray congealing” (Duarte et al., 2016 [1]. More specifically, here we present the thermal analysis and the X-ray powder diffraction data for pure Glutaric Acid, used as a raw material in [1]. We also include the X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy data obtained for the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric Acid cocrystal (form II produced using the cooling crystallization method reported in “Operating Regions in Cooling Cocrystallization of Caffeine and Glutaric Acid in Acetonitrile” (Yu et al., 2010 [2]. Lastly, we show the X-ray powder diffraction data obtained for assessing the purity of the 1:1 Caffeine:Glutaric cocrystals produced in [1].

  6. Effective atomic numbers and electron densities of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids in the energy range 1 keV–100 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Morteza; Lunscher, Nolan [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Yeow, John T.W., E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave., W., Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Recently, there has been an interest in fabrication of X-ray sensors based on bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump protein in cell membrane of Halobacterium salinarium. Therefore, a better understanding of interaction of X-ray photons with bacteriorhodopsin is required. We use WinXCom program to calculate the mass attenuation coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin and its comprising amino acids for photon energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV. These amino acids include alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine, Asx1, Asx2, Glx1 and Glx2. We then use that data to calculate effective atomic number and electron densities for the same range of energy. We also emphasize on two ranges of energies (10–200 keV and 1–20 MeV) in which X-ray imaging and radiotherapy machines work.

  7. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  8. [Evaluation of a new electronic handheld meter for measurement of β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrt, A; Burfeind, O; Voigtsberger, R; Müller, A; Heuwieser, W

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical ketosis (SCK), an important disease in lactating dairy cows, is defined as the presence of elevated concentrations of circulating ketone bodies without the development of clinical signs. Therefore, diagnostic methods are limited to the detection of the concentrations of ketone bodies in different body fluids. The objective of this study was to evaluate a recently developed electronic hand- held meter (NovaVet) for the determination of β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) in the blood of dairy cows. A total of 155 lactating dairy cows were included in the trial. Blood samples were taken from each cow and analyzed using the BHB meter. The obtained concentrations were compared to the results determined by a commercial laboratory. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was determined between the two methods. A Wilcoxon test was performed and a Bland-Altman plot was generated. Test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value) for established BHB cut points for the diagnosis of SCK were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The two methods were highly correlated (rs = 0.87; p meter (median 1.0 mmol/l; IQR 0.7-1.3 mmol/l) and by the laboratory (median 0.9 mmol/l; IQR 0.7-1.1 mmol/l). Using a cut point of 1.2 mmol/l, sensitivity and specificity of the BHB meter were 97% and 82%, respectively. There was a good agreement between BHB concentrations determined using the BHB meter and the laboratory. Furthermore, the BHB meter displayed good test characteristics. The specificity of 82% results in a number of false-positive results. However, this new device can be recommended for the detection of SCK in cows under practical conditions.

  9. A low energy electron microscopy study of the initial growth, structure, and thermal stability of 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid domains on Cu(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Fawad S.; Gastel, Raoul van; Schwarz, Daniel; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2011-01-01

    The growth of 4,4 ' -biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BDA) on Cu(001) has been studied using low energy electron microscopy and selective area low energy electron diffraction. The emergence of large islands and hydrogen bonding to perpendicularly oriented, adjacent molecules is confirmed. The two benzene rings of adsorbed BDA are twisted along the molecular axis. Unconventional growth of the domains, followed by a second nucleation stage, is observed at room temperature. This unanticipated feature is attributed to the accumulation of stress in the islands. Ostwald ripening in the films and the decay of BDA domains at 448 K exhibits features that are consistent with diffusion limited behavior.

  10. A low energy electron microscopy study of the initial growth, structure, and thermal stability of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid domains on Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhar, Fawad S.; Gastel, Raoul van; Schwarz, Daniel; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene [Physics of Interfaces and Nanomaterials, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, NL-7500AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-09-28

    The growth of 4,4{sup '}-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (BDA) on Cu(001) has been studied using low energy electron microscopy and selective area low energy electron diffraction. The emergence of large islands and hydrogen bonding to perpendicularly oriented, adjacent molecules is confirmed. The two benzene rings of adsorbed BDA are twisted along the molecular axis. Unconventional growth of the domains, followed by a second nucleation stage, is observed at room temperature. This unanticipated feature is attributed to the accumulation of stress in the islands. Ostwald ripening in the films and the decay of BDA domains at 448 K exhibits features that are consistent with diffusion limited behavior.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of poly (lactic acid)/chitosan nanocomposites based on renewable resources as biobased-material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani; Agusnar, H.; Wirjosentono, B.; Rihayat, T.; Salisah, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Biobased becomes one of the new breakthrough in the smart engineering, especially in biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering that serves as a supporting physical structure to trigger the growth of skin tissue. From various studies which had been done, it was known that the optimal Biobased healed wounds or injuries in a relatively short time. In this study, a Biobased natural polymer based e.g Poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA)/Chitosan Nanocomposites was made. PLA was synthesized from saba banana (Musa acuminata) as raw material using Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP) method. PLA was mixed with Chitosan with Chitosan concentration variations of 1%, 3%, and 5% to form a nanocomposites. The analysis result showed that Chitosan concentration in PLA/Chitosan Nanocomposites sample affected the value of tensile strength. The highest value of tensile strength was obtained on a sample of 100 ml volume with a concentration of 3%, which was 120.396 MPa. The highest percentage of elongation was obtained in 100 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 26.3686%. In the hydrophilicity test, the highest percentage of water absorption was obtained in a 200 ml volume sample with 5% concentration, which was 44.615%. The addition of Chitosan to the sample affected the functional group bonding, where there was a functional group of NH2 at the wave number of 2923.92 cm-1. The sample characteristics based on water absorption indicated that the sample was potentially to be used as Biobased construction material.

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  13. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  15. Site-Specific Protein Labeling Utilizing Lipoic Acid Ligase (LplA) and Bioorthogonal Inverse Electron Demand Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalmann, Mathis; Best, Marcel; Wombacher, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Here, we describe a two-step protocol for selective protein labeling based on enzyme-mediated peptide labeling utilizing lipoic acid ligase (LplA) and bioorthogonal chemistry. The method can be applied to purified proteins, protein in cell lysates, as well as living cells. In a first step a W37V mutant of the lipoic acid ligase (LplA W37V ) from Escherichia coli is utilized to ligate a synthetic chemical handle site-specifically to a lysine residue in a 13 amino acid peptide motif-a short sequence that can be genetically expressed as a fusion with any protein of interest. In a second step, a molecular probe can be attached to the chemical handle in a bioorthogonal Diels-Alder reaction with inverse electron demand (DA inv ). This method is a complementary approach to protein labeling using genetic code expansion and circumvents larger protein tags while maintaining label specificity, providing experimental flexibility and straightforwardness.

  16. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  17. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Combined electron microscopy and spectroscopy characterization of as-received, acid purified, and oxidized HiPCO single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario-Castro, Belinda I.; Contes, Enid J.; Lebron-Colon, Marisabel; Meador, Michael A.; Sanchez-Pomales, Germarie; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2009-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are very important materials due to their combination of unique structure, dimension, strength, chemical stability, and electronic properties. Nevertheless, SWCNTs from commercial sources usually contain several impurities, which are usually removed by a purification process that includes reflux in acids and strong oxidation. This strong chemical procedure may alter the nanotube properties and it is thus important to control the extent of functionalization and oxidation during the purification procedure. In this report, we provide a comprehensive study of the structure and physical composition of SWCNTs during each step of the purification process. Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Infrared spectroscopy were used to track the SWCNTs structure, in terms of length and diameter distribution, and surface chemical modifications during each purification stage.

  19. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  20. A simple, inexpensive device for nucleic acid amplification without electricity-toward instrument-free molecular diagnostics in low-resource settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul LaBarre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular assays targeted to nucleic acid (NA markers are becoming increasingly important to medical diagnostics. However, these are typically confined to wealthy, developed countries; or, to the national reference laboratories of developing-world countries. There are many infectious diseases that are endemic in low-resource settings (LRS where the lack of simple, instrument-free, NA diagnostic tests is a critical barrier to timely treatment. One of the primary barriers to the practicality and availability of NA assays in LRS has been the complexity and power requirements of polymerase chain reaction (PCR instrumentation (another is sample preparation.In this article, we investigate the hypothesis that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays. We assess the heater's equivalence to commercially available PCR instruments through the characterization of the temperature profiles produced, and a minimal method comparison. Versions of the prototype for several different isothermal techniques are presented.We demonstrate that an electricity-free heater based on exothermic chemical reactions and engineered phase change materials can successfully incubate isothermal NA amplification assays, and that the results of those assays are not significantly different from ones incubated in parallel in commercially available PCR instruments. These results clearly suggest the potential of the non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA heater for molecular diagnostics in LRS. When combined with other innovations in development that eliminate power requirements for sample preparation, cold reagent storage, and readout, the NINA heater will comprise part of a kit that should enable electricity-free NA testing for many important analytes.

  1. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  2. Kinetics and Mechanism of Electron Transfer Reaction: Oxidation of Sulfanilic Acid by N-Chloro-p-Toluene Sulfonamide in Acid Perchlorate Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailani, Riya; Bhasin, Meneka; Khandelwal, C. L.; Sharma, P. D. [Univ. of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

    2014-01-15

    The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of sulfanilic acid by N-chloro-p-toluene sulfonamide (chloramine-T) have been studied in acid medium. The species of chloramine-T were analysed on the basis of experimental observations and predominantly reactive species was taken into account for proposition of most plausible reaction mechanism. The derived rate law (1) conforms to such a mechanism. All kinetic parameters were evaluated. Activation parameters such as energy and entropy of activation were calculated to be (61.67 ± 0.47) kJ mol{sup -1} and (-62.71 ± 2.48) JK{sup -1}mol{sup -1} respectively employing Eyring equation.

  3. Interaction of hydrated electron with dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids. Rate constants and transient spectra studied by pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Zhongli; Li, Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2000-01-01

    The reaction rate constants and transient spectra of 11 flavonoids and 4 phenolic acids reacting with e aq - at neutral pH were measured. The results suggest that C 4 keto group is the active site for e aq - to attack on flavonoids and phenolic acids, while the o-dihydroxy structure in B-ring, the C 2,3 double bond, the C 3 -OH group and glycosylation have little effects on the e aq - scavenging activities. (author)

  4. Fast Hydrazone Reactants: Electronic and Acid/Base Effects Strongly Influence Rate at Biological pH

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, Eric T.; Park, Do-Hyoung; Crisalli, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Kinetics studies with structurally varied aldehydes and ketones in aqueous buffer at pH 7.4 reveal that carbonyl compounds with neighboring acid/base groups form hydrazones at accelerated rates. Similarly, tests of a hydrazine with a neighboring carboxylic acid group show that it also reacts at an accelerated rate. Rate constants for the fastest carbonyl/hydrazine combinations are 2–20 M−1sec−1, which is faster than recent strain-promoted cycloaddition reactions.

  5. An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Electronic Structures and Photoelectrical Properties of Ethyl Red and Carminic Acid for DSSC Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaofan Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The photoelectrical properties of two dyes—ethyl red and carminic acid—as sensitizers of dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated in experiments herein described. In order to reveal the reason for the difference between the photoelectrical properties of the two dyes, the ground state and excited state properties of the dyes before and after adsorbed on TiO2 were calculated via density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT. The key parameters including the light harvesting efficiency (LHE, the driving force of electron injection ( Δ G inject and dye regeneration ( Δ G regen , the total dipole moment ( μ normal , the conduction band of edge of the semiconductor ( Δ E CB , and the excited state lifetime (τ were investigated, which are closely related to the short-circuit current density ( J sc and open circuit voltage ( V oc . It was found that the experimental carminic acid has a larger J sc and V oc , which are interpreted by a larger amount of dye adsorbed on a TiO2 photoanode and a larger Δ G regen , excited state lifetime (τ, μ normal , and Δ E CB . At the same time, chemical reactivity parameters illustrate that the lower chemical hardness (h and higher electron accepting power (ω+ of carminic acid have an influence on the short-circuit current density. Therefore, carminic acid shows excellent photoelectric conversion efficiency in comparison with ethyl red.

  6. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, Shivalinge; Krishnaveni, S.; Gowda, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data

  7. Studies on effective atomic numbers and electron densities in amino acids and sugars in the energy range 30-1333 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Shivalinge [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Krishnaveni, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Gowda, Ramakrishna [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)]. E-mail: ramakrishnagowda@yahoo.com

    2005-10-15

    The effective atomic numbers and electron densities of the amino acids glycine, alanine, serine, valine, threonine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glutamic acid, histidine, phenylalanine, arginine, tyrosine, tryptophane and the sugars arabinose, ribose, glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose, rhamnose, maltose, melibiose, melezitose and raffinose at the energies 30.8, 35.0, 81.0, 145, 276.4, 302.9, 356, 383.9, 661.6, 1173 and 1332.5 keV were calculated by using the measured total attenuation cross-sections. The interpolations of total attenuation cross-sections for photons of energy E in elements of atomic number Z was performed using the logarithmic regression analysis of the XCOM data in the photon energy region 30-1500 keV. The best-fit coefficients obtained by a piece wise interpolation method were used to find the effective atomic number and electron density of the compounds. These values are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated based on XCOM data.

  8. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, Z. H.; Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A.; Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have compared SiN x passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 μA/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN x passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10 4 –10 5 to 10 7 ) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ∼215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D it ) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 10 12  cm −2 eV −1 ), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN x passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D it and improves the surface related current collapse

  9. Ionic liquid based on α-amino acid anion and N7,N9-dimethylguaninium cation ([dMG][AA]): theoretical study on the structure and electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakourian-Fard, Mehdi; Fattahi, Alireza; Bayat, Ahmad

    2012-06-07

    The interactions between five amino acid based anions ([AA](-) (AA = Gly, Phe, His, Try, and Tyr)) and N7,N9-dimethylguaninium cation ([dMG](+)) have been investigated by the hybrid density functional theory method B3LYP together with the basis set 6-311++G(d,p). The calculated interaction energy was found to decrease in magnitude with increasing side-chain length in the amino acid anion. The interaction between the [dMG](+) cation and [AA](-) anion in the most stable configurations of ion pairs is a hydrogen bonding interaction. These hydrogen bonds (H bonds) were analyzed by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Finally, several correlations between electron densities in bond critical points of hydrogen bonds and interaction energy as well as vibrational frequencies in the most stable configurations of ion pairs have been checked.

  10. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  11. Correlating electronic structure with corrosion inhibition potentiality of some bis-benzimidazole derivatives for mild steel in hydrochloric acid: Combined experimental and theoretical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Alokdut; Saha, Sourav Kr.; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Sukul, Dipankar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bis-benzimidazole derivatives as good corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in acid. • Simultaneous both way electron-transfer is expected to occur during adsorption. • Role of molecular conformation on inhibition efficiency is demonstrated. • Good correlation between inhibition efficiency and molecular parameters established. • MD simulation results support experimental observations. - Abstract: Four different bis-benzimidazole (BBI) derivatives, tested as potential corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M HCl, have revealed good inhibition efficiency for long period of exposure. Inhibitors impart high resistance towards charge transfer across metal–electrolyte interface and behave broadly as mixed type. DFT calculations are used to correlate inhibition potentiality with intrinsic molecular parameters. From the optimized geometry of BBI derivatives, electron distribution in HOMO and LUMO and Fukui indices of each atom, possible modes of interaction of BBI derivatives with mild steel surface have been predicted. Energy corresponding to inhibitor-metal surface interaction is evaluated following molecular dynamics simulation

  12. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  13. Interaction of hydrated electron with dietary flavonoids and phenolic acids. Rate constants and transient spectra studied by pulse radiolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Zhongli; Li, Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab

    2000-03-01

    The reaction rate constants and transient spectra of 11 flavonoids and 4 phenolic acids reacting with e{sub aq}{sup -} at neutral pH were measured. The results suggest that C{sub 4} keto group is the active site for e{sub aq}{sup -} to attack on flavonoids and phenolic acids, while the o-dihydroxy structure in B-ring, the C{sub 2,3} double bond, the C{sub 3}-OH group and glycosylation have little effects on the e{sub aq}{sup -} scavenging activities. (author)

  14. Gas chromatographic determination of acid herbicides in surface water samples with electron-capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.; Poll, J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    The development of a multi-residue method for the determination of eight polar acidic herbicides (MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, bentazone, dicamba and dikegulac) in surface water is described. The method involves an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure prior to instrumental

  15. Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Zou, Hao; Cao, Lanlan; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

    2012-09-01

    In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH3COOH)n.H+, the feature related to the fragment ions (CH3COOH)H+.COO (105 amu) via β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH3COOH).H+ and (CH3COOH)H+.COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH3COOH)H+.COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 ± 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH3COOH)+ becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH3COOH).CH3CO+. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

  16. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  17. Fundamental, electron transfer mechanism by pyrylium-type ions for the anticancer drugs 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) and flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter

    2005-09-01

    Pyrylium-type salts derived from DMXAA and FAA are proposed to play an important mechanistic role in anticancer action. Electron transfer (ET) processes apparently initiate cell signaling cascades that lead to the observed effects, such as, antivascular influences, cytokine induction, and apoptosis. Possible participation of nitric oxide and serotonin is discussed. Structure-activity relationships involving DMXAA, FAA, acridines, and quinolines support the hypothetical framework, as well as electrochemistry and photochemistry. Similarity is pointed out to the action of plant hormones, e.g. ethylene. Involvement of ET pathways places the cationic salts within the general mechanistic framework for other anticancer agents. Other drug activities of xanthenones are in accord with the ET approach. Insight into fundamental mechanistic aspects should aid in development of improved drugs in this class through rational design.

  18. Sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide surface passivation effects on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaidi, Z. H., E-mail: zaffar.zaidi@sheffield.ac.uk; Lee, K. B.; Qian, H.; Jiang, S.; Houston, P. A. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Guiney, I.; Wallis, D. J.; Humphreys, C. J. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, The University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-28

    In this work, we have compared SiN{sub x} passivation, hydrogen peroxide, and sulfuric acid treatment on AlGaN/GaN HEMTs surface after full device fabrication on Si substrate. Both the chemical treatments resulted in the suppression of device pinch-off gate leakage current below 1 μA/mm, which is much lower than that for SiN{sub x} passivation. The greatest suppression over the range of devices is observed with the sulfuric acid treatment. The device on/off current ratio is improved (from 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}) and a reduction in the device sub-threshold (S.S.) slope (from ∼215 to 90 mV/decade) is achieved. The sulfuric acid is believed to work by oxidizing the surface which has a strong passivating effect on the gate leakage current. The interface trap charge density (D{sub it}) is reduced (from 4.86 to 0.90 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}), calculated from the change in the device S.S. The gate surface leakage current mechanism is explained by combined Mott hopping conduction and Poole Frenkel models for both untreated and sulfuric acid treated devices. Combining the sulfuric acid treatment underneath the gate with the SiN{sub x} passivation after full device fabrication results in the reduction of D{sub it} and improves the surface related current collapse.

  19. Effect of Alkali-Acid-Heat Chemical Surface Treatment on Electron Beam Melted Porous Titanium and Its Apatite Forming Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bsat, S.; Yavari, S.; Munsch, M.; Valstar, E.R.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced additive manufacturing techniques such as electron beam melting (EBM), can produce highly porous structures that resemble the mechanical properties and structure of native bone. However, for orthopaedic applications, such as joint prostheses or bone substitution, the surface must also be

  20. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production: Progress report, February 1, 1987-February 1, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeikus, J.G.; Shen, Gwo-Jenn.

    1988-01-01

    These studies concern the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that control carbon and electron flow in anaerobic bacteria that conserve energy when coupling hydrogen consumption to the production of acetic, propionic, or butyric acids. Two acidogens, Propionispira arboris and Butyribacterium methylotrophicum were chosen as model systems to understand the function of oxidoreductases and electron carriers in the regulation of hydrogen metabolism and single carbon metabolism. In P. arboris, H 2 consumption was linked to the inhibition of CO 2 production and an increase in the propionate/acetate rate; whereas, H 2 consumption was linked to a stimulation of CO 2 consumption and an increase in the butyrate/acetate ratio in B. methylotrophicum. We report studies on the enzymes involved in the regulation of singe carbon metabolism, the enzyme activities and pathways responsible for conversion of multicarbon components to acetate and propionate or butyrate, and how low pH inhibits H 2 and acetic acid production in Sarcina ventriculi as a consequence of hydrogenase regulation. 9 refs

  1. Comparison of electron beam and gamma ray irradiations effects on ruminal crude protein and amino acid degradation kinetics, and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, F.; Ghoorchi, T.; Shawrang, P.; Mansouri, H.; Torbati-Nejad, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare effects of electron beam (EB) and gamma ray (GR) treatments at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy on ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein (CP), amino acid (AA), and in vitro digestibility of cottonseed meal (CSM). Ionizing radiations of EB and GR had significant effects (P 0.05). Irradiation processing caused decrement in AA degradation after 16 h of ruminal incubation (P<0.05). EB irradiation was more effective than GR irradiation in lessening the ruminal degradability of AA (P<0.05). EB and GR treatments at a dose of 75 kGy increased in vitro digestibility of CSM numerically. This study showed that EB could cause CP and AA bypass rumen as well as GR. Therefore, ionizing irradiation processing can be used as an efficient method in improving nutritional value of CSM. - Highlights: ► Irradiation was effective on reducing ruminal degradability of cottonseed meal. ► Ionizing radiations, especially electron beam, lessened ruminal degradability of amino acid substantially. ► Irradiation processing could be used as a safe and efficient method in improving nutritional value of cottonseed meal.

  2. Competitive fragmentation pathways of acetic acid dimer explored by synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry and electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Zou, Hao; Cao, Lanlan; Liu, Fuyi; Shan, Xiaobin; Sheng, Liusi

    2012-09-28

    In present study, photoionization and dissociation of acetic acid dimers have been studied with the synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations. Besides the intense signal corresponding to protonated cluster ions (CH(3)COOH)(n)·H(+), the feature related to the fragment ions (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO (105 amu) via β-carbon-carbon bond cleavage is observed. By scanning photoionization efficiency spectra, appearance energies of the fragments (CH(3)COOH)·H(+) and (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO are obtained. With the aid of theoretical calculations, seven fragmentation channels of acetic acid dimer cations were discussed, where five cation isomers of acetic acid dimer are involved. While four of them are found to generate the protonated species, only one of them can dissociate into a C-C bond cleavage product (CH(3)COOH)H(+)·COO. After surmounting the methyl hydrogen-transfer barrier 10.84 ± 0.05 eV, the opening of dissociative channel to produce ions (CH(3)COOH)(+) becomes the most competitive path. When photon energy increases to 12.4 eV, we also found dimer cations can be fragmented and generate new cations (CH(3)COOH)·CH(3)CO(+). Kinetics, thermodynamics, and entropy factors for these competitive dissociation pathways are discussed. The present report provides a clear picture of the photoionization and dissociation processes of the acetic acid dimer in the range of the photon energy 9-15 eV.

  3. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  4. A facile, sensitive, and highly specific trinitrophenol assay based on target-induced synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer towards DNA-templated copper nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyin; Chang, Jiafu; Hou, Ting; Ge, Lei; Li, Feng

    2016-11-01

    Reliable, selective and sensitive approaches for trinitrophenol (TNP) detection are highly desirable with respect to national security and environmental protection. Herein, a simple and novel fluorescent strategy for highly sensitive and specific TNP assay has been successfully developed, which is based on the quenching of the fluorescent poly(thymine)-templated copper nanoclusters (DNA-CuNCs), through the synergetic effects of acid induction and electron transfer. Upon the addition of TNP, donor-acceptor complexes between the electron-deficient nitro-groups in TNP and the electron-donating DNA templates are formed, resulting in the close proximity between TNP and CuNCs. Moreover, the acidity of TNP contributes to the pH decrease of the system. These factors combine to dramatically quench the fluorescence of DNA-CuNCs, providing a "signal-off" strategy for TNP sensing. The as-proposed strategy demonstrates high sensitivity for TNP assay, and a detection limit of 0.03μM is obtained, which is lower than those reported by using organic fluorescent materials. More significantly, this approach shows outstanding selectivity over a number of TNP analogues, such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 3-nitrophenol (NP), nitrobenzene (NB), phenol (BP), and toluene (BT). Compared with previous studies, this method does not need complex DNA sequence design, fluorescent dye labeling, or sophisticated organic reactions, rendering the strategy with additional advantages of simplicity and cost-effectiveness. In addition, the as-proposed strategy has been adopted for the detection of TNP in natural water samples, indicating its great potential to be applied in the fields of public safety and environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen Bonding, (1)H NMR, and Molecular Electron Density Topographical Characteristics of Ionic Liquids Based on Amino Acid Cations and Their Ester Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Soniya S; Bejoy, Namitha Brijit; Gejji, Shridhar P

    2015-08-13

    Amino acid ionic liquids (AAILs) have attracted significant attention in the recent literature owing to their ubiquitous applications in diversifying areas of modern chemistry, materials science, and biosciences. The present work focuses on unraveling the molecular interactions underlying AAILs. Electronic structures of ion pairs consisting of amino acid cations ([AA(+)], AA = Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, Pro, Ser, Thr) and their ester substituted derivatives [AAE(+)] interacting with nitrate anion [NO3(-)] have been obtained from the dispersion corrected M06-2x density functional theory. The formation of ion pair is accompanied by the transfer of proton from quaternary nitrogen to anion facilitated via hydrogen bonding. The [Ile], [Pro], [Ser], and [Thr] and their esters reveal relatively strong inter- as well as intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. Consequently, the hierarchy in binding energies of [AA][NO3] ion pairs and their ester analogues turns out to be [Gly] > [Ala] > [Ser] ∼ [Val] ∼ [Ile] > [Leu] ∼ [Thr] > [Pro]. The work underlines how the interplay of intra- as well as intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions in [AA]- and [AAE]-based ILs manifest in their infrared and (1)H NMR spectra. Substitution of -OCH3 functional group in [AA][NO3] ILs lowers the melting point attributed to weaker hydrogen-bonding interactions, making them suitable for room temperature applications. As opposed to gas phase structures, the presence of solvent (DMSO) does not bring about any proton transfer in the ion pairs or their ester analogues. Calculated (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the solvated structures agree well with those from experiment. Correlations of decomposition temperatures in [AA]- and [AAE]-based ILs with binding energies and electron densities at the bond critical point(s) in molecular electron density topography, have been established.

  6. Use of 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid as electron donating compound in a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameil, Steffen, E-mail: s.rameil@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Schubert, Peter, E-mail: p.schubert@r-biopharm.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Grundmann, Peter, E-mail: peter.grundmann@jennewein-biotech.de [R-Biopharm AG, An der neuen Bergstrasse 17, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Dietrich, Richard, E-mail: R.Dietrich@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Maertlbauer, Erwin, E-mail: E.Maertlbauer@mh.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Munich, Schoenleutner Str 8, 85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2010-02-19

    We developed a potentiometric aflatoxin M{sub 1}-immunosensor which utilizes 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid (p-HPPA) as electron donating compound for horseradish peroxidase (HRP; EC 1.11.1.7). The assay system consists of a polypyrrole-surface-working electrode coated with a polyclonal anti-M{sub 1} antibody (pAb-AFM{sub 1}), a Ag/AgCl reference electrode and a HRP-aflatoxin B{sub 1} conjugate (HRP-AFB{sub 1} conjugate). To optimize the potentiometric measuring system p-HPPA as well as related compounds serving as electron donating compounds were compared. Also the influence of different buffer systems, varying pH and substrate concentrations on signal intensity was investigated. Our results suggest that reaction conditions that favor the formation of Pummerer's type ketones lead to an increase in signal intensity rather than formation of fluorescent dye. Comparison with commercial ready-to-use HRP electron donating compounds such as 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), o-phenylenediamine (OPD) or 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) showed that only 34%, 77% and 49% of the signal intensity of p-HPPA were reached, respectively. The optimized assay had a detection limit of 40 pg mL{sup -1} and allowed detection of 500 pg mL{sup -1} (FDA action limit) aflatoxin M{sub 1} (AFM{sub 1}) in pasteurized milk and UHT-milk containing 0.3-3.8% fat within 10 min without any sample treatment. The working range was between 250 and 2000 pg mL{sup -1} AFM{sub 1}.

  7. Vectorial electron transfer for improved hydrogen evolution by mercaptopropionic-acid-regulated CdSe quantum-dots-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Li, Zhi-Jun; Fan, Xiang-Bing; Li, Jia-Xin; Zhan, Fei; Li, Xu-Bing; Tao, Ye; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

    2015-02-01

    A visible-light-induced hydrogen evolution system based on a CdSe quantum dots (QDs)-TiO2 -Ni(OH)2 ternary assembly has been constructed under an ambient environment, and a bifunctional molecular linker, mercaptopropionic acid, is used to facilitate the interaction between CdSe QDs and TiO2 . This hydrogen evolution system works effectively in a basic aqueous solution (pH 11.0) to achieve a hydrogen evolution rate of 10.1 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) for the assembly and a turnover frequency of 5140 h(-1) with respect to CdSe QDs (10 h); the latter is comparable with the highest value reported for QD systems in an acidic environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and control experiments demonstrate that Ni(OH)2 is an efficient hydrogen evolution catalyst. In addition, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and the emission decay of the assembly combined with the hydrogen evolution experiments show that TiO2 functions mainly as the electron mediator; the vectorial electron transfer from CdSe QDs to TiO2 and then from TiO2 to Ni(OH)2 enhances the efficiency for hydrogen evolution. The assembly comprises light antenna CdSe QDs, electron mediator TiO2 , and catalytic Ni(OH)2 , which mimics the strategy of photosynthesis exploited in nature and takes us a step further towards artificial photosynthesis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. An electron spin resonance study of radicals formed from tetrolic acid by radiolysis in a freon matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, e.s.r. spectra have been observed following γ-irradiation of dilute frozen solutions of tetrolic acid, MeC≡CCO 2 H, in CFCl 3 at 77 K. A typical spectrum is shown which we interpret in terms of an isotropic quartet from the parent radical cation. MeC≡CCo 2 H +· , and an anisotropic triplet arising from the propargyl radical, ·CH 2 C≡CCO 2 H, formed by deprotonation of the parent cation. This appears to be the first example of an alkyne radical cation to be observed in a CFCl 3 matrix. (author)

  9. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  10. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production from swine manure through short-term dry anaerobic digestion and its separation from nitrogen and phosphorus resources in the digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Huang, Wenli; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Ziwen; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Feng, Chuanping

    2016-03-01

    The sustainability of an agricultural system depends highly upon the recycling of all useful substances from agricultural wastes. This study explored the feasibility of comprehensive utilization of C, N and P resources in swine manure (SM) through short-term dry anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by dry ammonia stripping, aiming at achieving (1) effective total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and separation; (2) ammonia recovery from the digestate; and (3) preservation of high P bioavailability in the solid residue for further applications. Specifically, two ammonia stripping strategies were applied and compared in this work: (I) ammonia stripping was directly performed with the digestate from dry AD of SM (i.e. dry ammonia stripping); and (II) wet ammonia stripping was conducted by using the resultant filtrate from solid-liquid separation of the mixture of digestate and added water. Results showed that dry AD of the tested SM at 55 °C, 20% TS and unadjusted initial pH (8.6) for 8 days produced relatively high concentrations of total VFAs (94.4 mg-COD/g-VS) and ammonia-N (20.0 mg/g-VS) with high potentially bioavailable P (10.6 mg/g-TS) remained in the digestate, which was considered optimal in this study. In addition, high ammonia removal efficiencies of 96.2% and 99.7% were achieved through 3 h' dry and wet stripping (at 55 °C and initial pH 11.0), respectively, while the total VFAs concentration in the digestate/filtrate remained favorably unchanged. All experimental data from the two stripping processes well fitted to the pseudo first-order kinetic model (R(2) = 0.9916-0.9997) with comparable theoretical maximum ammonia removal efficiencies (Aeq, >90%) being obtained under the tested dry and wet stripping conditions, implying that the former was more advantageous due to its much higher volumetric total ammonia-N removal rate thus much smaller reactor volume, less energy/chemicals consumption and no foaming problems. After 8 days' dry AD and 3

  11. Poster - 38: On the physical and dosimetric properties of 3D printed electron bolus fabricated using polylactic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, David; Jensen, Martin; Rickey, Daniel W; Dubey, Arbind; Harris, Chad; McCurdy, Boyd [CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: 3D printing technology could simplify and improve electron bolus fabrication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the density, dimensional accuracy, uniformity, and attenuation of PLA boluses fabricated with a low-cost 3D printer. Methods: Several solid square slabs were printed with specific requested dimensions and 100% infill using different fill patterns. These pieces were imaged using an x-ray flat panel imager in order to check for uniformity of the prints. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured downstream of the slabs in solid water using a parallel plate chamber and compared to measurements in water in order to characterize attenuation. The dimensions of the PLA slabs were measured using digital calipers. The slabs were also weighed to find their density. Results: The fill pattern used to create boluses can affect the attenuation of the bolus. Fill patterns should be chosen carefully and quality assurance should be done for each printed piece. PLA causes the electron PDD to shift towards shallower depths, compared to water, by 1.7 mm for each centimeter of PLA. Agreement with design dimensions was within 1 mm in the plane of the printer bed, and within 1/3 of a millimeter (roughly the thickness of a single layer), perpendicular to the printer bed. Average density was in the range 1.20 – 1.22. Conclusions: 3D printing shows great promise for use in fabricating electron bolus. This work indicates that printed PLA can be a suitable material provided the increased attenuation is properly accounted for.

  12. Poster - 38: On the physical and dosimetric properties of 3D printed electron bolus fabricated using polylactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, David; Jensen, Martin; Rickey, Daniel W; Dubey, Arbind; Harris, Chad; McCurdy, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: 3D printing technology could simplify and improve electron bolus fabrication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the density, dimensional accuracy, uniformity, and attenuation of PLA boluses fabricated with a low-cost 3D printer. Methods: Several solid square slabs were printed with specific requested dimensions and 100% infill using different fill patterns. These pieces were imaged using an x-ray flat panel imager in order to check for uniformity of the prints. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured downstream of the slabs in solid water using a parallel plate chamber and compared to measurements in water in order to characterize attenuation. The dimensions of the PLA slabs were measured using digital calipers. The slabs were also weighed to find their density. Results: The fill pattern used to create boluses can affect the attenuation of the bolus. Fill patterns should be chosen carefully and quality assurance should be done for each printed piece. PLA causes the electron PDD to shift towards shallower depths, compared to water, by 1.7 mm for each centimeter of PLA. Agreement with design dimensions was within 1 mm in the plane of the printer bed, and within 1/3 of a millimeter (roughly the thickness of a single layer), perpendicular to the printer bed. Average density was in the range 1.20 – 1.22. Conclusions: 3D printing shows great promise for use in fabricating electron bolus. This work indicates that printed PLA can be a suitable material provided the increased attenuation is properly accounted for.

  13. An electron conductive polymer, poly-aniline, in gas separation: optimisation of transport properties by alternated acid-base treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebattet, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this research thesis is to study the variation of gas permeation properties of poly-aniline during a doping/de-doping/re-doping cycle, and to study the evolution of the separation power of this polymer. Scanning electronic microscopy is used to study the microstructure and more particularly how the doping agent is distributed within the polymer. Permeabilities, diffusion coefficients, sorption solubilities and interaction energies are measured by using coupled permeation and micro-gravimetry-calorimetry methods. A range of gases (H 2 , O 2 , CO 2 , N 2 , CH 4 ) is analysed [fr

  14. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Mourao, Gerson Barreto; Orlando, Eduardo Adilson; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.sp.gov.br, E-mail: eduardo.orlando@ital.sp.gov.br [Instituto de Tecnologia dos Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  15. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  16. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite

  17. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chong [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jianfeng [Research Center of the Ministry of Education for High Gravity Engineering and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Cai, Dongqing, E-mail: dqcai@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Zhengyan, E-mail: zywu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment were used. • HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose. • Hydrothermal treatment (HT) could remove these impurities from the pores. • They could effectively improve pore size distribution and decrease the bulk density. • Catalytic performance of the corresponding catalyst was significantly improved. - Abstract: High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  18. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  19. Pore structure modification of diatomite as sulfuric acid catalyst support by high energy electron beam irradiation and hydrothermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Zhang, Guilong; Wang, Min; Chen, Jianfeng; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2014-08-01

    High energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment (HT), were applied in order to remove the impurities and enlarge the pore size of diatomite, making diatomite more suitable to be a catalyst support. The results demonstrated that, through thermal, charge, impact and etching effects, HEEB irradiation could make the impurities in the pores of diatomite loose and remove some of them. Then HT could remove rest of them from the pores and contribute significantly to the modification of the pore size distribution of diatomite due to thermal expansion, water swelling and thermolysis effects. Moreover, the pore structure modification improved the properties (BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) specific surface area, bulk density and pore volume) of diatomite and the catalytic efficiency of the catalyst prepared from the treated diatomite.

  20. Two-step protein labeling by using lipoic acid ligase with norbornene substrates and subsequent inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Marcel; Degen, Anna; Baalmann, Mathis; Schmidt, Tobias T; Wombacher, Richard

    2015-05-26

    Inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (DAinv ) between strained alkenes and tetrazines is a highly bio-orthogonal reaction that has been applied in the specific labeling of biomolecules. In this work we present a two-step labeling protocol for the site-specific labeling of proteins based on attachment of a highly stable norbornene derivative to a specific peptide sequence by using a mutant of the enzyme lipoic acid ligase A (LplA(W37V) ), followed by the covalent attachment of tetrazine-modified fluorophores to the norbornene moiety through the bio-orthogonal DAinv  . We investigated 15 different norbornene derivatives for their selective enzymatic attachment to a 13-residue lipoic acid acceptor peptide (LAP) by using a standardized HPLC protocol. Finally, we used this two-step labeling strategy to label proteins in cell lysates in a site-specific manner and performed cell-surface labeling on living cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Degradation of thin poly(lactic acid) films: Characterization by capacitance–voltage, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact-angle measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schusser, S.; Menzel, S.; Bäcker, M.; Leinhos, M.; Poghossian, A.; Wagner, P.; Schöning, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    For the development of new biopolymers and implantable biomedical devices with predicted biodegradability, simple, non-destructive, fast and inexpensive techniques capable for real-time in situ testing of the degradation kinetics of polymers are highly appreciated. In this work, a capacitive field-effect electrolyte–insulator–semiconductor (EIS) sensor has been applied for real-time in situ monitoring of degradation of thin poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PDLLA) films over a long-time period of one month. Generally, the polymer-modified EIS (PMEIS) sensor is capable of detecting any changes in the bulk, surface and interface properties of the polymer (e.g., thickness, coverage, dielectric constant, surface potential) induced by degradation processes. The time-dependent capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics of PMEIS structures were used as an indicator of the polymer degradation. To accelerate the PDLLA degradation, experiments were performed in alkaline buffer solution of pH 10.6. The results of these degradation measurements with the EIS sensor were verified by the detection of lactic acid (product of the PDLLA degradation) in the degradation medium. In addition, the micro-structural and morphological changes of the polymer surface induced by the polymer degradation have been systematically studied by means of scanning-electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact-angle measurements

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy studies on the passivation behavior of plasma-nitrided low alloy steel in nitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyou, S.D.; Shih, H.C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan))

    1991-12-14

    Nitrided SAE 4140 steel has been passivated by concentrated nitric acid. The resulting film was characterized using a combination of surface-analytical techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to evaluate the chemical composition of the passive film. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) combined with ion etching was used to determine the composition depth profiles of nitrided surface. It was found that preferential dissolution of iron leads to enhanced nitrogen and chromium concentrations within the oxynitrided layer. A dense protective oxynitrided layer was found to be formed on the nitrided surface when the concentration of nitric acid was as high as 8 M. The results of X-ray diffraction, XPS and AES analyses conclude that the protective nitride layer is composed of (Fe,Cr){sub 4}N, (Fe,Cr){sub 2-3}N and CrN in the inner layer, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and remnant nitrides in the middle layer and nitrides accompanying Cr(OH){sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and {gamma}'-FeOOH in the outermost layer. (orig.).

  3. R(+-Thioctic Acid Effects on Oxidative Stress and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type II Diabetic Patients: Preliminary Results by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Electroneurography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Mrakic-Sposta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes. The idea of alterations in energy metabolism in diabetes is emerging. The biogenic antioxidant R(+-thioctic acid has been successfully used in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathic (DPN patients. Methods. The effects of R(+-thioctic acid (1 tablet, 1.6 g administration were evaluated in 12 DPN patients at baseline and at 15, 30, 60, and 120 administration days throughout the assessment of oxidative stress (OxS; ROS production rate by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR technique; and oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and protein carbonyls (PC, electroneurography (ENG and visual analogue scale. Results. Supplementation induced significant changes (p<0.05 at 30 and 60 days. ROS production rate up to −16%; TBARS (−31%, PC (−38%, and TAC up to +48%. Motor nerve conduction velocity in SPE and ulnar nerves (+22% and +16% and sensor conduction velocity in sural and median nerves (+22% and +5%. Patients reported a general wellness sensation improvement (+35% at 30 days: lower limb pain sensation (−40% and upper limbs (−23%. Conclusion. The results strongly indicate that an increased antioxidant capacity plays an important role in OxS, nerve conduction velocity, pain, and general wellness improvement. Nevertheless, the effects of the antioxidant compound were found positive up to 60 days. Then, a hormesis effect was observed. Novelty of the research would be a challenge for investigators to carefully address issues, including dose range factors, appropriate administration time, and targeting population to counteract possible “boomerang effects.” The great number of monitored parameters would firmly stress these conclusions.

  4. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223–229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C3H7), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME. PMID:22021637

  5. Formaldehyde as a carbon and electron shuttle between autotroph and heterotroph populations in acidic hydrothermal vents of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Isern, Nancy G.; Romine, Margaret F.; Riha, Krystin M.; Inskeep, William P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2016-03-19

    The Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park contains a large number of hydrothermal systems, which host microbial populations supported by primary productivity associated with a suite of chemolithotrophic metabolisms. We demonstrate that Metallosphaera yellowstonesis MK1, a facultative autotrophic archaeon isolated from a hyperthermal acidic hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) spring in Norris Geyser Basin, excretes formaldehyde during autotrophic growth. To determine the fate of formaldehyde in this low organic carbon environment, we incubated native microbial mat (containing M. yellowstonensis) from a HFO spring with 13C-formaldehyde. Isotopic analysis of incubation-derived CO2 and biomass showed that formaldehyde was both oxidized and assimilated by members of the community. Autotrophy, formaldehyde oxidation, and formaldehyde assimilation displayed different sensitivities to chemical inhibitors, suggesting that distinct sub-populations in the mat selectively perform these functions. Our results demonstrate that electrons originally resulting from iron oxidation can energetically fuel autotrophic carbon fixation and associated formaldehyde excretion, and that formaldehyde is both oxidized and assimilated by different organisms within the native microbial community. Thus, formaldehyde can effectively act as a carbon and electron shuttle connecting the autotrophic, iron oxidizing members with associated heterotrophic members in the HFO community.

  6. The structure and properties of free radicals: An electron spin resonance study of radiation damage to nucleic acid and protein components and to some sulfur-substituted derivitives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagstuen, E.

    1979-01-01

    When cellular systems are exposed to ionizing radiation the long-term effects may range from minor disturbances to such dramatic changes as mutations and cell death. The processes leading to these macroscopical injuries are primarily confined at the molecular level. In all models aimed at a description of the action of radiation at the molecular level the formation of free radicals (which are species containing unpaired electrons) is a central concept. The technique of ESR spectroscopy is uniquely suited to study free radicals, as it is based on resonance absorption of energy by unpaired electrons in a magnetic field. ESR spectroscopy makes it possible to detect free radicals and, in some cases, to identify them. In order to study free radicals by ESR it is necessary to build up a sufficient number of unpaired spins in the sample (approximately 10 11 or more, depending on the shape of the resonance). This may be different techniques have been used to trap the induced radicals or to attain a sufficient steady state concentration level. A procedure which seems to contain a large amount of information is to irradiate at low temperatures, and, by subsequent heat-treatment of the sample to study the reactions and fate of the induced radicals. In this thesis single crystal studies of aromatic amino acids and pyrimidine derivitives together with some substituted purine derivitives are presented, and the results are discussed in relation to the present knowledge about radical formation in these classes of compounds. Single crystal studies of some sulfur-containing aromatic compounds have been presented with the purpose of shedding light on the electronic structure of sulfur-centred radicals. (JIW)

  7. Phosphate Changes Effect of Humic Acids on TiO2 Photocatalysis: From Inhibition to Mitigation of Electron-Hole Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mingce; Brame, Jonathon; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-01-03

    A major challenge for photocatalytic water purification with TiO 2 is the strong inhibitory effect of natural organic matter (NOM), which can scavenge photogenerated holes and radicals and occlude ROS generation sites upon adsorption. This study shows that phosphate counteracts the inhibitory effect of humic acids (HA) by decreasing HA adsorption and mitigating electron-hole recombination. As a measure of the inhibitory effect of HA, the ratios of first-order reaction rate constants between photocatalytic phenol degradation in the absence versus presence of HA were calculated. This ratio was very high, up to 5.72 at 30 mg/L HA and pH 4.8 without phosphate, but was decreased to 0.76 (5 mg/L HA, pH 8.4) with 2 mM phosphate. The latter ratio indicates a surprising favorable effect of HA on TiO 2 photocatalysis. FTIR analyses suggest that this favorable effect is likely due to a change in the conformation of adsorbed HA, from a multiligand exchange arrangement to a complexation predominantly between COOH groups in HA and the TiO 2 surface in the presence of phosphate. This configuration can reduce hole consumption and facilitate electron transfer to O 2 by the adsorbed HA (indicated by linear sweep voltammetry), which mitigates electron-hole recombination and enhances contaminant degradation. A decrease in HA surface adsorption and hole scavenging (the predominant inhibitory mechanisms of HA) by phosphate (2 mM) was indicated by a 50% decrease in the photocatalytic degradation rate of HA and 80% decrease in the decay rate coefficient of interfacial-related photooxidation in photocurrent transients. These results, which were validated with other compounds (FFA and cimetidine), indicate that anchoring phosphate - or anions that exert similar effects on the TiO 2 surface - might be a feasible strategy to counteract the inhibitory effect of NOM during photocatalytic water treatment.

  8. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz; Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and α-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h -1 ) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s -1 ). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and α-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  9. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.gov.b, E-mail: lucianam@ital.gov.b [Food Technology Institute (ITAL), SP (Brazil). Meat Technology Center

    2011-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and {alpha}-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h{sup -1}) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s{sup -1}). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and {alpha}-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  10. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  11. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  12. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  13. Side chain effect on electronic structure of spin-coated films of [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester and its bis-adduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Kouki, E-mail: akaike@riken.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kanai, Kaname [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Yamazaki 2641, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Ouchi, Yukio; Seki, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► Electronic structure of spin-coated films of PCBM and bis-PCBM was investigated. ► Ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. ► Electron donation from the side chain to C{sub 60}-backbone raises the HOMO and LUMO. ► Open circuit voltages of PCBM-based solar cells relates to electron affinities. - Abstract: We investigated the electronic structure of spin-coated films of two soluble fullerenes; [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and its bis-adduct (bis-PCBM) using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations. The ionization energy and electron affinity of spin-coated films of bis-PCBM were determined to be 6.01 eV and 3.4 eV, respectively. Analysis of electron density suggested the stronger electron donation from the two side chains to fullerene-backbone in a bis-PCBM molecule, compared with PCBM. The electron donation raises the energies of the frontier orbitals of bis-PCBM, which mainly consist of π-orbitals of fullerene-backbone. As a result, the ionization energy and electron affinity of bis-PCBM are smaller than those of PCBM. Moreover, we also concluded that the larger open circuit voltage observed for bis-PCBM based organic photovoltaics was explained by the higher-lying unoccupied molecular orbital of bis-PCBM.

  14. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  15. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  16. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  17. Aframomum stipulatum (Gagnep) K. Schum and Aframomum giganteum (Oliv. & Hanb) K. Schum as Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops resources: essential oil, fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols composition of different fruit parts of Congo varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngakegni-Limbili, Adolphe Christian; Zebib, Bachar; Cerny, Muriel; Tsiba, Gouolally; Elouma Ndinga, Arnold Murphy; Mouloungui, Zéphirin; Fourastier, Isabelle; Ouamba, Jean-Maurille

    2013-01-15

    Today, few known plant species provide both an essential oil (EO) and a vegetable oil (VO). Seed and husk of two Aframomum species were investigated and compared in terms of EO, fatty acids, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. EO yield reaches 15.3 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 3.2 g kg(-1) in the husks, while VO yield is 180.0 g kg(-1) in the seeds and 25.0 g kg(-1) in the husks. β-Pinene, 1,8-cineol, α-selinene, terpine-4-ol, linalool, myrtenal and β-caryophyllene are the major compounds of seed and husk EO. Fatty acid analysis of two Aframomum species shows that oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids were the major compounds of VO. Total sterol contents reached 4.3 g kg(-1) in seed VO and 8.5 g kg(-1) in husk VO. An appreciable amount of tocopherols (0.52 g kg(-1) ) was found in seed VO. The seed and husk oil of A. stipulatum and A. giganteum fruits are rich sources of many bioactive constituents such as fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. These tropical wild fruits can be considered as new Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops (ATOC) resources that contain both EOs and VOs. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Analysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids by chiral liquid chromatography/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry using [13C]-analog internal standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesaros, Clementina; Lee, Seon Hwa; Blair, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) is thought to be mediated primarily by the cytochromes P450 (P450s) from the 2 family (2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 2J2). In contrast, P450s of the 4 family are primarily involved in omega oxidation of AA (4A11 and 4A22). The ability to determine enantioselective formation of the regioisomeric EETs is important in order to establish their potential biological activities and to asses which P450 isoforms are involved in their formation. It has been extremely difficult to analyze individual EET enantiomers in biological fluids because they are present in only trace amounts and they are extremely difficult to separate from each other. In addition, the deuterium-labeled internal standards that are commonly used for stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analyses have different LC retention times when compared with the corresponding protium forms. Therefore, quantification by LC/MS-based methodology can be compromised by differential suppression of ionization of the closely eluting isomers. We report the preparation of [13C20]-EET analog internal standards and the use of a validated high-sensitivity chiral LC/electron capture atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ECAPCI)-MS method for the trace analysis of endogenous EETs as their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) ester derivatives. The assay was then used to show the exquisite enantioselectivity of P4502C19-, P4502D6-, P4501A1-, and P4501B1-mediated conversion of AA into EETs and to quantify the enantioselective formation of EETs produced by AA metabolism in a mouse epithelial hepatoma (Hepa) cell line. PMID:20972997

  19. Activity and phylogenetic diversity of bacterial cells with high and low nucleic acid content and electron transport system activity in an upwelling ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longnecker, K; Sherr, B F; Sherr, E B

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated whether bacteria with higher cell-specific nucleic acid content (HNA) or an active electron transport system, i.e., positive for reduction of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), were responsible for the bulk of bacterioplankton metabolic activity. We also examined whether the phylogenetic diversity of HNA and CTC-positive cells differed from the diversity of Bacteria with low nucleic acid content (LNA). Bacterial assemblages were sampled both in eutrophic shelf waters and in mesotrophic offshore waters in the Oregon coastal upwelling region. Cytometrically sorted HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells were assayed for their cell-specific [3H]leucine incorporation rates. Phylogenetic diversity in sorted non-radioactively labeled samples was assayed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Cell-specific rates of leucine incorporation of HNA and CTC-positive cells were on average only slightly greater than the cell-specific rates of LNA cells. HNA cells accounted for most bacterioplankton substrate incorporation due to high abundances, while the low abundances of CTC-positive cells resulted in only a small contribution by these cells to total bacterial activity. The proportion of the total bacterial leucine incorporation attributable to LNA cells was higher in offshore regions than in shelf waters. Sequence data obtained from DGGE bands showed broadly similar phylogenetic diversity across HNA, LNA, and CTC-positive cells, with between-sample and between-region variability in the distribution of phylotypes. Our results suggest that LNA bacteria are not substantially different from HNA bacteria in either cell-specific rates of substrate incorporation or phylogenetic composition and that they can be significant contributors to bacterial metabolism in the sea.

  20. Influence of alkylphosphonic acid grafting on the electronic and magnetic properties of La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbiati, Marta [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Tatay, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.tatay@uv.es [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Instituto de Ciencia Molecular (ICMol), Universitat de Valencia, C. Caterdratico Jose Beltran 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Delprat, Sophie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Barraud, Clément; Cros, Vincent; Jacquet, Eric [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Coloma, Fernando [Servicios Técnicos de Investigación, Universidad de Alicante, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Ohresser, Philippe [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Haag, Norman; Cinchetti, Mirko; Aeschlimann, Martin [Department of Physics and Research Center OPTIMAS, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Strasse 46, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Seneor, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.seneor@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); and others

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Probe the influence of alkylphosphonic acids-based SAMs on the electronic and magnetic properties of the LSMO. • Measure the modification of the Mn oxidation state of LSMO surface induced by the molecules grafting. • Evaluate the modification of the LSMO work function induced by the alkylphosphonic acids molecules. - Abstract: Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are highly promising materials for molecular engineering of electronic and spintronics devices thanks to their surface functionalization properties. In this direction, alkylphosphonic acids have been used to functionalize the most common ferromagnetic electrode in organic spintronics: La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO). However, a study on the influence of SAMs grafting on LSMO electronic and magnetic properties is still missing. In this letter, we probe the influence of alkylphosphonic acids-based SAMs on the electronic and magnetic properties of the LSMO surface using different spectroscopies. We observe by X-ray photoemission and X-ray absorption that the grafting of the molecules on the LSMO surface induces a reduction of the Mn oxidation state. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements also show that the LSMO work function can be modified by surface dipoles opening the door to both tune the charge and spin injection efficiencies in organic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes.

  1. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of zoledronic acid-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: a light and electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, İbrahim Unal; Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Saglik, Lutfi; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Erdemli, Esra

    2018-03-01

    Bisphosphonates are widely used in metastatic cancer such as prostate and breast cancer, and their nephrotoxic effects have been established previously. In this study we aimed to evaluate both the nephrotoxic effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) and the protective effects of vitamin E (Vit-E) on this process under light and electron microscopy. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group constituted the control group. The second group was given i.v. ZA of 3 mg/kg once every 3 weeks for 12 weeks from the tail vein. The third group received the same dosage of ZA with an additional i.m . injection of 15 mg Vit-E every week for 12 weeks. Tissues were taken 4 days after the last dose of ZA for histopathological and ultrastructural evaluation. Paller score, tubular epithelial thickness and basal membrane thickness were calculated for each group. For group 2, the p -values are all < 0.001 for Paller score, epitelial thickness, and basal membrane thickness. For group 3 (ZA + Vit. E), the p -values are < 0.001 for Paller score, 0.996 for epitelial thickness, and < 0.001 basal membrane thickness. Significant differences were also observed in ultrastructural changes for group 2. However, adding Vit-E to ZA administration reversed all the histopathological changes to some degree, with statistical significance. Administration of ZA had nephrotoxic effects on rat kidney observed under both light and electron microscopy. Concomitant administration of Vit-E significantly reduces toxic histopathological effects of ZA.

  2. Experiment and theory at the convergence limit: accurate equilibrium structure of picolinic acid by gas-phase electron diffraction and coupled-cluster computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Natalja; Marochkin, Ilya I; Rykov, Anatolii N

    2018-04-18

    The accurate molecular structure of picolinic acid has been determined from experimental data and computed at the coupled cluster level of theory. Only one conformer with the O[double bond, length as m-dash]C-C-N and H-O-C[double bond, length as m-dash]O fragments in antiperiplanar (ap) positions, ap-ap, has been detected under conditions of the gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) experiment (Tnozzle = 375(3) K). The semiexperimental equilibrium structure, rsee, of this conformer has been derived from the GED data taking into account the anharmonic vibrational effects estimated from the ab initio force field. The equilibrium structures of the two lowest-energy conformers, ap-ap and ap-sp (with the synperiplanar H-O-C[double bond, length as m-dash]O fragment), have been fully optimized at the CCSD(T)_ae level of theory in conjunction with the triple-ζ basis set (cc-pwCVTZ). The quality of the optimized structures has been improved due to extrapolation to the quadruple-ζ basis set. The high accuracy of both GED determination and CCSD(T) computations has been disclosed by a correct comparison of structures having the same physical meaning. The ap-ap conformer has been found to be stabilized by the relatively strong NH-O hydrogen bond of 1.973(27) Å (GED) and predicted to be lower in energy by 16 kJ mol-1 with respect to the ap-sp conformer without a hydrogen bond. The influence of this bond on the structure of picolinic acid has been analyzed within the Natural Bond Orbital model. The possibility of the decarboxylation of picolinic acid has been considered in the GED analysis, but no significant amounts of pyridine and carbon dioxide could be detected. To reveal the structural changes reflecting the mesomeric and inductive effects due to the carboxylic substituent, the accurate structure of pyridine has been also computed at the CCSD(T)_ae level with basis sets from triple- to 5-ζ quality. The comprehensive structure computations for pyridine as well as for

  3. The role of amino acid electron-donor/acceptor atoms in host-cell binding peptides is associated with their 3D structure and HLA-binding capacity in sterile malarial immunity induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patarroyo, Manuel E., E-mail: mepatarr@mail.com [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia); Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Almonacid, Hannia; Moreno-Vranich, Armando [Fundacion Instituto de Inmunologia de Colombia (FIDIC), Bogota (Colombia)

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fundamental residues located in some HABPs are associated with their 3D structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random, distorted {alpha}-helix structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-donor atoms bound to HLA-DR53. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. -- Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum malaria continues being one of the parasitic diseases causing the highest worldwide mortality due to the parasite's multiple evasion mechanisms, such as immunological silence. Membrane and organelle proteins are used during invasion for interactions mediated by high binding ability peptides (HABPs); these have amino acids which establish hydrogen bonds between them in some of their critical binding residues. Immunisation assays in the Aotus model using HABPs whose critical residues had been modified have revealed a conformational change thereby enabling a protection-inducing response. This has improved fitting within HLA-DR{beta}1{sup Asterisk-Operator} molecules where amino acid electron-donor atoms present in {beta}-turn, random or distorted {alpha}-helix structures preferentially bound to HLA-DR53 molecules, whilst HABPs having amino acid electron-acceptor atoms present in regular {alpha}-helix structure bound to HLA-DR52. This data has great implications for vaccine development.

  4. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  5. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  6. The effects of acid erosion and remineralization on enamel and three different dental materials: FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Soares, Ana Lúcia Silva; De Oliveira, Rodrigo; Nahórny, Sidnei

    2016-07-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to test the hypothesis that the beverage consumption or mouthwash utilization would change the chemistry of dental materials and enamel inorganic content. Bovine enamel samples (n = 36) each received two cavity preparations (n = 72), each pair filled with one of three dental materials (R: nanofilled composite resin, GIC: glass-ionomer cement, RMGIC: resin-modified GIC). Furthermore, they were treated with three different solutions (S: artificial saliva, E: erosion/Pepsi Twist or EM: erosion + mouthwash/Colgate Plax). Reduction of carbonate content of enamel was greater in RE than RS (P erosion. Material degradation was greater after E and EM than S. GIC and RMGIC materials had a positive effect against acid erosion in the adjacent enamel after remineralization with mouthwash. The beverage and mouthwash utilization would change R and GIC chemical properties. A professional should periodically monitor the glass-ionomer and resin restorations, as they degrade over time under erosive challenges and mouthwash utilization. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:646-656, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B): Importance of steric and electronic effects on the unusual cyclization of the sulfenic acid intermediate to a sulfenyl amide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bani Kanta

    2013-09-01

    The redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) via the unusual transformation of its sulfenic acid (PTP1B-SOH) to a cyclic sulfenyl amide intermediate is studied by using small molecule chemical models. These studies suggest that the sulfenic acids derived from the H2O2-mediated reactions o-amido thiophenols do not efficiently cyclize to sulfenyl amides and the sulfenic acids produced in situ can be trapped by using methyl iodide. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most stable conformer of such sulfenic acids are stabilized by nO → σ*S-OH orbital interactions, which force the -OH group to adopt a position trans to the S⋯O interaction, leading to an almost linear arrangement of the O⋯S-O moiety and this may be the reason for the slow cyclization of such sulfenic acids to their corresponding sulfenyl amides. On the other hand, additional substituents at the 6-position of o-amido phenylsulfenic acids that can induce steric environment and alter the electronic properties around the sulfenic acid moiety by S⋯N or S⋯O nonbonded interactions destabilize the sulfenic acids by inducing strain in the molecule. This may lead to efficient the cyclization of such sulfenic acids. This model study suggests that the amino acid residues in the close proximity of the sulfenic acid moiety in PTP1B may play an important role in the cyclization of PTP1B-SOH to produce the corresponding sulfenyl amide.

  8. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  9. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  10. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  11. Healthcare resource use and costs of managing children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency at a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F Guest

    Full Text Available To estimate clinical progression and resource utilisation together with the associated costs of managing children and adults with LAL Deficiency, at a tertiary referral centre in the UK.A retrospective chart review was undertaken of patients in the UK with a confirmed diagnosis of LAL Deficiency who were managed at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre. Patients' pathways, treatment patterns, health outcomes and resource use were quantified over differing lengths of time for each patient enabling the NHS cost of patient management in tertiary care to be estimated.The study population comprised 19 patients of whom 58% were male. Mean age at the time of initial presentation was 15.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 18.0 years. 63%, 53% and 42% of patients had hepatomegaly, abnormal lipid storage and splenomegaly at a mean age of presentation of 17.8, 17.1 and 20.9 years, respectively. Over a period of 50 years there were a mean of 48.5 clinician visits and 3.4 hospital admissions per patient. The mean NHS cost of patient management at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre, spanning a period of over 50 years was £61,454 per patient.This study provides important insights into a number of aspects of the disease that are difficult to ascertain from published case reports. Additionally, it provides the best estimate available of NHS resource use and costs with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to managing this ultra-orphan disease.

  12. Healthcare resource use and costs of managing children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency at a tertiary referral centre in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Julian F; Ingram, Andy; Ayoub, Nadia; Hendriksz, Christian J; Murphy, Elaine; Rahman, Yusof; McKiernan, Patrick; Mundy, Helen; Deegan, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    To estimate clinical progression and resource utilisation together with the associated costs of managing children and adults with LAL Deficiency, at a tertiary referral centre in the UK. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of patients in the UK with a confirmed diagnosis of LAL Deficiency who were managed at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre. Patients' pathways, treatment patterns, health outcomes and resource use were quantified over differing lengths of time for each patient enabling the NHS cost of patient management in tertiary care to be estimated. The study population comprised 19 patients of whom 58% were male. Mean age at the time of initial presentation was 15.5 years and the mean age at diagnosis was 18.0 years. 63%, 53% and 42% of patients had hepatomegaly, abnormal lipid storage and splenomegaly at a mean age of presentation of 17.8, 17.1 and 20.9 years, respectively. Over a period of 50 years there were a mean of 48.5 clinician visits and 3.4 hospital admissions per patient. The mean NHS cost of patient management at a LAL Deficiency tertiary referral treatment centre, spanning a period of over 50 years was £61,454 per patient. This study provides important insights into a number of aspects of the disease that are difficult to ascertain from published case reports. Additionally, it provides the best estimate available of NHS resource use and costs with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to managing this ultra-orphan disease.

  13. Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancor, M B; Olsen, R E; Solstorm, D; Skulstad, O F; Tocher, D R

    2016-03-01

    The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Homologous electron transport components fail to increase fatty acid hydroxylation in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2a3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Wayne

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid (HFA present in castor (Ricinus communis seeds, is an important industrial commodity used in products ranging from inks and paints to polymers and fuels. However, due to the deadly toxin ricin and allergens also present in castor, it would be advantageous to produce ricinoleic acid in a different agricultural crop. Unfortunately, repeated efforts at heterologous expression of the castor fatty acid hydroxylase (RcFAH12 in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have produced only 17-19% HFA in the seed triacylglycerols (TAG, whereas castor seeds accumulate up to 90% ricinoleic acid in the endosperm TAG. RcFAH12 requires an electron supply from NADH:cytochrome b5 reductase (CBR1 and cytochrome b5 (Cb5 to synthesize ricinoleic acid. Previously, our laboratory found a mutation in the Arabidopsis CBR1 gene, cbr1-1, that caused an 85% decrease in HFA levels in the RcFAH12 Arabidopsis line. These results raise the possibility that electron supply to the heterologous RcFAH12 may limit the production of HFA. Therefore, we hypothesized that by heterologously expressing RcCb5, the reductant supply to RcFAH12 would be improved and lead to increased HFA accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. Contrary to this proposal, heterologous expression of the top three RcCb5 candidates did not increase HFA accumulation. Furthermore, coexpression of RcCBR1 and RcCb5 in RcFAH12 Arabidopsis also did not increase in HFA levels compared to the parental lines. These results demonstrate that the Arabidopsis electron transfer system is supplying sufficient reductant to RcFAH12 and that there must be other bottlenecks limiting the accumulation of HFA.

  15. Development of Jerusalem artichoke resource for efficient one-step fermentation of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) using a novel strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yibin; Sha, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yatao; Xu, Zongqi; Li, Sha; Lei, Peng; Xu, Zheng; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to develop non-food fermentation for the cost-effective production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) using a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NX-2S. The new isolate assimilated inulin more efficiently than other carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without hydrolytic treatment. To investigate the effect of inulin on γ-PGA production, the transcript levels of γ-PGA synthetase genes (pgsB, pgsC, pgsA), regulatory genes (comA, degQ, degS), and the glutamic acid biosynthesis gene (glnA) were analyzed; inulin addition upregulated these key genes. Without exogenous glutamate, strain NX-2S could produce 6.85±0.22g/L of γ-PGA during fermentation. Exogenous glutamate greatly enhances the γ-PGA yield (39.4±0.38g/L) and productivity (0.43±0.05g/L/h) in batch fermentation. Our study revealed a potential method of non-food fermentation to produce high-value products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Electronic [UV-Visible] and vibrational [FT-IR, FT-Raman] investigation and NMR-mass spectroscopic analysis of terephthalic acid using quantum Gaussian calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Joseph Prince, J.; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.

    2015-03-01

    In this research work, the vibrational IR, polarization Raman, NMR and mass spectra of terephthalic acid (TA) were recorded. The observed fundamental peaks (IR, Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The hybrid computational calculations were carried out for calculating geometrical and vibrational parameters by DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The molecular mass spectral data related to base molecule and substitutional group of the compound was analyzed. The modification of the chemical property by the reaction mechanism of the injection of dicarboxylic group in the base molecule was investigated. The 13C and 1H NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and the absolute chemical shifts related to TMS were compared with experimental spectra. The study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by hybrid Gaussian calculation methods. The orbital energies of different levels of HOMO and LUMO were calculated and the molecular orbital lobe overlapping showed the inter charge transformation between the base molecule and ligand group. From the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), the possibility of electrophilic and nucleophilic hit also analyzed. The NLO activity of the title compound related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability were also discussed. The present molecule was fragmented with respect to atomic mass and the mass variation depends on the substitutions have also been studied.

  17. Electronic [UV-Visible] and vibrational [FT-IR, FT-Raman] investigation and NMR-mass spectroscopic analysis of terephthalic acid using quantum Gaussian calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N; Prince, J Joseph; Ramalingam, S; Periandy, S

    2015-03-15

    In this research work, the vibrational IR, polarization Raman, NMR and mass spectra of terephthalic acid (TA) were recorded. The observed fundamental peaks (IR, Raman) were assigned according to their distinctiveness region. The hybrid computational calculations were carried out for calculating geometrical and vibrational parameters by DFT (B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31++G(d,p) and 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets and the corresponding results were tabulated. The molecular mass spectral data related to base molecule and substitutional group of the compound was analyzed. The modification of the chemical property by the reaction mechanism of the injection of dicarboxylic group in the base molecule was investigated. The (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra were simulated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and the absolute chemical shifts related to TMS were compared with experimental spectra. The study on the electronic and optical properties; absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, were performed by hybrid Gaussian calculation methods. The orbital energies of different levels of HOMO and LUMO were calculated and the molecular orbital lobe overlapping showed the inter charge transformation between the base molecule and ligand group. From the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), the possibility of electrophilic and nucleophilic hit also analyzed. The NLO activity of the title compound related to Polarizability and hyperpolarizability were also discussed. The present molecule was fragmented with respect to atomic mass and the mass variation depends on the substitutions have also been studied. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of molecular structure of succinic acid in a very complex conformational landscape: Gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) and ab initio studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Natalja; Abaev, Maxim A.; Rykov, Anatolii N.; Shishkov, Igor F.

    2011-06-01

    The molecular structure of succinic acid has been investigated by the gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) method for the first time. According to predictions of MP2/cc-pVTZ calculations, the molecule has 18 stable conformers with the C sbnd C sbnd C sbnd C chain in the gauche ( G) or anti ( A) configuration, and four of them, I ( G), II ( A), III ( G) and IV ( A) belonging to the C 2, C 2h, C 1 and C 1 point groups, respectively, with relative energies ΔE ZPE within 2.2 kcal/mol can be present at the experimental temperature of 445 K in noticeable amounts. The ratio of the conformers I:II:III:IV = 45(15):20(15):10(assumed):25(15) (in %) has been determined in the GED analysis guided by theoretical predictions. To take into account vibrational effects, the corrections Δ( r e - r a) to the experimental r a bond lengths were calculated from the MP2/cc-pVTZ quadratic and cubic force constants. The obtained equilibrium structural parameters of the dominant conformer I are the following (bond lengths in Å, angles in degrees): r e(C sp3sbnd C sp3) = 1.508(3), r e(C sp3sbnd C sp2) = 1.499(2), r e(C sbnd O) = 1.343(2), r e(C dbnd O) = 1.202(1), e(C sbnd C sbnd C) = 111.8(4), e(C sbnd C sbnd O) = 112.0(4), e(O sbnd C dbnd O) = 123.0(1), τ(C sbnd C sbnd C sbnd C) = 69.9(11). Yielding the best agreement with the GED structure, the MP2/cc-pVQZ approximation overestimates the C sbnd O and C dbnd O bond lengths by ca. 0.005(2) Å.

  19. Graphene oxide reinforced poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid)/polyvinyl alcohol blend composites with enhanced dielectric properties for portable and flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Kalim, E-mail: deshmukh.kalim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Ahamed, M. Basheer [Department of Physics, B.S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 600048, TN (India); Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; AlMaadeed, Mariam Al-Ali [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Khadheer Pasha, S.K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India); Deshmukh, Rajendra R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai, 400019 (India); Chidambaram, K. [Department of Physics, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore, 632014, TN (India)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, Graphene Oxide (GO) reinforced novel polymer composites comprising of poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSSA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blend matrix have been developed using colloidal processing technique. The properties and the structure of prepared composites were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Polarized optical microscopy (POM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicate the strong interfacial interaction between GO and PSSA/PVA blend matrix. The XRD and SEM analysis confirm that GO was fully exfoliated into individual graphene sheets and dispersed homogeneously within the polymer matrix. The effective reinforcement of GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix has resulted in the enhancement of dielectric constant. The dielectric constant has increased from 82.67 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 297.91 (50 Hz, 150 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. The dielectric loss (tan δ) has increased from 1.56 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA (50/50) blend to 2.64 (50 KHz, 140 °C) for PSSA/PVA/GO composites with 3 wt % GO loading. These findings provide a new insight to fabricate flexible, high-k dielectric composite as a promising material for energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Graphene Oxide was prepared from natural graphite using modified Hummers method. • Novel PSSA/PVA/GO composites were prepared by reinforcing GO into PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • Molecular level dispersion of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix was successfully achieved. • Enhancement in the dielectric constant was observed due to effective reinforcement of GO in PSSA/PVA blend matrix. • PSSA/PVA/GO composites with high dielectric performances can be considered for energy storage applications.

  20. Use of Gelidium amansii as a promising resource for bioethanol: a practical approach for continuous dilute-acid hydrolysis and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Hyun Chul; Oh, Seung Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-03-01

    A facile continuous method for dilute-acid hydrolysis of the representative red seaweed species, Gelidium amansii was developed and its hydrolysate was subsequently evaluated for fermentability. In the hydrolysis step, the hydrolysates obtained from a batch reactor and a continuous reactor were systematically compared based on fermentable sugar yield and inhibitor formation. There are many advantages to the continuous hydrolysis process. For example, the low melting point of the agar component in G. amansii facilitates improved raw material fluidity in the continuous reactor. In addition, the hydrolysate obtained from the continuous process delivered a high sugar and low inhibitor concentration, thereby leading to both high yield and high final ethanol titer in the fermentation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  2. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  3. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Howard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H...H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  4. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  5. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  7. Distinguishing of Ile/Leu amino acid residues in the PP3 protein by (hot) electron capture dissociation in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Haselmann, Kim F; Sørensen, Esben Skipper

    2003-01-01

    In hot electron capture dissociation (HECD), multiply protonated polypeptides fragment upon capturing approximately 11-eV electrons. The excess of energy upon the primary c, z* cleavage induces secondary fragmentation in z* fragments. The resultant w ions allow one to distinguish between the isom...

  8. Electron transfer dynamics across self-assembled N-(2-mercaptoethyl) octadecanamide/mycolic acid layers: impedimetric insights into the structural integrity and interaction with anti-mycolic acid antibodies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrity and properties of mycolic acid (MA) antigens integrated into a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of N-(2-mercaptoethyl)octadecanamide, (MEODA), on a gold electrode have been interrogated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical...

  9. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  10. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  11. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  12. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  13. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  14. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  15. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  16. Approaches to α-amino acids via rearrangement to electron-deficient nitrogen: Beckmann and Hofmann rearrangements of appropriate carboxyl-protected substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosale Chandrasekhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The titled approaches were effected with various 2-substituted benzoylacetic acid oximes 3 (Beckmann and 2-substituted malonamic acids 9 (Hofmann, their carboxyl groups being masked as a 2,4,10-trioxaadamantane unit (an orthoacetate. The oxime mesylates have been rearranged with basic Al2O3 in refluxing CHCl3, and the malonamic acids with phenyliodoso acetate and KOH/MeOH. Both routes are characterized by excellent overall yields. Structure confirmation of final products was conducted with X-ray diffraction in selected cases. The final N-benzoyl and N-(methoxycarbonyl products are α-amino acids with both carboxyl and amino protection; hence, they are of great interest in peptide synthesis.

  17. Prediction of FAD binding sites in electron transport proteins according to efficient radial basis function networks and significant amino acid pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nguyen-Quoc-Khanh; Ou, Yu-Yen

    2016-07-30

    Cellular respiration is a catabolic pathway for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is the most efficient process through which cells harvest energy from consumed food. When cells undergo cellular respiration, they require a pathway to keep and transfer electrons (i.e., the electron transport chain). Due to oxidation-reduction reactions, the electron transport chain produces a transmembrane proton electrochemical gradient. In case protons flow back through this membrane, this mechanical energy is converted into chemical energy by ATP synthase. The convert process is involved in producing ATP which provides energy in a lot of cellular processes. In the electron transport chain process, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is one of the most vital molecules for carrying and transferring electrons. Therefore, predicting FAD binding sites in the electron transport chain is vital for helping biologists understand the electron transport chain process and energy production in cells. We used an independent data set to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, which had an accuracy of 69.84 %. We compared the performance of the proposed method in analyzing two newly discovered electron transport protein sequences with that of the general FAD binding predictor presented by Mishra and Raghava and determined that the accuracy of the proposed method improved by 9-45 % and its Matthew's correlation coefficient was 0.14-0.5. Furthermore, the proposed method enabled reducing the number of false positives significantly and can provide useful information for biologists. We developed a method that is based on PSSM profiles and SAAPs for identifying FAD binding sites in newly discovered electron transport protein sequences. This approach achieved a significant improvement after we added SAAPs to PSSM features to analyze FAD binding proteins in the electron transport chain. The proposed method can serve as an effective tool for predicting FAD binding sites in electron

  18. The [2 + 2] Cycloaddition-Retroelectrocyclization and [4 + 2] Hetero-Diels-Alder Reactions of 2-(Dicyanomethylene)indan-1,3-dione with Electron-Rich Alkynes: Influence of Lewis Acids on Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donckele, Etienne J; Finke, Aaron D; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Boudon, Corinne; Trapp, Nils; Diederich, François

    2015-07-17

    The reaction of electrophilic 2-(dicyanomethylene)indan-1,3-dione (DCID) with substituted, electron-rich alkynes provides two classes of push-pull chromophores with interesting optoelectronic properties. The formal [2 + 2] cycloaddition-retroelectrocyclization reaction at the exocyclic double bond of DCID gives cyanobuta-1,3-dienes, and the formal [4 + 2] hetero-Diels-Alder (HDA) reaction at an enone moiety of DCID generates fused 4H-pyran heterocycles. Both products can be obtained in good yield and excellent selectivity by carefully tuning the reaction conditions; in particular, the use of Lewis acids dramatically enhances formation of the HDA adduct.

  19. The influence of ascorbic acid on the oxygen consumption and the heat production by the cells of wheat seedling roots with their mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibited at complexes I and III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.K.; Rakhmatullina, D.F.; Ogorodnikova, T.I.; Alyabyev, A.J.; Minibayeva, F.V.; Loseva, N.L.; Mityashina, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of exogenous ascorbic acid (AsA) on oxidative phosphorylation was studied using wheat seedling roots. Treatment of them with AsA stimulated the rates of oxygen consumption and the heat production and caused a decrease of the respiratory coefficient. The increase in respiration was prevented by inhibitors of ascorbate oxidase, diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), and of cytochrome oxidase, cyanide (KCN). Exogenous AsA sharply stimulated the rate of oxygen consumption of roots when complexes I and III of the mitochondrial electron transport chain were inhibited by rotenone and antimycin A, respectively, while the rates of heat production did not change significantly. It is concluded that AsA is a potent energy substrate, which can be used in conditions of failing I and III complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain

  20. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  1. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  2. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  3. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  4. Differential saturation study of radial and angular modulation mechanisms of electron spin--lattice relaxation for trapped hydrogen atoms in sulfuric acid glasses. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plonka, A; Kevan, L

    1976-11-01

    A differential ESR saturation study of allowed transitions and forbidden proton spin-flip satellite transitions for trapped hydrogen atoms in sulfuric acid glasses indicates that angular modulation dominates the spin-lattice relaxation mechanisms and suggests that the modulation arises from motion of the H atom.

  5. Research Resource

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Lund, Mari L; Grunddal, Kaare V

    2015-01-01

    Chromogranin A (ChgA) is an acidic protein found in large dense-core secretory vesicles and generally considered to be expressed in all enteroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here, we characterize a novel reporter mouse for ChgA, ChgA-humanized Renilla reniformis (hr)GFP. The h...

  6. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, A., E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [CESAM/Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Rocha, S.M. [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Legin, A. [Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C. [Madeira Chemistry Center, University of Madeira, Funchal 9000-390 (Portugal)

    2010-03-03

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation of the feasibility of the electronic tongue as a rapid analytical tool for wine age prediction and quantification of the organic acids and phenolic compounds. The case-study of Madeira wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, A.; Rocha, S.M.; Legin, A.; Pereira, V.; Marques, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    A set of fourteen Madeira wines comprising wines produced from four Vitis vinifera L. varieties (Bual, Malvasia, Verdelho and Tinta Negra Mole) that were 3, 6, 10 and 17 years old was analysed using HPLC and an electronic tongue (ET) multisensor system. Concentrations of 24 organic acids, phenolic and furanic compounds were determined by HPLC. The ET consisting of 26 potentiometric chemical sensors with plasticized PVC and chalcogenide glass membranes was used. Significance of the effects of age and variety on the ET response and wine composition with respect to the organic acids, phenolics and furanic derivatives were evaluated using ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis (ASCA). Significance of the effects was estimated using a permutation test (1000 permutations). It was found that effects of age, grape variety and their interaction were significant for the HPLC data set and only the effect of age was significant for the ET data. Calibration models of the HPLC and ET data with respect to the wine age and of the ET data with respect to the concentration of the organic acids and phenolics were calculated using PLS1 regression. Models were validated using cross-validation. It was possible to predict wine age from HPLC and ET data with the accuracy in cross-validation of 2.6 and 1.8 years respectively. The ET was capable of detecting the following components (mean relative error in cross-validation is shown in the parentheses): tartaric (8%), citric (5%), formic (12%), protocatehuic (5%), vanillic (18%) and sinapic (14%) acids, catechin (6%), vanillin (12%) and trans-resveratrol (5%). The ET capability of predicting Madeira wine age with good accuracy (1.8 years) as well as quantify of some organic acids and phenolic compounds was demonstrated.

  8. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  9. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  10. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  11. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  12. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  14. Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Giese Reaction: Decarboxylative Addition of Amino Acid Derived α-Amino Radicals to Electron-Deficient Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Millet, Anthony; Lefebvre, Quentin; Rueping, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    A tin- and halide-free, visible-light photoredox-catalyzed Giese reaction was developed. Primary and secondary α-amino radicals were generated readily from amino acids in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iridium photocatalyst. The reactivity of the α-amino radicals has been evaluated for the functionalization of a variety of activated olefins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  15. Visible-Light Photoredox-Catalyzed Giese Reaction: Decarboxylative Addition of Amino Acid Derived α-Amino Radicals to Electron-Deficient Olefins

    KAUST Repository

    Millet, Anthony

    2016-06-20

    A tin- and halide-free, visible-light photoredox-catalyzed Giese reaction was developed. Primary and secondary α-amino radicals were generated readily from amino acids in the presence of catalytic amounts of an iridium photocatalyst. The reactivity of the α-amino radicals has been evaluated for the functionalization of a variety of activated olefins. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  16. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  17. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  18. Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of efficacy of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chitosan for smear layer removal with ultrasonics: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Babu Kamble

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main aim of root canal treatment is cleaning, shaping and then obturating three dimensionally to prevent reinfection. This includes chemicomechanical cleansing by instrumentation and the use of irrigating solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the smear layer removal from root canal dentine subjected to two root canal irrigants, 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan, a new irrigant using Scanning Electron Microscope. Methodology: 40 single rooted premolars were decoronated followed by instrumentation with I Race files and intermediate irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite and activation with ultrasonics. Then the samples were longitudinally sectioned and place in the respective test solutions and their controls for 5 minutes. Scanning Electron Microscopic evaluation was further carried out. Results: The results of the present study indicates that the Chitosan which was proved effective in removing smear layer. Conclusion: A moderate concentration of 0.2% chitosan removes the smear layer with greater efficiency.

  19. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  20. 5-Arylidene derivatives of Meldrum's acid: Synthesis, structural characterization using single crystal and powder crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tanusri; Ghosh, Soumen; Ghosh, Somnath; Mukherjee, Alok Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Four 5-arylidene derivatives of Meldrum's acid, 5-(4-chlorobenzylidene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (2), 5-(3-hydroxybenzylidene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (3), 5-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (4) and 5-(2,4-dimethoxy benzylidene)-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (5) have been synthesized and their crystal structures have been determined using single crystal X-ray diffractometry for 2, 4 and 5 and X-ray powder diffraction for 3. The nature of intermolecular interactions in 2-5 has been analyzed through Hirshfeld surfaces and 2D fingerprint plots. The DFT optimized molecular geometries in 2-5 agree closely with those obtained from the crystallographic studies. The crystal packing in 2-5 exhibits an interplay of Osbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯Cl and Csbnd H⋯π (arene) hydrogen bonds and π⋯π interactions, which assemble molecules into three-dimensional architecture in 2, 3 and 5 and two-dimensional framework in 4. The Hirshfeld surface analyses of 2-5, Meldrum's acid (1) and a few related 5-arylidene derivatives of Meldrum's acid retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) indicate that about 85% of the Hirshfeld surface area (72% in 2 where H⋯Cl contribution is about 13%) in this class of compounds are due to H⋯H, O⋯H and C⋯H contacts. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap (>2.2 eV) in 2-5 indicates a significant degree of internal charge transfer within the molecule.

  1. Elimination of glycerol production in anaerobic cultures of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered to use acetic acid as an electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe Medina, Víctor; Almering, Marinka J H; van Maris, Antonius J A; Pronk, Jack T

    2010-01-01

    In anaerobic cultures of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycerol production is essential to reoxidize NADH produced in biosynthetic processes. Consequently, glycerol is a major by-product during anaerobic production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae, the single largest fermentation process in industrial biotechnology. The present study investigates the possibility of completely eliminating glycerol production by engineering S. cerevisiae such that it can reoxidize NADH by the reduction of acetic acid to ethanol via NADH-dependent reactions. Acetic acid is available at significant amounts in lignocellulosic hydrolysates of agricultural residues. Consistent with earlier studies, deletion of the two genes encoding NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1 and GPD2) led to elimination of glycerol production and an inability to grow anaerobically. However, when the E. coli mhpF gene, encoding the acetylating NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.10; acetaldehyde+NAD++coenzyme Aacetyl coenzyme A+NADH+H+), was expressed in the gpd1Delta gpd2Delta strain, anaerobic growth was restored by supplementation with 2.0 g liter(-1) acetic acid. The stoichiometry of acetate consumption and growth was consistent with the complete replacement of glycerol formation by acetate reduction to ethanol as the mechanism for NADH reoxidation. This study provides a proof of principle for the potential of this metabolic engineering strategy to improve ethanol yields, eliminate glycerol production, and partially convert acetate, which is a well-known inhibitor of yeast performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, to ethanol. Further research should address the kinetic aspects of acetate reduction and the effect of the elimination of glycerol production on cellular robustness (e.g., osmotolerance).

  2. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  3. Simultaneous demonstration of acid phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in mouse hepatocytes. A novel electron-microscopic dual staining enzyme-cytochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Matsubara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase (ACPase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD play important roles in cell biology/disease pathophysiology in various organs including the liver. The purpose of the present report is to introduce a new enzymecytochemical method to simultaneously demonstrate the subcellular localization of ACPase and G6PD within the same hepatocyte in the mouse liver. The ultrastructural localization of ACPase and G6PD were demonstrated, with concomitant use of the cerium method and the copper-ferrocyanide method, respectively. ACPase labelings were localized in the lysosomes, and G6PD labelings were visible in the cytoplasm and on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocyte. This novel double staining procedure may be a useful histochemical tool for the study of liver functions in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Comparison of the electron work function, hole concentration and exciton diffusion length for P3HT and PT prepared by thermal or acid cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tousek, J.; Touskova, J.; Ludvík, J.

    2016-01-01

    samples were prepared from 2 different precursors by thermal or chemical treatment at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry and work function measurements were used for estimating the concentration of holes. The measured data were evaluated assuming the validity of band theory based on the tight......-binding model. Published data on the valence bandwidth were used for calculating the value of the overlap integral which is related to the hole effective mass. Energy band diagrams were constructed for all 3 materials. Finally, the exciton diffusion length, which is a critical parameter for the application....... It is stated that a native polythiophene prepared by treatment with acids is a prospective material for solar cells and shows a similar quality as that produced by a thermal process. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  6. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  7. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  8. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a probe for a non-essential cysteine residue at the medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase binding site of the human 'electron transferring flavoprotein' (ETF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A; Engel, P C

    1999-01-01

    Human 'electron transferring flavoprotein' (ETF) was inactivated by the thiol-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). The kinetic profile showed the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics during the initial phase of inactivation. Monitoring the release of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate (TNB) showed that modification of 1 cysteine residue was responsible for the loss of activity. The inactivation of ETF by DTNB could be reversed upon incubation with thiol-containing reagents. The loss of activity was prevented by the inclusion of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and octanoyl-CoA. Cyanolysis of the DTNB modified-ETF with KCN led to the release of TNB accompanied presumably by the formation of the thio-cyano enzyme and with almost full recovery of activity. Conservation studies and the lack of 100% inactivation, however, suggested that this cysteine residue is not essential for the interaction with MCAD.

  9. Layer-by-layer self-assembled nanostructured phthalocyaninatoiron(II)/SWCNT-poly(m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid) hybrid system on gold surface: Electron transfer dynamics and amplification of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, Jeseelan [Molecular and Nanomaterials Electrochemistry laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Ozoemena, Kenneth I. [Molecular and Nanomaterials Electrochemistry laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)], E-mail: kenneth.ozoemena@up.ac.za

    2009-09-01

    The fabrication of nanostructured platform of poly(m-aminobenzenesulfonic acid) functionalised single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-PABS)-iron(II)phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nanoFePc) using layer-by-layer(LBL) self-assembly strategy is described. The substrate build-up, via strong electrostatic interaction, was monitored using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical measurements. As the number of bilayers is increased, the electron transfer kinetics of the ferricyaninde/ferrocyanide redox probe is decreased, while the electrochemical reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at a constant concentration is amplified. The amplification of the electrochemical response to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection suggests that this type of electrode could provide an important nano-architectural sensing platform for the development of a sensor.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  12. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  13. Self-powered implantable electronic-skin for in situ analysis of urea/uric-acid in body fluids and the potential applications in real-time kidney-disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Han, Wuxiao; Gao, Huiling; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Shuai; Xing, Lili; Zhang, Yan; Xue, Xinyu

    2018-01-25

    As the concentration of different biomarkers in human body fluids are an important parameter of chronic disease, wearable biosensors for in situ analysis of body fluids with high sensitivity, real-time detection, flexibility and biocompatibility have significant potential therapeutic applications. In this paper, a flexible self-powered implantable electronic-skin (e-skin) for in situ body fluids analysis (urea/uric-acid) as a real-time kidney-disease diagnoser has been proposed based on the piezo-enzymatic-reaction coupling process of ZnO nanowire arrays. It can convert the mechanical energy of body movements into a piezoelectric impulse, and the outputting piezoelectric signal contains the urea/uric-acid concentration information in body fluids. This piezoelectric-biosensing process does not need an external electricity supply or battery. The e-skin was implanted under the abdominal skin of a mouse and provided in situ analysis of the kidney-disease parameters. These results provide a new approach for developing a self-powered in situ body fluids-analysis technique for chronic-disease diagnosis.

  14. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Kinetic studies on the reaction of cob(II)alamin with hypochlorous acid: Evidence for one electron oxidation of the metal center and corrin ring destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Rohan S; Farhath, Mohamed M; Shelley, Jacob T; Basu, Soumitra; Brasch, Nicola E

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic and mechanistic studies on the reaction of a major intracellular vitamin B 12 form, cob(II)alamin (Cbl(II)), with hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl - ) have been carried out. Cbl(II) (Co(II)) is rapidly oxidized by HOCl to predominately aquacobalamin/hydroxycobalamin (Cbl(III), Co(III)) with a second-order rate constant of 2.4×10 7 M -1 s -1 (25.0°C). The stoichiometry of the reaction is 1:1. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of the product mixture of the reaction of Cbl(II) with 0.9mol equiv. HOCl provides support for HOCl being initially reduced to Cl and subsequent H atom abstraction from the corrin macrocycle occurring, resulting in small amounts of corrinoid species with two or four H atoms fewer than the parent cobalamin. Upon the addition of excess (H)OCl further slower reactions are observed. Finally, SDS-PAGE experiments show that HOCl-induced damage to bovine serum albumin does not occur in the presence of Cbl(II), providing support for Cbl(II) being an efficient HOCl trapping agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  18. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  19. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.

  20. Existing and emerging detection technologies for DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) finger printing, sequencing, bio- and analytical chips: a multidisciplinary development unifying molecular biology, chemical and electronics engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Khanna, Vinod

    2007-01-01

    The current status and research trends of detection techniques for DNA-based analysis such as DNA finger printing, sequencing, biochips and allied fields are examined. An overview of main detectors is presented vis-à-vis these DNA operations. The biochip method is explained, the role of micro- and nanoelectronic technologies in biochip realization is highlighted, various optical and electrical detection principles employed in biochips are indicated, and the operational mechanisms of these detection devices are described. Although a diversity of biochips for diagnostic and therapeutic applications has been demonstrated in research laboratories worldwide, only some of these chips have entered the clinical market, and more chips are awaiting commercialization. The necessity of tagging is eliminated in refractive-index change based devices, but the basic flaw of indirect nature of most detection methodologies can only be overcome by generic and/or reagentless DNA sensors such as the conductance-based approach and the DNA-single electron transistor (DNA-SET) structure. Devices of the electrical detection-based category are expected to pave the pathway for the next-generation DNA chips. The review provides a comprehensive coverage of the detection technologies for DNA finger printing, sequencing and related techniques, encompassing a variety of methods from the primitive art to the state-of-the-art scenario as well as promising methods for the future.

  1. Optimal beneficiation of global resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloisi de Larderel, J. (Industry and Environment Office, Paris (France). United Nations Environment Programme)

    1989-01-01

    The growth of the world's population and related human activities are clearly leaving major effects on the environment and on the level of use of natural resources: forests are disappearing, air pollution is leading to acid rains, changes are occuring in the atmospheric ozone and global climate, more and more people lack access to reasonable safe supplies of water, soil pollution is becoming a problem, mineral and energy resources are increasingly being used. Producing more with less, producing more, polluting less, these are basic challenges that the world now faces. Low- and non-waste technologies are certainly one of the keys to those challenges.

  2. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  3. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  4. Structural and electronic properties of barbituric acid and melamine-containing ribonucleosides as plausible components of prebiotic RNA: implications for prebiotic self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sarabjeet; Sharma, Purshotam; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-11-22

    The RNA world hypothesis assumes that RNA was the first informational polymer that originated from prebiotic chemical soup. However, since the reaction of d-ribose with canonical nucleobases (A, C, G and U) fails to yield ribonucleosides (rNs) in substantial amounts, the spontaneous origin of rNs and the subsequent synthesis of RNA remains an unsolved mystery. To this end, it has been suggested that RNA may have evolved from primitive genetic material (preRNA) composed of simpler prebiotic heterocycles that spontaneously form glycosidic bonds with ribose. As an effort toward evaluating this hypothesis, the present study uses density functional theory (DFT) to assess the suitability of barbituric acid (BA) and melamine (MM) to act as prebiotic nucleobases, both of which have recently been shown to spontaneously form a glycosidic bond with ribose and organize into supramolecular assemblies in solution. The significant strength of hydrogen bonds involving BA and MM indicates that such interactions may have played a crucial role in their preferential selection over competing heterocycles that interact solely through stacking interactions from the primordial soup during the early phase of evolution. However, the greater stability of stacked dimers involving BA or MM and the canonical nucleobases compared to those consisting solely of BA and/or MM points towards the possible evolution of intermediate informational polymers consisting of prebiotic and canonical nucleobases, which could have eventually evolved into RNA. Analysis of the associated rNs reveals an anti conformational preference for the biologically-relevant β-anomer of both BA and MM rNs, which will allow complementary WC-like hydrogen bonding that can stabilize preRNA polymers. Large calculated deglycosylation barriers suggest BA rNs containing C-C glycosidic bonds are relevant in challenging prebiotic environments such as volcanic geotherms, while lower barriers indicate the MM rNs containing C

  5. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  6. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  7. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  8. Cytogenetic Resources and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Braekeleer, Etienne; Huret, Jean-Loup; Mossafa, Hossain; Dessen, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The main databases devoted stricto sensu to cancer cytogenetics are the "Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations and Gene Fusions in Cancer" ( http://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Chromosomes/Mitelman ), the "Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology" ( http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org ), and COSMIC ( http://cancer.sanger.ac.uk/cosmic ).However, being a complex multistep process, cancer cytogenetics are broadened to "cytogenomics," with complementary resources on: general databases (nucleic acid and protein sequences databases; cartography browsers: GenBank, RefSeq, UCSC, Ensembl, UniProtKB, and Entrez Gene), cancer genomic portals associated with recent international integrated programs, such as TCGA or ICGC, other fusion genes databases, array CGH databases, copy number variation databases, and mutation databases. Other resources such as the International System for Human Cytogenomic Nomenclature (ISCN), the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), and the Human Gene Nomenclature Database (HGNC) allow a common language.Data within the scientific/medical community should be freely available. However, most of the institutional stakeholders are now gradually disengaging, and well-known databases are forced to beg or to disappear (which may happen!).

  9. Recovering uranium from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Wet-process phosphoric acid contains a significant amount of uranium. This uranium totals more than 1,500 tons/yr in current U.S. acid output--and projections put the uranium level at 8,000 tons/yr in the year 2000. Since the phosphoric acid is a major raw material for fertilizers, uranium finds its way into those products and is effectively lost as a resource, while adding to the amount of radioactive material that can contaminate the food chain. So, resource-conservation and environmental considerations both make recovery of the uranium from phosphoric acid desirable. This paper describes the newly developed process for recovering uranium from phosphoric acid by using solvent-extraction technique. After many extractants had been tested, the researchers eventually selected the combination of di (2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEPA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) as the most suitable. The flowscheme of the process is included

  10. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  11. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  12. Antagonistic properties of a natural product-Bicuculline with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor: studied through electrostatic potential mapping, electronic and vibrational spectra using ab initio and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anubha; Tandon, Poonam; Jain, Sudha; Asthana, B P

    2011-12-15

    (+)-Bicuculline (hereinafter referred to as bicuculline), a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid is of current interest as an antagonist of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Its inhibitor properties have been studied through molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapping of this molecule and GABA receptor. The hot site on the potential surface of bicuculline, which is also isosteric with GABA receptor, has been used to interpret the inhibitor property. A systematic quantum chemical study of the possible conformations, their relative stabilities, FT-Raman, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of bicuculline has been reported. The optimized geometries, wavenumber and intensity of the vibrational bands of all the conformers of bicuculline have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) employing B3LYP functional and 6-311G(d,p) basis set. Mulliken atomic charges, HOMO-LUMO gap ΔE, ionization potential, dipole moments and total energy have also been obtained for the optimized geometries of both the molecules. TD-DFT method is used to calculate the electronic absorption parameters in gas phase as well as in solvent environment using integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) employing 6-31G basis set and the results thus obtained are compared with the UV absorption spectra. The combination of experimental and calculated results provides an insight into the structural and vibrational spectroscopic properties of bicuculline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  14. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  15. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  16. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  17. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  18. Studying electron-PAG interactions using electron-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Amrit; Grzeskowiak, Steven; Ostrander, Jonathan; Schad, Jonathon; Rebeyev, Eliran; Neisser, Mark; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Denbeaux, Gregory; Brainard, Robert L.

    2016-03-01

    In extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, 92 eV photons are used to expose photoresists. Typical EUV resists are organic-based and chemically amplified using photoacid generators (PAGs). Upon exposure, PAGs produce acids which catalyze reactions that result in changes in solubility. In EUV lithography, photo- and secondary electrons (energies of 10- 80 eV) play a large role in PAG acid-production. Several mechanisms for electron-PAG interactions (e.g. electron trapping, and hole-initiated chemistry) have been proposed. The aim of this study is to explore another mechanism - internal excitation - in which a bound PAG electron can be excited by receiving energy from another energetic electron, causing a reaction that produces acid. This paper explores the mechanism of internal excitation through the analogous process of electron-induced fluorescence, in which an electron loses energy by transferring that energy to a molecule and that molecule emits a photon rather than decomposing. We will show and quantify electron-induced fluorescence of several fluorophores in polymer films to mimic resist materials, and use this information to refine our proposed mechanism. Relationships between the molecular structure of fluorophores and fluorescent quantum yield may aid in the development of novel PAGs for EUV lithography.

  19. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  20. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  1. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  2. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, G.K.; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    ) and stearic acid (C18H36O2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement......The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH2O2), acetic acid (C2H4O2), propionic acid (C3H6O2), butyric acid (C4H8O2), n-hexanoic acid (C6H12O2), n-caprylic acid (C8H16O2), lauric acid (C12H24O2), myristic acid (C14H28O2), palmitic acid (C16H32O2), oleic acid (C18H34O2...

  3. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  4. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  5. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  6. Of Mental Models, Assumptions and Heuristics: The Case of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha Michelle

    2010-01-01

    This study explored what cognitive resources (i.e., units of knowledge necessary to learn) first-semester organic chemistry students used to make decisions about acid strength and how those resources guided the prediction, explanation and justification of trends in acid strength. We were specifically interested in the identifying and…

  7. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  8. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  9. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  10. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  11. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  12. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  13. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  14. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  15. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  16. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  17. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  18. In situ Observation of Direct Electron Transfer Reaction of Cytochrome c Immobilized on ITO Electrode Modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic Acid Self-assembled Monolayer Film by Electrochemical Slab Optical Waveguide Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Omura, Ayako; Nakano, Miki; Miyake, Koji

    2017-01-01

    To immobilize cytochrome c (cyt.c) on an ITO electrode while keeping its direct electron transfer (DET) functionality, the ITO electrode surface was modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic acid (CH 3 O (CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 C 11 H 22 PO(OH) 2 , M-EG 3 -UPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film. After a 100-times washing process to exchange a phosphate buffer saline solution surrounding cyt.c and ITO electrode to a fresh one, an in situ observation of visible absorption spectral change with slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy showed that 87.7% of the cyt.c adsorbed on the M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode remained on the ITO electrode. The SOWG absorption spectra corresponding to oxidized and reduced cyt.c were observed with setting the ITO electrode potential at 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, while probing the DET reaction between cyt.c and ITO electrode occurred. The amount of cyt.c was evaluated to be about 19.4% of a monolayer coverage based on the coulomb amount in oxidation and reduction peaks on cyclic voltammetry (CV) data. The CV peak current maintained to be 83.4% compared with the initial value for a M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode after 60 min continuous scan with 0.1 V/s between 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  19. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  20. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  1. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  2. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  3. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  4. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  5. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  6. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  7. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  8. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  9. Electron beam-cured coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  10. Students developing resources for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  11. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  12. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  13. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  14. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  15. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  16. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  17. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  18. Electronic Publishing Approaches to Curriculum: Videotex, Teletext and Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumente, Jerome

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Journalism Resources Institute (JRI) of Rutgers University in terms of its administrative organization, computer resources, computer facilities use, involvement in electronic publishing, use of the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Database, curricular options, and professional continuing education. (AYC)

  19. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  20. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs