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Sample records for acid treatment enhances

  1. Enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes by acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chensha Li; Baoyou Zhang; Xingjuan Chen; Xiaoqing Hu; Ji Liang

    2005-01-01

    Three approaches of treating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including acid treatment, air oxidization and heat treatment at high temperature were studied to enhance the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. High temperature heat-treatment elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes. Acid treatment removes parts of amorphous carbonaceous matter through its oxidization effect.Air oxidization disperses carbon nanotubes and amorphous carbonaceous matter. The treatment of combining acid treatment with heat-treatment further elevates the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes comparing with acid treatment or heat-treatment. The combination of the three treatments creates the thorough effects of enhancing the crystalline degree of carbon nanotubes.

  2. Enhancement of the ferromagnetic order of graphite after sulphuric acid treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Barzola-Quiquia, J.; W. Böhlmann; Esquinazi, P.; Schadewitz, A.; Ballestar, A.; Dusari, S.; Schultze-Nobre, L.; Kersting, B.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the changes in the ferromagnetic behavior of graphite powder and graphite flakes after treatment with diluted sulphuric acid. We show that this kind of acid treatment enhances substantially the ferromagnetic magnetization of virgin graphite micrometer size powder as well as in graphite flakes. The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) amplitude at 300 K measured in a micrometer size thin graphite flake after acid treatment reaches values comparable to polycrystalline cobalt.

  3. Acid and alkaline treatments for enhancing the growth of rhizobia in sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebah, F. B.; Tyagi, R. D. [Quebec Univ., Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Prevost, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Wastewater treatment processes produce large amounts of sludge. The application of sludge to agricultural soils improves the soil's physical and biological properties because it contains organic matter and plant nutrients. Wastewater sludge has been used for producing certain bacteria. It has also been proposed as an effective method for the production of rhizobia. Although the amount of sludge required for the production of bacterial inoculum is low, this new application constitutes an additional and suitable alternative for wastewater sludge recycling. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of using acid or alkaline pre-treatments in sludges having different solid concentrations, to increase the biodegradability of organic material, thereby to enhance the growth of rhizobia, while using sludge as a culture medium. Results of the experiment show that both acid and alkaline treatments improved the rhizobial cell count and reduced mean generation time in primary and secondary sludges, but the efficiency of the treatment was also dependent on the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. The highest cell count was obtained with primary sludge at 0.65 per cent TSS under alkaline treatment. For secondary sludge, the highest cell count was reached under acid hydrolysis. The mean generation time was reduced by both pre-treatments, with best values obtained for alkaline treatment in primary sludge. 31 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    In some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), the ever increasing production of sludge with the expanding population overloaded the anaerobic digestion which compromises the sludge reduction efficiency. Post anaerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been applied to enhance sludge reduction, however, to a very limited extent. This study verified the effectiveness of free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) pre-treatment on enhancing full-scale ADS degradation in post anaerobic digestion. The ADS collected from a full-scale WWTP was subject to FNA treatment at concentrations of 0.77, 1.54, 2.31, 3.08, and 3.85 mg N/L for 24 h followed by biochemical methane potential tests. The FNA treatment at all concentrations resulted in an increase (from 1.5-3.1 % compared to the control) in sludge reduction with the highest improvement achieved at 0.77 mg HNO2-N/L. The FNA treatment at this concentration also resulted in the highest increase in methane production (40 %) compared to the control. The economic analysis indicates that FNA treatment is economically attractive for enhancing post anaerobic digestion of full-scale ADS.

  5. Enhanced Blood Compatibility of Metallocene Polyethylene Subjected to Hydrochloric Acid Treatment for Cardiovascular Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Kumar Jaganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood compatibility of metallocene polyethylene (mPE was investigated after modifying the surface using hydrochloric acid. Contact angle of the mPE exposed to HCl poses a decrease in its value which indicates increasing wettability and better blood compatibility. Surface of mPE analyzed by using FTIR revealed no significant changes in its functional groups after treatment. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope images supported the increasing wettability through the modifications like pit formations and etching on the acid rendered surface. To evaluate the effect of acid treatment on the coagulation cascade, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT were measured. Both PT and APTT were delayed significantly (P<0.05 after 60 min exposure implying improved blood compatibility of the surfaces. Hemolysis assay of the treated surface showed a remarkable decrease in the percentage of lysis of red blood cells when compared with untreated surface. Moreover, platelet adhesion assay demonstrated that HCl exposed surfaces deter the attachment of platelets and thereby reduce the chances of activation of blood coagulation cascade. These results confirmed the enhanced blood compatibility of mPE after HCl exposure which can be utilized for cardiovascular implants like artificial vascular prostheses, implants, and various blood contacting devices.

  6. Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging Predicts Simeprevir-Induced Hyperbilirubinemia During Hepatitis C Virus Treatment: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Hironao; Kitamura, Tsuneo; Ando, Hitoshi; Fukada, Hiroo; Igusa, Yuki; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Miyazaki, Akihisa; Fujimura, Akio; Shiina, Shuichiro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-03-01

    Simeprevir is a substrate for organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that transport bilirubin. Hyperbilirubinemia is an adverse event reported during treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Because gadoxetic acid is also a substrate of OATPs, pretreatment gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may predict hyperbilirubinemia during treatment. This prospective study therefore evaluated 11 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI prior to treatment with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 12 weeks, followed by pegylated interferon and ribavirin for an additional 12 weeks. Their contrast enhancement index (CEI), an index of liver parenchymal enhancement during the hepatobiliary phase, was assessed before treatment. Plasma trough concentrations (Ctrough ) of simeprevir were determined 7 days after its administration, and serum bilirubin concentrations were measured throughout the course of treatment. Six patients (55%) developed hyperbilirubinemia (≥1.6 mg/dL) during treatment. Ctrough was significantly higher in patients with than without hyperbilirubinemia (P = .009), with a strong inverse relationship between CEI and Ctrough (r = -0.911, P simeprevir. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging may predict the development of hyperbilirubinemia during treatment of hepatitis C patients with simeprevir plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin.

  7. Photoluminescence Enhancement and Structure Repairing of Monolayer MoSe 2 by Hydrohalic Acid Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Hau-Vei

    2015-12-30

    Atomically thin two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted much attention recently due to their unique electronic and optical properties for future optoelectronic devices. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method is able to generate TMDCs layers with a scalable size and a controllable thickness. However, the TMDC monolayers grown by CVD may incorporate structural defects, and it is fundamentally important to understand the relation between photoluminescence and structural defects. In this report, point defects (Se vacancies) and oxidized Se defects in CVD-grown MoSe2 monolayers are identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These defects can significantly trap free charge carriers and localize excitons, leading to the smearing of free band-to-band exciton emission. Here, we report that the simple hydrohalic acid treatment (such as HBr) is able to efficiently suppress the trap-state emission and promote the neutral exciton and trion emission in defective MoSe2 monolayers through the p-doping process, where the overall photoluminescence intensity at room temperature can be enhanced by a factor of 30. We show that HBr treatment is able to activate distinctive trion and free exciton emissions even from highly defective MoSe2 layers. Our results suggest that the HBr treatment not only reduces the n-doping in MoSe2 but also reduces the structural defects. The results provide further insights of the control and tailoring the exciton emission from CVD-grown monolayer TMDCs.

  8. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties of CVD-Grown Graphene with Ascorbic Acid Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunmiao; Chen, Zhiying; Zhang, Haoran; Zhang, Yaqian; Zhang, Yanhui; Sui, Yanping; Yu, Guanghui; Cao, Yijiang

    2016-02-01

    Ascorbic acid was used to modify to chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films transferred onto SiO2 substrate. Residual polymer (polymethyl methacrylate), Fe3+, Cl-, H2O, and O2 affected the electrical and thermal properties on graphene during the transfer or device fabrication processes. Exposure of transferred graphene to ascorbic acid resulted in significantly enhanced electrical properties with increased charge carrier mobility. All devices exhibited more than 30% improvement in room temperature carrier mobility in air. The carrier mobility of the treated graphene did not significantly decrease in 21 days. This result can be attributed to electron donation to graphene through the -OH functional group in ascorbic acid that is absorbed in graphene. This work provides a method to enhance the electrical properties of CVD-grown graphene.

  9. Disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid, UV and ozone after enhanced primary treatment of municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehr, Ronald; Wagner, Monika; Veerasubramanian, Priya; Payment, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    The City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant uses enhanced physicochemical processes (ferric and/or alum coagulation) for suspended solids and phosphorus removal. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of peracetic acid (PAA), UV, or ozone to inactivate the indicator organisms fecal coliforms, Enterococci, MS-2 coliphage, or Clostridium perfringens in the effluent from this plant. PAA doses to reach the target fecal coliform level of 9000 CFU/100mL exceeded 6 mg/L; similar results were obtained for enterococci, and no inactivation of Clostridium perfringens was observed. However a 1-log reduction of MS-2 occurred at PAA doses of 1.5 mg/L and higher. It was expected that this effluent would have a high ozone demand, and would require relatively high UV fluences, because of relatively high effluent COD, iron and suspended solids concentrations, and low UV transmittance. This was confirmed herein. For UV, the inactivation curve for fecal coliforms showed the typical two-stage shape, with the target of 1000 CFU/100 mL (to account for photoreactivation) occurring in the asymptote zone at fluences >20 mJ/cm(2). In contrast, inactivation curves for MS-2 and Clostridium perfringens were linear. Clostridium perfringens was the most resistant organism. For ozone, inactivation was already observed before any residuals could be measured. The transferred ozone doses to reach target fecal coliform levels ( approximately 2-log reduction) were 30-50 mg/L. MS-2 was less resistant, but Clostridium perfringens was more resistant than fecal coliforms. The different behaviour of the four indicator organisms studied, depending on the disinfectant, suggests that a single indicator organism might not be appropriate. The required dose of any of the disinfectants is unlikely to be economically viable, and upstream changes to the plant will be needed.

  10. Combined humic acid adsorption and enhanced Fenton processes for the treatment of naphthalene dye intermediate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lin; Zhu, Nanwen; Wang, Liang; Bing, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Xiaoliang

    2011-12-30

    In this work, an humic acid adsorption with an enhanced Fenton oxidation was employed to treat the real effluent originating from the 1-diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid (1,2,4-Acid) production plant. In a first step, humic acid with MgSO(4) was selected as adsorbent and precipitant for physicochemical pretreatment, the synergetic effect had led to 39% of COD removal and 89% of colour removal. A multi-staged Fenton oxidation process with inner circulation was introduced subsequently. The TOC, COD, 1,2,4-Acid, NH(4)(+)-N, SS and colour were reduced from 3024 mg/L, 12,780 mg/L, 9103 mg/L, 110 mg/L, 240 mg/L and 25,600 (multiple) to 46 mg/L, 210 mg/L, 21 mg/L, 16 mg/L, 3 mg/L and 25 through the combined process, respectively. Hydrogen peroxide consumed per kg COD had saved up to 36% when two-staged Fenton process with inner circulation (flow-back to influent ratio: 3) was applied. Influence of H(2)O(2) concentration, flow-back to influent ratio and staged Fenton mode were investigated in detail in order to find out the optimal operating parameters. The kinetics of 1,2,4-Acid degradation by two-staged Fenton process was investigated. The evolution of the main intermediates during the degradation process was conducted using the LC-(ESI)-TOF-MS technique, and the results showed a staged degradation pathway from the ring opening of naphthalene compounds to the formation of benzene compounds and carboxyl acids. The combined process had been proved effective in both technical and economic aspects.

  11. Retinoic acid treatment enhances lipid oxidation and inhibits lipid biosynthesis capacities in the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, Jaume; Ribot, Joan; Bonet, M Luisa; Palou, Andreu

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin A, mainly as retinoic acid (RA), is known to affect the development and function of adipose tissues. Treatment with RA reduces body weight and adiposity independent of changes in food intake in mice. Lipid metabolism in liver can have a major impact on whole body adiposity. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an in vivo treatment with RA on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice. Adult, standard diet-fed mice were treated with different doses of all-trans RA or vehicle (subcutaneous injection) for 4 days before sacrifice. Food intake and body weight changes during treatment were determined, as well as adiposity, liver composition, levels of circulating metabolites and lipoproteins and expression levels of key mRNA species in liver following sacrifice. RA treatment resulted in reduced body weight and adiposity, as expected. In the liver, RA treatment triggered an increase in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, uncoupling protein 2, liver-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier, and a reduction in the mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase. Consistent with the changes in gene expression, hepatic triacylglycerol content and circulating VLDL fraction were reduced and levels of circulating ketone bodies increased after RA treatment. These results point to a capacity of active vitamin A forms to shift liver lipid metabolism in vivo towards increased catabolism and reduced lipogenesis. These effects might contribute to the reduction of adiposity brought about by RA treatment.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanotube-like titania by sulfuric acid treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shao-gui; QUAN Xie; LI Xin-yong; FANG Ning; ZHANG Ning; ZHAO Hui-min

    2005-01-01

    The TiO2 nanotube sample was prepared via a NaOH solution in a Teflon vessel at 150℃. The as-prepared nanotubes were then treated with H2 SO4 solutions. The TiO2 nanotube has a crystalline structure with open-ended and multiwall morphologies. The TiO2 nanotubes before and after surface acid treatment were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy(SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-VIS dispersive energy spectrophotometry (DRS). The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of acid orange Ⅱ in aqueous solutions. It was found that the order of photocatalytic activity was as follows: TiO2 nanotubes treated with 1.0 mol/L H2 SO4 solution (TiO2(1.0M H2SO4) nanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes treated with 0.2 mol/L H2SO4 solution (TiO2(0.2MH2SO4) nanotubes) > TiO2 nanotubes > TiO2 powder. This was attributed to the fact that TiO2 nanotubes treated with H2 SO4 was composed of smaller particles and had higher specific surface areas. Furthermore, the smaller TiO2 particles were beneficial to the transfer and separation of photo-generated electrons and holes in the inner of and on the surface of TiO2 particles and reduced the recombination of photo-generated electrons and holes. Acid treatment was particularly effective for TiO2 nanotubes, this increase in activity was correlated with the concentration of H2 O4 solution.

  13. Enhanced suppression of tumor growth by concomitant treatment of human lung cancer cells with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and arsenic trioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chia-Wen [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan (China); Yao, Ju-Hsien [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Chang, Shih-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Lee, Pei-Chih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Lee, Te-Chang, E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2011-11-15

    The efficacy of arsenic trioxide (ATO) against acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and relapsed APL has been well documented. ATO may cause DNA damage by generating reactive oxygen intermediates. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, modulates gene and protein expression via histone-dependent or -independent pathways that may result in chromatin decondensation, cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis. We investigated whether ATO and SAHA act synergistically to enhance the death of cancer cells. Our current findings showed that combined treatment with ATO and SAHA resulted in enhanced suppression of non-small-cell lung carcinoma in vitro in H1299 cells and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V+ cells showed that apoptotic cell death was significantly enhanced after combined treatment with ATO and SAHA. At the doses used, ATO did not interfere with cell cycle progression, but SAHA induced p21 expression and led to G1 arrest. A Comet assay demonstrated that ATO, but not SAHA, induced DNA strand breaks in H1299 cells; however, co-treatment with SAHA significantly increased ATO-induced DNA damage. Moreover, SAHA enhanced acetylation of histone H3 and sensitized genomic DNA to DNase I digestion. Our results suggest that SAHA may cause chromatin relaxation and increase cellular susceptibility to ATO-induced DNA damage. Combined administration of SAHA and ATO may be an effective approach to the treatment of lung cancer. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO and SAHA are therapeutic agents with different action modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of ATO and SAHA synergistically inhibits tumor cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SAHA loosens chromatin structure resulting in increased sensitivity to DNase I. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis are enhanced by co-treatment with SAHA.

  14. O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase methylation enhances response to temozolomide treatment in esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Hasina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World-wide, esophageal cancer is a growing epidemic and patients frequently present with advanced disease that is surgically inoperable. Hence, chemotherapy is the predominate treatment. Cytotoxic platinum compounds are mostly used, but their efficacy is only moderate. Newer alkylating agents have shown promise in other tumor types, but little is known about their utility in esophageal cancer. Methods: We utilized archived human esophageal cancer samples and esophageal cancer cell lines to evaluate O-6-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase (MGMT hypermethylation status and determined sensitivity to the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. Immunoblot analysis was performed to determine MGMT protein expression in cell lines. To assess and confirm the effect of TMZ treatment in a methylated esophageal cancer cell line in vivo, a mouse flank xenograft tumor model was utilized. Results: Nearly 71% (12/17 of adenocarcinoma and 38% (3/8 of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC patient samples were MGMT hypermethylated. Out of four adenocarcinoma and nine SCC cell lines tested, one of each histology was hypermethylated. Immunoblot analyses confirmed that hypermethylated cell lines did not express the MGMT protein. In vitro cell viability assays showed the methylated Kyse-140 and FLO cells to be sensitive to TMZ at an IC 50 of 52-420 μM, whereas unmethylated cells Kyse-410 and SKGT-4 did not respond. In an in vivo xenograft tumor model with Kyse-140 cells, which are MGMT hypermethylated, TMZ treatment abrogated tumor growth by more than 60%. Conclusion: MGMT methylation may be an important biomarker in subsets of esophageal cancers and targeting by TMZ may be utilized to successfully treat these patients.

  15. Mesoporous mordenites obtained by sequential acid and alkaline treatments – Catalysts for cumene production with enhanced accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laak, A.N.C.; Sagala, S.L.; Zecevic, J.; Friedrich, H.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    Two commercially available mordenites, obtained from Zeolyst (Si/Al = 10 at/at) and BASF (Si/Al = 8 at/at), were subjected to post-synthesis treatments. The impact of acid treatment, alkaline treatment (desilication) and a combination of both on porosity, crystallinity and catalysis were studied in

  16. Plasma treatment induces internal surface modifications of electrospun poly(L-lactic) acid scaffold to enhance protein coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Seo, Hyok; Hee Lee, Mi; Kwon, Byeong-Ju; Kim, Hye-Lee; Park, Jong-Chul [Cellbiocontrol Laboratory, Department of Medical Engineering, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jin Lee, Seung [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bong-Jin; Wang, Kang-Kyun; Kim, Yong-Rok [Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-21

    Advanced biomaterials should also be bioactive with regard to desirable cellular responses, such as selective protein adsorption and cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. To enhance cell-material interactions, surface modifications have commonly been performed. Among the various surface modification approaches, atmospheric pressure glow discharge plasma has been used to change a hydrophobic polymer surface to a hydrophilic surface. Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)-derived scaffolds lack cell recognition signals and the hydrophobic nature of PLLA hinders cell seeding. To make PLLA surfaces more conducive to cell attachment and spreading, surface modifications may be used to create cell-biomaterial interfaces that elicit controlled cell adhesion and maintain differentiated phenotypes. In this study, (He) gaseous atmospheric plasma glow discharge was used to change the characteristics of a 3D-type polymeric scaffold from hydrophobic to hydrophilic on both the outer and inner surfaces of the scaffold and the penetration efficiency with fibronectin was investigated. Field-emission scanning electron microscope images showed that some grooves were formed on the PLLA fibers after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data also showed chemical changes in the PLLA structure. After plasma treatment, -CN (285.76 eV) was increased in C1s and -NH{sub 2} (399.70 eV) was increased significantly and –N=CH (400.80 eV) and –NH{sub 3}{sup +} (402.05 eV) were newly appeared in N1s. These changes allowed fibronectin to penetrate into the PLLA scaffold; this could be observed by confocal microscopy. In conclusion, helium atmospheric pressure plasma treatment was effective in modifying the polymeric scaffold, making it hydrophilic, and this treatment can also be used in tissue engineering research as needed to make polymers hydrophilic.

  17. Amino acid treatment enhances protein recovery from sediment and soils for metaproteomic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicora, Carrie D.; Anderson, Brian J.; Callister, Stephen J.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Jansson, Janet K.; Mason, Olivia U.; David, Maude; Jurelevicius, Diogo D.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.

    2013-10-01

    Characterization of geomicrobial protein expression provides information necessary to better understand the unique biological pathways that occur within soil microbial communities and the role they play in regulating atmospheric CO2 levels and the Earth’s climate. A significant challenge in studying soil microbial proteins is their initial dissociation from the complex mixture of particles found in natural soil. Due to bias of the most robust cells, the removal of intact bacterial cells limits the characterization of the complete representation of a microbial community. However, in-situ lysis of bacterial cells leads to the expulsion of proteins to the soil surface, which can lead to potentially high levels of adsorption due to the physicochemical properties of both the protein and the soil. We investigated various compounds for their ability to block protein adsorption soil sites prior to in-situ lysis of bacterial cells, as well as their compatibility with both tryptic digestion and mass spectrometric analysis. The treatments were tested by adding lysed Escherichia coli proteins to representative treated and untreated soil samples. The results show that it is possible to significantly increase protein identifications through blockage of binding sites on a variety of soil textures; use of an optimized desorption buffer further increases the number of identifications.

  18. Enhanced conductivity of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film by acid treatment for indium tin oxide-free organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chiao; Huang, Chih-Kuo; Hung, Yu-Chieh; Chang, Mei-Ying

    2016-08-01

    An acid treatment is used in the enhancement of the conductivity of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin film, which is often used as the anode in organic solar cells. There are three types of acid treatment for PEDOT:PSS thin film: hydrochloric, sulfuric, and phosphoric acid treatments. In this study, we examine and compare these three ways with each other for differences in conductivity. Hydrochloric acid results in the highest conductivity enhancement, from 0.3 to 1109 S/cm. We also discuss the optical transmittance, conductivity, surface roughness, surface morphology, and stability, as well as the factors that can influence device efficiency. The devices are fabricated using an acid-treated PEDOT:PSS thin film as the anode. The highest power conversion efficiency was 1.32%, which is a large improvement over that of the unmodified organic solar cell (0.21%). It is comparable to that obtained when using indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode, ca. 1.46%.

  19. All-trans retinoic acid enhances bystander effect of suicide gene therapy in the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Heng; Liu, Xia; Yang, Liucheng; Qi, Ke; Zhang, Haoyun; Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Zonghai; Wang, Hongxian

    2016-03-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been shown to enhance the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) and the bystander effect (BSE) in suicide gene therapy. These in turn improve effects of suicide gene therapies for several tumor types. However, whether ATRA can improve BSE remains unclear in suicide gene therapy for breast cancer. In the present study, MCF-7, human breast cancer cells were treated with ATRA in combination with a VEGFP-TK/CD gene suicide system developed by our group. We found that this combination enhances the efficiency of cell killing and apoptosis of breast cancer by strengthening the BSE in vitro. ATRA also promotes gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in MCF-7 cells by upregulation of the connexin 43 mRNA and protein in MCF-7 cells. These results indicate that enhancement of GJIC by ATRA in suicide gene system might serve as an attractive and cost-effective strategy of therapy for breast cancer cells.

  20. Enhancing methane production from waste activated sludge using combined free nitrous acid and heat pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Jiang, Guangming; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-15

    Methane production from anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is often limited by the slow degradation and poor substrate availability of WAS. Our previous study revealed that WAS pre-treatment using free nitrous acid (FNA, i.e. HNO2) is an economically feasible and environmentally friendly method for promoting methane production. In order to further improve methane production from WAS, this study presents a novel strategy based on combined FNA and heat pre-treatment. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated for 24 h with FNA alone (0.52-1.43 mg N/L at 25 °C), heat alone (35, 55 and 70 °C), and FNA (0.52-1.11 mg N/L) combined with heat (35, 55 and 70 °C). The pre-treated WAS was then used for biochemical methane potential tests. Compared to the control (no FNA or heat pre-treatment of WAS), biochemical methane potential of the pre-treated WAS was increased by 12-16%, 0-6%, 17-26%, respectively; hydrolysis rate was improved by 15-25%, 10-25%, 20-25%, respectively, for the three types of pre-treatment. Heat pre-treatment at 55 and 70 °C, independent of the presence or absence of FNA, achieved approximately 4.5 log inactivation of pathogens (in comparison to ∼1 log inactivation with FNA treatment alone), thus capable of producing Class A biosolids. The combined FNA and heat pre-treatment is an economically and environmentally attractive technology for the pre-treatment of WAS prior to anaerobic digestion, particularly considering that both FNA and heat can be produced as by-products of anaerobic sludge digestion.

  1. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10-80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59-83%, compared to 13-23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  2. Sec61alpha synthesis is enhanced during translocation of nascent chains of collagen type IV in F9 teratocarcinoma cells after retinoic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nascent procollagen peptides and other secretory proteins are transported across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through a protein-conducting channel called translocon. Sec61alpha, a multispanning membrane translocon protein, has been implicated as being essential for translocation of polypeptide chains into the cisterns of the ER. Sec61alpha forms a protein complex with collagen and Hsp47, an ER-resident heat shock protein that binds specifically to collagen. However, it is not known whether Sec61alpha is ubiquitously produced in collagen-producing F9 teratocarcinoma cells or under heat shock treatment. Furthermore, the production and utilization of Sec61alpha may depend on the stage of cell differentiation. Cultured F9 teratocarcinoma cells are capable of differentiation in response to low concentrations of retinoic acid. This differentiation results in loss of tumorigenicity. Mouse F9 cells were grown in culture medium at 37ºC and 43ºC (heat shock treatment treated or not with retinoic acid, and labeled in certain instances with 35S-methionine. Membrane-bound polysomes of procollagen IV were then isolated. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were performed using polyclonal antibodies against collagen IV, Hsp47 and Sec61alpha. Under retinoic acid-untreated conditions, F9 cells produced undetectable amounts of Sec61alpha. Sec61alpha, Hsp47 and type IV collagen levels were increased after retinoic acid treatment. Heat shock treatment did not alter Sec61alpha levels, suggesting that Sec61alpha production is probably not affected by heat shock. These data indicate that the enhanced production of Sec61alpha in retinoic acid-induced F9 teratocarcinoma cells parallels the increased synthesis of Hsp47 and collagen type IV.

  3. Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors functional regulation during enhanced liver cell proliferation by GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilpa, Joy; Pretty, Mary Abraham; Anitha, Malat; Paulose, Cheramadathikudyil Skaria

    2013-09-05

    Liver is one of the major organs in vertebrates and hepatocytes are damaged by many factors. The liver cell maintenance and multiplication after injury and treatment gained immense interest. The present study investigated the role of Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) coupled with chitosan nanoparticles in the functional regulation of Gamma aminobutyric acid B and 5-hydroxy tryptamine 2A receptors mediated cell signaling mechanisms, extend of DNA methylation and superoxide dismutase activity during enhanced liver cell proliferation. Liver injury was achieved by partial hepatectomy of male Wistar rats and the GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticles treatments were given intraperitoneally. The experimental groups were sham operated control (C), partially hepatectomised rats with no treatment (PHNT), partially hepatectomised rats with GABA chitosan nanoparticle (GCNP), 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (SCNP) and a combination of GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle (GSCNP) treatments. In GABA and 5-HT chitosan nanoparticle treated group there was a significant decrease (Pchitosan nanoparticles induced liver cell proliferation which has therapeutic significance in liver disease management.

  4. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: enhanced removal of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupaie, E Hosseini; Moghaddam, M R Alavi; Hashemi, S H

    2011-11-15

    The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  5. Enhancement of colposcopic image by sulphosalicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khilnani P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid is used conventionally for enhancement of the colposcopic image. We used sulphosalicylic acid instead of acetic acid in 50 normal cases. The normal appearance was enhanced in all cases. The image was also enhanced in 70% cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 90% cases of cervical condyloma accuminata. The image was not inferior to that with acetic acid in any of the cases.

  6. Post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 using aerobic moving bed biofilm process: Enhanced removal of aromatic amines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Koupaie, E., E-mail: ehssan.hosseini.k@gmail.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alavi Moghaddam, M.R., E-mail: alavim@yahoo.com [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT), Hafez Ave., Tehran 15875-4413 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.H., E-mail: h_hashemi@sbu.ac.ir [Environmental Science Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Biofilm process was applied as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded an azo dye. {yields} More than 65% of the dye total metabolites was completely mineralized. {yields} Based on HPLC analysis, more than 80% of 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was removed. {yields} Inhibition of biofilm growth was increased with increasing the initial dye concentration. {yields} Considerable porous morphology was observed in the SEM photographs of the biofilm. - Abstract: The application of aerobic moving bed biofilm process as post-treatment of anaerobically degraded azo dye Acid Red 18 was investigated in this study. The main objective of this work was to enhance removal of anaerobically formed the dye aromatic metabolites. Three separate sequential treatment systems were operated with different initial dye concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 mg/L. Each treatment system consisted of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (An-SBR) followed by an aerobic moving bed sequencing batch biofilm reactor (MB-SBBR). Up to 98% of the dye decolorization and more than 80% of the COD removal occurred anaerobically. The obtained results suggested no significant difference in COD removal as well as the dye decolorization efficiency using three An-SBRs receiving different initial dye concentrations. Monitoring the dye metabolites through HPLC suggested that more than 80% of anaerobically formed 1-naphthylamine-4-sulfonate was completely removed in the aerobic biofilm reactors. Based on COD analysis results, at least 65-72% of the dye total metabolites were mineralized during the applied treatment systems. According to the measured biofilm mass and also based on respiration-inhibition test results, increasing the initial dye concentration inhibited the growth and final mass of the attached-growth biofilm in MB-SBBRs.

  7. Elimination of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid by photo-Fenton process and enhanced treatment by coupling with electro-Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocos, Elvira; Oturan, Nihal; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, M Ángeles; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-10-01

    The removal of radiocontrast agent diatrizoic acid (DIA) from water was performed using photo-Fenton (PF) process. First, the effect of H2O2 dosage on mineralization efficiency was determined using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The system reached a maximum mineralization degree of 60 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal at 4 h with 20 mM initial H2O2 concentration while further concentration values led to a decrease in TOC abatement efficiency. Then, the effect of different concentrations of Fenton's reagents was studied for homogeneous Fenton process. Obtained results revealed that 0.25 mM Fe(3+) and 20 mM H2O2 were the best conditions, achieving 80 % TOC removal efficiency at 4 h treatment. Furthermore, heterogeneous PF treatment was developed using iron-activated carbon as catalyst. It was demonstrated that this catalyst is a promising option, reaching 67 % of TOC removal within 4 h treatment without formation of iron leachate in the medium. In addition, two strategies of enhancement for process efficiency are proposed: coupling of PF with electro-Fenton (EF) process in two ways: photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) or PF followed by EF (PF-EF) treatments, achieving in both cases the complete mineralization of DIA solution within only 2 h. Finally, the Microtox tests revealed the formation of more toxic compounds than the initial DIA during PF process, while, it was possible to reach total mineralization by both proposed alternatives (PEF or PF-EF) and thus to remove the toxicity of DIA solution.

  8. Treatment of wastewater containing nickel ions by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration with copolymer of acrylic acid-maleic acid%丙烯酸-马来酸共聚物强化超滤处理含镍废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郜国英; 韦玉青; 邱运仁

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of wastewater containing nickel ions by polymer enhanced ultrafiltration was studied using copolymer of acrylic acid-maleic acid (PMA-100) as complexing agent. Effects of mass ratio of polymer to metal (mp/Mm). Ph, salt concentration, transmembrane pressure and time on the retention of nickel ions were investigated. The results show that the retention of nickel ions depends strongly on Ph and increases with the increase of Ph in the range from 3 to 7 at a certain mp//Nm, and increases with the Mp/Mm at a certain Ph. The retention can arrive at over 99% at Ph=6.0 and Mp/Mm =7. The retention of nickel ions decreases slightly with the addition of sodium chloride or sodium sulfate.%以丙烯酸-马来酸共聚物(PMA-100)为络合剂,研究聚合物络合金属离子的强化超滤处理含镍废水,研究聚合物与金属离子质量比(mp/mM)、溶液pH、盐浓度、操作压力、运行时间等对镍离子截留率的影响.研究结果表明:溶液pH对金属离子截留率影响很大,在一定mp/mM下,pH在3~7的范围内,适当提高溶液pH有利于镍离子的截留;在一定pH下,镍离子的截留率R随mp/mM的增加而增加;溶液pH=6.0,mp/mM=7时,镍离子的截留率可达到99%以上;NaCl和Na2SO4的存在使镍离子的截留率有所降低.

  9. Enhanced acid tolerance of Rhizopus oryzae during fumaric acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lv, Chunwei; Xu, Qing; Li, Shuang; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH in the culture broth is a major problem in microorganism-assisted industrial fermentation of organic acids. To address this issue, we investigated the physiological changes in Rhizopus oryzae at different extracellular pH levels and attempted to solve the issue of cell shortage under low pH conditions. We compared various parameters, such as membrane fatty acids' composition, intracellular pH, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It was found that the shortage of intracellular ATP might be the main reason for the low rate of fumaric acid production by R. oryzae under low pH conditions. When 1 g/l citrate was added to the culture medium at pH 3.0, the intracellular ATP concentration increased from 0.4 to 0.7 µmol/mg, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 63% compared with the control (pH 3.0 without citrate addition). The final fumaric acid concentration at pH 3.0 reached 21.9 g/l after 96 h of fermentation. This strategy is simple and feasible for industrial fumaric acid production under low pH conditions.

  10. Enhanced coagulation-photocatalytic treatment of Acid red 73 dye and real textile wastewater using UVA/synthesized MgO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorfi, Sahand; Barzegar, Gelavizh; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Darvishi Cheshmeh Soltani, Reza; Alah Jafarzadeh Haghighifard, Nemat; Takdastan, Afshin; Saeedi, Reza; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2016-07-15

    Sequencing coagulation - photocatalytic degradation using UVA/MgO nanoparticles process was investigated for Acid red 73dye removal and then treatment of a real textile wastewater. Effective operational parameters including pH and coagulant and photocatalyst dosage were studied in synthetic wastewater and then the process was applied for real wastewater. Both coagulation and photocatalytic processes were pH dependent. At coagulant dosage of 200 mg/L and initial pH of 6, the dye concentration decreased from 200 to 31 mg/L. Complete removal of AR73 was observed with MgO nanoparticles of 0.8 g/L, initial pH of 5 and reaction time of 60 min. Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was well fitted with removal results (R(2): 0.939-0.988 for different initial dye concentration). In the case of real textile wastewater, the sequence coagulation-UVA/MgO nanoparticles photocatalytic degradation yielded considerable total COD and TOC removal 98.3% and 86.9%respectively, after 300 min.

  11. Enhancing Biological Wastewater Treatment with Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亮; 陈东辉; 朱珺

    2003-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan have been applied to biological wastewater treatment.From a number of parallel comparison experiments,it can be concluded that the application of chitin and chitosan can both enhance the biological treatment,besides which chitosan is more efficient than chitin.The study on the enhancement mechanism reveals the difference between the two additives:chitosan improves the sludge structure and settlibility,while chitin acts as a kind of carrier for microorganism in the biological treatment system.

  12. Magnetic Separator Enhances Treatment Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Since the earliest missions in space, NASA specialists have performed experiments in low gravity. Protein crystal growth, cell and tissue cultures, and separation technologies such as electrophoresis and magnetophoresis have been studied on Apollo 14, Apollo 16, STS-107, and many other missions. Electrophoresis and magnetophoresis, respectively, are processes that separate substances based on the electrical charge and magnetic field of a molecule or particle. Electrophoresis has been studied on over a dozen space shuttle flights, leading to developments in electrokinetics, which analyzes the effects of electric fields on mass transport (atoms, molecules, and particles) in fluids. Further studies in microgravity will continue to improve these techniques, which researchers use to extract cells for various medical treatments and research.

  13. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  14. Study of Valproic Acid-Enhanced Hepatocyte Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renin Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is one of the most widely used antiepilepsy drugs. However, several side effects, including weight gain and fatty liver, have been reported in patients following VPA treatment. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanisms of VPA-induced hepatic steatosis using FL83B cell line-based in vitro model. Using fluorescent lipid staining technique, we found that VPA enhanced oleic acid- (OLA- induced lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes; this may be due to upregulated lipid uptake, triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis, and lipid droplet formation. Real-time PCR results showed that, following VPA treatment, the expression levels of genes encoding cluster of differentiation 36 (Cd36, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (Lrp1, diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (Dgat2, and perilipin 2 (Plin2 were increased, that of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I a (Cpt1a was not affected, and those of acetyl-Co A carboxylase α (Acca and fatty acid synthase (Fasn were decreased. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analyses, we found that VPA also induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ nuclear translocation and increased levels of cell-surface CD36. Based on these results, we propose that VPA may enhance OLA-induced hepatocyte steatosis through the upregulation of PPARγ- and CD36-dependent lipid uptake, TAG synthesis, and lipid droplet formation.

  15. Effect of Enhancing Urea-Humic Acid Mixture with Refined Acid Sulphate Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd T.M. Yusuff

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acid Sulphate Soil (ASS is a problem soil partly because of its high acidity. This low pH could be exploited to reduce ammonia loss from urea by reducing soil microsite pH. The use Humic Acid (HA to control ammonia loss from urea has been reported but the cost of this material is high. This laboratory study compared the effect of enhancing urea-humic acid mixtures with acid sulphate soil on NH3 loss, pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate contents. Approach: Humic acid, acid sulfate soil and soil used in the incubation study were analyzed for selected soil physical-chemical properties using standard procedures. Urea-HA-ASS mixtures were prepared and ammonia volatilization of the mixtures was evaluated by the closed-dynamic air flow system. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Standard procedures were used to determine ammonia loss, soil pH, exchangeable ammonium and available nitrate at 22 days of incubation. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's test using Statistical Analysis System (SAS version 9.2. Results: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS significantly reduced ammonia volatilization. Although the use of appropriate amount of acid sulphate soil to control ammonia loss is possible, excessive use of this material is not recommended because of Fe in it. Conclusion: Urea amended with 0.75 g ASS reduced ammonia.

  16. Exploring unsaturated fatty acid cholesteryl esters as transdermal permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambharose, Sanjeev; Kalhapure, Rahul S; Jadhav, Mahantesh; Govender, Thirumala

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic protective barrier property of skin, one of the major challenges in the design of transdermal drug delivery systems, can be overcome through the use of chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs). Herein, we explore the potential of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) esters of cholesterol (Chol) viz., oleate, linoleate and linolenate, as transdermal CPEs using tenofovir (TNF) as a model drug. All Chol UFA esters at 1% w/w were found to be more effective enhancers when compared to their respective parent fatty acids (FAs) and saturated FA counterparts. Cholesteryl linolenate (Chol-LLA) showed the most superior performance (enhancement ratio (ER) = 3.71). The greatest ER for Chol-LLA (5.93) was achieved at a concentration of 2% w/w. The histomorphological and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) evaluations supported the results of the permeability studies. These findings showed no significant loss in the integrity of the epidermis, with drug and enhancer treatment having temporary effects on the barrier property of the epidermis. Chol UFA esters can therefore be considered as new CPEs for exploitation in topical formulations for various classes of drugs.

  17. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty acids: importance of fatty acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Robinson, B S; Jaeger, T; Poulos, A

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, significantly enhanced neutrophil antiparasitic activity. This effect was >1.5-fold higher than that induced by an optical concentration of the known agonist cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At suboptimal concentrations, the combination of arachidonic acid and TNF-alpha caused a synergistic increase in neutrophil-mediated parasite killing. The fatty acid-induced effect was independent of the availability of serum opsonins but dependent on the structure of the fatty acids. The length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and availability of a free carboxyl group were important determinants of fatty acid activity. The fatty acids which increased neutrophil-mediated killing primed the enhanced superoxide radical generation of neutrophils in response to P. falciparum as detected by chemiluminescence. Scavengers of oxygen radicals significantly reduced the fatty acid-enhanced parasite killing, but cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. These findings have identified a new class of immunoenhancers that could be exploited to increase resistance against Plasmodium species.

  18. Model application for acid mine drainage treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantaporn Noosai, Vineeth Vijayan, Khokiat Kengskool

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utilization of the geochemical model, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical treatment system for Acid Mine Drainage (AMD prior to the discharge. The selected treatment system consists of treatment processes commonly used for AMD including settling pond, vertical flow pond (VFP and caustic soda pond were considered in this study. The use of geochemical model for the treatment process analysis enhances the understanding of the changes in AMD’s chemistry (precipitation, reduction of metals, etc. in each process, thus, the chemical requirements (i.e., CaCO3 and NaOH for the system and the system’s treatment efficiency can be determined. The selected treatment system showed that the final effluent meet the discharge standard. The utilization of geochemical model to investigate AMD treatment processes can assist in the process design.

  19. Salicylic acid enhances Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adhesin protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lucía P; Barbagelata, María S; Cheung, Ambrose L; Sordelli, Daniel O; Buzzola, Fernanda R

    2011-11-01

    One of the virulence factors required by Staphylococcus aureus at the early stages of infection is Eap, a secreted adhesin that binds many host proteins and is upregulated by the two-component regulatory system saeRS. The S. aureus Newman strain harbors a mutation in saeS that is thought to be responsible for the high level of Eap expression in this strain. This study was designed to ascertain whether salicylic acid (SAL) affects the expression of Eap and the internalization of S. aureus into epithelial cells. The strain Newman treated with SAL exhibited increased levels of eap transcription and protein expression. Furthermore, SAL treatment increased the eap promoter activity. SAL treatment enhanced Eap expression in the Newman and in other S. aureus strains that do not carry the mutation in saeS. Internalization of S. aureus eap and sae mutants into the MAC-T epithelial cells was significantly decreased compared with the wild-type counterparts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a low concentration of SAL increased S. aureus Eap expression possibly due to enhancement of sae. SAL may create the conditions for S. aureus persistence in the host, not only by decreasing the capsular polysaccharide expression as shown before, but also by enhancing Eap expression.

  20. Transcutaneous delivery of levodopa: enhancement by fatty acid synthesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babita, Kumar; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation aimed at evaluating the role of fatty acid synthesis inhibition in enhancing transcutaneous delivery of levodopa (LD). Rat epidermis was treated with ethanol and various doses of cerulenin (an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase enzyme system) for reducing the normal level of fatty acids. Calcium chloride (0.1 mM) and/or verapamil (1 microM) were coapplied to cerulenin treated skin in order to modulate duration of epidermal perturbation. These treated skin portions were used for estimation of altered triglyceride content (an indicator of fatty acid synthesis), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, and in vitro permeation of LD. Plasma concentration of LD was monitored in rats following topical application of various transdermal formulations. Application of cerulenin (0.1 or 0.15 mM/7 cm(2)) to viable rat skin inhibited approximately 60% triglyceride synthesis with respect to control at 2 h. Coapplication of calcium chloride (0.1 mM) significantly increased this inhibition, whereas verapamil application reduced this effect. The decrease in triglyceride content reduced the enthalpy of the lipid endothermic transition. The in vitro permeation of LD was enhanced 3-fold across skin excised after treatment with cerulenin. LD did not permeate across normal skin. The effective plasma concentration (C(eff)) of LD was achieved within 3 h and maintained till 10 h by a single topical application of a carbidopa-levodopa combination (1:4) to ethanol-perturbed cerulenin-treated skin. Coapplication of calcium chloride reduced the time lag to achieve C(eff) to 2 h and maintained it till 24 h. A single transdermal LD (64 mg) patch formulated with calcium chloride (0.1 mM) and cerulenin (0.1 mM) dissolved in a propylene glycol:ethanol (7:3) mixture seems to offer a noninvasive approach for transcutaneous delivery of levodopa.

  1. Enhanced corrosion resistance of phytic acid coated magnesium by stearic acid treatment%硬脂酸处理提高植酸包覆镁的耐腐蚀性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.GUPTA; K.MENSAH-DARKWA; J.SANKAR; D.KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    将镁浸泡在植酸溶液中,在其表面形成一层化学转化膜.然后再将其浸泡在硬脂酸溶液中以改善植酸转化膜的显微组织和抗腐蚀性能.经过硬脂酸溶液浸泡处理后,转化膜未出现裂纹,试样表面变得光滑.采用电化学方法研究其腐蚀行为.结果表明,经硬脂酸溶液浸泡处理的试样比未经浸泡处理的和没有转化膜的试样具有更高的耐腐蚀性能.因此,硬脂酸溶液处理能够增强镁的耐腐蚀性能.%A green chemical conversion coating for magnesium was obtained with a phytic acid solution.The microstructure and corrosion properties of phytic acid conversion coated magnesium were further improved by soaking in stearic acid solution.The phytic acid conversion coated magnesium after soaking in the stearic acid showed no micro-cracks and the surface became very smooth.The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated magnesium samples was studied by electrochemical methods.The corrosion resistance of the stearic acid treated sample was much higher than that of phytic acid conversion coated magnesium or uncoated magnesium.The electrochemical results indicated that the stearic acid treated coating provided effective corrosion protection to the magnesium sample.

  2. DICOR surface treatments for enhanced bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, L F; Bennett, R J

    1988-06-01

    Treatments for preparing castable ceramic surfaces for enhanced bonding to specially formulated resin-based cements were examined. An ammonium bifluoride etch combined with gamma-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane produced shear bond strengths higher than when an ammonium bifluoride treatment was used alone. The method of curing the silane was highly significant in the contribution to the cement/substrate bond strength, with the heat-cure producing the highest values. Long-term water storage tests indicated that the cement bond with etch plus silane-treated castable ceramic surfaces (whether heat or chemically cured silane was used) demonstrated no significant decrease in strength after a one-year period.

  3. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation.

  4. Enhanced high temperature thermoelectric response of sulphuric acid treated conducting polymer thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Sarath Kumar, S. R.

    2015-11-24

    We report the high temperature thermoelectric properties of solution processed pristine and sulphuric acid treated poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (or PEDOT:PSS) films. The acid treatment is shown to simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the metal-like films, resulting in a five-fold increase in thermoelectric power factor (0.052 W/m. K ) at 460 K, compared to the pristine film. By using atomic force micrographs, Raman and impedance spectra and using a series heterogeneous model for electrical conductivity, we demonstrate that acid treatment results in the removal of PSS from the films, leading to the quenching of accumulated charge-induced energy barriers that prevent hopping conduction. The continuous removal of PSS with duration of acid treatment also alters the local band structure of PEDOT:PSS, resulting in simultaneous enhancement in Seebeck coefficient.

  5. Enhanced Eryptosis Following Exposure to Carnosic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Stockinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The phenolic abietane diterpene component of rosemary and sage, carnosic acid, may either induce or inhibit apoptosis of nucleated cells. The mechanisms involved in the effects of carnosic acid include altered mitochondrial function and gene expression. Human erythrocytes lack mitochondria and nuclei but are nevertheless able to enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Cellular mechanisms involved in the stimulation of eryptosis include oxidative stress, increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, and ceramide formation. The present study explored, whether and how carnosic acid induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ROS formation from DCFDA dependent fluorescence and ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to carnosic acid significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (2.5 µg/ml, significantly decreased forward scatter (10 µg/ml, significantly increased Fluo3 fluorescence (10 µg/ml, significantly increased ceramide abundance (10 µg/ml, significantly increased hemolysis (10 µg/ml, but significantly decreased DCFDA fluorescence (10 µg/ml. The effect of carnosic acid on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished by removal of extracellular Ca2+. Conclusion: Carnosic acid triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the human erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect paralleled by and/or in part due to Ca2+ entry and increased ceramide abundance.

  6. Enhanced Acid/Base Catalysis in High Temperature Liquid Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Yang LU; Qi JING; Zhun LI; Lei YUAN; Fei GAO; Xin LIU

    2006-01-01

    Two novel and environmentally benign solvent systems, organic acids-enriched high temperature liquid water (HTLW) and NH3-enriched HTLW, were developed, which can enhance the reaction rate of acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW. We investigated the decomposition of fructose in organic acids-enriched HTLW, hydrolysis of cinnamaldehyde and aldol condensation of phenylaldehyde with acetaldehyde in NH3-enriched HTLW. The experimental results demonstrated that organic acids-enriched or NH3-enriched HTLW can greatly accelerate acid/base-catalyzed organic reactions in HTLW.

  7. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  8. Enhanced biomethanation of kitchen waste by different pre-treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Duong, Thu Hang; Smits, Marianne; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Five different pre-treatments were investigated to enhance the solubilisation and anaerobic biodegradability of kitchen waste (KW) in thermophilic batch and continuous tests. In the batch solubilisation tests, the highest and the lowest solubilisation efficiency were achieved with the thermo-acid and the pressure-depressure pre-treatments, respectively. However, in the batch biodegradability tests, the highest cumulative biogas production was obtained with the pressure-depressure method. In the continuous tests, the best performance in terms of an acceptable biogas production efficiency of 60% and stable in-reactor CODs and VFA concentrations corresponded to the pressure-depressure reactor, followed by freeze-thaw, acid, thermo-acid, thermo and control. The maximum OLR (5 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) applied in the pressure-depressure and freeze-thaw reactors almost doubled the control reactor. From the overall analysis, the freeze-thaw pre-treatment was the most profitable process with a net potential profit of around 11.5 € ton(-1) KW.

  9. Abscisic acid enhances resistance to Alternaria solani in tomato seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiwei; Ma, Xinrong; Tan, Hong; Zhou, Jinyan

    2011-07-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important regulator in many aspects of plant growth and development, as well as stress resistance. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous ABA application on the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) and Alternaria solani (early blight). Foliar spraying of 7.58 μM ABA was effective in reducing disease severity in tomato plants. Previously, increased activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were observed in exogenous ABA-treated tomato leaves. Moreover, these enzyme activities were maintained at higher levels in ABA-pretreated and A. solani challenged tomato plants. Tomato defense genes, such as PR1, β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU), PPO, POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were rapidly and significantly up-regulated by exogenous ABA treatment. Furthermore, a subsequent challenge of ABA-pretreated plants with the pathogen A. solani resulted in higher expression of defense genes, compared to water-treated or A. solani inoculated plants. Therefore, our results suggest that exogenous ABA could enhance disease resistance against A. solani infection in tomato through the activation of defense genes and via the enhancement of defense-related enzymatic activities.

  10. Nanopharmaceutical Approach for Enhanced Anti-cancer Activity of Betulinic Acid in Lung-cancer Treatment via Activation of PARP: Interaction with DNA as a Target -Anti-cancer Potential of Nano-betulinic Acid in Lung Cancer-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayeeta Das

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the relative efficacies of a derivative of betulinic acid (dBA and its poly (lactide- co-glycolide (PLGA nano-encapsulated form in A549 lung cancer cells in vivo and in co-mutagen [sodium arsenite (SA + benzo]undefined[a]pyrene (BaP]-induced lung cancer in mice in vivo. Methods: dBA was loaded with PLGA nanoparticles by using the standard solvent displacement method. The sizes and morphologies of nano-dBA (NdBA were determined by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and their intracellular localization was verified by using confocal microscopy. The binding and interaction of NdBA with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (CT-DNA as a target were analyzed by using conventional circular dichroism (CD and melting temperature (Tm profile data. Apoptotic signalling cascades in vitro and in vivo were studied by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; the ability of NdBA to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB was also examined. The stage of cell cycle arrest was confirmed by using a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS data analysis. Results: The average size of the nanoparticles was ~ 110 nm. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the presence of NdBA in the cellular cytoplasm. The bio-physical properties of dBA and NdBA ascertained from the CD and the Tm profiles revealed that NdBA had greater interaction with the target DNA than dBA did. Both dBA and NdBA arrested cell proliferation at G0/G1, NdBA showing the greater effect. NdBA also induced a greater degree of cytotoxicity in A549 cells, but it had an insignificant cytotoxic effect in normal L6 cells. The results of flow cytometric, cytogenetial and histopathological studies in mice revealed that NdBA caused less nuclear condensation and DNA damage than dBA did. TEM images showed the presence of NdBA in brain samples of NdBA fed mice, indicating its ability to cross the BBB. Conclusion: Thus, compared to dBA, NdBA appears to have greater

  11. Removal of coagulant aluminum from water treatment residuals by acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Sugimoto, Mayo; Saka, Naoyuki; Nakai, Satoshi; Tanabe, Kazuyasu; Ito, Junki; Takenaka, Kenji; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2014-09-01

    Sediment sludge during coagulation and sedimentation in drinking water treatment is called "water treatment residuals (WTR)". Polyaluminum chloride (PAC) is mainly used as a coagulant in Japan. The recycling of WTR has been desired; one method for its reuse is as plowed soil. However, WTR reuse in this way is inhibited by the aluminum from the added PAC, because of its high adsorption capacity for phosphate and other fertilizer components. The removal of such aluminum from WTR would therefore be advantageous for its reuse as plowed soil; this research clarified the effect of acid washing on aluminum removal from WTR and on plant growth in the treated soil. The percentage of aluminum removal from raw WTR by sulphuric acid solution was around 90% at pH 3, the percentage decreasing to 40% in the case of a sun-dried sample. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity was decreased and the available phosphorus was increased by acid washing, with 90% of aluminum removal. The enhancement of Japanese mustard spinach growth and the increased in plant uptake of phosphates following acid washing were observed.

  12. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  13. Metabolic engineering as a tool for enhanced lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Bikram P; DeVeaux, Linda C; Christopher, Lew P

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic engineering is a powerful biotechnological tool that finds, among others, increased use in constructing microbial strains for higher lactic acid productivity, lower costs and reduced pollution. Engineering the metabolic pathways has concentrated on improving the lactic acid fermentation parameters, enhancing the acid tolerance of production organisms and their abilities to utilize a broad range of substrates, including fermentable biomass-derived sugars. Recent efforts have focused on metabolic engineering of lactic acid bacteria as they produce high yields and have a small genome size that facilitates their genetic manipulation. We summarize here the current trends in metabolic engineering techniques and strategies for manipulating lactic acid producing organisms developed to address and overcome major challenges in the lactic acid production process.

  14. Extracorporeal treatment for valproic acid poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Laliberté, Martin; Nolin, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup presents its systematic review and clinical recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. METHODS: The lead authors reviewed all of the articles from a systematic literature....... Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed in person. A second vote was conducted to determine the final workgroup recommendations. RESULTS: The latest literature search conducted in November 2014 retrieved a total of 79 articles for final qualitative analysis, including one observational study......); suggestions for ECTR include a VPA concentration > 900 mg/L (6250 μmol/L)(2D), coma or respiratory depression requiring mechanical ventilation (2D), acute hyperammonemia (2D), or pH ≤ 7.10 (2D). Cessation of ECTR is indicated when clinical improvement is apparent (1D) or the serum VPA concentration is between...

  15. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-01-01

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression. PMID:21964384

  16. Clavulanic acid increases dopamine release in neuronal cells through a mechanism involving enhanced vesicle trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Gina Chun; Selvaraj, Senthil; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Deog Joong; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Singh, Brij B

    2011-10-24

    Clavulanic acid is a CNS-modulating compound with exceptional blood-brain barrier permeability and safety profile. Clavulanic acid has been proposed to have anti-depressant activity and is currently entering Phase IIb clinical trials for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown that clavulanic acid suppresses anxiety and enhances sexual functions in rodent and primate models by a mechanism involving central nervous system (CNS) modulation, although its detailed mechanism of action has yet to be elucidated. To further examine its potential as a CNS modulating agent as well as its mechanism of action, we investigated the effects of clavulanic acid in neuronal cells. Our results indicate that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in PC12 and SH-SY5Y cells without affecting dopamine synthesis. Furthermore, using affinity chromatography we were able to identify two proteins, Munc18-1 and Rab4 that potentially bind to clavulanic acid and play a critical role in neurosecretion and the vesicle trafficking process. Consistent with this result, an increase in the translocation of Munc18-1 and Rab4 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane was observed in clavulanic acid treated cells. Overall, these data suggest that clavulanic acid enhances dopamine release in a mechanism involving Munc18-1 and Rab4 modulation and warrants further investigation of its therapeutic use in CNS disorders, such as depression.

  17. Gibberellic Acid enhancement of DNA turnover in barley aleurone cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiz, L; Starks, J E

    1977-08-01

    When imbibed, deembryonated halfseeds from barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var. Himalaya) are incubated in buffer, the DNA content of the aleurone layer increases 25 to 40% over a 24-hour period. In contrast, the DNA of isolated aleurone layers declines by 20% over the same time period. Gibberellic acid (GA) causes a reduction in DNA levels in both halfseed aleurone layers and isolated aleurone layers. GA also increases the specific radioactivity of [(3)H]thymidine-labeled halfseed aleurone layer DNA during the first 12 hours of treatment. Pulse-chase studies demonstrated that the newly synthesized DNA is metabolically labile.The buoyant density on CsCl density gradients of hormone-treated aleurone DNA is identical with that of DNA extracted from whole seedlings. After density-labeling halfseed DNA with 5-bromodeoxyuridine, a bimodal absorption profile is obtained in neutral CsCl. The light band (1.70 g/ml) corresponds to unsubstituted DNA, while the heavy band (1.725-1.74 g/ml) corresponds to a hybrid density-labeled species. GA increases the relative amount of the heavy (hybrid) peak in halfseed aleurone layer DNA, further suggesting that the hormone enhances semiconservative replication in halfseeds.DNA methylation was also demonstrated. Over 60% of the radioactivity from [(3)H-Me]methionine is incorporated into 5-methylcytosine. GA has no effect on the percentage distribution of label among the bases.It was concluded that GA enhances the rate of DNA degradation and DNA synthesis (turnover) in halfseeds, but primarily DNA degradation in isolated aleurone layers. Incorporation by isolated aleurone layers is due to DNA repair. Semiconservative replication apparently plays no physiological role in the hormone response, since both isolated aleurone layers and gamma-irradiated halfseeds respond normally. The hypothesis was advanced that endoreduplication and DNA degradation are means by which the seed stores and mobilizes deoxyribonucleotides for the embryo during

  18. Acid tolerance response (ATR) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoqin; Xia, Yan; Yan, Qun; Shen, Wei; Zhao, Mingxing

    2014-03-01

    Enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by PLFAs, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. It was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4mL/gVS after cascade acid stress. In addition, the Gram negative (G(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the Gram positive (G(+)) bacteria, regardless of the dominance of G(+) bacteria within the microbial communities. Moreover, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium aciditolerans and Azospira oryzae, were proved to be enriched, and then might play indispensable roles for the enhanced biohydrogen production after cascade acid stress, as which were responsible for the biohydrogen accumulation, acid tolerance and nitrogen removal, respectively.

  19. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham

    2016-03-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing.

  20. Capacity of lactic acid bacteria in immunity enhancement and cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz Rajoka, Muhammad Shahid; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Shao, Dongyan; Huang, Qingsheng; Yang, Hui; Jin, Mingliang

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are associated with the human gastrointestinal tract. They are important for maintaining the balance of microflora in the human gut. An increasing number of published research reports in recent years have denoted the importance of producing interferon-gamma and IgA for treatment of disease. These agents can enhance the specific and nonspecific immune systems that are dependent on specific bacterial strains. The mechanisms of these effects were revealed in this investigation, where the cell walls of these bacteria were modulated by the cytokine pathways, while the whole bacterial cell mediated the host cell immune system and regulated the production of tumor necrosis factors and interleukins. A supplement of highly active lactic acid bacteria strains provided significant potential to enhance host's immunity, offering prevention from many diseases including some cancers. This review summarizes the current understanding of the function of lactic acid bacteria immunity enhancement and cancer prevention.

  1. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  2. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Electroporation-enhanced delivery of nucleic acid vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Kate E; Humeau, Laurent M

    2015-02-01

    The naked delivery of nucleic acid vaccines is notoriously inefficient, and an enabling delivery technology is required to direct efficiently these constructs intracellularly. A delivery technology capable of enhancing nucleic acid uptake in both cells in tissues and in culture is electroporation (EP). EP is a physical delivery mechanism that increases the permeability of mammalian cell membranes and allows the trafficking of large macromolecules into the cell. EP has now been used extensively in the clinic and been shown to be an effective method to increase both the uptake of the construct and the breadth and magnitude of the resulting immune responses. Excitingly, 2014 saw the announcement of the first EP-enhanced DNA vaccine Phase II trial demonstrating clinical efficacy. This review seeks to introduce the reader to EP as a technology to enhance the delivery of DNA and RNA vaccines and highlight several published clinical trials using this delivery modality.

  4. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya K; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  5. Salicylic Acid Induction of Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathways in Wheat Varies by Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondor, Orsolya K.; Janda, Tibor; Soós, Vilmos; Pál, Magda; Majláth, Imre; Adak, Malay K.; Balázs, Ervin; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid is a promising compound for the reduction of stress sensitivity in plants. Although several biochemical and physiological changes have been described in plants treated with salicylic acid, the mode of action of the various treatments has not yet been clarified. The present work reports a detailed comparative study on the effects of different modes of salicylic acid application at the physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic levels. Seed soaking and hydroponic treatments were found to induce various changes in the protective mechanisms of wheat plants. The possible involvement of the flavonoid metabolism in salicylic acid-related stress signaling was also demonstrated. Different salicylic acid treatments were shown to induce different physiological and biochemical processes, with varying responses in the leaves and roots. Hydroponic treatment enhanced the level of oxidative stress, the expression of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolism and the amount of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds, namely ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and the flavonol quercetin in the leaves, while it decreased the ortho-hydroxycinnamic acid and flavonol contents and enhanced ascorbate peroxidase activity in the roots. In contrast, seed soaking only elevated the gene expression level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots and caused a slight increase in the amount of flavonols. These results draw attention to the fact that the effects of exogenous salicylic acid application cannot be generalized in different experimental systems and that the flavonoid metabolism may be an important part of the action mechanisms induced by salicylic acid.

  6. Surface modification of activated carbon for enhanced adsorption of perfluoroalkyl acids from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yue; Liu, Jinxia

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the research was to examine the effect of increasing carbon surface basicity on uptake of perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS) and carboxylic acids (PFOA) by activated carbon. Granular activated carbons made from coal, coconut shell, wood, and phenolic-polymer-based activated carbon fibers were modified through high-temperature and ammonia gas treatments to facilitate systematical evaluation of the impact of basicity of different origins. Comparison of adsorption isotherms and adsorption distribution coefficients showed that the ammonia gas treatment was more effective than the high-temperature treatment in enhancing surface basicity. The resultant higher point of zero charges and total basicity (measured by total HCl uptake) correlated with improved adsorption affinity for PFOS and PFOA. The effectiveness of surface modification to enhance adsorption varied with carbon raw material. Wood-based carbons and activated carbon fibers showed enhancement by one to three orders of magnitudes while other materials could experience reduction in adsorption towards either PFOS or PFOA.

  7. Enhanced formic acid oxidation on Cu-Pd nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lin; Zou, Shouzhong

    Developing catalysts with high activity and high resistance to surface poisoning remains a challenge in direct formic acid fuel cell research. In this work, copper-palladium nanoparticles were formed through a galvanic replacement process. After electrochemically selective dissolution of surface Cu, Pd-enriched Cu-Pd nanoparticles were formed. These particles exhibit much higher formic acid oxidation activities than that on pure Pd nanoparticles, and they are much more resistant to the surface poisoning. Possible mechanisms of catalytic activity enhancement are briefly discussed.

  8. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  9. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment by sludge treatment using free nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Hao, Xiaodi; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-02-01

    Free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) was revealed to be effective in enhancing biodegradability of secondary sludge. Also, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were found to be more susceptible to FNA than ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. Based on these findings, a novel FNA-based sludge treatment technology is proposed to enhance energy recovery from wastewater/sludge. Energy analysis indicated that the FNA-based technology would make wastewater treatment become an energy generating process (yielding energy at 4 kWh/PE/y; kWh/PE/y: kilowatt hours per population equivalent per year), rather than being a large energy consumer that it is today (consuming energy at 24 kWh/PE/y). Importantly, FNA required for the sludge treatment could be produced as a by-product of wastewater treatment. This proposed FNA-based technology is economically and environmentally attractive, and can be easily implemented in any wastewater treatment plants. It only involves the installation of a simple sludge mixing tank. This article presents the concept of the FNA-based technology.

  10. Enhancement of nucleation during hanging drop protein crystallization using HF treatment of cover glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yun-Zhu; Yin, Da-Chuan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Wang, Xi-Kai; Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072, Shaanxi (China)

    2010-02-15

    We examined a simple approach, i.e., etching cover glasses using hydrofluoric acid (HF), to determine whether cover glass treatment enhances nucleation in hanging drop protein crystallization. Hen egg white lysozyme and proteinase K were used as the model proteins. We found that the treatment increased the success rate of crystallization. The results indicated that the simple treatment, which is easy to adopt without changing much in the hanging drop method, can be utilized as an alternative method to enhance protein crystallization screens (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue.

  12. Lewis acidity enhancement of triarylborane by appended phosphine oxide groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jaewoo; Nghia, Nguyen Van; Lee, Junseong; Kim, Hyoseok; Park, Myung Hwan; Lee, Min Hyung

    2015-03-14

    A series of mono-, di-, and tri-phosphine oxide substituted triarylboranes, Mes2BAr (1), MesBAr2 (2), and BAr3 (3) (Ar = 4-(Ph2PO)-2,6-Me2-C6H2) were prepared to investigate the effect of a phosphine oxide group (Ph2PO) on Lewis acidity enhancement of triarylboranes. The X-ray crystal structure of 3 revealed peripheral decoration of Ph2PO groups with a C3-axis perpendicular to the trigonal boron center. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra indicated a significant contribution of π(Mes or phenylene) → pπ(B) charge transfer in the lower-energy electronic transition. The reduction potential measured by cyclic voltammetry showed apparent LUMO stabilization by introduction of phosphine oxide groups, the extent of which gradually increased with the increasing number of phosphine oxide groups. Lewis acidity enhancement was also supported by the gradual increase in fluoride ion affinity in the order 3 > 2 > 1. Theoretical calculations suggest that introduction of a Ph2PO group into a triarylborane significantly enhances the Lewis acidity of the boron center via an inductive electron-withdrawing effect and this effect is additive for multiple phosphine oxide groups.

  13. Enhance decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids in clay minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Albarran, G. [Instituto de Ciencias y Artes, Chiapas (Mexico). Escuela de Biologia

    1995-10-01

    Clay minerals are important constituents of the Earth`s crust. These minerals catalyze reactions in several ways: by energy transfer processes, redox reactions, stabilization of intermediates and by Broensted or Lewis acidity behavior. Important set of organic reactions can be improved in the precedence of clay minerals. Besides the properties of clays to catalyze chemical reactions, it is possible to enhance some of its reactions by using ionizing radiation. The phenomenon of radiation-induced catalysis may be connected with ionizing process in the solid and with the trapped non-equilibrium charge carriers. In this paper we are reporting the decarboxylation reaction of carboxylic acids catalyzed by clay and by irradiation of the system acid-clay. We studied the behaviour of several carboxylic acids and analyzed them by gas chromatography, X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that decarboxylation of the target compound is the dominating pathway. The reaction is enhanced by gamma radiation in several orders of magnitude. (author).

  14. The Effect of Acid Stress Treatment on Viability and Membrane Fatty Acid Composition of Oenococcus oeni SD-2a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-ying; LI Hua; WANG Hua; LI Zhong-chao; WANG Ai-lian

    2009-01-01

    To obtain ready-to-use wine malolactic starter cultures with high viability, the effects of acid stress treatments on the growth, inoculation viability, freeze-drying viability, and membrane fatty acid composition of the native Oenococcus oeni SD-2a strain were studied. The results showed that pH 3.5 and 3.2 adaptive treatments did not strongly decrease cell biomass but increased distinctly inoculation viability and freeze-drying viability. Concerning the membrane fatty acid composition, it was observed that acid stress conditions increased significantly the relative concentration of lactobacillic acid (C19cycl 1) and the unsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio in cell membrane lipids. We assumed that acid-induced cross protective responses could be used in preparing ready-to-use O. oeni SD-2a malolactic starter cultures, and the accumulation of lactobacillic acid in the membrane of O. oeni SD-2a cells appears as an acid stress response mechanism,which might be related with the enhanced viability.

  15. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines...

  16. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  17. TREATMENT TANK CORROSION STUDIES FOR THE ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2011-08-24

    Radioactive waste is stored in high level waste tanks on the Savannah River Site (SRS). Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is aggressively seeking to close the non-compliant Type I and II waste tanks. The removal of sludge (i.e., metal oxide) heels from the tank is the final stage in the waste removal process. The Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed and investigated by SRR to aid in Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) as an option for sludge heel removal. Corrosion rate data for carbon steel exposed to the ECC treatment tank environment was obtained to evaluate the degree of corrosion that occurs. These tests were also designed to determine the effect of various environmental variables such as temperature, agitation and sludge slurry type on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel. Coupon tests were performed to estimate the corrosion rate during the ECC process, as well as determine any susceptibility to localized corrosion. Electrochemical studies were performed to develop a better understanding of the corrosion mechanism. The tests were performed in 1 wt.% and 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with HM and PUREX sludge simulants. The following results and conclusions were made based on this testing: (1) In 1 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, carbon steel corroded at a rate of less than 25 mpy within the temperature and agitation levels of the test. No susceptibility to localized corrosion was observed. (2) In 2.5 wt.% oxalic acid with a sludge simulant, the carbon steel corrosion rates ranged between 15 and 88 mpy. The most severe corrosion was observed at 75 C in the HM/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. Pitting and general corrosion increased with the agitation level at this condition. No pitting and lower general corrosion rates were observed with the PUREX/2.5 wt.% oxalic acid simulant. The electrochemical and coupon tests both indicated that carbon steel is more susceptible to localized corrosion in the HM/oxalic acid environment than

  18. Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The IESWTR balances the need for treatment with potential increases in disinfection by -products. The materials found on this page are intended to assist public water systems and state in the implementation of the IESWTR.

  19. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for regular smokers. "The study results are largely positive, but there should be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  20. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  1. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Baldissarro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA. Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58±8.37 years were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day or a placebo (maltodextrin. At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78±2.70 scores. After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS (from baseline 41.8±1.15 to 76.37±6.6 versus baseline 39.78±4.89 to 70.0±7.1 in placebo one; p=0.006. The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities.

  2. The Hip Functional Retrieval after Elective Surgery May Be Enhanced by Supplemented Essential Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldissarro, Eleonora; Aquilani, Roberto; Boschi, Federica; Baiardi, Paola; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Pasini, Evasio; Verri, Manuela; Dossena, Maurizia; Gambino, Arianna; Cammisuli, Sharon; Viglio, Simona

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether postsurgery systemic inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities are still present during rehabilitation of individuals after elective hip arthroplasty (EHA). Sixty subjects (36 females; age 66.58 ± 8.37 years) were randomized to receive 14-day oral EAAs (8 g/day) or a placebo (maltodextrin). At admission to and discharge from the rehabilitation center, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and venous plasma amino acid concentrations were determined. Post-EHA hip function was evaluated by Harris hip score (HHS) test. Ten matched healthy subjects served as controls. At baseline, all patients had high CRP levels, considerable reduction in several amino acids, and severely reduced hip function (HHS 40.78 ± 2.70 scores). After treatment, inflammation decreased both in the EAA group and in the placebo group. Only EAA patients significantly improved their levels of glycine, alanine, tyrosine, and total amino acids. In addition, they enhanced the rate of hip function recovery (HHS) (from baseline 41.8 ± 1.15 to 76.37 ± 6.6 versus baseline 39.78 ± 4.89 to 70.0 ± 7.1 in placebo one; p = 0.006). The study documents the persistence of inflammation and plasma amino acid abnormalities in post-EHA rehabilitation phase. EAAs enhance hip function retrieval and improve plasma amino acid abnormalities. PMID:27110573

  3. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  4. Research of the Mechanism of Enhancing Biological Treatment by Chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liang; QIN Bing; CHEN Dong-hui

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan of different molecular weight (M. W. ) was added into SBR bioreactor to treat domestic wastewater. From comparison of treatment efficiency, sludge activity, sludge structure etc., we revealed the mechanism that chitosan enhanced the biological treatment function of activated sludge. The results proved that, chitosan is certain to restrain the reaction of activated sludge, but it do improve the structure of sludge fiocs and increase the treatment efficiency of activated sludge. The bigger the M. W. of chitosan is, the better the efficiency of enhancing biological treatment can be.

  5. Enhancing and targeting nucleic acid delivery by magnetic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Christian; Anton, Martina; Rudolph, Carsten; Rosenecker, Joseph; Krötz, Florian

    2003-08-01

    Insufficient contact of inherently highly active nucleic acid delivery systems with target cells is a primary reason for their often observed limited efficacy. Physical methods of targeting can overcome this limitation and reduce the risk of undesired side effects due to non-target site delivery. The authors and others have developed a novel means of physical targeting, exploiting magnetic force acting on nucleic acid vectors associated with magnetic particles in order to mediate the rapid contact of vectors with target cells. Here, the principles of magnetic drug and nucleic acid delivery are reviewed, and the facts and potentials of the technique for research and therapeutic applications are discussed. Magnetically enhanced nucleic acid delivery - magnetofection - is universally applicable to viral and non-viral vectors, is extraordinarily rapid, simple and yields saturation level transfection at low dose in vitro. The method is useful for site-specific vector targeting in vivo. Exploiting the full potential of the technique requires an interdisciplinary research effort in magnetic field physics, magnetic particle chemistry, pharmaceutical formulation and medical application.

  6. Fatty acid conjugation enhances the activities of antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhining; Yuan, Penghui; Xing, Meng; He, Zhumei; Dong, Chuanfu; Cao, Yongchang; Liu, Qiuyun

    2013-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are small molecules that play a crucial role in innate immunity in multi-cellular organisms, and usually expressed and secreted constantly at basal levels to prevent infection, but local production can be augmented upon an infection. The clock is ticking as rising antibiotic abuse has led to the emergence of many drug resistance bacteria. Due to their broad spectrum antibiotic and antifungal activities as well as anti-viral and anti-tumor activities, efforts are being made to develop antimicrobial peptides into future microbial agents. This article describes some of the recent patents on antimicrobial peptides with fatty acid conjugation. Potency and selectivity of antimicrobial peptide can be modulated with fatty acid tails of variable length. Interaction between membranes and antimicrobial peptides was affected by fatty acid conjugation. At concentrations above the critical miscelle concentration (CMC), propensity of solution selfassembly hampered binding of the peptide to cell membranes. Overall, fatty acid conjugation has enhanced the activities of antimicrobial peptides, and occasionally it rendered inactive antimicrobial peptides to be bioactive. Antimicrobial peptides can not only be used as medicine but also as food additives.

  7. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H.; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia. PMID:27379039

  8. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia.

  9. Pipecolic acid enhances resistance to bacterial infection and primes salicylic acid and nicotine accumulation in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel-Adghough, Drissia; Stahl, Elia; Návarová, Hana; Zeier, Juergen

    2013-11-01

    Distinct amino acid metabolic pathways constitute integral parts of the plant immune system. We have recently identified pipecolic acid (Pip), a lysine-derived non-protein amino acid, as a critical regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and basal immunity to bacterial infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. In Arabidopsis, Pip acts as an endogenous mediator of defense amplification and priming. For instance, Pip conditions plants for effective biosynthesis of the phenolic defense signal salicylic acid (SA), accumulation of the phytoalexin camalexin, and expression of defense-related genes. Here, we show that tobacco plants respond to leaf infection by the compatible bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci (Pstb) with a significant accumulation of several amino acids, including Lys, branched-chain, aromatic, and amide group amino acids. Moreover, Pstb strongly triggers, alongside the biosynthesis of SA and increases in the defensive alkaloid nicotine, the production of the Lys catabolites Pip and α-aminoadipic acid. Exogenous application of Pip to tobacco plants provides significant protection to infection by adapted Pstb or by non-adapted, hypersensitive cell death-inducing P. syringae pv maculicola. Pip thereby primes tobacco for rapid and strong accumulation of SA and nicotine following bacterial infection. Thus, our study indicates that the role of Pip as an amplifier of immune responses is conserved between members of the rosid and asterid groups of eudicot plants and suggests a broad practical applicability for Pip as a natural enhancer of plant disease resistance.

  10. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola.

  11. Enhancement of shortening velocity, power, and acto-myosin crossbridge (CB) kinetics following long-term treatment with propionyl-L-carnitine, coenzyme Q10, and omega-3 fatty acids in BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian hamsters papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, Romina; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Fraschini, Matteo; Perinu, Anna; Tiano, Luca; Capra, Alessandro; Mancinelli, Rino

    2010-01-01

    Impaired functions of myocardial muscle cells in human and animals, is a primary defect associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the DCM are yet to be clarified and an effective therapy is still not available. The BIO TO-2 cardiomyopathic Syrian Hamsters (CMSHs) represent an animal model of idiopathic DCM. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term treatment (2 months) with propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), coenzyme Q(10), omega-3 fatty acids and a combination of these three agents (formulation HS12607) on mechanical properties and acto-myosin crossbridges (CBs) kinetics of left ventricular (LV) papillary muscle from control and treated 10 month old BIO TO-2 CMSHs. Isometric and isotonic contractile properties of isolated papillary muscle from control and treated CMSHs were investigated, and acto-myosin CB number, force and kinetics were calculated using Huxley's equations. Mechanical parameter values were higher in treated than in control hamsters, particularly when substances were administered together in a coformulation (HS12607). Compared to control, HS12607-treated papillary muscles showed a significant increase of maximum peak isometric tension (P(o)) (30.06 +/- 4.91 vs. 19.74 +/- 5.00 mN/mm(2)), maximum extent of muscle shortening (0.13 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.02 L/L(max)), maximum unloaded shortening velocity (1.18 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.13 L/L(max) s(-1)) and maximum peak of power output (5.52 +/- 1.61 vs. 1.58 +/- 0.83). The curvature of the hyperbolic force-velocity relationships did not differ between control and treated hamsters. When compared to controls, acto-myosin CB number increased in treated hamsters [(6.67 +/- 1.91) 10(10)/mm(2) vs. (3.55 +/- 2.08) 10(10)/mm(2)], whereas the unitary force of single CB was similar in control and treated animals. The peak value of the rate constant for CB attachment (f(1)) and detachment (g(2)) was higher in treated animals when

  12. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti......-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting...

  13. Organic acid enhanced electrodialytic extraction of lead from contaminated soil fines in suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of soil washing technology for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated soils is limited by the toxicity and unwieldiness of the remaining heavy metal contaminated sludge. In this work, the feasibility of combining electrodialytic remediation with heterotrophic leaching...... for decontamination of the sludge was investigated. The ability of 11 organic acids to extract Pb from the fine fraction of contaminated soil (grains ... was tested. Five of the acids showed the ability to extract Ph from the soil fines in excess of the effect caused solely by pH changes. Addition of the acids, however, severely impeded EDR, hence promotion of EDR by combination with heterotrophic leaching was rejected. In contrast, enhancement of EDR...

  14. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  15. Enhanced removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid in an activated carbon cloth by electroadsorption in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernabeu, S; Ruiz-Rosas, R; Quijada, C; Montilla, F; Morallón, E

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the electrochemical treatment (potentiostatic treatment in a filter-press electrochemical cell) on the adsorption capacity of an activated carbon cloth (ACC) was analyzed in relation with the removal of 8-quinolinecarboxylic acid pollutant from water. The adsorption capacity of an ACC is quantitatively improved in the presence of an electric field (electroadsorption process) reaching values of 96% in comparison to 55% in absence of applied potential. In addition, the cathodic treatment results in higher removal efficiencies than the anodic treatment. The enhanced adsorption capacity has been proved to be irreversible, since the removed compound remains adsorbed after switching the applied potential. The kinetics of the adsorption processes is also improved by the presence of an applied potential.

  16. Investigation of the interaction of polyamidoamine dendrimers with nicotinic acid as solubility enhancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimers enhance the solubility of nicotinic acid. Methods PAMAM dendrimers of generation 1 to 6 were prepared and the effect of pH and concentration of the dendrimers on the solubility enhancement of nicotinic acid was investigated. Results The pH and concentration of the dendrimers influence the solubility enhancement of nicotinic acid. Conclusions Electrostatic interaction between the carboxyl group of the nicotinic acid and the amine groups of the dendrimers is involved.

  17. PREPARATION OF HOLLOW LATEX PARTICLES BY ALKALI-ACID TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝冬梅; 王新灵; 朱卫华; 唐小真; 刘成岑; 施凯

    2001-01-01

    Hollow polymer latex particles were prepared by seeded emulsion polymerization. A seed latex consisting of styrene (St), butyl acrylate(BA) copolymer was first prepared, and seeded terpolymerization of St-BA-MA(methacrylic acid) were then carried out in the absence of surfactant. Final latex was treated by a two-step treatment under alkaline and acidic conditions, thus, the particles with hollow structure were obtained. We discussed the effects of pH value, temperature and time in alkali and acid treatment processes on hollow structure within the polymer latex particles and amount of carboxylic group on particle surface. The results show that the hollow polymer latex particles with the largest hollow size can be obtained under a certain condition (pH12.5, 90°C, 3 h in alkali treatment stage and pH2.5, 85°C, 3 h in acid treatment stage).

  18. [Advances in the research of treatment of hydrofluoric acid burn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-gang; Zhang, Yuan-hai; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-08-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is one of the most common inorganic acids used widely in industrial circle. HF not only causes cutaneous burn, but also induces systemic toxicity by its unique injury mechanism. Accurate and timely diagnosis and treatment are critical after HF burns. To date, the strategies for treating HF burns have been developed, mainly including topical treatments and systematic support. However, there is no standard treatment strategy with wide acceptance in the world. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the advances in the research of strategies for the treatment of HF burns.

  19. 300 Area waste acid treatment system closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LUKE, S.N.

    1999-05-17

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOERL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion includes closure plan documentation submitted for individual, treatment, storage, and/or disposal units undergoing closure, such as the 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Whenever appropriate, 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. This 300 Area Waste Acid Treatment System Closure Plan (Revision 2) includes a Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application, Part A, Form 3. Information provided in this closure plan is current as of April 1999.

  20. Enhancement of taxol-induced apoptosis by inhibition of NF-κB with ursorlic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Xing, Da

    2007-05-01

    Taxol is known to inhibit cell growth and triggers significant apoptosis in various cancer cells, and activation of proliferation factor NF-κB during Taxol-induced apoptosis is regarded as a main reason resulting in tumor cells resistance to Taxol. It has been found that ursorlic acid can inhibit the activation of NF-κB. In order to study whether ursorlic acid can enhance the Taxol-induced apoptosis, we use fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique and probe SCAT3 to compare the difference of caspase-3 activation between Taxol alone and Taxol combined ursorlic acid. With laser scanning confocal microscopy, we find that ursorlic acid, a nontoxic food component, sensitizes ASTC-a-1 cells more efficiently to Taxol-induced apoptosis by advanced activation of caspase 3. The result also suggests that there would be a synergistic effect between Taxol and ursorlic acid, and the more detailed mechanism of synergistic effect needs to be clarified further, such as the correlations among NF-κB, Akt, caspase 8, which leads to the advanced activation of caspase 3 during combined treatment of Taxol and ursorlic acid. Moreover, this may be a new way to improve Taxol-dependent tumor therapy.

  1. Effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in germinated brown millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Hao, Jianxiong; Liu, Xianggui; Liu, Haijie; Ning, Yawei; Cheng, Ruhong; Tan, Bin; Jia, Yingmin

    2015-11-01

    The accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and the microbial decontamination are concerned increasingly in the production of sprouts. In this work, the effect of the treatment by slightly acidic electrolyzed water on the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid in the germinated brown millet was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography during germination. The results showed that slightly acidic electrolyzed water with appropriate available chlorine (15 or 30 mg/L) could promote the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by up to 21% (P treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water could not enhance the sprouts growth of the germinated brown millet. The catalase and peroxidase activities of the germinated brown millet during germination were in agreement with the sprouts growth. Our results suggested that the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid was independent of the length of sprouts in germinated grains. Moreover, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water significantly reduced the microbial counts in the germinated millet (P treatment with high available chlorine concentration (15 and 30 mg/L) showed stronger anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet than that of lower available chlorine concentration (5 mg/L). In conclusion, the treatment with slightly acidic electrolyzed water is an available approach to improve the accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and anti-infection potential in the germinated brown millet, and it can avoid too long millet sprouts.

  2. Polysulfone affinity membranes for the treatment of amino acid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, K; Staude, E

    1995-06-20

    Affinity membranes for the treatment of solutions containing amino acids were obtained via lithiating polysulfone that was subsequently converted with glycidylether. From this polymer asymmetric ultrafiltration membranes were cast. The membranes were reacted with iminodiacetic acid yielding membranes fitted out with bidentate chelates. The same reaction path was applied to commercially available symmetric microfiltration membranes. The chelate-bearing membranes were complexed with Cu, Ni, and Zn ions. For the experiments with amino acids only the Cu-complexed membranes were used. The complexation constants for histidine and tryptophan for six different membranes were determined. Because of the affinity of these two amino acids for the complexed Cu ions, they could easily be separated from solutions containing amino acids such as alanine, glycine, and valine. Also, concentrating very dilute amino acid solutions was carried out successfully.

  3. Oleic Acid: Natural variation and potential enhancement in oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega 9 fatty acid (MUFA, C18:1) which can be found in various plant lipids and animal fats. Unlike omega 3 (a-linolenic acid, C18:3) and omega 6 (linoleic acid, C18:2) fatty acids which are essential because they cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained f...

  4. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Grases; Adrian Rodriguez; Antonia Costa-Bauza

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobr...

  5. [Enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soil by chelating agents and auxin indole-3-acetic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-min; Dang, Zhi; Chen, Neng-chang; Xu, Sheng-guang; Xie, Zhi-yi

    2007-09-01

    The environmental risk of chelating agents such as EDTA application to the heavy metals polluted soils and the stress on plant roots due to the abrupt increase metals concentration limit the wide commercial use of chelate-induced phytoextraction. Chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) were used for enhancing heavy metals uptake from soils by Zea mays L. (corn) in pot experiments. The metals content in plant tissues was quantified using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results showed that the combination of IAA and EDTA increased the biomass by about 40.0% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 27.0%, 26.8%, 27.5% and 32.8% respectively, as compared to those in EDTA treatment. While NTA&IAA treatment increased the biomass by about 29.9% and the contents of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in corn shoots by 31.8%, 27.6%, 17.0% and 26.9% respectively, as compared to those in NTA treatment. These results indicated that corn growth was promoted, and the biomass and the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoots were increased significantly with the addition of IAA, which probably helps to change the cell membrane properties and the biomass distribution, resulting in the alleviation of the phytotoxicity of metals and the chelating agents.

  6. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients.

  7. Lewis acid enhanced switching of the 1,1-dicyanodihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene photo/thermoswitch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christian Richard; Tortzen, Christian Gregers; Broman, Søren Lindbæk;

    2011-01-01

    Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion.......Mild Lewis acids enhance the rate of the thermal conversion of vinylheptafulvene (VHF) to dihydroazulene (DHA). In the absence of light, stronger Lewis acids promote the otherwise photoinduced DHA to VHF conversion....

  8. Characterization of Unye bentonite after treatment with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unye bentonite was found to consist predominantly of a dioctahedral smectite along with quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and minor fractions of feldspar and anatase. A considerable amount of Al was retained as a constituent in acid-resistant impurities following the decomposition of the montmorillonite via acid treatment at an acid/clay ratio of 0.4. These impurities were mesoporous with a maximum surface area of 303.9±0.4 m² g-1. A sharp decrease in the d001 lattice spacing of the montmorillonite to 15.33 Å reflected the reduction of the crystallinity in the activated products. In addition, the increase in the ease with which newly formed hydroxyl groups were lost paralleled the severity of the acid treatment.

  9. Amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in the treatment of urinary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Roomi, L G; Sutton, A M; Cockburn, F; McAllister, T A

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid in the treatment of 32 children with urinary tract infection were studied. Twenty one (80%) of 26 children with proved urinary tract infection showed a favourable clinical and bacteriological response. Fifteen of these children had amoxycillin resistant organisms and were treated successfully. In 20 children the serum and urine concentrations of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid were measured after the first oral dose. PMID:6712275

  10. Erythropoietin treatment enhances muscle mitochondrial capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plenge, Ulla; Belhage, Bo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia;

    2012-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo) treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity...... in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over 8 weeks with oral iron (100 mg) supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis...... before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate, and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS) was assessed by addition of an uncoupler...

  11. Fenton-enhanced {gamma}-radiolysis of cyanuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Rani [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravind, Usha K. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, Charuvila T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686560, Kerala (India)]. E-mail: CT-Aravindakumar@rocketmail.com

    2007-04-02

    Degradation of cyanuric acid (OOOT), a stable end product of oxidative decomposition of atrazine, is investigated in a combined field of gamma radiolysis and fenton reaction. The reaction of hydroxyl radical ({center_dot}OH) at pH 6 was carried out by irradiating N{sub 2}O saturated aqueous solutions containing OOOT (1 x 10{sup -3} mol dm{sup -3}), and this resulted only a marginal degradation (20%). However, when the same reaction was carried out in the presence of varying concentrations of ferrous sulfate ((5-10) x 10{sup -5} mol dm{sup -3}), the decay of OOOT has been enhanced to more than 80%. This decay followed a first order kinetics. Nearly similar effects were observed with another triazine derivative, 2,4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (DHT). Two major reaction mechanisms are proposed for the enhanced decay of OOOT. The formation of unstable hydroxyl radical adducts from the reaction of {center_dot}OH which is the result of gamma radiolysis and the Fenton reaction (resulting from the reaction of the added Fe(II) and of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} from the radiolysis of water), is proposed as the first mechanism. The second mechanism, which is likely the major contributor to degradation, is proposed as the reaction of a nucleophilic adduct, Fe(II)OOH, which could directly react with the electron deficient triazine ring. It is highlighted that such degradation reactions must be explored for the complete degradation of the byproducts of the oxidative decomposition of atrazine.

  12. Ursodeoxycholic acid treatment of vanishing bile duct syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas Pusl; Ulrich Beuers

    2006-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndromes (VBDS) are characterized by progressive loss of small intrahepatic ducts caused by a variety of different diseases leading to chronic cholestasis, cirrhosis, and premature death from liver failure. The majority of adult patients with VBDS suffer from primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a hydrophilic dihydroxy bile acid, is the only drug currently approved for the treatment of patients with PBC, and anticholestatic effects have been reported for several other cholestatic syndromes. Several potential mechanisms of action of UDCA have been proposed including stimulation of hepatobiliary secretion, inhibition of apoptosis and protection of cholangiocytes against toxic effects of hydrophobic bile acids.

  13. REGENABATH -- novel regeneration methods for strongly acidic metal treatment baths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J. [Capenhurst Tech Limited, Capenhurst, Chester (United Kingdom); Hendou, M. [Lacaze S.A., Leyme (France)

    2001-07-01

    This European Union-sponsored project is designed to investigate the potential of integrating existing and novel technologies for use in regenerating strong acids used in the treatment of metal surfaces. At present, the acid bath must be bled off to remove the metal content, or the whole bath may be periodically discarded, a process which is hazardous, costly and injurious to the environment. This paper provides a full description of the project objectives, expected results, challenges, proposed applications and technology transfer potential. It is expected that the techniques developed can be extended to other highly acidic waste streams generated by metallurgical facilities.

  14. Mechanism involved in enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Michinao [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Habu, Manabu [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Yoshioka, Izumi [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Science, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan); Oral Bioresearch Center, Kyushu Dental College, Kitakyushu 803-8580 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. {yields} MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. {yields} Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. {yields} HA enhanced BMP-2 induces osteoblastic differentiation in MG63 cells via down-regulation of BMP-2 antagonists and ERK phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is expected to be utilized to fill bone defects and promote healing of fractures. However, it is unable to generate an adequate clinical response for use in bone regeneration. Recently, it was reported that glycosaminoglycans, including heparin, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA), regulate BMP-2 activity, though the mechanism by which HA regulates osteogenic activities has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HA on osteoblast differentiation induced by BMP-2. Materials and methods: Monolayer cultures of osteoblastic lineage MG63 cells were incubated with BMP-2 and HA for various time periods. To determine osteoblastic differentiation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cell lysates was quantified. Phosphorylation of Smad 1/5/8, p38, and ERK proteins was determined by Western blot analysis. To elucidate the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8, stimulated cells were subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy. To further elucidate the role of HA in enhancement of BMP-2-induced Smad signaling, mRNA expressions of the BMP-2 receptor antagonists noggin and follistatin were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Results: BMP-2-induced ALP activation, Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and

  15. Theobromine inhibits uric acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grases

    Full Text Available To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL was evaluated using a flow system.The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

  16. Comparison the effectiveness of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% in the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous follicles and one of the most common skin diseases. The peeling method has been recently found to be effective for acne treatment. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% peeling in the treatment of mild to moderate acne. Materials and Methods: In a prospective single-blinded clinical trial, 86 patients with acne were randomly assigned into two groups. In both groups, the routine treatment of acne (topical solution of erythromycin 4%, triclorocarban soap, and sunscreen were used twice a day for 8 weeks. In addition, salicylic acid 30% for the control group and pyruvic acid 50% for the case group were used. In both groups, acne severity index (ASI was calculated before and at week 2, 4, 6, and 8 of the treatment. Patient satisfaction was assessed at the end of the treatment. Side effects were recorded using a checklist. Results: In both groups, the reduction in the number of comedones, papules, and ASI were statistically significant (P < 0.001 in the course of treatment. However, it was not significant regarding the number of pustules (P = 0.09. None of the number of comedone, papules, pustules, and ASI was statistically different between study groups. Both treatment groups had similar side effects except for scaling in the fifth session, which was significantly lower in salicylic acid - treated patients (P = 0.015. Conclusion: Both pyruvic acid 50% and salicylic acid 30% are effective in the improvement of mild to moderate acne with no significant difference in efficacy and side effects.

  17. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  18. Enantioseparation of Amino Acids by Micelle-Enhanced Ultrafiltration : Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Copper(II) Amino Acid Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A micelle-enhanced ultrafiltration system, which can potentially be used for large scale separations, has been used to investigate the resolution of amino acid enantiomers. For this purpose amino acid derivatives were synthesized, which in combination with copper(II) ions were used as chiral selecto

  19. Erythropoietin treatment enhances mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla ePlenge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Erythropoietin (Epo treatment has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac muscle along with enhanced mitochondrial capacity in mice. We hypothesized that recombinant human Epo (rhEpo treatment enhances skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacity in humans. In six healthy volunteers rhEpo was administered by sub-cutaneous injection over eight weeks with oral iron (100 mg supplementation taken daily. Mitochondrial OXPHOS was quantified by high-resolution respirometry in saponin-permeabilized muscle fibers obtained from biopsies of the vastus lateralis before and after rhEpo treatment. OXPHOS was determined with the mitochondrial complex I substrates malate, glutamate, pyruvate and complex II substrate succinate in the presence of saturating ADP concentrations, while maximal electron transport capacity (ETS was assessed by addition of an uncoupler. rhEpo treatment increased OXPHOS (from 92±5 to 113±7 pmol.sec-1.mg-1 and ETS (107±4 to 143±14 pmol.sec-1.mg-1, P<0.05, demonstrating that Epo treatment induces an upregulation of OXPHOS and ETS in human skeletal muscle.

  20. Accumulation of eicosapolyenoic acids enhances sensitivity to abscisic acid and mitigates the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Li, Yaxiao; Liu, Shiyang; Xia, Fei; Li, Xinzheng; Qi, Baoxiu

    2014-04-01

    IgASE1, a C₁₈ Δ(9)-specific polyunsaturated fatty acid elongase from the marine microalga Isochrysis galbana, is able to convert linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid in Arabidopsis. Eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid are precursors of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid, which are synthesized via the Δ(8) desaturation biosynthetic pathways. This study shows that the IgASE1-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis exhibited altered morphology (decreased leaf area and biomass) and enhanced drought resistance compared to wild-type plants. The transgenic Arabidopsis were hypersensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination, post-germination growth, and seedling development. They had elevated leaf ABA levels under well-watered and dehydrated conditions and their stomata were more sensitive to ABA. Exogenous application of eicosadienoic acid and eicosatrienoic acid can mimic ABA and drought responses in the wild type plants, similar to that found in the transgenic ones. The transcript levels of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA (NCED3, ABA1, AAO3) as well as other stress-related genes were upregulated in this transgenic line upon osmotic stress (300 mM mannitol). Taken together, these results indicate that these two eicosapolyenoic acids or their derived metabolites can mitigate the effects of drought in transgenic Arabidopsis, at least in part, through the action of ABA.

  1. Ferulic Acid Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration across Long Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Chi Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of ferulic acid (FA on peripheral nerve injury. In the in vitro test, the effect of FA on viability of Schwann cells was studied. In the in vivo test, right sciatic nerves of the rats were transected, and a 15 mm nerve defect was created. A nerve conduit made of silicone rubber tube filled with FA (5 and 25 μg/mL, or saline (control, was implanted into the nerve defect. Results show that the number of proliferating Schwann cells increased significantly in the FA-treated group at 25 μg/mL compared to that in the control group. After 8 weeks, the FA-treated group at 25 μg/mL had a higher rate of successful regeneration across the wide gap, a significantly calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP staining of the lamina I-II regions in the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the injury, a significantly diminished number of macrophages recruited, and a significantly shortening of the latency and an acceleration of the nerve conductive velocity (NCV of the evoked muscle action potentials (MAPs compared with the controls. In summary, the FA may be useful in the development of future strategies for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  2. Hyaluronic acid covers in burn treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Marcos Dalmedico

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of hyaluronic acid in the healing of partial thickness burns. METHOD Systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of hyaluronic acid for the topical treatment of skin burns, based on recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS Two randomized controlled trials that analyzed 143 patients with partial thickness burns and/or deep partial thickness burns were selected. They compared the application of hyaluronic acid 0.2% associated to silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 versus silver sulfadiazine 1% 5g/cm2 alone for the outcome of complete healing. CONCLUSION This review emphasizes the need for new well-designed randomized controlled trials to establish the therapeutic relevance of hyaluronic acid with respect to the healing of burns of partial thickness or deep partial thickness.

  3. Enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system: proof of principle and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Carballa, Marta; Van De Caveye, Pieter; Verstraete, Willy

    2009-07-01

    Full-scale anaerobic single-phase digesters can be confronted with process instabilities, which often result in the accumulation of propionic acid (HPr). As a solution, an enhanced propionic acid degradation (EPAD) system has been conceptually designed and experimentally tested at lab-scale. The system consisted of two components: a liquid/solid separator containing a microfiltration membrane and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor specialized in HPr degradation. Two lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) were used, i.e. the CSTR(control) and the CSTR(treatment). Firstly, the CSTRs were stressed by organic overloading to obtain high HPr levels. During the recovery period, besides stop feeding, no actions were taken to decrease the residual HPr concentration in the CSTR(control), while the CSTR(treatment) was connected to EPAD system in order to accelerate its recovery. By the end of the experiment, the CSTR(treatment) completely recovered from HPr accumulation, while no significant decrease of the HPr level in the CSTR(control) was observed. Based on the experimental results, the up-scaling of EPAD system was evaluated and it would only account for about 2% of the volume of the full-scale digester, thus suggesting that the implementation of a mobile EPAD system in full-scale practice should be feasible.

  4. Comparison of clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel to a novel composition containing salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid in the treatment of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Leslie S; Oresajo, Christian; Yatskayer, Margarita; Dahl, Amanda; Figueras, Kristian

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the tolerance and efficacy of 2 facial skin products in subjects with acne using the following acne treatments: 1) treatment A, a combination of salicylic acid, capryloyl salicylic acid, HEPES, glycolic acid, citric acid, and dioic acid, and 2) treatment B (BenzaClin®, clindamycin 1% and benzoyl peroxide 5% gel). The treatment design included the split-face application of treatment A and treatment B and the full-face application of the cleanser, moisturizer, and sunscreen. Data were collected through physician visual assessments, subject irritation questionnaires and assessments, along with clinical photography. Results showed similar tolerance and efficacy for both treatments.

  5. Enhancing tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa) to simulated acid rain by exogenous abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Liang, Chanjuan

    2016-12-16

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates much important plant physiological and biochemical processes and induces tolerance to different stresses. Here, we studied the regulation of exogenous ABA on adaptation of rice seedlings to simulated acid rain (SAR) stress by measuring biomass dry weight, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, nutrient elements, and endogenous hormones. The application of 10 μM ABA alleviated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and decreases in contents of nutrient (K, Mg, N, and P) and hormone (auxin, gibberellins, and zeatin). Moreover, 10 μM ABA could stimulate the Ca content as signaling molecules under SAR stress. Contrarily, the application of 100 μM ABA aggravated the SAR-induced inhibition on growth, stomatal conductance, net photosynthesis rate, and contents of nutrient and hormone. The results got after a 5-day recovery (without SAR) show that exogenous 10 μM ABA can promote self-restoration process in rice whereas 100 μM ABA hindered the restoration by increasing deficiency of nutrients and disturbing the balance of hormones. These results confirmed that exogenous ABA at proper concentration could enhance the tolerance of rice to SAR stress.

  6. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

  7. An optimized probucol microencapsulated formulation integrating a secondary bile acid (deoxycholic acid as a permeation enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Gerald F Watts,3 Frank Arfuso,4 Hani Al-Salami11Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, 3School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia, 4School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, AustraliaAbstract: The authors have previously designed, developed, and characterized a novel microencapsulated formulation as a platform for the targeted delivery of therapeutics in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, using the drug probucol (PB. The aim of this study was to optimize PB microcapsules by incorporating the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA, which has good permeation-enhancing properties, and to examine its effect on microcapsules’ morphology, rheology, structural and surface characteristics, and excipients’ chemical and thermal compatibilities. Microencapsulation was carried out using a BÜCHI-based microencapsulating system established in the authors’ laboratory. Using the polymer sodium alginate (SA, two microencapsulated formulations were prepared: PB-SA (control and PB-DCA-SA (test at a constant ratio (1:30 and 1:3:30, respectively. Complete characterization of the microcapsules was carried out. The incorporation of DCA resulted in better structural and surface characteristics, uniform morphology, and stable chemical and thermal profiles, while size and rheological parameters remained similar to control. In addition, PB-DCA-SA microcapsules showed good excipients’ compatibilities, which were supported by data from differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray studies, suggesting

  8. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  9. Effect of acid concentration and treatment time on acid-alcohol modified jackfruit seed starch properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Himjyoti; Paul, Sanjib Kumar; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2011-09-15

    The properties of starch extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) seeds, collected from west Assam after acid-alcohol modification by short term treatment (ST) for 15-30min with concentrated hydrochloric acid and long term treatment (LT) for 1-15days with 1M hydrochloric acid, were investigated. Granule density, freeze thaw stability, solubility and light transmittance of the treated starches increased. A maximum decrease in the degree of polymerisation occurred in ST of 30min (2607.6). Jackfruit starch had 27.1±0.04% amylose content (db), which in ST initially decreased and then increased with the severity of treatment; in LT the effect was irregular. The pasting profile and granule morphology of the treated samples were severely modified. Native starch had the A-type crystalline pattern and crystalline structure increased on treatment. FTIR spectra revealed slight changes in bond stretching and bending. Colour measurement indicated that whiteness increased on treatment. Acid modified jackfruit seed starch can have applications in the food industry.

  10. [Adherence to psychopharmacological treatment: Psychotherapeutic strategies to enhance adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencer, R; Korn, D

    2015-05-01

    Effective psychopharmacological medication with good tolerability represents the cornerstone of treatment for severe mental illness; however, the 1-year adherence rates are only approximately 50%. The term adherence emphasizes the collaborative responsibility of the clinician and the patient for a positive treatment outcome. Reasons for non-adherence are manifold and include patient-specific factors, such as self-stigmatization, lack of social and familial support, cognitive impairment and substance use besides insufficient effectiveness and the occurrence of side effects of the psychotropic drugs. To enhance adherence, both clinician and patient have to fully understand all the reasons for and against adherence to medication before a collaborative decision is made on future long-term treatment. A positive attitude towards medication critically depends on whether patients feel that the medication supports the attainment of the individual goals.

  11. Role of acidic chemistries in steam treatment of aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acidic chemistry on the accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys Peraluman 706TM and AA6060 under exposure to high temperature steam was investigated. Studied chemistries were based on citrates and phosphates. Results showed that the presence of citrate and phosphate anions...... initiate doxide growth at the intermetallic particles while growth and corrosion performance of oxide was found tobe a function of anions type and their concentration. Further, steam treatment with phosphates exhibited better performance under acetic acid salt spray and filiform corrosion test whereas...

  12. Zoledronic acid enhances Vδ2 T-lymphocyte antitumor response to human glioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, E; Piacentini, P; Sacchi, A; Gioia, C; Leone, S; Lauro, G M; Martini, F; Agrati, C

    2011-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most frequent and aggressive primary brain tumor in humans, responds modestly to treatment: most patients survive less than one year after diagnosis, despite both classical and innovative treatment approaches. A recent paper focused on γδ T-cell response in GBM patients, suggesting the application of an immunomodulating strategy based on γδ T-cells which is already in clinical trials for other tumors. Human Vγ2 T-cells recognize changes in the mevalonate metabolic pathway of transformed cells by activating cytotoxic response, and by cytokine and chemokine release. Interestingly, this activation may also be induced in vivo by drugs, such as zoledronic acid, that induce the accumulation of Vγ2 T-cell ligand Isopentenyl-pyrophosphate by blocking the farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase enzyme. The aim of our work is to confirm whether bisphosphonate treatment would make glioma cell lines more susceptible to lysis by in vitro expanded γδ T-cells, improving their antitumor activity. We expanded in vitro human Vγ2 T-cells by phosphoantigen stimulation and tested their activity against glioma cell lines. Co-culture with glioma cells induced Vγ2 T-cell differentiation in effector/memory cells, killing glioma cells by the release of perforin. Interestingly, glioma cells were directly affected by zoledronic acid; moreover, treatment increased their activating ability on Vγ2 T-cells, inducing an effective antitumor cytotoxic response. Taken together, our results show that aminobisphosphonate drugs may play a dual role against GBM, by directly affecting tumor cells, and by enhancing the antitumor response of Vγ2 T-cells. Our results confirm the practicability of this approach as a new immunotherapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.

  13. Prolonged treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, G; Cagnoni, C; Castelli, A; Concesi, C; Girometta, S; Pancotti, D; Sverzellati, E; Tacchini, G; Pierfranceschi, M G; Carrara, G C

    1995-05-01

    Eighteen patients affected with biopsy-proved primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (histological stage III and IV) received ursodeoxicholic acid (UDCA) 600 mg for 1 year. Signs and symptoms and biochemical tests (glutamic and oxalcetic transaminase, glutamic and pyruvic transaminase, bilirubine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucine aminopeptidase, bile acids, plasma proteins electrophoresis, immunoglubulins A, G and M) and antimitochondrial antibodies were evaluated before the treatment and every four months during the treatment. The results were compared with those obtained in 8 untreated patients affected PBC. The control group of patients were comparable (as far as age, histological stage, biochemical tests are concerned) to the group who received UDCA. Bilirubine, ALP, gamma-GT and LAP decreased during the treatment with UDCA and remained lower than baseline values until the end of the observation (12 months), while no changes occurred in the untreated patients. Both in the treated and untreated group plasma protein electrophoresis, serum immunoglubulins A, G and M remained unchanged, as well as anti-mitochondrial antibody. A moderate reduction of transaminases and bile acids was observed in the group of patients receiving UDCA but it did not reach statistical significance. In 16 out of the 18 treated patients pruritus disappeared and resulted diminished in the remaining 2 patients. No significant amelioration of pruritus was observed in the patients who did not receive UDCA. In conclusion, our data show that prolonged treatment with UDCA drastically reduces pruritus and improves cholestasis biochemical tests in patients affected with symptomatic PBC.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Effect of 82% Lactic Acid in Treatment of Melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rashmi; Goyal, Sapna; Ahmed, Qazi Rais; Gupta, Narendra; Singh, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is an acquired, chronic, and symmetrical hypermelanosis, characterized by brown patches of variable darkness on sun exposed areas of body. There are numerous modalities of treatment currently in use for this disease, of which the chemical peeling is very commonly used. Therefore, the present work was done to see the effect of 82% lactic acid peel in the treatment of melasma. A total number of 20 patients of either sex attending the OPD of dermatology department with clinically evident melasma were included in the study. 82% Lactic acid peel was applied on the face for 12 weeks in each patient. Patients were evaluated clinically and photographically at various intervals and in follow-up till 24 weeks. Assessment of patient satisfaction and side effects were also noted. All the subjects completed the study. Application of this peel for 12 weeks significantly decreased the melasma area severity index score and also melasma severity scale score. Patient and physician analogue scales also showed the improvement by the treatment. Regarding the adverse effects, burning sensation was the only side effect noted in our study. In conclusion, 82% lactic acid peel is well tolerated and can be used for the treatment of melasma. PMID:27355080

  15. Cerium-tannic acid passivation treatment on galvamzed steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guangming; YU Fei; YANG Liu; TIAN Jihong; DU Nan

    2009-01-01

    A novel cerium-tannic acid passivation treatment was performed on galvanized steel. The corrosion resistance of cerium-tannic passivated samples was tested by dropping test with 0.5 wt.% CuSO4 aqueous solution. The mass loss per unit area of passivated samples was measured after the corrosion in 0.5 mol/L NaCl + 0.005 mol/L H2SO4 at room temperature for 96 h. The electrochemical behaviors of cerium, tannic acid, and cerium-tannic acid passivated samples on galvanized steel in 0.5 mol/L NaCI solution were investigated by polarization curves and electrochemical impendence spectra. The corrosion equivalent circuit was established according to the impedance characteristics. The results show that cerium-tannic acid treated samples exhibit better corrosion resistance than the sole cerium or tannic acid treated samples under the same condition. The mechanism of synergistic effect for cerium-tannic acid passivation on galvanized steel was discussed.

  16. Enhanced functional properties of tannic acid after thermal hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal hydrolysis processing of fresh tannic acid was carried out in a closed reactor at four different temperatures (65, 100, 150 and 200°C). Pressures reached in the system were 1.3 and 4.8 MPa at 150 and 200°C, respectively. Hydrolysis products (gallic acid and pyrogallol) were separated and qua...

  17. Genetic Engineering of Rhizopus for Enhancing Lactic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  18. Enhanced Production of Carboxylic Acids by Engineering of Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used to convert, or ferment sugars obtained from agricultural crops to lactic acid. This natural product has long been utilized by the food industry as an additive for preservation, flavor, and acidity. Additionally, it is used for the manufacture of environmental...

  19. Facile plasma-enhanced deposition of ultrathin crosslinked amino acid films for conformal biometallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kyle D; Slocik, Joseph M; McConney, Michael E; Enlow, Jesse O; Jakubiak, Rachel; Bunning, Timothy J; Naik, Rajesh R; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-03-01

    A novel method for the facile fabrication of conformal, ultrathin, and uniform synthetic amino acid coatings on a variety of practical surfaces by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is introduced. Tyrosine, which is utilized as an agent to reduce gold nanoparticles from solution, is sublimed into the plasma field and directly deposited on a variety of substrates to form a homogeneous, conformal, and robust polyamino acid coating in a one-step, solvent-free process. This approach is applicable to many practical surfaces and allows surface-induced biometallization while avoiding multiple wet-chemistry treatments that can damage many soft materials. Moreover, by placing a mask over the substrate during deposition, the tyrosine coating can be micropatterned. Upon its exposure to a solution of gold chloride, a network of gold nanoparticles forms on the surface, replicating the initial micropattern. This method of templated biometallization is adaptable to a variety of practical inorganic and organic substrates, such as silicon, glass, nitrocellulose, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene, and woven silk fibers. No special pretreatment is necessary, and the technique results in a rapid, conformal amino acid coating that can be utilized for further biometallization.

  20. Glycyrrhizic Acid in the Treatment of Liver Diseases: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-yuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycyrrhizic acid (GA is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra. GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.

  1. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  2. Treatment of hydrofluoric acid exposure to the eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine; Atley; Edward; Ridyard

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence of the treatment of hydrofluoric acid(HF) exposure to the human cornea.METHODS: A comprehensive manual search of the literature was conducted through the Ovid interface to assess the mechanism and efficacy of each irrigator through a variety of clinical cases and experimental studies.· RESULTS: Ocular exposure to HF is extremely damaging to the eye and swift recognition and decontamination with an appropriate agent forms the basis of treatment. Although there are various decontamination solutions that have efficacy against the corrosive action of HF, irrigation with Hexafluorine proved to be the most safe and effective treatment for the eye.CONCLUSION: In conclusion emergency departments could benefit from the availability of Hexafluorine for the treatment of HF ocular burns in patients.

  3. Functionalized graphene nanocomposites for enhancing photothermal therapy in tumor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Su, Yu-Lin; Hu, Shang-Hsiu; Chen, San-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Graphene and its derivatives have unique physical and chemical properties that make them promising vehicles for photothermal therapy (PTT)-based cancer treatment. With intrinsic near-infrared (NIR) absorption properties, graphene-based nanomaterials can be used for PTT and other therapeutics, particularly in combination therapy, to provide successful thermal ablation of cancer cells. In the recent years, advances in graphene-based PTT have produced efficient and efficacious tumor inhibition via nanomaterial structural design and different functionalizations of graphene-derived nanocomposites. Graphene-based nanosystems exhibit multifunctional properties that are useful for PTT applications including enhancement of multimodalities, guided imaging, enhanced chemotherapy and low-power efficient PTT for optimum therapeutic efficiency. Therefore, in this review, we address critical issues and future aspects of PTT-based combination therapy.

  4. Electrokinetic removal of chromium and copper from contaminated soils by lactic acid enhancement in the catholyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Dong-mei; Alshawabkeh Akram N; DENG Chang-fen; CANG Long; SI You-bin

    2004-01-01

    The electrokinetic removal of chromium and copper from contaminated soils by adding lactic acid in cathode chamber as an enhancing reagent was evaluated. Two sets of duplicate experiments with chromium contaminated kaolinite and with a silty soil sampled from a superfund site in California of USA and polluted by Cr and Cu, were carried out in a constant current mode. Changes of soil water content and soil pH before and after the electrokinetic experiments, and variations of voltage drop and electroosmosis flow during the treatments were examined. The results indicated that Cr, spiked as Cr(Ⅵ) in the kaolinite, was accumulated mainly in the anode chamber, and some of Cr and metal hydroxides precipitated in the soil sections in contact with the cathode, which significantly increased electrical energy consumption. Treatment of the soil collected from the site showed accumulation of large amounts of Cr and Cu in the anode chamber while none was detected in the cathode one. The results suggested that the two metals either complexed with the injected lactic acid at the cathode or existed as negatively charged complex, and electromigrated toward the anode under a voltage gradient.

  5. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Deegan, Alexander Paul

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a 49-year old male who presented with dyspnoea, cough, weight loss, night sweats and general malaise. He had been on treatment with oral fumaric acid esters (FAE, Fumaderm(R); Biogen Idec GmbH, Ismaning, Germany) for 6 months. METHODS: Report of a case. RESULTS: His chest X-ray showed patchy infiltrates in the left upper lobe which failed to resolve under empiric antibiotic therapy. A computed tomography of thorax revealed bilateral, mostly peripheral foci of consolidation with air bronchograms. Transbronchial biopsies showed a pattern of organising pneumonia (OP). CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral prednisolone (40 mg\\/day) resulted in a rapid clinical and radiological improvement. An association of FAE and OP has not previously been reported. Please cite this paper as: Deegan AP, Kirby B, Rogers S, Crotty TB and McDonnell TJ. Organising pneumonia associated with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

  6. [Characteristics of acid red 3R wastewater treatment by ozone microbubbles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Du, Ya-Wei; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Zhou, Yu-Wen; Liu, Chun; Yang, Jing-Liang; Zhang, Lei

    2015-02-01

    The application of microbubble technology for ozonation wastewater treatment could enhance ozone mass transfer, improve ozonation performance and increase ozone utilization efficiency. The ozone microbubbles were used to treat synthetic acid red 3R wastewater in the present study, and compared to ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone mass transfer and ozonation characteristics of acid red 3R were investigated when ozone microbubbles and ozone conventional bubbles were applied. The results confirmed the enhanced ozone mass transfer using microbubbles. The ozone mass transfer coefficient using microbubbles was 3.6 times higher than that using conventional bubbles under the same conditions. Simultaneously, the ozone decomposition coefficient using microbubbles was 6.2 times higher than that using conventional bubbles, which would be favorable for *OH generation. The ozonation rate and mineralization efficiency of acid red 3R could be improved significantly using ozone microbubbles. A TOC removal efficiency of 78.0% was achieved using ozone microbubbles, which was about 2 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles. The ozone utilization efficiency using microbubbles was much higher that using conventional bubbles during ozonation treatment of acid red 3R. The average ozone utilization efficiencies were 97.8% and 69.3% when microbubbles and conventional bubbles were used, respectively. The oxidative ability of ozone microbubbles could be increased by enhancing *OH generation, and as a result, the oxidative reaction of degradation intermediates was accelerated by ozone microbubbles. Especially, the mineralization ability of small organic acid intermediates using ozone microbubbles was about 1.6 times higher than that using ozone conventional bubbles.

  7. Acid rock drainage formation and treatment: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosa O. Egiebor; Ben Oni [Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL (United States). Environmental Engineering Program

    2007-05-15

    The exploitation of coal and metallic mineral resources worldwide normally results in the production of large quantities of overburden, gangue, and tailings materials containing significant amounts of sulfide minerals. These sulfide minerals, which include sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and other complex sulfides, are often disseminated in pyrite, which is the most abundant sulfide mineral in the earth's crust. Once exposed to water and oxygen through mining and mineral processing operations, these sulfides become immediately susceptible to chemical and biochemical oxidation with the consequent production of highly acidic, metal-laden leachates, which are generally referred to as acid rock drainage (ARD) or acid mine drainage (AMD). This ARD production, which can be sustained for hundreds of years, has become the single biggest environmental problem facing the mining and mineral industry. Untreated acid rock drainage leads to serious contamination of large areas of land, as well as surface and ground water resources. The seriousness of the problem has led to major research efforts to find solutions. However, effective ARD treatment and prevention solutions have eluded the scientific community over the past decades. This paper presents a detailed review of the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to the magnitude of the problem, the chemistry and mechanism of sulfide mineral oxidation and ARD formation, the role of microorganisms in ARD formation process, and the proposed approaches for the treatment, control, and prevention of ARD formation.

  8. Zoledronic acid infusion for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyecz, John A

    2010-01-01

    John A SunyeczLaurel Highlands Ob/Gyn, Hopwood, Pennsylvania, USA and MenopauseRx, Inc., Uniontown, PA, USAAbstract: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, increased mortality, and high health care costs. Bisphosphonates are standard therapy for treatment of osteoporosis. However, patient compliance and persistence with oral weekly or monthly bisphosphonate therapy are suboptimal and may lead to reduced effectiveness. Zoledronic acid (ZOL) i...

  9. Peracetic acid products expand sanitizing, organic water treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Jokumsen, Alfred; Larsen, Villy J.; Henriksen, Niels Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. PAA is among the few disinfectants approved for organic aquaculture

  10. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-04-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 (-) were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis.

  11. Expression of Vitis amurensis NAC26 in Arabidopsis enhances drought tolerance by modulating jasmonic acid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linchuan; Su, Lingye; Sun, Xiaoming; Li, Xinbo; Sun, Mengxiang; Karungo, Sospeter Karanja; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Li, Shaohua; Xin, Haiping

    2016-01-01

    The growth and fruit quality of grapevines are widely affected by abnormal climatic conditions such as water deficits, but many of the precise mechanisms by which grapevines respond to drought stress are still largely unknown. Here, we report that VaNAC26, a member of the NAC transcription factor family, was upregulated dramatically during cold, drought and salinity treatments in Vitis amurensis, a cold and drought-hardy wild Vitis species. Heterologous overexpression of VaNAC26 enhanced drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Higher activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower concentrations of H2O2 and O2 − were found in VaNAC26-OE lines than in wild type plants under drought stress. These results indicated that scavenging by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was enhanced by VaNAC26 in transgenic lines. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to jasmonic acid (JA) synthesis and signaling were upregulated in VaNAC26-OE lines under both normal and drought conditions. VaNAC26 showed a specific binding ability on the NAC recognition sequence (NACRS) motif, which broadly exists in the promoter regions of upregulated genes in transgenic lines. Endogenous JA content significantly increased in the VaNAC26-OE lines 2 and 3. Our data suggest that VaNAC26 responds to abiotic stresses and may enhance drought tolerance by transcriptional regulation of JA synthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27162276

  12. New magnetic-enhanced adsorption process for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, G.B.; Navratil, J.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sebesta, F. [Czech Tech Univ. (Czech Republic)

    1999-09-01

    Radioactive and nonradioactive metal ion and particulate species in aqueous solutions present a formidable treatment problem for the nuclear and commercial industries. An economical and highly effective system for the treatment of wastewater containing these metal species is presented that uses a new magnetic enhanced adsorption technique. The process employs low-cost magnetite (FeO{center_dot}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) supported on various organic and inorganic support media, and an external magnetic field to couple the inherent sorption properties of the magnetite with a high gradient magnetic separation technique. This combination of sorption techniques offers several advantages over current filtration and ion exchange systems and removes a variety of heavy metals and radioactive species. Filtration systems do not remove ionic species, and ion exchange systems can be plugged by particulate matter, which may limit the amount of exchange sites able to be accessed.

  13. The memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Ko, Hae Ju; Jeon, Se Jin; Lee, Sunhee; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Ha Neul; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2016-03-01

    Erucic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid isolated from the seed of Raphanus sativus L. that is known to normalize the accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in the brains of patients suffering from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Here, we investigated whether erucic acid enhanced cognitive function or ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the passive avoidance, Y-maze and Morris water maze tasks. Erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced memory performance in normal naïve mice. In addition, erucic acid (3mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairment, as assessed via the behavioral tasks. We then investigated the underlying mechanism of the memory-enhancing effect of erucic acid. The administration of erucic acid increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and additional protein kinase B (Akt) in the hippocampus. These results suggest that erucic acid has an ameliorative effect in mice with scopolamine-induced memory deficits and that the effect of erucic acid is partially due to the activation of PI3K-PKCζ-ERK-CREB signaling as well as an increase in phosphorylated Akt in the hippocampus. Therefore, erucic acid may be a novel therapeutic agent for diseases associated with cognitive deficits, such as Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Enhancing Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewaters Containing Oleic Acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ching-Shyung, H.

    1997-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONLipids are one of the major organic pollutants in municipal and industrial wastewaters. Although domestic sewage typically contains about 40-100 mg/I lipids (Forster, 1992; Quéméneur and Marty, 1994), it is industrial wastewaters that are of greater concern when consider

  15. Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

    2013-04-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans

  16. Excimer surface treatment to enhance bonding in coated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Olfert, M.; Duley, Walter W.; North, T.; Hood, J.; Sakai, D.

    1996-04-01

    Zinc coated sheet steel in the form of temper rolled galvanize and galvanneal are used extensively in the automotive industry. Through a process of excimer laser surface treatment, we have succeeded in significantly enhancing the adhesion characteristics of these coated steels. The laser treatment is performed by scanning focused excimer laser radiation in a raster pattern over the surface to be bonded. Adhesion tests have been carried out in the form of T peel tests, using either a hot melt nylon resin or an epoxy as the adhesive. An increase in bond strength was observed over a substantial range of surface treatment conditions. The largest improvement observed was more than a factor of three greater than for untreated surfaces. With the improved surface condition, the bond strength became limited by the cohesive strength of the adhesive. The physical structure and chemical composition of the parent and excimer treated surfaces have been examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the nature and extent of the changes caused by the surface treatment. The effects of the observed changes on the bonding performance will be discussed. Surfaces have been processed under an inert atmosphere to isolate the effects of physical surface modification and surface oxidation. An attempt will be made to correlate the surface changes with the bonding characteristics and thereby indicate which changes are most beneficial. The ultimate goal is to optimize the surface condition for bonding and maximize the process rate.

  17. Enhanced skin delivery of vismodegib by microneedle treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hiep X; Banga, Ajay K

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the effects of microneedle treatment (maltose microneedles, Admin Pen™ 1200, and Admin Pen™ 1500) on in vitro transdermal delivery of vismodegib with different needle lengths, skin equilibration times, and microneedle insertion durations. The influence of microneedle treatment on the dimensions of microchannels (dye binding, calcein imaging, histology, and confocal microscopy studies), transepidermal water loss, and skin permeability of vismodegib was also evaluated. Skin viscoelasticity was assessed using a rheometer, and microneedle geometry was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Permeation studies of vismodegib through dermatomed porcine ear skin were conducted using vertical Franz diffusion cells. Skin irritation potential of vismodegib formulation was assessed using an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis model. Results of the in vitro permeation studies revealed significant enhancement in permeation of vismodegib through microneedle-treated skin. As the needle length increased from 500 to 1100 and 1400 μm, drug delivery increased from 14.50 ± 2.35 to 32.38 ± 3.33 and 74.40 ± 15.86 μg/cm(2), respectively. Positive correlation between drug permeability and microneedle treatment duration was observed. The equilibration time was also found to affect the delivery of vismodegib. Thus, changes in microneedle length, equilibration time, and duration of treatment altered transdermal delivery of vismodegib.

  18. Slagment Cement Improve the Cement Resistance Toward Acids Attack During Acidizing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Khairul Irfan Bin Nik Ab. Lah.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acidizing treatment in past experience shows several zonal isolation problems after the treatment. This study presents the effect of the acid treatment toward class G cement and slagment cement as the improvement method to improve the cement resistance toward the acid. Lab experiments were conducted by immerge the respective cement cubes into 12% HCl/3% HF solution for 40 min before several analysis were conducted. Based on the result, the mass loss and compressive strength loss of the cement cubes decrease as the curing temperature and pressure increase due to more evenly distributed cement chemical composition crystal in high curing condition as shown in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis. From X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF analysis, only the first layer of the cement cubes shows chemical component change due to the reaction between the acid. This study found that, replacing class G cement to slagment cement can reduce the mass loss and compressive strength loss up to 72% and 82%, respectively.

  19. Enhanced expression of aconitase raises acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-15

    Acetobacter spp. are used for industrial vinegar production because of their high ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and high resistance to acetic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of a soluble fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins whose production was enhanced, to various extents, in response to acetic acid in the medium. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa was significantly enhanced in amount by acetic acid and identified to be aconitase by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and subsequent gene cloning. Amplification of the aconitase gene by use of a multicopy plasmid in A. aceti enhanced the enzymatic activity and acetic acid resistance. These results showed that aconitase is concerned with acetic acid resistance. Enhancement of the aconitase activity turned out to be practically useful for acetic acid fermentation, because the A. aceti transformant harboring multiple copies of the aconitase gene produced a higher concentration of acetic acid with a reduced growth lag-time.

  20. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...

  1. Gintonin enhances performance of mice in rotarod test: Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid receptors and catecholamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Kim, Jisu; Lee, Ra Mi; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Myung Koo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewon; Lim, Kiwon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-26

    Ginseng has a long history of use as a tonic for restoration of vigor. One example of ginseng-derived tonic effect is that it can improve physical stamina under conditions of stress. However, the active ingredient and the underlying molecular mechanism responsible for the ergogenic effect are unknown. Recent studies show that ginseng contains a novel ingredient, gintonin, which consists of a unique class of herbal-medicine lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). Gintonin activates G protein-coupled LPA receptors to produce a transient [Ca(2+)]i signal, which is coupled to diverse intra- and inter-cellular signal transduction pathways that stimulate hormone or neurotransmitter release. However, relatively little is known about how gintonin-mediated cellular modulation is linked to physical endurance. In the present study, systemic administration of gintonin, but not ginsenosides, in fasted mice increased blood glucose concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Gintonin treatment elevated blood glucose to a maximum level after 30min. This elevation in blood glucose level could be abrogated by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, Ki16425, or the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Furthermore, gintonin-dependent enhanced performance of fasted mice in rotarod test was likewise abrogated by Ki16425. Gintonin also elevated plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. The present study shows that gintonin mediates catecholamine release through activation of the LPA receptor and that activation of the β-adrenergic receptor is coupled to liver glycogenolysis, thereby increasing the supply of glucose and enhancing performance in the rotarod test. Thus, gintonin acts via the LPA-catecholamine-glycogenolysis axis, representing a candidate mechanism that can explain how ginseng treatment enhances physical stamina.

  2. Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires: an effective sensing platform for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunchun; Liu, Qian; Sun, Xuping; Kong, Rongmei

    2017-02-01

    The determination of specific nucleic acid sequences is key in identifying disease-causing pathogens and genetic diseases. In this paper we report the utilization of Fe-nitrilotriacetic acid coordination polymer nanowires as an effective nanoquencher for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection. The detection is fast and the whole process can be completed within 15 min. This nanosensor shows a low detection limit of 0.2 nM with selectivity down to single-base mismatch. This work provides us with an attractive sensing platform for applications.

  3. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Treatment on Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogoş Tiberius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Insulin resistance (IR is a common pathogenic factor of several diseases: diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, etc. There are many therapeutic factors involved in decreasing IR. Among them we mention metformin, pioglitazone, physical activity, weight loss, diet, etc. In the last decade, there are more observations of the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids on IR. The most powerful seem to be omega-3 fatty acids. In our study, we wanted to asses if the administration of omega-3 fatty acids is involved in modifying IR. Materials and methods: We evaluated 126 diabetic patients with IR from January 2011 until July 2014. The study was open-label and non-randomized. For the determination of IR we used the HOMA-IR method. Results: For both males and females there was a regression of HOMA-IR during the 4 weeks of treatment with omega-3 and also after 2 weeks after stopping the administration of these fatty acids. The decrease of HOMA-IR was statistically significant (p<0.05. The statistic result observed in the next 2 weeks after stopping administration of omega-3 was also significant (p<0.05.

  4. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  5. Permeability enhancers dramatically increase zanamivir absolute bioavailability in rats: implications for an orally bioavailable influenza treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Holmes

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that simple formulations composed of the parent drug in combination with generally regarded as safe (GRAS permeability enhancers are capable of dramatically increasing the absolute bioavailability of zanamivir. This has the advantage of not requiring modification of the drug structure to promote absorption, thus reducing the regulatory challenges involved in conversion of an inhaled to oral route of administration of an approved drug. Absolute bioavailability increases of up to 24-fold were observed when Capmul MCM L8 (composed of mono- and diglycerides of caprylic/capric acids in glycerol was mixed with 1.5 mg of zanamivir and administered intraduodenally to rats. Rapid uptake (t(max of 5 min and a C(max of over 7200 ng/mL was achieved. Variation of the drug load or amount of enhancer demonstrated a generally linear variation in absorption, indicating an ability to optimize a formulation for a desired outcome such as a targeted C(max for enzyme saturation. No absorption enhancement was observed when the enhancer was given 2 hr prior to drug administration, indicating, in combination with the observed tmax, that absorption enhancement is temporary. This property is significant and aligns well with therapeutic applications to limit undesirable drug-drug interactions, potentially due to the presence of other poorly absorbed polar drugs. These results suggest that optimal human oral dosage forms of zanamivir should be enteric-coated gelcaps or softgels for intraduodenal release. There continues to be a strong need and market for multiple neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza treatment. Creation of orally available formulations of inhibitor drugs that are currently administered intravenously or by inhalation would provide a significant improvement in treatment of influenza. The very simple GRAS formulation components and anticipated dosage forms would require low manufacturing costs and yield enhanced convenience. These results

  6. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  7. CO2-enhanced extraction of acetic acid from fermented wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, E.; Zaalberg, B.; IJmker, H.M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Schuur, B.

    2015-01-01

    The industrial process of recovering fermentation-based volatile fatty acids (VFAs) utilizes H2SO4 to acidify the fermentation broth containing VFA-salts [e.g. Ca(CH3COO)2] to enable formation of molecular VFAs. Molecular VFAs are then recovered by liquid–liquid extraction. However, acidification wi

  8. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity and Sequence Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and binding affinity. Methods of increasing binding affinity and sequence specificity of peptide nucleic aci...

  9. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves.

  10. Bile Acids in Polycystic Liver Diseases: Triggers of Disease Progression and Potential Solution for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugorria, Maria J; Labiano, Ibone; Esparza-Baquer, Aitor; Marzioni, Marco; Marin, Jose J G; Bujanda, Luis; Banales, Jesús M

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are a group of genetic hereditary cholangiopathies characterized by the development and progressive growth of cysts in the liver, which are the main cause of morbidity. Current therapies are based on surgical procedures and pharmacological strategies, which show short-term and modest beneficial effects. Therefore, the determination of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis appears to be crucial in order to find new potential targets for pharmacological therapy. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and abnormal cystic cholangiocyte growth and secretion are some of the key mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs. However, the discovery of the presence of bile acids in the fluid collected from human cysts and the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids in an animal model of PLD (i.e. polycystic kidney (PCK) rat) suggest a potential role of impaired bile acid homeostasis in the pathogenesis of these diseases. On the other hand, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has emerged as a new potential therapeutic tool for PLDs by promoting the inhibition of cystic cholangiocyte growth in both PCK rats and highly symptomatic patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD: most common type of PLD), and improving symptoms. Chronic treatment with UDCA normalizes the decreased intracellular calcium levels in ADPKD human cholangiocytes in vitro, which results in the reduction of their baseline-stimulated proliferation. Moreover, UDCA decreases the liver concentration of cytotoxic bile acids in PCK rats and the bile acid-dependent enhanced proliferation of cystic cholangiocytes. Here, the role of bile acids in the pathogenesis of PLDs and the potential therapeutic value of UDCA for the treatment of these diseases are reviewed and future lines of investigation in this field are proposed.

  11. Effect of low molecular weight organic acids on phosphorus adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhui; Wang, Ziyuan; Lin, Lu; Tian, Binghui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-02-15

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs; citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid) on phosphorus (P) adsorption by ferric-alum water treatment residuals (FARs) were studied. Both batch and column experiments indicated that the effects of LMWOAs on P adsorption were closely related to adsorption time. Initially, all acids presented inhibitory function on P adsorption. The inhibition became weaker with time, eventually promoting P adsorption for citric acid and tartaric acid. In the column experiment with a 61-day duration, high P adsorption rates (>55%) were observed for the test groups containing citric acid and tartaric acid. Interestingly, higher pH likely enhanced P adsorption with the effects of LMWOAs and a distinct relationship between LMWOAs' effects on P adsorption and their concentrations was not observed. Moreover, fractionation of the adsorbed P from the FARs demonstrated that oxalic acid reduced P adsorption capacity, while citric acid and tartaric acid increased. Based on the forms of Fe and Al existing in the FARs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, LMWOAs can promote P adsorption through activating crystalline Fe/Al and preventing crystallization of amorphous Fe/Al to increase P adsorption sites, and can also inhibit P adsorption by competition with adsorption sites.

  12. Lactic Acid Recovery in Electro-Enhanced Dialysis: Modelling and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2009-01-01

    and migration across the boundary layers and membranes. The model is validated for Donnan dialysis recovery of different monoprotic carboxylic acids. Simulations are used to evaluate the potential enhancement of lactate fluxes under current load conditions, referred as Electro-Enhanced Dialysis operation...

  13. Proteinuria with fumaric acid ester treatment for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, S; Lewis Jones, S; Dawe, R; Foerster, J

    2011-08-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) have been used in the treatment of psoriasis for many years. In general, they are regarded as relatively safe compared with other antipsoriatic systemic treatments, with the most notable adverse effects being gastrointestinal upset, lymphopenia and transient flushing. Renal toxicity has only rarely been reported, and was not found in two independent prospective trials nor in a large retrospective evaluation of almost 1000 patients treated for a median of 44 months. We report three patients developing reversible proteinuria during FAE treatment. One of these displayed the same pattern upon repeated drug administration, thereby clearly indicating FAE treatment to be the causal trigger. The presented cases highlight proteinuria as a clinical concern in FAE treatment. Furthermore, as the novel FAE agent dimethylfumaric (DMF) ester (contained in BG00012/Panaclar) has previously been shown to be effective in psoriasis in a phase III trial and not shown renal toxicity in a large trial for multiple sclerosis, the current report suggests that market introduction of DMF for psoriasis should be pursued.

  14. Enhanced silicate weathering is not limited by silicic acid saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.; Wilson, S.A.; Power, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced weathering of olivine as a means of sequestering carbon is investigated by Köhler et al. (1). Specifically, the study discusses the potential distribution of fine olivine powder, obtained from dunite mines, in the humid tropic regions of the Amazon and Congo River catchments. Olivine (forst

  15. Enhancing Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment Efficiency for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoqian

    To improve efficiency and safety of anti-cancer therapies the researchers and clinicians alike are prompted to develop targeted combined therapies that especially minimize damage to healthy tissues while eradicating the body of cancerous tissues. Previous research in cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and cancer cell interaction has repeatedly proven that cold plasma induced cell death. In this study, we seek to integrate the medical application of CAP. We proposed and implemented 3 novel ideas to enhance efficacy and selectivity of cancer therapy. It is postulated that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) play a major role in the CAP cancer therapy. We determined a mechanism of CAP therapy on glioblastoma cells (U87) through an understanding of the composition of CAP, including output voltage, treatment time, and gas flow-rate. We varied the characteristics of the cold plasma in order to obtain different major species (such as O, OH, N2+, and N2 lines). "plasma dosage" D ~ Q * V * t. is defined, where D is the entire "plasma dosage"; Q is the flow rate of feeding gas; V is output voltage; t is treatment time. The proper CAP dosage caused 3-fold cell death in the U87 cells compared to the normal human astrocytes E6/E7 cells. We demonstrated there is a synergy between AuNPS and CAP in cancer therapy. Specifically, the concentration of AuNPs plays an important role on plasma therapy. At an optimal concentration, gold nanoparticles can significantly induce U87 cell death up to a 30% overall increase compared to the control group with the same plasma dosage but no AuNPs applied. The ROS intensity of the corresponding conditions has a reversed trend compared to cell viability. This matches with the theory that intracellular ROS accumulation results in oxidative stress, which further changes the intracellular pathways, causing damage to the proteins, lipids and DNA. Our results show that this synergy has great potential in improving the

  16. Influence of fenofibrate treatment on triacylglycerides, diacylglycerides and fatty acids in fructose fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kopf

    Full Text Available Fenofibrate (FF lowers plasma triglycerides via PPARα activation. Here, we analyzed lipidomic changes upon FF treatment of fructose fed rats. Three groups with 6 animals each were defined as control, fructose-fed and fructose-fed/FF treated. Male Wistar Unilever Rats were subjected to 10% fructose-feeding for 20 days. On day 14, fenofibrate treatment (100 mg/kg p.o. was initiated and maintained for 7 days. Lipid species in serum were analyzed using mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS; LC-FT-MS, GC-MS on days 0, 14 and 20 in all three groups. In addition, lipid levels in liver and intestine were determined. Short-chain TAGs increased in serum and liver upon fructose-feeding, while almost all TAG-species decreased under FF treatment. Long-chain unsaturated DAG-levels (36:1, 36:2, 36:4, 38:3, 38:4, 38:5 increased upon FF treatment in rat liver and decreased in rat serum. FAs, especially short-chain FAs (12:0, 14:0, 16:0 increased during fructose-challenge. VLDL secretion increased upon fructose-feeding and together with FA-levels decreased to control levels during FF treatment. Fructose challenge of de novo fatty acid synthesis through fatty acid synthase (FAS may enhance the release of FAs ≤ 16:0 chain length, a process reversed by FF-mediated PPARα-activation.

  17. Degradation of Fructans and Production of Propionic Acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are Enhanced by the Shortage of Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Signe; Tomson, Katrin; Vija, Heiki; Puurand, Marju; Kabanova, Natalja; Visnapuu, Triinu; Jõgi, Eerik; Alamäe, Tiina; Adamberg, Kaarel

    2014-01-01

    Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory) and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae), two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (degree of polymerization > 3). Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h), followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of d-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW) occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW) of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr, and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will

  18. Degradation of fructans and production of propionic acid by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are enhanced by shortage of amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe eAdamberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron is commonly found in the human colon and stabilizes its ecosystem by the catabolism of various polysaccharides. A model of cross-talk between the metabolism of amino acids and fructans in B. thetaiotaomicron was proposed. The growth of B. thetaiotaomicron DSM 2079 in two defined media containing mineral salts and vitamins, and supplemented with either 20 or 2 amino acids, was studied in an isothermal microcalorimeter. The polyfructans inulin (from chicory and levan (synthesized using levansucrase from Pseudomonas syringae, two fructooligosaccharide preparations with different composition, sucrose and fructose were tested as substrates. The calorimetric power-time curves were substrate specific and typically multiauxic. A surplus of amino acids reduced the consumption of longer oligosaccharides (DP > 3. Bacterial growth was not detected either in the carbohydrate free medium containing amino acids or in the medium with inulin as a sole carbohydrate. In amino acid-restricted medium, fermentation leading to acetic acid formation was dominant at the beginning of growth (up to 24 h, followed by increased lactic acid production, and mainly propionic and succinic acids were produced at the end of fermentation. In the medium supplemented with 20 amino acids, the highest production of D-lactate (82 ± 33 mmol/gDW occurred in parallel with extensive consumption (up to 17 mmol/gDW of amino acids, especially Ser, Thr and Asp. The production of Ala and Glu was observed at growth on all substrates, and the production was enhanced under amino acid deficiency. The study revealed the influence of amino acids on fructan metabolism in B. thetaiotaomicron and showed that defined growth media are invaluable in elucidating quantitative metabolic profiles of the bacteria. Levan was shown to act as an easily degradable substrate for B. thetaiotaomicron. The effect of levan on balancing or modifying colon microbiota will be studied in

  19. Afferent signalling from the acid-challenged rat stomach is inhibited and gastric acid elimination is enhanced by lafutidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer Peter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lafutidine is a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, the gastroprotective effect of which is related to its antisecretory activity and its ability to activate a sensory neuron-dependent mechanism of defence. The present study investigated whether intragastric administration of lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg modifies vagal afferent signalling, mucosal injury, intragastric acidity and gastric emptying after gastric acid challenge. Methods Adult rats were treated with vehicle, lafutidine (10 – 30 mg/kg or cimetidine (10 mg/kg, and 30 min later their stomachs were exposed to exogenous HCl (0.25 M. During the period of 2 h post-HCl, intragastric pH, gastric volume, gastric acidity and extent of macroscopic gastric mucosal injury were determined and the activation of neurons in the brainstem was visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry. Results Gastric acid challenge enhanced the expression of c-Fos in the nucleus tractus solitarii but caused only minimal damage to the gastric mucosa. Lafutidine reduced the HCl-evoked expression of c-Fos in the NTS and elevated the intragastric pH following intragastric administration of excess HCl. Further analysis showed that the gastroprotective effect of lafutidine against excess acid was delayed and went in parallel with facilitation of gastric emptying, measured indirectly via gastric volume changes, and a reduction of gastric acidity. The H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine had similar but weaker effects. Conclusion These observations indicate that lafutidine inhibits the vagal afferent signalling of a gastric acid insult, which may reflect an inhibitory action on acid-induced gastric pain. The ability of lafutidine to decrease intragastric acidity following exposure to excess HCl cannot be explained by its antisecretory activity but appears to reflect dilution and/or emptying of the acid load into the duodenum. This profile of actions emphasizes the notion that H2 receptor antagonists can protect

  20. [PREPARATIONS OF PAMIDRONOVIC ACID IN COMPLEX TREATMENT ON OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyma, A M; Guk, Yu M; Magomedov, O M; Gayko, O G; Kincha-Polishchuk, T A

    2015-07-01

    Modern view of drug therapy in the complex treatment of orthopedic manifestations of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) was submitted. Developed and tested system of drug correction of structural and functional state of bone tissue (BT) using drugs pamidronovic acid, depending on osteoporosis severity and type of disease. Such therapy is appropriate to apply both independently and in conjunction with surgery to correct deformations of long bones of the lower extremities. Effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods of drug therapy was proved, most patients resume features walking and support.

  1. Enhancing Chlorination Fundamentals for Water Treatment Technology IV Course Using On-Line Multi-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masengo Ilunga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current paper demonstrates the use of on-line multi-media, i.e. "chlorination of natural waters" and "dissociation of weak acids" from Merlot database, to enhance teaching and learning for Water Treatment Technology IV course material. This database focuses on fundamental concepts for chlorination as one of the most prominent disinfection treatment technology processes in the world and in South Africa. The course is part of the curriculum for the bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering, water specialisation at the University of South Africa (Unisa. The evaluation of these Merlot learning objects shows that accessibility, interaction usability, learning goal alignment, adaptation and motivation may be achieved during learning.

  2. Enhanced fatty acid flux triggered by adiponectin overexpression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Shoba; Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Cho, You-Ree; Brown, Jonathan; Plutzky, Jorge; Muise, Eric S; Horton, Jay D; Scherer, Philipp E; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin overexpression in mice increases insulin sensitivity independent of adiposity. Here, we combined stable isotope infusion and in vivo measurements of lipid flux with transcriptomic analysis to characterize fatty acid metabolism in transgenic mice that overexpress adiponectin via the aP2-promoter (ADNTg). Compared with controls, fasted ADNTg mice demonstrated a 31% reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentrations (P = 0.008), a doubling of ketones (P = 0.028), and a 68% increase in free fatty acid turnover in plasma (15.1 ± 1.5 vs. 25.3 ± 6.8 mg/kg · min, P = 0.011). ADNTg mice had 2-fold more brown adipose tissue mass, and triglyceride synthesis and turnover were 5-fold greater in this organ (P = 0.046). Epididymal white adipose tissue was slightly reduced, possibly due to the approximately 1.5-fold increase in the expression of genes involved in oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, and uncoupling protein 3). In ADNTg liver, lipogenic gene expression was reduced, but there was an unexpected increase in the expression of retinoid pathway genes (hepatic retinol binding protein 1 and retinoic acid receptor beta and adipose Cyp26A1) and liver retinyl ester content (64% higher, P < 0.02). Combined, these data support a physiological link between adiponectin signaling and increased efficiency of triglyceride synthesis and hydrolysis, a process that can be controlled by retinoids. Interactions between adiponectin and retinoids may underlie adiponectin's effects on intermediary metabolism.

  3. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  4. Ursolic acid regulates aging process through enhancing of metabolic sensor proteins level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Soroush Alaghehband; Bakhtiari, Nuredin

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Ursolic Acid (UA) ameliorates skeletal muscle performance through satellite cells proliferation and cellular energy status. In studying the potential role of the hypothalamus in aging, we developed a strategy to pursue UA effects on the hypothalamus anti-aging proteins such as; SIRT1, SIRT6, PGC-1β and α-Klotho. In this study, we used a model of aging animals (C57BL/6). UA dissolved in Corn oil (20mg/ml) and then administrated (200mg/Kg i.p injection) to mice, twice daily for 7days. After treatment times, the mice perfused and the hypothalamus isolated for preparing of tissue to Immunofluorescence microscopy. The data illustrated that UA significantly increased SIRT1 (∼3.5±0.3 folds) and SIRT-6 (∼1.5±0.2 folds) proteins overexpression (Presults showed that UA enhanced α-Klotho (∼3.3±0.3) and PGC-1β (∼2.6±0.2 folds) proteins levels (PUA through enhancing of anti-aging biomarkers (SIRT1 and SIRT6) and PGC-1β in hypothalamus regulates aging-process and attenuates mitochondrial-related diseases. In regard to the key role of α-Klotho in aging, our data indicate that UA may be on the horizon to forestall diseases of aging.

  5. Enhanced fatty acid oxidation in adipocytes and macrophages reduces lipid-induced triglyceride accumulation and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandrino, Maria Ida; Fucho, Raquel; Weber, Minéia; Calderon-Dominguez, María; Mir, Joan Francesc; Valcarcel, Lorea; Escoté, Xavier; Gómez-Serrano, María; Peral, Belén; Salvadó, Laia; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casals, Núria; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Villarroya, Francesc; Vendrell, Joan J; Serra, Dolors; Herrero, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Lipid overload in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with adipocyte dysfunction, inflammation, macrophage infiltration, and decreased fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Here, we report that the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, is higher in human adipose tissue macrophages than in adipocytes and that it is differentially expressed in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue in both an obese and a type 2 diabetes cohort. These observations led us to further investigate the potential role of CPT1A in adipocytes and macrophages. We expressed CPT1AM, a permanently active mutant form of CPT1A, in 3T3-L1 CARΔ1 adipocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages through adenoviral infection. Enhanced FAO in palmitate-incubated adipocytes and macrophages reduced triglyceride content and inflammation, improved insulin sensitivity in adipocytes, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS damage in macrophages. We conclude that increasing FAO in adipocytes and macrophages improves palmitate-induced derangements. This indicates that enhancing FAO in metabolically relevant cells such as adipocytes and macrophages may be a promising strategy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Valproic acid induces cutaneous wound healing in vivo and enhances keratinocyte motility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soung-Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex process involving several signaling pathways such as the Wnt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways. Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly used antiepileptic drug that acts on these signaling pathways; however, the effect of VPA on cutaneous wound healing is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We created full-thickness wounds on the backs of C3H mice and then applied VPA. After 7 d, we observed marked healing and reduced wound size in VPA-treated mice. In the neo-epidermis of the wounds, β-catenin and markers for keratinocyte terminal differentiation were increased after VPA treatment. In addition, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, collagen I and collagen III in the wounds were significantly increased. VPA induced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of cells in the wounds, as determined by Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining analyses, respectively. In vitro, VPA enhanced the motility of HaCaT keratinocytes by activating Wnt/β-catenin, ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: VPA enhances cutaneous wound healing in a murine model and induces migration of HaCaT keratinocytes.

  7. Determination of residues in honey after treatments with formic and oxalic acid under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Stefan; Charrière, Jean-Daniel; IMDORF, Anton; KILCHENMANN, Verena; Fluri, Peter

    2002-01-01

    International audience; Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, oxalic acid and free acidity. The following range of values were found in honeys of untreated colonies: formic acid, from 17 to 284 mg/kg, n = 34; oxalic acid,...

  8. Treatment of vinasse from tequila production using polyglutamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipólito, Cirilo; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Bujang, Kopli

    2012-03-01

    Vinasse, the wastewater from ethanol distillation, is characterised by high levels of organic and inorganic matter, high exit process temperature (ca. 90°C) and low pH (3.0-4.5). In this study, the treatment of tequila vinasse was achieved by a flocculation-coagulation process using poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA). Results showed that the use of PGA (250-300 ppm) combined with sodium hypochlorite and sand filtration managed to remove about 70% of the turbidity and reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 79.5% with the extra benefit of colour removal. PGA showed its best flocculating activity at pH 2.5-3.5 and a temperature of 30-55°C. Such a treatment may be a solution for small tequila companies for which other solutions to deal with their vinasse may not be economically affordable.

  9. Recovery of metals from waste printed circuit boards by supercritical water pre-treatment combined with acid leaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Fu-Rong; Qi, Yingying; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2013-05-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) contain a large number of metals such as Cu, Sn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn. In this work, an efficient and environmentally friendly process for metals recovery from waste PCBs by supercritical water (SCW) pre-treatment combined with acid leaching was developed. In the proposed process, waste PCBs were pre-treated by SCW, then the separated solid phase product with concentrated metals was subjected to an acid leaching process for metals recovery. The effect of SCW pre-treatment on the recovery of different metals from waste PCBs was investigated. Two methods of SCW pre-treatment were studied: supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) and supercritical water depolymerization (SCWD). Experimental results indicated that SCWO and SCWD pre-treatment had significant effect on the recovery of different metals. SCWO pre-treatment was highly efficient for enhancing the recovery of Cu and Pb, and the recovery efficiency increased significantly with increasing pre-treatment temperature. The recovery efficiency of Cu and Pb for SCWO pre-treatment at 420°C was 99.8% and 80%, respectively, whereas most of the Sn and Cr were immobilized in the residue. The recovery of all studied metals was enhanced by SCWD pre-treatment and increased along with pre-treatment temperature. Up to 90% of Sn, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Mn could be recovered for SCWD pre-treatment at 440°C.

  10. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  11. Performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell using phosphosilicate gel based electrolyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kajari Kargupta; Swati Saha; Dipali Banerjee; Mrinal Seal; Saibal Ganguly

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel based electrolytes is proposed for performance enhancement of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFG).Phosphosilicate gel in paste form and in powder form is synthesized from tetraethoxysilane and orthophosphoric acid using sol-gel method for two different P/Si ratio of 5 and 1.5 respectively.Replacement of phosphoric acid electrolyte by phosphosilicate gel paste enhances the peak power generation of the fuel cell by 133% at 120 ℃ cell temperature; increases the voltage generation in the ohmic regime and extends the maximum possible load current.Polyinyl alcohol (PVA) is used to bind the phosphosilicate gel powder and to form the hybrid crosslinked gel polymer electrolyte membrane.Soaking the membrane with phosphoric acid solution,instead of that with water improves the proton conductivity of the membrane,enhances the voltage and power generation by the fuel cell and extends the maximum possible operating temperature.At lower operating temperature of 70 ℃,peak power produced by phosphosilicate gel polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PGMFC ) is increased by 40% compared to that generated by phosphoric acid fuel cell ( PAFC ).However,the performance of composite membrane diminishes as the cell temperature increases.Thus phosphosilicate gel in paste form is found to be a good alternative of phosphoric acid electrolyte at medium operating temperature range while phosphosilicate gel-PVA composite offers performance enhancement at low operating temperatures.

  12. The effect of various treatment conditions on natural zeolites: ion exchange, acidic, thermal and steam treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ayten; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-04-15

    Two different natural zeolites having different phase compositions were obtained from different regions of Turkey and modified by ion-exchange (0.5M NH(4)NO(3)) and acid leaching using 1M HCl. The natural and modified samples were treated at low temperature (LT), high temperature (HT) and steam (ST) conditions and characterised by XRF, XRD, BET, FTIR, DR-UV-Vis, NH(3)-TPD and TGA. Ion-exchange with NH(4)(+) of natural zeolites results in the exchange of the Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations and the partial exchange of the Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) cations. However, steam and acidic treatments cause significant dealumination and decationisation, as well as loss of crystalline, sintering of phases and the formation of amorphous material. The presence of mordenite and quartz phases in the natural zeolites increases the stability towards acid treatment, whereas the structure of clinoptilolite-rich zeolites is mostly maintained after high temperature and steam treatments. The natural and modified zeolites treated at high temperature and in steam were found to be less stable compared with synthetic zeolites, resulting in a loss of crystallinity, a decrease in the surface area and pore volume, a decrease in the surface acidity as well as dealumination, and decationisation.

  13. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection.

  14. PPAR{delta} is a fatty acid sensor, which enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnskjaer, Kim; Frigerio, Francesca; Boergesen, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    against adverse effects on GSIS associated with prolonged fatty acid exposure. The presented results indicate that the nuclear receptor PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that adapts beta-cell mitochondrial function to long-term changes in unsaturated fatty acid levels. As maintenance of mitochondrial...... is the PPAR subtype expressed at the highest level in insulinoma cells and rat pancreatic islets. Furthermore, PPARdelta displays high transcriptional activity and acts in pronounced synergy with RXR. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids mimic the effects of synthetic PPARdelta agonists. Using sh......RNA-mediated knockdown we demonstrate that the ability of unsaturated fatty acids to stimulate fatty acid metabolism is dependent on PPARdelta. Activation of PPARdelta increases the fatty acid oxidation potential in INS-1E beta-cells, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from islets, and protects GSIS...

  15. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Powders (P25 via Calcination Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available P25 TiO2 powders were calcined at different temperatures in a muffle furnace in air. The P25 powders before and after calcination treatment were characterized with XRD FTIR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange aqueous solution under UV light irradiation in air. The results showed that calcination treatment obviously influenced the microstructures and photocatalytic activity of the P25 TiO2 powders. The synergistic effect of the phase structure, BET surface area, and crystallinity on the photocatalytic of TiO2 powders (P25 after calcination was investigated. An optimal calcination temperature ( was determined. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders calcined at was nearly 2 times higher than that of the uncalcined P25 TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activities of the calcined samples at for 4 h might be ascribed to the enhancement of anatase crystallization and the optimal mass ratio (ca. 1 : 2 of rutile to anatase.

  16. Gambogic acid-loaded biomimetic nanoparticles in colorectal cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Qian, Hanqing; Yang, Mi; Li, Rutian; Hu, Jing; Li, Li; Yu, Lixia; Liu, Baorui; Qian, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    Gambogic acid (GA) is expected to be a potential new antitumor drug, but its poor aqueous solubility and inevitable side effects limit its clinical application. Despite these inhe rent defects, various nanocarriers can be used to promote the solubility and tumor targeting of GA, improving antitumor efficiency. In addition, a cell membrane-coated nanoparticle platform that was reported recently, unites the customizability and flexibility of a synthetic copolymer, as well as the functionality and complexity of natural membrane, and is a new synthetic biomimetic nanocarrier with improved stability and biocompatibility. Here, we combined poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with red blood-cell membrane (RBCm), and evaluated whether GA-loaded RBCm nanoparticles can retain and improve the antitumor efficacy of GA with relatively lower toxicity in colorectal cancer treatment compared with free GA. We also confirmed the stability, biocompatibility, passive targeting, and few side effects of RBCm-GA/PLGA nanoparticles. We expect to provide a new drug carrier in the treatment of colorectal cancer, which has strong clinical application prospects. In addition, the potential antitumor drug GA and other similar drugs could achieve broader clinical applications via this biomimetic nanocarrier.

  17. Magnetic microparticles post-synthetically coated by hyaluronic acid as an enhanced carrier for microfluidic bioanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holubova, Lucie [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Knotek, Petr [Joint Laboratory of Solid State Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Palarcik, Jiri [Institute of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Cadkova, Michaela [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Belina, Petr [Department of Inorganic Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Vlcek, Milan [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovskeho sq. 2, 16206 Prague (Czech Republic); Korecka, Lucie [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bilkova, Zuzana, E-mail: Zuzana.Bilkova@upce.cz [Department of Biological and Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-01

    Iron oxide based particles functionalized by bioactive molecules have been utilized extensively in biotechnology and biomedicine. Despite their already proven advantages, instability under changing reaction conditions, non-specific sorption of biomolecules on the particles' surfaces, and iron oxide leakage from the naked particles can greatly limit their application. As confirmed many times, surface treatment with an appropriate stabilizer helps to minimize these disadvantages. In this work, we describe enhanced post-synthetic surface modification of superparamagnetic microparticles varying in materials and size using hyaluronic acid (HA) in various chain lengths. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, phase analysis light scattering and laser diffraction are the methods used for characterization of HA-coated particles. The zeta potential and thickness of HA-layer of HA-coated Dynabeads M270 Amine were − 50 mV and 85 nm, respectively, and of HA-coated p(GMA-MOEAA)-NH{sub 2} were − 38 mV and 140 nm, respectively. The electrochemical analysis confirmed the zero leakage of magnetic material and no reactivity of particles with hydrogen peroxide. The rate of non-specific sorption of bovine serum albumin was reduced up to 50% of the naked ones. The coating efficiency and suitability of biopolymer-based microparticles for magnetically active microfluidic devices were confirmed. - Highlights: • Post-synthetic surface modification of magnetic microparticles by hyaluronic acid • Hyaluronic acid — polymer of unique physicochemical and biological characteristics • Panel of particle characterization methods was introduced. • HA-coated microparticles gain characteristics suited for microfluidic bioanalysis.

  18. Plasmon resonance enhancement of nonlinear properties of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Renato E.; Rativa, Diego; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2007-02-01

    Here we analyze the influence of 9 nm (mean diameter) silver particles on the nonlinear properties of intrinsic cell molecules. A novel high sensitivity thermal managed eclipse Z-scan technique with a femtosecond laser system was used to analyze the nonlinear susceptibility of water solution of fluorescent and non-fluorescent amino acids (Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, Proline and Histidine) with different concentration of silver nanoparticles. The generalized Maxwell Garnett model is used to explain the behavior of the measured nonlinear refractive index with the change of the nanoparticles concentration in the sample.

  19. Enhanced extracorporeal elimination of valproic acid in overdose - Editorial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbersen, R.H.G.; Kramers, C.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of the poisoned patient has been based on three main approaches: use of supportive nonspecific therapy, if available administration of antidotes and removal of the offending drug from the body. Gastric lavage and binding of nonabsorbed drug by activated charcoal are often used in an at

  20. Combined gadoxetic acid and gadofosveset enhanced liver MRI for detection and characterization of liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannas, Peter [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany); Bookwalter, Candice A.; Ziemlewicz, Tim; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Potretzke, Theodora A. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Motosugi, Utaroh [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Yamanashi (Japan); Nagle, Scott K. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Pediatrics, Madison, WI (United States); Reeder, Scott B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Medicine, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Emergency Medicine, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-01-15

    To compare gadoxetic acid alone and combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset trisodium-enhanced liver MRI for detection of metastases and differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas. Ninety-one patients underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI before and after additional injection of gadofosveset. First, two readers retrospectively identified metastases on gadoxetic acid alone enhanced delayed hepatobiliary phase T1-weighted images together with all other MR images (dynamic images, T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted images). Second, readers assessed additional T1-weighted images obtained after administration of gadofosveset trisodium. For both interpretations, readers rated lesion conspicuity and confidence in differentiating metastases from haemangiomas. Results were compared using alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (AFROC) and conventional ROC methods. Histology and follow-up served as reference standard. There were 145 metastases and 16 haemangiomas. Both readers detected more metastases using combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1 = 130; reader 2 = 124) compared to gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1 = 104; reader 2 = 103). Sensitivity of combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset (reader 1 = 90 %; reader 2 = 86 %) was higher than that of gadoxetic acid alone (reader 1 = 72 %; reader 2 = 71 %, both P < 0.01). AFROC-AUC was higher for the combined technique (0.92 vs. 0.86, P < 0.001). Sensitivity for correct differentiation of metastases from haemangiomas was higher for the combined technique (reader 1 = 98 %; reader 2 = 99 % vs. reader 1 = 86 %; reader 2 = 91 %, both P < 0.01). ROC-AUC was significantly higher for the combined technique (reader 1 = 1.00; reader 2 = 1.00 vs. reader 1 = 0.87; reader 2 = 0.92, both P < 0.01). Combined gadoxetic acid/gadofosveset-enhanced MRI improves detection and characterization of liver metastases compared to gadoxetic acid alone. (orig.)

  1. Water-dispersible ascorbic-acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles for contrast enhancement in MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeja, V.; Jayaprabha, K. N.; Joy, P. A.

    2015-04-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles of size ~5 nm surface functionalized with ascorbic acid (vitamin C) form a stable dispersion in water with a hydrodynamic size of ~30 nm. The anti-oxidant property of ascorbic acid is retained after capping, as evidenced from the capability of converting methylene blue to its reduced leuco form. NMR relaxivity studies show that the ascorbic-acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide aqueous nanofluid is suitable as a contrast enhancement agent for MRI applications, coupled with the excellent biocompatibility and medicinal values of ascorbic acid.

  2. Retinoic acid and glycolic acid combination in the treatment of acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne is a prevalent condition in society affecting nearly 80-90% of adolescents often resulting in secondary damage in the form of scarring. Retinoic acid (RA is said to improve acne scars and reduce postinflammatory hyperpigmentation while glycolic acid (GA is known for its keratolytic properties and its ability to reduce atrophic acne scars. There are studies exploring the combined effect of retinaldehyde and GA combination with positive results while the efficacy of retinoic acid and GA (RAGA combination remains unexplored. Aim: The aim of this study remains to retrospectively assess the efficacy of RAGA combination on acne scars in patients previously treated for active acne. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment of 35 patients using topical RAGA combination on acne scars was done. The subjects were 17-34 years old and previously treated for active acne. Case records and photographs of each patient were assessed and the acne scars were graded as per Goodman and Baron′s global scarring grading system (GSGS, before the start and after 12 weeks of RAGA treatment. The differences in the scar grades were noted to assess the improvement. Results: At the end of 12 weeks, significant improvement in acne scars was noticed in 91.4% of the patients. Conclusion: The RAGA combination shows efficacy in treating acne scars in the majority of patients, minimizing the need of procedural treatment for acne scars.

  3. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  4. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in an aquatic liverwort as possible bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroniz-Crespo, M.; Nunez-Olivera, E. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Martinez-Abaigar, J. [Universidad de La Rioja, Complejo Cientifico-Tecnologico, Avda. Madre de Dios 51, 26006 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain)], E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es

    2008-01-15

    We examined, under laboratory conditions, the physiological responses of the aquatic liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia to artificially enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 82 days, especially considering the responses of five hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. This species lives in mountain streams, where it is exposed to low temperatures and high UV levels, and this combination is believed to increase the adverse effects of UV. Enhanced UV radiation hardly caused any change in several physiological variables indicative of vitality, such as F{sub v}/F{sub m} and chlorophylls/phaeopigments ratio (OD430/OD410). Thus, this liverwort seemed to be tolerant to UV radiation, probably due to the accumulation of three UV-absorbing hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: p-coumaroylmalic acid, 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxycoumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid, and 5''-(7'',8''-dihydroxy-7-O-{beta}-glucosyl-coumaroyl)-2-caffeoylmalic acid. These compounds might serve as bioindicators of enhanced UV radiation. - Several hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of an aquatic liverwort are induced by enhanced UV radiation and might serve as bioindicators of changes in UV levels.

  5. Acid and low temperature treatments on Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated in pork and its subsequent survival in simulated gastric fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Quintão Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis in stored pork and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF. A culture of S. Enteritidis was subjected to acid treatment prior to inoculation into pork, stored under refrigeration at frozen temperatures and exposed to SGF. The S. Enteritidis CCS3 and ATCC 13076 strains previously subjected to acid treatment (at pH 4.0-5.0 were inoculated in pork and stored at 4°C and -18°C. Storage at 4ºC did not affect the populations of both S. Enteritidis strains. After 84 days at -18°C, the mean population of both CCS3 and ATCC strains were reduced by 0.8 and 1.5 log cycles, respectively. Prior acid treatment did not enhance the survival of both strains at low temperatures. After acid treatment and low temperature storage, S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 lost culturability after being exposed to SGF for 10 minutes. In contrast, S. Enteritidis CCS3 was tolerant until three hours of SGF exposure. S. Enteritidis CCS3 submitted to pH 4.0 was more tolerant to SGF exposure than when submitted to pH 4.5, 5.0 and without acid treatment. Therefore, this study indicates that exposure to an acidic and cold environment during processing enhanced the ability of S. Enteritidis to survive in the gastric environment of the human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella infection after consumption of pork.

  6. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Bahareh; Naeini, Farahnaz Fatemi

    2014-01-01

    Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA) is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI) and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05). No differences were seen in patients’ and investigator's satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05). However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01). Conclusion: This study's results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma. PMID:25422661

  7. Reduced Burst Release and Enhanced Oral Bioavailability in Shikimic Acid-Loaded Polylactic Acid Submicron Particles by Coaxial Electrospray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuanwen; Omari-Siaw, Emmanuel; Wang, Shengli; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Ximing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, using the coaxial electrospray method, we prepared submicron particles of the water-soluble drug shikimic acid (SA) with polylactic acid (PLA) as a polymer, to reduce the burst release and enhance the oral bioavailability. In vitro release study performed in HCl solution (pH 1.2) showed that the coaxial electrospray submicron particles could reduce burst release effect and presented a sustained release profile, compared with free SA and the particles prepared by electrospray method. The absorption of SA in the intestinal tract, studied using an in situ perfusion method in rats, also revealed jejunum as the main absorptive segment followed by duodenum and ileum. Moreover, the SA-loaded particles greatly enhanced the absorption of SA in the tested intestinal segments. The intestinal absorption rate was not enhanced with increasing drug concentration (5-15 μg/mL) which suggested that active transport or facilitated diffusion could play vital role in SA absorption. In addition, the SA-loaded PLA coaxial electrospray particle exhibited a prolonged plasma circulation with enhanced bioavailability after oral administration. In all, the coaxial electrospray technique could provide notable advantages for the oral delivery of SA, thereby enhancing its clinical application.

  8. Fish oil prevents essential fatty acid deficiency and enhances growth: clinical and biochemical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijbosch, Robert A M; Lee, Sang; Arsenault, Danielle A; Andersson, Charlotte; Gura, Kathleen M; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2008-05-01

    Fish oil, a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids, has never been used as the sole source of lipid in clinical practice for fear of development of essential fatty acid deficiency, as it lacks the believed requisite levels of linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. The objectives of this study were to establish biochemical standards for fish oil as the sole fat and to test the hypothesis that fish oil contains adequate amounts of omega-6 fatty acids to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Forty mice were divided into 2 groups that were either pair fed or allowed to eat ad libitum. In each group, 4 subgroups of 5 mice were fed 1%, 5%, and 10% fish oil diets by weight or a control soybean diet for 9 weeks. Blood was collected at 4 time points, and fatty acid analysis was performed. Food intake and weight status were monitored. All groups but the pair-fed 1% fish oil group gained weight, and the 5% fish oil group showed the highest caloric efficiency in both pair-fed and ad libitum groups. Fatty acid profiles for the 1% fish oil group displayed clear essential fatty acid deficiency, 5% fish oil appeared marginal, and 10% and soybean oil diets were found to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency. Fish oil enhances growth through higher caloric efficiency. We established a total omega-6 fatty acid requirement of between 0.30% and 0.56% of dietary energy, approximately half of the conventionally believed 1% as linoleic acid. This can presumably be attributed to the fact that fish oil contains not only a small amount of linoleic acid, but also arachidonic acid, which has greater efficiency to meet omega-6 fatty acid requirements.

  9. Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which no additional water is taken up. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the "free" and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

  10. Enhanced crystallization of poly (lactic acid) through reactive aliphatic bisamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthananon, P.; Seadan, M.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The poor crystallization rate of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a major drawback in terms of controlling the properties of final products. To overcome this, a nucleating agent is normally applied. In this work, the aliphatic bisamide, N, N'-(1,3-propylene) bis(10-undecenamide) (PBU), having reactive functional groups is used as a crystallization promoter for PLA by adding PBU in various concentration (0.1-0.7 wt%) into PLA together with peroxide via reactive melt blending. The conventional ethylene bis-stearamide(EBS) is used for a comparison. The extruded samples are characterized for gel content and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallization behaviour and rate, and spherulites morphology are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), respectively. It is found that the addition of PBU into PLA results in the dramatic increase in crystallinity and crystallization rate of PLA compared with neat PLA and PLA added EBS. The crystallinity increases to 24.9-28.3% higher than neat PLA under even cooling rate of 7°C/min. The addition of 0.7 wt% PBU shows the fastest crystallization rate with t1/2 value isothermally crystallized at 130°C of only 6 min. POM images indicate the increase in the nucleation density and very fine spherulitesof PLA added PBU, promoting the fast crystallization.

  11. Enhanced uptake of water by oxidatively processed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Asad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance apparatus has been used to measure the room temperature uptake of water vapour by thin films of oleic acid as a function of relative humidity, both before and following exposure of the films to various partial pressures of gas phase ozone. A rapid increase in the water-sorbing ability of the film is observed as its exposure to ozone is increased, followed by a plateau region in which additional water is taken up more gradually. In this fully-processed region the mass of water taken up by the film is about 4 times that of the unprocessed film. Infrared spectra of the films, measured after variable exposures to ozone, show dramatic increases in both the 'free' and hydrogen-bonded O-H stretching regions, and a decrease in the intensity of olefinic features. These results are consistent with the formation of an oxygenated polymeric product or products, as well as the gas phase products previously identified.

  12. Homologous Recombination Defective Arabidopsis Mutants Exhibit Enhanced Sensitivity to Abscisic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sujit; Das, Kali Pada

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) acts as an important plant hormone in regulating various aspects of plant growth and developmental processes particularly under abiotic stress conditions. An increased ABA level in plant cells inhibits DNA replication and cell division, causing plant growth retardation. In this study, we have investigated the effects of ABA on the growth responses of some major loss-of-function mutants of DNA double-stand break (DSB) repair genes in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth for understanding the role of ABA in the induction of genome instability in plants. A comparative analysis of ABA sensitivity of wild-type Arabidopsis and the knockout mutant lines related to DSB sensors, including atatm, atatr, the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway genes, and mutants related to homologous recombination (HR) pathway genes showed relatively enhanced sensitivity of atatr and HR-related mutants to ABA treatment. The expression levels of HR-related genes were increased in wild-type Arabidopsis (Col-0) during seed germination and early stages of seedling growth. Immunoblotting experiments detected phosphorylation of histone H2AX in wild-type (Col-0) and DSB repair gene mutants after ABA treatment, indicating the activation of DNA damage response due to ABA treatment. Analyses of DSB repair kinetics using comet assay under neutral condition have revealed comparatively slower DSB repair activity in HR mutants. Overall, our results have provided comprehensive information on the possible effect of ABA on DNA repair machinery in plants and also indicated potential functional involvement of HR pathway in repairing ABA induced DNA damage in Arabidopsis. PMID:28046013

  13. Salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate enhance drought tolerance in chamomile plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarli Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Salicylic acid (SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA have antioxidant properties and function as direct radical scavengers. Two Matricaria chamomilla cultivars (Bodgold and Hungary breed seeds were used in this study to investigate the effects of exogenous application of SA and MeJA on protection against drought stress as well as on changes of malone dialdehyde (MDA and electrolyte leakage index (ELI, and the fluctuation of proline and soluble sugars content in the leaves under drought stress. Methods: The experiment was conducted in a factorial design based on randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Chamomile plants were treated by two levels of drought stress as well as two different levels of MeJA (i.e., 0.0 and 100 μM and SA (i.e., 0.0 and 0.5 mM solutions. Results: There was a dramatic drought induced increase in the MDA content (128% and ELI (49% in the leaves. Deleterious effect of drought stress was more severe in untreated plants than in treated ones. Treatments with SA and MeJA significantly improved drought tolerance in chamomile plants. These treatments effectively maintained membrane integrity, thereby retarding electrolyte leakage and membrane lipid peroxidation (MDA. Treatments with SA and MeJA were also effective in enhancing the antioxidant concentrations of proline and soluble sugars. Conclusion: The production of these antioxidants could have been part of a defence system against drought damage, reducing MDA and ELI and maintaining membrane stability.

  14. Functionalization of carbon nanotube yarn by acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.E. Misak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube (CNT yarn was functionalized using sulfuric and nitric acid solutions in 3:1 volumetric ratio. Successful functionalization of CNT yarn with carboxyl and hydroxyl groups (e.g., COOH, COO–, OH, etc. was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction revealed no significant change to the atomic in-plane alignment in the CNTs; however, the coherent length along the diameter was significantly reduced during functionalization. A morphology change of wavy extensions protruding from the surface was observed after the functionalization treatment. The force required to fracture the yarn remained the same after the functionalization process; however, the linear density was increased (310%. The increase in linear density after functionalization reduced the tenacity. However, the resistivity density product of the CNT yarn was reduced significantly (234% after functionalization.

  15. Polarographic determination of metyrosine through treatment with nitrous acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, F A; Belal, F; el-Brashy, A

    1993-10-15

    A simple and sensitive polarographic method is described for the determination of metyrosine through treatment with nitrous acid. The different experimental parameters affecting the derivatization process, as well as the polarographic analysis were studied. The derivatization product was found to be reducible at the dropping mercury electrode over the whole pH range in Britton Robinson buffers. At pH 5, a well-defined diffusion-controlled cathodic wave was produced. The limiting current versus the concentration plot was linear over the range 8-80 mumol/l in the direct current mode with a detection limit of 0.2 mumol/l. The method was then applied to the determination of metyrosine capsules, and the results obtained were in good agreement with those given by the USP method.

  16. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase.

  17. Lauric acid dependent enhancement in hepatic SCPx protein requires an insulin deficient environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Dayami; Niesen, Melissa; Bedi, Mohini; McLean, Mark P

    2008-02-01

    Sterol carrier protein X (SCPx) is a peroxisomal protein with both lipid transfer and thiolase activity. Treating with the fatty acid, lauric acid, induced SCPx mRNA levels in rat liver and in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells but enhanced protein levels of SCPx and the thiolase produced as a post-translational modification of SCPx were only seen in H4IIE cells. Further investigation revealed that the presence of insulin can mask lauric acid effects on the SCPx gene especially at the protein level. These data are in agreement with the findings that diabetes, a medical condition characterized by high levels of fatty acids in an insulin deficient environment, enhances the hepatic expression of SCPx.

  18. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  19. Peptide Nucleic Acids Having Enhanced Binding Affinity, Sequence Specificity and Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA strand, and exhibit increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from a group consisting of naturally......-occurring nucleobases and non-naturally-occurring nucleobases attached to a polyamide backbone, and contain C1-C8 alkylamine side chains. Methods of enhancing the solubility, binding affinity and sequence specificity of PNAs are provided....

  20. Unsaturated fatty acids lactose esters: cytotoxicity, permeability enhancement and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Simone; Fagioli, Laura; Campana, Raffaella; Cole, Hannah; Duranti, Andrea; Baffone, Wally; Vllasaliu, Driton; Casettari, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies. The synthesized compounds, namely lactose palmitoleate (URB1076) and lactose nervonate (URB1077), were shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity versus eight pathogenic species belonging to Gram-positive, Gram-negative microorganisms and fungi.

  1. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Cisplatin Efficacy in Gastric Cancer Cells by Inducing Apoptosis via ADORA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hong; Chen, Xuehua; Liu, Binya; Li, Pu; Cao, Weixin

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that administration of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can alter the toxicity and/or activity of several anticancer drugs in in vitro and in vivo studies. Here, we investigated the ability of ω-3 PUFAs to potentiate the antineoplastic activity of cisplatin (CDDP) in gastric cancer cells. The increase in CDDP-induced growth inhibition was measured by the IC50 values obtained when the cells were incubated with CDDP alone or with CDDP plus DHA or EPA. DHA and EPA enhanced the growth-inhibition activity of increasing concentrations of CDDP. The interactions between CDDP and DHA or EPA at the cellular level were assessed through the combination index (CI) method of Chou-Talalay. The results demonstrated synergism between CDDP and DHA or EPA in MKN45 cells. Cell cycle analysis showed that the combination treatment increased G0/G1 phase and S phase arrest, and significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells. According to our previous study, ω -3 PUFAs induce apoptosis of gastric cells via ADORA1, a subtype of adenosine receptor functionally related to cell death. The ADORA1 mRNA and protein expression was higher in the combination treatment than in the individual treatments. Notable, when GC cells were pretreated with DPCPX, a selective ADORA1 antagonist, the combination treatment effect on apoptosis was significantly reduced. Our results suggest that ω-3 PUFAs enhance the antineoplastic effects of CDDP in gastric cancer cells, and the synergistic effect between ω-3 PUFAs and CDDP is partly dependent on activating the ADORA1-mediated apoptosis pathway.

  2. The Comparison of Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Treatments in the Preparation of Montmorillonite Catalysts for RNA Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldersley, Michael Frank; Joshi, Prakash C.; Huang, Yixing

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of clay minerals with a preliminary acid wash and titration to pH 7 has proven to generate catalysts for the most interesting of oligomerization reactions in which activated RNA-nucleotides generate oligomers up to 40-mers. Significantly, not all clay minerals become catalytic following this treatment and none are catalytic in the absence of such treatment. The washing procedure has been modified and explored further using phosphoric acid and the outcomes are compared to those obtained when clay samples are prepared following a hydrochloric acid wash.

  3. Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Retinoic Acid and Lauric Acid as an Alternative for Topical Treatment of Acne Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elton Luiz; Carneiro, Guilherme; De Araújo, Lidiane Advíncula; Trindade, Mariana de Jesus Vaz; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Oréfice, Rodrigo Lambert; Farias, Luis de Macêdo; De Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora Roque; Dos Santos, Simone Gonçalves; Goulart, Gisele Assis Castro; Alves, Ricardo José; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Topical therapy is the first choice for the treatment of mild to moderate acne and all-trans retinoic acid is one of the most used drugs. The combination of retinoids and antimicrobials is an innovative approach for acne therapy. Recently, lauric acid, a saturated fatty acid, has shown strong antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes. However, topical application of retinoic acid is followed by high incidence of side-effects, including erythema and irritation. Solid lipid nanoparticles represent an alternative to overcome these side-effects. This work aims to develop solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with retinoic acid and lauric acid and evaluate their antibacterial activity. The influence of lipophilic stearylamine on the characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles was investigated. Solid lipid nanoparticles were characterized for size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The in vitro inhibitory activity of retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles was evaluated against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. High encapsulation efficiency was obtained at initial time (94 ± 7% and 100 ± 4% for retinoic acid and lauric acid, respectively) and it was demonstrated that lauric acid-loaded-solid lipid nanoparticles provided the incorporation of retinoic acid. However, the presence of stearylamine is necessary to ensure stability of encapsulation. Moreover, retinoic acid-lauric acid-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles showed growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus, representing an interesting alternative for the topical therapy of acne vulgaris.

  4. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid.

  5. EVALUATION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE ACID HYDROLYZATE TREATMENTS FOR XYLITOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. GURGEL

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolyzate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolyzate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H2SO4, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolyzate recovery (in volume is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH showed the best hydrolyzate recovery (87.5%, while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolyzate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH3 and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolyzate.

  6. Evaluation of sugarcane bagasse acid hydrolysate treatments for xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, P.V.; Mancilha, I.M. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Tecnologia de Alimentos; Furlan, S.A.; Martinez, S.E.R. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia

    1998-09-01

    Acid sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was submitted to pH shifts in order to remove toxic compounds from the medium. The hydrolysate was treated with bases containing mono-, di- or tri-valent cations and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and its performance as a fermentation medium was evaluated by the production of xylitol by Candida guilliermondii FTI 20037. The use of bases containing mono-valent cations was not an efficient method of detoxification, and the use of a tri-valent cation did not show any detectable improvement in detoxification. The treated hydrolysate recovery (in volume) is greatly affected by the utilized base. Treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH showed the best hydrolysate recovery (87.5%), while the others presented a recovery of about 45% of the original hydrolysate volume. Considering the whole process, best results were achieved by treatment using Al(OH){sub 3} and NaOH which allowed 0.55 g of xylitol produced from each gram of xylose in the raw hydrolysate. (author)

  7. Gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI for differentiation of FNH and HCA: a single centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieser, Christian; Steffen, Ingo G.; Perez Fernandez, Carmen Maria; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kramme, Incken-Birthe; Blaeker, Hendrik; Kilic, Ergin [Institut fuer Pathologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Seehofer, Daniel [Klinik fuer Allgemein, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schott, Eckart [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    Evaluation of enhancement characteristics of histopathologically confirmed focal nodular hyperplasias (FNHs) and hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. Sixty-eight patients with 115 histopathologically proven lesions (FNHs, n = 44; HCAs, n = 71) examined with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were retrospectively enrolled (standard of reference: surgical resection, n = 53 patients (lesions: FNHs, n = 37; HCAs, n = 53); biopsy, n = 15 (lesions: FNHs, n = 7; HCAs, n = 18)). Two radiologists evaluated all MR images regarding morphological features as well as the vascular and hepatocyte-specific enhancement in consensus. For the hepatobiliary phase, relative enhancement of the lesions and lesion to liver enhancement were significantly lower for HCAs (mean, 48.7 (±48.4) % and 49.4 (±33.9) %) compared to FNHs (159.3 (±92.5) %; and 151.7 (±79) %; accuracy of 89 % and 90 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Visual strong uptake of FNHs vs. hypointensity of HCAs in the hepatobiliary phase resulted in an accuracy of 92 %. This parameter was superior to all other morphological and dynamic vascular criteria alone and in combination (accuracy, 54-85 %). For differentiation of FNHs and HCAs by means of MRI, gadoxetic acid uptake in the hepatobiliary phase was found to be superior to all other criteria alone and in combination. (orig.)

  8. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state.

  9. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Lu

    Full Text Available Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  10. Para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase enhances thermotolerance of mushroom Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhonglei; Kong, Xiangxiang; Lu, Zhaoming; Xiao, Meixiang; Chen, Meiyuan; Zhu, Liang; Shen, Yuemao; Hu, Xiangyang; Song, Siyang

    2014-01-01

    Most mushrooms are thermo-sensitive to temperatures over 23°C, which greatly restricts their agricultural cultivation. Understanding mushroom's innate heat-tolerance mechanisms may facilitate genetic improvements of their thermotolerance. Agaricus bisporus strain 02 is a relatively thermotolerant mushroom strain, while strain 8213 is quite thermo-sensitive. Here, we compared their responses at proteomic level to heat treatment at 33°C. We identified 73 proteins that are differentially expressed between 02 and 8213 or induced upon heat stress in strain 02 itself, 48 of which with a known identity. Among them, 4 proteins are constitutively more highly expressed in 02 than 8213; and they can be further upregulated in response to heat stress in 02, but not in 8213. One protein is encoded by the para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase gene Pabs, which has been shown to scavenge the reactive oxygen species in vitro. Pabs mRNA and its chemical product PABA show similar heat stress induction pattern as PABA synthase protein and are more abundant in 02, indicating transcriptional level upregulation of Pabs upon heat stress. A specific inhibitor of PABA synthesis impaired thermotolerance of 02, while exogenous PABA or transgenic overexpression of 02 derived PABA synthase enhanced thermotolerance of 8213. Furthermore, compared to 8213, 02 accumulated less H2O2 but more defense-related proteins (e.g., HSPs and Chitinase) under heat stress. Together, these results demonstrate a role of PABA in enhancing mushroom thermotolerance by removing H2O2 and elevating defense-related proteins.

  11. Enhancing neural stem cell response to SDF-1α gradients through hyaluronic acid-laminin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, C P; Heffernan, J M; Millar-Haskell, C S; Tucker, E W; Sirianni, R W; Stabenfeldt, S E

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates an expansive biochemical insult that is largely responsible for the long-term dysfunction associated with TBI; however, current clinical treatments fall short of addressing these underlying sequelae. Pre-clinical investigations have used stem cell transplantation with moderate success, but are plagued by staggeringly low survival and engraftment rates (2-4%). As such, providing cell transplants with the means to better dynamically respond to injury-related signals within the transplant microenvironment may afford improved transplantation survival and engraftment rates. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a potent chemotactic signal that is readily present after TBI. In this study, we sought to develop a transplantation vehicle to ultimately enhance the responsiveness of neural transplants to injury-induced SDF-1α. Specifically, we hypothesize that a hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (Lm) hydrogel would promote 1. upregulated expression of the SDF-1α receptor CXCR4 in neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) and 2. enhanced NPSC migration in response to SDF-1α gradients. We demonstrated successful development of a HA-Lm hydrogel and utilized standard protein and cellular assays to probe NPSC CXCR4 expression and NPSC chemotactic migration. The findings demonstrated that NPSCs significantly increased CXCR4 expression after 48 h of culture on the HA-Lm gel in a manner critically dependent on both HA and laminin. Moreover, the HA-Lm hydrogel significantly increased NPSC chemotactic migration in response to SDF-1α at 48 h, an effect that was critically dependent on HA, laminin and the SDF-1α gradient. Therefore, this hydrogel serves to 1. prime NPSCs for the injury microenvironment and 2. provide the appropriate infrastructure to support migration into the surrounding tissue, equipping cells with the tools to more effectively respond to the injury microenvironment.

  12. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  13. Activation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid by a 940 nm diode laser for enhanced removal of smear layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagemann, Manfred; George, Roy; Chai, Lei; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-08-01

    Laser enhancement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) has previously been shown to increase removal of smear layer, for middle-infrared erbium lasers. This study evaluated the efficiency of EDTAC activation using a near-infrared-pulsed 940 nm laser delivered by plain fibre tips into 15% EDTAC or 3% hydrogen peroxide. Root canals in 4 groups of 10 single roots were prepared using rotary files, with controls for the presence and absence of smear layer. After laser treatment (80 mJ pulse(-1) , 50 Hz, 6 cycles of 10 s), roots were split and the apical, middle and coronal thirds of the canal were examined using scanning electron microscopy, with the area of dentine tubules determined by a validated quantitative image analysis method. Lasing EDTAC considerably improved smear layer removal, while lasing into peroxide gave minimal smear layer removal. The laser protocol used was more effective for smear layer removal than the 'gold standard' protocol using EDTAC with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). In addition, lasers may also provide a benefit through photothermal disinfection. Further research is needed to optimise irrigant activation protocols using near-infrared diode lasers of other wavelengths.

  14. Topical tranexamic acid as a promising treatment for melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent times, tranexamic acid (TA is claimed to have whitening effects especially for ultraviolet-induced hyperpigmentation including melasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical solution of TA and compare it with combined solution of hydroquinone and dexamethasone as the gold standard treatment of melasma in Iranian women. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind split-face trial of 12 weeks which was conducted in Isfahan, Iran. Fifty Iranian melasma patients applied topical solution of 3% TA on one side of the face, and topical solution of 3% hydroquinone + 0.01% dexamethasone on the other side two times a day. The Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI and the side effects were evaluated at baseline and every 4 weeks before and after photographs to be compared by a dermatologist were taken. The patient satisfaction was documented at week 12. Results: A repeated measurement analysis was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI score before and after treatments. A significant decreasing trend was observed in the MASI score of both groups with no significant difference between them during the study (P < 0.05. No differences were seen in patients′ and investigator′s satisfaction of melasma improvement between two groups (P < 0.05. However, the side effects of hydroquinone + dexamethasone were significantly prominent compared with TA (P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study′s results introduce the topical TA as an effective and safe medication for the treatment of melasma.

  15. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  16. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  17. TREATMENT OF SORBIC ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER BY HYPERCROSSLINKED POLYMERIC ADSORBENT (NDA-150)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater by NDA-150 resin wasinvestigated. The experiments show that this process is suitable for the treatment of sorbic acidmanufacturing wastewater. About 98% sorbic acid and 50% CODcr were removed under optimaloperating conditions, and 70% of sorbic acid in sorbic acid manufacturing wastewater wasreclaimed. This process makes it possible to recover valuable materials from the wastewater and toimprove the quality of effluent water.

  18. Enhanced butyric acid tolerance and bioproduction by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Cai, Jin; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin; Yang, Shangtian; Li, Shuang

    2011-01-01

    Repeated fed-batch fermentation of glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum immobilized in a fibrous bed bioreactor (FBB) was successfully employed to produce butyric acid at a high final concentration as well as to adapt a butyric-acid-tolerant strain. At the end of the eighth fed-batch fermentation, the butyric acid concentration reached 86.9 ± 2.17 g/L, which to our knowledge is the highest butyric acid concentration ever produced in the traditional fermentation process. To understand the mechanism and factors contributing to the improved butyric acid production and enhanced acid tolerance, adapted strains were harvested from the FBB and characterized for their physiological properties, including specific growth rate, acid-forming enzymes, intracellular pH, membrane-bound ATPase and cell morphology. Compared with the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, the adapted culture showed significantly reduced inhibition effects of butyric acid on specific growth rate, cellular activities of butyric-acid-forming enzyme phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) and ATPase, together with elevated intracellular pH, and elongated rod morphology.

  19. Liver-targeting self-assembled hyaluronic acid-glycyrrhetinic acid micelles enhance hepato-protective effect of silybin after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Manyuan; Li, Jing; Xu, Yongsong; He, Rui; Guan, Hongyu; Yue, Zhujun; Gong, Muxin

    2016-06-01

    In order to enhance oral bioavailability and liver targeting delivery of silybin, two amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivatives, hyaluronic acid-deoxycholic acid (HA-adh-DOCA) and hyaluronic acid-glycyrrhetinic acid (HA-adh-GA) conjugates, were designed and synthesized. Silybin was successfully loaded in HA-adh-DOCA and HA-adh-GA micelles with high drug-loading capacities (20.3% ± 0.5% and 20.6% ± 0.6%, respectively). The silybin-loaded micelles were spherical in shape with the average size around 130 nm. In vitro release study showed that two silybin-loaded micelles displayed similar steady continued-release pattern in simulated gastrointestinal fluids and PBS. Single-pass intestinal perfusion studies indicated that silybin-loaded micelles were absorbed in the whole intestine and transported via a passive diffusion mechanism. Compared with suspension formulation, silybin-loaded HA-adh-DOCA and HA-adh-GA micelles achieved significantly higher AUC and Cmax level. Moreover, liver targeting drug delivery of micelles was confirmed by in vivo imaging analysis. In comparison between the two micellar formulations, HA-adh-GA micelles possessed higher targeting capacity than HA-adh-DOCA micelles, owing to the active hepatic targeting properties of glycyrrhetinic acid. In the treatment of acute liver injury induced by CCl4, silybin-loaded HA-adh-GA micelles displayed better effects over suspension control and silybin-loaded HA-adh-DOCA micelles. Overall, pharmaceutical and pharmacological indicators suggested that the HA-adh-GA conjugates can be successfully utilized for liver targeting of orally administered therapeutics.

  20. Comparative study of trichloroacetic acid versus glycolic acid chemical peels in the treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melasma is a common cause of facial hyperpigmentation with significant cosmetic deformity. Many modalities of treatment are available, but none is satisfactory. Aim: This study was designed to compare the therapeutic response of melasma in Indian women to glycolic acid (GA 20-35% versus trichloroacetic acid (TCA 10-20% for chemical peeling. Methods: Forty nonpregnant female patients with a minimum melasma area and severity index (MASI of 10 were recruited in the study. After a detailed history and clinical examination under natural light, MASI was calculated and color photographs were taken of all the patients. The patients were advised to carry out a prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream or 0.1% tretinoin at night for 2 weeks. They were then treated with graded concentrations of 20-35% GA facial peel every 15 days in GA group and 10-20% TCA in the second group. Results: Objective response to treatment evaluated by reduction in MASI scoring after 12 weeks was by 79% reduction (from 26.6 to 5.6 in GA group and by 73% reduction in TCA group (from 29.1 to 8.2 but this difference was not significant. Patients with epidermal-type melasma showed a better response to treatment than those with mixed-type melasma (P < 0.05. Subjective response, as graded by the patient, showed good or very good response in 75% in GA group and 65% in TCA group. No relation of treatment response to age and duration of melasma could be established in this study. Conclusions: A prepeel program of daily application of 12% GA cream at night for 2 weeks, followed by graded increase in GA and TCA concentrations proved to be an equally effective treatment modality for epidermal and mixed melasma. There are hardly any major side effects, and regular use of sunscreens prevents chances of postpeel hyperpigmentation. GA peel is associated with fewer side effects than TCA and has the added advantage of facial rejuvenation.

  1. Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najeeb, U.; Xu, L.; Ali, Shafaqat [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Jilani, Ghulam, E-mail: jilani@uaar.edu.pk [Department of Soil Science, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46300 (Pakistan); Gong, H.J. [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Shen, W.Q. [The University of Nottingham at Ningbo, Ningbo 315100 (China); Zhou, W.J., E-mail: wjzhou@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Crop Science, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2009-10-30

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 {mu}M) alone, Mn (500 {mu}M) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 {mu}M) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed

  2. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. The Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Enhances Acquisition, Extinction, and Reconsolidation of Conditioned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications contribute to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, a process now recognized to be important for the consolidation of long-term memory. Valproic acid (VPA), used for many years as an anticonvulsant and a mood stabilizer, has effects on learning and memory and enhances the extinction of conditioned fear through its…

  4. ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY 1 and SALICYLIC ACID act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance (R) protein–associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non–race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), ...

  5. Changes in Growth, Auxin- and Ribonucleic Acid Metabolism in Wheat Coleoptile Sections Following Pulse Treatment with Indole-3-Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T.A.; Galston, A.W.

    1966-01-01

    Growth reactions of wbeat coleoptile sections following a brief pretreament in indole-3-acetic acid (LAA) were studied. The growth versus concentration curves 24 hours after the treatment showed a minimum value surrounded by bigber values. The minimum was never at concentrations lower than 10-5M l...... was mirroretl in effects of IAA on hte net synthesis of ribonucleic acid....

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-30

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson's disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson's disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  7. Gallic Acid, the Active Ingredient of Terminalia bellirica, Enhances Adipocyte Differentiation and Adiponectin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Hiroko; Koike, Yuka; Ohta, Masatomi; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Tsubata, Masahito; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Akase, Tomoko; Goshima, Yoshio; Aburada, Masaki; Shimada, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Visceral obesity induces the onset of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue is considered as a potential pharmacological target for treating metabolic disorders. The fruit of Terminalia bellirica is extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat patients with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We previously investigated the effects of a hot water extract of T. bellirica fruit (TB) on obesity and insulin resistance in spontaneously obese type 2 diabetic mice. To determine the active ingredients of TB and their molecular mechanisms, we focused on adipocyte differentiation using mouse 3T3-L1 cells, which are widely used to study adipocyte physiology. We show here that TB enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes and that one of the active main components was identified as gallic acid. Gallic acid (10-30 µM) enhanced the expression and secretion of adiponectin via adipocyte differentiation and also that of fatty acid binding protein-4, which is the target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), although it does not alter the expression of the upstream genes PPARγ and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha. In the PPARγ ligand assay, the binding of gallic acid to PPARγ was undetectable. These findings indicate that gallic acid mediates the therapeutic effects of TB on metabolic disorders by regulating adipocyte differentiation. Therefore, TB shows promise as a candidate for preventing and treating patients with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Gadoxetic Acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-Enhanced MRI versus Gadobenate Dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA)-Enhanced MRI for Preoperatively Detecting Hepatocellular Carcinoma: an Initial Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yu Lri; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kim, Seung Hoon; Choi, Dong Il; Lee, Won Jae; Kim, Hee Jung; Koo, Ji Hyun; Lim, Hyo Keun [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yong Hwan [Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Mee; Kim, Min Ju [Korea University College of Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Eighteen consecutive patients (17 men and one woman, age range: 31-73 years) with 22 HCCs underwent examinations with gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI on a 3.0-Tesla unit. The diagnosis of HCC was established after surgical resection and pathological conformation. Three observers independently reviewed each MR image in a random order on a tumor-by-tumor basis. The diagnostic accuracy of these techniques for the detection of HCC was assessed by performing an alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The sensitivity and positive predictive values were evaluated. The average value of the area under the ROC curve (Az) for gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI (0.887) was not significantly different from the Az (0.899) for gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p > 0.05). The overall sensitivities of gadoxetic acid enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI were 80% and 83%, respectively, with no significant difference (p > 0.05). The differences of the positive predictive values for the two contrast agents for each observer were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI for preoperatively detecting HCC is quite similar

  9. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  10. A Sustainable Approach for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment using Clinoptilolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. Y.; Xu, W.; Grace, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    Problems related to acid rock drainage (ARD) occur along many highways of British Columbia. The ARD problem at Pennask Creek along Highway 97C in the Thompson-Okanagan region is an ideal site for pilot study to investigate a possible remediation solution. The highway was opened in 1991. An ARD problem was identified in 1997. Both sides of Highway 97C are producing acidified runoff from both cut rock surface and a fractured ditch. This runoff eventually enters Pennask Creek, the largest spawning source of rainbow trout in British Columbia. The current remediation technique using limestone for ARD treatment appears to be unnecessarily expensive, to generate additional solid waste and to not be optimally effective. A soil mineral natural zeolite - clinoptilolite - which is inexpensive and locally available, has a high metal adsorption capacity and a significant buffering capacity. Moreover, the clinoptilolite materials could be back-flushed and reused on site. An earlier batch adsorption study from our laboratory demonstrated that clinoptilolite has a high adsorption capacity for Cu, Zn, Al, with adsorption concentrations 131, 158 and 215 mg/kg clinoptilolite, respectively, from ARD of pH 3.3. Removal of metals from the loaded clinoptilolite by back-flushing was found to depend on the pH, with an optimum pH range for extraction of 2.5 to 4.0 for a contact time of one hour. The rank of desorption effectiveness was EDTA > NaCl > NaNO3 > NaOAC > NaHCO3 > Na2CO3 > NaOH > Ca(OH)2. A novel process involving cyclic adsorption on clinoptilolite followed by regeneration of the sorbent by desorption is examined for the removal of heavy metals from acid rock drainage. Experimental results show that the adsorption of zinc and copper depends on the pH and on external mass transfer. Desorption is assisted by adding NaCl to the water. A slurry bubble column was able to significantly reduce the time required for both adsorption and desorption in batch tests. XRD analysis indicated

  11. Enhancing the mechanical properties of electrospun polyester mats by heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kancheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfibrous materials with a targeted design based on poly(L-lactic acid (PLA and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL were prepared by electrospinning and by combining electrospinning and electrospraying. Several approaches were used: (i electrospinning of a common solution of the two polymers, (ii simultaneous electrospinning of two separate solutions of PLA and PCL, (iii electrospinning of PLA solution in conjunction with electrospraying of PCL solution, and (iv alternating layer-by-layer deposition by electrospinning of separate PLA and PCL solutions. The mats were heated at the melting temperature of PCL (60°", thus achieving melting of PCL fibers/particles and thermal sealing of the fibers. The mats subjected to thermal treatment were characterized by greater mean fiber diameters and reduced values of the water contact angle compared to the pristine mats. Heat treatment of the mats affected their thermal stability and led to an increase in the crystallinity degree of PLA incorporated in the mats, whereas that of PCL was reduced. All mats were characterized by enhanced mechanical properties after thermal treatment as compared to the non-treated fibrous materials.

  12. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  13. Treatment of odorous volatile fatty acids using a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y F; Chua, H; Sin, S N; Chan, S Y

    2008-02-01

    In this study, a novel fibrous bioreactor was developed for treating odorous compounds present in contaminated air. The first stage of this work was a preliminary study which aimed at investigating the feasibility of using the fibrous bioreactor for the removal of malodorous volatile fatty acids (VFA) that is a common odorous contaminant generated from anaerobic degradation of organic compounds. The kinetics of microbial growth and VFA degradation in the selected culture, and the performance of the submerged bioreactor at different VFA mass loadings were studied. Above 95% of VFA removal efficiencies were achieved at mass loadings up to 22.4 g/m(3)/h. In the second stage, the odour treatment process was scaled up with system design and operational considerations. A trickling biofilter with synthetic fibrous packing medium was employed. The effects of inlet VFA concentration and empty bed retention time (EBRT) on the process performance were investigated. The bioreactor was effective in removing VFA at mass loadings up to 32 g/m(3)/h, beyond which VFA started to accumulate in the recirculation liquid, indicating the biofilm was unable to degrade all of the VFA introduced. Although VFA accumulated in the liquid phase, the removal efficiency remained above 99%. This suggested that the biochemical reaction rather than gas-liquid mass transfer was the limiting step of the treatment process. In addition, the biotrickling filter was stable for long-term operation with relatively low and steady pressure drop, no clogging and degeneration of the packing material occurred during the four-month study.

  14. Remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater using acid/BOF slag enhanced chemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, T T; Kao, C M; Wang, J Y

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying acid/H(2)O(2)/basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) and acid/S(2)O(8)(2-)/BOF slag systems to enhance the chemical oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater. Results from the bench-scale study indicate that TCE oxidation via the Fenton-like oxidation process can be enhanced with the addition of BOF slag at low pH (pH=2-5.2) and neutral (pH=7.1) conditions. Because the BOF slag has iron abundant properties (14% of FeO and 6% of Fe(2)O(3)), it can be sustainably reused for the supplement of iron minerals during the Fenton-like or persulfate oxidation processes. Results indicate that higher TCE removal efficiency (84%) was obtained with the addition of inorganic acid for the activation of Fenton-like reaction compared with the experiments with organic acids addition (with efficiency of 10-15% lower) (BOF slag=10gL(-1); initial pH=5.2). This could be due to the fact that organic acids would compete with TCE for available oxidants. Results also indicate that the pH value had a linear correlation with the observed first-order decay constant of TCE, and thus, lower pH caused a higher TCE oxidation rate.

  15. Optimization of culture media for enhancing gamma-linolenic acid production by Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: g-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition. In the present study, production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292 was evaluated in submerged fermentation. Materials and methods: The fermentation variables were chosen according to the fractional factorial design and further optimized via full factorial method. Four significant variables, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and pH were selected for the optimization studies. The design consisted of total 16 runs consisting of runs at two levels for each factor with three replications of the center points. Results: The analysis of variance and three-dimensional response surface plot of effects indicated that variables were regarded to be significant for production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis. Results indicated that fermentation at the optimum conditions (100 g/l glucose concentration; 1 g/l peptone; 1 g/l ammonium nitrate, and pH of 4.5 enhanced the g-linolenic acid production up to 709 mg/l. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that higher g-linolenic acid yield can be achieved in a simple medium at high glucose and ammonium nitrate, low peptone concentrations and acidic pH by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292. This simple and low cost optimization condition of culture media can be applied for g-linolenic acid production at higher scale for pharmaceutical and nutritional industries. 

  16. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public... requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 rule). At this meeting, EPA...

  17. Large neutral amino acids in the treatment of PKU : from theory to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsen, Francjan J.; de Groot, Martijn J.; Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Rijn, Margreet

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding the success of the traditional dietary phenylalanine restriction treatment in phenylketonuria (PKU), the use of large neutral amino acid (LNAA) supplementation rather than phenylalanine restriction has been suggested. This treatment modality deserves attention as it might improve cog

  18. Enhanced succinic acid production in Aspergillus saccharolyticus by heterologous expression of fumarate reductase from Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Ahring, Birgitte K; Lübeck, Peter S

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus saccharolyticus exhibits great potential as a cell factory for industrial production of dicarboxylic acids. In the analysis of the organic acid profile, A. saccharolyticus was cultivated in an acid production medium using two different pH conditions. The specific activities of the enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarase (FUM), involved in the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) branch, were examined and compared in cells harvested from the acid production medium and a complete medium. The results showed that ambient pH had a significant impact on the pattern and the amount of organic acids produced by A. saccharolyticus. The wild-type strain produced higher amount of malic acid and succinic acid in the pH buffered condition (pH 6.5) compared with the pH non-buffered condition. The enzyme assays showed that the rTCA branch was active in the acid production medium as well as the complete medium, but the measured enzyme activities were different depending on the media. Furthermore, a soluble NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene (frd) from Trypanosoma brucei was inserted and expressed in A. saccharolyticus. The expression of the frd gene led to an enhanced production of succinic acid in frd transformants compared with the wild-type in both pH buffered and pH non-buffered conditions with highest amount produced in the pH buffered condition (16.2 ± 0.5 g/L). This study demonstrates the feasibility of increasing succinic acid production through the cytosolic reductive pathway by genetic engineering in A. saccharolyticus.

  19. Enhanced production of polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid by thraustochytrid protists

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, R.; Raghukumar, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    treatment during growth of several thraustochytrids resulted in pronounced increases in DHA. An alternative method of harvesting the cells and storing the cell biomass at a low temperature also elevated DHA production. Storage at 10 degrees C for 24 to 48...

  20. Enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate respiration for in situ bioremediation of acid mine drainage sites: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, A.A.; Harrington, J.M.; Silverstein, J. [ARCADIS G& amp; M, Highlands Ranch, CO (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The prevention of acid mine drainage (AMD) in situ is more attractive than down-gradient treatment alternatives that do not involve source control. AMD source control can be achieved by shifting the microbial activity in the sulfidic rock from pyrite oxidation to anaerobic heterotrophic activity. This is achieved by adding biodegradable organic carbon amendments to the sulfidic rock. This technique was applied to an abandoned coal mine pool in Pennsylvania. The pool had a pH of 3.0 to 3.5. Following treatment, near-neutral pH and decreased effluent heavy metal concentrations were achieved. In situ bioremediation by the enhancement of bacterial iron and sulfate reduction is a promising technology for AMD prevention.

  1. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior...... to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted...... in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9gL-1), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid....

  2. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid.

  3. Study on the Enhancement of Proton Affinity by N-Diisopropyloxy Phosphorylation of Amino Acid in Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    With introduction of a diisopropyloxy phosphoryl group into the N terminal of amino acids, it was found that proton affinity (PA) of amino acid was enhanced in mass spectrometry. Density functional theory calculations showed that the energy for protonation of DIPP-amino acid is lower than that of amino acid, which means PA of DIPP-AA is higher than that of corresponding amino acid. These results, coincident with our empirical results, offer a useful interpretation of experimental observations.

  4. Enhancing climate adaptation capacity for drinking water treatment facilities (supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Historical water quality data of the Ohio River. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Levine, A., J. Yang , and J. Goodrich. Enhancing climate...

  5. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF GYMNEMIC ACID USING HR BIOELICITOR EXTRACTED FROM XANTHOMONAS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Subathra Devi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of Gymnema sylvestre, commonly known as periploca of woods an Indian medicinal woody climber has increased recently due to the pharmaceutical potential of gymnemic acids, found in its leaves. Gymnemic acids have been reported to effect a natural treatment for diabetes. This study developed a novel cell culture system for in vitro growth and production of this species, suggesting a possible technology for large scale production of gymnemic acids. Leaf explants grown in Murashige and Skoog salts supplemented with IAA 1.5mg/l and BA 0.5mg/l gave maximum percentage of callus formation compared to other treatments evaluated. The growth rate and gymnemic acid accumulation in the callus suspension culture was determined. The HR protein from Xanthomonas spp. was used as an elicitor for the production of gymnemic acid. When compared to non-elicited cultures, two fold increase of gymnemic acids yield in elicited cultures was observed. The quantification of gymnemic acid was done using HPLC. The total gynemagenin after 21st day of incubation was 30.2389mg/100ml. This method can be used economically in pilot scale studies.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  7. Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debleena; Mukhopadhyay, Sandip

    2012-11-01

    In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of 2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (alpha-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

  8. Nanoparticle-enhanced fluorescence emission for non-separation assays of carbohydrates using a boronic acid-alizarin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianjin; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Addition of crosslinked polymer nanoparticles into a solution of a 3-nitrophenylboronic acid-alizarin complex leads to significant enhancement of fluorescence emission. Using the nanoparticle-enhanced boronic acid-alizarin system has improved greatly the sensitivity and extended the dynamic range of separation-free fluorescence assays for carbohydrates.

  9. Genetic analysis of pathway regulation for enhancing branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2010-08-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, leucine and isoleucine are essential amino acids that play critical roles in animal growth and development. Animals cannot synthesize these amino acids and must obtain them from their diet. Plants are the ultimate source of these essential nutrients, and they synthesize BCAAs through a conserved pathway that is inhibited by its end products. This feedback inhibition has prevented scientists from engineering plants that accumulate high levels of BCAAs by simply over-expressing the respective biosynthetic genes. To identify components critical for this feedback regulation, we performed a genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants that exhibit enhanced resistance to BCAAs. Multiple dominant allelic mutations in the VALINE-TOLERANT 1 (VAT1) gene were identified that conferred plant resistance to valine inhibition. Map-based cloning revealed that VAT1 encodes a regulatory subunit of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), the first committed enzyme in the BCAA biosynthesis pathway. The VAT1 gene is highly expressed in young, rapidly growing tissues. When reconstituted with the catalytic subunit in vitro, the vat1 mutant-containing AHAS holoenzyme exhibits increased resistance to valine. Importantly, transgenic plants expressing the mutated vat1 gene exhibit valine tolerance and accumulate higher levels of BCAAs. Our studies not only uncovered regulatory characteristics of plant AHAS, but also identified a method to enhance BCAA accumulation in crop plants that will significantly enhance the nutritional value of food and feed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A new self-emulsifying formulation of mefenamic acid with enhanced drug dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsak Sriamornsak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble mefenamic acid, self-emulsifying formulation (SEF, composing of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, was formulated. Among the oils and surfactants studied, Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60, Cremophore® EL and Transcutol® HP were selected as they showed maximal solubility to mefenamic acid. The ternary phase diagram was constructed to find optimal concentration that provided the highest drug loading. The droplet size after dispersion and drug dissolution of selected formulations were investigated. The results showed that the formulation containing Imwitor® 742, Tween® 60 and Transcutol® HP (10:30:60 can encapsulate high amount of mefenamic acid. The dissolution study demonstrated that, in the medium containing surfactant, nearly 100% of mefenamic acid were dissolved from SEF within 5 min while 80% of drugs were dissolved from the commercial product in 45 min. In phosphate buffer (without surfactant, 80% of drug were dissolved from the developed SEF within 5 min while only about 13% of drug were dissolved in 45 min, from the commercial product. The results suggested that the SEF can enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drug and has a potential to enhance drug absorption and improve bioavailability of drug.

  11. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerec, M; Svigelj, V; Bogataj, M; Mrhar, A

    2002-06-20

    The influence of interactions between polycarbophil and calcium on a model drug permeation into the pig urinary bladder wall was investigated. Pipemidic acid was used as a model drug. One percent w/v polycarbophil dispersion significantly increases the permeation of pipemidic acid into the urinary bladder wall. The enhanced absorption of pipemidic acid caused by polycarbophil is significantly less pronounced in polycarbophil dispersions containing calcium. The enhancement of pipemidic acid permeation into the urinary bladder wall could be due to the opening of tight junctions, which causes higher paracellular permeability. In the case of polycarbophil dispersion with calcium some carboxylic groups of polymer are already occupied with calcium, present in the dispersions. As a consequence extracellular calcium binds to polycarbophil in lower extent if compared with polycarbophil dispersion without calcium and transport is increased to a lesser degree. We concluded that the mechanism of drug absorption enhancement caused by polycarbophil could be similar for urinary bladder as described in the literature for intestinal mucosa.

  12. Intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma: prognostic value of preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Jieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Ji Hae; Park, Young Nyun [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ha Yan [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Biostatistics Collaboration Unit, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Sik [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    To assess whether gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI could be used as a prognostic factor for intrahepatic mass-forming cholangiocarcinomas (IMCCs). Forty-one patients with pathologically proven IMCCs who underwent preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI were included. The signal intensity of the IMCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI was qualitatively analyzed by two radiologists, and categorized into intermediate or hypointense groups. Analysis of clinicopathological prognostic factors and correlations of imaging and histology were also performed. Survival time and time to recurrence (TTR) were analyzed. Of the 41 IMCCs, 23 were in the intermediate group and 18 were in the hypointense group on HBP MRI. IMCCs in the intermediate group were associated with shorter survival time (P = 0.048) and TTR (P = 0.002) than the IMCCs of the hypointense group. Only the intermediate group on HBP MRI had a significantly shorter TTR on multivariate analysis (P = 0.012). The IMCCs of the intermediate group showed a tendency for more abundant tumour fibrous stroma than those of the hypointense group (P = 0.027). The enhancement of IMCCs on HBP gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI appears to correlate with tumour aggressiveness and outcomes due to the tumour fibrous stromal component. Thus, HBP images could be a useful prognostic factor for IMCCs after surgery. (orig.)

  13. Enhancement of electrical properties of polyimide films by plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddeb, A. Barhoumi; Ounaies, Z.; Lanagan, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrical and surface properties of polyimide, Kapton HN, film is investigated. The plasma treatment led to an increase in the oxygen presence on the polyimide surface and a marked surface hydrophilicity. The plasma treatment led to an increase in the dielectric breakdown and Weibull modulus as well as a remarkable reduction in the scatter of all electrical measurements. There is a significant reduction in the high field/high temperature leakage current after plasma treatment. These findings have important implications in the development and improvement of dielectric polymer capacitors.

  14. Efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid and 50% glycolic acid peel in the treatment of frictional melanosis: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sacchidanand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frictional dermal melanosis is aesthetically displeasing. Various modalities ranging from depigmenting agents to lasers have been tried but it continues to be a difficult problem to treat. Objective: To study and compare the efficacy of 15% trichloroacetic acid (TCA and 50% glycolic acid in the treatment of frictional melanosis of the forearm. Materials and Methods: 40 patients of frictional melanosis of the forearm were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups A and B. Pre-peel priming was carried out with 12% glycolic acid and sunscreen for 2 weeks. Group A was treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA-15% peel and Group B with glycolic acid (GA-50% peel. Four peels were done one every 15 days. Clinical photographs were taken to assess the response. Response to therapy was evaluated by both objective and subjective methods. The patients were followed up for 3 months after the last peel to note any relapse. Results: Both TCA and glycolic acid peels were effective in frictional melanosis. TCA showed better response compared to glycolic acid at the end of the treatment, both by subjective and objective methods. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. No permanent side effects were seen in any of the treated patients and the improvement was sustained without any relapse at 3 months. Conclusion: Chemical peeling with both tricholoroacetic acid (15% and glycolic acid (50% is safe and effective for the treatment of frictional dermal melanosis. Tricholoroacetic acid was found to be marginally superior to glycolic acid.

  15. Enhanced Synthesis of Alkyl Amino Acids in Miller's 1958 H2S Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Eric T.; Cleaves, H. James; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, James P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    Stanley Miller's 1958 H2S-containing experiment, which included a simulated prebiotic atmosphere of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) produced several alkyl amino acids, including the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers of aminobutyric acid (ABA) in greater relative yields than had previously been reported from his spark discharge experiments. In the presence of H2S, aspariic and glutamic acids could yield alkyl amino acids via the formation of thioimide intermediates. Radical chemistry initiated by passing H2S through a spark discharge could have also enhanced alkyl amino acid synthesis by generating alkyl radicals that can help form the aldehyde and ketone precursors to these amino acids. We propose mechanisms that may have influenced the synthesis of certain amino acids in localized environments rich in H2S and lightning discharges, similar to conditions near volcanic systems on the early Earth, thus contributing to the prebiotic chemical inventory of the primordial Earth.

  16. Summary of an International and a Regional Symposium: Acid-Related Diseases - Improving Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABR Thomson

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the clinical impact of findings from a key international workshop on acid peptic disorders, “Appropriate acid suppression for the healing of acid-related diseases,” and from an important meeting which summarized results of a cross-Canada study of the symptomatic treatment of dyspepsia due to esophagitis and duodenal ulcer disease.

  17. Enhancing the functionality of biobased polyester coating resins through modification with citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordover, Bart A J; Duchateau, Robbert; van Benthem, Rolf A T M; Ming, Weihua; Koning, Cor E

    2007-12-01

    Citric acid (CA) was evaluated as a functionality-enhancing monomer in biobased polyesters suitable for coating applications. Model reactions of CA with several primary and secondary alcohols and diols, including the 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols, revealed that titanium(IV) n-butoxide catalyzed esterification reactions involving these compounds proceed at relatively low temperatures, often via anhydride intermediates. Interestingly, the facile anhydride formation from CA at temperatures around CA's melting temperature ( T m = 153 degrees C) proved to be crucial in modifying sterically hindered secondary hydroxyl end groups. OH-functional polyesters were reacted with CA in the melt between 150 and 165 degrees C, yielding slightly branched carboxylic acid functional materials with strongly enhanced functionality. The acid/epoxy curing reaction of the acid-functional polymers was simulated with a monofunctional glycidyl ether. Finally, the CA-modified polyesters were applied as coatings, using conventional cross-linking agents. The formulations showed rapid curing, resulting in chemically and mechanically stable coatings. These results demonstrate that citric acid can be applied in a new way, making use of its anhydride formation to functionalize OH-functional polyesters, which is an important new step toward fully biobased coating systems.

  18. Enhanced washing durability of hydrophobic coating on cellulose fabric using polycarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Wenqi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xing Yanjun, E-mail: yjxing@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Science and Technology of Eco-Textile (Donghua University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201620 (China); Yu Yunyi [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shang Songmin [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Dai Jinjin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nine polycarboxylic acids were used to improve washing durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric finished by sol-gel method. By simultaneous forming ester-bridge between cellulose and silica layer by ester bond, polycarboxylic acids could anchor silica coating onto cellulose fabric to strengthen the adhesion of organic-inorganic hybrid coating. The wettability of treated fabrics was characterized by water contact angle, spray test and hydrostatic pressure test. The results showed that all investigated polycarboxylic acids could improve the durability. The polycarboxylic acid with proper distance between terminal carboxylic acid groups and number of carboxylic acid groups showed the highest durability. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) led to the best durability of hydrophobic cellulose fabric with water contact angle of 137.6{sup o} (recovery percentage of 94.2%) after 30 washing times. The effect of BTCA on durability was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. This study demonstrated that the surface treatment using polycarboxylic acids and mixed organosilanes is a promising alternative for achieving durable hydrophobic fabrics.

  19. TREATMENT AND RESOURCE REUSE OF 1,2,4-ACID PRODUCING EFFLUENT WITH MACROPOROUS POLYMERIC ADSORBENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The treatment and resource reuse of 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater by self-mademacroporous adsorption resin ND,A-107 was studied in this paper. Optimum adsorption anddesorption process parameters were acquired by systematically study. The polymeric resin NDA-10 7indicated good adsorption & desorption of 1,2, 4-acid in the wastewater. The removal efficiency of1,2,4-acid, CODer is about 78%, 72% respectively. It is evident that this adsorption process is anefficient treatment method for 1,2,4-acid producing wastewater. At the same time, the accumulationand resource reuse of l,2, 4-acid can be realized in this process.

  20. [Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Toru; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid(DHA) have important biologic functions, including effects on membranes, eicosanoid metabolism, and gene transcription. Studies indicate that the use of EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride levels, which is accomplished by decreasing the production of hepatic triglycerides and increasing the clearance of plasma triglycerides. Recent clinical studies showed that intake of omega-3 fatty acids reduced cardiovascular events. In addition, combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin is a safe and effective way to improve lipid levels and cardiovascular prognosis beyond the benefits provided by statin therapy alone. Our focus is to review the potential mechanisms by which these fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. Rock specific hydraulic fracturing and matrix acidizing to enhance a geothermal system — Concepts and field results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Günter; Blöcher, Guido; Reinicke, Andreas; Brandt, Wulf

    2011-04-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs developed to extract economic amounts of heat from low permeability and/or porosity geothermal resources. To enhance the productivity of reservoirs, a site specific concept is necessary to actively make reservoir conditions profitable using specially adjusted stimulation treatments, such as multi fracture concepts and site specific well path design. The results of previously performed stimulation treatments in the geothermal research well GtGrSk4/05 at Groß Schönebeck, Germany are presented. The reservoir is located at a 4100-4300 m depth within the Lower Permian of the NE German Basin with a bottom-hole temperature of 150 °C. The reservoir rock is classified by two lithological units from bottom to top: volcanic rocks (andesitic rocks) and siliciclastics ranging from conglomerates to fine-grained sandstones (fluvial sediments). The stimulation treatments included multiple hydraulic stimulations and an acid treatment. In order to initiate a cross-flow from the sandstone layer, the hydraulic stimulations were performed in different depth sections (two in the sandstone section and one in the underlying volcanic section). In low permeability volcanic rocks, a cyclic hydraulic fracturing treatment was performed over 6 days in conjunction with adding quartz in low concentrations to maintain a sustainable fracture performance. Flow rates of up to 150 l/s were realized, and a total of 13,170 m 3 of water was injected. A hydraulic connection to the sandstone layer was successfully achieved in this way. However, monitoring of the water level in the offsetting well EGrSk3/90, which is 475 m apart at the final depth, showed a very rapid water level increase due to the stimulation treatment. This can be explained by a connected fault zone within the volcanic rocks. Two gel-proppant treatments were performed in the slightly higher permeability sandstones to obtain long-term access to the reservoir rocks. During each

  2. Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Finni; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kanawati, Basem; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parker, Jane E; Schwab, Wilfried; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-11-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation.

  3. Amino-Functional Polybenzimidazole Blends with Enhanced Phosphoric Acid Mediated Proton Conductivity as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Han, Junyoung;

    2016-01-01

    A new amino-functional polybenzimidazole copolymer is synthesized by homogeneous solution condensation polymerization from a novel monomer, N,N′-bis (2,4-diaminophenyl)-1,3-diaminopropane. The copolymer readily dissolves in organic solvents and shows good film forming characteristics. To balance...... the phosphoric acid uptake and to obtain mechanically robust membranes, the amino-functional polybenzimidazole derivative is blended with high molecular weight poly [2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bisbenzimidazole] at different ratios. Due to the high acid uptake, the homogenous blend membranes show enhanced proton...

  4. Morphology-dependent Electrochemical Enhancements of Porous Carbon as Sensitive Determination Platform for Ascorbic Acid, Dopamine and Uric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qin; Ji, Liudi; Wu, Kangbing; Zhang, Weikang

    2016-02-01

    Using starch as the carbon precursor and different-sized ZnO naoparticles as the hard template, a series of porous carbon materials for electrochemical sensing were prepared. Experiments of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms reveal that the particle size of ZnO has big impacts on the porous morphology and surface area of the resulting carbon materials. Through ultrasonic dispersion of porous carbon and subsequent solvent evaporation, different sensing interfaces were constructed on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemical behaviors of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) were studied. On the surface of porous carbon materials, the accumulation efficiency and electron transfer ability of AA, DA and UA are improved, and consequently their oxidation signals enhance greatly. Moreover, the interface enhancement effects of porous carbon are also controlled by the particle size of hard template. The constructed porous carbon interface displays strong signal amplification ability and holds great promise in constructing a sensitive platform for the simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA.

  5. Fatty Acid Incubation of Myotubues from Humans with Type 2 Diabetes Leads to Enhanced Release of Beta Oxidation Products Due to Impaired Fatty Acid Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wensaas, Andreas J; Rustan, Arild C; Just, Marlene;

    2008-01-01

    these processes. Research Design and Methods: We examined fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and gene expression in cultured human skeletal muscle cells from control and T2D individuals after four days preincubation with EPA or TTA. Results: T2D myotubes exhibited reduced formation of CO(2) from palmitic acid (PA......Objective: Increased availability of fatty acids is important for accumulation of intracellular lipids and development of insulin resistance in human myotubes. It is unknown whether different types of fatty acids like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) influence....... EPA markedly enhanced TAG accumulation in myotubes, more pronounced in T2D cells. TAG accumulation and fatty acid oxidation were inversely correlated only after EPA preincubation, and total level of acyl-CoA was reduced. Glucose oxidation (CO(2) formation) was enhanced and lactate production decreased...

  6. Low humic acids promote in vitro lily bulblet enlargement by enhancing roots growth and carbohydrate metabolism * #

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Xia, Yi-ping; Zhang, Jia-ping; Du, Fang; Zhang, Lin; Ma, Yi-di; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Bulblet development is a problem in global lily bulb production and carbohydrate metabolism is a crucial factor. Micropropagation acts as an efficient substitute for faster propagation and can provide a controllable condition to explore bulb growth. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of humic acid (HA) on bulblet swelling and the carbohydrate metabolic pathway in Lilium Oriental Hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ under in vitro conditions. HA greatly promoted bulblet growth at 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 mg/L, and pronounced increases in bulblet sucrose, total soluble sugar, and starch content were observed for higher HA concentrations (≥2.0 mg/L) within 45 d after transplanting (DAT). The activities of three major starch synthetic enzymes (including adenosine 5'-diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, granule-bound starch synthase, and soluble starch synthase) were enhanced dramatically after HA application especially low concentration HA (LHA), indicating a quick response of starch metabolism. However, higher doses of HA also caused excessive aboveground biomass accumulation and inhibited root growth. Accordingly, an earlier carbon starvation emerged by observing evident starch degradation. Relative bulblet weight gradually decreased with increased HA doses and thereby broke the balance between the source and sink. A low HA concentration at 0.2 mg/L performed best in both root and bulblet growth. The number of roots and root length peaked at 14.5 and 5.75 cm, respectively. The fresh bulblet weight and diameter reached 468 mg (2.9 times that under the control treatment) and 11.68 mm, respectively. Further, sucrose/starch utilization and conversion were accelerated and carbon famine was delayed as a result with an average relative bulblet weight of 80.09%. To our knowledge, this is the first HA application and mechanism research into starch metabolism in both in vitro and in vivo condition in bulbous crops. PMID:27819136

  7. Enhancement of trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium oxysporum by ferulic acid aggravates oxidative damage in Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen Fang; He, Chen Ling; Wang, Ying; Li, Ming Jie; Dai, Ya Jing; Wang, Tong; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Rehmannia glutinosa is an important medicinal herb that cannot be replanted in the same field due to the effects of autotoxic substances. The effects of these substances on R. glutinosa in continuous cropping systems are unknown. In the present study, bioassays revealed that R. glutinosa exhibited severe growth restriction and higher disease indices in the FO+FA (F.oxysporum pretreated with ferulic acid) treatment. The increases in the contents of MDA and H2O2 were greater in the FA+FO treatment than in the FA or FO only treatments, respectively. Consistent with this result, the enzyme activities in the seedlings increased with treatment time. To identify the main factor underlying the increased pathogenicity of FO, macroconidia and trichothecene mycotoxins coproduced by FO were separated and used to treat R. glutinosa seedlings. The MDA and H2O2 contents were similar in the seedlings treated with deoxynivalenol and in the FA+FO treatment. Quantification of the relative expression of certain genes involved in Ca2+ signal transduction pathways suggested that trichothecene mycotoxins play an important role in the increased pathogenicity of FO. In conclusion, FA not only directly enhances oxidative damage in R. glutinosa but also increases wilting symptom outbreaks by promoting the secretion of trichothecene mycotoxins by FO. PMID:27667444

  8. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  9. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, I. Chang [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taipei Cathay General Hospital, Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Willinsky, Robert A.; Agid, Ronit [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Fanning, Noel F. [Cork University Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-06-15

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development. We performed a retrospective analysis of consecutively treated unruptured aneurysms between January 2000 and December 2011. The presence and evolution of wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema on MRI after endovascular treatment were analyzed. Variable factors were compared among aneurysms with and without edema. One hundred thirty-two unruptured aneurysms in 124 patients underwent endovascular treatment. Eighty-five (64.4 %) aneurysms had wall enhancement, and 9 (6.8 %) aneurysms had perianeurysmal brain edema. Wall enhancement tends to persist for years with two patterns identified. Larger aneurysms and brain-embedded aneurysms were significantly associated with wall enhancement. In all edema cases, the aneurysms were embedded within the brain and had wall enhancement. Progressive thickening of wall enhancement was significantly associated with edema. Edema can be symptomatic when in eloquent brain and stabilizes or resolves over the years. Our study demonstrates the prevalence and some appreciation of the natural history of aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal brain edema following endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms. Aneurysmal wall enhancement is a common phenomenon while perianeurysmal edema is rare. These phenomena are likely related to the presence of inflammatory reaction near the aneurysmal wall. Both phenomena are usually asymptomatic and self-limited, and prophylactic treatment is not recommended. (orig.)

  11. Surfactant enhanced disinfection of the human norovirus surrogate, tulane virus with organic acids and surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human infection with foodborne viruses can occur following consumption of contaminated food, person-to-person body contact, or release of aerosols. Combinatorial treatments of surfactants and organic acids may have synergistic or additive mechanisms to inactivate foodborne viruses and prevent outbr...

  12. Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Raj Kishor; Gangoliya, Shivraj Singh; Singh, Nand Kumar

    2015-02-01

    More than half of the world populations are affected by micronutrient malnutrition and one third of world's population suffers from anemia and zinc deficiency, particularly in developing countries. Iron and zinc deficiencies are the major health problems worldwide. Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorous in cereals, legumes, oil seeds and nuts. Phytic acid is known as a food inhibitor which chelates micronutrient and prevents it to be bioavailabe for monogastric animals, including humans, because they lack enzyme phytase in their digestive tract. Several methods have been developed to reduce the phytic acid content in food and improve the nutritional value of cereal which becomes poor due to such antinutrient. These include genetic improvement as well as several pre-treatment methods such as fermentation, soaking, germination and enzymatic treatment of grains with phytase enzyme. Biofortification of staple crops using modern biotechnological techniques can potentially help in alleviating malnutrition in developing countries.

  13. Enhancing the efficacy of cisplatin in ovarian cancer treatment – could arsenic have a role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm C William

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer affects more than 200,000 women each year around the world. Most women are not diagnosed until the disease has already metastasized from the ovaries with a resultant poor prognosis. Ovarian cancer is associated with an overall 5 year survival of little more than 50%. The mainstay of front-line therapy is cytoreductive surgery followed by chemotherapy. Traditionally, this has been by the intravenous route only but there is more interest in the delivery of intraperitoneal chemotherapy utilizing the pharmaco-therapeutic advantage of the peritoneal barrier. Despite three large, randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous with intraperitoneal chemotherapy showing improved outcomes for those receiving at least part of their chemotherapy by the intraperitoneal route. Cisplatin has been the most active drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for the last 4 decades and the prognosis for women with ovarian cancer can be defined by the tumor response to cisplatin. Those whose tumors are innately platinum-resistant at the time of initial treatment have a very poor prognosis. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy the majority will develop disease that becomes resistant to cisplatin and will ultimately succumb to the disease. Improving the efficacy of cisplatin could have a major impact in the fight against this disease. Arsenite is an exciting agent that not only has inherent single-agent tumoricidal activity against ovarian cancer cell lines but also multiple biochemical interactions that may enhance the cytotoxicity of cisplatin including inhibition of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA repair. In vitro studies suggest that arsenite may enhance the activity of cisplatin in other cell types. Arsenic trioxide is already used clinically to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia demonstrating its safety profile. Further research in ovarian cancer is warranted to define

  14. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse using a combined process of dilute acid and ionic liquid treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedericks, Danie; van Rensburg, Eugéne; Görgens, Johann F

    2012-08-01

    Biorefineries processing lignocellulose will produce chemicals and fuels from chemical constituents, cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin to replace fossil-derived products. Fractionation of sugarcane bagasse into three pure streams of chemical constituents was addressed through dissolution of constituents with the ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([EMiM]CH(3)COO) or 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate ([BMiM]MeSO(4)). Constituents were isolated from the reaction mixture with the anti-solvents acetone (Ā), acetone-water (AW), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Delignification was enhanced by NaOH, although resulting in impure product streams. Xylose pre-extraction (75 % w/w) by dilute acid pretreatment, prior to ionic liquid treatment, improved lignin purity after anti-solvent separation. Fractionation efficiency of the combined process was maximized (84 %) by ionic liquid treatment at 125 °C for 120 min, resulting in 80.2 % (w/w) lignin removal and 76.5 % (w/w) lignin recovery. Ionic liquids achieved similar degrees of delignification, although fully digestible cellulose-rich solids were produced only by [EMiM]CH(3)COO treatment.

  15. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Ito, Masataka; Nishida, Takafumi; Takeuchi, Masaru; Saitoh, Daizoh; Seki, Shuhji; Mukai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI) followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg) up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h) after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total) also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  16. Treatment of irradiated mice with high-dose ascorbic acid reduced lethality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohito Sato

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid is an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Therefore, it is expected that ascorbic acid should act as a radioprotectant. We investigated the effects of post-radiation treatment with ascorbic acid on mouse survival. Mice received whole body irradiation (WBI followed by intraperitoneal administration of ascorbic acid. Administration of 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid immediately after exposure significantly increased mouse survival after WBI at 7 to 8 Gy. However, administration of less than 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid was ineffective, and 4 or more g/kg was harmful to the mice. Post-exposure treatment with 3 g/kg of ascorbic acid reduced radiation-induced apoptosis in bone marrow cells and restored hematopoietic function. Treatment with ascorbic acid (3 g/kg up to 24 h (1, 6, 12, or 24 h after WBI at 7.5 Gy effectively improved mouse survival; however, treatments beyond 36 h were ineffective. Two treatments with ascorbic acid (1.5 g/kg × 2, immediately and 24 h after radiation, 3 g/kg in total also improved mouse survival after WBI at 7.5 Gy, accompanied with suppression of radiation-induced free radical metabolites. In conclusion, administration of high-dose ascorbic acid might reduce radiation lethality in mice even after exposure.

  17. Evaluation of membrane processes for acid gas treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, J.; Bos, W.A.P. van den; Broeke, L.J.P. van den

    2012-01-01

    An overview is given of different membrane processes that are used for acid gas removal from natural gas. The main characteristics of selective membranes and membrane contactors for gas separation involving mixtures with acid gases are discussed. The removal of carbon dioxide from gaseous streams an

  18. Plasma Treatment to Enhance Fuel Cell Water Management Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to further define the potential for plasma treatment technology, developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to modify and...

  19. Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum: CT and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Myeong; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Tae Un [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Intraluminal duodenal diverticulum (IDD) is a rare congenital anomaly. IDD can become symptomatic in 20% to 25% of cases when complicated by intestinal obstruction, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. We report the case of a 21-year-old female presenting with IDD mimicking duodenoduodenal intussusception. We describe the imaging features of IDD on the gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance image as well as computed tomography.

  20. Enhanced succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate by microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Weijia; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Bowen; Chen, Kequan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Actinobacillus succinogenes NJ113 microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to enhance the reducing power responsible for succinic acid production from corncob hydrolysate. During corncob hydrolysate fermentation, electric MECs resulted in a 1.31-fold increase in succinic acid production and a 1.33-fold increase in the reducing power compared with those in non-electric MECs. When the hydrolysate was detoxified by combining Ca(OH)2, NaOH, and activated carbon, succinic acid production increased from 3.47 to 6.95 g/l. Using a constant potential of -1.8 V further increased succinic acid production to 7.18 g/l. A total of 18.09 g/l of succinic acid and a yield of 0.60 g/g total sugar were obtained after a 60-h fermentation when NaOH was used as a pH regulator. The improved succinic acid yield from corncob hydrolysate fermentation using A. succinogenes NJ113 in electric MECs demonstrates the great potential of using biomass as a feedstock to cost-effectively produce succinate.

  1. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  2. Transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase exhibit elevated hydroxycinnamic acid amide levels and enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Laura; Lisón, Purificación; López-Gresa, María Pilar; Rodrigo, Ismael; Zacarés, Laura; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA) are secondary metabolites involved in plant development and defense that have been widely reported throughout the plant kingdom. These phenolics show antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. Hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT) is the key enzyme in HCAA synthesis and is induced in response to pathogen infection, wounding, or elicitor treatments, preceding HCAA accumulation. We have engineered transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato THT. These plants displayed an enhanced THT gene expression in leaves as compared with wild type (WT) plants. Consequently, leaves of THT-overexpressing plants showed a higher constitutive accumulation of the amide coumaroyltyramine (CT). Similar results were found in flowers and fruits. Moreover, feruloyltyramine (FT) also accumulated in these tissues, being present at higher levels in transgenic plants. Accumulation of CT, FT and octopamine, and noradrenaline HCAA in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection was higher in transgenic plants than in the WT plants. Transgenic plants showed an enhanced resistance to the bacterial infection. In addition, this HCAA accumulation was accompanied by an increase in salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene induction. Taken together, these results suggest that HCAA may play an important role in the defense of tomato plants against P. syringae infection.

  3. Effects of Short-Day and Gibberellic Acid Treatments on Summer Vegetative Propagation of Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Ishii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of short-day (SD and gibberellic acid (GA3 treatments on promoting vegetative propagation during the summer were examined in Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. A dwarf variety of late heading type (DL Napier grass was exposed to three SD treatments (5, 10, and 20 short days plus a spray of 400 ppm GA3 solution following each SD treatment, GASD or no treatment (control. Additionally, then, a dwarf variety of early heading (DE and the normal variety of Merkeron (ME were exposed to 10 days of GA-SD treatment together with nontreated controls. For DL and DE, GA-SD treatments showed the following effects: 10-day GA-SD treatment increased significantly (P<0.05 the length of lateral tiller buds, maintained a high rooting percentage, and increased the diameter of the tiller buds. This resulted in a taller plant, one with enhanced tiller numbers, and thus a greater number of established nursery plants for the two dwarf varieties. In contrast, there was only a limited positive effect of the GA-SD treatments on the normal variety, ME. Thus, 10 days of GA-SD treatment was judged to be the most effective treatment for promoting lateral tiller bud elongation and early maturation in tiller buds for the two dwarf varieties of Napier grass.

  4. Partial reverse of the TCA cycle is enhanced in Taenia crassiceps experimental neurocysticercosis after in vivo treatment with anthelminthic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Leandro, Leticia; Fraga, Carolina Miguel; de Souza Lino, Ruy; Vinaud, Marina Clare

    2014-04-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common helminthic infection and neglected disease of the central nervous system. It is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and seizures worldwide. Therefore, to study this important neglected disease, it is important to use experimental models. There is no report in the literature on how the parasite's metabolism reacts to antihelminthic treatment when it is still within the central nervous system of the host. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the energetic metabolism of cysticerci experimentally inoculated in the encephala of BALB/c mice after treatment with low dosages (not sufficient to kill the parasite) of albendazole (ABDZ) and praziquantel (PZQ). BALB/c mice were intracranially inoculated with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and, after 30 days, received treatment with low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ. After 24 h of treatment, the mice were euthanized, and the cysticerci were removed and analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the organic acids related to the energetic metabolism of the parasite. The partial reverse of the TCA cycle was enhanced by the ABDZ and PZQ treatments both with the higher dosage, as the organic acids of this pathway were significantly increased when compared to the control group and to the other dosages. In conclusion, it was possible to detect the increase of this pathway in the parasites that were exposed to low dosages of ABDZ and PZQ, as it is a mechanism that would amplify the energy production in a hostile environment.

  5. Salicylic Acid and Calcium Treatments Improves Wheat Vigor, Lipids and Phenolics Under High Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Candan, Nilgün; Heybet Elif, Haklı

    2016-12-01

    Seed vigor is a complex physiological trait required to ensure the rapid and uniform emergence of plants in the field under different environmental conditions. Therefore, salicylic acid (SA, 0.5 mM) and calcium (Ca2+, 50 mM) priming were used as exogenous growth enhancers to stimulate wheat (Triticum durum Desf. cv. Yelken) seed vigor under high salinity. The main aim was to address whether priming of wheat with SA, Ca2+ and SA+Ca (SA, 0.5 mM + Ca2+, 50 mM; their combination) could bring about supplementary agronomic benefits particularly under stressful environments such as salinity. Exogenous application of SA or Ca2+ alone improved plant behavior in the presence of salinity stress. Nevertheless, the best results in terms of growth, seed vigor and total phenolic - flavonoids, chlorophyll - carotenoids contents and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ascorbic acide oxidase (AAO) activities and lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) were obtained in response to the combined SA+Ca treatment.

  6. Preparation of metal-resistant immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria beads for acid mine drainage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Haixia; Han, Xuemei

    2016-07-01

    Novel immobilized sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) beads were prepared for the treatment of synthetic acid mine drainage (AMD) containing high concentrations of Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn using up-flow anaerobic packed-bed bioreactor. The tolerance of immobilized SRB beads to heavy metals was significantly enhanced compared with that of suspended SRB. High removal efficiencies of sulfate (61-88%) and heavy metals (>99.9%) as well as slightly alkaline effluent pH (7.3-7.8) were achieved when the bioreactor was fed with acidic influent (pH 2.7) containing high concentrations of multiple metals (Fe 469 mg/L, Cu 88 mg/L, Cd 92 mg/L and Zn 128 mg/L), which showed that the bioreactor filled with immobilized SRB beads had tolerance to AMD containing high concentrations of heavy metals. Partially decomposed maize straw was a carbon source and stabilizing agent in the initial phase of bioreactor operation but later had to be supplemented by a soluble carbon source such as sodium lactate. The microbial community in the bioreactor was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of partial 16S rDNA genes. Synergistic interaction between SRB (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans) and co-existing fermentative bacteria could be the key factor for the utilization of complex organic substrate (maize straw) as carbon and nutrients source for sulfate reduction.

  7. Combined treatment with the Cox-2 inhibitor niflumic acid and PPARγ ligand ciglitazone induces ER stress/caspase-8-mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong Mo; Maeng, Kyungah; Lee, Kee-Ho; Hong, Sung Hee

    2011-01-28

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible combined use of the Cox-2 inhibitor niflumic acid and the PPARγ ligand ciglitazone and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying enhanced apoptosis by this combination treatment in human lung cancer cells. Combined niflumic acid-ciglitazone treatment synergistically induced apoptotic cell death, activated caspase-9, caspase-3, and induced caspase-3-mediated PARP cleavage. The combination treatment also triggered apoptosis through caspase-8/Bid/Bax activation, and the inhibition of caspase-8 suppressed caspase-8/Bid activation, caspase-3-mediated PARP cleavage, and concomitant apoptosis. In addition, combined niflumic acid-ciglitazone treatment significantly induced ER stress responses, and suppression of CHOP expression significantly attenuated the combined niflumic acid-ciglitazone treatment-induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3, and the subsequent apoptotic cell death, indicating a role of ER stress in caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. Interestingly, the pro-apoptotic effects of combined niflumic acid-ciglitazone treatment were realized through Cox-2- and PPARγ-independent mechanisms. Taken together, these results suggest that sequential ER stress and caspase-8 activation are critical in combined niflumic acid-ciglitazone treatment-induced apoptosis in human lung cancer cells.

  8. Preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue

    2012-06-20

    Recently, low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid has been reported to have novel features, such as free radical scavenging activities, antioxidant activities, promotion of excisional wound healing, etc. In the present work, degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment was performed for preparation of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The molecular weight of native hyaluronic acid was reduced from 1535 to 87 kDa for 120 min at 40°C. The rate of reduction of molecular weight was 94.33%. The FT-IR, 13C NMR, and UV-vis spectra suggested that there was no obvious modification of chemical structure of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid. The use of degradation of native hyaluronic acid by ozone treatment can be a useful alternative for production of low-molecular-weight hyaluronic acid.

  9. Omega-3 free fatty acids suppress macrophage inflammasome activation by inhibiting NF-κB activation and enhancing autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Williams-Bey

    Full Text Available The omega-3 (ω3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can suppress inflammation, specifically IL-1β production through poorly understood molecular mechanisms. Here, we show that DHA reduces macrophage IL-1β production by limiting inflammasome activation. Exposure to DHA reduced IL-1β production by ligands that stimulate the NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes. The inhibition required Free Fatty Acid Receptor (FFAR 4 (also known as GPR120, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPR known to bind DHA. The exposure of cells to DHA recruited the adapter protein β-arrestin1/2 to FFAR4, but not to a related lipid receptor. DHA treatment reduced the initial inflammasome priming step by suppressing the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. DHA also reduced IL-1β levels by enhancing autophagy in the cells. As a consequence macrophages derived from mice lacking the essential autophagy protein ATG7 were partially resistant to suppressive effects of DHA. Thus, DHA suppresses inflammasome activation by two distinct mechanisms, inhibiting the initial priming step and by augmenting autophagy, which limits inflammasome activity.

  10. Enhancing the Efficacy of Antihypertensive Treatment with Pharmacogenomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧

    2004-01-01

    @@ In 2003, two newguidelines for hypertensive prevention and management have been provided by American JNC7 and European Society of Hypertension.They advocated that the physician should choose drugs following individualized treatment,which should also be followed by integrative traditional and western medicine.

  11. Effects of Acid Treatment on Dental Zirconia: An In Vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Xie

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hydrofluoric (HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid treatments on the physical properties and structure of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP at ambient temperature. In total, 110 bar-shaped zirconia specimens were randomly assigned to 11 groups. The specimens in the control group (C received no surface treatment, while those in the Cage group were hydrothermally aged at 134°C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Ten specimens each were immersed at ambient temperature in 5% and 40% HF acid for 2 h (40HF0, 1 day (5HF1, 40HF1, and 5 days (5HF5, 40HF5, while 10 each were immersed at ambient temperature in 10% acetic acid and 20% citric acid for 7 (AC7, CI7 and 14 days (AC14, CI14. X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to quantitatively estimate the monoclinic phase. Furthermore, flexural strength, surface roughness, and surface Vickers hardness were measured after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to characterize the surface morphology. The Cage group specimens exhibited an increased monoclinic phase and flexural strength. Furthermore, 40% HF acid immersion decreased the flexural strength and surface hardness and deteriorated the surface finish, while 5% HF acid immersion only decreased the surface hardness. All the HF acid-immersed specimens showed an etched surface texture on SEM observations, while the other groups did not. These findings suggest that the treatment of Y-TZP with 40% HF acid at ambient temperature causes potential damage, while treatment with 5% HF acid, acetic acid, and citric acid is safe.

  12. Docosahexaenoic Acid Conjugation Enhances Distribution and Safety of siRNA upon Local Administration in Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikan, Mehran; Osborn, Maire F; Coles, Andrew H; Godinho, Bruno MDC; Hall, Lauren M; Haraszti, Reka A; Hassler, Matthew R; Echeverria, Dimas; Aronin, Neil; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The use of siRNA-based therapies for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease requires efficient, nontoxic distribution to the affected brain parenchyma, notably the striatum and cortex. Here, we describe the synthesis and activity of a fully chemically modified siRNA that is directly conjugated to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the mammalian brain. DHA conjugation enables enhanced siRNA retention throughout both the ipsilateral striatum and cortex following a single, intrastriatal injection (ranging from 6–60 μg). Within these tissues, DHA conjugation promotes internalization by both neurons and astrocytes. We demonstrate efficient and specific silencing of Huntingtin mRNA expression in both the ipsilateral striatum (up to 73%) and cortex (up to 51%) after 1 week. Moreover, following a bilateral intrastriatal injection (60 μg), we achieve up to 80% silencing of a secondary target, Cyclophilin B, at both the mRNA and protein level. Importantly, DHA-hsiRNAs do not induce neural cell death or measurable innate immune activation following administration of concentrations over 20 times above the efficacious dose. Thus, DHA conjugation is a novel strategy for improving siRNA activity in mouse brain, with potential to act as a new therapeutic platform for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27504598

  13. Enhancing brain lesions after endovascular treatment of aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz, J P; Marotta, T; O'Kelly, C

    2014-01-01

    Complications of endovascular therapy of aneurysms mainly include aneurysm rupture and thromboembolic events. The widespread use of MR imaging for follow-up of these patients revealed various nonvascular complications such as aseptic meningitis, hydrocephalus, and perianeurysmal brain edema. We...... present 7 patients from 5 different institutions that developed MR imaging-enhancing brain lesions after endovascular therapy of aneurysms, detected after a median time of 63 days. The number of lesions ranged from 4-46 (median of 10.5), sized 2-20 mm, and were mostly in the same vascular territory used...

  14. Experimental research in leaching of copper-bearing tailings enhanced by ultrasonic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jie; WU Ai-xiang; WANG Yi-ming; CHEN Xue-song

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of an experiment in ultrasonic enhanced ammonia leaching of tailings, the effect of ultrasonic waves on copper dissolution was studied. The mechanism of ultrasonic enhanced tailing leaching was analyzed and a technique of ultrasonic enhanced pipe leaching of tailings was proposed. The results show that tailings with ultrasonic treatment can leach up to 89.5% of Cu, which is 13.5% more than those without the treatment. Ultrasonic technology is capable of improving leaching rates and the overall recovery of tailing leaching. Impact waves and micro jet streams can strip and erode affected surfaces of tailing particles to create new active surfaces and disturbances can intensify mass transfer processes in "dead zones". The technique of ultrasonic enhanced pipe leaching of tailings is a combination of existing agitation enhancement with ultrasonic enhancement and can im-prove mineral recovery.

  15. The Effects of Different Acid Treatment and Stratification Duration on Germination of Cercis siliquastrum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ZENCİRKİRAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of acid (H2SO4 treatment and moist stratification duration on the properties of seed coat, germination rate and duration of the Cercis siliquastrum L. were investigated. The rupture force and firmness of seed coat decrease during the acid treatment and moist stratification, stratification was for more than 30 minutes of these applications. Up to this treatment, rupture force and firmness were highly decreased. Contrary to this decrease, the germination rate was increased. The decrease in rupture force and firmness of seed coat were changed limitedly after 45 minutes and over acid treatments. From the results of this study, we conclude that eight weeks of moist stratification duration was optimal after 30 minutes of acid treatment to remove the physical and physiological dormancy of the seeds of the C. siliquastrum L.

  16. Extraction process of chlorogenic acid in flos lonicerae by enzymatic treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳佳; 赵国玲; 王晖; 章晓骅

    2002-01-01

    A new method of extracting chlorogenic acid from flos lonicerae, and treating the materials with enzyme before being extracted by ethanol is developed, and the optimum conditions are also investigated in detail. Three important factors, enzyme dosage, treatment time and treatment temperature are adapted to optimize the extraction process. The experimental results show that the extract yield of flos lonicerae and chlorogenic acid can be obviously increased by the cellulase treatment, 61.5 mg chlorogenic acid is obtained from 1.00 g flos lonicerae at most. The optimal temperature of enzymatic treatment is 40-50 ℃. Compared with the use of single cellulase, the combined treatment of cellulase and pectinase increase the extract yield obviously but fail to improve that of chlorogenic acid.

  17. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies.

  18. Synergistic efficacy of salicylic acid with a penetration enhancer on human skin monitored by OCT and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Dai, Cuixia; Fan, Shanhui; Lv, Jing; Nie, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been frequently used as a facial chemical peeling agent (FCPA) in various cosmetics for facial rejuvenation and dermatological treatments in the clinic. However, there is a tradeoff between therapeutic effectiveness and possible adverse effects caused by this agent for cosmetologists. To optimize the cosmetic efficacy with minimal concentration, we proposed a chemical permeation enhancer (CPE) azone to synergistically work with SA on human skin in vivo. The optical properties of human skin after being treated with SA alone and SA combined with azone (SA@azone) were successively investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Our results revealed that as the SA concentration increased, the light reflectance decreased and the absorption increased. We also found that SA@azone exhibited a synergistic effect on enhancing light penetration and OCT imaging depth. We demonstrated that the combination of DRS and OCT techniques could be used as a noninvasive, rapid and accurate measurement method to monitor the subtle changes of skin tissue after treatment with FCPA and CPE. The approach will greatly benefit the development of clinical cosmetic surgery, dermatosis diagnosis and therapeutic effect inspection in related biomedical studies. PMID:27721398

  19. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  20. Clavulanic acid enhances glutamate transporter subtype I (GLT-1) expression and decreases reinforcing efficacy of cocaine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae; John, Joel; Langford, Dianne; Walker, Ellen; Ward, Sara; Rawls, Scott M

    2016-03-01

    The β-lactam antibiotic ceftriaxone (CTX) reduces cocaine reinforcement and relapse in preclinical assays through a mechanism involving activation of glutamate transporter subtype 1 (GLT-1). However, its poor brain penetrability and intravenous administration route may limit its therapeutic utility for indications related to CNS diseases. An alternative is clavulanic acid (CA), a structural analog of CTX that retains the β-lactam core required for GLT-1 activity but displays enhanced brain penetrability and oral activity relative to CTX. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CA (1, 10 mg/kg ip) would enhance GLT-1 expression and decrease cocaine self-administration (SA) in mice, but at lower doses than CTX. Experiments revealed that GLT-1 transporter expression in the nucleus accumbens of mice treated with repeated CA (1, 10 mg/kg) was enhanced relative to saline-treated mice. Repeated CA treatment (1 mg/kg) reduced the reinforcing efficacy of cocaine (0.56 mg/kg/inf) in mice maintained on a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement but did not affect acquisition of cocaine SA under fixed-ratio responding or acquisition or retention of learning. These findings suggest that the β-lactamase inhibitor CA can activate the cellular glutamate reuptake system in the brain reward circuit and reduce cocaine's reinforcing efficacy at 100-fold lower doses than CTX.

  1. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate by zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash as influenced by acid treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bao-hua; WU De-yi; WANG Chong; HE Sheng-bing; ZHANG Zhen-jia; KONG Hai-nan

    2007-01-01

    Zeolite synthesized from fly ash (ZFA) without modification is not efficient for the purification of NH4+ and phosphate at low concentrations that occur in real effluents, despite the high potential removal capacity. To develop an effective technique to enhance the removal efficiency of ammonium and phosphate at low concentrations, ZFA was modified with acid treatment and the simultaneous removal of ammonium and phosphate in a wide range of concentration was investigated. It was seen that when compared with untreated ZFA, only the treatment by 0.01 mol/L of H2SO4 significantly improved the removal efficiency of ammonium at low initial concentrations. The behavior was well explained by the pH effect. Treatment by more concentrated H2SO4 led to the deterioration of the ZFA structure and a decrease in the cation exchange capacity. Treatment by 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 improved the removal efficiency of phosphate by ZFA at all initial P concentrations, while the treatment by concentrated H2SO4 (≥0.9 mol/L) resulted in a limited maximum phosphate immobilization capacity (PIC). It was concluded that through a previous mild acid treatment (e.g. 0.01 mol/L of H2SO4), ZFA can be used in the simultaneous removal of NH4+ and P at low concentrations simulating real effluent.

  2. Modulating Wnt Signaling Pathway to Enhance Allograft Integration in Orthopedic Trauma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    TITLE: Modulating Wnt Signaling Pathway to Enhance Allograft Integration in Orthopedic Trauma Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Amarjit S...Integration in Orthopedic Trauma Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-1054 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Amarjit S. Virdi, PhD...practical means of enhancing repair of large bone defects in orthopedic trauma and can be translated into clinical practice in the near future. Figures

  3. Oil production enhancement through a standardized brine treatment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adewumi, A.; Watson, R.; Tian, S.; Safargar, S.; Heckman, S.; Drielinger, I.

    1995-08-01

    In order to permit the environmentally safe discharge of brines produced from oil wells in Pennsylvania to the surface waters of the Commonwealth and to rapidly brings as many wells as possible into compliance with the law, the Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Association (POGAM) approached the Pennsylvania State University to develop a program designed to demonstrate that a treatment process to meet acceptable discharge conditions and effluent limitations can be standardized for all potential stripper wells brine discharge. After the initial studies, the first phase of this project was initiated. A bench-scale prototype model was developed for conducting experiments in laboratory conditions. The experiments pursued in the laboratory conditions were focused on the removal of ferrous iron from synthetically made brine. Iron was selected as the primary heavy metals for studying the efficiency of the treatment process. The results of a number of experiments in the lab were indicative of the capability of the proposed brine treatment process in the removal of iron. Concurrent with the laboratory experiments, a comprehensive and extensive kinetic study was initiated. This study was necessary to provide the required data base for process modeling. This study included the investigation of the critical pH as well as the rate and order of reactions of the studied elements: aluminum, lead, zinc, and copper. In the second phase of this project, a field-based prototype was developed to evaluate and demonstrate the treatment process effectiveness. These experiments were conducted under various conditions and included the testing on five brines from different locations with various dissolved constituents. The outcome of this research has been a software package, currently based on iron`s reactivity, to be used for design purposes. The developed computer program was refined as far as possible using the results from laboratory and field experiments.

  4. Hydrothermal treatment of titanium alloys for the enhancement of osteoconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuldesmi, Mansjur, E-mail: mzuldesmi@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manad State University (UNIMA) (Indonesia); Waki, Atsushi [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Kuroda, Kensuke; Okido, Masazumi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The surface wettability of implants is a crucial factor in their osteoconductivity because it influences the adsorption of cell-attached proteins onto the surface. In this study, a single-step hydrothermal surface treatment using distilled water at a temperature of 180 °C for 3 h was applied to titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti–6Al–4V, Ti–6Al–7Nb, Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr, Ti–13Cr–1Fe–3Al; mass%) and compared with as-polished Ti implants and with implants produced by anodizing Ti in 0.1 M of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with applied voltages from 0 V to 150 V at a scanning rate of 0.1 V s{sup −1}. The surface-treated samples were stored in a five time phosphate buffered saline (× 5 PBS(−)) solution to prevent increasing the water contact angle (WCA) with time. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, surface roughness, and contact angle measurement using a 2 μL droplet of distilled water. The relationship between WCA and osteoconductivity at various surface modifications was examined using in vivo tests. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface with a WCA ≤ 10° and a high osteoconductivity (R{sub B–I}) of up to 50% in the cortical bone part, about four times higher than the as-polished Ti and Ti alloys, were provided by the combination of the hydrothermal surface treatment and storage in × 5 of PBS(−). - Highlights: • Hydrothermal treatment in distilled water was applied to titanium alloys. • Surface characteristics and osteoconductivity by in vivo test were evaluated. • Water contact angles of titanium alloys were decreased by hydrothermal treatment. • Osteoconductivity of titanium alloys improved notably by hydrothermal treatment after stored in × 5 of PBS (−)

  5. SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

    2012-09-25

    Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle

  6. Oxidative acid treatment and characterization of new biocarbon from sustainable Miscanthus biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstey, Andrew [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre (BDDC), Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Vivekanandhan, Singaravelu [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre (BDDC), Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sustainable Materials and Nanotechnology Lab, Department of Physics, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, Tamilnadu (India); Rodriguez-Uribe, Arturo [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre (BDDC), Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Misra, Manjusri [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre (BDDC), Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); Mohanty, Amar Kumar, E-mail: mohanty@uoguelph.ca [Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre (BDDC), Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada); School of Engineering, Thornbrough Building, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Oxidative acid treatments of biochar produced from Miscanthus were performed in this study using nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and a mixture of both. The structural and morphological changes of the acid-treated biochar were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, organic elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Improved surface functionality of the treated biochars was observed in their respective FT-IR spectra through the presence of nitro and carboxylic acid functional groups. SEM–EDS and elemental analysis revealed a large increase in the oxygen to carbon ratio in the biochar, which was evidence of chemical oxidation from the acid treatment. Further, TGA study showed the reduced thermal stability of acid-treated biochar over 200 °C due to the increased oxygen content. Acid treatments also influenced the graphitic structure of the biochar, as observed in the Raman spectra. The results suggest that biochar can be successfully functionalized for composite applications and provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based carbon additives. - Highlights: • Biochar was investigated as a candidate for renewable functionalized carbon. • Oxidative acid treatment was used to modify the carbon structure. • The chemical and morphological properties of the treated biochar were examined. • Successful chemical modification of biochar was verified through characterization. • Biochar shows potential as a sustainable carbon additive for polymer composites.

  7. β-cyclocitral upregulates salicylic acid signalling to enhance excess light acclimation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Feifei; Zhou, Jun; Zeng, Lizhang; Xing, Da

    2015-08-01

    β-cyclocitral (β-CC), a volatile oxidized derivative of β-carotene, can upregulate the expression of defence genes to enhance excess light (EL) acclimation. However, the signalling cascades underlying this process remain unclear. In this study, salicylic acid (SA) is involved in alleviating damage to promote β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation. In early stages of EL illumination, β-CC pretreatment induced SA accumulation and impeded reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the chloroplast. A comparative analysis of two SA synthesis pathways in Arabidopsis revealed that SA concentration mainly increased via the isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1)-mediated isochorismate pathway, which depended on essential regulative function of enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Further results showed that, in the process of β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation, nuclear localization of nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) was regulated by SA accumulation and NPR1 induced subsequent transcriptional reprogramming of gluthathione-S-transferase 5 (GST5) and GST13 implicated in detoxification. In summary, β-CC-induced SA synthesis contributes to EL acclimation response by decreasing ROS production in the chloroplast, promoting nuclear localization of NPR1, and upregulating GST transcriptional expression. This process is a possible molecular regulative mechanism of β-CC-enhanced EL acclimation.

  8. Self-assembling micelle-like nanoparticles with detachable envelopes for enhanced delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battogtokh, Gantumur; Ko, Young Tag

    2014-03-01

    In spite of the great potential of nucleic acids as therapeutic agents, the clinical application of nucleic acid therapeutics requires the development of effective systemic delivery strategies. In an effort to develop effective nucleic acid delivery systems suitable for clinical application, we previously reported a self-assembling micelle-like nanoparticle that was based on phospholipid-polyethylenimine conjugates, i.e., "micelle-like nanoparticles" (MNPs). In this study, we aimed to improve the system by enhancing the efficiency of intracellular delivery of the payload via pH-responsive detachment of the monolayer envelope and release of the nucleic acid therapeutics upon reaching the target tissues with an acidic pH, e.g., tumors. The acid-cleavable phospholipid-polyethylenimine conjugate was synthesized via hydrazone bond, and acid-cleavable MNPs were then prepared and characterized as before. We evaluated the acid-cleavable MNP construct for in vitro and in vivo nucleic acid delivery efficiency using cultured tumor cells and tumor-bearing mice. The acid-cleavable nanocarrier showed an enhanced cellular delivery at pH 6.5 as compared to pH 7.4, whereas the noncleavable nanocarrier did not show any differences. Tail vein injections also led to enhanced intracellular uptake of the acid-cleavable nanocarrier compared to the noncleavable nanocarrier into tumor cells of tumor-bearing mice although no significant difference was observed in total tumor accumulation.

  9. RGD functionalized polymeric nanoparticles targeting periodontitis epithelial cells for the enhanced treatment of periodontitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenxin; Xu, Peicheng; Zhao, Jingjing; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Nengneng; Pang, Zhiqing

    2015-11-15

    Long term retention of antimicrobials with effective drug concentration in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is of vital importance for the treatment of chronic periodontitis. In this study, a novel epithelial cell-targeting nanoparticle drug delivery system by conjugating minocycline-loaded poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) nanoparticles (NP-MIN) with RGD peptide were developed and administrated locally for targeting periodontitis epithelial cells and enhancing the treatment of periodontitis in dogs. Biodegradable NP-MIN was made with an emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. RGD peptide was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles via Maleimide group reaction with hydrosulfide in RGD peptide (RGD-NP-MIN). Transmission electron microscopy examination and dynamic light scattering results revealed that RGD-NP-MIN had a sphere shape, with a mean diameter around 106nm. In vitro release of minocycline from RGD-NP-MIN showed that RGD modification did not change the remarkable sustained releasing characteristic of NP-MIN. To elucidate the interaction of RGD-NP and epithelial cells, RGD-NP binding, uptake and cellular internalization mechanisms by calu-3 cells were investigated. It was shown RGD modification significantly enhanced nanoparticles binding and uptake by Calu-3 cells, and RGD-NP uptake was an energy-dependent process through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Both clathrin-associated endocytosis and caveolae-dependent endocytosis pathway were involved in the RGD-NP uptake, and the intracellular transport of RGD-NP was related to lysosome and Golgi apparatus. Finally, in vivo pharmacokinetics of minocycline in the periodontal pockets and anti-periodontitis effects of RGD-NP-MIN on periodontitis-bearing dogs were evaluated. After local administration of RGD-NP-MIN, minocycline concentration in gingival crevicular fluid decreased slowly and maintained an effective drug concentration for a longer time than that of NP-MIN. Anti-periodontitis effects

  10. Zoledronic acid in the treatment of osteoporosis: indications for use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Vladimirovna Toroptsova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of action of the third-generation bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (Aclasta is described; the data of randomized clinical trials of its efficacy and tolerability are given. It is concluded that zoledronic acid intravenously administered once a year may be the drug of choice for increasing patients' adherence to therapy, particularly in polypharmacy that is common in the elderly and in cognitive disorders. In addition, the drug may be given to postmenopausal women once every 2 years for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  11. Increasing cellular level of phosphatidic acid enhances FGF-1 production in long term-cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayasu, Yuko; Morita, Shin-Ya; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kazuki; Michikawa, Makoto; Ito, Jin-Ichi

    2014-05-14

    We found in a previous study that both mRNA expression and release of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) are greater in rat astrocytes that are long term-cultured for one month (W/M cells) than in the cells cultured for one week (W/W cells). However, FGF-1 does not enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in W/M cells, while it does in W/W cells. In this work we studied the mechanism to cause these differences between W/W and W/M cells in culture. As it is known that long term culture generates oxidative stress, we characterized the stresses which W/M cells undergo in comparison with W/W cells. The levels of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and mitochondrial Bax were higher in W/M cells than in W/W cells. W/M cells recovered their ability to respond to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK in the presence of antioxidants. Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) had no effect on mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells, although H2O2 enhances release of FGF-1 from W/W cells without inducing apoptosis. The influence of cell density was studied on mRNA expression of FGF-1 and cellular response to FGF-1, as an increasing cell density is observed in W/M cells. The increasing cell density enhanced mRNA expression of FGF-1 in W/W cells without suppression of responses to FGF-1. The decrease in cell density lowered the FGF-1 mRNA expression in W/M cells without recovery of the response to FGF-1 to enhance phosphorylation of Akt, MEK, and ERK. These findings suggest that oxidative stress attenuate sensitivity to FGF-1 and higher cell density may enhance FGF-1 expression in W/M cells. In addition, we found that the cellular level of phosphatidic acid (PA) increased in H2O2-treated W/W and W/M cells and decreased by the treatment with antioxidants, and that PA enhances the mRNA expression of FGF-1 in the W/W cells. These findings suggest that the increasing PA production may enhance FGF-1 expression to protect astrocytes against oxidative stress

  12. The Effect of Fiber Bleaching Treatment on the Properties of Poly(lactic acid)/Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Marwah Rayung; Nor Azowa Ibrahim; Norhazlin Zainuddin; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Nur Inani Abdul Razak; Buong Woei Chieng

    2014-01-01

    In this work, biodegradable composites from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber were prepared by melt blending method. Prior to mixing, the fiber was modified through bleaching treatment using hydrogen peroxide. Bleached fiber composite showed an improvement in mechanical properties as compared to untreated fiber composite due to the enhanced fiber/matrix interfacial adhesion. Interestingly, fiber bleaching treatment also improved the physical appearance of th...

  13. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  14. Enhancement of solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid through hydrotropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.THENESHKUMAR; D.GNANAPRAKASH; N.NAGENDRA GANDHI

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of hydrotropes on the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid.The solubility and mass transfer studies were performed using the hydrotropes,i.e.,sodium acetate,sodium salicylate,citric acid,and urea at concentrations of 0~3.0 mol/L and system temperatures of 303-333 K.It was found that the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid increases with increase in hydrotrope concentration and also with system temperature.All hydrotropes used in this work showed an enhancement in solubility and mass transfer coefficient to difierent degrees.The maximum enhancement factor values were determined for all hydrotropes used in this study.The highest value was 28.08 for solubility studies and 10.42 for mass trailsfer studies.The performance of hydrotropes Was measured in terms of the Setschenow constant(Ks).The highest value observed was 0.696.

  15. Okadaic acid and trifluoperazine enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Lin, Jinxing; Newton, Ronald J

    2007-05-01

    Mature zygotic embryos of recalcitrant Christmas tree species eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were used as explants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101-mediated transformation using the uidA (beta-Glucuronidase) gene as a reporter. Influence of the time of sonication and the concentrations of protein phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid) and kinase inhibitor (trifluoperazine) on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been evaluated. A high transformation frequency was obtained after embryos were sonicated for 45-50 s, or treated with 1.5-2.0 microM okadaic acid or treated with 100-200 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. Protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine. A 2-3.5-fold higher rate of hygromycin-resistant callus was obtained with an addition of 2 microM okadaic acid or 150 microM trifluoperazine or sonicated embryos for 45 s. Stable integration of the uidA gene in the plant genome of eastern white pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern and northern blot analyses. These results demonstrated that a stable and enhanced transformation system has been established in eastern white pine and this system would provide an opportunity to transfer economically important genes into this Christmas tree species.

  16. Sample treatment considerations in the analysis of organic colorants by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Federica; Lombardi, John R; Bruni, Silvia; Leona, Marco

    2012-04-17

    The introduction of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in the field of cultural heritage has significantly improved the analysis of the organic dyes and their complexes that have been used as textile dyes and pigments in paintings and other polychrome works of art since antiquity. Over the last five years, a number of different procedures have been developed by various research groups. In this Article, we evaluate the effect of pretreating samples by exposing them to hydrofluoric acid (HF) vapor prior to SERS analysis, a step designed to hydrolyze the dye-metal complexes and increase analyte adsorption on the nanosized metallic support, thus enhancing the SERS signal. Materials studied include pure colorants, commercial lake pigments, and fibers from dyed textiles, as well as actual aged samples, such as microscopic fragments of lakes on paper and ancient pigments and glazes from several works of art, covering a wide range of time, from the second century B.C. to the early 20th century. In each case, SERS spectra obtained with or without HF hydrolysis were critically evaluated. The pretreatment with HF vapor resulted in faster analysis and increased sensitivity in most cases, with the exception of dyed silk fibers, where silk protein hydrolyzates were found to interfere with SERS analysis. As a final point, a two-step procedure including SERS on untreated and treated samples is proposed as a standard approach: by analyzing a sample first without hydrolysis, and then, following removal of the colloid, upon HF treatment, the best and most reliable results for a great number of dyes and substrates are assured.

  17. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s......The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration......-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lyso......PPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein...

  18. Withdrawal of valproic acid treatment during pregnancy and seizure outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio

    2016-01-01

    Based on data from the EURAP observational International registry of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and pregnancy, we assessed changes in seizure control and subsequent AED changes in women who underwent attempts to withdraw valproic acid (VPA) during the first trimester of pregnancy. Applying Bayesi...

  19. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  20. Inulin Derivatives Obtained Via Enhanced Microwave Synthesis for Nucleic Acid Based Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardo, Carla; Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Fiorica, Calogero; Giammona, Gaetano; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2015-01-01

    A new class of therapeutic agents with a high potential for the treatment of different socially relevant human diseases is represented by Nucleic Acid Based Drugs (NABD), including small interfering RNAs (siRNA), decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy ODN) and antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). Although NABD can be engineered to be specifically directed against virtually any target, their susceptibility to nuclease degradation and the difficulty of delivery into target tissues severely limit their use in clinical practice and require the development of an appropriate nanostructured delivery system. For delivery of NABD, Inulin (Inu), a natural, water soluble and biocompatible polysaccharide, was derivatized by Spermine (Spm), a flexible molecule with four amine groups that, having pKa values in the range between 8-11, is mainly in the protonated form at pH 7.4. The synthesis of related copolymers (Inu-Spm) was performed by a two step reaction, using a method termed Enhanced Microwave Synthesis (EMS) which has the advantage, compared to conventional microwave reaction, that high amount of energy can be applied to the reaction system, by administering microwave irradiation and simultaneously controlling the temperature in the reaction vessel with cooled air. The synthesized inulin derivatives were characterized by FT-IR spectra and (1)H-NMR. INU-Spm derivatives with a degree of derivatization of about 14 % mol/mol were obtained. These polycations were tested to evaluate their ability to form non covalent complexes with genetic material (polyplexes). Agarose gel retardation assays showed that the obtained copolymers are able to electrostatically interact with DNA duplex to form polyplexes at different c/p weight ratios. Moreover, light scattering studies, performed to analyze size and z-potential of polyplexes, evidenced that copolymers are able to interact with genetic material leading to the formation of nanoscaled systems. In addition, biocompatibility of polyplexes

  1. Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zeng, Huilan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Zhizhong [Department of Bone, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng [Grandhope Biotech Co., Ltd., Building D, #408, Guangzhou International Business Incubator, Guangzhou Science Park, Guangzhou 510663, Guangdong (China); Wei, Xing, E-mail: wei70@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48 h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin–Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. - Highlights: • HA can increase the adsorption of EGF to decellularized scaffolds. • HA can sustain the release of EGF from

  2. Enhanced sidewall functionalization of single-wall carbon nanotubes using nitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Gerard; Shao, Lidong; Ballesteros, Belin; Green, Malcolm L H

    2009-10-01

    When a sample of as-made single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is treated with nitric acid, oxidation debris are formed due to the functionalization (mainly carboxylation) of the amorphous carbon present in the sample and a continuous coating along the carbon nanotube walls is created preventing the sidewall functionalization of the SWNTs. This oxidation debris can be easily removed by an aqueous base wash leaving behind a sample with a low degree of functionality. After removal of the amorphous carbon (by steam purification) from a sample of as-made SWNTs, the resulting purified SWNTs are readily carboxylated on the walls by nitric acid treatment. The use of steam for the purification of SWNTs samples allows the removal of the amorphous carbon and graphitic layers coating the metal particles present in the sample without altering the tubular structure of the SWNTs. The exposed metal particles can then be easily removed by an acid wash. Comparison between the steam treatment and molten sodium hydroxide treatment is made.

  3. Abscisic Acid Regulation of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Aquaporin Gene Expression Is Crucial to the Plant Shoot Growth Enhancement Caused by Rhizosphere Humic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; Bacaicoa, Eva; Garnica, María; Fuentes, Marta; Casanova, Esther; Zamarreño, Angel M; Iriarte, Juan C; Etayo, David; Ederra, Iñigo; Gonzalo, Ramón; Baigorri, Roberto; García-Mina, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    The physiological and metabolic mechanisms behind the humic acid-mediated plant growth enhancement are discussed in detail. Experiments using cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants show that the shoot growth enhancement caused by a structurally well-characterized humic acid with sedimentary origin is functionally associated with significant increases in abscisic acid (ABA) root concentration and root hydraulic conductivity. Complementary experiments involving a blocking agent of cell wall pores and water root transport (polyethylenglycol) show that increases in root hydraulic conductivity are essential in the shoot growth-promoting action of the model humic acid. Further experiments involving an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis in root and shoot (fluridone) show that the humic acid-mediated enhancement of both root hydraulic conductivity and shoot growth depended on ABA signaling pathways. These experiments also show that a significant increase in the gene expression of the main root plasma membrane aquaporins is associated with the increase of root hydraulic conductivity caused by the model humic acid. Finally, experimental data suggest that all of these actions of model humic acid on root functionality, which are linked to its beneficial action on plant shoot growth, are likely related to the conformational structure of humic acid in solution and its interaction with the cell wall at the root surface.

  4. Sunitinib treatment enhances metastasis of innately drug resistant breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Joseph W; Heath, Victoria L; Bicknell, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapies have failed to confer survival benefits in patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). However, to date there has not been an inquiry into roles for acquired versus innate drug resistance in this setting. In this study, we report roles for these distinct phenotypes in determining therapeutic response in a murine model of mBC resistance to the anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Using tumor measurement and vascular patterning approaches, we differentiated tumors displaying innate versus acquired resistance. Bioluminescent imaging of tumor metastases to the liver, lungs and spleen revealed that sunitinib administration enhances metastasis, but only in tumors displaying innate resistance to therapy. Transcriptomic analysis of tumors displaying acquired versus innate resistance allowed the identification of specific biomarkers, many of which have a role in angiogenesis. In particular, aquaporin-1 upregulation occurred in acquired resistance, mTOR in innate resistance, and pleiotrophin in both settings, suggesting their utility as candidate diagnostics to predict drug response or to design tactics to circumvent resistance. Our results unravel specific features of antiangiogenic resistance, with potential therapeutic implications. PMID:28011623

  5. Alcohol Treatment and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Enhancing Effectiveness by Incorporating Spirituality and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective modality for the treatment of alcoholism. Given widespread interest in incorporating spirituality into professional treatment, this article orients practitioners to spiritually modified CBT, an approach that may enhance outcomes with some spiritually motivated clients. More specifically, by…

  6. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis...

  7. Operational Lessons Learned During Bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sul...

  8. Operational Lessons Leaned During bioreactor Demonstrations for Acid Rock Drainage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) has emphasized the development of biologically-based treatment technologies for acid rock drainage (ARD). Progressively evolving technology demonstrations have resulted in significant advances in sulf...

  9. Enhancement and modeling of microparticle-added Rhizopus oryzae lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan Bugra; Demirci, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Lactic acid has a wide industrial application area and can be produced by fungal strains. However, excessive bulk growth form of fungi during the fermentations is a major problem, which limits the fermentation performance. Microparticles are excellent tools to prevent bulk fungal growth and provide homogenized fermentation broth to increase uniformity and the prediction performance of the models. Therefore, in this study, addition of aluminum oxide and talcum microparticles into fermentations was evaluated to enhance the production of lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. The results showed that the bulk fungal growth was prevented and the lactic acid concentration increased from 6.02 to 13.88 and 24.01 g/L, when 15 g/L of aluminum oxide or 10 g/L of talcum was used, respectively, in the shake-flask fermentations. Additionally, substrate concentration, pH, and agitation were optimized in the bioreactors using response surface methodology, and optimum values were determined as 126 g/L of glucose, 6.22 pH, and 387 rpm, respectively. Under these conditions, lactic acid production further increased to 75.1 ± 1.5 g/L with 10 g/L of talcum addition. Also, lactic acid production and glucose consumption in the batch fermentation were successfully modeled with modified Gompertz model and modified logistic model. RMSE and MAE values for lactic acid production were calculated as 2.279 and 1.498 for the modified Gompertz model; 3.6 and 4.056 for the modified logistic model. Additionally, modified logistic model predicted glucose consumption with -2.088 MAE and 2.868 RMSE, whereas these values were calculated as 2.035 and 3.946 for the modified Gompertz model.

  10. Hydrothermal treatment of titanium alloys for the enhancement of osteoconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuldesmi, Mansjur; Waki, Atsushi; Kuroda, Kensuke; Okido, Masazumi

    2015-04-01

    The surface wettability of implants is a crucial factor in their osteoconductivity because it influences the adsorption of cell-attached proteins onto the surface. In this study, a single-step hydrothermal surface treatment using distilled water at a temperature of 180°C for 3h was applied to titanium (Ti) and its alloys (Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb, Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, Ti-13Cr-1Fe-3Al; mass%) and compared with as-polished Ti implants and with implants produced by anodizing Ti in 0.1M of H3PO4 with applied voltages from 0V to 150V at a scanning rate of 0.1Vs(-1). The surface-treated samples were stored in a five time phosphate buffered saline (×5 PBS(-)) solution to prevent increasing the water contact angle (WCA) with time. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, surface roughness, and contact angle measurement using a 2μL droplet of distilled water. The relationship between WCA and osteoconductivity at various surface modifications was examined using in vivo tests. The results showed that a superhydrophilic surface with a WCA≤10° and a high osteoconductivity (RB-I) of up to 50% in the cortical bone part, about four times higher than the as-polished Ti and Ti alloys, were provided by the combination of the hydrothermal surface treatment and storage in ×5 of PBS(-).

  11. Peracetic acid oxidation as an alternative pre-treatment for the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Lise; Van Assche, Ado; Willems, Kris; Degrève, Jan; Van Impe, Jan; Dewil, Raf

    2011-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is generally considered to be an economic and environmentally friendly technology for treating waste activated sludge, but has some limitations, such as the time it takes for the sludge to be digested and also the ineffectiveness of degrading the solids. Various pre-treatment technologies have been suggested to overcome these limitations and to improve the biogas production rate by enhancing the hydrolysis of organic matter. This paper studies the use of peracetic acid for disintegrating sludge as a pre-treatment of anaerobic digestion. It has been proved that this treatment effectively leads to a solubilisation of organic material. A maximum increase in biogas production by 21% is achieved. High dosages of PAA lead to a decrease in biogas production. This is due to the inhibition of the anaerobic micro-organisms by the high VFA-concentrations. The evolution of the various VFAs during digestion is studied and the observed trends support this hypothesis.

  12. Organic acids enhance bioavailability of tetracycline in water to Escherichia coli for uptake and expression of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Tiedje, James M; Li, Hui

    2014-11-15

    Tetracyclines are a large class of antimicrobials used most extensively in livestock feeding operations. A large portion of tetracyclines administered to livestock is excreted in manure and urine which is collected in waste lagoons. Subsequent land application of these wastes introduces tetracyclines into the soil environment, where they could exert selective pressure for the development of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria. Tetracyclines form metal-complexes in natural waters, which could reduce their bioavailability for bacterial uptake. We hypothesized that many naturally-occurring organic acids could effectively compete with tetracyclines as ligands for metal cations, hence altering the bioavailability of tetracyclines to bacteria in a manner that could enhance the selective pressure. In this study, we investigated the influence of acetic acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, oxalic acid and citric acid on tetracycline uptake from water by Escherichia coli bioreporter construct containing a tetracycline resistance gene which induces the emission of green fluorescence when activated. The presence of the added organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increased bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were quantified, and shown to be positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order of citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. The magnitude of the bioresponse increased with increasing aqueous organic acid concentration. Apparent positive relation between intracellular tetracycline concentration and zwitterionic tetracycline species in aqueous solution indicates that (net) neutral tetracycline is the species which most readily enters E. coli cells. Understanding how naturally-occurring organic acid ligands affect tetracycline speciation in solution, and how speciation

  13. The uptake transporter OATP8 expression decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis: correlation with gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitao, Azusa; Matsui, Osamu; Yoneda, Norihide; Kozaka, Kazuto; Shinmura, Rieko; Koda, Wataru; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology, Kanazawa (Japan); Zen, Yoh [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan); King' s College Hospital, Institute of Liver Studies, London (United Kingdom); Yamashita, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Shuichi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Gastroenterology, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakanuma, Yasuni [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Human Pathology, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    To clarify the changes in organic anion-transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression and enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in hepatocellular nodules during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis. In imaging analysis, we focused on 71 surgically resected hepatocellular carcinomas (well, moderately and poorly differentiated HCCs) and 1 dysplastic nodule (DN). We examined the enhancement ratio in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid enhanced MR imaging [(1/postcontrast T1 value-1/precontrast T1 value)/(1/precontrast T1 value)], then analysed the correlation among the enhancement ratio, tumour differentiation grade and intensity of immunohistochemical OATP8 expression. In pathological analysis, we focused on surgically resected 190 hepatocellular nodules: low-grade DNs, high-grade DNs, early HCCs, well-differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated HCCs, including cases without gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. We evaluated the correlation between the immunohistochemical OATP8 expression and the tumour differentiation grade. The enhancement ratio of HCCs decreased in accordance with the decline in tumour differentiation (P < 0.0001, R = 0.28) and with the decline of OATP8 expression (P < 0.0001, R = 0.81). The immunohistochemical OATP8 expression decreased from low-grade DNs to poorly differentiated HCCs (P < 0.0001, R = 0.15). The immunohistochemical expression of OATP8 significantly decreases during multistep hepatocarcinogenesis, which may explain the decrease in enhancement ratio on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (orig.)

  14. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes by Free Fatty Acid Receptor Agonists

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Watterson; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Dietary free fatty acids (FFAs), such as ω-3 fatty acids, regulate metabolic and anti-inflammatory processes, with many of these effects attributed to FFAs interacting with a family of G protein-coupled receptors. Selective synthetic ligands for Free Fatty Acid receptors (FFA1-4) have consequently been developed as potential treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2D). In particular, clinical studies show that Fasiglifam, an agonist of the long chain FFA receptor, FFA1, improved glycaemic control an...

  15. Preferential Lectin Binding of Cancer Cells upon Sialic Acid Treatment under Nutrient Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Haitham A.; ElSayed, Abdelaleim I.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Dwek, Miriam V.; Li, Chen-Zhong; Djansugurova, Leyla B.

    2013-01-01

    The terminal monosaccharide of glycoconjugates on a eukaryotic cell surface is typically a sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Increased sialylation usually indicates progression and poor prognosis of most carcinomas. Here, we utilize two human mammary epithelial cell lines, HB4A (breast normal cells) and T47D (breast cancer cells) as a model system to demonstrate differential surface glycans when treated with sialic acid under nutrient deprivation. Under a starved condition, sialic acid treatment of both ...

  16. Novel Antidepressant-Like Activity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is Mediated by Enhanced Glucocorticoid Receptor Function in the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Sook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE is an active component of propolis that has a variety of potential pharmacological effects. Although we previously demonstrated that propolis has antidepressant-like activity, the effect of CAPE on this activity remains unknown. The present study assessed whether treatment with CAPE (5, 10, and 20 µmol/kg for 21 days has an antidepressant-like effect in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress via tail suspension (TST and forced swim (FST tests. CAPE administration induced behaviors consistent with an antidepressant effect, evidenced by decreased immobility in the TST and FST independent of any effect on serum corticosterone secretion. Western blots, conducted subsequent to behavioral assessment, revealed that CAPE significantly decreased glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation at S234 (pGR(S234, resulting in an increased pGR(S220/S234 ratio. We also observed negative correlations between pGR(S220/(S234 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK phosphorylation, which was decreased by CAPE treatment. These findings suggest that CAPE treatment exerts an antidepressant-like effect via downregulation of p38MAPK phosphorylation, thereby contributing to enhanced GR function.

  17. Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Anticancer Activity of Gallic Acid against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Daduang, Sakda; Wongwattanakul, Molin; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Sandee, Alisa; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Daduang, Jureerut

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were conjugated with gallic acid (GA) at various concentrations between 30 and 150 μM and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS). The anticancer activities of the gallic acid-stabilized gold nanoparticles against well-differentiated (M213) and moderately differentiated (M214) adenocarcinomas were then determined using a neutral red assay. The GA mechanism of action was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. Distinctive features of the FTIR spectra between the control and GA-treated cells were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). The surface plasmon resonance spectra of the GNPs had a maximum absorption at 520 nm, whereas GNPs-GA shifted the maximum absorption values. In an in vitro study, the complexed GNPs-GA had an increased ability to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells that was statistically significant (Pacids, which may enhance the efficacy of this anticancer activity regarding apoptosis pathways.

  18. Enhanced biodegradation of anthracene in acidic soil by inoculated Burkholderia sp. VUN10013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somtrakoon, Khanitta; Suanjit, Sudarat; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Lee, Hung; Upatham, Suchart

    2008-08-01

    The ability of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 to degrade anthracene in microcosms of two acidic Thai soils was studied. The addition of Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 (initial concentration of 10(5) cells g(-1) dry soil) to autoclaved soil collected from the Plew District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, supplemented with anthracene (50 mg kg(-1) dry soil) resulted in complete degradation of the added anthracene within 20 days. In contrast, under the same test conditions but using autoclaved soil collected from the Kitchagude District, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, only approximately 46.3% of the added anthracene was degraded after 60 days of incubation. In nonautoclaved soils, without adding the VUN10013 inocula, 22.8 and 19.1% of the anthracene in Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, were degraded by indigenous bacteria after 60 days. In nonautoclaved soil inoculated with Burkholderia sp. VUN10013, the rate and extent of anthracene degradation were considerably better than those seen in autoclaved soils or in uninoculated nonautoclaved soils in that only 8.2 and 9.1% of anthracene remained in nonautoclaved Plew and Kitchagude soils, respectively, after 10 days of incubation. The results showed that the indigenous microorganisms in the pristine acidic soils have limited ability to degrade anthracene. Inoculation with the anthracene-degrading Burkholderia sp. VUN10013 significantly enhanced anthracene degradation in such acidic soils. The indigenous microorganisms greatly assisted the VUN10013 inoculum in anthracene degradation, especially in the more acidic Kitchagude soil.

  19. Evaluation of hyper thermal acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii for enhanced bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Nguyen, Trung Hau; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    Hyper thermal (HT) acid hydrolysis of Kappaphycus alvarezii, a red seaweed, was optimized to 12% (w/v) seaweed slurry content, 180mM H2SO4 at 140°C for 5min. The maximum monosaccharide concentration of 38.3g/L and 66.7% conversion from total fermentable monosaccharides of 57.6g/L with 120gdw/L K. alvarezii slurry were obtained from HT acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification. HT acid hydrolysis at a severity factor of 0.78 efficiently converted the carbohydrates of seaweed to monosaccharides and produced a low concentration of inhibitory compounds. The levels of ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with non-adapted and adapted Kluyveromyces marxianus to high concentration of galactose were 6.1g/L with ethanol yield (YEtOH) of 0.19 at 84h and 16.0g/L with YEtOH of 0.42 at 72h, respectively. Development of the HT acid hydrolysis process and adapted yeast could enhance the overall ethanol fermentation yields of K. alvarezii seaweed.

  20. PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero.Cherrington JW, Chernoff N.Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.comBoric acid (BA) has many uses as...

  1. Peracetic acid-ionic liquid pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju; Abe, Kojiro; Uemura, Nobuyuki; Oshima, Toyoji; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-06-01

    To enhance enzymatic saccharification of pine biomass, the pretreatment reagents peracetic acid (PAA) and ionic liquid (IL) were validated in single reagent pretreatments or combination pretreatments with different sequences. In a 1h saccharification, 5-25% cellulose conversion was obtained from the single pretreatment of PAA or IL. In contrast, a marked enhancement in conversion rates was achieved by PAA-IL combination pretreatments (45-70%). The PAA followed by IL (PAA+IL) pretreatment sequence was the most effective for preparing an enzymatic digestible regenerated biomass with 250-fold higher glucose formation rates than untreated biomass and 2- to 12-fold higher than single pretreatments with PAA or IL alone. Structural analysis confirmed that this pretreatment resulted in biomass with highly porous structural fibers associated with the reduction of lignin content and acetyl groups. Using the PAA+IL sequence, biomass loading in the pretreatment step can be increased from 5% to 15% without significant decrease in cellulose conversion.

  2. Enhanced cellular uptake of protoporphyrine IX/linolenic acid-conjugated spherical nanohybrids for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has wide applications in photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in many human diseases. However, poor water solubility and cancer cell localization limit its direct application for PDT. We improved the water-solubility and cellular internalization of PpIX to enhance PDT efficacy by developing biocompatible PpIX/linolenic acid-conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PPLA) nanohybrids. The resulting PPLA nanohybrids exhibited a quasi-spherical shape with a size of gastric cancer cells. These results imply that the PPLA nanohybrid system may be applicable in PDT.

  3. Enhanced conductivity of aluminum doped ZnO films by hydrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wang, F.H., E-mail: fansen@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wu, J.Y.; Kung, C.Y.; Liu, H.W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Graduate Institute of Optoelectronic Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films prepared by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various RF power were treated by hydrogen plasma to enhance the characteristics for transparent electrode applications. The hydrogen plasma treatment was carried out at 300 {sup o}C in a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all AZO films have a (002) preferred orientation and film crystallinity seems no significant change after plasma treatment. The plasma treatment not only significantly decreases film resistivity but enhances electrical stability as aging in air ambient. The improved electrical properties are due to desorption of weakly bonded oxygen species, formation of Zn-H type species and passivation of deep-level defects during plasma treatment.

  4. Comparison between phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid in microabrasion technique for the treatment of dental fluorosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahshid Mohammadi Bassir; Golnaz Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 )-pumice compound with conventional hydrochloric acid (HCl)-pumice compound in treating different severities of dental fluorosis with the microabrasion technique. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven anterior teeth from seven patients with different severities of dental fluorosis were treated. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with HCl-pumice compound and the other half with H 3 PO 4 -pumice compound (split-mou...

  5. Optical clearing of skin enhanced with hyaluronic acid for increased contrast of optoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liopo, Anton; Su, Richard; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-08-01

    Enhanced delivery of optical clearing agents (OCA) through skin may improve sensitivity of optical and optoacoustic (OA) methods of imaging, sensing, and monitoring. This report describes a two-step method for enhancement of light penetration through skin. Here, we demonstrate that topical application of hyaluronic acid (HA) improves skin penetration of hydrophilic and lipophilic OCA and thus enhances their performance. We examined the OC effect of 100% polyethylene and polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and their mixture after pretreatment by HA, and demonstrated significant increase in efficiency of light penetration through skin. Increased light transmission resulted in a significant increase of OA image contrast in vitro. Topical pretreatment of skin for about 30 min with 0.5% HA in aqueous solution offers effective delivery of low molecular weight OCA such as a mixture of PPG-425 and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-400. The developed approach of pretreatment by HA prior to application of clearing agents (PEG and PPG) resulted in a ˜47-fold increase in transmission of red and near-infrared light and significantly enhanced contrast of OA images.

  6. α-Mangostin Enhances Betulinic Acid Cytotoxicity and Inhibits Cisplatin Cytotoxicity on HCT 116 Colorectal Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress in colon cancer treatment, relapse is still a major obstacle. Hence, new drugs or drug combinations are required in the battle against colon cancer. α-Mangostin and betulinic acid (BA are cytotoxic compounds that work by inducing the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and cisplatin is one of the most potent broad spectrum anti-tumor agents. This study aims to investigate the enhancement of BA cytotoxicity by α-mangostin, and the cytoprotection effect of α-mangostin and BA on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity on HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells. Cytotoxicity was investigated by the XTT cell proliferation test, and the apoptotic effects were investigated on early and late markers including caspases-3/7, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and chromatin condensation. The effect of α-mangostin on four signalling pathways was also investigated by the luciferase assay. α-Mangostin and BA were more cytotoxic to the colon cancer cells than to the normal colonic cells, and both compounds showed a cytoprotective effect against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-mangostin enhanced the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of BA. Combination therapy hits multiple targets, which may improve the overall response to the treatment, and may reduce the likelihood of developing drug resistance by the tumor cells. Therefore, α-mangostin and BA may provide a novel combination for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma. The cytoprotective effect of the compounds against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity may find applications as chemopreventive agents against carcinogens, irradiation and oxidative stress, or to neutralize cisplatin side effects.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in β-aminobutyric acid enhanced Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingwu; Jiang, Xinwu; Shi, Wuliang; Chen, Juan; Pei, Zhenming; Zheng, Hailei

    2011-05-01

    Acid rain is a worldwide environmental issue that has seriously destroyed forest ecosystems. As a highly effective and broad-spectrum plant resistance-inducing agent, β-aminobutyric acid could elevate the tolerance of Arabidopsis when subjected to simulated acid rain. Using comparative proteomic strategies, we analyzed 203 significantly varied proteins of which 175 proteins were identified responding to β-aminobutyric acid in the absence and presence of simulated acid rain. They could be divided into ten groups according to their biological functions. Among them, the majority was cell rescue, development and defense-related proteins, followed by transcription, protein synthesis, folding, modification and destination-associated proteins. Our conclusion is β-aminobutyric acid can lead to a large-scale primary metabolism change and simultaneously activate antioxidant system and salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid signaling pathways. In addition, β-aminobutyric acid can reinforce physical barriers to defend simulated acid rain stress.

  8. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium acetobutylicum for enhanced production of butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu-Sin; Woo, Hee Moon; Im, Jung Ae; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-11-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum has been considered as an attractive platform host for biorefinery due to its metabolic diversity. Considering its capability to overproduce butanol through butyrate, it was thought that butyric acid can also be efficiently produced by this bacterium through metabolic engineering. The pta-ctfB-deficient C. acetobutylicum CEKW, in which genes encoding phosphotransacetylase and CoA-transferase were knocked out, was assessed for its potential as a butyric acid producer in fermentations with four controlled pH values at 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, and 6.4. Butyric acid could be best produced by fermentation of the CEKW at pH 6.0, resulting in the highest titer of 26.6 g/l, which is 6.4 times higher than that obtained with the wild type. However, due to the remaining solventogenic ability of the CEKW, 3.6 g/l solvents were also produced. Thus, the CEKW was further engineered by knocking out the adhE1-encoding aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase to prevent solvent production. Batch fermentation of the resulting C. acetobutylicum HCEKW at pH 6.0 showed increased butyric acid production to 30.8 g/l with a ratio of butyric-to-acetic acid (BA/AA) of 6.6 g/g and a productivity of 0.72 g/l/h from 86.9 g/l glucose, while negligible solvent (0.8 g/l ethanol only) was produced. The butyric acid titer, BA/AA ratio, and productivity obtained in this study were the highest values reported for C. acetobutylicum, and the BA/AA ratio and productivity were also comparable to those of native butyric acid producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum. These results suggested that the simultaneous deletion of the pta-ctfB-adhE1 in C. acetobutylicum resulted in metabolic switch from biphasic to acidogenic fermentation, which enhanced butyric acid production.

  9. New concepts of microbial treatment processes for the nitrogen removal: effect of protein and amino acids degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Alejandro; Calderón, Kadiya; González-López, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    High concentrations of proteins and amino acids can be found in wastewater and wastewater stream produced in anaerobic digesters, having shown that amino acids could persist over different managements for nitrogen removal affecting the nitrogen removal processes. Nitrogen removal is completely necessary because of their implications and the significant adverse environmental impact of ammonium such as eutrophication and toxicity to aquatic life on the receiving bodies. In the last decade, the treatment of effluents with high ammonium concentration through anammox-based bioprocesses has been enhanced because these biotechnologies are cheaper and more environmentally friendly than conventional technologies. However, it has been shown that the presence of important amounts of proteins and amino acids in the effluents seriously affects the microbial autotrophic consortia leading to important losses in terms of ammonium oxidation efficiency. Particularly the presence of sulfur amino acids such as methionine and cysteine has been reported to drastically decrease the autotrophic denitrification processes as well as affect the microbial community structure promoting the decline of ammonium oxidizing bacteria in favor of other phylotypes. In this context we discuss that new biotechnological processes that improve the degradation of protein and amino acids must be considered as a priority to increase the performance of the autotrophic denitrification biotechnologies.

  10. Using Laboratory Activities Enhanced with Concept Cartoons to Support Progression in Students' Understanding of Acid-Base Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Haluk; Demircioglu, Gokhan; Burhan, Yasemin; Naseriazar, Akbar; Demircioglu, Hulya

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an intervention based on a series of laboratory activities enhanced with concept cartoons. The purpose of the intervention was to enhance students' understanding of acid-base chemistry for eight grade students' from two classes in a Turkish primary school. A pretest-posttest non-equivalent…

  11. Label-free direct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of nucleic acids (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Luca; Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Xie, Hainan; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon

    2016-03-01

    Recently, plasmonic-based biosensing has experienced an unprecedented level of attention, with a particular focus on the nucleic acid detection, offering efficient solutions to engineer simple, fast, highly sensitive sensing platforms while overcoming important limitations of PCR and microarray techniques. In the broad field of plasmonics, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has arisen as a powerful analytical tool for detection and structural characterization of biomolecules. Today applications of SERS to nucleic acid analysis largely rely on indirect strategies, which have been demonstrated very effective for pure sensing purposes but completely dismiss the exquisite structural information provided by the direct acquisition of the biomolecular vibrational fingerprint. Contrarily, direct label-free SERS of nucleic acid shows an outstanding potential in terms of chemical-specific information which, however, remained largely unexpressed mainly because of the inherent poor spectral reproducibility and/or limited sensitivity. To address these limitations, we developed a fast and affordable high-throughput screening direct SERS method for gaining detailed genomic information on nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and for the characterization and quantitative recognition of DNA interactions with exogenous agents. The simple strategy relies on the electrostatic adhesion of DNA/RNA onto positively-charged silver colloids that promotes the nanoparticle aggregation into stable clusters yielding intense and reproducible SERS spectra at picogram level (i.e. the analysis can be performed without the necessity of amplification steps thus providing realistic direct information of the nucleic acid in its native state). We anticipate this method to gain a vast impact and set of applications in different fields, including medical diagnostics, genomic screening, drug discovery, forensic science and even molecular electronics.

  12. Enhanced daidzin production from jasmonic and acetyl salicylic acid elicited hairy root cultures of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Mohd; Reddy, Vudem Dashavantha; Giri, Charu Chandra

    2016-07-01

    Daidzin (7-O-glucoside of daidzein) has several pharmacological benefits in herbal remedy, as antioxidant and shown antidipsotropic activity. Hairy root culture of Psoralea corylifolia L. was developed for biomass and enhanced daidzin production using signalling compounds such as jasmonic acid (JA) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA). Best response of 2.8-fold daidzin (5.09% DW) with 1 μM JA treatment after second week and 7.3-fold (3.43% DW) with 10 μM JA elicitation after 10th week was obtained from hairy roots compared to untreated control. ASA at 10 μM promoted 1.7-fold increase in daidzin (1.49% DW) content after seventh week compared to control (0.83% DW). Addition of 25 μM ASA resulted in 1.44% DW daidzin (1.5-fold increase) with 0.91% DW in control after fifth week and 1.44% DW daidzin (2.3-fold increase) after eighth week when compared to untreated control (0.62% DW). Reduced biomass with increased daidzin content was facilitated by elicited hairy root cultures.

  13. Fatty acids in treatment and prevention of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The increase of incident rates for depression and other psychiatric disorders is a serious threat for all communities.The study presents data verifying the relationship between the level of omega-3 PUFAs in the blood and an increased risk of depression, including the parallel standard therapy with antidepressants or not.There is an increasing number of evidences that fatty acids like DHA, AA and EPA are linked to depression. In epidemiological studies and clinical trials a correlation between the decline of omega-3 PUFA intake and an increasing risk for developing depression is considered.

  14. Treatment of Sebacic Acid Industrial Wastewater by Extraction Process Using Castor Oil Acid as Extractant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐航; 周全; 王金福

    2013-01-01

    Wastewater containing high concentrations of phenol and sodium sulfate is generated in sebacic acid (SA) industry. Castor oil acid, a raw material for producing SA, can be used to extract phenol from wastewater in order to reduce the amount of phenol used in the process and discharge of phenol. The results show that the extrac-tion mechanism is that hydroxyl group of phenol is linked to carboxyl group of castor oil acid by hydrogen bond. The extraction process approaches equilibrium in 30 min. Extraction ratio increases with the increase of sodium sulfate and castor oil acid, and decreases as phenol increases. When the oil-water ratio is 1︰3, the optimal distribu-tion coefficient of 40 is obtained. Phenol saturation concentration in castor oil acid is 1.03 mol·L−1 after extraction for 4 times. The equilibrium constant (Kex) at 25 °C is 8.41 and the endothermic enthalpy (ΔH) is 1.513 kJ·mol−1. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is−5.277 kJ·mol−1 and the value ofΔS is calculated to be 22.3 J·mol−1·K−1.

  15. Treatment of endometriosis with local acetylsalicylic acid injection: experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Juliana Menezes; Barreto, Adriana Beatriz; Saad-Hossne, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the effects of introduction of acetylsalicylic acid solution into peritoneal implants in autologous endometrium as a method for treating endometriosis. Forty adult female rabbits were subdivided into 4 groups of 10 rabbits each, and endometriosis was induced via autotransplantation of endometrial fragments into the peritoneal cavity. At 30 days after induction of endometriosis, all animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 protocols. In protocol 1, animals were evaluated at 24 hours after treatment; group 1 (control) received physiologic solution, and group 2 received acetylsalicylic acid. In protocol 2, animals were evaluated at 10 days after treatment, group 3 (control) and group 4 received acetylsalicylic acid. After measuring the lesion, the endometriotic focus was removed and prepared for mounting on slides for histologic analysis. Imaging software was used for analysis of the total remaining area of endometrial tissue. The affected area in acetylsalicylic acid-treated animals was smaller than that in control animals at 24 hours and 10 days after treatment; a significant difference was found between control and treated groups (p acetylsalicylic acid groups (p = .30), and no differences between times (p = .75). Acetylsalicylic acid solution led to less growth (or higher involution) of endometrial implants. Acetylsalicylic acid injected directly into endometriotic foci was effective in their destruction. This presents new perspectives for treatment of endometriosis and for clinical applications based on further clinical studies.

  16. Detection of amino acid neurotransmitters by surface enhanced Raman scattering and hollow core photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Khetani, Altaf; Monfared, Ali Momenpour T.; Smith, Brett; Anis, Hanan; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2012-03-01

    The present work explores the feasibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for detecting the neurotransmitters such as glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). These amino acid neurotransmitters that respectively mediate fast excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain, are important for neuroendocrine control, and upsets in their synthesis are also linked to epilepsy. Our SERS-based detection scheme enabled the detection of low amounts of GLU (10-7 M) and GABA (10-4 M). It may complement existing techniques for characterizing such kinds of neurotransmitters that include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or mass spectrography (MS). This is mainly because SERS has other advantages such as ease of sample preparation, molecular specificity and sensitivity, thus making it potentially applicable to characterization of experimental brain extracts or clinical diagnostic samples of cerebrospinal fluid and saliva. Using hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) further enhanced the Raman signal relative to that in a standard cuvette providing sensitive detection of GLU and GABA in micro-litre volume of aqueous solutions.

  17. Enhanced esterification of oleic acid and methanol by deep eutectic solvent assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ying; Alam, Md Asraful; Wang, Zhongming; Wu, Jingcheng; Zhang, Yi; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-11-01

    In present study, esterification of oleic acid with methanol using deep eutectic solvent (DES) assisted Amberlyst heterogeneous catalyst was investigated to produce biodiesel. Results showed that esterification efficiency was enhanced by the DES. The combined effect of DES on Amberlyst BD20 (BD20) is better than Amberlyst 15 (A-15) due to different structure. The optimal reaction conditions were 12:1M ratio of methanol to oleic acid, 20%(wt/wt) catalyst (BD20-DES (2:8) and A-15-DES (8:2)) at 85°C for 100min with agitating at 200rpm. The mechanism involved in catalysis and their capacity to reuse were studied. We proposed, Choline chloride-glycerol (Chcl-gly) DES could enhance the Amberlyst function due to the hydrogen bond effect on both DES and water. BD20 has fewer pores than A-15, have desirable performance in decreasing the inhibition the water during esterification of high FFA content and provide better performance in reuse.

  18. Docosahexaenoic acid dietary supplementation enhances the effects of exercise on synaptic plasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A; Ying, Z; Gomez-Pinilla, F

    2008-08-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. docosahexaenoic acid; DHA), similar to exercise, improve cognitive function, promote neuroplasticity, and protect against neurological lesion. In this study, we investigated a possible synergistic action between DHA dietary supplementation and voluntary exercise on modulating synaptic plasticity and cognition. Rats received DHA dietary supplementation (1.25% DHA) with or without voluntary exercise for 12 days. We found that the DHA-enriched diet significantly increased spatial learning ability, and these effects were enhanced by exercise. The DHA-enriched diet increased levels of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and mature BDNF, whereas the additional application of exercise boosted the levels of both. Furthermore, the levels of the activated forms of CREB and synapsin I were incremented by the DHA-enriched diet with greater elevation by the concurrent application of exercise. While the DHA diet reduced hippocampal oxidized protein levels, a combination of a DHA diet and exercise resulted in a greater reduction rate. The levels of activated forms of hippocampal Akt and CaMKII were increased by the DHA-enriched diet, and with even greater elevation by a combination of diet and exercise. Akt and CaMKII signaling are crucial step by which BDNF exerts its action on synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These results indicate that the DHA diet enhanced the effects of exercise on cognition and BDNF-related synaptic plasticity, a capacity that may be used to promote mental health and reduce risk of neurological disorders.

  19. Mechanism and controlling strategy of the production and accumulation of propionic acid for anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任南琪; 李建政; 赵丹; 陈晓蕾

    2002-01-01

    The production and accumulation of propionic acid affect significantly anaerobic wastewater treatment system, but the reasons are not approached until now. Based on the results of continuous-flow tests and the analysis of biochemistry and ecology, two mechanisms of producing propionic acid have been put forward. It is demonstrated that the reasons of propionic acid production and accumulation are not caused by higher hydrogen partial pressure. The combination of specific pH value and ORP is the ecological factor affecting propionic acid production, and the equilibrium regulation of NADH/NAD+ ratio in cells is the physiological factor. Meanwhile, it is put forward that using the two-phase anaerobic treatment process and the ethanol type fermentation in anaerobic reactor to avoid propionic acid accumulation are efficient methods.

  20. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Enhance Neuronal Differentiation in Cultured Rat Neural Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Katakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can induce neurogenesis and recovery from brain diseases. However, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects of PUFAs have not been conclusively described. We recently reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA induced neuronal differentiation by decreasing Hes1 expression and increasing p27kip1 expression, which causes cell cycle arrest in neural stem cells (NSCs. In the present study, we examined the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (AA on differentiation, expression of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors (Hes1, Hes6, and NeuroD, and the cell cycle of cultured NSCs. EPA also increased mRNA levels of Hes1, an inhibitor of neuronal differentiation, Hes6, an inhibitor of Hes1, NeuroD, and Map2 mRNA and Tuj-1-positive cells (a neuronal marker, indicating that EPA induced neuronal differentiation. EPA increased the mRNA levels of p21cip1 and p27kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which indicated that EPA induced cell cycle arrest. Treatment with AA decreased Hes1 mRNA but did not affect NeuroD and Map2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, AA did not affect the number of Tuj-1-positive cells or cell cycle progression. These results indicated that EPA could be involved in neuronal differentiation by mechanisms alternative to those of DHA, whereas AA did not affect neuronal differentiation in NSCs.

  1. Overexpression of AtABCG25 enhances the abscisic acid signal in guard cells and improves plant water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuromori, Takashi; Fujita, Miki; Urano, Kaoru; Tanabata, Takanari; Sugimoto, Eriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    In addition to improving drought tolerance, improvement of water use efficiency is a major challenge in plant physiology. Due to their trade-off relationships, it is generally considered that achieving stress tolerance is incompatible with maintaining stable growth. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that regulates the balance between intrinsic growth and environmental responses. Previously, we identified AtABCG25 as a cell-membrane ABA transporter that export ABA from the inside to the outside of cells. AtABCG25-overexpressing plants showed a lower transpiration phenotype without any growth retardation. Here, we dissected this useful trait using precise phenotyping approaches. AtABCG25 overexpression stimulated a local ABA response in guard cells. Furthermore, AtABCG25 overexpression enhanced drought tolerance, probably resulting from maintenance of water contents over the common threshold for survival after drought stress treatment. Finally, we observed enhanced water use efficiency by overexpression of AtABCG25, in addition to drought tolerance. These results were consistent with the function of AtABCG25 as an ABA efflux transporter. This unique trait may be generally useful for improving the water use efficiency and drought tolerance of plants.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  3. Gastric acid inhibition in the treatment of peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Kevin A; Kovacs, Thomas O G; Jensen, Dennis M

    2009-12-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcer disease is a common clinical event, resulting in considerable patient morbidity and significant health care costs. Inhibiting gastric acid secretion is a key component in improving clinical outcomes, including reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirements, and surgery. Raising intragastric pH promotes clot stability and reduces the influences of gastric acid and pepsin. Patients with high-risk stigmata for ulcer bleeding (arterial bleeding, nonbleeding visible vessels, and adherent clots) benefit significantly from and should receive high-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) after successful endoscopic hemostasis. For patients with low-risk stigmata (flat spots or clean ulcer base), oral PPI therapy alone is sufficient. For oozing bleeding (an intermediate risk finding), successful endoscopic hemostasis and oral PPI are recommended. Using intravenous PPIs before endoscopy appears to reduce the frequency of finding high-risk stigmata on later endoscopy, but has not been shown to improve clinical outcomes. High-dose oral PPIs may be as effective as intravenous infusion in achieving positive clinical outcomes, but this has not been documented by randomized studies and its cost-effectiveness is unclear.

  4. Production of γ-Amino Butyric Acid in Tea Leaves wit Treatment of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Hiroshi

    Lactic acid bacteria was searched for producing termented tea that contained a lot of γ-amino butyric acid(GABA). Also examined were the growth condition, GABA production and changes in catechin contents in the tea leaves. Lactobacillus brevis L12 was found to be suitable for the production of fermented tea since it gave as much GABA as gabaron tea when tea leaves being suspended with water at 10% and incubated for 4 days at 25°C. The amount of GABA produced was more than calculated based upon the content of glutamic acid in tea leaves. It is probable to assume that glutamate derived from glutamine and theanine is converted into GABA.

  5. Phytic acid as a potential treatment for alzheimer's pathology: evidence from animal and in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekonda, Thimmappa S; Wadsworth, Teri L; Sabin, Robert; Frahler, Kate; Harris, Christopher; Petriko, Babett; Ralle, Martina; Woltjer, Randy; Quinn, Joseph F

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes progressive, age-dependent cortical and hippocampal dysfunction leading to abnormal intellectual capacity and memory. We propose a novel protective treatment for AD pathology with phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate), a phytochemical found in food grains and a key signaling molecule in mammalian cells. We evaluated the protective and beneficial effects of phytic acid against amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology in MC65 cells and the Tg2576 mouse model. In MC65 cells, 48-72-hour treatment with phytic acid provided complete protection against amyloid precursor protein-C-terminal fragment-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating levels of increased intracellular calcium, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, Aβ oligomers, and moderately upregulated the expression of autophagy (beclin-1) protein. In a tolerance paradigm, wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid in drinking water for 70 days. Phytic acid was well tolerated. Ceruloplasmin activity, brain copper and iron levels, and brain superoxide dismutase and ATP levels were unaffected by the treatment. There was a significant increase in brain levels of cytochrome oxidase and a decrease in lipid peroxidation with phytic acid administration. In a treatment paradigm, 12-month old Tg2576 and wild type mice were treated with 2% phytic acid or vehicle for 6 months. Brain levels of copper, iron, and zinc were unaffected. The effects of phytic acid were modest on the expression of AβPP trafficking-associated protein AP180, autophagy-associated proteins (beclin-1, LC3B), sirtuin 1, the ratio of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (PAMPK) to AMPK, soluble Aβ1-40, and insoluble Aβ1-42. These results suggest that phytic acid may provide a viable treatment option for AD.

  6. Enhanced intracellular delivery and antibacterial efficacy of enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles against intracellular Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Yang, Fei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Qu, Wei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with different physicochemical properties were developed to enhance activity against intracellular Salmonella. Their cellular uptake, intracellular elimination and antibacterial activity were studied in RAW 264.7 cells. During the experimental period, SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin accumulated in the cells approximately 27.06–37.71 times more efficiently than free drugs at the same extracellular concentration. After incubation for 0.5 h, the intracellular enrofloxacin was enhanced from 0.336 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein as the sizes of nanoparticles were increased from 150 to 605 nm, and from 0.960 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein when the charge was improved from −8.1 to −24.9 mv. The cellular uptake was more significantly influenced by the size than it was by the charge, and was not affected by whether the charge was positive or negative. The elimination of optimal SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin from the cells was significantly slower than that of free enrofloxacin after removing extracellular drug. The inhibition effect against intracellular Salmonella CVCC541 of 0.24 and 0.06 μg/mL encapsulated enrofloxacin was stronger than 0.6 μg/mL free drug after all of the incubation periods and at 48 h, respectively. Docosanoic acid SLNs are thus considered as a promising carrier for intracellular bacterial treatment. PMID:28112240

  7. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid composition in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradkhani S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of salicylic acid (SA on cadmium (Cd toxicity in sunflower plants was studied by investigating plant growth and fatty acid composition. Sunflower plants in two leaves stage were exposed to CdCl2 treatment (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 µM and then were treated with salicylic acid (0, 250 and 500 µM as foliage spraying. One week after the last salicylic acid treatment,plants were harvested and growth parameters were measured . Oil of leaf was extracted in a Soxhlet system and fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography (GC. Statistical analyses showed excess Cd reduced growth parameters (fresh weight and length of stems and roots, fresh weight and number of leavesand SA increased them compared with the control. Maximum reduction in these parameters was at 200 µmol Cd and 0µmol of SA. Cd caused a shift in fatty acids composition, resulting in a lower degree of their unsaturation and an increase in saturated fatty acids in sunflower leaves,whereas SA improved them. SA, particularly increased the percentage of linolenic acid and lowered that of palmitic acid by the same proportion. These results sugg membrane integrity due to lipids est that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator and a stabilizer ofprotection of cadmium-induced oxidative stress to improve plant resistance to Cd stress

  8. Selection of tropical lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the quality of maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O; Ávila, C L S; Schwan, R F

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains isolated from silage and assess their effect on the quality of maize silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into aqueous extract obtained from maize to evaluate their production of metabolites and pH reduction. The ability to inhibit the pathogenic and silage-spoilage microorganisms' growth was evaluated. Nine LAB strains that showed the best results were assessed in polyvinyl chloride experimental silos. The inoculation of the LAB strains influenced the concentration of lactic and acetic acids and the diversity of Listeria. The inoculation of silages with Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11 and UFLA SLM103 strains) resulted in silages with greater LAB populations and improvements after aerobic exposure. The UFLA SLM11 and SLM103 strains identified as L. buchneri showed to be promising in the treatment of maize silage.

  9. Gadoxetate Acid-Enhanced MR Imaging for HCC: A Review for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendana Chanyaputhipong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is increasingly being detected at an earlier stage, owing to the screening programs and regular imaging follow-up in high-risk populations. Small HCCs still pose diagnostic challenges on imaging due to decreased sensitivity and increased frequency of atypical features. Differentiating early HCC from premalignant or benign nodules is important as management differs and has implications on both the quality of life and the overall survival for the patients. Gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA, Primovist®, Bayer Schering Pharma is a relatively new, safe and well-tolerated liver-specific contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR imaging of the liver that has combined perfusion- and hepatocyte-specific properties, allowing for the acquisition of both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. Its high biliary uptake and excretion improves lesion detection and characterization by increasing liver-to-lesion conspicuity in the added hepatobiliary phase imaging. To date, gadoxetate acid-enhanced MRI has been mostly shown to be superior to unenhanced MRI, computed tomography, and other types of contrast agents in the detection and characterization of liver lesions. This review article focuses on the evolving role of gadoxetate acid in the characterization of HCC, differentiating it from other mimickers of HCC.

  10. Acid-etched microtexture for enhancement of bone growth into porous-coated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, S A; Harvey, E J; Tanzer, M; Krygier, J J; Bobyn, J D

    2003-11-01

    We designed an in vivo study to determine if the superimposition of a microtexture on the surface of sintered titanium beads affected the extent of bone ingrowth. Cylindrical titanium intramedullary implants were coated with titanium beads to form a porous finish using commercial sintering techniques. A control group of implants was left in the as-sintered condition. The test group was etched in a boiling acidic solution to create an irregular surface over the entire porous coating. Six experimental dogs underwent simultaneous bilateral femoral intramedullary implantation of a control implant and an acid etched implant. At 12 weeks, the implants were harvested in situ and the femora processed for undecalcified, histological examination. Eight transverse serial sections for each implant were analysed by backscattered electron microscopy and the extent of bone ingrowth was quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The extent of bone ingrowth into the control implants was 15.8% while the extent of bone ingrowth into the etched implants was 25.3%, a difference of 60% that was statistically significant. These results are consistent with other research that documents the positive effect of microtextured surfaces on bone formation at an implant surface. The acid etching process developed for this study represents a simple method for enhancing the potential of commonly available porous coatings for biological fixation.

  11. Freezing-Enhanced Dissolution of Iron Oxides: Effects of Inorganic Acid Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daun; Kim, Kitae; Min, Dae Wi; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-11-03

    Dissolution of iron from mineral dust particles greatly depends upon the type and amount of copresent inorganic anions. In this study, we investigated the roles of sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and perchlorate on the dissolution of maghemite and lepidocrocite in ice under both dark and UV irradiation and compared the results with those of their aqueous counterparts. After 96 h of reaction, the total dissolved iron in ice (pH 3 before freezing) was higher than that in the aqueous phase (pH 3) by 6-28 times and 10-20 times under dark and UV irradiation, respectively. Sulfuric acid was the most efficient in producing labile iron under dark condition, whereas hydrochloric acid induced the most dissolution of the total and ferrous iron in the presence of light. This ice-induced dissolution result was also confirmed with Arizona Test Dust (AZTD). In the freeze-thaw cycling test, the iron oxide samples containing chloride, nitrate, or perchlorate showed a similar extent of total dissolved iron after each cycling while the sulfate-containing sample rapidly lost its dissolution activity with repeating the cycle. This unique phenomenon observed in ice might be related to the freeze concentration of protons, iron oxides, and inorganic anions in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region. These results suggest that the ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides can be a potential source of bioavailable iron, and the acid anions critically influence this process.

  12. Aliphatic carboxylic acids and alcohols as efficiency and elution strength enhancers in micellar liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichenko, Alexander P; Berthod, Alain

    2010-09-03

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) uses surfactant solutions as mobile phases with added organic additives to enhance both the elution strength and the chromatographic efficiency. Two aliphatic carboxylic acids (1-butanoic and 1-pentanoic) were used as MLC additives and compared with the two corresponding alcohols (1-butanol, 1-pentanol) in terms of elution strength, efficiency and selectivity. A set of 11 phenol derivatives was used as probe compounds. All micellar mobile phases were prepared with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 0.15M and the modifier content within 1.0 and 5.0% (v/v). The elution strength of different mobile phases containing a constant amount of SDS and different amounts of modifiers; and mobile phases containing a constant amount of modifier and different SDS concentration were determined and discussed. The effect of the acid modifiers on efficiency was studied constructing van Deemter plots that showed no minimum within the 0.01-0.7mL/min flow rate range studied. Temperature effects were also studied constructing the classical van't Hoff plots. The slight curvature of the plots in the 25-70 degrees C range may indicate some modification of the surfactant-bonded moiety layer on the stationary phase surface. Since no definitive advantage of the use of aliphatic acids were established compared to their alcohol counterpart, their terrible smell will probably preclude their use as MLC organic modifiers.

  13. Studying Pellet Formation of a Filamentous Fungus Rhizopus oryzae to Enhance Organic Acid Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan; Chen, Shulin

    Using pelletized fungal biomass can effectively improve the fermentation performance for most of fugal strains. This article studied the effects of inoculum and medium compositions such as potato dextrose broth (PDB) as carbon source, soybean peptone, calcium carbonate, and metal ions on pellet formation of Rhizopus oryzae. It has been found that metal ions had significantly negative effects on pellet formation whereas soybean peptone had positive effects. In addition PDB and calcium carbonate were beneficial to R. oryzae for growing small smooth pellets during the culture. The study also demonstrated that an inoculum size of less than 1.5×109 spores/L had no significant influence on pellet formation. Thus, a new approach to form pellets has been developed using only PDB, soybean peptone, and calcium carbonate. Meanwhile, palletized fungal fermentation significantly enhanced organic acid production. Lactic acid concentration reached 65.0 g/L in 30 h using pelletized R. oryzae NRRL 395, and fumeric acid concentration reached 31.0 g/L in 96 h using pelletized R. oryzae ATCC 20344.

  14. Effect of Thermal Treatment and Acid Leaching Process on Pore Characteristics of Nanometer Porous Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianjun; XU Feng; LIU Jiandang; ZHAO Xiujian

    2007-01-01

    Porous glass was prepared by thermally treating sodium borosilicate glass for different time,the effect of thermal treatment on pore size distribution was discussed and the pore size of the prepared porous glass was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results show that the optimum porous glass with an average diameter of 80 nm can be prepared by thermal treatment at 600 ℃ for 12 h and then acid treatment for 12 h in 2 mol· L-1 hydrochloric acid solution.

  15. A postmarketing surveillance study of dexrabeprazole in the treatment of acid peptic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S C

    2009-02-01

    Dexrabeprazole [R(+) rabeprazole] is a novel proton-pump inhibitor which has recently become available in India for the treatment of acid peptic diseases. Experimental and clinical studies have shown superiority of dexrabeprazole (at half the recommended rabeprazole dose) over rabeprazole in terms of favourable pharmacokinetics, better efficacy and faster and greater healing activity. Results of present study in a large population of 4931 patients of acid peptic disorders, reconfirmed safety and efficacy of dexrabeprazole 10 mg once daily in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and also showed its effectiveness in the treatment of patients with peptic ulcers (gastric/duodenal).

  16. Comparison of trichostatin A and valproic acid treatment regimens in a mouse model of kidney fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Beneden, Katrien, E-mail: kvbenede@vub.ac.be [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Geers, Caroline [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Pauwels, Marina [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Mannaerts, Inge [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Wissing, Karl M. [Department of Nephrology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Van den Branden, Christiane [Department of Human Anatomy, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Grunsven, Leo A. van, E-mail: lvgrunsv@vub.ac.be [Department of Cell Biology, Liver Cell Biology Lab, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-09-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are promising new compounds for the therapy of fibrotic diseases. In this study we compared the effect of two HDAC inhibitors, trichostatin A and valproic acid, in an experimental model of kidney fibrosis. In mice, doxorubicin (adriamycin) can cause nephropathy characterized by chronic proteinuria, glomerular damage and interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, as seen in human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Two treatment regimens were applied, treatment was either started prior to the doxorubicin insult or delayed until a significant degree of proteinuria and fibrosis was present. Pre-treatment of trichostatin A significantly hampered glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as did the pre-treatment with valproic acid. In contrast, the development of proteinuria was only completely inhibited in the pre-treated valproic acid group, and not in the pre-treated trichostatin A animals. In the postponed treatment with valproic acid, a complete resolution of established doxorubicin-induced proteinuria was achieved within three days, whereas trichostatin A could not correct proteinuria in such a treatment regimen. However, both postponed regimens have comparable efficacy in maintaining the kidney fibrosis to the level reached at the start of the treatments. Moreover, not only the process of fibrosis, but also renal inflammation was attenuated by both HDAC inhibitors. Our data confirm a role for HDACs in renal fibrogenesis and point towards a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors. The effect on renal disease progression and manifestation can however be different for individual HDAC inhibitors. - Highlights: • Valproic acid is a potent antiproteinuric drug, whereas trichostatin A is not. • Trichostatin A and valproic acid reduce kidney fibrosis in doxorubicin nephropathy. • Both valproic acid and trichostatin A attenuate renal inflammation.

  17. Pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment in PTSD: a qualitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne A. de Kleine

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a good amount of evidence that exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Notwithstanding its efficacy, there is room for improvement, since a large proportion of patients does not benefit from treatment. Recently, an interesting new direction in the improvement of exposure therapy efficacy for PTSD emerged. Basic research found evidence of the pharmacological enhancement of the underlying learning and memory processes of exposure therapy. The current review aims to give an overview of clinical studies on pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based treatment for PTSD. The working mechanisms, efficacy studies in PTSD patients, and clinical utility of four different pharmacological enhancers will be discussed: D-cycloserine, MDMA, hydrocortisone, and propranolol.

  18. Fluoride removal from groundwater by limestone treatment in presence of phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Sweety; Nath, Suresh K; Bordoloi, Shreemoyee; Dutta, Robin K

    2015-04-01

    Fluoride removal from groundwater has been studied by addition of dilute phosphoric acid (PA) to the influent water before limestone treatment through laboratory plug-flow column experiments and bench-scale plug-flow pilot tests. In this PA-enhanced limestone defluoridation (PAELD) technique, fluoride is removed from 0.526 mM to 0.50-52.60 μM in 3 h with near neutral final pH. The presence of PA increases the fluoride removal capacity of limestone to 1.10 mg/g compared to 0.39 mg/g reported in its absence. The changes in fluoride removal with variation in initial PA concentration, initial fluoride concentration and the final pH have been found to be statistically significant with p < 0.05. The estimated recurring cost is US$ ≈0.58/m(3) water. Simple scrubbing and rinsing is a preferable method for regeneration of limestone as it is almost equally effective with lime or NaOH. Sorption of fluoride by calcium phosphates produced in situ in the reactor is the dominant mechanism of fluoride removal in the PAELD. Precipitation of CaF2 and sorption of fluoride by the limestone also contribute to the fluoride removal. High efficiency, capacity, safety, environment-friendliness, low cost and simplicity of operation make the PAELD a potential technique for rural application.

  19. Treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia with trichloroacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harris Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign disease which has a chronic course that manifests as characteristic multiple small papules or nodules. They are predominantly found in the oral mucosa, gingiva and tongue. The surface of the lesions is smooth and it varies in size. It is an asymptomatic disease caused by human papillomavirus, affecting mainly children and adolescents. In this report, we describe four cases referred to the Stomatology and Oral Surgery Department of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cartagena University with a diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia. Clinical features and histopathological characteristics of the patients were recorded. We also describe the properties and advantages of trichloroacetic acid as a therapeutic method.

  20. Enhanced Membrane Treatment for Hollow-Fiber Microfiltration in Ultrasonic Reflection Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takaomi; Hosaka, Yoho

    2003-05-01

    The effect of ultrasound on the enhanced membrane treatment process was controlled by the reflection of 28 kHz ultrasound onto the vicinity of a hollow-fiber microfiltration membrane. When a stainless reflection plate was placed behind the membrane module, the resultant permeation flux of the membrane was changed in the ultrasonic reflection field. We found that a semicylindrical reflection plate could highly enhance the membrane cleaning process.

  1. Kinetics of salivary pH after acidic beverage intake by patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turssi, Cecilia P; Silva, Carolina S; Bridi, Enrico C; Amaral, Flavia Lb; Franca, Fabiana Mg; Basting, Roberta T

    2015-01-01

    The saliva of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances can potentially present a delay in the diluting, clearing, and buffering of dietary acids due to an increased number of retention areas. The aim of this clinical trial was to compare salivary pH kinetics of patients with and without orthodontic treatment, following the intake of an acidic beverage. Twenty participants undergoing orthodontic treatment and 20 control counterparts had their saliva assessed for flow rate, pH, and buffering capacity. There was no significant difference between salivary parameters in participants with or without an orthodontic appliance. Salivary pH recovery following acidic beverage intake was slower in the orthodontic subjects compared to controls. Patients with fixed orthodontic appliances, therefore, seem to be at higher risk of dental erosion, suggesting that dietary advice and preventive care need to be implemented during orthodontic treatment.

  2. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 μg/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 μg/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory.

  3. Chromate enhanced visible light driven TiO₂ photocatalytic mechanism on Acid Orange 7 photodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeoung-Sheng; Shen, Jyun-Hong; Horng, Jao-Jia

    2014-06-15

    When hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is added to a TiO2 photocatalytic reaction, the decolorization and mineralization efficiencies of azo dyes Acid Orange 7 (AO7) are enhanced even though the mechanism is unclear. This study used 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as the scavenger and the analysis of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) to investigate this enhancement effect by observing the hydroxyl radical (OH) generation of the Cr(VI)/TiO2 system under UV and visible light (Vis) irradiation. With Cr(VI), the decolorization efficiencies were approximately 95% and 62% under UV and Vis, and those efficiencies were 25% less in the absence of Cr(VI). The phenomena of the DMPO-OH signals during the ESR analysis under Vis 405 and 550 nm irradiation were obviously the enhancement effects of Cr(VI) in aerobic conditions. In anoxic conditions, the catalytic effects of Cr(VI) could not be achieved due to the lack of a redox reaction between Cr(VI) and the adsorbed oxygen at the oxygen vacancy sites on the TiO2 surfaces. The results suggest that by introducing the agents of redox reactions such as chromate ions, we could lower the photoenergy of TiO2 needed and allow Vis irradiation to activate photocatalysis.

  4. Production of Polyamines Is Enhanced by Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Maize Seedlings Subjected to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LIU; Ming-Yi JIANG; Yi-Feng ZHOU; You-Liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    It is known that salt stress and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) can enhance the polyamine content in plants and that salt stress itself can lead to an increase in endogenous ABA production.In the present study, the relationships between salt-induced ABA and polyamine accumulation were investigated using ABA-deficient mutant (vp5/vp5) maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and ABA and polyamine :biosynthesis inhibitors. The results show that reduced endogenous ABA levels, as a result of either the mutation or by using a chemical inhibitor (sodium tungstate), also reduced the accumulation of polyamines in salt-stressed leaves of maize seedlings. The polyamine synthesis inhibitors D-arginine and αdifluoromethylornithine also reduced the polyamine content of the leaves of maize seedling under salt stress. Both ABA and polyamine enhanced the dry weight accumulation of salt-stressed seedlings and also increased the activities of the two dominant tonoplast membrane enzymes, H+-ATPase and H+-PPase, when plants were under salt stress. The results suggest that salt stress induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which then enhances polyamine synthesis. Such responses may increase a plant's tolerance to salt.

  5. Enhancement of carvedilol solubility by solid dispersion technique using cyclodextrins, water soluble polymers and hydroxyl acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvaraja, K; Khanam, Jasmina

    2014-08-01

    Aim of the present work is to enhance aqueous solubility of carvedilol (CV) by solid dispersion technique using wide variety of carriers such as: β-cyclodextrin (βCD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), tartaric acid (TA), polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP K-30) and poloxamer-407 (PLX-407). Various products of 'CV-solid dispersion' had been studied extensively in various pH conditions to check enhancement of solubility and dissolution characteristics of carvedilol. Any physical change upon interaction between CV and carriers was confirmed by instrumental analysis: XRD, DSC, FTIR and SEM. Negative change of Gibb's free energy and complexation constants (Kc, 75-240M(-1), for cyclodextrins and 1111-20,365M(-1), for PVP K-30 and PLX-407) were the evidence of stable nature of the binding between CV and carriers. 'Solubility enhancement factor' of ionized-CV was found high enough (340 times) with HPβCD in presence of TA. TA increases the binding efficiency of cyclodextrin and changing the pH of microenvironment in dissolution medium. In addition, ionization process was used to increase the apparent intrinsic solubility of drug. In vitro, dissolution time of CV was remarkably reduced in the solid dispersion system compared to that of pure drug. This may be attributed to increased wettability, dispersing ability and transformation of crystalline state of drug to amorphous one.

  6. Improved focal liver lesion detection by increasing flip angle during gadoxetic acid-enhancement in MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Jy [Dept. of Medical science Graduate school, Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Keun [Dept. of Radiotechnology, Gwang-ju Health university, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To study the differences of focal liver lesion image detection at 3 minute, 10 minute and 15 minute time points on gadoxetic acid (GA)’s enhanced MR imaging with a flip angle (FA) of 30° compared with a 11°. The subjects were 69 patients evaluated with GA enhanced MR imaging with 3.0T MR scanner. The patients are total 35(23 men and 7 women at the mean age of 60.4 years), hepatocellular carcinoma(23) and metastsis(12) except for normal, cyst and hemangioma. After GA was injected, FA 11° and 30° images were obtained at 3 minute, 10 minute and 15 minute time points respectively. After quantitative and qualitative assessment of each image was done, statistical analysis was performed by using the independent sample T-test. From both quantitative and qualitative assessment of 3 minute and 10 minute MR images after the injection of GA, FA 30° images was found to be superior than FA 11°, but there were no statistical significance. However, at 15 minute time point, Statistically significant FA 30° image(p<0.05) was better than FA 11° therefore, the FA 30° improves the focal liver lesion detection. FA 30° of MR image can detect liver lesion more sensitively than the existing FA11° image after GA contrast enhancement at 15 minute time point.

  7. Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma-bearing mice after cyclophosphamide and cisplatin treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicol B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sialic acid changes in Dalton's lymphoma cells and other tissues of 10-12-week-old Swiss albino mice were investigated in relation to tumour growth in vivo and following cyclophosphamide (ip, 200 mg/kg body weight or cisplatin (ip, 8 mg/kg body weight treatment. Three to four animals of both sexes were used in each experimental group. The sialic acid level of tumour cells (0.88 µmol/g increased with tumour progression (1.44-1.59 µmol/g; P<=0.05 in mice. Sialic acid concentration in other tissues (liver, kidney, testes and brain also increased (~40, 10, 30 and 58%, respectively in the tumour-bearing hosts as compared with that in the respective tissues of normal mice. In vivo cyclophosphamide or cisplatin treatment resulted in an overall decrease of sialic acid contents in the tissues. Cyclophosphamide was more efficient in lowering tissue sialic acid than cisplatin (P<=0.01, ANOVA. It is suggested that sialic acid residues could be an important factor contributing to the manifestation of malignant properties in cancer cells in general and Dalton's lymphoma cells in particular. A significant decrease in the sialic acid content of Dalton's lymphoma cells after cisplatin or cyclophosphamide treatment may bring about specific changes in tumour cells which could be associated with tumour regression.

  8. Efficacy of topical azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild-moderate acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Twenty percent azelaic acid gel is recommended as a topical treatment for acne due to its favorable profile. Aim: Our objective in this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 20% azelaic acid gel in the treatment of mild to moderate acne vulgaris. Methods: This was a double blind, randomized clinical trial. Sixty patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris were selected randomly to receive either azelaic acid gel or the vehicle gel alone. Patients were followed up every 15 days for a period of 45 days. The number of lesions and the acne severity index (ASI were recorded and compared using Student′s t-test. Results: Total lesion count was reduced by 60.6% and 19.9% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.002. ASI was reduced by 65.2% and 21.3% by azelaic acid gel and the placebo respectively (P =0.001, i.e., azelaic acid gel was 3.06 times more effective than the placebo in reducing ASI. Conclusion: Azelaic acid gel can be used as an effective treatment in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.

  9. Virulence of viable but nonculturable S. Typhimurium LT2 after peracetic acid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Sauvager, F; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Colwell, R R; Cormier, M

    2006-11-01

    S. Typhimurium LT2 cells suspended in sterilized sewage effluent water (SEW) and in distilled water microcosms were exposed to 0, 7, 15 and 20 mg/l peracetic acid, and tested for viability and virulence. After treatment for one hour, colony forming units decreased by at least 5 log units at peracetic acid concentration of 7 mg/l. In SEW, at peracetic acid concentration of 15 mg/l, the cells were nonculturable (VNC), but retained virulence as demonstrated by invasion assays of HeLa cells. Higher concentrations (greater than or equal to 20 mg/l) resulted in bacterial death, i.e. substrate non-responsive cells. Despite morphological alterations of the bacteria after peracetic acid treatment, visualized by transmission electronic microscopy, conservation of both adhesive and invasive capacities was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy after exposure to 0-15 mg/l peracetic acid. Public health professionals need to recognize that peracetic acid-treated Salmonella is capable of modifying its physiological characteristics, including entering and recovering from the viable but nonculturable state, and may remain virulent after a stay in SEW followed by peracetic acid treatment.

  10. Ascorbic acid enhances the cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells through promoting the proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Cao; Bin Wei; Liu Wang; Ying Jin; Huang-Tian Yang; Zumei Liu; Zhongyan Chen; Jia Wang; Taotao Chen; Xiaoyang Zhao; Yu Ma; Lianju Qin; Jiuhong Kang

    2012-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases,drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration.However,their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation,high interline variability,and poor maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyoeytes (iPS-CMs).To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms,we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine (m) iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid (AA) consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential.We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2-6,a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs),was a critical time for AA to take effect.This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers.Noteworthily,AA treatment led to approximately 7.3-fold (miPSCs) and 30.2-fold (human iPSCs) augment in the yield of iPS-CMs.Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by promoting collagen synthesis.In addition,AA-induced cardiomyocytes showed better sareomerie organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations.These findings demonstrate that AA is a suitable cardiomyocyte inducer for iPSCs to improve cardiac differentiation and maturation simply,universally,and efficiently.These findings also highlight the importance of stimulating CPC proliferation by manipulating extracellular microenvironment in guiding cardiac differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Evaluating enhanced sulfate reduction and optimized volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor by Fe (III) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-17

    Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. Simultaneously, the produced Fe (II) from IRB can alleviate the inhibition of undissociated H2S on microorganisms through iron sulfide precipitation, resulting in further improvement of the performance. In addition, the enhancement on reactor performance by Fe (III) is found to be more significantly favored at relatively low organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 1.0) than at high organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 4.5). The Fe (III)-based process of this work can be easily integrated with a commonly used strategy for phosphorus recovery, with the produced sulfide being recovered and then deposited into conventional chemical phosphorus removal sludge (FePO4) to achieve FeS precipitation for phosphorus recovery while the required Fe (III) being acquired from the waste ferric sludge of drinking water treatment process, to enable maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving high-rate sulfate removal.

  12. Two-stage dilute-acid and organic-solvent lignocellulosic pretreatment for enhanced bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodeur, G.; Telotte, J.; Stickel, J. J.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2016-11-01

    A two stage pretreatment approach for biomass is developed in the current work in which dilute acid (DA) pretreatment is followed by a solvent based pretreatment (N-methyl morpholine N oxide -- NMMO). When the combined pretreatment (DAWNT) is applied to sugarcane bagasse and corn stover, the rates of hydrolysis and overall yields (>90%) are seen to dramatically improve and under certain conditions 48 h can be taken off the time of hydrolysis with the additional NMMO step to reach similar conversions. DAWNT shows a 2-fold increase in characteristic rates and also fractionates different components of biomass -- DA treatment removes the hemicellulose while the remaining cellulose is broken down by enzymatic hydrolysis after NMMO treatment to simple sugars. The remaining residual solid is high purity lignin. Future work will focus on developing a full scale economic analysis of DAWNT for use in biomass fractionation.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kawada, Teruo, E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  15. Ion pair formation as a possible mechanism for the enhancement effect of lauric acid on the transdermal permeation of ondansetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Dimitrios A; Dallas, Paraskevas P; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2004-08-01

    Transdermal application can be an alternative drug delivery route for ondansetron, an antiemetic drug. Previous studies found that fatty acids, namely oleic and lauric, were the most effective penetration enhancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the formation of an ion pair between ondansetron and lauric acid as a possible mechanism of its enhancing action. Several techniques were used to reveal the formation of an ion pair complex. Partitioning experiments, where the n-octanol/water coefficient was measured, showed an increase in the distribution coefficient in the presence of the acid, possibly as a result of the formation of more lipophilic ion pairs between the charged molecules of ondansetron and lauric acid. Further evidence of complex formation between ondansetron and lauric acid, was gained from the 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectra of ondansetron, lauric acid, and their mixture (molar ratio 1:1). The NMR spectra revealed alterations to the magnetic environment of the carbon atoms adjacent to the ionized group, which are the carbonyl group of the acid and the nitrogen of the imidazole ring of ondansetron. This evidence substantiates the theory of ion pair formation. Finally, thermal analysis of the binary mixtures of ondansetron and lauric acid revealed the formation of an additional compound, with different melting point from pure ondansetron and lauric acid, which is thermodynamically favored.

  16. Adding silver and copper to hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid in the disinfection of an advanced primary treatment effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta De Velásquez, M T; Yáñez-Noguez, I; Jiménez-Cisneros, B; Luna Pabello, V M

    2008-11-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and peracetic acid (PAA) in the disinfection of an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) effluent, and how said disinfection capacities can be enhanced by combining the oxidants with copper (Cu2+) and silver (Ag). The treatment sequence consisted of APT (adding chemicals to water to remove suspended solids by coagulation and flocculation), followed by disinfection with various doses of HP, HP+Cu2+, HP+Ag, PAA and PAA+Ag. Microbiological quality was determined by monitoring concentrations of fecal coliforms (FC), pathogenic bacteria (PB) and helminth eggs (HE) throughout the sequence. The results revealed that APT effluent still contains very high levels of bacteria as the treatment only removes 1-2 log of FC and PB, but the reduction in the number of viable helminth eggs was 83%. Subsequent disinfection stages demonstrated that both HP+Cu2+ and HP+Ag have a marked disinfection capacity for bacteria (3.9 and 3.4 log-inactivation, respectively). Peracetic acid on its own was already extremely efficient at disinfecting for bacteria, and the effect was enhanced when combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag). The best result for HE removal was achieved by combining PAA with silver (PAA+Ag) at doses of 20 + 2.0 mg l(-1), respectively. The study concluded that the PAA+Ag and HP+Ag combinations were good alternatives for APT effluent disinfection, because the disinfected effluents met the standards in NOM-001-SEMARNAT-1996, Mexico's regulation governing the microbiological quality required in treated wastewater destined for unrestricted reuse in agricultural irrigation (< or =1 helminths per litre). Combining either of these disinfection treatments with a primary method such as APT, therefore, offers an effective and practical way of reducing the health risks normally associated with the reuse of wastewaters.

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno; Anna Russolillo; Roberta Lupoli; Pasquale Ambrosino; Alessandro Di Minno; Giovanni Tarantino

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been recognized as a major health burden.It is the most important cause of chronic liver disease and a major independent cardiovascular risk factor.Lacking a definite treatment for NAFLD,a specific diet and an increase in physical activity represent the most commonly used therapeutic approaches.In this review,major literature data about the use of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a potential treatment of NAFLD have been described.n-3 PUFAs,besides having a beneficial impact on most of the cardio-metabolic risk factors (hypertension,hyperlipidemia,endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis) by regulating gene transcription factors [i.e.,peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α,PPARγ,sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1,carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein],impacts both lipid metabolism and on insulin sensitivity.In addition to an enhancement of hepatic beta oxidation and a decrease of the endogenous lipid production,n-3 PUFAs are able to determine a significant reduction of the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) and of oxygen reactive species.Further strengthening the results of the in vitro studies,both animal models and human intervention trials,showed a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFAs on the severity of NAFLD as expressed by laboratory parameters and imaging measurements.Despite available results provided encouraging data about the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs as a treatment of NAFLD in humans,well-designed randomized controlled trials of adequate size and duration,with histological endpoints,are needed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of PUFA,as well as other therapies,for the treatment of NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis patients.It is worthwhile to consider that n-3 PUFAs cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be derived from exogenous sources (fish oil,flaxseeds,olive oil) which are typical foods

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum-located PDAT1-2 from castor bean enhances hydroxy fatty acid accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Go, Young Sam; Jung, Jin Hee; Suh, Mi-Chung; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-06-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxy-octadeca-9-enoic acid) is a major unusual fatty acid in castor oil. This hydroxy fatty acid is useful in industrial materials. This unusual fatty acid accumulates in triacylglycerol (TAG) in the seeds of the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), even though it is synthesized in phospholipids, which indicates that the castor plant has an editing enzyme, which functions as a phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) that is specific to ricinoleic acid. Transgenic plants containing fatty acid Δ12-hydroxylase encoded by the castor bean FAH12 gene produce a limited amount of hydroxy fatty acid, a maximum of around 17% of TAGs present in Arabidopsis seeds, and this unusual fatty acid remains in phospholipids of cell membranes in seeds. Identification of ricinoleate-specific PDAT from castor bean and manipulation of the phospholipid editing system in transgenic plants will enhance accumulation of the hydroxy fatty acid in transgenic seeds. The castor plant has three PDAT genes; PDAT1-1 and PDAT2 are homologs of PDAT, which are commonly found in plants; however, PDAT1-2 is newly grouped as a castor bean-specific gene. PDAT1-2 is expressed in developing seeds and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, similar to FAH12, indicating its involvement in conversion of ricinoleic acid into TAG. PDAT1-2 significantly enhances accumulation of total hydroxy fatty acid up to 25%, with a significant increase in castor-like oil, 2-OH TAG, in seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis, which is an identification of the key gene for oilseed engineering in production of unusual fatty acids.

  19. Enhancement of lipid production and fatty acid profiling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpagam, R; Preeti, R; Ashokkumar, B; Varalakshmi, P

    2015-11-01

    Lipid from microalgae is one of the putative oil resources to facilitate the biodiesel production during this era of energy dissipation and environmental pollution. In this study, the key parameters such as biomass productivity, lipid productivity and lipid content were evaluated at the early stationary phase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CC1010 cultivated in nutrient starved (nitrogen, phosphorous), glucose (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.15% and 0.2%) and vitamin B12 supplementation (0.001%, 0.002% and 0.003%) in Tris-Acetate-Phosphate (TAP) medium. The lipid content in nitrogen starved media was 61% which is 2.34 folds higher than nutrient sufficient TAP medium. Glucose supplementation has lead to proportional increase in biomass productivity with the increasing concentration of glucose whereas vitamin B12 supplementations had not shown any influence in lipid and biomass production. Further, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of C. reinhardtii, CC 1010 has revealed more than 80% of total SFA (saturated fatty acid) and MUFA (mono unsaturated fatty acid) content. Quality checking parameters of biodiesel like cetane number, saponification value, iodine number and degree of unsaturation were analyzed and the biodiesel fuel properties were found to be appropriate as per the international standards, EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Conclusively, among all the treatments, nitrogen starvation with 0.1% glucose supplementation had yielded high lipid content in C. reinhardtii, CC 1010.

  20. The cell transmembrane pH gradient in tumors enhances cytotoxicity of specific weak acid chemotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozin, S V; Shkarin, P; Gerweck, L E

    2001-06-15

    The extracellular pH is lower in tumor than in normal tissue, whereas their intracellular pH is similar. In this study, we show that the tumor-specific pH gradient may be exploited for the treatment of cancer by weak acid chemotherapeutics. i.v.-injected glucose substantially decreased the electrode estimated extracellular pH in a xenografted human tumor while its intracellular pH, evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, remained virtually unchanged. The resulting increase in the average cell pH gradient caused a parallel increase in tumor growth delay by the weak acid chlorambucil (CHL). Regardless of glucose administration, the effect of CHL was significantly greater in tumors preirradiated with a large dose of ionizing radiation. This suggests that CHL was especially pronounced in radioresistant hypoxic cells possessing a larger transmembrane pH gradient. These results indicate that the naturally occurring cell pH gradient difference between tumor and normal tissue is a major and exploitable determinant of the uptake of weak acids in the complex tumor microenvironment. The use of such drugs may be especially effective in combination with radiation.

  1. Update on marine omega-3 fatty acids: management of dyslipidemia and current omega-3 treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, Howard

    2013-10-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is currently the primary target in the management of dyslipidemia, and statins are first-line pharmacologic interventions. Adjunct therapy such as niacins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants, or cholesterol absorption inhibitors may be considered to help reduce cardiovascular risk. This review discusses the need for alternative adjunct treatment options and the potential place for omega-3 fatty acids as such. The cardiovascular benefits of fish consumption are attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and a variety of omega-3 fatty acid products are available with varied amounts of EPA and DHA. The product types include prescription drugs, food supplements, and medical foods sourced from fish, krill, algal and plant oils or purified from these oils. Two prescription omega-3 fatty acids are currently available, omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters (contains both EPA and DHA ethyl esters), and icosapent ethyl (IPE; contains high-purity EPA ethyl ester). A pharmaceutical containing free fatty acid forms of omega-3 is currently in development. Omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing EPA and DHA have been shown to increase LDL-C levels while IPE has been shown to lower triglyceride levels without raising LDL-C levels, alone or in combination with statin therapy. In addition, recent studies have not been able to demonstrate reduced cardiovascular risk following treatment with fibrates, niacins, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, or omega-3 fatty acid formulations containing both EPA and DHA in statin-treated patients; thus, there remains a need for further cardiovascular outcomes studies for adjunct therapy.

  2. Gliding arc surface treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Drews, Joanna Maria

    2011-01-01

    . The efficiency of such a plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can be further improved by ultrasonic irradiation onto the surface during the treatment. In the present work glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using an atmospheric pressure gliding arc with and without ultrasonic...... that ultrasonic irradiation reduced the OH rotational temperature of the gliding arc. The wettability of the GFRP surface was significantly improved by the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, and tended to improve furthermore at higher power to the plasma. Ultrasonic irradiation during the plasma...... treatment consistently improved the wettability. It is seen that polar functional groups were introduced at the surface by the gliding arc treatment, and that the treatment efficiency was enhanced by the ultrasonic irradiation, indicating that the adhesive property would be improved. TOF-SIMS ion images...

  3. Possible protective role of pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile in lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity through enhanced hepatic lipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Masaaki; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sotodate, Fumiaki; Mizuki, Tomohiro; Hori, Wataru; Nagayasu, Miho; Yokokawa, Shinya; Ninomiya, Shin-ichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2010-06-25

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) feeding causes both liver parenchymal and cholestatic damages in experimental animals. Although pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN)-mediated protection against LCA-induced hepatocyte injury may be explained by induction of drug metabolizing enzymes, the protection from the delayed cholestasis remains incompletely understood. Thus, the PCN-mediated protective mechanism has been studied from the point of modification of lipid metabolism. At an early stage of LCA feeding, an imbalance of biliary bile acid and phospholipid excretion was observed. Co-treatment with PCN reversed the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and hepatic hydrophobic bile acid levels. LCA feeding decreased hepatic mRNA levels of several fatty acid- and phospholipid-related genes before elevation of serum ALT and ALP activities. On the other hand, PCN co-treatment reversed the decrease in the mRNA levels and hepatic levels of phospholipids, triglycerides and free fatty acids. PCN co-treatment also reversed the decrease in biliary phospholipid output in LCA-fed mice. Treatment with PCN alone increased hepatic phospholipid, triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations. Hepatic fatty acid and phosphatidylcholine synthetic activities increased in mice treated with PCN alone or PCN and LCA, compared to control mice, whereas these activities decreased in LCA-fed mice. These results suggest the possibility that PCN-mediated stimulation of lipogenesis contributes to the protection from lithocholic acid-induced hepatotoxicity.

  4. Aqueous solutions of acidic ionic liquids for enhanced stability of polyoxometalate-carbon supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenchen; Zhao, Enbo; Nitta, Naoki; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    Nanocomposites based on polyoxometalates (POMs) nanoconfined in microporous carbons have been synthesized and used as electrodes for supercapacitors. The addition of the pseudocapacitance from highly reversible redox reaction of POMs to the electric double-layer capacitance of carbon lead to an increase in specific capacitance of ∼90% at 1 mV s-1. However, high solubility of POM in traditional aqueous electrolytes leads to rapid capacity fading. Here we demonstrate that the use of aqueous solutions of protic ionic liquids (P-IL) as electrolyte instead of aqueous sulfuric acid solutions offers an opportunity to significantly improve POM cycling stability. Virtually no degradation in capacitance was observed in POM-based positive electrode after 10,000 cycles in an asymmetric capacitor with P-IL aqueous electrolyte. As such, POM-based carbon composites may now present a viable solution for enhancing energy density of electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC) based on pure carbon electrodes.

  5. Copper catalysis for enhancement of cobalt leaching and acid utilization efficiency in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaxuan; Shen, Jingya; Huang, Liping; Wu, Dan

    2013-11-15

    Enhancement of both cobalt leaching from LiCoO2 and acid utilization efficiency (AUE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was successfully achieved by the addition of Cu(II). A dosage of 10mg/L Cu(II) improved both cobalt leaching up to 308% and AUE of 171% compared to the controls with no presence of Cu(II). The apparent activation energy of cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs was only 11.8 kJ/mol. These results demonstrate cobalt leaching in MFCs using Cu(II) as a catalyst may be an effective strategy for cobalt recovery and recycle of spent Li-ion batteries, and the evidence of influence factors including solid/liquid ratio, temperature, and pH and solution conductivity can contribute to improving understanding of and optimizing cobalt leaching catalyzed by Cu(II) in MFCs.

  6. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  7. Carglumic acid: an additional therapy in the treatment of organic acidurias with hyperammonemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guffon Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperammonemia in patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA and propionic aciduria (PA is caused by accumulation of propionyl-CoA which decreases the synthesis of N-acetyl-glutamate, the natural activator of carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1. A treatment approach with carglumic acid, the structural analogue of N-acetyl-glutamate, has been proposed to decrease high ammonia levels encountered in MMA and PA crises. Case presentation We described two patients (one with MMA and one with PA with hyperammonemia at diagnosis. Carglumic acid, when associated with standard treatment of organic acidurias, may be helpful in normalizing the ammonia level. Conclusion Even though the usual treatment which decreases toxic metabolites remains the standard, carglumic acid could be helpful in lowering plasma ammonia levels over 400 micromol/L more rapidly.

  8. Carglumic acid: an additional therapy in the treatment of organic acidurias with hyperammonemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrat, Virginie; Forest, Isabelle; Fouilhoux, Alain; Acquaviva, Cécile; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Guffon, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Background Hyperammonemia in patients with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) and propionic aciduria (PA) is caused by accumulation of propionyl-CoA which decreases the synthesis of N-acetyl-glutamate, the natural activator of carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1. A treatment approach with carglumic acid, the structural analogue of N-acetyl-glutamate, has been proposed to decrease high ammonia levels encountered in MMA and PA crises. Case presentation We described two patients (one with MMA and one with PA) with hyperammonemia at diagnosis. Carglumic acid, when associated with standard treatment of organic acidurias, may be helpful in normalizing the ammonia level. Conclusion Even though the usual treatment which decreases toxic metabolites remains the standard, carglumic acid could be helpful in lowering plasma ammonia levels over 400 micromol/L more rapidly. PMID:18234091

  9. Biochemical changes in grape rootstocks resulted from humic acid treatments in relation to nematode infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosny H Kesba; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of humic acid on nematode infected, resistant and susceptible grapes in relation to lipid peroxidation and antioxidant mechanisms on selected biochemical parameters known as proactive substances. Methods: The grape rootstocks, superior, superior/freedom and freedom were reacted differently to Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis according to rootstock progenitor. Two weeks after inoculation, two commercial products of humic acid were applied at the rate of (2, 4 mL or grams/plant) as soil drench. After 4 months, nematode soil populations were extracted and counted. A subsample of roots from each plant was stained and gall numbers, embedded stages per root were calculated, final population, nematode build up (Pf/Pi), average of eggs/eggmass were estimated. Subsamples of fresh root of each treatment were chemically analyzed. Results: Freedom reduced significantly the nematode criteria and build up. Humic acid granules appeared to be more suppressive to nematode build up on superior and the higher dose on superior/freedom than liquid treatments. On freedom, all treatments reduced significantly the nematode build up regardless to the material nature. The higher dose was more effective than the lower one. As a result of humic acid applications, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were significantly reduced after humic acid treatments while the antioxidant compounds glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (ASA) and total phenol contents were significantly increased when compared with check. Antioxidant defense enzymes ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) showed significant increase in their specific activities in treated plants compared with nematode treated check. Conclusions: Humic acid treatments improve the yield of grape by increasing the contents of antioxidant compounds and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Enhancing effect of dimethylamine in sulfuric acid nucleation in the presence of water – a computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Loukonen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the hydration of sulfuric acid – ammonia and sulfuric acid – dimethylamine clusters using quantum chemistry. We calculated the formation energies and thermodynamics for clusters of one ammonia or one dimethylamine molecule together with 1–2 sulfuric acid and 0–5 water molecules. The results indicate that dimethylamine enhances the addition of sulfuric acid to the clusters much more efficiently than ammonia when the number of water molecules in the cluster is either zero, or greater than two. Further hydrate distribution calculations reveal that practically all dimethylamine-containing two-acid clusters will remain unhydrated in tropospherically relevant circumstances, thus strongly suggesting that dimethylamine assists atmospheric sulfuric acid nucleation much more effectively than ammonia.

  11. High saturated fatty acids proportion in Escherichia coli enhances the activity of ice-nucleation protein from Pantoea ananatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feifei; Liu, Xiping; Tao, Yong; Zhu, Kun

    2013-08-01

    The ice-nucleation protein (INP) from Pantoea ananatis was expressed in Escherichia coli. INP expression increased the freezing point of the E. coli culture by a few degrees. Deletion of FabH, an important enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, significantly inhibited the ice-nucleation activity. Increased unsaturated fatty acids in the fabH mutant cells decreased the ice-nucleation activity. Adding exogenous saturated fatty acids increased both E. coli fatty acid saturation and the ice-nucleation activity. In contrast, adding unsaturated fatty acids exhibited the opposite effects. Furthermore, an E. coli MG1655-fadR strain with high saturated fatty acids content was constructed, in which the INP activity was enhanced by about 17% compared with its activity in the wild-type MG1655 strain.

  12. Using 80% trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of ingrown toenails*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiros, Hugo; Matos, Diogo; Goulão, João; Serrano, Pedro; João, Alexandre; Brandão, Francisco Menezes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ingrown nails are a very common problem. There are different stages of disease and diverse therapeutic options. Phenol and sodium hydroxide are commonly used agents for chemical matricectomy but both frequently entail excessive healing times. OBJECTIVE This prospective study aimed mainly to evaluate the efficacy of partial nail avulsion and selective chemical cauterization of the matrix using 80% TCA in the treatment of the ingrowing nail. METHODS One-hundred-and-thirty-three patients with 197 ingrown toenails were included in this study. Preoperatively, we tried to find predisposing factors to the disease. In the postoperative period, patients were evaluated for potential complications at days 3, 30, 180, 270 and 360. Pain was measured before surgery, as well as 24 hours and 72 hours after surgery. RESULTS There were only 3 cases (out of 197) of ingrown nail recurrence. Preoperatively, we found the presence of drainage in 82% of patients, which, following the first visit after surgery, was reduced to 19%. Persistent granulation tissue was found in 3% of the patients (versus 75% prior to surgery). The most frequent predisposing factors for the ingrown nail were excessive trimming of the lateral nail plate (63%), plantar hyperhidrosis (58%) and heavy nail folds (39%). Pain was substantially reduced after surgery. CONCLUSION It is assumed that chemical procedures for the ingrown toenail are associated with delayed healing times but our results demonstrated quick recovery. Using 80% TCA for selective matricectomy in the ingrown toenail is an effective, quick and easy method. PMID:24474095

  13. High efficient treatment of citric acid effluent by Chlorella vulgaris and potential biomass utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Li, Yuji; Chen, Luping; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of treating citric acid effluent by green algae Chlorella was investigated. With the highest growth rate, Chlorella vulgaris C9-JN2010 that could efficiently remove nutrients in the citric acid effluent was selected for scale-up batch experiments under the optimal conditions, where its maximum biomass was 1.04 g l(-1) and removal efficiencies of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) were above 90.0%. Algal lipid and protein contents were around 340.0 and 500.0 mg · g(-1) of the harvested biomass, respectively. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the lipids and eight kinds of essential amino acids in algal protein were 74.0% and 40.0%, respectively. Three major fatty acids were hexadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosadienoic acid. This specific effluent treatment process could be proposed as a dual-beneficial approach, which converts nutrients in the high strength citric acid effluent into profitable byproducts and reduces the contaminations.

  14. Aneurysmal wall enhancement and perianeurysmal edema after endovascular treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Su, I-Chang

    2014-06-01

    Perianeurysmal edema and aneurysm wall enhancement are previously described phenomenon after coil embolization attributed to inflammatory reaction. We aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and natural course of these phenomena in unruptured aneurysms after endovascular treatment and to identify factors that contributed to their development.

  15. Using Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing To Enhance Treatment of Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protinsky, Howard; Sparks, Jennifer; Flemke, Kimberly

    2001-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as a clinical technique may enhance treatment effectiveness when applied in couple therapy that is emotionally and experientially oriented. Clinical experience indicates EMDR-based interventions are useful for accessing and reprocessing intense emotions in couple interactions. EMDR can amplify…

  16. Using Pretreatment and Posttreatment Assessments To Enhance and Evaluate Existing Treatment Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, David M.; Berg, Wendy K.; Wacker, David P.; Stephens, Tracy; Rankin, Barbara; Kilroy, Jennette

    1997-01-01

    Pretreatment assessment data were used to enhance an existing treatment package to reduce aggression and to increase the positive social interactions of a 9-year-old boy with moderate mental retardation and Hunter's syndrome. Additional reinforcements and punishment components were added and resulted in positive social interactions and suppressed…

  17. [Diagnostic approach and treatment of inherited mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Quintana, L; Sanjurjo Crespo, P

    2001-12-01

    Inherited mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders are a complex set of genetically-based diseases in which up to 22 different entities are currently recognized. Their incidence is probably underestimated because a high level of diagnostic suspicion is required for their detection. Their clinical spectrum and prognosis are variable. In recent years knowledge of these diseases and improved treatment have reduced associated mortality. A common characteristic of all these diseases is hypoketotic hypoglycemia, although this is not constant and does not appear in the short-chain disorders and, sometimes, does not even appear in the medium-chain disorders. Cardiac or skeletal myopathy combined and/or hepatic involvement at periods of metabolic decompensation are typical, since these tissues depend on fatty acid oxidation. Diagnosis has been simplified by the study of acylcarnitines in blood, even in periods of metabolic stability. Determination of acylglycines, organic acids, carnitines, free fatty acids and 3-hydroxy-fatty acids, together with enzymic and genetic studies, complete the diagnosis. In certain circumstances, a provocation test should be carried out. Treatment basically consists of avoiding fasting, restricting fatty acid uptake and increasing carbohydrate uptake, depending on the type of metabolic disorder. Pharmacological treatment may also be added (carnitine, riboflavine or carbamylglutamate).

  18. Acidic phospholipids govern the enhanced activation of IgG-B cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangjun; Pan, Weiling; Sui, Yinqiang; Li, Hua; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Qi, Hai; Xu, Chenqi; Liu, Wanli

    2015-10-06

    B cells that express the isotype-switched IgG-B cell receptor (IgG-BCR) are one of the driving forces for antibody memory. To allow for a rapid memory IgG antibody response, IgG-BCR evolved into a highly effective signalling machine. Here, we report that the positively charged cytoplasmic domain of mIgG (mIgG-tail) specifically interacts with negatively charged acidic phospholipids. The key immunoglobulin tail tyrosine (ITT) in mIgG-tail is thus sequestered in the membrane hydrophobic core in quiescent B cells. Pre-disruption of such interaction leads to excessive recruitment of BCRs and inflated BCR signalling upon antigen stimulation, resulting in hyperproliferation of primary B cells. Physiologically, membrane-sequestered mIgG-tail can be released by antigen engagement or Ca(2+) mobilization in the initiation of B cell activation. Our studies suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for how dynamic association of mIgG-tail with acidic phospholipids governs the enhanced activation of IgG-BCR.

  19. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivathsa C Venugopal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Resistance (R protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1, non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1, phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4, senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101, and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.

  20. Enhanced disease susceptibility 1 and salicylic acid act redundantly to regulate resistance gene-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Srivathsa C; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Mandal, Mihir K; Zhu, Shifeng; Chandra-Shekara, A C; Xia, Ye; Hersh, Matthew; Stromberg, Arnold J; Navarre, DuRoy; Kachroo, Aardra; Kachroo, Pradeep

    2009-07-01

    Resistance (R) protein-associated pathways are well known to participate in defense against a variety of microbial pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) and its associated proteinaceous signaling components, including enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), non-race-specific disease resistance 1 (NDR1), phytoalexin deficient 4 (PAD4), senescence associated gene 101 (SAG101), and EDS5, have been identified as components of resistance derived from many R proteins. Here, we show that EDS1 and SA fulfill redundant functions in defense signaling mediated by R proteins, which were thought to function independent of EDS1 and/or SA. Simultaneous mutations in EDS1 and the SA-synthesizing enzyme SID2 compromised hypersensitive response and/or resistance mediated by R proteins that contain coiled coil domains at their N-terminal ends. Furthermore, the expression of R genes and the associated defense signaling induced in response to a reduction in the level of oleic acid were also suppressed by compromising SA biosynthesis in the eds1 mutant background. The functional redundancy with SA was specific to EDS1. Results presented here redefine our understanding of the roles of EDS1 and SA in plant defense.

  1. Expression of rapeseed microsomal lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase isozymes enhances seed oil content in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, Sylvie; Bessoule, Jean-Jacques; Lessire, René; Delseny, Michel; Roscoe, Thomas J

    2010-02-01

    In higher plants, lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), located in the cytoplasmic endomembrane compartment, plays an essential role in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids in all tissues and storage lipids in developing seeds. In order to assess the contribution of LPAATs to the synthesis of storage lipids, we have characterized two microsomal LPAAT isozymes, the products of homoeologous genes that are expressed in rapeseed (Brassica napus). DNA sequence homologies, complementation of a bacterial LPAAT-deficient mutant, and enzymatic properties confirmed that each of two cDNAs isolated from a Brassica napus immature embryo library encoded a functional LPAAT possessing the properties of a eukaryotic pathway enzyme. Analyses in planta revealed differences in the expression of the two genes, one of which was detected in all rapeseed tissues and during silique and seed development, whereas the expression of the second gene was restricted predominantly to siliques and developing seeds. Expression of each rapeseed LPAAT isozyme in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) resulted in the production of seeds characterized by a greater lipid content and seed mass. These results support the hypothesis that increasing the expression of glycerolipid acyltransferases in seeds leads to a greater flux of intermediates through the Kennedy pathway and results in enhanced triacylglycerol accumulation.

  2. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 enhances innate immunity during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Barry

    Full Text Available Once acquired, Helicobacter pylori infection is lifelong due to an inadequate innate and adaptive immune response. Our previous studies indicate that interactions among the various pathways of arginine metabolism in the host are critical determinants of outcomes following infection. Cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2 is essential for transport of L-arginine (L-Arg into monocytic immune cells during H. pylori infection. Once within the cell, this amino acid is utilized by opposing pathways that lead to elaboration of either bactericidal nitric oxide (NO produced from inducible NO synthase (iNOS, or hydrogen peroxide, which causes macrophage apoptosis, via arginase and the polyamine pathway. Because of its central role in controlling L-Arg availability in macrophages, we investigated the importance of CAT2 in vivo during H. pylori infection. CAT2(-/- mice infected for 4 months exhibited decreased gastritis and increased levels of colonization compared to wild type mice. We observed suppression of gastric macrophage levels, macrophage expression of iNOS, dendritic cell activation, and expression of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in CAT2(-/- mice suggesting that CAT2 is involved in enhancing the innate immune response. In addition, cytokine expression in CAT2(-/- mice was altered from an antimicrobial Th1 response to a Th2 response, indicating that the transporter has downstream effects on adaptive immunity as well. These findings demonstrate that CAT2 is an important regulator of the immune response during H. pylori infection.

  3. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of kenaf core using irradiation and dilute acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoung-Min; Jeun, Joon-Pyo; Kang, Phil-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of electron beam dose and enzymatic hydrolysis time for production of sugar such as glucose and xylose. After kenaf core was exposed to an irradiation dose that ranged from 0 to 500 kGy, the irradiated kenaf core was treated with a 3% (v/v) sulfuric acid solution using an autoclave for 5 h at 120 °C. The pretreated kenaf core was subsequently subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis at 50 °C in a shaking water bath at 150 rpm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. The determined enzyme activity rates were 70 FPU (Celluclast 1.5 L) and 40 CBU (Novozyme-188). The crystallinity index decreased from 50.6% in a non-pretreated kenaf core to 27.7% in kenaf core that was subjected to the two-stage pretreatment at dose of 500 kGy. The sugar yield of the two-stage pretreated kenaf core increased with an increase in irradiation dose. The sugar yield after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis was 73.6% at its highest with an irradiation dose of 500 kGy. The enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis by two-stage pretreatment was more effective than non- and single pretreatment (36.9%, 40.6% and 44.0% in non-pretreatment, electron beam and dilute acid, respectively).

  4. Enhanced 5-aminolevulinic acid-gold nanoparticle conjugate-based photodynamic therapy using pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Yao, Cuiping; Wang, Jing; Chang, Zhennan; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2016-02-01

    The low bioavailability is a crucial limitation for the application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in theranostics. In this research, 5-aminolevulinic acid and gold nanoparticle conjugates (ALA-GNPs) were synthesized to improve the bioavailability of ALA and to investigate the impact of ALA photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in Hela cells. A 532 nm pulse laser and light-emitting diode (central wavelengths 502 nm) were jointly used as light sources in PDT research. The results show a 532 nm pulse laser can control ALA release from ALA-GNPs by adjusting the pulse laser dose. This laser control release may be attributed to the heat generation from GNPs under pulse laser irradiation, which indicates accurately adjusting the pulse laser dose to control the drug release in the cell interior can be considered as a new cellular surgery modality. Furthermore, the PDT results in Hela cells indicate the enhancement of ALA release by pulse laser before PDT can promote the efficacy of cell eradication in the light-emitting diode PDT (LED-PDT). This laser mediated drug release system can provide a new online therapy approach in PDT and it can be utilized in the optical monitor technologies based individual theranostics.

  5. Phenylboronic acid-decorated gelatin nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting and penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Bing; Cheng, Xu; Wang, Jun; Tang, Rupei

    2016-09-01

    Phenylboronic acid-decorated nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared for tumor-targeted drug delivery. 3-carboxyphenylboronic acid (3-CPBA) was modified on the surface of conventional gelatin NPs (designated as NP1) to give tumor-targeting NPs (designated as NP2). The morphology and stability of NP1 and NP2 were then investigated using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The results show that both NP1 and NP2 are spherical-like and kinetically stable under various conditions. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) was used as a model anticancer drug and was loaded into NP1 (NP1-DOX) and NP2 (NP2-DOX). The i n vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of NP1-DOX and NP2-DOX were measured using SH-SY5Y cells, H22 cells, and HepG2 cells. Tumor penetration, accumulation, and antitumor activity were investigated using SH-SY5Y tumor-like spheroids and H22 tumor-bearing mice. All results demonstrated that the conjugation of 3-CPBA can efficiently enhance non-targeted NPs’ tumor-homing activity, thus improving their tumor accumulation and antitumor effect.

  6. Citric Acid Enhanced Copper Removal by a Novel Multi-amines Decorated Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fuqiang; Pei, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wei, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanhong; Zheng, Lirong; Zhang, Jing; Li, Aimin; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-05-01

    Cu removal by a novel multi-amines decorated resin (PAMD) from wastewater in the absence or presence of citric acid (CA) was examined. Adsorption capacity of Cu onto PAMD markedly increased by 186% to 5.07 mmol/g in the presence of CA, up to 7 times of that onto four commercial resins under the same conditions. Preloaded and kinetic studies demonstrated adsorption of [Cu-CA] complex instead of CA site-bridging and variations of adsorbate species were qualitatively illustrated. The interaction configuration was further studied with ESI-MS, FTIR, XPS and XANES characterizations. The large enhancement of Cu adsorption in Cu-CA bi-solutes systems was attributed to mechanism change from single-site to dual-sites interaction in which cationic or neutral Cu species (Cu2+ and CuHL0) coordinated with neutral amine sites and anionic complex species (CuL- and Cu2L22-) directly interacted with protonated amine sites via electrostatic attraction, and the ratio of the two interactions was approximately 0.5 for the equimolar bi-solutes system. Moreover, commonly coexisting ions in wastewaters had no obvious effect on the superior performance of PAMD. Also, Cu and CA could be recovered completely with HCl. Therefore, PAMD has a great potential to efficiently remove heavy metal ions from wastewaters in the presence of organic acids.

  7. Enhanced conformational sampling of nucleic acids by a new Hamiltonian replica exchange molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curuksu, Jeremy; Zacharias, Martin

    2009-03-14

    Although molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied frequently to study flexible molecules, the sampling of conformational states separated by barriers is limited due to currently possible simulation time scales. Replica-exchange (Rex)MD simulations that allow for exchanges between simulations performed at different temperatures (T-RexMD) can achieve improved conformational sampling. However, in the case of T-RexMD the computational demand grows rapidly with system size. A Hamiltonian RexMD method that specifically enhances coupled dihedral angle transitions has been developed. The method employs added biasing potentials as replica parameters that destabilize available dihedral substates and was applied to study coupled dihedral transitions in nucleic acid molecules. The biasing potentials can be either fixed at the beginning of the simulation or optimized during an equilibration phase. The method was extensively tested and compared to conventional MD simulations and T-RexMD simulations on an adenine dinucleotide system and on a DNA abasic site. The biasing potential RexMD method showed improved sampling of conformational substates compared to conventional MD simulations similar to T-RexMD simulations but at a fraction of the computational demand. It is well suited to study systematically the fine structure and dynamics of large nucleic acids under realistic conditions including explicit solvent and ions and can be easily extended to other types of molecules.

  8. Titania doped triaxial porcelain: Enhancement of strength by controlled heat treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunipa Bhattacharyya; Swapan Kumar Das; Kausik Dana; Nirendra Krishna Mitra

    2007-06-01

    Titania doped vitrified triaxial porcelain samples were subjected to controlled heat treatment at different temperatures of 600, 800 and 1000°C with a specific heating schedule. The results revealed that flexural strength of 800°C heat treated sample was significantly enhanced to 60 MPa from its original value of 40 MPa. XRD pattern revealed the formation of mullite in the system both before and after heat treatment and the differences in their growth was ascertained through SEM analysis. The present heat treatment process may be useful to produce high strength porcelain body from a common triaxial system.

  9. CT contrast enhancement following renal cryoablation – artefact or treatment failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Andersen, Gratien;

    Introduction and objective: Renal cryoablation is a valid treatment option for localized pT1a renal cancer. Treatment success is typically defined as absence of contrast enhancement (CE) and a decrease in size of the cryoablated renal mass (i.e. cryolesion) on follow-up imaging. We investigated...... the CT characteristics and treatment outcome of renal cryolesions demonstrating CE during postoperative follow-up. Material and methods: A retrospective review of Aarhus Cryoablation Register identified 113 patients with a pT1a biopsy verified malignant renal lesion who underwent primary laparoscopic...

  10. Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Bernardi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB is a short-chain fatty acid structurally similar to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid. Clinical trials have demonstrated that 50-100 mg/kg of GHB fractioned into three or six daily doses is able to suppress alcohol withdrawal symptoms and facilitates the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol. These studies have also shown that GHB craving episodes are a very limited phenomenon (about 10-15%. Thus, physicians with access should consider the clinical efficacy of GHB as a valid pharmacological tool for the treatment of alcohol addiction.

  11. Tolfenamic acid, metoclopramide, caffeine and their combinations in the treatment of migraine attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokola, R A; Kangasniemi, P; Neuvonen, P J; Tokola, O

    1984-12-01

    Tolfenamic acid is a fenamate which inhibits prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis and may act as a PG antagonist as well. Caffeine and metoclopramide are used in combination with analgesics and ergotamine in the treatment of migraine attacks, but controlled clinical studies on fixed combinations with analgesics are rare. The effects of orally given tolfenamic acid (200 mg), caffeine (100 mg), metoclopramide (10 mg), tolfenamic acid + caffeine (200 mg + 100 mg), tolfenamic acid + metoclopramide (200 mg + 10 mg) and placebo were studied in 49 migraine patients (3 men, 46 women) in a double-blind randomized cross-over study comprising 482 migraine attacks. The patients were allowed to take either one or two capsules of each preparation for an attack. Additional drugs were allowed after 3 h. Parameters characterizing the effects and side-effects of the drugs were registered. Tolfenamic acid and its combinations were found to be effective in the treatment of acute migraine, but caffeine and metoclopramide alone did not differ from placebo. Combination with metoclopramide was better than tolfenamic acid alone as judged by the smaller dose needed and the intensity of attack. Between tolfenamic acid alone and its caffeine combination there were no statistically significant differences.

  12. Enhanced transdermal delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid and a dipeptide by iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gayathri; Roberts, Michael S; Grice, Jeffrey; Anissimov, Yuri G; Benson, Heather A E

    2011-01-01

    Poor skin permeability limits the application of peptides to the skin. Enhanced skin permeation could facilitate the development of new therapies for dermatologic and cosmeceutical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate the application of iontophoresis to the delivery of small peptide model compounds (5-aminolevulinic acid and L-alanine-L-tryptophan) across human skin. Under the conditions tested, iontophoresis increased the in vitro permeability coefficient of ALA.HCl across human epidermis from 7 X 10(-5) cm/h with passive diffusion to 110 x 10(-5) cm/h with iontophoresis. D-Glucose permeation elucidated the iontophoretic electrotransport of ALA.HCl to have contributions of both electrorepulsion and electroosmosis. The L-alanine-L-tryptophan permeability coefficient was increased from 1.5 x 10(-5) cm/h to 35 x 10(-5) cm/h with iontophoretic application. Iontophoretic delivery of the dipeptide increased markedly at lower pH because of an increase in electrorepulsive transport. The study demonstrates that iontophoresis can enhance epidermal permeation of a small peptide and peptide-like drug by up to 15- and 22-fold under the conditions tested.

  13. Enhanced ozonation of dichloroacetic acid in aqueous solution using nanometer ZnO powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Zhai; Zhonglin Chen; Shuqing Zhao; He Wang; Lei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nanometer zinc oxide (ZnO) powders were used as a catalyst to enhance the ozonation for the degradation of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) in aqueous solution.The batch experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of key factors such as catalyst dosage,ozone dosage,solution pH and ten-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH) on the degradation efficiency of DCAA.Density functional theory (DFT) and ozonation processes were not effective for DCAA removal,and the addition of ZnO catalyst improved the degradation efficiency of DCAA during ozonation,which caused an increase of 22.8% for DCAA decomposition compared to the case of ozonation alone after 25 min.Under the same experimental conditions,the DCAA decomposition was enhanced by increasing catalyst dosage from 100 to 500 mg/L and ozone dosage from 0.83 to 3.2 mg/L,The catalytic ozonation process is more pronounced than the ozonation process alone at pH 3.93,6.88,and 10.With increasing the concentration of t-BuOH from 10 to 200 mg/L,the degradation of DCAA was significantly molecule ozone followed by the interaction of adsorbed ozone with active sites of the catalyst surface.It is also concluded that ZnO of ozone.

  14. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction.

  15. Enhancement of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin antimicrobial activities by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branen, Jill K; Davidson, P Michael

    2004-01-01

    A microtiter plate assay was employed to systematically assess the interaction between ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or lactoferrin and nisin, lysozyme, or monolaurin against strains of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Low levels of EDTA acted synergistically with nisin and lysozyme against L. monocytogenes but EDTA and monolaurin interacted additively against this microorganism. EDTA synergistically enhanced the activity of nisin, monolaurin, and lysozyme in tryptic soy broth (TSB) against two enterohemorrhagic E. coli strains. In addition, various combinations of nisin, lysozyme, and monolaurin with EDTA were bactericidal to some gram-negative bacteria whereas none of the antimicrobials alone were bactericidal. Lactoferrin alone (2000 microg ml(-1)) did not inhibit any of the bacterial strains, but did enhance nisin activity against both L. monocytogenes strains. Lactoferrin in combination with monolaurin inhibited growth of E. coli O157:H7 but not E. coli O104:H21. While lactoferrin combined with nisin or monolaurin did not completely inhibit growth of the gram-negative bacteria, there was some growth inhibition. All combinations of EDTA or lactoferrin with antimicrobials were less effective in 2% fat UHT milk than in TSB. S. enteritidis and P. fluorescens strains were consistently more resistant to antimicrobial combinations. Resistance may be due to differences in the outer membrane and/or LPS structure.

  16. Free nitrous acid (FNA)-based pretreatment enhances methane production from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Jiang, Guangming; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is currently enjoying renewed interest due to the potential for methane production. However, methane production is often limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor methane potential of WAS. This study presents a novel pretreatment strategy based on free nitrous acid (FNA or HNO2) to enhance methane production from WAS. Pretreatment of WAS for 24 h at FNA concentrations up to 2.13 mg N/L substantially enhanced WAS solubilization, with the highest solubilization (0.16 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/mg volatile solids (VS), at 2.13 mg HNO2-N/L) being six times that without FNA pretreatment (0.025 mg COD/mg VS, at 0 mg HNO2-N/L). Biochemical methane potential tests demonstrated methane production increased with increased FNA concentration used in the pretreatment step. Model-based analysis indicated FNA pretreatment improved both hydrolysis rate and methane potential, with the highest improvement being approximately 50% (from 0.16 to 0.25 d(-1)) and 27% (from 201 to 255 L CH4/kg VS added), respectively, achieved at 1.78-2.13 mg HNO2-N/L. Further analysis indicated that increased hydrolysis rate and methane potential were related to an increase in rapidly biodegradable substrates, which increased with increased FNA dose, while the slowly biodegradable substrates remained relatively static.

  17. Selection of enhanced antimicrobial activity posing lactic acid bacteria characterised by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šalomskienė, Joana; Abraitienė, Asta; Jonkuvienė, Dovilė; Mačionienė, Irena; Repečkienė, Jūratė

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was a detail evaluation of genetic diversity among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains having an advantage of a starter culture in order to select genotypically diverse strains with enhanced antimicrobial effect on some harmfull and pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity of LAB was performed by the agar well diffusion method and was examined against the reference strains and foodborne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium. Antifungal activity was tested against the foodborne isolates of Candida parapsilosis, Debaromyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia guilliermondii, Yarowia lipolytica, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium chrysogenum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. A total 40 LAB strains representing Lactobacillus (23 strains), Lactococcus (13 strains) and Streptococcus spp. (4 strains) were characterised by repetitive sequence based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting which generated highly discriminatory profiles, confirmed the identity and revealed high genotypic heterogeneity among the strains. Many of tested LAB demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity specialised against one or few indicator strains. Twelve LAB strains were superior in suppressing growth of the whole complex of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. These results demonstrated that separate taxonomic units offered different possibilities of selection for novel LAB strains could be used as starter cultures enhancing food preservation.

  18. Reduction of endogenous kynurenic acid formation enhances extracellular glutamate, hippocampal plasticity, and cognitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michelle C; Elmer, Greg I; Bergeron, Richard; Albuquerque, Edson X; Guidetti, Paolo; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Schwarcz, Robert

    2010-07-01

    At endogenous brain concentrations, the astrocyte-derived metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA) antagonizes the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and, possibly, the glycine co-agonist site of the NMDA receptor. The functions of these two receptors, which are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive processes, may, therefore, be enhanced by reductions in brain KYNA levels. This concept was tested in mice with a targeted deletion of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), a major biosynthetic enzyme of brain KYNA. At 21 days of age, KAT II knock-out mice had reduced hippocampal KYNA levels (-71%) and showed significantly increased performance in three cognitive paradigms that rely in part on the integrity of hippocampal function, namely object exploration and recognition, passive avoidance, and spatial discrimination. Moreover, compared with wild-type controls, hippocampal slices from KAT II-deficient mice showed a significant increase in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in vitro. These functional changes were accompanied by reduced extracellular KYNA (-66%) and increased extracellular glutamate (+51%) concentrations, measured by hippocampal microdialysis in vivo. Taken together, a picture emerges in which a reduction in the astrocytic formation of KYNA increases glutamatergic tone in the hippocampus and enhances cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity. Our studies raise the prospect that interventions aimed specifically at reducing KYNA formation in the brain may constitute a promising molecular strategy for cognitive improvement in health and disease.

  19. Fatty-acid binding proteins modulate sleep and enhance long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R Gerstner

    Full Text Available Sleep is thought to be important for memory consolidation, since sleep deprivation has been shown to interfere with memory processing. However, the effects of augmenting sleep on memory formation are not well known, and testing the role of sleep in memory enhancement has been limited to pharmacological and behavioral approaches. Here we test the effect of overexpressing the brain-type fatty acid binding protein (Fabp7 on sleep and long-term memory (LTM formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Transgenic flies carrying the murine Fabp7 or the Drosophila homologue dFabp had reduced baseline sleep but normal LTM, while Fabp induction produced increases in both net sleep and LTM. We also define a post-training consolidation "window" that is sufficient for the observed Fabp-mediated memory enhancement. Since Fabp overexpression increases consolidated daytime sleep bouts, these data support a role for longer naps in improving memory and provide a novel role for lipid-binding proteins in regulating memory consolidation concurrently with changes in behavioral state.

  20. Hypoxia enhances the antiglioma cytotoxicity of B10, a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fischer

    Full Text Available B10 is a glycosylated derivative of betulinic acid with promising activity against glioma cells. Lysosomal cell death pathways appear to be essential for its cytotoxicity. We investigated the influence of hypoxia, nutrient deprivation and current standard therapies on B10 cytotoxicity. The human glioma cell lines LN-308 and LNT-229 were exposed to B10 alone or together with irradiation, temozolomide, nutrient deprivation or hypoxia. Cell growth and viability were evaluated by crystal violet staining, clonogenicity assays, propidium iodide uptake and LDH release assays. Cell death was examined using an inhibitor of lysosomal acidification (bafilomycin A1, a cathepsin inhibitor (CA074-Me and a short-hairpin RNA targeting cathepsin B. Hypoxia substantially enhanced B10-induced cell death. This effect was sensitive to bafilomycin A1 and thus dependent on hypoxia-induced lysosomal acidification. Cathepsin B appeared to mediate cell death because either the inhibitor CA074-Me or cathepsin B gene silencing rescued glioma cells from B10 toxicity under hypoxia. B10 is a novel antitumor agent with substantially enhanced cytotoxicity under hypoxia conferred by increased lysosomal cell death pathway activation. Given the importance of hypoxia for therapy resistance, malignant progression, and as a result of antiangiogenic therapies, B10 might be a promising strategy for hypoxic tumors like malignant glioma.

  1. Synergistic interactions between grafted hyaluronic acid and lubricin provide enhanced wear protection and lubrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Banquy, Xavier; Zappone, Bruno; Greene, George W; Jay, Gregory D; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2013-05-13

    Normal (e.g., adhesion) and lateral (friction) forces were measured between physisorbed and chemically grafted layers of hyaluronic acid (HA), an anionic polyelectrolyte in the presence of lubricin (Lub), a mucinous glycoprotein, on mica surfaces using a surface forces apparatus (SFA). This work demonstrates that high friction coefficients between the surfaces do not necessarily correlate with surface damage and that chemically grafted HA acts synergistically with Lub to provide friction reduction and enhanced wear protection to the surfaces. Surface immobilization of HA by grafting is necessary for such wear protection. Increasing the concentration of Lub enhances the threshold load that a chemically grafted HA surface can be subjected to before the onset of wear. Addition of Lub does not have any beneficial effect if HA is physisorbed to the mica surfaces. Damage occurs at loads less than 1 mN regardless of the amount of Lub, indicating that the molecules in the bulk play little or no role in protecting the surfaces from damage. Lub penetrates into the chemically bound HA to form a visco-elastic gel that reduces the coefficient of friction as well as boosts the strength of the surface against abrasive wear (damage).

  2. Endohyphal bacterium enhances production of indole-3-acetic acid by a foliar fungal endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michele T; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions.

  3. Bacterial inoculants of forage grasses that enhance degradation of 2-chlorobenzoic acid in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, S.D.; Germida, J.J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    1997-06-01

    Biological remediation of contaminated soil is an effective method of reducing risk to human and ecosystem health. Bacteria and plants might be used to enhance remediation of soil pollutants in situ. This study assessed the potential of bacteria, plants, and plant-bacteria associations to remediate 2-chlorobenzoic acid (2CBA) contaminated soil. Initially, grass viability was assessed in 2CBA-contaminated soil. Soil was contaminated with 2CBA, forage grasses were grown under growth chamber conditions for 42 or 60 d, and the 2CBA concentration in soil was determined by gas chromatography. Only five of 16 forage grasses grew in 2CBA-treated soil. Growth of Bromus inermis had no effect on 2CBA concentration, whereas Agropyron intermedium, B. biebersteinii, A. riparum, and Elymus dauricus decreased 2CBA relative to nonplanted control soil by 32 to 42%. The 12 bacteria isolates were screened for their ability to promote the germination of the five grasses in 2CBA-contaminated soil. Inoculation of A. riparum with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain R75, a proven plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, increased seed germination by 80% and disappearance of 2CBA by 20% relative to noninoculated plants. Inoculation of E. dauricus with a mixture of P. savastanoi strain CB35, a 2CBA-degrading bacterium, and P. aeruginosa strain R75 increased disappearance of 2CBA by 112% relative to noninoculated plants. No clear relationship between enhanced 2CBA disappearance and increased plant biomass was found. These results suggest that specific plant-microbial systems can be developed to enhance remediation of pollutants in soil.

  4. Spray-On Polyaniline/Poly(acrylic acid) Electrodes with Enhanced Electrochemical Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Won; Kwon, Se Ra; Li, Fei; Lutkenhaus, Jodie L

    2015-11-04

    Polyaniline (PANI)-based electrodes are promising candidates for energy storage, but their cycle life remains poor. Recent work suggests that secondary interactions may enhance polyaniline's electrochemical stability and cycle life, but evidence to date is not conclusive. Here, we investigate spray-assisted layer-by-layer assemblies containing polyaniline nanofibers (PANI NFs) or conventional PANI and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), which provides hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions. This spray-on approach may be suitable for the deposition of PANI onto a variety of surfaces. The effects of PANI type, PAA pH, and PAA molecular weight on the growth behavior, conductivity, and electrochemical performance are examined. It is shown that LbL films with PANI NFs, higher molecular weight PAA, and lower PAA pH yield the thickest films, whereas the thinnest films come from conventional PANI assembled under similar conditions. Electron microscopy imaging and density measurements show that LbL films containing PANI NFs are very porous, whereas those containing conventional PANI are very dense (0.28 vs 1.33 g/cm(3), respectively). The difference in density dramatically affects the electrochemical properties in terms of capacity and long-term cycling behavior. Upon extended cycling, PANI NFs alone rapidly lose their electrochemical activity. On the other hand, PANI NF-based LbL films exhibited somewhat enhanced stability, and PANI-based LbL films were exceptionally stable, maintaining 94.7% of their capacity after 1000 cycles when cycled up to 4.2 V vs Li/Li(+). These results show that secondary interactions from PAA enhance stability, as does the selection of PANI type and the electrode's density.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieswerda Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determine whether omega-3 PUFA are likely to be efficacious in these disorders. Results Most trials involved a small number of participants but were largely well designed. Omega-3 PUFA were well tolerated by both children and adults with mild gastrointestinal effects being the only consistently reported adverse event. For schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder we found little evidence of a robust clinically relevant effect. In the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and related disorders, most trials showed at most small benefits over placebo. A limited meta-analysis of these trials suggested that benefits of omega-3 PUFA supplementation may be greater in a classroom setting than at home. Some evidence indicates that omega-3 PUFA may reduce symptoms of anxiety although the data is preliminary and inconclusive. The most convincing evidence for beneficial effects of omega-3 PUFA is to be found in mood disorders. A meta-analysis of trials involving patients with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder provided evidence that omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduces symptoms of depression. Furthermore, meta-regression analysis suggests that supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid may be more beneficial in mood disorders than with docosahexaenoic acid, although several confounding factors prevented a definitive conclusion being made regarding which species of omega-3 PUFA is most beneficial. The mechanisms underlying the apparent efficacy of

  6. Half-dose gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging in patients at risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyoung Doo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: kshyun@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jisun; Kang, Kyung A. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joungyoun; Yoo, Heejin [Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-Ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •Half dose of gadoxetic acid achieved more than 75% enhancement degree of a standard dose. •No significant difference was observed in enhancement quality between half-dose and standard-dose MRIs for all upper abdominal organs. •Liver MRI using half-dose gadoxetic acid at 3-T can be a feasible alternative for standard-dose MRI in patients at risk for NSF. -- Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of half-dose gadoxetic acid (0.0125 mmol/kg) for liver MRI at 3-T compared to standard-dose (0.025 mmol/kg) in patients at risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and methods: Forty patients who underwent both half-dose and standard-dose gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRIs were included. Contrast enhancement index (CEI) was calculated for liver, aorta, pancreas and kidney. Two observers independently rated and performed a one-to-one direct comparison of enhancement quality for both groups. Results: Liver CEIs were not significantly different on arterial phase between the two groups but CEIs of standard-dose MRIs were greater than half-dose MRIs on other phases (P < 0.001). CEIs were not significantly different on arterial phase for the aorta or on any phases for the pancreas. Kidney CEIs of standard-dose MRIs were greater than half-dose MRIs on all phases (P < 0.05). Enhancement quality of both groups was diagnostic and did not significantly differ for any organs. In one-to-one direct comparisons of enhancement quality, equal ratings were given in 87.5% (35/40) of cases by observer 1 and 85.0% (34/40) by observer 2. Conclusion: Liver MRI using half-dose gadoxetic acid at 3-T can be a feasible alternative for standard-dose MRI in patients at risk for NSF.

  7. Enhanced photocatalytic–biological degradation of 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Samir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D is the third most commonly used herbicide all over the world. There is a contradicted opinion about its toxicity and its half life in the environment. In this study the most effective method of its degradation and bioremediation has been studied. Two microbial consortia capable of utilizing 2,4-D as a sole source of carbon were isolated from the Egyptian environment. One of the microbial consortia interestingly contained a certain kind of protozoa as one of the mixed consortia members. Degradation of 2,4-D by the microbial consortia was affected by 2,4-D initial concentration, agitation, pH of the medium and temperature. The two consortia were able to degrade up to 700 mg l−1 of 2,4-D. Pre-treatment with UV radiations in the presence of photocatalyst such as TiO2 accelerates the biodegradation process. The toxic non biodegradable concentration of 2,4-D which was found to be the 800 mg l−1, was degraded by pre-treatment with UV/TiO2 and a subsequent microbial inoculation. The combined treatment proved to be an efficient mean of biodegradation and detoxification of toxic non biodegradable concentrations of 2,4-D.

  8. Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Yasser S.; Alamri, Saad A.

    2012-01-01

    Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appear...

  9. The importance of need for cognition and educational experience in enhanced and standard substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuchry, Michael; Dansereau, Donald F

    2004-06-01

    The current study examined the relationship between need for cognition (i.e., cognitive motivation or "will") and educational experience (i.e., cognitive ability or "skill") to perceived improvements during treatment of probationers receiving residential treatment within the criminal justice system. Probationers were randomly assigned to either receive motivational activities developed by the authors (the "enhanced" condition), or treatment as usual (but with access to general reading materials in lieu of the motivational activities). Need for cognition and educational experience were assessed and used as blocking variables, and ratings of progress were assessed midway and toward the end of treatment. The results indicate that both need for cognition and educational experience are important predictors of improvement during treatment, and that the motivational activities developed by the authors were particularly valuable for clients with lower levels of need for cognition.

  10. Assessing Tumor Response to Treatment in Patients with Lung Cancer Using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauch, Louise S; Eriksen, Rie Ø; Sandgaard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    after treatment. Four out of five studies that measured blood flow post anti-angiogenic treatments found that blood flow was significantly decreased. DCE-CT may be a useful tool in assessing treatment response in patients with lung cancer. It seems that particularly permeability and blood flow......The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature available on dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) as a tool to evaluate treatment response in patients with lung cancer. This systematic review was compiled according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic...... Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Only original research articles concerning treatment response in patients with lung cancer assessed with DCE-CT were included. To assess the validity of each study we implemented Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2). The initial search...

  11. Study of metabolic profile of Rhizopus oryzae to enhance fumaric acid production under low pH condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Qing; Lv, Chunwei; Yan, Caixia; Li, Shuang; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    Ensuring a suitable pH is a major problem in industrial organic acid fermentation. To circumvent this problem, we used a metabolic profiling approach to analyze metabolite changes in Rhizopus oryzae under different pH conditions. A correlation between fumaric acid production and intracellular metabolic characteristics of R. oryzae was revealed by principal component analysis. The results showed that to help cell survival in the presence of low pH, R. oryzae altered amino acid and fatty acid metabolism and promoted sugar or sugar alcohol synthesis, corresponding with a suppressing of energy metabolism, phenylalanine, and tyrosine synthesis and finally resulting in the low performance of fumaric acid production. Based on this observation, 1 % linoleic acid was added to the culture medium in pH 3.0 to decrease the carbon demand for cell survival, and the fumaric acid titer was enhanced by 39.7 % compared with the control (pH 3.0 without linoleic acid addition), reaching 18.3 g/L after 84 h of fermentation. These findings provide new insights into the mechanism by which R. oryzae responds to acidic stress and would be helpful for the development of efficient strategies for fumaric acid production at low pH.

  12. Pulsed electric field treatment enhanced stilbene content in Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache grape varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alfaro, Isabel; González-Arenzana, Lucía; López, Noelia; Santamaría, Pilar; López, Rosa; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on the stilbene content of three grape varieties. For this purpose, four different PEF treatments were applied using a continuous system over three varieties, Graciano, Tempranillo and Grenache, destemmed and crushed. In addition, the influence of PEF on their physicochemical composition was studied. PEF treatments did not affect the pH or total acidity of Graciano, however, musts from Tempranillo and Grenache had higher pH values and lower total acidity. In the three varieties, all treatments resulted in an increase of potassium content, deeper colour intensity and total polyphenol index and lower tonality, more pronounced in the treatments with higher time and energy. The stilbene content of the must significantly increased with respect to the control. This increase depended on the variety and the treatment applied. Tempranillo increased up 200% the total stilbene concentration, Grenache 60% and Graciano 50%. For the three varieties, the treatment with the highest time and energy was the most effective on the total stilbene extraction. These results indicate that PEF could be a suitable technology for obtaining musts with deeper colour and higher phenolic content, including resveratrol and piceid.

  13. SU-E-T-56: Brain Metastasis Treatment Plans for Contrast-Enhanced Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeid, L; Adam, J [Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Tessier, A [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone-Alpes (France); Vautrin, M; Benkebil, M [DOSIsoft, Cachan, Ile de France (France); Sihanath, R [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, La Tronche, Rhone- Alpes (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Iodine-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment combining the selective accumulation of an iodinated contrast agent in brain tumors with irradiations using monochromatic medium energy x-rays. The aim of this study is to compare dynamic stereotactic arc-therapy and iodineenhanced SSRT. Methods: Five patients bearing brain metastasis received a standard helical 3D-scan without iodine. A second scan was acquired 13 min after an 80 g iodine infusion. Two SSRT treatment plans (with/without iodine) were performed for each patient using a dedicated Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning system (TPS) based on the ISOgray TPS. Ten coplanar beams (6×6 cm2, shaped with collimator) were simulated. MC statistical error objective was less than 5% in the 50% isodose. The dynamic arc-therapy plan was achieved on the Iplan Brainlab TPS. The treatment plan validation criteria were fixed such that 100% of the prescribed dose is delivered at the beam isocentre and the 70% isodose contains the whole target volume. The comparison elements were the 70% isodose volume, the average and maximum doses delivered to organs at risk (OAR): brainstem, optical nerves, chiasma, eyes, skull bone and healthy brain parenchyma. Results: The stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy remains the best technique in terms of dose conformation. Iodine-enhanced SSRT presents similar performances to dynamic arc-therapy with increased brainstem and brain parenchyma sparing. One disadvantage of SSRT is the high dose to the skull bone. Iodine accumulation in metastasis may increase the dose by 20–30%, allowing a normal tissue sparing effect at constant prescribed dose. Treatment without any iodine enhancement (medium-energy stereotactic radiotherapy) is not relevant with degraded HDVs (brain, parenchyma and skull bone) comparing to stereotactic dynamic arc-therapy. Conclusion: Iodine-enhanced SSRT exhibits a good potential for brain metastasis treatment regarding the dose distribution and OAR criteria.

  14. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  15. The effects of different thermal treatments and organic acid levels on nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi Boroojeni, F; Mader, A; Knorr, F; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Hafeez, A; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2014-05-01

    Poultry feed is a potential vector for pathogens. Heat processing and organic acid treatments may decontaminate feed and can affect bird performance as well as feed digestibility. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of different thermal treatments including pelleting (P), long-term conditioning at 85°C for 3 min (L), or expanding at 110°C (E110) and 130°C for 3 to 5 s (E130) without or with 0.75 and 1.5% organic acid supplementation (63.75% formic acid, 25.00% propionic acid, and 11.25% water) on performance, nutrient digestibility, and organ weights of broilers. In total, 960 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicates using a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. Performance variables were determined, and the relative organ weights and ileal and total amino acid (AA) digestibilities were measured at d 35. The organic acid inclusion linearly improved feed efficiency in the first week (P ≤ 0.05). The acid inclusion levels and thermal treatments had no significant effect on the performance variables at later intervals of the growing period of the birds. The L group showed the lowest ileal AA and CP digestibility. The inclusion of organic acids had a quadratic effect on total and ileal digestibility of isoleucine (P ≤ 0.05), whereas it had no significant effect on the ileal digestibility of other AA and nutrients. The relative weights of the jejunum and small intestine were significantly higher in the E130 group compared with P and L (P ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that long-term heat conditioning can decrease ileal nutrient digestibility, whereas pelleting and expansion, independently of organic acid addition, seemed to have no negative impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibilities. Moreover, adding a blend of organic acids to broiler diets had neither positive nor negative effects on nutrient digestibility and final broiler performance. This indicates the feasibility of short-term thermal

  16. The impact of chronic imipramine treatment on amino acid concentrations in the hippocampus of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between antidepressants and monoamine concentrations in the brain has been well investigated, but few studies have investigated the relationship between antidepressants and amino acid concentrations in the brain. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of the chronic antidepressant imipramine on amino acid and monoamine concentrations in the mouse brain and plasma. Chronic imipramine treatment decreased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleaceticacid/5-hydroxytryptamine in the cerebral cortex and increased that of norepinephrine (NE) in the hippocampus. Since these changes were conspicuous effects of the antidepressant, we concluded that imipramine acts on the central nervous system. No change in amino acid concentrations in plasma was induced by chronic imipramine treatment, but several changes were confirmed in the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus and the hippocampus. Chronic imipramine treatment caused increases in L-methionine, L-tyrosine, and L-lysine in the cerebral cortex, and an increase in L-aspartate in the hypothalamus. Contrary to this, the concentrations of L-aspartate, L-serine, L-asparagine, glycine, L-glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, L-threonine, L-arginine, L-proline, L-valine, and L-methionine in the hippocampus were decreased by chronic imipramine treatment. The present results demonstrate that the metabolism of several amino acids in the brain, but not of those in plasma, was altered by chronic imipramine treatment. The findings in the present study may help to further elucidate the relationship between amino acids and the effects and side effects of antidepressants.

  17. Omacor and omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of coronary artery disease and the pleiotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease.

  18. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  19. Citric acid treatment of chronic nonhealing ulcerated tophaceous gout with bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoba, Basavaraj S; Punpale, Ajay; Poddar, Ashok; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Swami, Ganesh A; Selkar, Sohan P

    2013-12-01

    The ulceration associated with gout tophi is very difficult to treat because of impaired and halted local inflammatory response resulting from the gout treatment regimen. We report chronic nonhealing tophaceous gout with bursitis in an 80-year-old male, not responding to conventional treatment modality for months together. This nonhealing ulcer was treated successfully with local application of 3% citric acid ointment for 22 days.

  20. Modification of acidity of Mo-Fe/HZSM-5 zeolite via argon plasma treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinli ZHU; Kailu YU; Dangguo CHENG; Yueping ZHANG; Qing XIA; Changjun LIU

    2008-01-01

    The NH3-TPD characterization was conducted to confirm that the acidity of Mo-Fe/HZSM-5 zeolite could be selectively modified via the glow discharge plasma treatment. The plasma catalyst treatment could totally change the distribution of aromatic products with higher methane conversion compared to the untreated catalyst. Some polycyclic aromatics such as anthracene, pyrene and phenanthrene were also produced over the plasma treated catalyst, in addition to benzene, toluene and naphthalene, which were normally obtained over the untreated catalyst.