Sample records for acid silicates

  1. Leaf application of silicic acid to upland rice and corn

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    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Si (stabilized silicic acid, Silamol® leaf application on mineral nutrition and yield in upland rice and corn crops. The treatments were the control (without Si and Si foliar split spraying using 2 L ha-1 of the Silamol® commercial product, with 0.8% soluble Si as concentrated stabilized silicic acid. Silicon leaf application increased the concentrations of K, Ca and Si in rice and corn leaves, the number of panicles per m2 of rice and the number of grains per ear of corn; accordingly, the Si leaf application provided a higher grain yield in both crops.

  2. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction with poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) glycol; when used as an... residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol...-OPP-2011-0934, by one of the following methods. Federal eRulemaking Portal:

  3. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

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    Jurkić Lela Munjas


    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon (Si is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4, as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K, the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel, silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide, and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4 in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  4. Competitive Adsorption of Arsenite and Silicic Acid on Goethite


    Luxton, Todd Peter


    The adsorption behavior of silicic acid and arsenite alone and competitively on goethite over a broad pH range (3-11) at environmentally relevant concentrations was investigated utilizing pH adsorption data and zeta potential measurements. Both addition scenarios (Si before As(III) and As(III) before Si) were examined. The results of the adsorption experiments and zeta potential measurements were then used to model the single ion and competitive ion adsorption on goethite with the CD-MUSIC ...

  5. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst. (United States)

    Long, Yun-Duo; Guo, Feng; Fang, Zhen; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Li-Qun; Zhang, Fan


    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60°C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300°C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adsorption of Free Fatty Acid from Crude Palm Oil on Magnesium Silicate Derived from Rice Husk

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    Pornsawan Assawasaengrat


    Full Text Available Magnesium silicate with various silica and magnesium oxide ratios (SiO2/MgO ratios was used as the adsorbent for a study of adsorption of free fatty acid (FFA in crude palm oil (CPO. Magnesium silicate was prepared from magnesium nitrate or magnesium sulfate solution precipitated with a solution of sodium silicate derived from rice husk. SiO2/MgO ratios of the magnesium silicate synthesized from magnesium nitrate and magnesium sulfate were 3.93, 3.75, 2.74, 2.40, 1.99 and 3.96, 3.61, 3.51, 2.91, 2.69, respectively. FFA adsorption on the magnesium silicate was carried out by adding 1 gram of the adsorbent to 50 grams of CPO and shaking for 1 hour at 50oC. It was found that SiO2/MgO ratio of 1.99 had the highest adsorption capacities of 185 mg of FFA per gram of adsorbent. In addition, increasing of SiO2/MgO ratios of magnesium silicate was found to reduce the adsorption capacities due to decreasing of FFA chemisorption. The effect of dosage amount to equilibrium adsorption capacities were carried out by adding different amount of magnesium silicate (SiO2/MgO ratio of 1.99 to 50 grams of CPO. The result showed that efficiency decreased when dosage increased. The Fruendlich and Langmuir isotherm were applied to describe this absorption system. The values of maximum sorption capacity (Q0 and Langmuir's sorption affinity (b in the Langmuir equation obtained by linear-regression were minus values which were physically meanigless. Thus, FFA adsorption on magnesium silicate was both physisorption and chemisorption and well represented by the Fruenlich isotherm.

  7. Nano porous alkaline earth metal silicates as free fatty acid adsorbents from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) (United States)

    Masmur, Indra; Sembiring, Seri Bima; Bangun, Nimpan; Kaban, Jamaran; Putri, Nabila Karina


    Free fatty acids(FFA) from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) have been adsorbed by alkaline earth metal silicate (M-silicate : M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) adsorbents in ethanol using batch method. The adsorbents were prepared from the chloride salts of alkaline metals and Na2SiO3. The resulting white solid of the alkaline earth metal silicates were then heated at 800°C for 3 hours to enlarge their porosities. All adsorbents were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and BET. The EDX spectrum of SEM-EDX showed the appearance of all elements in the adsorbents, and the XRD spectrum of all adsorbents showed that they have crystobalite structure. The porosity of the adsorbents calculated by BET method showed that the porosities of the adsorbents range from 2.0884 - 2.0969 nm. All the adsorbents were used to adsorb the FFA from CPO containing 4.79%, 7.3%, 10.37% and 13.34% of FFA. The ratio of adsorbent to CPO to be used in adsorption of FFA from CPO were made 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, with adsorption time of 1 hour. We found that the maximum adsorption of FFA from CPO was given by Ca-Silicate adsorbent which was between 69.86 - 94.78%, while the lowest adsorption was shown by Mg-silicate adsorbent which was 49.32 -74.53%.


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    Shweta BHATT


    Full Text Available Plywood as engineered wood product is used for a number of structural and non structural application s for both interior and exterior uses. The exterior exposure creates the conditions for fungi and insects attack, which lead to the early failure of wood products. Preservative treatment is necessary for wood species to improve its resistance against biological agencies. In the present study boric acid, silicic acid and their different combinations i.e. 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 at 2, 3 and 4% concentrations were tested against wood decaying fungi (Trametes versicolor and Oligoporus placentus in Poplar plywood through soil block test as per IS:4873 (2008. Boric acid has provided the best protection to plywood specimens against the tested fungi. The most effective combination which improved the plywood resistance to fungi was boric acid and silicic acid in 3:1 ratio. While silicic acid was found to be least effective. The efficacy of tested chemicals has improved by using higher concentrations of compounds.

  9. Characterization of modified calcium-silicate cements exposed to acidic environment

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    Camilleri, Josette, E-mail:


    Portland cement which is used as a binder in concrete in the construction industry has been developed into a biomaterial. It is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate and is used in dentistry. This material has been reported to be very biocompatible and thus its use has diversified. The extended use of this material has led to developments of newer versions with improved physical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic environments found in the oral cavity on fast setting calcium silicate cements with improved physical properties using a combination of techniques. Two fast setting calcium silicate cements (CSA and CFA) and two cement composites (CSAG and CFAG) were assessed by subjecting the materials to lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer gel for a period of 28 days. At weekly intervals the materials were viewed under the tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The two prototype cements exhibited changes in their internal chemistry with no changes in surface characteristics. Since the changes observed were mostly sub-surface evaluation of surface characteristics of cement may not be sufficient in the determination of chemical changes occurring. - Research Highlights: {yields} An acidic environment affects modified fast setting calcium silicate-based cements. {yields} No surface changes are observed in acidic environment. {yields} An acidic environment causes sub-surface changes in the material chemistry which are only visible in fractured specimens. {yields} A combination of techniques is necessary in order to evaluate the chemical changes occurring.


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    Nuryono Nuryono


    Full Text Available In this research, synthesis and characterization of silica gel from sodium silicate through sol-gel process using H2SO4, HCl, and citric acid have been investigated. Synthesis was carried out by mixing and stirring  20 mL of H2SO4, HCl or citric acid  at certain concentration with 50 mL of sodium silicate solution (Na2O 0.17 M and SiO2 0.61 M for one hour and let to form gel.  The gel was washed with distillated water, and dried in an oven at 100 oC. Characterization of silica gel was carried out by determination of acidity, water adsorption capacity, and water content. Identification of functional group and structure were identified using x-ray diffractometer (XRD and infrared (IR spectrophotometer, respectively.  Results showed that at a range of investigated concentration (0.6 - 3.0 M the increase of concentration, formation of gel with H2SO4 tended to be faster, but with HCl and citric acid to be slower. The increase of acid concentration caused water content, water adsorption capacity, and acidity of the silica gel resulted with HCl and citric acid tended to be increased, increased, and increased, but with H2SO4 to be decreased, increased, and decreased, respectively. Based on the IR spectra and XRD data, it could concluded that the synthetic silica gels contained silanol (Si-OH and siloxane (Si-O-Si and were amorphous, showing similar pattern to kieselgel G 60 produced by Merck.   Keywords: silica gel, adsorption capacity, sodium silicate, acidity

  11. Effects of Calcium Lignosulfonate and Silicic Acid on Ammonium Nitrate Degradation

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    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman


    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate salts are the most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers in industry. However, storage of ammonium nitrate is problematic, since its initial properties can decline because of environmental factors, leading to large economic losses. In this study, in order to prevent the caking and degradation of ammonium nitrate, an alternative composition with additional calcium lignosulfonate and silicic acid was studied. The resulting fertilizer was analyzed by screening analysis, ion chromatography, and electron microscopy methods.

  12. Silicification process in diatom algae using different silicon chemical sources: Colloidal silicic acid interactions at cell surface. (United States)

    Casabianca, Silvia; Penna, Antonella; Capellacci, Samuela; Cangiotti, Michela; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca


    The silicon transport and use inside cells are key processes for understanding how diatoms metabolize this element in the silica biogenic cycle in the ocean. A spin-probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study over time helped to investigate the interacting properties and the internalization mechanisms of silicic acid from different silicon sources into the cells. Diatom cells were grown in media containing biogenic amorphous substrates, such as diatomaceous earth and sponge spicules, and crystalline sodium metasilicate. It was found that the amorphous biogenic silicon slowed down the internalization process probably due to formation of colloidal particles at the cell surface after silicic acid condensation. Weaker interactions occurred with sponge spicules silicon source if compared to the other sources. The EPR results were explained by analyzing transcript level changes of silicon transporters (SITs) and silaffins (SILs) in synchronized Thalassiosira pseudonana cultures over time. The results indicated that the transport role of SITs is minor for silicic acid from both biogenic and crystalline substrates, and the role of SIT3 is linked to the transport of silicon inside the cells, mainly in the presence of sponge spicules. SIL3 transcripts were expressed in the presence of all silicon sources, while SIL1 transcripts only with sponge spicules. The data suggest that the transport of silicic acid from various silicon sources in diatoms is based on different physico-chemical interactions with the cell surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Process for the conversion of sugars to lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof comprising a metallo-silicate material and a metal ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A process for the preparation of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy- 3-butenoic acid or esters thereof from a sugar in the presence of a metallo-silicate material, a metal ion and a solvent, wherein the metal ion is selected from one or more of the group consisting of potassium ions, sodium ions, lithium...... ions, rubidium ions and caesium ions....

  14. Dissolution Kinetics of Milled-Silicate Rock Fertilizers in Organic Acid

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    Joko Priyono


    Full Text Available A dissolution experiment was carried out to identify the effects of milling condition on dissolution kinetics of silicate rock fertilizers. Initially ground materials (Ø < 250 μm for basalt, dolerite, gneiss, and Ø < 150 μm for K-feldspar were further milled with a ball mill (Spex 8000 under dry and wet conditions for 10, 60, and 120 minutes. The rock powders were dissolved in a mixture of 0.01M acetic-citric acid at a rock powder/solvent ratio of 1/1000, and the solution was agitated continuously on a rotary shaker at 25o C. The concentrations of dissolved Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, and Si from the milled rocks were determined at intervals from 1 hour up to 56 days. Results indicated that the relationships of quantity of dissolved rock and elemental plant nutrients (Et with time (t were well described by a power equation: Et = Eo + atn with reaction order (n of 0.3 – 0.8. Milling increased quantity of total and individual dissolved element (Et , dissolution rate (Rt, the proportion of rapidly soluble rock or element (Eo, and dissolution constant a. The increases in dissolution due to dry milling were larger than for wet milling. Although further proves should be provided, results of this dissolution experiment clearly indicates that SRFs may be used as multinutrient fertilizers as well as remedial materials for acidic soils; and dry milling may be applied as an appropriate method for manufacturing effective SRFs.

  15. Acidic pH weakens the microhardness and microstructure of three tricalcium silicate materials. (United States)

    Wang, Z; Ma, J; Shen, Y; Haapasalo, M


    To investigate the microhardness and microstructural features of three tricalcium silicate materials: mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Endosequence Root Repair Material Putty (ERRM Putty) and Endosequence Root Repair Material Paste (ERRM Paste), after exposure to a range of acidic environments in comparison with intermediate restorative material (IRM). Endosequence Root Repair Material Putty (Brasseler, Savannah, GA, USA), ERRM Paste (Brasseler, Savannah, GA, USA), MTA (ProRoot; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Johnson City, TN, USA) and IRM (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, DE, USA) were set in cylindrical rubber moulds as four groups containing twenty specimens each. Fifteen specimens per each material were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 5) to be exposed to butyric acid buffered at three different pH levels (5.4, 6.4 and 7.4) for 7 days. The remaining five specimens were exposed to distilled water as a control group. The surface microhardness after exposure either to acid or to water was measured after 7-days at 37 °C. The morphology of the internal microstructure was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Two-way univariate analysis of variance (anova) was applied to evaluate the Vickers microhardness value (VHN). The microhardness values of the materials were significantly higher in the neutral environment of butyric acid at pH 7.4 compared to those in the acidic condition of pH 5.4 for all groups (P microhardness values than IRM at all pH levels (P microhardness values than those values obtained in the presence of butyric acid buffered to all pH levels (P microhardness values of ERRM Putty, ERRM Paste and MTA were reduced in an acidic environment, which resulted in these materials having more porous and less crystalline microstructures. MTA seems the most suitable material for application to an area of inflammation where a low pH value may exist. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Water-Dispersible Silica-Polyelectrolyte Nanocomposites Prepared via Acid-Triggered Polycondensation of Silicic Acid and Directed by Polycations

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    Philip Overton


    Full Text Available The present work describes the acid-triggered condensation of silicic acid, Si(OH4, as directed by selected polycations in aqueous solution in the pH range of 6.5–8.0 at room temperature, without the use of additional solvents or surfactants. This process results in the formation of silica-polyelectrolyte (S-PE nanocomposites in the form of precipitate or water-dispersible particles. The mean hydrodynamic diameter (dh of size distributions of the prepared water-dispersible S-PE composites is presented as a function of the solution pH at which the composite formation was achieved. Poly(2-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA and block copolymers of DMAEMA and oligo(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA were used as weak polyelectrolytes in S-PE composite formation. The activity of the strong polyelectrolytes poly(methacryloxyethyl trimethylammonium iodide (PMOTAI and PMOTAI-b-POEGMA in S-PE formation is also examined. The effect of polyelectrolyte strength and the OEGMA block on the formation of the S-PE composites is assessed with respect to the S-PE composites prepared using the PDMAEMA homopolymer. In the presence of the PDMAEMA60 homopolymer (Mw = 9400 g/mol, the size of the dispersible S-PE composites increases with solution pH in the range pH 6.6–8.1, from dh = 30 nm to dh = 800 nm. S-PDMAEMA60 prepared at pH 7.8 contained 66% silica by mass (TGA. The increase in dispersible S-PE particle size is diminished when directed by PDMAEMA300 (Mw = 47,000 g/mol, reaching a maximum of dh = 75 nm. S-PE composites formed using PDMAEMA-b-POEGMA remain in the range dh = 20–30 nm across this same pH regime. Precipitated S-PE composites were obtained as spheres of up to 200 nm in diameter (SEM and up to 65% mass content of silica (TGA. The conditions of pH for the preparation of dispersible and precipitate S-PE nanocomposites, as directed by the five selected polyelectrolytes PDMAEMA60, PDMAEMA300, PMOTAI60, PDMAEMA60-b-POEGMA38 and

  17. Inorganic polymers from laterite using activation with phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution: Mechanical and microstructural properties

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    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello [Dipartimento di Ingegneria " Enzo Ferrari" , Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19I, I-41121 Modena (Italy)


    Geopolymers from laterite, an iron-rich soil available in developing countries, have great potential as building materials. In this work, laterite from Togo (Africa) was used to prepare geopolymers using both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution. Microstructural properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and mercury porosimetry, whereas thermal properties were evaluated by thermal analyses. The local environment of iron was studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XANES region). The mechanical properties were determined. Modulus of Rupture and Young's modulus fell in the ranges 3.3–4.5 MPa and 12–33 GPa, respectively, rendering the materials good candidates for construction purposes. Heating above 900 °C results in weight-gain, presumably due to iron redox reactions. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data evidence changes in the chemical and structural environments of iron following thermal treatment of geopolymers. These changes indicate interaction between the geopolymer structure and iron during heating, possibly leading to redox properties. -- Highlights: •Geopolymerization of laterite is promising for fabrication of building materials. •Both phosphoric acid and alkaline sodium silicate solution can be used for activation. •Thermally activated redox properties of the inorganic polymers were observed.

  18. Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

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    Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich


    Full Text Available It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %, low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

  19. Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone Using Low-Loaded Supported Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Porous Silicates

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    Alfonso Yepez


    Full Text Available The microwave-assisted conversion of levulinic acid (LA has been studied using low-loaded supported Fe-based catalysts on porous silicates. A very simple, productive, and highly reproducible continuous flow method has been used for the homogeneous deposition of metal oxide nanoparticles on the silicate supports. Formic acid was used as a hydrogen donating agent for the hydrogenation of LA to effectively replace high pressure H2 mostly reported for LA conversion. Moderate LA conversion was achieved in the case of non-noble metal-based iron oxide catalysts, with a significant potential for further improvements to compete with noble metal-based catalysts.

  20. Secondary structure and dynamics study of the intrinsically disordered silica-mineralizing peptide P 5 S 3 during silicic acid condensation and silica decondensation

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    Zerfass, Christian; Buchko, Garry W.; Shaw, Wendy J.; Hobe, Stephan; Paulsen, Harold


    The silica forming repeat R5 of sil1 from Cylindrotheca fusiformis was the blueprint for the design of P5S3, a 50-residue peptide which can be produced in large amounts by recombinant bacterial expression. It contains five protein kinase A target sites and is highly cationic due to 10 lysine and 10 arginine residues. In the presence of supersaturated ortho silicic acid P5S3 strongly enhances silica-formation whereas it retards the dissolution of amorphous silica (SiO2) at globally undersaturated concentrations. The secondary structure of P5S3 during these different functions was studied by circular dichroism (CD), complemented by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the peptide in the absence of silicate. The NMR studies of dual-labeled (13C, 15N) P5S3 revealed a disordered structure at pH 2.8 and 4.5. Within the pH range of 4.5 to 9.5, the CD data verified the disordered secondary structure but also suggested the presence of some polyproline II character in the absence of silicic acid. Upon silicic acid polymerization and during dissolution of preformed silica, the CD spectrum of P5S3 indicated partial transition into an α-helical conformation which was transient during silica-dissolution. Consequently, the secondary structural changes observed for P5S3 correlate with the presence of oli-gomeric/polymeric silicic acid, presumably due to P5S3-silicic acid interactions. These interactions appear, at least in part, ionic in nature since dodecylsulfate micelles, which are negatively charged, cause similar conformational shifts to P5S3 in the absence of silica while ß-D-dodecyl maltoside micelles, which are neutral, do not. Thus, P5S3 influences both the condensation of silicic acid into silica and its decondensation back to silicic acid. Moreover, the dynamics of these pro-cesses may be indirectly monitored by following structural changes to P5S3 with CD spectroscopy.

  1. Aluminum Silicate Nanotube Modification of Cotton-Like Siloxane-poly(L-lactic acid-vaterite Composites

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    Daiheon Lee


    Full Text Available In our earlier work, a cotton-like biodegradable composite, consisting of poly(L-lactic acid with siloxane-containing vaterite, has been prepared by electrospinning. In the present work, the fibers skeleton of the cotton-like composites was modified successfully with imogolite, which is hydrophilic and biocompatible, via a dip process using ethanol diluted solution to improve the cellular initial attachment. Almost no change in the fiber morphology after the surface modification was observed. The surface-modified composite showed the similar calcium and silicate ions releasabilities, for activating the osteoblasts, as an unmodified one. Cell culture tests showed that the initial adhesion of murine osteoblast-like cells on the surface of the fibers was enhanced by surface modification.

  2. Quantitative determination of amorphous nicardipine hydrochloride in long acting formula (NIC-LA) using light anhydrous silicic acid. (United States)

    Kohinata, Takeru; Fujii, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Souichiro; Hamada, Noritaka; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide


    We investigated a method to quantitatively determine amorphous nicardipine hydrochloride (NIC) in the NIC-long acting formula (LA) model formulas prepared using NIC, light anhydrous silicic acid (LASA) and carboxymethylethylcellulose (CMEC). Consequently, since the quantity of total NIC in the formula can be determined by means of HPLC and crystal NIC can be determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method because the heat of fusion (85.08 J/g) of NIC is constant and unaffected by excipients, we developed the HPLC-DSC method by which the quantity of amorphous NIC is calculated as the difference between the quantity of total NIC determined by HPLC and the quantity of crystal NIC determined by DSC. This practical HPLC-DSC method was confirmed to have good accuracy and reproducibility.

  3. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses of silicon metabolism in Phaeodactylum tricornutum reveal the multilevel regulation of silicic acid transporters.

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    Guillaume Sapriel


    Full Text Available Diatoms are largely responsible for production of biogenic silica in the global ocean. However, in surface seawater, Si(OH(4 can be a major limiting factor for diatom productivity. Analyzing at the global scale the genes networks involved in Si transport and metabolism is critical in order to elucidate Si biomineralization, and to understand diatoms contribution to biogeochemical cycles.Using whole genome expression analyses we evaluated the transcriptional response to Si availability for the model species Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Among the differentially regulated genes we found genes involved in glutamine-nitrogen pathways, encoding putative extracellular matrix components, or involved in iron regulation. Some of these compounds may be good candidates for intracellular intermediates involved in silicic acid storage and/or intracellular transport, which are very important processes that remain mysterious in diatoms. Expression analyses and localization studies gave the first picture of the spatial distribution of a silicic acid transporter in a diatom model species, and support the existence of transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations.Our global analyses revealed that about one fourth of the differentially expressed genes are organized in clusters, underlying a possible evolution of P. tricornutum genome, and perhaps other pennate diatoms, toward a better optimization of its response to variable environmental stimuli. High fitness and adaptation of diatoms to various Si levels in marine environments might arise in part by global regulations from gene (expression level to genomic (organization in clusters, dosage compensation by gene duplication, and by post-transcriptional regulation and spatial distribution of SIT proteins.

  4. The role of boric acid in the synthesis of Eni Carbon Silicates. (United States)

    Zanardi, Stefano; Bellussi, Giuseppe; Parker, Wallace O'Neil; Montanari, Erica; Bellettato, Michela; Cruciani, Giuseppe; Carati, Angela; Guidetti, Stefania; Rizzo, Caterina; Millini, Roberto


    The influence of H3BO3 on the crystallization of hybrid organic-inorganic aluminosilicates denoted as Eni Carbon Silicates (ECS's) was investigated. Syntheses were carried out at 100 °C under different experimental conditions, using bridged silsesquioxanes of general formula (EtO)3Si-R-Si(OEt)3 (R = -C6H4- (BTEB), -C10H6- (BTEN) and -C6H4-C6H4- (BTEBP)), in the presence of equimolar concentrations of NaAlO2 and H3BO3. The study, involving the synthesis of three different but structurally related phases (ECS-14 from BTEB, ECS-13 here described for the first time from BTEN, and ECS-5 from BTEBP), confirmed a catalytic role for H3BO3 which in general increased the crystallization rate and improved the product quality in terms of amount of crystallized phase (crystallinity), size of the crystallites and phase purity, while it was weakly incorporated in trace amounts in the framework of ECS's.

  5. Influence of Bath Composition at Acidic pH on Electrodeposition of Nickel-Layered Silicate Nanocomposites for Corrosion Protection

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    Jeerapan Tientong


    Full Text Available Nickel-layered silicates were electrochemically deposited from acidic bath solutions. Citrate was used as a ligand to stabilize nickel (II ions in the plating solution. The silicate, montmorillonite, was exfoliated by stirring in aqueous solution over 24 hours. The plating solutions were analyzed for zeta-potential, particle size, viscosity, and conductivity to investigate the effects of the composition at various pHs. The solution particles at pH 2.5 (−22.2 mV and pH 3.0 (−21.9 mV were more stable than at pH 1.6 (−10.1 mV as shown by zeta-potential analysis of the nickel-citrate-montmorillonite plating solution. Ecorr for the films ranged from −0.32 to −0.39 V with varying pH from 1.6 to 3.0. The films were immersed in 3.5% NaCl and the open circuit potential monitored for one month. The coatings deposited at pH 3.0 were stable 13 days longer in the salt solution than the other coatings. X-ray diffraction showed a change in the (111/(200 ratio for the coatings at the various pHs. The scanning electron microscopy and hardness results also support that the electrodeposition of nickel-montmorillonite at pH 3.0 (234 GPa had improved hardness and morphology compared to pH 2.5 (174 GPa and pH 1.6 (147 GPa.

  6. Silica nanoparticles as sources of silicic acid favoring wound healing in vitro


    Quignard, Sandrine; Coradin, Thibaud; Powell, Jonathan J.; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin


    International audience; There is good evidence that certain silicon-containing materials promote would healing and their common feature is the delivery of orthosilicic acid (Si(OH)4) either directly or following metabolism. In this respect, amorphous silica nanoparticles (NP), which dissolve in aqueous environments releasing up to 2 mM orthosilicic acid, may be appropriate ‘slow release’ vehicles for bioactive silicon. Here we studied the impact of silica NP suspensions (primary particles ∼ 1...

  7. Consumption of silicic acid below the euphotic zone by sedimenting diatom blooms in the Barents Sea


    Rey, Francisco; Skjoldal, Hein Rune


    Massive sedimentation of spring phytoplankton blooms occurs in the Barents Sea as in many other shelf sea environments. Associated with this sedimentation there is a large decrease in concentration of dissolved shcic acid below the nitracline. This decrease is apparently related to resting spore formation of the dominant &atom species Chaetoceros socids. The deep shcic acid consumption seems to be a regular and extensive phenomenon which results in a vertical separ...

  8. The relationship between silicon isotope fractionation in sponges and silicic acid concentration: Modern and core-top studies of biogenic opal (United States)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Robinson, Laura F.


    Recent work has shown the silicon isotope composition, denoted by δ30Si, of deep-sea sponges reflects the concentration of ambient silicic acid (Si(OH)4) in seawater. However, existing calibrations are based predominantly on living sponges collected from the Southern Ocean. These data cannot, however, be used to determine whether other parameters that correlate with silicic acid in the Southern Ocean, such as temperature and salinity, influence δ30Si of sponges. Furthermore, the published data do not demonstrate whether disaggregated core-top sedimentary spicules preserve the primary δ30Si signal recorded in living sponges. Here, we address both of these issues. We refine and widen the existing calibration by including a global distribution of modern sponges. In addition, we provide the first systematic calibration from spicules picked from core-top sediments that covers sites from different ocean basins. The relationship between Si(OH)4 and δ30Si in sponge spicules is the same in different ocean basins, between specimens that grew in different temperature and salinity conditions. Our core-top data agree well with the modern sponge calibration indicating there are no significant post-depositional effects or early diagenetic overprints. These two new datasets support the assertion that sponge δ30Si can be used as a proxy for silicic acid concentrations in the past.

  9. On the distribution of silicic acid as a frontal zone tracer in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prego


    Full Text Available The subantarctic frontal zone surveyed during the April-May 1991 SUZIL cruise in the Crozet-Kerguelen-Amsterdam area shows a strong horizontal (north to south gradient of dissolved silicate, increasing with depth, from 5 to 10 µmolSi kg-1 at 100 m, and 10 to 70 µmolSi kg-1 at 600 m. The northern limit of this frontal zone, which is formed by the confluence of the Subtropical and Subantarctic Fronts, is delimited at the surface by the 2 µmolSi kg-1 silicate isoline. Silicate-salinity diagrams also allow different water regimes to be positioned relative to the frontal zone. This sloping interface is between two water bodies, one to the north with more saline subtropical waters of less concentrated silicate than the southern one, corresponding to subantarctic waters which are less saline and richer in silicate. It is concluded that dissolved silicate can be used as a useful tracer of frontal zone water masses in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, providing a sound complement to other hydrographic data.

  10. Polylactic acid-based porous scaffolds doped with calcium silicate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate designed for biomedical application. (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Zamparini, Fausto; Degli Esposti, Micaela; Chiellini, Federica; Aparicio, Conrado; Fava, Fabio; Fabbri, Paola; Taddei, Paola; Prati, Carlo


    Polylactic acid (PLA), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and/or hydraulic calcium silicate (CaSi) have been used to prepare highly-porous scaffolds by thermally induced phase separation technique (TIPS). Three experimental mineral-doped formulations were prepared (PLA-10CaSi, PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD, PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD). Pure PLA scaffolds constituted the control group. Scaffolds were tested for their chemical-physical and biological properties, namely calcium release, alkalinizing activity, surface microchemistry and micromorphology by ESEM, apatite-forming ability by EDX, micro-Raman and IR spectroscopy, thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties by quasi-static parallel-plates compression testing, porosity by a standard water-absorption method and direct-contact cytotoxicity. All mineral-doped scaffolds released biologically relevant ions (biointeractive). A B-type carbonated apatite layer (thickness decreasing along the series PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD>PLA-10CaSi>PLA-5CaSi-5DCPD>PLA) was detected on the surface of all the 28d-aged scaffolds. Surface pores of fresh scaffolds ranged from 10 to 20μm in pure PLA to 10-100μm in PLA-10CaSi. An increase in porosity was detected in 28d-aged pure PLA scaffolds (approx. 30% of material loss with decrease of the PLA chain length); differently, in mineral-doped scaffolds, the PLA degradation was balanced by deposition/nucleation of apatite. All scaffolds showed absence of toxicity, in particular PLA-10CaSi-10DCPD. The designed scaffolds are biointeractive (release biologically relevant ions), nucleate apatite, possess high surface and internal open porosity and can be colonized by cells, appearing interesting materials for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Silicic Acid and Beer Consumption Reverses the Metal Imbalance and the Prooxidant Status Induced by Aluminum Nitrate in Mouse Brain. (United States)

    González-Muñoz, María José; Garcimartán, Alba; Meseguer, Isabel; Mateos-Vega, Carmen José; Orellana, José María; Peña-Fernández, Antonio; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J


    Emerging evidence suggests that by affecting mineral balance, aluminum (Al) may enhance some events associated with neurodegenerative diseases. To examine the effect of Al(NO3)3 exposure on brain Al, cooper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), and zinc (Zn) levels, and the metal-change implication in brain oxidant and inflammatory status. Four groups of six-week-old male NMRI mice were treated for three months: i) controls, administrated with deionized water; ii) Al, which received Al(NO3)3; iii) Al+silicic acid, which were given Al(NO3)3 plus silicic acid; and iv) Al+beer, which received Al(NO3)3 plus beer. Brain Al and TBARS levels and TNFα and GPx expressions increased, while Cu, Mn, and Zn levels, and catalase and CuZn-SOD expression decreased (at least, p beer specimens while Cu, Mn, and Zn levels and antioxidant expression increased versus the Al group. Brain Al levels correlated negatively with those of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, and catalase, CuZn-SOD, and GPx enzyme expressions but positively with Si and TBARS levels and TNFα expression. Two components of the principal component analysis (PCA) explained 71.2% of total data variance (p beer administration.

  12. Oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica. Reconstructing changes in surface water hydrography and silicic acid utilization in the late Pleistocene subarctic Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Edith


    Deglacial variations in upper ocean nutrient dynamics and stratification in high latitudes, as well as associated changes in thermohaline overturning circulation, are thought to have played a key role in changing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. This thesis examines the relationship between past changes in subarctic Pacific upper ocean stratification and nutrient (silicic acid) utilization, using oxygen and silicon stable isotopes of diatom silica, for the first time at millennial-scale resolution and analyzed with a new and efficient instrumentation set-up. The isotopic data, presented in three manuscripts, show a consistent picture of millennial-scale variability in upper ocean stratification and silicic acid utilization during the last ∝50 ka BP, e.g. indicating that the subarctic Pacific was a source region for atmospheric CO{sub 2} during the last deglaciation (late Heinrich Stadial 1 and the Boelling/Alleroed). The presented results demonstrate the high potential of combined diatom oxygen and silicon stable isotope analysis especially for, but not restricted to, marine regions characterized by a low biogenic carbonate content like the subarctic Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

  13. Determination of vanadium in refractory metals, steel, cast iron, alloys and silicates by extraction of an NBPHA complex from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium. (United States)

    Donaldson, E M


    A method for determining up to 0.15% of vanadium in high-purity niobium and tantalum metals, cast iron, steel, non-ferrous alloys and silicates is described. The proposed method is based on the extraction of a red vanadium(V)-N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine complex into chloroform from a sulphuric-hydrofluoric acid medium containing excess of ammonium persulphate as oxidant. The molar absorptivity of the complex is 428 l.mole(-1).mm(-5) at 475 nm, the wavelength of maximum absorption. Interference from chromium(VI) and cerium(IV) is eliminated by reduction with iron(II). Common ions, including large amounts of titanium, zirconium, molybdenum and tungsten, do not interfere.

  14. Silicic acid in drinking water prevents age-related alterations in the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation modulating eNOS and AQP1 expression in experimental mice: an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Buffoli, Barbara; Foglio, Eleonora; Borsani, Elisa; Exley, Christopher; Rezzani, Rita; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio


    The maintenance of endothelial integrity is of great importance in coping with age-related vascular alterations. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide is one of the various vasoactive substances able to regulate vascular tone and homeostasis, and whose decrease is known to be related with senescence in endothelial cells. There are reports on the efficacy of silicon, especially as silicic acid, in protecting vascular integrity during age-related vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of supplementation of silicic acid in drinking water in the maintenance of vascular health in a mouse model of early physiological aging. In particular, we evaluated the relationship between Si supplementation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, taking into account also the aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) isoform that, as recently reported, seems to be involved in nitric oxide transport across cell membranes. Our results showed that silicic acid supplementation increased both eNOS and AQP-1 expression, suggesting that silicic acid modulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and aquaporin-1 could represent a potential strategy against age-related vascular senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds of poly (L-lactic acid)-dicalcium silicate composite via ultrasonic-aging technique for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shengjie [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Sun, Junying, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Li, Yadong [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Li, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Cui, Wenguo [Orthopedic Institute, Soochow University, 708 Renmin Rd, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215007 (China); Li, Bin, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China)


    Polymeric nanofibrous composite scaffolds incorporating bioglass and bioceramics have been increasingly promising for bone tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds containing dicalcium silicate (C{sub 2}S) nanoparticles (approximately 300 nm) were fabricated. Using a novel ultrasonic dispersion and aging method, uniform C{sub 2}S nanoparticles were prepared and they were homogenously distributed in the PLLA nanofibers upon electrospinning. In vitro, the PLLA-C{sub 2}S fibers induced the formation of HAp on the surface when immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). During culture, the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells adhered well on PLLA-C{sub 2}S scaffolds, as evidenced by the well-defined actin stress fibers and well-spreading morphology. Further, compared to pure PLLA scaffolds without C{sub 2}S, PLLA-C{sub 2}S scaffolds markedly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells as well as their osteogenic differentiation, which was characterized by the enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Together, findings from this study clearly demonstrated that PLLA-C{sub 2}S composite scaffold may function as an ideal candidate for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate (C{sub 2}S) nanoparticles were prepared via a sol–gel process. • C{sub 2}S nanoparticles were stabilized using ultrasonic-aging technique. • PLLA-C{sub 2}S composite nanofibers were fabricated through electrospinning technique. • C{sub 2}S nanoparticles could be homogenously distributed in nanofibers. • The composite scaffolds enhanced proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts.

  16. Preparation and characterization of new poly(amide–imide reinforced layer silicate nanocomposite containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Faghihi


    Full Text Available Two new samples of poly(amide–imide/montmorillonite reinforced nanocomposites containing N,N′-pyrromellitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide–imide (PAI 3 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N,N′-pyrromelitoyl-bis-l-phenyl acetic acid 1 with 4,4′-diamino diphenyl ether 2 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP, CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP. Morphology and structure of the resulting PAI-nanocomposite films 4a and 4b with 10% and 20% silicate particles were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The effect of clay dispersion and the interaction between clay and polymeric chains on the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated by using UV–vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and water uptake measurements.

  17. Impacts of Steel-Slag-Based Silicate Fertilizer on Soil Acidity and Silicon Availability and Metals-Immobilization in a Paddy Soil. (United States)

    Ning, Dongfeng; Liang, Yongchao; Liu, Zhandong; Xiao, Junfu; Duan, Aiwang


    Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. A consecutive early rice-late rice rotation experiment was conducted to test the impacts of steel slag on soil pH, silicon availability, rice growth and metals-immobilization in paddy soil. Our results show that application of slag at a rate above higher or equal to 1 600 mg plant-available SiO2 per kg soil increased soil pH, dry weight of rice straw and grain, plant-available Si concentration and Si concentration in rice shoots compared with the control treatment. No significant accumulation of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) was noted in soil; rather, the exchangeable fraction of Cd significantly decreased. The cadmium concentrations in rice grains decreased significantly compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, application of steel slag reduced soil acidity, increased plant-availability of silicon, promoted rice growth and inhibited Cd transport to rice grain in the soil-plant system.

  18. Importance of deep mixing and silicic acid in regulating phytoplankton biomass and community in the iron-limited Antarctic Polar Front region in summer (United States)

    Cheah, Wee; Soppa, Mariana A.; Wiegmann, Sonja; Ossebaar, Sharyn; Laglera, Luis M.; Strass, Volker H.; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Hoppema, Mario; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Bracher, Astrid


    Phytoplankton community structure and their physiological response in the vicinity of the Antarctic Polar Front (APF; 44°S to 53°S, centred at 10°E) were investigated as part of the ANT-XXVIII/3 Eddy-Pump cruise conducted in austral summer 2012. Our results show that under iron-limited ( 0.6 mgm-3) can be observed at stations with deep mixed layer (> 60 m) across the APF. In contrast, light was excessive at stations with shallower mixed layer and phytoplankton were producing higher amounts of photoprotective pigments, diadinoxanthin (DD) and diatoxanthin (DT), at the expense of TChl-a, resulting in higher ratios of (DD+DT)/TChl-a. North of the APF, significantly lower silicic acid (Si(OH)4) concentrations ( 5 mmolm-3) region south of the APF, on the contrary, was dominated by microphytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates) with lower ratios of (DD+DT)/TChl-a, despite having been exposed to higher levels of irradiance. The significant correlation between nanophytoplankton and (DD+DT)/TChl-a indicates that differences in taxon-specific response to light are also influencing TChl-a concentration in the APF during summer. Our results reveal that provided mixing is deep and Si(OH)4 is replete, TChl-a concentrations higher than 0.6 mgm-3 are achievable in the iron-limited APF waters during summer.

  19. Regular consumption of a silicic acid-rich water prevents aluminium-induced alterations of nitrergic neurons in mouse brain: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. (United States)

    Foglio, E; Buffoli, B; Exley, C; Rezzani, R; Rodella, L F


    Silicon is not generally considered an essential nutrient for mammals and, to date, whether it has a biological role or beneficial effects in humans is not known. The results of a number of studies suggest that dietary silicon supplementation might have a protective effect both for limiting aluminium absorption across the gut and for the removal of systemic aluminium via the urine, hence, preventing potential accumulation of aluminium in the brain. Since our previous studies demonstrated that aluminium exposure reduces the number of nitrergic neurons, the aim of the present study was to compare the distribution and the morphology of NO-containing neurons in brain cortex of mice exposed to aluminium sulphate dissolved in silicic acid-rich or poor drinking water to assess the potential protective role of silicon against aluminium toxicity in the brain. NADPH-d histochemistry and nNOS immunohistochemistry showed that high concentrations of silicon in drinking water were able to minimize the impairment of the function of nitrergic neurons induced by aluminium administration. We found that silicon protected against aluminium-induced damage to the nitrergic system: in particular, we demonstrated that silicon maintains the number of nitrergic neurons and their expression of nitrergic enzymes at physiological levels, even after a 12 and 15 month exposure to aluminium.

  20. Siliceous microfossil extraction from altered Monterey rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C.O.; Casey, R.E.


    Samples of altered Monterey rocks of differing lithologies were processed by various methods to develop new techniques for extracting siliceous microfossils. The preliminary use of thin sections made from the same rocks reduced the number of probable samples (samples worth further processing) by about one-third. Most of the siliceous microfossils contained in altered Monterey rocks appear to be highly recrystallized and are extremely fragile; however, some contained silicified and silica-infilled radiolarians and planktonic and benthonic foraminifera, which are very tough. In general the most useful techniques were gently hydrochloric acid, hydrogen peroxide, formic acid, monosodium glutamate, and regular siliceous microfossil extraction techniques. Unsuccessful techniques and a new siliceous microfossil flotation technique are also documented.

  1. Silicate volcanism on Io (United States)

    Carr, M. H.


    This paper is mainly concerned with the nature of volcanic eruptions on Io, taking into account questions regarding the presence of silicates or sulfur as principal component. Attention is given to the generation of silicate magma, the viscous dissipation in the melt zone, thermal anomalies at eruption sites, and Ionian volcanism. According to the information available about Io, it appears that its volcanism and hence its surface materials are dominantly silicic. Several percent of volatile materials such as sulfur, but also including sodium- and potassium-rich materials, may also be present. The volatile materials at the surface are continually vaporized and melted as a result of the high rates of silicate volcanism.

  2. An integrated experimental-modeling approach to study the acid leaching behavior of lead from sub-micrometer lead silicate glass particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elteren, Johannes T. van, E-mail: [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Grilc, Miha [Laboratory of Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Beeston, Michael P. [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); TSI GmbH, Neuköllner Str. 4, 52068 Aachen (Germany); Reig, Milagros Santacatalina [General Foundation, University of Alicante, E-03690 San Vicente del Raspeig (Alicante) (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Grgić, Irena [Analytical Chemistry Laboratory, National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • Generation of particles by laser ablation of lead silicate glass. • Collection of particles on filters and continuous acid leaching and ICP-MS monitoring. • Fitting of the lead leaching profile to a mathematical intraparticle diffusion model. • Extraction of individual leaching profiles for selected mono-dispersed size fractions. • Leaching kinetics is based on ion-exchange and correlated with particle size. -- Abstract: This work focuses on the development of a procedure to study the mechanism of leaching of lead from sub-micrometer lead glass particles using 0.3 mol l{sup −1} HNO{sub 3} as a leachant. Glass particles with an effective size distribution range from 0.05 to 1.4 μm were generated by laser ablation (213 nm Nd:YAG laser) and collected on an inline 0.2 μm syringe filter. Subsequently, the glass particles on the filter were subjected to online leaching and continuous monitoring of lead (Pb-208) in the leachate by quadrupole ICP-MS. The lead leaching profile, aided by the particle size distribution information from cascade impaction, was numerically fitted to a mathematical model based on the glass intraparticle diffusion, liquid film distribution and thermodynamic glass-leachant distribution equilibrium. The findings of the modeling show that the rate-limiting step of leaching is the migration of lead from the core to the surface of the glass particle by an ion-exchange mechanism, governed by the apparent intraparticle lead diffusivity in glass which was calculated to be 3.1 × 10{sup −18} m{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Lead leaching is illustrated in the form of graphs and animations of intraparticle lead release (in time and intraparticle position) from particles with sizes of 0.1 and 0.3 μm.

  3. Stability constants for silicate adsorbed to ferrihydrite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Wetche, T.P.; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten


    Intrinsic surface acidity constants (K(a1)intr, K(a2)intr) and surface complexation constant for adsorption of orthosilicate onto synthetic ferrihydrite (K(Si) for the complex = FeOSi(OH)3) have been determined from acid/base titrations in 0.001-0.1 m NaClO4 electrolytes and silicate adsorption e...

  4. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... silicate nanocomposites and their structure-properties relationship. In the first part of the thesis, thermoplastic layered silicates were obtained by extrusion. Different modification methods were tested to observe the intercalation treatment effect on the silicate-modifier interactions. The silicate...

  5. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance (United States)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan


    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively. Moreover, the use of sodium silicate resulted in the formation of distinct microstructure and incorporation of silicate into the oxide film. These oxide films reduced the anodic activity 4 times, while the corrosion protection by silicate containing oxide was the function of its concentration. Further, in acid salt spray and filiform corrosion tests, oxide layer containing silicate exhibited two times higher corrosion resistance.

  6. Silicate mineral dissolution during heap bioleaching. (United States)

    Dopson, Mark; Halinen, Anna-Kaisa; Rahunen, Nelli; Boström, Dan; Sundkvist, Jan-Eric; Riekkola-Vanhanen, Marja; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A


    Silicate minerals are present in association with metal sulfides in ores and their dissolution occurs when the sulfide minerals are bioleached in heaps for metal recovery. It has previously been suggested that silicate mineral dissolution can affect mineral bioleaching by acid consumption, release of trace elements, and increasing the viscosity of the leach solution. In this study, the effect of silicates present in three separate samples in conjunction with chalcopyrite and a complex multi-metal sulfide ore on heap bioleaching was evaluated in column bioreactors. Fe(2+) oxidation was inhibited in columns containing chalcopyrite samples A and C that leached 1.79 and 1.11 mM fluoride, respectively but not in sample B that contained 0.14 mM fluoride. Microbial Fe(2+) oxidation inhibition experiments containing elevated fluoride concentrations and measurements of fluoride release from the chalcopyrite ores supported that inhibition of Fe(2+) oxidation during column leaching of two of the chalcopyrite ores was due to fluoride toxicity. Column bioleaching of the complex sulfide ore was carried out at various temperatures (7-50 degrees C) and pH values (1.5-3.0). Column leaching at pH 1.5 and 2.0 resulted in increased acid consumption rates and silicate dissolution such that it became difficult to filter the leach solutions and for the leach liquor to percolate through the column. However, column temperature (at pH 2.5) only had a minor effect on the acid consumption and silicate dissolution rates. This study demonstrates the potential negative impact of silicate mineral dissolution on heap bioleaching by microbial inhibition and liquid flow. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influência da escória silicatada na acidez do solo e na produtividade de grãos do arroz de terras altas Influence of calcium silicate slag on soil acidity and upland rice grain yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Pereira Barbosa Filho


    Full Text Available Apesar dos elevados teores de SiO2 total geralmente encontrados nos solos brasileiros, o teor na solução do solo pode ser baixo, em conseqüência do processo de dessilicificação que ocorre durante a intemperização dos solos. A aplicação de escórias de processamento industrial, ricas em silicatos de cálcio, tem mostrado efeitos positivos quanto à ação corretiva da acidez do solo e ao fornecimento de Si às plantas acumuladoras desse elemento, com aumentos significativos de produtividade. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o seguinte objetivo: avaliar em dois anos de cultivo sucessivos a ação corretiva, a produtividade de grãos e a absorção de Si pelo arroz de terras altas. Foram aplicadas ao solo de cerrado classificado como latossolo vermelho distroférrico de cerrado seis doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 t ha-1 de uma escória silicatada com 20% de SiO2 total, proveniente do processo de fabricação de superfosfatos em forno elétrico. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos completos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram detectados aumentos significativos de produtividade de grãos, teor e acumulação de Si na palha e da porcentagem de grãos cheios por panícula, nos dois anos de cultivo do arroz. Houve ação corretiva no solo das doses de escória, reduzindo a acidez e aumentando a disponibilidade de P, Si, Ca trocável e a porcentagem de saturação por bases. O nível crítico de Si na palha por ocasião da colheita, para obtenção de produtividade satisfatória de grãos, foi estabelecido em 2,25 g kg-1 de matéria seca.Despite the high SiO2 total content often found in Brazilian soils, the soluble silicon content in soil solution can be low due to weathering that occur in soils. The application of calcium silicate slags, under these conditions, has demonstrated positive effects in relation to correction of soil acidity, the supply of Si to plants that accumulate this element and significant yield increase. The objectives of

  8. Silicates in Alien Asteroids (United States)


    This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescopes shows that asteroid dust around a dead 'white dwarf' star contains silicates a common mineral on Earth. The data were taken primarily by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that breaks light apart into its basic constituents. The yellow dots show averaged data from the spectrograph, while the orange triangles show older data from Spitzer's infrared array camera. The white dwarf is called GD 40.

  9. Thermochemistry of Silicates (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan


    The thermodynamic properties of vapor and condensed phases of silicates are crucial in many fields of science. These quantities address fundamental questions on the formation, stability, transformation, and physical properties of silicate minerals and silicate coating compositions. Here the thermodynamic activities of silica and other species in solid solution have been measured by the analysis of the corresponding high temperature vapors using Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS). In first set of experiments KEMS has been used to examine the volatility sequence of species (Fe, SiO, Mg, O2 and O) present in the vapor phase during heating of fosterite-rich olivine (Fo93Fa7) up to 2400 C and to measure the Fe, SiO and Mg activities in its solid solution. The data of fosterite-rich olivine are essential for thermochemical equilibrium models to predict the atmospheric and surface composition of hot, rocky exoplanets (Lava Planets). In the second set of experiments the measured thermodynamic activities of the silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems are used to assess their reactivity and degradation recession as environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) in combustion environments (e.g. non-moveable parts of gas turbine engine).

  10. Measurement of the efficacy of calcium silicate for the protection and repair of dental enamel. (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Patel, Anisha N; Al Botros, Rehab; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo


    To investigate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from calcium silicate and the deposition of calcium silicate onto sound and acid eroded enamel surfaces in order to investigate its repair and protective properties. Calcium silicate was mixed with phosphate buffer for seven days and the resulting solids analysed for crystalline phases by Raman spectroscopy. Deposition studies were conducted on bovine enamel surfaces. Acid etched regions were produced on the enamel surfaces using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) with acid filled pipettes and varying contact times. Following treatment with calcium silicate, the deposition was visualised with FE-SEM and etch pit volumes were measured by AFM. A second set of bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with calcium silicate and fluoride, before acid exposure with the SECCM. The volumes of the resultant acid etched pits were measured using AFM and the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss was calculated. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that HAP was formed from calcium silicate. Deposition studies demonstrated greater delivery of calcium silicate to acid eroded than sound enamel and that the volume of acid etched enamel pits was significantly reduced following one treatment (penamel was 0.092 ± 0.008 cm/s. This was significantly reduced, 0.056 ± 0.005 cm/s, for the calcium silicate treatments (penamel surfaces. Calcium silicate can provide significant protection of sound enamel from acid challenges. Calcium silicate is a material that has potential for a new approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel from acid attacks, leading to significant dental hard tissue benefits. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of silicate application on soil fertility and wheat yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinícius Mansano Sarto


    Full Text Available An improvement in soil chemical properties and crop development with silicate application has been confirmed in several plant species. The effects of silicate application on soil chemical properties and wheat growth were investigated in the present study. The experiment was carried out in 8-L plastic pots in a greenhouse. Treatments were arranged in a randomized block design in a 3 × 5 factorial: three soils [Rhodic Acrudox (Ox1, Rhodic Hapludox (Ox2 and Arenic Hapludult (Ult] and five silicate rates (0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 Mg ha–1 of calcium/magnesium silicate, with four replications. The plant length, number of spikes per pot, shoot dry matter and grain yield, were measured after 115 days of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. growth. Changes in the soil chemical properties (pH, H+ + Al3+, Al3+, P, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were analyzed after wheat harvest. Application of calcium/magnesium silicate reduces the potential acidity (H+ + Al3+ and Al3+ phytotoxic; and increases the soil pH, available Ca, Mg and Si, cation exchange capacity (CEC and soil base saturation. Silicate application did not affect the available P, exchangeable K and availability of micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in the three soils. The application of calcium/magnesium silicate in an acid clayey Rhodic Hapludox improves the development and yield of wheat; however, the silicate application in soil with pH higher to 5.3 and high Si availability does not affect the agronomic characteristics and grain yield of wheat. 

  12. Silicate release from glass for pharmaceutical preparations. (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Carvalho, Leandro Machado; Ramirez, Adrian Gustavo


    Glass is made of polymeric silica and other minor components, which are necessary for turning the silica into a material more easily moldable and resistant to temperature changes. Glass containers for pharmaceutical usage are classified according to their resistance to a chemical attack, a test carried out in the presence of water and heat. The test is designed to show the released alkalinity, a variable dependent on the amount of sodium oxide, one of the minor components added to the glass mass. In this work, the release of silica from glass by action of constituents from pharmaceutical formulations was investigated. The study included products used in large volumes and usually stored in glass containers. Solutions of amino acids, electrolytes, glucose, oligoelements and others such as heparin and sodium bicarbonate were individually stored in glass containers and heated at 121 degrees C for 30min, as in the water attack test. The test was also carried out only with water, where the pH varied from 2 to 12. The released silicate was measured either by photometry or atomic absorption spectrometry, depending on the nature of the sample. The results showed that silicate is released during the heating cycle even if the contact is with pure water only. The pH exerts a considerable influence on the release, being that the higher the pH, the higher the silica dissolved. An elevated pH, however, is not the only factor responsible for silica dissolution. While in the solutions of NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2 and ZnSO4 and in most of the amino acids, the concentration of silicate was as high as in pure water (0.1-1.0mg Si/L). In the solutions of sodium acetate, bicarbonate and gluconate, its concentration was much higher, over 30mg Si/L. These results were confirmed by the analysis of commercial products, where in solutions of amino acids the level of silicate ranged from 0.14 to 0.19mg Si/L. On the other hand, calcium gluconate, sodium bicarbonate and potassium phosphate presented

  13. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks (United States)

    Peck, L.C.


    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  14. Environmental silicate nano-biocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Pollet, Eric


    Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmenta...

  15. Silicic acid enrichment of subantarctic surface water from continental inputs along the Patagonian archipelago interior sea (41-56°S) (United States)

    Torres, Rodrigo; Silva, Nelson; Reid, Brian; Frangopulos, Máximo


    We estimated Si∗, the surplus or deficit of orthosilicic acid (DSi) relative to nitrate available for diatom growth, in the Chilean Patagonian Archipelago Interior Sea (PAIS). Si∗ and salinity were negatively correlated in the PAIS because of the mixing of high nitrate, low DSi subantarctic surface water and high DSi, low nitrate continental freshwater runoff. Both the slope and the intercept of this relationship decreased from northern to southern Patagonia, which was likely a consequence of reduced DSi inputs from several overlapping hydrological, biological and geological drivers along this gradient. In general, lower freshwater DSi concentrations were expected below 46°S, and a lower total DSi load was expected from reduced runoff below 51°S. The north-south decreasing DSi concentration trend may be linked to dilutions from a higher proportion of runoff in latitudes with higher precipitation rates (45-53°S), the transition to more resistant granitic rocks and glacial melt-water from the Northern and Southern Patagonia Ice Fields (46-51°S) and a reduced density of volcanoes active during the Holocene (48-56°S). The intensification of a southward DSi deficit may be a forcing factor involved in the reported southward reductions in plankton biomass and a more frequent occurrence of non-diatom blooms in southern PAIS.

  16. Understanding silicate hydration from quantitative analyses of hydrating tricalcium silicates (United States)

    Pustovgar, Elizaveta; Sangodkar, Rahul P.; Andreev, Andrey S.; Palacios, Marta; Chmelka, Bradley F.; Flatt, Robert J.; d'Espinose de Lacaillerie, Jean-Baptiste


    Silicate hydration is prevalent in natural and technological processes, such as, mineral weathering, glass alteration, zeolite syntheses and cement hydration. Tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5), the main constituent of Portland cement, is amongst the most reactive silicates in water. Despite its widespread industrial use, the reaction of Ca3SiO5 with water to form calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) still hosts many open questions. Here, we show that solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of 29Si-enriched triclinic Ca3SiO5 enable the quantitative monitoring of the hydration process in terms of transient local molecular composition, extent of silicate hydration and polymerization. This provides insights on the relative influence of surface hydroxylation and hydrate precipitation on the hydration rate. When the rate drops, the amount of hydroxylated Ca3SiO5 decreases, thus demonstrating the partial passivation of the surface during the deceleration stage. Moreover, the relative quantities of monomers, dimers, pentamers and octamers in the C-S-H structure are measured. PMID:27009966

  17. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R


    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the extensive pulmonary damage in humans was the result of direct occupational inhalation of the dusts and noted that lesions seen in animals were affected by particle size, fiber length, and concentration. The Panel considers that most of the formulations are not respirable and of the preparations that are respirable, the concentration of the ingredient is very low. Even so, the Panel considered that any spray containing these solids should be formulated to minimize their inhalation. With this admonition to the cosmetics industry, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe as currently used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel did note that the cosmetic ingredient, Talc, is a hydrated magnesium silicate. Because it has a unique crystalline structure that differs from ingredients addressed in this safety assessment, Talc is not included in this report.

  18. Copper Containing Silicates as Catalysts for Liquid Phase Cyclohexane Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Rosenira S. da


    Full Text Available Copper containing silicates have been prepared by an acid-catalyzed sol-gel process. The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, EPR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, N2-physisorption, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, temperature-programmed reduction, FTIR and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The silicates were shown to be efficient catalysts for the oxidation of cyclohexane with tert-butyl hydroperoxide as oxidant. Cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone were obtained as the main products. The metal was shown to be weakly bound to the silicate matrix and metal leaching was observed. Leaching was quantified by X-ray fluorescence and leaching tests showed that the catalytic activity is due to supported copper species. Leached copper showed no activity in the homogeneous phase.

  19. Rubber curing chemistry governing the orientation of layered silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The effect of curing systems on the orientation and the dispersion of the layered silicates in acrylonitrile butadiene rubber nanocomposite is reported. Significant differences in X-ray diffraction pattern between peroxide curing and sulfur curing was observed. Intense X-ray scattering values in the XRD experiments from peroxide cured vulcanizates indicate an orientation of the layers in a preferred direction as evinced by transmission electron micrographs. However, sulfur cured vulcanizates show no preferential orientation of the silicate particles. Nevertheless, a closer inspection of transmission electron microscopy (TEM images of peroxide and sulfur cured samples shows exfoliated silicate layers in the acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR matrix. It was revealed in the prevailing study that the use of an excess amount of stearic acid in the formulation of the sulfur curing package leads to almost exfoliated type X-ray scattering pattern.

  20. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren


    The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov


    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  2. Interaction of silicic acid with goethite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Barnett, M.O.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    The adsorption of Si on goethite (¿-FeOOH) has been studied in batch experiments that cover the natural range of Si concentrations as found in the environment. The results have been interpreted and quantified with the charge distribution (CD) and multi-site surface complexation (MUSIC) model in

  3. Zirconia silicate modified with phytic acid (IP6) and its effect on uranyl sorption; Silicato de circonio modificado con acido fitico (IP6) y su efecto en la sorcion de uranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante G, D. C.


    In this work the sorption capacity of uranyl ions on zirconium silicate (ZrSiO{sub 4}) extracted from sea sand of Baja California Sur was studied, the effect of phytic acid (IP6) accompanied by a perchlorate salt of sodium (NaClO{sub 4}) on the surface of the mineral. In the first stage, ZrSiO{sub 4} was obtained from sea sand by extraction using hydrofluoric acid, the purified and hydrated material was later characterized by instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction to determine its purity and crystallinity. The ZrSiO{sub 4}-purified, ZrSiO{sub 4}/NaClO{sub 4} and ZrSiO{sub 4}/IP6 were studied by physicochemical and surface characterization. By scanning electron microscopy was observed that ZrSiO{sub 4} initially is formed by flat structures, however, when it is hydrated with NaClO{sub 4} the formation of particles on the material exists, whereas when the IP6 is added the crystals on the surface are elongated forming structures geometric shapes. This modification on the surface of the ZrSiO{sub 4} was corroborated by atomic force microscopy where significant changes were observed in the topography of the purified and hydrated material. By Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is identifies the presence of functional groups from hydration with IP6 and NaClO{sub 4} on the surface of SrSiO{sub 4}. Characterization of surface properties was performed by determining the surface area of the purified ZrSiO{sub 4}, SrSiO{sub 4}/NaClO{sub 4} and ZrSiO{sub 4}/IP6 systems using the Bet multipoint and fractal dimension technique; the hydration time, zero loading point was evaluated by means of a bulk titration and surface site density (Ds). The fluorescence and phosphorescence techniques allowed determining the optimum hydration point and the uranium species sorbed on the surface of the ZrSiO{sub 4} as in the systems hydrated with IP6 and with NaClO{sub 4}. This technique provided relevant information about the speciation and complex formation of IP6 with uranyl

  4. Battery components employing a silicate binder (United States)

    Delnick, Frank M [Albuquerque, NM; Reinhardt, Frederick W [Albuquerque, NM; Odinek, Judy G [Rio Rancho, NM


    A battery component structure employing inorganic-silicate binders. In some embodiments, casting or coating of components may be performed using aqueous slurries of silicates and electrode materials or separator materials.

  5. Submarine silicic volcanism: Processes and products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kalangutkar, N.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The occurrence of submarine silicic volcanics is rare at the mid-oceanic ridges, abyssal depths, seamounts and fracture zones. Hydrothermal processes are active in submarine silicic environments and are associated with host ores of Cu, Au, Ag, Pb...

  6. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science


    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  7. Development of Silicate Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob

      The development of inorganic polymers is a new promising technology that may be used in many applications. The syntheses of inorganic polymers are normally carried out either by mixing an amorphous material for example silicium dioxide with a mineral base or dissolving metal oxids or metal...... hydroxide in acid and increase pH to saturation of the metal hydroxide. It is assumed that the syntheses of the inorganic polymer are carried out through polymerisation of oligomers (dimer, trimer) which provide the actual unit structures of the three dimensional macromolecular structure. In this work...

  8. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi


    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  9. Determination of reactivity rates of silicate particle-size fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus


    Full Text Available The efficiency of sources used for soil acidity correction depends on reactivity rate (RR and neutralization power (NP, indicated by effective calcium carbonate (ECC. Few studies establish relative efficiency of reactivity (RER for silicate particle-size fractions, therefore, the RER applied for lime are used. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of silicate materials affected by particle size throughout incubation periods in comparison to lime, and to calculate the RER for silicate particle-size fractions. Six correction sources were evaluated: three slags from distinct origins, dolomitic and calcitic lime separated into four particle-size fractions (2, 0.84, 0.30 and <0.30-mm sieves, and wollastonite, as an additional treatment. The treatments were applied to three soils with different texture classes. The dose of neutralizing material (calcium and magnesium oxides was applied at equal quantities, and the only variation was the particle-size material. After a 90-day incubation period, the RER was calculated for each particle-size fraction, as well as the RR and ECC of each source. The neutralization of soil acidity of the same particle-size fraction for different sources showed distinct solubility and a distinct reaction between silicates and lime. The RER for slag were higher than the limits established by Brazilian legislation, indicating that the method used for limes should not be used for the slags studied here.

  10. Bioactivity studies of calcium magnesium silicate prepared from eggshell waste by sol–gel combustion synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan Choudhary


    Full Text Available The present study focused on the synthesis of calcium magnesium silicate (akermanite, Ca2MgSi2O7 using eggshell biowaste (as calcium source, magnesium nitrate and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS as starting materials. Sol–gel combustion method was adopted to obtain calcium magnesium silicate. Citric acid was used as a fuel (reducing agent and nitrate ions present in the metal nitrates acts as an oxidizing agent during combustion process. The characterization of synthesized calcium magnesium silicate was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Calcium magnesium silicate crystallite size was observed in nano regime which can effectively mimic natural bone apatite composition. In-vitro bioactivity was investigated by immersing calcium magnesium silicate pellet in simulated body fluid (SBF for three weeks. Results show effective deposition of crystallized hydroxyapatite (HAP layer on its surface and predicting its possibilities for applications in hard tissue regeneration.

  11. Geochemical and lithological factors in acid precipitation (United States)

    James R. Kramer


    Acid precipitation is altered by interaction with rocks, sediment and soil. A calcareous region buffers even the most intense loading at pH ~8; an alumino silicate region with unconsolidated sediment buffers acid loadings at pH ~6.5; alumino silicate outcrops are generally acidified. Either FeOOH or alumino silicates are probable H+...

  12. The utilization of waste by-products for removing silicate from mineral processing wastewater via chemical precipitation. (United States)

    Kang, Jianhua; Sun, Wei; Hu, Yuehua; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Zhang, Qingpeng; Liu, Hang; Meng, Xiangsong


    This study investigates an environmentally friendly technology that utilizes waste by-products (waste acid and waste alkali liquids) to treat mineral processing wastewater. Chemical precipitation is used to remove silicate from scheelite (CaWO4) cleaning flotation wastewater and the waste by-products are used as a substitute for calcium chloride (CaCl2). A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to explain the removal of silicate and the characterization and formation mechanism of calcium silicate. The results show that silicate removal reaches 90% when the Ca:Si molar ratio exceeds 1.0. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the characterization and formation of calcium silicate. The pH is the key factor for silicate removal, and the formation of polysilicic acid with a reduction of pH can effectively improve the silicate removal and reduce the usage of calcium. The economic analysis shows that the treatment costs with waste acid (0.63 $/m(3)) and waste alkali (1.54 $/m(3)) are lower than that of calcium chloride (2.38 $/m(3)). The efficient removal of silicate is confirmed by industrial testing at a plant. The results show that silicate removal reaches 85% in the recycled water from tailings dam. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective silicate-directed motility in diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondoc, Karen Grace V.; Heuschele, Jan; Gillard, Jeroen


    Diatoms are highly abundant unicellular algae that often dominate pelagic as well as benthic primary production in the oceans and inland waters. Being strictly dependent on silica to build their biomineralized cell walls, marine diatoms precipitate 240 × 10(12) mol Si per year, which makes them...... the major sink in the global Si cycle. Dissolved silicic acid (dSi) availability frequently limits diatom productivity and influences species composition of communities. We show that benthic diatoms selectively perceive and behaviourally react to gradients of dSi. Cell speed increases under d......Si-limited conditions in a chemokinetic response and, if gradients of this resource are present, increased directionality of cell movement promotes chemotaxis. The ability to exploit local and short-lived dSi hotspots using a specific search behaviour likely contributes to micro-scale patch dynamics in biofilm...

  14. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals (United States)

    White, A. F.


    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  15. Synthesis and optical features of an europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franville, A.C.; Zambon, D.; Mahiou, R.; Chou, S.; Cousseins, J.C. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Materiaux Inorganiques; Troin, Y. [Laboratoire de Chimie des Heterocycles et des Glucides, EA 987, Universite Blaise-Pascal and ENSCCF, F-63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)


    A europium organic-inorganic silicate hybrid was synthesized by grafting a coordinative group (dipicolinic acid) to a silicate network precursor (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane) via a covalent bonding. Sol-gel process and complexation were performed using different experimental conditions. The hybrid materials, in particular the Eu{sup 3+} coordination mode, were characterized by infrared and luminescence spectroscopies. Morphology of the materials and TG analysis showed that grafted silica enhanced thermal and mechanical resistances of the organic part. (orig.) 7 refs.

  16. Low availability of aluminum in formulations for parenteral nutrition containing silicate. (United States)

    Bohrer, Denise; Bortoluzzi, Fabiana; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; de Oliveira, Sandra Ribeiro


    Silicate (Si) and aluminum (Al) may be concomitant impurities in solutions for parenteral nutrition (PN). Silicate can bind to Al to form stable hydroxyaluminosilicates (HAS), thus reducing Al availability. This possibility is investigated by heating solutions containing constituents of PN in glass containers to promote the release of Si and Al. The total amount of Si and Al in solution is measured by atomic absorption spectrometry, and the Al not bound to Si is evaluated by reaction with morin. When the Si:Al molar ratio is >5, no free Al is found in solution. For ratios 5, there is a "residual" fraction of free Al in amino acid formulations. The concomitant presence of Al and Si in solutions for PN reduces the amount of Al available attributable to the formation of HAS. In amino acid formulations this effect may be slightly reduced given the affinity of certain amino acids for Al. Therefore, amino acids may behave in the same fashion as silicate.

  17. Tailoring polymer properties with layered silicates (United States)

    Xu, Liang

    Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites have found widespread applications in areas such as plastics, oil and gas production, biomedical, automotive and information storage, but their successful commercialization critically depends on consistent control over issues such as complete dispersion of layered silicate into the host polymer and optimal interaction between the layered silicates and the polymers. Polypropylene is a commercially important polymer but usually forms intercalated structures with organically modified layered silicate upon mixing, even it is pre-treated with compatibilizing agent such as maleic anhydride. In this work, layered silicate is well dispersed in ammonium modified polypropylene but does not provide sufficient reinforcement to the host polymer due to poor interactions. On the other hand, interactions between maleic anhydride modified polypropylene and layered silicate are fine tuned by using a small amount of maleic anhydride and mechanical strength of the resultant nanocomposites are significantly enhanced. In particular, the melt rheological properties of layered silicate nanocomposites with maleic anhydride functionalized polypropylene are contrasted to those based on ammonium-terminated polypropylene. While the maleic anhydride treated polypropylene based nanocomposites exhibit solid-like linear dynamic behavior, consistent with the formation of a long-lived percolated nanoparticle network, the single-end ammonium functionalized polypropylene based nanocomposites demonstrated liquid-like behavior at comparable montmorillonite concentrations. The differences in the linear viscoelasticity are attributed to the presence of bridging interaction in maleic anhydride functionalized nanocomposites, which facilitates formation of a long-lived silicate network mediated by physisorbed polymer chains. Further, the transient shear stress of the maleic anhydride functionalized nanocomposites in start-up of steady shear is a function of the shear

  18. A design of spectrophotometric microfluidic chip sensor for analyzing silicate in seawater (United States)

    Cao, X.; Zhang, S. W.; Chu, D. Z.; Wu, N.; Ma, H. K.; Liu, Y.


    High quality and continuous in situ silicate data are required to investigate the mechanism of the biogeochemical cycles and the formation of red tide. There is an urgently growing need for autonomous in situ silicate instruments that perform determination on various platforms. However, due to the high reagents and power consumption, as well as high system complexity leading to low reliability and robustness, the performance of the commercially available silicate sensors is not satisfactory. With these problems, here we present a new generation of microfluidic continuous flow analysis silicate sensor with sufficient analytical performance and robustness, for in situ determination of soluble silicate in seawater. The reaction mechanism of this sensor is based on the reaction of silicate with ammonium molybdate to form a yellow silicomolybdate complex and further reduction to silicomoIybdenum blue by ascorbic acid. The minimum limit of detection was 45.1 nmol L-1, and the linear determination range of the sensor is 0-400 μmol L-1. The recovery rate of the actual water is between 98.1%-104.0%, and the analyzing cycle of the sensor is about 5 minutes. This sensor has the advantages of high accuracy, high integration, low water consumption, and strong anti-interference ability. It has been successfully applied to measuring the silicate in seawater in Jiaozhou Bay.

  19. Nanoscale zinc silicate from phytoliths (United States)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, C. R.; Amarasinghe, R.; Freitas, J. A.; Culbertson, J. C.; Wollmershauser, J. A.


    We report a faster, less expensive method of producing zinc silicate nanoparticles. Such particles are used in high volume to make phosphors and anti-corrosion coatings. The approach makes use of phytoliths (plant rocks), which are microscopic, amorphous, and largely silicate particles embedded in plants, that lend themselves to being easily broken down into nanoparticles. Nanoparticles of Zn2SiO4 were produced in a two stage process. In the refinement stage, plant residue, mixed with an appropriate amount of ZnO, was heated in an argon atmosphere to a temperature exceeding 1400 °C for four to six hours and then heated in air at 650 °C to remove excess carbon. TEM shows 50-100 nm nanoparticles. Raman scattering indicates that only the -Zn2SiO4 crystalline phase was present. X-ray analysis indicated pure rhombohedral R 3 bar phase results from using rice/wheat husks. Both samples luminesced predominantly at 523 nm when illuminated with X-rays or UV laser light.

  20. Participation of bacteria in weathering processes of silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Javorský


    Full Text Available Biological processes presented by the metabolic activity of different species of bacteria adhered at the mineral surfaces are a part of the geochemical processes. These bacteria accelerate, by the production of organic acids into the minerals structural bonds, the leaching of elements and their subsequent and gradual transformation to the secondary minerals. Microbial destructions of silicates are studied in order to processing low-quality mineral raw-materials and the remediation of soils, sediments and waters contaminated by industrial pollutants. The samples of material, used in our research, were obtained at 9 deposits of non-metallic raw-materials in Slovakia. The sediment sample was taken from the area of Baikal Lake. The presence of microorganisms in the matrix most frequently was determined by a subsequent isolation of microorganisms and identification of bacterial species presented in the silicate matrix. The species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas genus were the common representative of the microorganisms.

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Zirconium Silicate for CO2 Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Bhosale


    Full Text Available The samples of lithium zirconium silicate were prepared by precipitation, template and sol-gel meth-ods. The samples were prepared with several mol ratios of Li:Zr:Si. The preparation of lithium zirco-nium silicate samples by precipitation method were carried out by using the lithium nitrate, zirconyl nitrate, zirconium(IV oxypropoxide and tetramethylorthosilicate (TEOS as precursors. The samples of lithium zirconium silicate were prepared by using cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (C-TAB and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH by template method. The samples of lithium zirconium silicate were characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, 29Si-MAS NMR and FTIR. The surface area, alkalinity / acidity of the samples of lithium zirconium silicate were measured. The TGA analysis of lithium zirco-nium silicate samples was done. The CO2 captured by the samples of lithium zirconium silicate was es-timated. The captured CO2 by the samples of lithium zirconium silicate was found to be in the range 3.3 to 8.6 wt%. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 27th March 2014; Revised: 31st July 2014; Accepted: 2nd August 2014How to Cite: Bhosale, T.S. , Gaikwad, A.G. (2014. Preparation and Characterization of Lithium Zirconium Silicate for CO2 Capture. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9(3: 249-262. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.6646.249-262Permalink/DOI:

  2. Silicates materials of high vacuum technology

    CERN Document Server

    Espe, Werner


    Materials of High Vacuum Technology, Volume 2: Silicates covers silicate insulators of special importance to vacuum technology. The book discusses the manufacture, composition, and physical and chemical properties of technical glasses, quartz glass, quartzware, vycor glass, ceramic materials, mica, and asbestos.

  3. Mesoporous Silicate Materials in Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T. Charles


    Full Text Available Mesoporous silicas, especially those exhibiting ordered pore systems and uniform pore diameters, have shown great potential for sensing applications in recent years. Morphological control grants them versatility in the method of deployment whether as bulk powders, monoliths, thin films, or embedded in coatings. High surface areas and pore sizes greater than 2 nm make them effective as adsorbent coatings for humidity sensors. The pore networks also provide the potential for immobilization of enzymes within the materials. Functionalization of materials by silane grafting or through cocondensation of silicate precursors can be used to provide mesoporous materials with a variety of fluorescent probes as well as surface properties that aid in selective detection of specific analytes. This review will illustrate how mesoporous silicas have been applied to sensing changes in relative humidity, changes in pH, metal cations, toxic industrial compounds, volatile organic compounds, small molecules and ions, nitroenergetic compounds, and biologically relevant molecules.

  4. Pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate as an alternative precursor for SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrena, M.I., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gomez de Salazar, J.M.; Soria, A.; Matesanz, L. [Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Av. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    This work reported basically aims at understanding the extent of SiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanofibers using two different sol-gel precursors for the silicate glass. The silicate precursors employed were tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The first route consisted in an acid hydrolysis and polycondensation of the TEOS and the second one in a polycondensation of the pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate. The techniques of Fourier Infra Red spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the materials obtained. Both kinds of SiO{sub 2} precursor can coat the CNF effectively. However, the use of pre-hydrolysed ethyl silicate (faster gelation times and higher surface areas) can be considered a low-cost and facile alternative with respect to the use of TEOS, to obtain industrially silica-coated carbon nanofibers.

  5. Alkali Silicate Vehicle Forms Durable, Fireproof Paint (United States)

    Schutt, John B.; Seindenberg, Benjamin


    The problem: To develop a paint for use on satellites or space vehicles that exhibits high resistance to cracking, peeling, or flaking when subjected to a wide range of temperatures. Organic coatings will partially meet the required specifications but have the inherent disadvantage of combustibility. Alkali-silicate binders, used in some industrial coatings and adhesives, show evidence of forming a fireproof paint, but the problem of high surface-tension, a characteristic of alkali silicates, has not been resolved. The solution: Use of a suitable non-ionic wetting agent combined with a paint incorporating alkali silicate as the binder.

  6. Model Dust Envelopes Around Silicate Carbon Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh


    Full Text Available We have modeled dust envelopes around silicate carbon stars using optical properties for a mixture of amorphous carbon and silicate dust grains paying close attention to the infrared observations of the stars. The 4 stars show various properties in chemistry and location of the dust shell. We expect that the objects that fit a simple detached silicate dust shell model could be in the transition phase of the stellar chemistry. For binary system objects, we find that a mixed dust chemistry model would be necessary.

  7. Assessment of Fe(III) and Eu(III) complexation by silicate in aqueous solutions (United States)

    Patten, James T.; Byrne, Robert H.


    Prior investigations of Eu3+ complexation by silicate have led to predictions that rare earth silicate complexes (REESiO(OH)32+) are the dominant species of REEs in deep waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The proposed importance of REE-silicate complexes has been used as a foundation to explain oceanic REE profiles. In the present work, we examine the significance of rare earth element complexation by silicate ions. As one fundamental means of assessing prior depictions of REE-silicate formation constant behavior, our work examines the comparative stability constant behavior of Eu(III) and Fe(III). Plots of Eu(III) complexation constants against Fe(III) formation constants, in conjunction with experimental determinations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constants, indicate that previously published EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are substantially overestimated. Assessment of prior EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant determinations reveals that results obtained in the presence and absence of silicic acid polymerization are inconsistent. Much larger EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constants are obtained in the presence of polymeric silica. Reanalysis of complexation results obtained under conditions of minimal silicate polymerization leads to a EuSiO(OH)32+ formation constant that is smaller than previously published estimates by as much as a factor of ∼25. The dramatically reduced magnitude of Siβ1(Eu) relative to previously published results indicates that the role of silicate complexation in oceanic REE cycling is much less significant than previously proposed. The spectrophotometric investigations of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation in the present study yield the first characterization of FeSiO(OH)32+ formation constant behavior as a function of ionic strength:

  8. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  10. Layer by layer coating of NH2-silicate/polycarboxylic acid polymer saturated by Ni(2+) onto the super magnetic NiFe2O4 nanoparticles for sensitive and bio-valuable separation of His-tagged proteins. (United States)

    Mirahmadi-Zare, Seyede Zohreh; Aboutalebi, Fatemeh; Allafchian, Maryam; Pirjamali, Leila; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein


    Magnetic nanoparticles NiFe2O4 was synthesized and covered in the silicate lattice of (3-Aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APS) by the sol-gel process. Subsequently, the EDTA-dianhydride was attached to the amino surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) during the nucleophilic attack. This polycarboxylic layer trapped the high level of nickel ions for selective bonding to the His-tagged recombinant protein. The surface of MNPs was investigated by TEM, XRD, SEM (EDSA), VSM, BET, FT-IR and zeta potential analysis which characterized the size, chemical lattice, morphology, magnetic strength, specific surface area, functional groups and charge of the surface of nanoparticles. The performance and validity of the nanoparticles were studied by the purification of His-tagged green fluorescence protein (His-GFP). Also, the safety of proposed Ni-MNPs in the purification procedure of His-tagged proteins for pharmaceutical applications was proved by the determination of the nickel leakage level in the purified final protein using atomic absorption spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of Ni-MNPs and trace metal ions was investigated by the MTS assay technique. In addition, the comparison of biological activity in purified protein (GM-CSF) and commercial sample did not show any toxic effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Peralkaline silicic volcanic rocks in northwestern nevada. (United States)

    Noble, D C; Chipman, D W; Giles, D L


    Late Tertiary silicic ashflow tuffs and lavas peralkaline in chemical character (atomic Na + K greater than Al), mainly comendites, occur over wide areas in northwestern Nevada and appear to be widespread in southeastern Oregon. Such peralkaline rocks-which are not uncommon in the western United States-and other chemically unusual silicic rocks are found near the margins rather than toward the center of the Great Basin.

  12. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.


    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  13. Synthesis of a novel polyester building block from pentoses by tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Andersen, Christian; Tolborg, Søren


    We report here the direct formation of the new chemical product, trans-2,5-dihydroxy-3-pentenoic acid methyl ester, from pentoses using tin-containing silicates as catalysts. The product is formed under alkali-free conditions in methanol at temperatures in the range 140–180 °C. The highest yields...

  14. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates. (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei


    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations' setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05).

  15. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei


    Abstract Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations’ setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05). PMID:26787304

  16. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Dicalcium Silicate Based Cement (United States)

    Dutta, N.; Chatterjee, A.


    It is imperative to develop low energy alternative binders considering the large amounts of energy consumed as well as carbon dioxide emissions involved in the manufacturing of ordinary Portland cement. This study is on the synthesis of a dicalcium silicate based binder using a low temperature hydrothermal route.The process consists of synthesizing an intermediate product consisting of a calcium silicate hydrate phase with a Ca:Si ratio of 2:1 and further thermal treatment to produce the β-Ca2SiO4 (C2S) phase.Effect of various synthesis parameters like water to solid ratio, dwell time and temperature on the formation of the desired calcium silicate hydrate phase is reported along with effect of heating conditions for formation of the β-C2S phase. Around 77.45% of β-C2S phase was synthesized by thermal treatment of the intermediate phase at 820°C.

  17. Composite nanoparticles: A new way to siliceous materials and a model of biosilica synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, Vadim V., E-mail: [Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Pal' shin, Viktor A.; Verkhozina, Olga N. [Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Larina, Lyudmila I. [A. E. Favorsky Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); Danilovtseva, Elena N. [Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation)


    A new polyampholyte based on poly (acrylic acid) which bears pendant polyamine oligomeric chains (average number of the nitrogen atoms is 11.2) is obtained. This polymer is a model of silaffins – proteins playing important role in formation of siliceous structures in diatom algae and sponges. The polymer catalyses condensation of silicic acid. The obtained solutions contain oligosilicates coordinated with the polymer chains. The action of 50,000 g gravity on this solution results in concentrating-induced condensation of the pre-condensed siliceous oligomers. The obtained solid silica contains 4% admixture of the organic polymer which is close to the silica from diatom frustules. These results confirm the hypothesis about formation of biosilica under the action of desiccation agent, e.g. aquaporins. The formation of solid substances during centrifugation of solutions containing soluble oligomers is a new promising approach to inorganic and composite materials which allows to work in aqueous medium and to reuse the organic polymer. - Highlights: • A polyampholyte with pendant polyamine chains is obtained. • The polymer catalyses condensation of silicic acid giving stable solutions. • Gravity-induced (50,000 g) formation of solid silica was observed in these solutions. • The obtained silica is close to biosilica from diatom frustules. • A new approach to inorganic and composite materials is proposed.

  18. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.


    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  19. Effects of surface application of dolomitic limestone and calcium-magnesium silicate on soybean and maize in rotation with green manure in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro


    Full Text Available Although lime is currently the material most frequently used to ameliorate soil acidity in Brazil, silicate could efficiently replace this source because of its greater solubility and its greater silicon content, which are beneficial for plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of superficial lime and silicate application on soil chemical attributes as well as on soybean and maize nutrition and grain yields when these crops are grown in rotation with green manure. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with sixteen replicates. Plots were treated with one of two materials for acidity correction (dolomitic lime and calcium/magnesium silicate or with no soil correction, as a control. Silicate corrected soil acidity and increased exchangeable base levels in soil at greater depths faster than does liming. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased N, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations, and all yield components and grain yield in soybean; but in maize, just silicate also increased N and Si when compared with lime, whereas both acidity-correcting increased just two yield components: grains per ear and mass of 100 grains, resulting in highest grain yield. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased dry matter production of green manures, but for pigeon pea the silicate provided the best result in this dry-winter region.

  20. Combustion synthesis and photoluminescence study of silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicate based bioceramics are promising candidates as biomaterials for tissue engineering. The combustion synthesis method provides control on the morphology and particle size of the synthesized material. This paper discusses the combustion synthesis of akermanite (Ca2MgSi2O7 and Sr2MgSi2O7), which has been ...

  1. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The silicon contents in the roots of the miniature rose treated with polymer sodium silicate were significantly greater than that in plants treated with monomer sodium silicate. In conclusion, the suppressive effects of sodium silicate in the polymer form were confirmed against powdery mildew and root rot diseases of the ...

  2. The role of water in silicate oligomerization reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trinh, T.T.; Jansen, A.P.J.; Santen, R.A.; Meijer, E.J.


    The silicate oligomerization reaction is key to sol-gel chemistry and zeolite synthesis. Numerous experimental and theoretical studies have been devoted to investigating the physical chemistry of silicate oligomers in the prenucleation stage of siliceous zeolite formation. Most of the previous

  3. Suppressive effects of a polymer sodium silicate solution on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 21, 2015 ... Sodium silicate was dissolved in water in either a monomer form or polymer form; the effects of both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution on rose powdery mildew and root rot diseases of miniature rose were examined. Both forms of sodium silicate aqueous solution were applied to the roots of the.

  4. Silicate fertilization of tropical soils: silicon availability and recovery index of sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Sartori de Camargo


    Full Text Available Sugarcane is considered a Si-accumulating plant, but in Brazil, where several soil types are used for cultivation, there is little information about silicon (Si fertilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the silicon availability, uptake and recovery index of Si from the applied silicate on tropical soils with and without silicate fertilization, in three crops. The experiments in pots (100 L were performed with specific Si rates (0, 185, 370 and 555 kg ha-1 Si, three soils (Quartzipsamment-Q, 6 % clay; Rhodic Hapludox-RH, 22 % clay; and Rhodic Acrudox-RA, 68 % clay, with four replications. The silicon source was Ca-Mg silicate. The same Ca and Mg quantities were applied to all pots, with lime and/or MgCl2, when necessary. Sugarcane was harvested in the plant cane and first- and second-ratoon crops. The silicon rates increased soil Si availability and Si uptake by sugarcane and had a strong residual effect. The contents of soluble Si were reduced by harvesting and increased with silicate application in the following decreasing order: Q>RH>RA. The silicate rates promoted an increase in soluble Si-acetic acid at harvest for all crops and in all soils, except RA. The amounts of Si-CaCl2 were not influenced by silicate in the ratoon crops. The plant Si uptake increased according to the Si rates and was highest in RA at all harvests. The recovery index of applied Si (RI of sugarcane increased over time, and was highest in RA.

  5. Laboratory Evidence for Microbially Mediated Silicate Mineral Dissolution in Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullman, W. J.; Kirchman, D. L.; Welch, S. A.; Vandevivere, P.


    Bacteria may potentially enhance or inhibit silicate mineral dissolution in nature by a variety of mechanisms. In the laboratory, some microbial metabolites enhanced dissolution rates by a factor of ten above the expected proton-promoted rate by an additional ligand-promoted mechanism focused principally at Al sites at the mineral surface. In investigations with bacteria, it was found that organic acids are produced in organic-rich/nutrient-poor cultures, resulting in increased mineral dissolution rates compared to abiotic controls. Alginate and poly-aspartate inhibited dissolution rates either by a reduction in surface reactivity or reactive surface area (or both). Bacteria may also influence dissolution rates by creating and maintaining microenvironments where metabolite concentrations are higher than in the bulk solution.

  6. Is plant ecology more siliceous than we realise? (United States)

    Cooke, Julia; Leishman, Michelle R


    Although silicon occurs in all plants, it is an element that is largely overlooked by many plant ecologists and most plant-related research on silicon comes from agronomy, archaeology, palaeontology and biogeochemistry. Plant silicon has many functions, acting biochemically as silicic acid and physically as amorphous silica. It contributes to cell and plant strength and enables plants to respond adaptively to environmental stresses. Consequently, plant silicon can increase plant fitness in many fundamental aspects of ecology, including plant-herbivore interactions, light interception, pathogen resistance and alleviation of abiotic stresses. Here, we provide an ecological perspective to research outcomes from diverse disciplines, showing that silicon is an important element in plant ecology that is worthy of greater attention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbonate-silicate ratio for soil correction and influence on nutrition, biomass production and quality of palisade grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza


    Full Text Available Silicates can be used as soil correctives, with the advantage of being a source of silicon, a beneficial element to the grasses. However, high concentrations of silicon in the plant would affect the digestibility of the forage. To evaluate the influence of the substitution of the calcium carbonate by calcium silicate on the nutrition, biomass production and the feed quality of the palisade grass [Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich. R. Webster], three greenhouse experiments were conducted in completely randomized designs with four replications. Experimental units (pots contained a clayey dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox, a sandy clay loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox and a sandy loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox. Each soil received substitution proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the carbonate by calcium silicate. The increase in the proportion of calcium silicate elevated the concentrations and accumulations of Si, Ca, Mg, and B, reduced Zn and did not alter P in the shoot of plants. The effects of the treatments on the other nutrients were influenced by the soil type. Inclusion of calcium silicate also increased the relative nutritional value and the digestibility and ingestion of the forage, while the concentration and accumulation of crude protein and the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibers decreased. Biomass production and feed quality of the palisade grass were generally higher with the 50 % calcium silicate treatment.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of functional copolymer/organo-silicate nanoarchitectures through interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The functional copolymers, having a combination of rigid/flexible linkages and an ability of complex-formation with interlayered surface of organo-silicate, and their nanocomposites have been synthesized by interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization of intercalated monomer complexes of maleic anhydride (MA and itaconic acid (IA with dimethyl dodecylamine surface modified montmorillonite (organo-MMT (MA…DMDA-MMT and IA…DMDA-MMT n-butyl methacrylate (BMA and/or BMA/styrene monomer mixtures. The results of nanocomposite structure–composition– property relationship studies indicate that interlamellar complex-formation between anhydride/acid units and surface alkyl amine and rigid/flexible linkage balance in polymer chains are important factors providing the effective intercalation/ exfoliation of the polymer chains into the silicate galleries, the formation of nanostructural hybrids with higher thermal stability, dynamic mechanical behaviour and well dispersed morphology.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of plant thionins employing aluminum silicate based extraction columns. (United States)

    Hussain, Shah; Güzel, Yüksel; Pezzei, Cornelia; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K


    Thionins belong to a family of cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight (∼5 KDa) biologically active proteins in the plant kingdom. They display a broad cellular toxicity against a wide range of organisms and eukaryotic cell lines. Thionins protect plants against different pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. A highly selective solid-phase extraction method for plant thionins is reported deploying aluminum silicate (3:2 mullite) powder as a sorbent in extraction columns. Mullite was shown to considerably improve selectivity compared to a previously described zirconium silicate embedded poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic polymer. Due to the presence of aluminum(III), mullite offers electrostatic interactions for the selective isolation of cysteine-rich proteins. In comparison to zirconium(IV) silicate, aluminum(III) silicate showed reduced interactions towards proteins which resulted into superior washings of unspecific compounds while still retaining cysteine-rich thionins. In the presented study, European mistletoe, wheat and barley samples were subjected to solid-phase extraction analysis for isolation of viscotoxins, purothionins and hordothionins, respectively. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy was used for determining the selectivity of the sorbent toward thionins. The selectively retained thionins were quantified by colorimetric detection using the bicinchoninic acid assay. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis tryptic digests of eluates were examined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Attributes of the soil fertilized with sewage sludge and calcium and magnesium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo R. Zuba Junio


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the chemical attributes of an Inceptisol cultivated with castor bean (Ricinus communis L., variety ‘BRS Energia’, fertilized with sewage sludge compost and calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg silicate. The experiment was conducted at the ICA/UFMG, in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of two doses of Ca-Mg silicate (0 and 1 t ha-1 and four doses of sewage sludge compost (0, 23.81, 47.62 and 71.43 t ha-1, on dry basis. Soil organic matter (OM, pH, sum of bases (SB, effective cation exchange capacity (CEC(t, total cation exchange capacity (CEC(T, base saturation (V% and potential acidity (H + Al were evaluated. There were no significant interactions between doses of sewage sludge compost and doses of Ca-Mg silicate on soil attributes, and no effect of silicate fertilization on these attributes. However, fertilization with sewage sludge compost promoted reduction in pH and increase in H + Al, OM and CEC. The dose of 71.43 t ha-1 of sewage sludge compost promoted the best soil chemical conditions.

  11. Productivity and nutritive value of bluestem grass fertilized with calcium and magnesium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya Souza Santana


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of application of calcium and magnesium silicate on the productivity, chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradation of bluestem grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, cv. Baeti; Embrapa 23 during the rainy and dry seasons. The design consisted of completely randomized blocks in a 6x2 factorial scheme (six silicate doses and two cutting seasons, arranged in plots subdivided over time. The plots were the calcium and magnesium silicate doses (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 kg/ha and the subplots were the two cutting seasons (rainy and dry period, with five repetitions (blocks. The calcium and magnesium silicate doses exerted no significant effect on green or dry matter production, chemical forage composition or degradability parameters. On the other hand, there was an effect of cutting period on forage production and chemical composition. The highest production of green and dry matter was observed during the rainy period, while acid detergent fiber content was higher during the dry season. The treatments did not exert any significant effect on the parameters of degradability that would alter the nutritive value of bluestem grass.

  12. Hydrothermal stability and catalytic performance of desilicated highly siliceous zeolites ZSM-5


    Tarach, Karolina A.; Martínez-Triguero, Joaquín; Rey Garcia, Fernando; Góra-Marek, Kinga


    Highly siliceous zeolites, namely MFI type have attracted the great attention due to their higher hydrothermal stability, higher selectivity to organic compounds, and often better catalytic properties in comparison with Al-rich zeolites. The native zeolite (Si/Al = 164) and its desilicated analogues were deeply characterized with regard to their structural and textural properties by X-ray diffraction, low temperature adsorption of nitrogen and solid-state Al-27 MAS NMR. Their acidic propertie...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec


    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradation of the cement paste plasticity and for this reason it is necessary to reduce the amount of liquid glass in the cement paste. The activation of dilute water solution of sodium silicate into rotary pulsating apparatus directly before tempering of the cement paste is an effective way to decrease mass fraction of liquid glass in the cement paste. The results of the combined influence of liquid glass and mechanical activation on physicochemical processes taking place in cement stone are represented in this research. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in order to study cement blends. Thermogravimetric analysis of modified cement stone assays was performed by thermo analyzer SETARAM TGA 92-24. The results of the analysis of phase transition taking place under high-temperature heating of cement stone modified by the mechanical activation of the water solution of the sodium silicate were introduced. Thermograms of cement stone assays were obtained at different hardening age. The comparison of these thermograms allows us to come to a conclusion on the formation and the retention during long time of a more dense structure of the composite matrix mixed by the mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. The relation between the concrete composition and its strength properties was stated. Perhaps, the capability of modified concrete to keep calcium ions in sparingly soluble hydrosilicates leads to the increase in its durability and corrosion resistance.

  15. Activity composition relationships in silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazner, A.F.


    Equipment progress include furnace construction and electron microprobe installation. The following studies are underway: phase equilibria along basalt-rhyolite mixing line (olivine crystallization from natural silicic andensites, distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine and liquid, dist. of Ca and Na between plagioclase and liquid), enthalpy-composition relations in magmas (bulk heat capacity of alkali basalt), density model for magma ascent and contamination, thermobarometry in igneous systems (olivine/plagioclase phenocryst growth in Quat. basalt), high-pressure phase equilibria of alkali basalt, basalt-quartz mixing experiments, phase equilibria of East African basalts, and granitic minerals in mafic magma. (DLC)

  16. Microbial dissolution of silicate materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartzman, D. [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biology


    The objective of this research was to better understand the role of selected thermophilic bacteria in the colonization and dissolution of silicate minerals, with potential applications to the HDR Project. The demonstration of enhanced dissolution from microbial effects is critically dependent on providing a mineral bait within a media deficient in the critical nutrient found in the mineral (e.g., Fe). Reproducible experimental conditions in batch experiments require agitation to expose mineral powders, as well as nearly similar initial conditions for both inoculated cultures and controls. It is difficult, but not impossible to ensure reproducible conditions with microbes favoring filamentous growth habits.

  17. Nanoporous Calcium Silicate and PLGA Biocomposite for Bone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacan Su


    Full Text Available Nanoporous calcium silicate (n-CS with high surface area was synthesized using the mixed surfactants of EO20PO70EO20 (polyethylene oxide20(polypropylene oxide70(polyethylene oxide20, P123 and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as templates, and its composite with poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA were fabricated. The results showed that the n-CS/PLGA composite (n-CPC with 20 wt% n-CS could induce a dense and continuous layer of apatite on its surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF for 1 week, suggesting the excellent in vitro bioactivity. The n-CPC could promote cell attachment on its surfaces. In addition, the proliferation ratio of MG63 cells on n-CPC was significantly higher than PLGA; the results demonstrated that n-CPC had excellent cytocompatibility. We prepared n-CPC scaffolds that contained open and interconnected macropores ranging in size from 200 to 500 μm. The n-CPC scaffolds were implanted in femur bone defect of rabbits, and the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity of the scaffolds were investigated. The results indicated that n-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, degradability, and osteogenesis in vivo. Collectively, these results suggested that the incorporation of n-CS in PLGA produced biocomposites with improved bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  18. Thermochemistry of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (United States)

    Bose, Kunal; Burnley, Pamela; Navrotsky, Alexandra


    Recent experimental investigations under mantle conditions have identified a suite of dense hydrous magnesium silicate (DHMS) phases that could be conduits to transport water to at least the 660 km discontinuity via mature, relatively cold, subducting slabs. Water released from successive dehydration of these phases during subduction could be responsible for deep focus earthquakes, mantle metasomatism and a host of other physico-chemical processes central to our understanding of the earth's deep interior. In order to construct a thermodynamic data base that can delineate and predict the stability ranges for DHMS phases, reliable thermochemical and thermophysical data are required. One of the major obstacles in calorimetric studies of phases synthesized under high pressure conditions has been limitation due to the small (less than 5 mg) sample mass. Our refinement of calorimeter techniques now allow precise determination of enthalpies of solution of less than 5 mg samples of hydrous magnesium silicates. For example, high temperature solution calorimetry of natural talc (Mg(0.99) Fe(0.01)Si4O10(OH)2), periclase (MgO) and quartz (SiO2) yield enthalpies of drop solution at 1044 K to be 592.2 (2.2), 52.01 (0.12) and 45.76 (0.4) kJ/mol respectively. The corresponding enthalpy of formation from oxides at 298 K for talc is minus 5908.2 kJ/mol agreeing within 0.1 percent to literature values.

  19. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions (United States)

    Gokturk, H.


    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  20. Enhanced dissolution of silicate minerals by bacteria at near-neutral pH. (United States)

    Vandevivere, P; Welch, S A; Ullman, W J; Kirchman, D L


    Previous studies have shown that various microorganisms can enhance the dissolution of silicate minerals at low (8) pH. However, it was not known if they can have an effect at near-neutral pH. Almost half of 17 isolates examined in this study stimulated bytownite dissolution at near-neutral pH while in a resting state in buffered glucose. Most of the isolates found to stimulate dissolution also oxidized glucose to gluconic acid. More detailed analysis with one of these isolates suggested that this partial oxidation was the predominant, if not sole, mechanism of enhanced dissolution. Enhanced dissolution did not require direct contact between the dissolving mineral and the bacteria. Gluconate-promoted dissolution was also observed with other silicate minerals such as albite, quartz, and kaolinite.

  1. Petrology and Geochemistry of Calc-Silicate Schists and Calc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemically the calc-silicate schists are characterized by relatively high CaO, MgO, Cr, Ni, Sr, La, Ce and Nd contents compared with the mica schist regionally associated with the marble as well as the Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS). Relative to the ultramafic schist the calc-silicate schists are characterized by higher ...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). 721.9513 Section 721.9513 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical...

  3. [Adsorption characteristic and form distribution of silicate in lakes sediments]. (United States)

    Lü, Chang-Wei; Cui, Meng; Gao, Ji-Mei; Zhang, Xi-Yan; Wan, Li-Li; He, Jiang; Meng, Ting-Ting; Bai, Fan; Yang, Xu


    Taking surface sediments from the Wuliangsuhai Lake and Daihai Lake as adsorbent, the isothermal adsorption experiments of silicate on sediments were carried out and the adsorption behavior was explained by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin crossover-type equations, then the form distribution characters of silicate were studied after adsorption in this work. The results showed that the adsorption behavior of silicate on the two lakes sediments can be linear fitting in the lower concentration dose (Temkin crossover-type equations can be used to explain the adsorption behavior of silicate on the two lakes sediments, and the native adsorption silicate (NAS) and equilibrium silicate concentration (ESC(0)) calculated by the three equations could be used to explain the sink and source effects of the sediments from the two lakes; the silicate form distribution in the sediments after adsorption indicated that silicate adsorbed on particles were mainly added on the form of IEF-Si, CF-Si, IMOF-Si and OSF-Si, and the IMOF-Si and OSF-Si had important potential bioavailability.

  4. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates


    Andrea Marisa Pereyra; Carlos Alberto Giudice


    The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia) impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses ...


    Discussed are acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE), both developed ...

  6. Kinetics of iron oxidation in silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V.; Neuville, D.R.; Cormier, L.; Mysen, B.O.; Pinet, O.; Richet, P


    High-temperature XANES experiments at the Fe K-edge have been used to study the kinetics of iron oxidation in a supercooled melt of Fe-bearing pyroxene composition. These experiments, made just above the glass transition between 600 and 700 deg C, show that variations in relative abundances of ferric and ferrous iron can be determined in situ at such temperatures. The kinetics of iron oxidation do not vary much with temperature down to the glass transition. This suggests that rate-limiting factor in this process is not oxygen diffusion, which is coupled to relaxation of the silicate network, but diffusion of network modifying cations along with a counter flux of electrons. To give a firmer basis to redox determinations made from XANES spectroscopy, the redox state of a series of a samples was first determined from wet chemical, Moessbauer spectroscopy and electron microprobe analyses. (authors)

  7. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq


    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  8. Lithium alumino-silicate ion source development (United States)

    Roy, Prabir Kumar; Seidl, Peter A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.; Mazaheri, Kavous


    We report experimental progress on Li+ source development in preparation for warm dense matter heating experiments. To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, we are pursuing the use of a low (E spodumene and β-eucryptite, each of area 0.31 cm2, have been fabricated for ion emission measurements. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1200 to 1300 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Tight process controls were necessary in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the porous tungsten substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. Current density limit of the two kinds have been measured, and ion species identification of possible contaminants has been verified with a Wien (E x B) filter.

  9. Efficacy of dispersion of magnesium silicate (talc in papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Singh Chauhan


    Full Text Available The understanding of the dispersion chemistry of papermaking grade fillers is as important as their effect on paper. Magnesium silicate (talc is one of the major fillers used for papermaking. It is hydrophobic and chemically inert. The dispersion chemistry of talc of different particle sizes was studied with wetting agent (non-ionic triblock copolymer and anionic dispersant (sodium salt of polyacrylic acid. Both wetting agent and dispersant were added in talc slurry separately and in combination. The dispersion behavior was studied through measuring the Brookfield viscosity. The wetted and dispersed talc was also added to paper to understand its effect on papermaking process and paper properties. Wetting and dispersion changed the colloidal charge chemistry of talc making it more anionic which reduced the talc retention in paper. Lowering the particle size of talc significantly improved the light scattering coefficient (LSC of paper and decreased its retention. Controlling colloidal charge of papermaking suspension with cationic polyacrylamide polymer helped in protecting the retention of talc without affecting the LSC of both filler and paper.

  10. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures (United States)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.


    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  11. Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model (United States)

    Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing


    The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.

  12. Fire Resistance of Wood Impregnated with Soluble Alkaline Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Giudice


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the fire performance of wood panels (Araucaria angustifolia impregnated with soluble alkaline silicates. Commercial silicates based on sodium and potassium with 2.5/1.0 and 3.0/1.0 silica/alkali molar ratios were selected; solutions and glasses were previously characterized. Experimental panels were tested in a limiting oxygen chamber and in a two-foot tunnel. Results displayed a high fire-retardant efficiency using some soluble silicates.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanta Suyanta


    Full Text Available The research about synthesis and characterization of MCM-41 from rice husk has been done. Silica (SiO2 was extracted from rice husk by refluxing with 3M hydrochloric solution at 80 °C for 3 h. The acid-leached rice husk was filtered, washed, dried and calcined at 650 °C for 6 h lead the rough powder of rice husk silica with light brown in color. Characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD and FTIR spectroscopy method. Rice husk silica was dissolved into the sodium hydroxide solution leading to the solution of sodium silicate, and used as silica source for the synthesis of MCM-41. MCM-41 was synthesized by hydrothermal process to the mixture prepared from 29 g of distilled water, 8.67 g of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB, 9.31 g of sodium silicate solution, and amount mL of 1 M H2SO4. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 °C in a teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave heated in the oven for 36 h. The solid phase was filtered, then washed with deionised water, and dried in the oven at 100 °C for 2 h. The surfactant CTMAB was removed by calcination at 550 °C for 10 h with heating rate 2 °C/min. The as-synthesized and calcined crystals were characterized by using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption methods. In order to investigate the effect of silica source, the same procedure was carried out by using pure sodium silicate as silica source. It was concluded that silica extracted from rice husk can be used as raw materials in the synthesis of MCM-41, there is no significant difference in crystallinity and pore properties when was compared to material produced from commercial sodium silicate.

  14. Phosphorus availability in oxidic soils treated with lime and silicate applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline da Silva Sandim


    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that silicate application can raise soil P availability for crops, the aim of this research was to compare the effect of silicate application on soil P desorption with that of liming, in evaluations based on two extractors and plant growth. The experiment was carried out in randomized blocks with four replications, in a 3 × 3 × 5 factorial design, in which three soil types, three P rates, and four soil acidity correctives were evaluated in 180 experimental plots. Trials were performed in a greenhouse using corn plants in 20-dm³ pots. Three P rates (0, 50 and 150 mg dm-3 were applied in the form of powder triple superphosphate and the soil was incubated for 90 days. After this period, soil samples were collected for routine chemical analysis and P content determination by the extraction methods resin, Mehlich-1 and remaining P. Based on the results, acidity correctives were applied at rates calculated for base saturation increased to 70 %, with subsequent incubation for 60 more days, when P content was determined again. The acidity correctives consisted of: dolomitic lime, steelmaking slag, ladle furnace slag, and wollastonite. Therefore, our results showed that slags raised the soil P content more than lime, suggesting a positive correlation between P and Si in soil. Silicon did not affect the extractor choice since both Mehlich-1 and resin had the same behavior regarding extracted P when silicon was applied to the soil. For all evaluated plant parameters, there was significant interaction between P rates and correctives; highest values were obtained with silicate.

  15. Silicate weathering and CO2 consumption within agricultural landscapes, the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Welch


    respect to alkalinity losses in the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin than in the NAEW sites suggested that soils derived from younger Pleistocene glacial-till may yield more DSi relative to nitrogenous fertilizer applications than the older NAEW soils. Because silicate weathering occurs via acids released from nitrification, CO2 consumption estimates based on the assumption that silicate weathers via carbonic acid alone may be especially over-estimated in fertilized agricultural watersheds with little baseflow (i.e. 67 % overestimated in the corn till watershed. CO2 consumption estimates based on silicate weathering may be as much as 20 % lower than estimates derived from carbonic acid weathering alone for the Ohio-Tennessee River Basin between 1979–2009. Globally, this may mean that younger landscapes with soils favorable for agriculture are susceptible to fertilizer-enhanced silicate weathering. Increases in silicate weathering, however, may be offset by shifts in hydrology resulting from agricultural land management practices or even from soil silica losses in response to repeated acidification.

  16. Acyl silicates and acyl aluminates as activated intermediates in peptide formation on clays (United States)

    White, D. H.; Kennedy, R. M.; Macklin, J.


    Glycine reacts with heating on dried clays and other minerals to give peptides in much better yield than in the absence of mineral. This reaction was proposed to occur by way of an activated intermediate such as an acyl silicate or acyl aluminate analogous to acyl phosphates involved in several biochemical reactions including peptide bond synthesis. The proposed mechanism has been confirmed by trapping the intermediate, as well as by direct spectroscopic observation of a related intermediate. The reaction of amino acids on periodically dried mineral surfaces represents a widespead, geologically realistic setting for prebiotic peptide formation via in situ activation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Vrkljan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dissolution method for silicate rock samples for further analytical purposes. Analytical FAAS method of determining cobalt, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc content in gabbro sample and geochemical standard AGV-1 has been applied for verification. Dissolution in mixtures of various inorganic acids has been tested, as well as Na2CO3 fusion technique. The results obtained by different methods have been compared and dissolution in the mixture of HNO3 + HF has been recommended as optimal.

  18. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Foletto


    Full Text Available Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reaction mixture (expressed in terms of molar ratios NaOH/SiO2 and H2O/SiO2. About 90% silica conversion contained in the RHA into sodium silicate was achieved in closed system at 200 °C. The results showed that sodium silicate production from RHA can generate aggregate value to this residue.

  19. Study of thermal effects of silicate-containing hydroxyapatites (United States)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Zaits, A. V.; Berdinskaya, N. V.; Mylnikova, T. S.


    The possibility of modifications of hydroxyapatite silicate ions, from the extracellular fluid prototype solution under near-physiological conditions has been studied. Formation of silicon-structured hydroxyapatite with different extent of substitution of phosphate groups in the silicate group has been established through chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. The results obtained are in agreement and suggest the possibility of substitution of phosphate groups for silicate groups in the hydroxyapatite structure when introducing different sources of silica, tetraethoxysilane and sodium silicate, in the reaction mixture. Growth in the amount of silicon in Si-HA results in the increase in the thermal stability of the samples. The greatest mass loss occurs at temperatures in the range of 25-400 0C that is caused by the removal of the crystallization and adsorption water and volatile impurities. It is shown that the modified apatites are of imperfect structure and crystallize in a nanocrystalline state.

  20. Silicate Urolithiasis during Long-Term Treatment with Zonisamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Taguchi


    Full Text Available Silicate urinary calculi are rare in humans, with an incidence of 0.2% of all urinary calculi. Most cases were related to excess ingestion of silicate, typically by taking magnesium trisilicate as an antacid for peptic ulcers over a long period of time; however, there also existed unrelated cases, whose mechanism of development remains unclear. On the other hand, zonisamide, a newer antiepileptic drug, is one of the important causing agents of iatrogenic urinary stones in patients with epilepsy. The supposed mechanism is that zonisamide induces urine alkalinization and then promotes crystallization of urine components such as calcium phosphate by inhibition of carbonate dehydratase in renal tubular epithelial cells. Here, we report a case of silicate urolithiasis during long-term treatment with zonisamide without magnesium trisilicate intake and discuss the etiology of the disease by examining the silicate concentration in his urine.

  1. Tris (catecholato) silicates of nickel: Synthesis, characterization and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    catecholato)silicates of nickel: Synthesis, characterization and first observation of inter-ion ligand transfer. J Vijeyakumar Kingston G S M Sundaram M N Sudheendra Rao. Volume 112 Issue 3 June 2000 pp 402-402 ...

  2. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.


    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  3. Conversion of rice hull ash into soluble sodium silicate


    Edson Luiz Foletto; Ederson Gratieri; Leonardo Hadlich de Oliveira; Sérgio Luiz Jahn


    Sodium silicate is used as raw material for several purposes: silica gel production, preparation of catalysts, inks, load for medicines, concrete hardening accelerator, component of detergents and soaps, refractory constituent and deflocculant in clay slurries. In this work sodium silicate was produced by reacting rice hull ash (RHA) and aqueous sodium hydroxide, in open and closed reaction systems. The studied process variables were time, temperature of reaction and composition of the reacti...

  4. Comparison of silicon nanoparticles and silicate treatments in fenugreek. (United States)

    Nazaralian, Sanam; Majd, Ahmad; Irian, Saeed; Najafi, Farzaneh; Ghahremaninejad, Farrokh; Landberg, Tommy; Greger, Maria


    Silicon (Si) fertilization improves crop cultivation and is commonly added in the form of soluble silicates. However, most natural plant-available Si originates from plant formed amorphous SiO2 particles, phytoliths, similar to SiO2-nanoparticles (SiNP). In this work we, therefore, compared the effect by sodium silicate and that of SiNP on Si accumulation, activity of antioxidative stress enzymes catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, lignification of xylem cell walls and activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as well as expression of genes for the putative silicon transporter (PST), defensive (Tfgd 1) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and protein in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) grown in hydroponics. The results showed that Si was taken up from both silicate and SiNP treatments and increasing sodium silicate addition increased the translocation of Si to the shoot, while this was not shown with increasing SiNP addition. The silicon transporter PST was upregulated at a greater level when sodium silicate was added compared with SiNP addition. There were no differences in effects between sodium silicate and SiNP treatments on the other parameters measured. Both treatments increased the uptake and accumulation of Si, xylem cell wall lignification, cell wall thickness, PAL activity and protein concentration in seedlings, while there was no effect on antioxidative enzyme activity. Tfgd 1 expression was strongly downregulated in leaves at Si addition. The similarity in effects by silicate and SiNP would be due to that SiNP releases silicate, which may be taken up, shown by a decrease in SiNP particle size with time in the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. History of Nebular Processing Traced by Silicate Stardust in IDPS (United States)

    Messenger, Scott R.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.


    Chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) may be the best preserved remnants of primordial solar system materials, in part because they were not affected by parent body hydrothermal alteration. Their primitive characteristics include fine grained, unequilibrated, anhydrous mineralogy, enrichment in volatile elements, and abundant molecular cloud material and silicate stardust. However, while the majority of CP-IDP materials likely derived from the Solar System, their formation processes and provenance are poorly constrained. Stardust abundances provide a relative measure of the extent of processing that the Solar System starting materials has undergone in primitive materials. For example, among primitive meteorites silicate stardust abundances vary by over two orders of magnitude (less than 10-200 ppm). This range of abundances is ascribed to varying extents of aqueous processing in the meteorite parent bodies. The higher average silicate stardust abundances among CP-IDPs (greater than 375 ppm) are thus attributable to the lack of aqueous processing of these materials. Yet, silicate stardust abundances in IDPs also vary considerably. While the silicate stardust abundance in IDPs having anomalous N isotopic compositions was reported to be 375 ppm, the abundance in IDPs lacking N anomalies is less than 10 ppm. Furthermore, these values are significantly eclipsed among some IDPs with abundances ranging from 2,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm. Given that CP-IDPs have not been significantly affected by parent body processes, the difference in silicate stardust abundances among these IDPs must reflect varying extents of nebular processing. Here we present recent results of a systematic coordinated mineralogical/isotopic study of large cluster IDPs aimed at (1) characterizing the mineralogy of presolar silicates and (2) delineating the mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of IDPs with differing silicate stardust abundances. One of the goals of this study is

  6. Silicates in orthopedics and bone tissue engineering materials. (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Zhang, Nianli; Mankoci, Steven; Sahai, Nita


    Following the success of silicate-based glasses as bioactive materials, silicates are believed to play important roles in promoting bone formation and have therefore been considered to provide a hydroxyapatite (HAP) surface layer capable of binding to bone as well as potentially being a pro-osteoinductive factor. Natural silicate minerals and silicate-substituted HAPs are also being actively investigated as orthopaedic bone and dental biomaterials for application in tissue engineering. However, the mechanisms for the proposed roles of silicate in these materials have not been fully understood and are controversial. Here, we review the potential roles of silicate for bone tissue engineering applications and recent breakthroughs in identifying the cellular-level molecular mechanisms for the osteoinductivity of silica. The goal of this article is to inspire new ideas for the rational design of third-generation cell-and gene-affecting biomaterials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2090-2102, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On the Mg/Fe Ratio in Silicate Minerals in the Circumstellar Environments I. The Mg/Fe Ratio in Silicate Mineral Constituents of the Kaba Meteorite (United States)

    Futó, P.


    The moderately high ratio of Mg in the silicates of the solar environment indicates that Mg-rich silicates are likely to be frequent in the interstellar medium and the circumstellar environments in case of chondritic-like composition.

  8. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz


    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  9. Viscoelastic properties of polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites (United States)

    Ren, Jiaxiang

    Polymer based layered-silicate nanocomposites offer the potential for dramatically improved mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties while keeping the material density low. Understanding the linear and non-linear viscoelastic response for such materials is crucial because of the ability of such measurements to elucidate the mesoscale dispersion of layered-silicates and changes in such dispersion to applied flows as would be encountered in processing of these materials. A series of intercalated polystyrene (and derivatives of polystyrene) layered-silicate nanocomposites are studied to demonstrate the influence of mesoscale dispersion and organic---inorganic interactions on the linear and non-linear viscoelastic properties. A layered-silicate network structure is exhibited for the nanocomposites with strong polymer-silicate interaction such as montmorillonite (2C18M) and fluorohectorite (C18F) and the percolation threshold is ˜ 6 wt % for the 2C18M based hybrids. However, the nanocomposites based on hectorite (2C18H) with weak polymer-silicate interaction exhibit liquid-like terminal zone behavior. Furthermore, the enhanced terminal zone elastic modulus and viscosity of high brominated polystyrene and high molecular weight polystyrene based 2C18M nanocomposites suggest an improved delamination and dispersion of layered-silicates in the polymer matrix. The non-linear viscoelastic properties, specifically, the non-linear stress relaxation behavior and the applicability of time---strain separability, the effect of increasing strain amplitude on the oscillatory shear flow properties, and the shear rate dependence of the steady shear flow properties are examined. The silicate sheets (or collections of sheets) exhibit the ability to be oriented by the applied flow. Experimentally, the empirical Cox - Merz rule is demonstrated to be inapplicable for the hybrids. Furthermore, the K-BKZ constitutive model is used to model the steady shear properties. While being able to


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of the submitted work was to prepare and to characterize two types of silicate coatings prepared by the sol-gel method using the dip-coating technique on a titanium substrate. Efforts have been made to use mechanical properties of bio-inert titanium and bioactive properties of a silicate layer enriched with an admixture of compounds identified below. The first group consisted of silicate coatings containing silver, brushite and monetite. The other group of silicate coatings contained calcium nitrate and triethyl phosphate. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped into sols and dried and fired. Silicate coatings from the first group were also chemically treated in 10 mol.l-1 solution of sodium hydroxide. All coatings were measured to determine their adhesive and bioactive properties and furthermore the antibacterial properties were tested in the case of first group. Surfaces of the coated substrates were investigated after the firing and after the individual tests with optical and electron microscopy and X-ray microdiffraction. A tape test demonstrated excellent adhesive property of all coatings to the substrate, classified with degree 5. A static in vitro test demonstrated bioactivity of nearly all the coatings. The basic silicate coating from the first group and one type of coating from the second group were identified as inert. Antibacterial properties of silicate coatings containing silver showed to be different when tested against Escherichia coli bacteria. A complete inhibition of the growth of bacteria under our experimental conditions was observed for the coating containing silver and monetite and a partial inhibition of the growth of bacteria for coatings containing silver and silver in combination with brushite.

  11. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin, E-mail: [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France); Godon, Nicole [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France); Ayral, André [IEM, University Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Gin, Stéphane [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-cèze (France)


    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m{sup −1}. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate.

  12. Heterogeneous nucleation of protein crystals on fluorinated layered silicate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Ino

    Full Text Available Here, we describe an improved system for protein crystallization based on heterogeneous nucleation using fluorinated layered silicate. In addition, we also investigated the mechanism of nucleation on the silicate surface. Crystallization of lysozyme using silicates with different chemical compositions indicated that fluorosilicates promoted nucleation whereas the silicates without fluorine did not. The use of synthesized saponites for lysozyme crystallization confirmed that the substitution of hydroxyl groups contained in the lamellae structure for fluorine atoms is responsible for the nucleation-inducing property of the nucleant. Crystallization of twelve proteins with a wide range of pI values revealed that the nucleation promoting effect of the saponites tended to increase with increased substitution rate. Furthermore, the saponite with the highest fluorine content promoted nucleation in all the test proteins regardless of their overall net charge. Adsorption experiments of proteins on the saponites confirmed that the density of adsorbed molecules increased according to the substitution rate, thereby explaining the heterogeneous nucleation on the silicate surface.

  13. Silicate fertilizer and irrigation depth in corn production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Eloy Dantas Júnior


    Full Text Available Calcium-magnesium silicates improve the soil physicochemical properties and provide benefits to plant nutrition, since they are sources of silica, calcium and magnesium. The objective of this study was to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn fertilized with calcium-magnesium silicate. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil, using plastic pots containing 80 kg of soil. The treatments consisted of the combination of four irrigation depths, related to water replacement of 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the crop evapotranspiration, with fertilizer levels of 0, 82, 164 and 246 g of calcium-magnesium silicate, with three replications. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with the irrigation depths distributed in bands while the silicon levels constituted the subplots. Corn yield was influenced by calcium-magnesium silicate and by irrigation depth, obtaining the greatest grain yield with the dose of 164 g pot-1 irrigated at the highest water level. The water-use efficiency of in corn production tended to decrease when the irrigation depth was increased. The best water-use efficiency was observed when the irrigation level was between 87 and 174 mm, and the dose of silicate was 164 g pot-1.

  14. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous Ooze Sediments, Ormen Lange Field, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    structure is complex and the solids are mechanically fragile and hydrous. Normal petrophysical methods used in formation evaluation might not be suitable for interpreting siliceous ooze. For example, density and neutron logging tools are calibrated to give correct porosity readings in a limestone formation...... to analyse and interpret logging data acquired through siliceous ooze sediments. Our main objectives were to characterize and evaluate the petrophysics of siliceous ooze and to find the true porosity and water saturation to test its hydrocarbon reservoir potential. We used and integrated core analysis data...... with logging data from four Ormen Lange wells, and included X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) data. Additionally, other available information such as petrographic thin-section analysis, core computed tomography scans (CT-scans), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and other published data were used here...

  15. Potential of calcium silicate to mitigate water deficiency in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas José Marques


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of calcium silicate to mitigate the effects of water deficiency in maize plants yield. A completely randomized factorial design, consisting of five combinations of calcium silicate (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% and five different soil moisture levels (30, 70, 100, 130, and 160%, was adopted. The following parameters were evaluated: soil matric potential, xylem water potential, silicon concentration, leaf dry weight, and dry mass production. Matric potential monitoring confirmed that the irrigation depths employed resulted in different environments for maize plant development during the experiment. Confirming the hypothesis of the study, at the lower irrigation depths, the maize production has accompanied the increase in calcium silicate used as corrective up to the proportion of 50%. These results indicate that silicon mitigated the impact of water deficiency in maize plants and increased the xylem water potential.

  16. Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W


    While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.

  17. Potassium Silicate Foliar Fertilizer Grade from Geothermal Sludge and Pyrophyllite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muljani Srie


    Full Text Available Potassium silicate fertilizer grade were successfully produced by direct fusion of silica (SiO2 and potasium (KOH and K2CO3 in furnaces at temperatures up to melting point of mixture. The geothermal sludge (98% SiO2 and the pyrophyllite (95% SiO2 were used as silica sources. The purposes of the study was to synthesise potassium silicate fertilizer grade having solids concentrations in the range of 31-37% K2O, and silica in the range of 48-54% SiO2. The weight ratio of silicon dioxide/potasium solid being 1:1 to 5:1. Silica from geothermal sludge is amorphous, whereas pyrophylite is crystalline phase. The results showed that the amount of raw materials needed to get the appropriate molar ratio of potassium silicate fertilizer grade are different, as well as the fusion temperature of the furnace. Potassium silicate prepared from potassium hydroxide and geothermal sludge produced a low molar ratio (2.5: 1 to 3: 1. The potassium required quite small (4:1 in weight ratio, and on a fusion temperature of about 900 °C. Meanwhile, the potassium silicate prepared from pyrophyllite produced a high molar ratio (1.4 - 9.4 and on a fusion temperature of about 1350 °C, so that potassium needed large enough to meet the required molar ratio for the fertilizer grade. The product potassium silicate solid is amorphous with a little trace of crystalline.

  18. Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites: Structure, morphology, and properties (United States)

    Nawani, Pranav

    Layered silicates are important fillers for improving various mechanical, flame retardant, and barrier properties of polymers, which can be attributed to their sheet-like morphology. Layered silicates can be modified with organic surfactants to render them compatible with polymer matrices. Organically modified silicates (organoclays) having large surface areas are very cost-efficient non-toxic nanofillers effective at very low loads and are readily available. Upon amalgamation of organoclays with polymer matrix nanocomposites, polymer chains can penetrate in between the silicate layers and result in an intercalated structure where the clay stack remains intact but the interlayer spacing is increased. When penetration becomes more severe, disintegration of clay stacks can occur, resulting in an exfoliated structure. It has often been observed that exfoliation is not complete down to the level of isolated silicate layers; rather, the large clay stacks are broken up into shorter stacks termed 'tactoids' together with a few individual silicate layers, resulting in a kind of mixed intercalated-exfoliated structure. Organoclay particles are mostly intercalated, having a preferred orientation with the clay gallery planes being preferentially parallel to the plane of the pressed film. Preferential orientation of organoclays affects the barrier properties of polymer membranes. Additional fillers like carbon black can induce a change in the orientation of organoclays. The effect of carbon black on the orientation of organoclays was elucidated and a relationship between orientation and permeability of air through such membranes was established. We have also investigated the flammability properties of a series of polymer nanocomposites, containing various Transition Metal Ion (TMI) modified organoclays. The improved fire retardation in nanocomposites with TMI-modified organoclays can be attributed to enhanced carbonaceous char formation during combustion, i.e., charring

  19. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rades, Thomas [School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pongjanyakul, Thaned, E-mail: [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)


    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties.

  20. Non-conservative controls on distribution of dissolved silicate in Cochin Backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.

    Cochin backwater system was studied with regard to dissolved silicate (DSi) to understand its seasonal distribution and behaviour during estuarine mixing. Silicate had a linear relationship with salinity during the high river discharge period...

  1. Quantitative Estimation of the Reinforcing Effect of Layered Silicates in PP Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szazdi, Laszlo; Pukansky Jr, Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela


    Various polypropylene/layered silicate composites were prepared with different silicate contents. Montmorillonites with and without organophilization as well as three maleinated polypropylenes were used to change the extent of exfoliation and hence the properties of the composites. Structure was


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 29, 2012 ... Calc-silicate diffusion zones between marble and pelitic schist. Journal of. Petrology, 16, 314-346. Turner, D. C., 1983. Upper Proterozoic Schist Belts in the Nigerian sector of the Pan-African province of West Africa. Precambrian Research, 21, 55-. 79. Van de Kamp, P. C., 1968. Geochemistry and origin of.

  3. Dry phosphorus silicate glass etching for multicrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nositschka, W.A.; Voigt, O.; Kurz, H. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Semiconductor Electronics; Kenanoglu, A.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    A dry plasma etching process for phosphorus silicate glass (PSG) in a SiN-PECVD batch reactor is developed. In the same reactor PSG etching and anti-reflective coating (ARC) can be performed successively. To demonstrate industrial feasibility, screen-printed solar cells are manufactured and compared with cells prepared by a standard wet chemical process. (Author)

  4. Effects of Mixed Alkaline Earth Oxides in Potash Silicate Glass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of mixed alkaline earth oxide in potash silicate glasses with regards to their physical properties. More recently; there has been an increase in the demand for light weight glasses which retains their physical and chemical properties for both domestic and industrial applications.

  5. High-pressure physical properties of magnesium silicate post ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dLaboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, Academy of Engineering. Physics, PO Box 919-102, Mianyang 621900, China. MS received 1 May 2011. Abstract. The structure, thermodynamic and elastic properties of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) post-perovskite at high pressure ...

  6. Vesuvianite–wollastonite–grossular-bearing calc-silicate rock near ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the occurrence of vesuvianite + wollastonite + grossular + diopside + microcline + quartz assemblage in an enclave of calc-silicate rocks occurring within quartzofeldspathic gneiss near Tatapani in the western part of Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex. The enclave contains phlogopite-absent and ...

  7. Effects of Aluminium–Magnesium Silicate on Newcastle Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a synthetic Aluminium – Magnesium Silicate (AMS) on Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) was tested. Equal amounts, of the AMS and of NDV, on a volume to weight (v/w) basis, were incubated for one hour at room temperature, and then centrifuged. The supernatant was tested for NDV titre. Portions of a virulent NDV ...

  8. Preparation and characterization of magnesium–aluminium–silicate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A three-stage heating schedule involving calcination, nucleation and crystallization, has been evolved for the preparation of magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) glass ceramic with MgF2 as a nucleating agent. The effect of sintering temperature on the density of compacted material was studied. Microstructure and ...

  9. Estimation of high temperature metal-silicate partition coefficients (United States)

    Jones, John H.; Capobianco, Christopher J.; Drake, Michael J.


    It has been known for some time that abundances of siderophile elements in the upper mantle of the Earth are far in excess of those expected from equilibrium between metal and silicate at low pressures and temperatures. Murthy (1991) has re-examined this excess of siderophile element problem by estimating liquid metal/liquid silicate partition coefficients reduces from their measured values at a lower temperature, implying that siderophile elements become much less siderophilic at high temperatures. Murthy then draws the important conclusion that metal/silicate equilibrium at high temperatures can account for the abundances of siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle. Of course, his conclusion is critically dependent on the small values of the partition coefficients he calculates. Because the numerical values of most experimentally-determined partition coefficients increase with increasing temperature at both constant oxygen fugacity and at constant redox buffer, we think it is important to try an alternative extrapolation for comparison. We have computed high temperature metal/silicate partition coefficients under a different set of assumptions and show that such long temperature extrapolations yield values which are critically dependent upon the presumed chemical behavior of the siderophile elements in the system.

  10. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In vitro cytocompatible evaluation reveals that osteoblasts adhere and spread well on the Ca3SiO5 ceramics, indicating good bioactivity and cytocompatibility. Keywords. Tricalcium silicate; bioactivity; cytocompatibility; hydroxyapatite; osteoblasts. 1. Introduction. Up to now, many bioactive biomaterials, such as A/W glass.

  11. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    We report the presence of a 3–5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka. Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  12. Potassium silicate-zinc oxide solution for metal finishes (United States)

    Schutt, J. B.


    Examples of zinc dust formulations, which are not subject to cracking or crazing, are fire retardant, and have high adhesive qualities, are listed. The potassium silicate in these formulations has mol ratios of dissolved silica potassium oxide in the range 4.8 to 1 - 5.3 to 1.

  13. Fluoroalkylsilane versus Alkylsilane as Hydrophobic Agents for Silica and Silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Ambrożewicz


    Full Text Available Hydrophobic powders were obtained via surface modification of silica or magnesium silicate with selected silanes. A modified precipitation method, carried out in an emulsion system, was used for monodisperse silica synthesis, while magnesium silicate was precipitated in a traditional water system. Functionalization of the obtained inorganic supports was performed with selected alkylsilanes: one newly synthesized, 3-(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyloxypropyltriethoxysilane (OPF, and two commercial, octadecylsilane (ODS and octyltriethoxysilane C14H32O3Si (OCS, in amounts of 3, 5, or 10 weight parts by mass of SiO2. It was determined how the chemical modification of the silica or magnesium silicate surface affected its physicochemical properties. The dispersive characteristics of both unmodified and functionalized silica-based systems were evaluated. The morphology and microstructure of the samples obtained were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The parameters of porous structure of the prepared systems were evaluated on the basis of BET equation as well as nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. Wettability tests as well as elemental analysis of the obtained inorganic oxide hybrids were also performed. In order to verify the effectiveness of silica and magnesium silicate surface functionalization with selected silanes, FTIR spectra were investigated. The resulting experimental data allowed calculation of the degree of coverage of the silica-based systems with modifying agents.

  14. Evaluation of Calcium Silicate Cement Bond Strength after Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2018 ... Objectives: To determine the effect of different gutta‑percha solvents. (chloroform, Endosolv E, orange oil, and eucalyptol) on the push‑out bond strength of calcium silicate cements (CSCs; white mineral trioxide aggregate. [WMTA]; capsule‑form mineral trioxide aggregate [CMTA], and Biodentine). Materials ...

  15. Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.


    Efforts are reported in the following areas: laboratory equipment (multianvils for high P/T work, pressure media, SERC/DL sychrotron), liquid-state thermal diffusion (silicate liquids, O isotopic fractionation, volatiles, tektites, polymetallic sulfide liquids, carbonate liquids, aqueous sulfate solutions), and liquid-state isothermal diffusion (self-diffusion, basalt-rhyolite interdiffusion, selective contamination, chemical diffusion).

  16. Ubiquitous high-FeO silicates in enstatite chondrites (United States)

    Lusby, David; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus


    SEM and EMPA were used to determine the mineral contents of four EH3 chondrites. All four showed the dominant enstatite peak, Fs 0-5, with 4-8 percent of FeO-rich pyroxene with Fs 5-20. Among the 542 objects found to contain high-FeO silicates, 18 were chondrules, 381 were rimmed or unrimmed grains, and 143 were aggregates. The high-FeO silicates in these objects are very largely pyroxene with Fs 5-23. Large grains of both FeO-rich and FeO-poor silicates were found to be present in the FeO-rich chondrules. This fact, together with the absence of clasts of FeO-rich chondritic material in the EH3 chondrites, suggests that FeO-rich grains were introduced before or during chondrule formation. It is concluded that FeO-rich and FeO-poor silicates were both present in the nebular region where E chondrites originated.

  17. Mineralogy and trace element chemistry of the Siliceous Earth of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report the presence of a 3-5 cm thick loose fragmental layer in the Siliceous Earth at Matti ka Gol in the Barmer basin of Rajasthan. Petrographic, chemical and mineralogical study reveals the presence of abundant volcanic debris such as glass shards, agglutinates, hollow spheroids, kinked biotites, feldspars showing ...

  18. Oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis (United States)

    Colson, Russell O.; Haskin, Larry A.


    Accepting that oxygen, rather than gigantic gems or gold, is likely to make the Moon's Klondike, the extraction of oxygen from the lunar soil by molten silicate electrolysis has chosen to be investigated. Process theory and proposed lunar factory are addressed.

  19. A Siliceous Microfossil View of Middle Eocene Arctic Paleoenvironments (United States)

    Stickley, C. E.; Koc, N.; Brumsack, H.; Jordan, R. W.; Suto, I.


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302, "The Arctic Coring Expedition" (ACEX) made arguably the most significant discovery of Paleogene siliceous microfossils in nearly 2 decades. 100 m of mm to sub-mm laminated biosiliceous sediments of Middle Eocene age are rich in marine and freshwater siliceous microfossils allowing intriguing insights into central Arctic paleoenvironments during the start of Cenozoic cooling to icehouse conditions. Largely endemic assemblages of marine diatoms and ebridians are preserved along with very high abundances of chrysophyte cysts, the endogenously formed resting stage of freshwater algae. These siliceous microfossil groups imply an overall brackish environment, but variations in group dominance suggest episodic variations in salinity, stratification and trophic status. We synthesize the overall characteristics of the biosiliceous sediments by reporting on broad scale variations in siliceous microfossils and give some exciting insights into the composition of the laminae which may help explain the formation of these sediments. Our results indicate basin-wide paleo-environmental fluctuations on long- and possibly seasonal timescales.

  20. Investigation of hydrogen concentration and hardness of ion irradiated organically modified silicate thin films (United States)

    Qi, Y.; Prenzel, T.; Harriman, T. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Lucca, D. A.; Williams, D.; Nastasi, M.; Dong, J.; Mehner, A.


    A study of the effects of ion irradiation of organically modified silicate thin films on the loss of hydrogen and increase in hardness is presented. NaOH catalyzed SiNa wO xC yH z thin films were synthesized by sol-gel processing from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) precursors and spin-coated onto Si substrates. After drying at 300 °C, the films were irradiated with 125 keV H + or 250 keV N 2+ at fluences ranging from 1 × 10 14 to 2.5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2. Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) was used to investigate resulting hydrogen concentration as a function of ion fluence and irradiating species. Nanoindentation was used to measure the hardness of the irradiated films. FT-IR spectroscopy was also used to examine resulting changes in chemical bonding. The resulting hydrogen loss and increase in hardness are compared to similarly processed acid catalyzed silicate thin films.

  1. The structural role of manganese ions in soil active silicate-phosphate glasses. (United States)

    Szumera, Magdalena


    Silicate-phosphate glasses of SiO2P2O5K2OMgOCaO system containing manganese ions were synthesized by the melt-quenching technique and were investigated to obtain information about the influence of Mn-cations on the glass structure and their chemical activity. Structural properties were studied using X-ray method, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. The chemical activity of analyzed glasses in the 2 wt.% citric acid solution was measured by chemical analysis (ICP-AES, EDS) and SEM observations. It has been found that increasing amount of MnO2 in the structure of investigated glasses causes their gradual depolymerization. This process is more apparent in the case of the silico-oxygen subnetwork than phospho-oxygen one. This is related to increasing amounts of SiO4 tetrahedra containing two nonbridging oxygen atoms in silico-oxygen subnetwork. It has been also found that the presence of "weaker" chemical bonds of SiOMn type in comparison to SiOCa and SiOMg bonds is responsible for the increase in solubility of the analyzed silicate-phosphate glasses in conditions simulating natural soil environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium polyphosphate as an additive to zinc-silicate glass ionomer cements. (United States)

    Valliant, Esther Mae; Gagnier, David; Dickey, Brett Thomas; Boyd, Daniel; Filiaggi, Mark Joseph


    Aluminum-free glass ionomer cements (GICs) are under development for orthopedic applications, but are limited by their insufficient handling properties. Here, the addition of calcium polyphosphate (CPP) was investigated as an additive to an experimental zinc-silicate glass ionomer cement. A 50% maximum increase in working time was observed with CPP addition, though this was not clinically significant due to the short working times of the starting zinc-silicate GIC. Surprisingly, CPP also improved the mechanical properties, especially the tensile strength which increased by ∼33% after 30 days in TRIS buffer solution upon CPP addition up to 37.5 wt%. This strengthening may have been due to the formation of ionic crosslinks between the polyphosphate chains and polyacrylic acid. Thus, CPP is a potential additive to future GIC compositions as it has been shown to improve handling and mechanical properties. In addition, CPP may stimulate new bone growth and provide the ability for drug delivery, which are desirable modifications for an orthopedic cement. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:

  3. Mesoporous silicates: Materials science and biological applications (United States)

    Roggers, Robert Anthony

    This thesis dissertation presents the collective research into the advancement of mesoporous silicate particles as biointerface devices, the development of new materials and the application of these particles as solid supports for heterogeneous catalysis. Mesoporous silica has been utilized in the aforementioned applications due to several reasons; the first being the ability to achieve high surface areas (500 - 1000 m2 g-1) with controlled pore sizes and particle morphology. Another reason for their popularity is their robustness in applications of heterogeneous catalysis and the ability to functionalize the surface with a wide variety of organic functional groups. In the field of biointerface devices, mesoporous silica nanoparticles represent a class of materials that exhibit high biocompatibility. In addition, the ability to functionalize the surfaces (outer surface and pore interiors) allows the particles to be targeted to specific cell types as well as the ability to release many different therapeutic molecules under specific stimuli. A unique particle coating consisting of a chemically cleavable lipid bilayer that allows for the encapsulation of a fluorescent molecule and increases the biocompatibility of the particle has been developed. The lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticle (LB-MSN) was characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen `sorption isotherms. The finished LB-MSN was then incubated with mammalian cells in order to prove their biocompatibility. Confocal micrographs demonstrate the endocytosis of the particles into the cells. In addition the micrographs also show that the LB-MSNs are separate from the endosomal compartments, however due to the lipophilic nature of the dye used to label the endosome there is some debate regarding this conclusion. The lipid bilayer coating was then applied to a large pore MSN (l-MSN) which had been previously shown to cause lysis of red blood cells (RBCs) at low

  4. Silicate Dispersion and Mechanical Reinforcement in Polysiloxane/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Schmidt, Daniel F.


    We report the first in-depth comparison of the mechanical properties and equilibrium solvent uptake of a range of polysiloxane nanocomposites based on treated and untreated montmorillonite and fumed silica nanofillers. We demonstrate the ability of equilibrium solvent uptake data (and, thus, overall physical and chemical cross-link density) to serve as a proxy for modulus (combining rubber elasticity and Flory-Rehner theory), hardness (via the theory of Boussinesq), and elongation at break, despite the nonideal nature of these networks. In contrast, we find that tensile and tear strength are not well-correlated with solvent uptake. Interfacial strength seems to dominate equilibrium solvent uptake and the mechanical properties it predicts. In the montmorillonite systems in particular, this results in the surprising consequence that equilibrium solvent uptake and mechanical properties are independent of dispersion state. We conclude that edge interactions play a more significant role than degree of exfoliation, a result unique in the field of polymer nanocomposites. This demonstrates that even a combination of polymer/nanofiller compatibility and thermodynamically stable nanofiller dispersion levels may not give rise to reinforcement. These findings provide an important caveat when attempting to connect structure and properties in polymer nanocomposites, and useful guidance in the design of optimized polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites in particular. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Formation of hydrous Mg-silicates at low temperatures: New insights from sepiolite precipitation experiments (United States)

    Baldermann, Andre; Mavromatis, Vasileios; Dietzel, Martin


    environments, if sufficient time and an additional source of silicic acid is provided through, i.e. dissolution of marine silicifiers, volcanic ash and/or silicate detritus. We suppose that the low crystallinity degree of the incipient precipitates, the presence of reactive intermediates and the formation of polyphase products at low temperatures could mask the widespread precipitation of hydrous Mg-silicates in modern (marine) sediments.

  6. Production test IP-728 half-plant sodium silicate test. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.


    The sodium silicate addition to the coolant reduced the effluent concentrations of certain radionuclides. Nothing was observed during the course of the test to indicate that sodium silicate could not be used at all plants. However, the reductions obtained in effluent activity are not believed commensurate with the cost of silicate usage.

  7. Silicate Phases on the Surfaces of Trojan Asteroids (United States)

    Martin, Audrey; Emery, Joshua P.; Lindsay, Sean S.


    Determining the origin of asteroids provides an effective means of constraining the solar system’s dynamic past. Jupiter Trojan asteroids (hereafter Trojans) may help in determining the amount of radial mixing that occurred during giant planet migration. Previous studies aimed at characterizing surface composition show that Trojans have low albedo surfaces and are spectrally featureless in the near infrared. The thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength range has advantages for detecting silicates on low albedo asteroids such as Trojans. The 10 μm region exhibits strong features due to the Si-O fundamental molecular vibrations. Silicates that formed in the inner solar system likely underwent thermal annealing, and thus are crystalline, whereas silicates that accreted in the outer solar system experienced less thermal processing, and therefore are more likely to have remained in an amorphous phase. We hypothesize that the Trojans formed in the outer solar system (i.e., the Kuiper Belt), and therefore will have a more dominant amorphous spectral silicate component. With TIR spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we identify mineralogical features from the surface of 11 Trojan asteroids. Fine-grain mixtures of crystalline pyroxene and olivine exhibit a 10 μm feature with sharp cutoffs between about 9 μm and 12 μm, which create a broad flat plateau. Amorphous phases, when present, smooth the sharp emission features, resulting in a dome-like shape. Preliminary results indicate that the surfaces of analyzed Trojans contain primarily amorphous silicates. Emissivity spectra of asteroids 1986 WD and 4709 Ennomos include small peaks in the 10 μm region, diagnostic of small amounts of crystalline olivine. One explanation is that Trojans formed in the same region as Kuiper Belt objects, and when giant planet migration ensued, they were swept into Jupiter’s stable Lagrange points where they are found today. As such, it is possible that an ancestral group of Kuiper Belt

  8. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt. (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K


    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  9. Effect of silicate module of water glass on rheological parameters of poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels (United States)

    Mastalska-Popiawska, J.; Izak, P.


    The poly(sodium acrylate)/sodium silicate hydrogels were synthesized in the presence of sodium thiosulphate and potassium persulphate as the redox initiators and N,N’-methylene-bisacrylamide as the cross-linking monomer. 20 wt% aqueous solution of sodium acrylate was polymerized together with water glass with different silicate modules (M) from 1.74 to 2.29, in three mass ratio of the monomer solution to the water glass 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2. Such obtained hybrid composites were rheologically tested using the oscillation method. It allowed to designate the crossover point during polymerization, as well as to define the viscoelastic properties of the casted hydrogel samples one week after the reaction. The obtained results of the oscillation measurements showed that cross-linking reaction proceeds very quickly and the lower the silicate module is, the process starts faster. After the completion of the reaction the silicate-polymer hydrogels are strongly elastic materials and the highest elasticity characterizes systems with the mass ratio 1:2, i.e. with the highest water glass content.

  10. Effects of surface application of calcium-magnesium silicate and gypsum on soil fertility and sugarcane yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol


    Full Text Available Lime application recommendations for amendment of soil acidity in sugarcane were developed with a burnt cane harvesting system in mind. Sugarcane is now harvested in most areas without burning, and lime application for amendment of soil acidity in this system in which the sugarcane crop residue remains on the ground has been carried out without a scientific basis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil acidity and stalk and sugar yield with different rates of surface application of calcium, magnesium silicate, and gypsum in ratoon cane. The experiment was performed after the 3rd harvest of the variety SP 81-3250 in a commercial green sugarcane plantation of the São Luiz Sugar Mill (47º 25' 33" W; 21º 59' 46" S, located in Pirassununga, São Paulo, in southeast Brazil. A factorial arrangement of four Ca-Mg silicate rates (0, 850, 1700, and 3400 kg ha-1 and two gypsum rates (0 and 1700 kg ha-1 was used in the experiment. After 12 months, the experiment was harvested and technological measurements of stalk and sugar yield were made. After harvest, soil samples were taken at the depths of 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.20, 0.20-0.40, and 0.40-0.60 m in all plots, and the following determinations were made: soil pH in CaCl2, organic matter, P, S, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, Al, Si, and base saturation. The results show that the application of gypsum reduced the exchangeable Al3+ content and Al saturation below 0.05 m, and increased the Ca2+ concentration in the whole profile, the Mg2+ content below 0.10 m, K+ below 0.4 m, and base saturation below 0.20 m. This contributed to the effect of surface application of silicate on amendment of soil acidity reaching deeper layers. From the results of this study, it may be concluded that the silicate rate recommended may be too low, since the greater rates used in this experiment showed greater reduction in soil acidity, higher levels of nutrients at greater depths and an increase in stalk and sugar

  11. Gene Expression Profiling and Molecular Signaling of Dental Pulp Cells in Response to Tricalcium Silicate Cements: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Rathinam, Elanagai; Rajasekharan, Sivaprakash; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Martens, Luc; De Coster, Peter


    Signaling molecules and responding dental pulp stem cells are the 2 main control keys of dentin regeneration/dentinogenesis. The aim of this study was to present a systematic review investigating the gene expression of various dental pulp cells in response to different variants of tricalcium silicate cements. A systematic search of the literature was performed by 2 independent reviewers followed by article selection and data extraction. Studies analyzing all sorts of dental pulp cells (DPCs) and any variant of tricalcium silicate cement either as the experimental or as the control group were included. A total of 39 articles were included in the review. Among the included studies, ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, OK) was the most commonly used tricalcium silicate cement variant. The extracellular signal regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway was the most commonly activated pathway to be identified, and similarly, dentin sialophosphoprotein osteocalcin dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1, alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, type I collagen, and Runx2 were the most commonly expressed genes in that order of frequency. Biodentine (Septodont Ltd, Saint Maur des Faussés, France), Bioaggregate (Innovative Bioceramix, Vancouver, BC, Canada), and mineral trioxide aggregate stimulate the osteogenic/odontogenic capacity of DPCs by proliferation, angiogenesis, and biomineralization through the activation of the extracellular signal regulated kinase ½, nuclear factor E2 related factor 2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase, p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and fibroblast growth factor receptor pathways. When DPCs are placed into direct contact with tricalcium silicate cements, they show higher levels of gene activation, which in turn could translate into more effective pulpal repair and faster and more predictable formation of reparative dentin. Copyright © 2015 American

  12. Polymerisation, basicity, oxidation state and their role in ionic modelling of silicate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moretti


    Full Text Available In order to describe and quantify the reactivity of silicate melts, the ionic notation provided by the Temkin formalism has been historically accepted, giving rise to the study of melt chemical equilibria in terms of completely dissociated ionic species. Indeed, ionic modelling of melts works properly as long as the true extension of the anionic matrix is known. This information may be attained in the framework of the Toop-Samis (1962a,b model, through a parameterisation of the acid-base properties of the dissolved oxides. Moreover, by combining the polymeric model of Toop and Samis with the «group basicity» concept of Duffy and Ingram (1973, 1974a,b, 1976 the bulk optical basicity (Duffy and Ingram, 1971; Duffy, 1992 of molten silicates and glasses can be split into two distinct contributions, i.e. the basicity of the dissolved basic oxides and the basicity of the polymeric units. Application to practical cases, such as the assessment of the oxidation state of iron, require bridging of the energetic gap between the standard state of completely dissociated component (Temkin standard state and the standard state of pure melt component at P and T of interest. On this basis it is possible to set up a preliminary model for iron speciation in both anhydrous and hydrous aluminosilicate melts. In the case of hydrous melts, I introduce both acidic and basic dissociation of the water component, requiring the combined occurrence of H+ cations, OH- free anions and, to a very minor extent, of T-OH groups. The amphoteric behaviour of water revealed by this study is therefore in line with the earlier prediction of Fraser (1975.

  13. Flow injection analysis of nanomolar silicate using long pathlength absorbance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Byrne, Robert H


    Determination of silicate at low concentrations (i.e., nanomolar levels) is an important analytical objective for both marine science and the semiconductor industry. Here we report the use of flow injection analysis (FIA) in combination with long pathlength liquid core waveguide (LCW) spectrometry to achieve detection limits for dissolved silica on the order of 10nM. Sample throughput for the simple, automated analytical apparatus used in this work is 12h(-1) at low levels of dissolved silica; this rate can be increased by a factor of three for higher (micromolar) levels of dissolved silica. The analytical protocol is based on the reaction of silicate with ammonium molybdate to form a yellow silicomolybdate complex, which is subsequently reduced to silicomolybdenum blue by ascorbic acid. Optimization of the FIA procedure included consideration of the compositions and concentrations of reagents, volume of the injection loop, flow rate conditions, and lengths of mixing coils. The interference by phosphate was examined and eliminated through addition of oxalic acid. The dissolved silica detection limit of 7.2nM in pure water is consistent with the strictest standard for the semiconductor industry, and the 9.0nM detection limit for seawater shows that this analytical method is also suitable for oligotrophic ocean waters. The targeted analytical range of 10nM to 5μM can be easily extended to higher concentrations without altering the experimental hardware-i.e., by simply changing flow rates or selecting alternative analytical wavelengths. Compared to previously published LCW-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical system exhibits improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Release of Si from Silicon, a Ferrosilicon (FeSi) Alloy and a Synthetic Silicate Mineral in Simulated Biological Media (United States)

    Herting, Gunilla; Jiang, Tao; Sjöstedt, Carin; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger


    Unique quantitative bioaccessibility data has been generated, and the influence of surface/material and test media characteristics on the elemental release process were assessed for silicon containing materials in specific synthetic body fluids at certain time periods at a fixed loading. The metal release test protocol, elaborated by the KTH team, has previously been used for classification, ranking, and screening of different alloys and metals. Time resolved elemental release of Si, Fe and Al from particles, sized less than 50 µm, of two grades of metallurgical silicon (high purity silicon, SiHG, low purity silicon, SiLG), an alloy (ferrosilicon, FeSi) and a mineral (aluminium silicate, AlSi) has been investigated in synthetic body fluids of varying pH, composition and complexation capacity, simple models of for example dermal contact and digestion scenarios. Individual methods for analysis of released Si (as silicic acid, Si(OH)4) in synthetic body fluids using GF-AAS were developed for each fluid including optimisation of solution pH and graphite furnace parameters. The release of Si from the two metallurgical silicon grades was strongly dependent on both pH and media composition with the highest release in pH neutral media. No similar effect was observed for the FeSi alloy or the aluminium silicate mineral. Surface adsorption of phosphate and lactic acid were believed to hinder the release of Si whereas the presence of citric acid enhanced the release as a result of surface complexation. An increased presence of Al and Fe in the material (low purity metalloid, alloy or mineral) resulted in a reduced release of Si in pH neutral media. The release of Si was enhanced for all materials with Al at their outermost surface in acetic media. PMID:25225879

  15. Release of Si from silicon, a ferrosilicon (FeSi alloy and a synthetic silicate mineral in simulated biological media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Herting

    Full Text Available Unique quantitative bioaccessibility data has been generated, and the influence of surface/material and test media characteristics on the elemental release process were assessed for silicon containing materials in specific synthetic body fluids at certain time periods at a fixed loading. The metal release test protocol, elaborated by the KTH team, has previously been used for classification, ranking, and screening of different alloys and metals. Time resolved elemental release of Si, Fe and Al from particles, sized less than 50 µm, of two grades of metallurgical silicon (high purity silicon, SiHG, low purity silicon, SiLG, an alloy (ferrosilicon, FeSi and a mineral (aluminium silicate, AlSi has been investigated in synthetic body fluids of varying pH, composition and complexation capacity, simple models of for example dermal contact and digestion scenarios. Individual methods for analysis of released Si (as silicic acid, Si(OH4 in synthetic body fluids using GF-AAS were developed for each fluid including optimisation of solution pH and graphite furnace parameters. The release of Si from the two metallurgical silicon grades was strongly dependent on both pH and media composition with the highest release in pH neutral media. No similar effect was observed for the FeSi alloy or the aluminium silicate mineral. Surface adsorption of phosphate and lactic acid were believed to hinder the release of Si whereas the presence of citric acid enhanced the release as a result of surface complexation. An increased presence of Al and Fe in the material (low purity metalloid, alloy or mineral resulted in a reduced release of Si in pH neutral media. The release of Si was enhanced for all materials with Al at their outermost surface in acetic media.

  16. Modeling the viscosity of silicate melts containing manganese oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wan-Yi


    Full Text Available Our recently developed model for the viscosity of silicate melts is applied to describe and predict the viscosities of oxide melts containing manganese oxide. The model requires three pairs of adjustable parameters that describe the viscosities in three systems: pure MnO, MnO-SiO2 and MnO-Al2O3-SiO2. The viscosity of other ternary and multicomponent silicate melts containing MnO is then predicted by the model without any additional adjustable model parameters. Experimental viscosity data are reviewed for melts formed by MnO with SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, PbO, Na2O and K2O. The deviation of the available experimental data from the viscosities predicted by the model is shown to be within experimental error limits.

  17. Thermochemistry of Rare Earth Silicates for Environmental Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Costa, Gustavo; Jacobson, Nathan


    Rare earth silicates are promising candidates as environmental protective coatings (EBCs) for silica-forming ceramics and composites in combustion environments since they are predicted to have lower reactivity with the water vapor combustion products. The reactivity of rare earth silicates is assessed by the thermodynamic activity of the silica component which is best measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS). Here, we discuss a novel method based on a reducing agent to increase the partial pressure of SiO(g) which is then used to calculate thermodynamic activity of silica in Y2O3-SiO2 and Yb2O3-SiO2 systems. After the KEMS measurements, samples were probed by X-ray diffraction and their phase content was calculated from Rietveld refinement.

  18. The viscosity window of the silicate glass foam production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The production of silicate glass foam allows diverse resources and waste materials to be used in the production. Testing of such large palette of materials complicates and prolongs the optimisation process. Therefore, it is crucial to find a universal criterion for foaming silicate glass melts...... which can offer a practical starting point for the optimisation procedure. The melt viscosity might be the most important parameter for controlling the foaming process and the glass foam density. In this work, we attempt to define a viscosity range in which foaming of different glasses results...... in a maximum of foam expansion. The expansion maximum is obtained for different glasses (labware, E-glass, CRT panel, soda-lime-silica) by foaming with CaCO3 at isokom temperature and from literature data. In general, the viscosity window was found to be within 104–106 Pa s when foaming with MnO2 or metal...

  19. Enzyme-Mimicking properties of silicates and other minerals (United States)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.

    The adsorptive and/or catalytic properties of clays, silicates in general, and other minerals are well known. More recently, their probable role in prebiotic syntheses of bio-organic compounds has become a matter of record. We demonstrate that, in addition to their role in de novo formation of important biomolecules, clays, micas, fibrous silicates and other minerals mimick the activities of contemporary enzymes including oxidases, esterases, phosphatases and glucosidases. The existence of such capabilities in substances likely to be represented on the surfaces of Earth-like planets may offer a challenge to the technology and design of remote life detection systems which must then distinguish between bona fide biological chemistry and mineral-base pseudometabolism. It also raises questions about the importance of mineral surfaces in post-mortem transformations of organic metabolites in our own biosphere.

  20. The solubility of gold in silicate melts: First results (United States)

    Borisov, A.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.


    The effects of oxygen fugacity and temperature on the solubility of Au in silicate melts were determined. Pd-Au alloys were equilibrated with silicate of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at different T-fO2 conditions. The behavior of Au was found to be similar to that of Pd reported recently. Au solubilities for alloys with 30 to 40 at. percent Au decrease at 1400 C from 12 ppm in air to 160 ppb at a log fO2 = -8.7. The slope of the log(Me-solubility) vs. log(fO2) curve is close to 1/4 for Au and the simultaneously determined Pd suggesting a formal valence of Au and Pd of 1+. Near the IW buffer Pd and Au solubilities become even less dependent on fO2 perhaps reflecting the presence of some metallic Au and Pd.

  1. Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    biomedical applications (McMillan 1979). The lithium– zinc–silicate (LZS) glass containing Li2O–ZnO–SiO2–. Na2O–B2O3–P2O5 has been used as the base glass for producing glass ceramics that are suitable for applications in hermetic glass–ceramic–to–metal seals with a variety of metals and alloys (Sharma et al 2004) ...

  2. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a. Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through. 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack.

  3. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack length ...

  4. Apatite: a new redox proxy for silicic magmas?


    Miles, A.J.; Graham, C M; Hawkesworth, C.J.; Gillespie, M.R.; Hinton, R.W.; Bromiley, G.D.


    The oxidation states of magmas provide valuable information about the release and speciation of volatile elements during volcanic eruptions, metallogenesis, source rock compositions, open system magmatic processes, tectonic settings and potentially titanium (Ti) activity in chemical systems used for Ti-dependent geothermometers and geobarometers. In this paper we explore the use of Mn in apatite as an oxybarometer in intermediate and silicic igneous rocks. Increased Mn concentrations in apati...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aseev


    Full Text Available We created and synthesized luminescent composite of the "phosphor in glass" type, based on the lead-silicate matrix and fine-dispersed powder of cerium-activated yttrium-aluminum garnet crystal. Lead-silicate system (40SiO2- 20PbO-(40-x PbF2-xAlF3, x = 0-25 was chosen as the glassy matrix. Initial glass was reduced to powder (frit for "phosphor in glass" composite with a particle size about 50 µm. Glass frit and powder of commercial YAG:Ce3+ phosphor were mixed in a ratio of 30 to 70 (wt %. Then this composite was pressed in a tablet and sintered on a quartz substrate at 823 К for 30 minutes. Thus, the plane parallel sheet for composite of the "phosphor in glass" was obtained with a diameter equal to 10 mm. For the purpose to reduce the loss of light in the presence of dispersion at a glass-phosphor boundary, optimization of glass mixture was done by adjusting the refractive index. X-ray phase and spectral-luminescent analysis of the derived composite were done. The results of these studies showed that there was no degradation of YAG: Ce powder during sintering. Dependence of luminescence intensity from temperature in the range from room temperature to 473 К was studied. It was shown, that with the phosphor in glass usage thermal quenching of luminescence was reduced in comparison with the silicone. The model of white LED was created with the "phosphor in glass" composite based on lead-silicate glasses with low temperature of vitrifying. The derived LED emits white light with a color temperature of 4370 K, and the luminous efficiency is equal to 58 lm/W. The developed luminescent composite based on the lead-silicate matrix can be used for the production of high-power white light LED.

  6. Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison (United States)


    Laboratory Soda-Lime-Silicate Float Glass: A Property Comparison by Andrew Cachiaras Science and Mathematics Academy at Aberdeen High School...Aberdeen, MD Luke Gilde Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN George D Quinn National Institute of Standards and...transparent armor systems. Thus, it is necessary to measure and compare the chemical composition as well as the physical and mechanical properties of

  7. Cleavage Energies of Modified Layered Silicates by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (United States)

    Fu, Yao-Tsung; Heinz, Hendrik


    The cleavage energy of organically modified layered silicates indicates the thermodynamic propensity of exfoliation in polymer matrices. We find substantial cleavage energy differences upon variation in cation exchange capacity (CEC) (90 and 145 meq/100g), head groups (-NH3 and --NMe3), and chain length of the surfactants (C2 to C14) due to layering effects of the surfactants in the galleries using molecular dynamics simulation. Model systems of full atomistic detail are periodic in the xy plane, open in the z direction, are subjected to sheet separation starting at equilibrium distance. Overall, the cleavage energy, consistent with experimentally measured surface tensions and previous calculations for selected organoclays, shows complex fluctuations as a function of chain length and head group structure. Computed cleavage energies are in the range 25-50 mJ/m^2 for C2˜C14 (-NH3 headgroup) and 40-200 mJ/m^2 for C2˜C14 (--NMe3 headgroup) at two CEC layered silicates. The progression is not linear and related to the packing density of the interlayer of self-assembled surfactant chains and surface reconstruction of the modified layered silicates upon cleavage.

  8. Silicate dissolution boosts the CO2 concentrations in subduction fluids. (United States)

    Tumiati, S; Tiraboschi, C; Sverjensky, D A; Pettke, T; Recchia, S; Ulmer, P; Miozzi, F; Poli, S


    Estimates of dissolved CO2 in subduction-zone fluids are based on thermodynamic models, relying on a very sparse experimental data base. Here, we present experimental data at 1-3 GPa, 800 °C, and ∆FMQ ≈ -0.5 for the volatiles and solute contents of graphite-saturated fluids in the systems COH, SiO2-COH ( + quartz/coesite) and MgO-SiO2-COH ( + forsterite and enstatite). The CO2 content of fluids interacting with silicates exceeds the amounts measured in the pure COH system by up to 30 mol%, as a consequence of a decrease in water activity probably associated with the formation of organic complexes containing Si-O-C and Si-O-Mg bonds. The interaction of deep aqueous fluids with silicates is a novel mechanism for controlling the composition of subduction COH fluids, promoting the deep CO2 transfer from the slab-mantle interface to the overlying mantle wedge, in particular where fluids are stable over melts.Current estimates of dissolved CO2 in subduction-zone fluids based on thermodynamic models rely on a very sparse experimental data base. Here, the authors show that experimental graphite-saturated COH fluids interacting with silicates at 1-3 GPa and 800 °C display unpredictably high CO2 contents.

  9. A Review: Fundamental Aspects of Silicate Mesoporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid A. ALOthman


    Full Text Available Silicate mesoporous materials have received widespread interest because of their potential applications as supports for catalysis, separation, selective adsorption, novel functional materials, and use as hosts to confine guest molecules, due to their extremely high surface areas combined with large and uniform pore sizes. Over time a constant demand has developed for larger pores with well-defined pore structures. Silicate materials, with well-defined pore sizes of about 2.0–10.0 nm, surpass the pore-size constraint (<2.0 nm of microporous zeolites. They also possess extremely high surface areas (>700 m2 g−1 and narrow pore size distributions. Instead of using small organic molecules as templating compounds, as in the case of zeolites, long chain surfactant molecules were employed as the structure-directing agent during the synthesis of these highly ordered materials. The structure, composition, and pore size of these materials can be tailored during synthesis by variation of the reactant stoichiometry, the nature of the surfactant molecule, the auxiliary chemicals, the reaction conditions, or by post-synthesis functionalization techniques. This review focuses mainly on a concise overview of silicate mesoporous materials together with their applications. Perusal of the review will enable researchers to obtain succinct information about microporous and mesoporous materials.

  10. Development of Li+ alumino-silicate ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Lidia, S.; Anders, A.; Kwan, J.


    To uniformly heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter, one strategy is to deposit most of the ion energy at the peak of energy loss (dE/dx) with a low (E< 5 MeV) kinetic energy beam and a thin target[1]. Lower mass ions have a peak dE/dx at a lower kinetic energy. To this end, a small lithium (Li+) alumino-silicate source has been fabricated, and its emission limit has been measured. These surface ionization sources are heated to 1000-1150 C where they preferentially emit singly ionized alkali ions. Alumino-silicates sources of K+ and Cs+ have been used extensively in beam experiments, but there are additional challenges for the preparation of high-quality Li+ sources: There are tighter tolerances in preparing and sintering the alumino-silicate to the substrate to produce an emitter that gives uniform ion emission, sufficient current density and low beam emittance. We report on recent measurements ofhigh ( up to 35 mA/cm2) current density from a Li+ source. Ion species identification of possible contaminants is being verified with a Wien (E x B) filter, and via time-of-flight.

  11. Investigation of synthesized Be-bearing silicate glass as laboratory reference sample at X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicates (United States)

    Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Mikhailov, Mikhail A.; Demina, Tamara V.


    The article discusses estimates of the stability and homogeneity in Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass produced by the authors and its applicability as a laboratory reference sample for X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Be-bearing silicate matters: crystals and quenching melt (glasses), silicates and oxides. The results were obtained using Superprobe-733 and Superprobe JXA-8200 (JEOL Ltd, Japan) devices. The sample homogeneity was studied on macro (10-100 μm) and micro (1-10 μm) levels and was evaluated by the scheme of dispersion analysis. The applicability of Be-bearing silicate glass as a reference sample for Mg, Al, Si determinations was tested on the international certified reference glasses and laboratory reference samples of minerals with a known composition. The obtained experimental metrological characteristics correspond to the "applied geochemistry" type of analysis (second category) and suggest that Be-bearing silicate glass is appropriate as a laboratory reference sample for EPMA of Be-bearing silicate matters, silicates and oxides. Using Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass as a reference sample we obtained satisfactory data on the composition of both some minerals including cordierite and beryllium cordierite, beryllium indialite, beryl and metastable phases (chrysoberyl, compounds with structure of β-quartz and petalite).

  12. Semimicroanalysis of silicate minerals by means of XRF thin layer method. Determination of selected chromatic elements - V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurczyk, J.; Buhl, F.; Sitko, R.; Fabis, M.; Czaja, M. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)


    50 mg of powdered silicate mineral is spread on a substrate, dissolved in a concentrated hydrofluoric acid and dried under the infrared heater; a sample is then protected with a mylar film. Statistical parameters of XRF detection limits for 50 mg samples: V(3-6 ppm), Cr(3-6 ppm), Mn(25 ppm), Fe(4-5 ppm), Co(2-7 ppm). 13 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  13. Confined Water in Layered Silicates: The Origin of Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behavior in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates. (United States)

    Krishnan, N M Anoop; Wang, Bu; Falzone, Gabriel; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan; Pilon, Laurent; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav


    Water, under conditions of nanoscale confinement, exhibits anomalous dynamics, and enhanced thermal deformations, which may be further enhanced when such water is in contact with hydrophilic surfaces. Such heightened thermal deformations of water could control the volume stability of hydrated materials containing nanoconfined structural water. Understanding and predicting the thermal deformation coefficient (TDC, often referred to as the CTE, coefficient of thermal expansion), which represents volume changes induced in materials under conditions of changing temperature, is of critical importance for hydrated solids including: hydrogels, biological tissues, and calcium silicate hydrates, as changes in their volume can result in stress development, and cracking. By pioneering atomistic simulations, we examine the physical origin of thermal expansion in calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the binding agent in concrete that is formed by the reaction of cement with water. We report that the TDC of C-S-H shows a sudden increase when the CaO/SiO2 (molar ratio; abbreviated as Ca/Si) exceeds 1.5. This anomalous behavior arises from a notable increase in the confinement of water contained in the C-S-H's nanostructure. We identify that confinement is dictated by the topology of the C-S-H's atomic network. Taken together, the results suggest that thermal deformations of hydrated silicates can be altered by inducing compositional changes, which in turn alter the atomic topology and the resultant volume stability of the solids.

  14. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette Rica; Krøyer, Hanne


    Pozzolanic submicron-sized silica fume and the non-pozzolanic micron- and nano-sized layer silicates (clay minerals) kaolinite, smectite and palygorskite have been used as additives in Portland cement pastes and mortars. These layer silicates have different particle shape (needles and plates...... is that the cement paste structure and porosity can be engineered by addition of selected layer silicates having specific particle shapes and surface properties (e.g., charge and specific surface area). This seems to be due to the growth of calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) on the clay particle surfaces......, and the nano-structure of the C-S-H depends on type of layer silicate. The effect of layer silicate addition is most pronounced for palygorskite and smectite having the largest surface area and negative charges on the particle surfaces. The cement pastes containing palygorskite and bentonite have...

  15. The unique invention of the siliceous sponges: their enzymatically made bio-silica skeleton. (United States)

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Ailin; Hu, Shixue; Gan, Lu; Schröder, Heinz C; Schloßmacher, Ute; Wiens, Matthias


    Sponges are sessile filter feeders that, among the metazoans, evolved first on Earth. In the two classes of the siliceous sponges (the Demospongiae and the Hexactinellida), the complex filigreed body is stabilized by an inorganic skeleton composed of amorphous silica providing them a distinct body shape and plan. It is proposed that the key innovation that allowed the earliest metazoans to form larger specimens was the enzyme silicatein. This enzyme is crucial for the formation of the siliceous skeleton. The first sponge fossils with body preservation were dated back prior to the "Precambrian-Cambrian" boundary [Vendian (610-545 Ma)/Ediacaran (542-580 Ma)]. A further molecule required for the formation of a hard skeleton was collagen, fibrous organic filaments that need oxygen for their formation. Silicatein forming the spicules and collagen shaping their morphology are the two organic components that control the appositional growth of these skeletal elements. This process starts in both demosponges and hexactinellids intracellularly and is completed extracellularly where the spicules may reach sizes of up to 3 m. While the basic strategy of their formation is identical in both sponge classes, it differs on a substructural level. In Hexactinellida, the initial silica layers remain separated, those layers bio-fuse (bio-sinter) together in demosponges. In some sponge taxa, e.g., the freshwater sponges from the Lake Baikal, the individual spicules are embedded in an organic matrix that is composed of the DUF protein. This protein comprises clustered stretches of amino acid sequences composed of pronounced hydrophobic segments, each spanning around 35 aa. We concluded with the remark of Thompson (1942) highlighting that "the sponge-spicule is a typical illustration of the theory of 'bio-crystallisation' to form 'biocrystals' ein Mittelding between an inorganic crystal and an organic secretion." Moreover, the understanding of the enzymatic formation of the spicules

  16. Lime and calcium-magnesium silicate in the ionic speciation of an Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Arthur Antonangelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant residues and certain fertilizers accelerate soil acidification and increase the levels of aluminum-Al+3 in soils under no-tillage (NT. Silicates act as acidity amendments and as a source of silicon as in H4SiO4. An increase in the pH of soil solution causes the deprotonation of H4SiO4 and generates the anionic form (H3SiO4−. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ionic speciation of Si, Al, Ca, Mg and K in aqueous extracts by means of a software calculation. Since 2006, a field experiment has been under way on an Oxisol under NT subjected to lime and calcium-magnesium silicate applications under four crop systems. The amendments were applied in Oct 2006 and in Oct 2011, aiming to raise base saturation to 70 %. Soil samples were collected in Oct 2013, at depths of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Both Ca and Mg formed complexes with dissolved organic carbon (DOC whereas the same was not observed for potassium. These three basic cations were mostly in their free forms regardless of treatment, while Al was mostly complexed with DOC even at the lowest depths (40-60 cm. The highest value of free Al form was 15 %. Si was almost 100 % as H4SiO4, and its activity was similar to its concentration in solution for all crop systems and at all depths, regardless of amendment applied. The percentages of H3SiO4− and Al-H3SiO42+ were irrelevant, providing more phytoavailable H4SiO4 in soil solution.

  17. Pyrolytic Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Sucrose on a Mesoporous Silicate (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Siochi, Mia; Crooks, Roy


    Multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized from sucrose by a pyrolytic technique using mesoporous MCM-41 silicate templates without transition metal catalysts. The Nanotubes were examined in the carbon/silicate composite and after dissolution of the silicate. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of the multiwall nanotubes showed them to be 15 nm in diameter, 200 nm in length and close-ended. There was variation in crystallinity with some nanotubes showing disordered wall structures.

  18. Proton tunneling in low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Hiroshi, E-mail:; Iwamoto, Kei [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mochizuki, Dai [Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Center for Energy and Environmental Science, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda, Nagano 386-8567 (Japan); Osada, Shimon; Asakura, Yusuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kuroda, Kazuyuki [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Material Science and Technology, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan)


    In low dimensional cesium silicate LDS-1 (monoclinic phase of CsHSi{sub 2}O{sub 5}), anomalous infrared absorption bands observed at 93, 155, 1210, and 1220 cm{sup −1} are assigned to the vibrational mode of protons, which contribute to the strong hydrogen bonding between terminal oxygen atoms of silicate chain (O–O distance = 2.45 Å). The integrated absorbance (oscillator strength) for those modes is drastically enhanced at low temperatures. The analysis of integrated absorbance employing two different anharmonic double-minimum potentials makes clear that proton tunneling through the potential barrier yields an energy splitting of the ground state. The absorption bands at 93 and 155 cm{sup −1}, which correspond to the different vibrational modes of protons, are attributed to the optical transition between the splitting levels (excitation from the ground state (n = 0) to the first excited state (n = 1)). Moreover, the absorption bands at 1210 and 1220 cm{sup −1} are identified as the optical transition from the ground state (n = 0) to the third excited state (n = 3). Weak Coulomb interactions in between the adjacent protons generate two types of vibrational modes: symmetric mode (93 and 1210 cm{sup −1}) and asymmetric mode (155 and 1220 cm{sup −1}). The broad absorption at 100–600 cm{sup −1} reveals an emergence of collective mode due to the vibration of silicate chain coupled not only with the local oscillation of Cs{sup +} but also with the proton oscillation relevant to the second excited state (n = 2)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, James J. [School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Clark, Roger N. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Spencer, John R. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Jennings, Donald E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Hand, Kevin P.; Carlson, Robert W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Poston, Michael J. [Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    We present the first spectral features obtained from Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) for any icy moon. The spectral region covered by CIRS focal planes (FP) 3 and 4 is rich in emissivity features, but previous studies at these wavelengths have been limited by low signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) for individual spectra. Our approach is to average CIRS FP3 spectra to increase the S/N and use emissivity spectra to constrain the composition of the dark material on Iapetus. We find an emissivity feature at ∼855 cm{sup −1} and a possible doublet at 660 and 690 cm{sup −1} that do not correspond to any known instrument artifacts. We attribute the 855 cm{sup −1} feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths. Silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn’s icy moons have been suspected for decades, but there have been no definitive detections until now. Serpentines reported in the literature at ambient temperature and pressure have features near 855 and 660 cm{sup −1}. However, peaks can shift depending on temperature and pressure, so measurements at Iapetus-like conditions are necessary for more positive feature identifications. As a first investigation, we measured muscovite at 125 K in a vacuum and found that this spectrum does match the emissivity feature near 855 cm{sup −1} and the location of the doublet. Further measurements are needed to robustly identify a specific silicate, which would provide clues regarding the origin and implications of the dark material.

  20. Light-cured Tricalcium Silicate Toxicity to the Dental Pulp. (United States)

    Jeanneau, Charlotte; Laurent, Patrick; Rombouts, Charlotte; Giraud, Thomas; About, Imad


    Numerous studies reported dentin bridge formation after pulp capping with tricalcium silicates. By contrast, pulp capping with resins leads to pulp toxicity and inflammation. Hybrid materials made up of tricalcium silicates and resins have also been developed to be used in direct pulp capping. This work was designed to study the consequences of adding resins to tricalcium silicates by investigating TheraCal (BISCO, Lançon De Provence, France) and Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) interactions with the dental pulp. Media conditioned with the biomaterials were used to analyze pulp fibroblast proliferation using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test and proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of conditioned media on dentin sialoprotein (DSP) and nestin expression by dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were investigated by immunofluorescence. The materials' interactions with the vital pulp were investigated using the entire tooth culture model. TheraCal-conditioned media significantly decreased pulp fibroblast proliferation, whereas no effect was observed with Biodentine. When DPSCs were cultured with Biodentine-conditioned media, immunofluorescence showed an increased expression of DSP and nestin. This expression was lower with TheraCal, which significantly induced proinflammatory IL-8 release both in cultured fibroblasts and entire tooth cultures. This IL-8 secretion increase was not observed with Biodentine. Entire tooth culture histology showed a higher mineralization with Biodentine, whereas significant tissue disorganization was observed with TheraCal. Within the limits of these preclinical results, resin-containing TheraCal cannot be recommended for direct pulp capping. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low- 18O silicic magmas: why are they so rare? (United States)

    Balsley, Steven D.; Gregory, Robert T.


    Low- 18O silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of low- 18O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense low- 18O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km 3) have plagioclase δ 18O values of 6.8±0.1‰, whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km 3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase δ 18O values between 5.5 and 6.8‰. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3‰ relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5‰ depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone low- 18O rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the low- 18O Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of low- 18O material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyries before the magmatic 18O can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 18O subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small-volume, low- 18O magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.

  2. Low-(18)O Silicic Magmas: Why Are They So Rare?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsley, S.D.; Gregory, R.T.


    LOW-180 silicic magmas are reported from only a small number of localities (e.g., Yellowstone and Iceland), yet petrologic evidence points to upper crustal assimilation coupled with fractional crystallization (AFC) during magma genesis for nearly all silicic magmas. The rarity of 10W-l `O magmas in intracontinental caldera settings is remarkable given the evidence of intense 10W-l*O meteoric hydrothermal alteration in the subvolcanic remnants of larger caldera systems. In the Platoro caldera complex, regional ignimbrites (150-1000 km3) have plagioclase 6180 values of 6.8 + 0.1%., whereas the Middle Tuff, a small-volume (est. 50-100 km3) post-caldera collapse pyroclastic sequence, has plagioclase 8]80 values between 5.5 and 6.8%o. On average, the plagioclase phenocrysts from the Middle Tuff are depleted by only 0.3%0 relative to those in the regional tuffs. At Yellowstone, small-volume post-caldera collapse intracaldera rhyolites are up to 5.5%o depleted relative to the regional ignimbrites. Two important differences between the Middle Tuff and the Yellowstone 10W-180 rhyolites elucidate the problem. Middle Tuff magmas reached water saturation and erupted explosively, whereas most of the 10W-l 80 Yellowstone rhyolites erupted effusively as domes or flows, and are nearly devoid of hydrous phenocrysts. Comparing the two eruptive types indicates that assimilation of 10W-180 material, combined with fractional crystallization, drives silicic melts to water oversaturation. Water saturated magmas either erupt explosively or quench as subsurface porphyrins bejiire the magmatic 180 can be dramatically lowered. Partial melting of low- 180 subvolcanic rocks by near-anhydrous magmas at Yellowstone produced small- volume, 10W-180 magmas directly, thereby circumventing the water saturation barrier encountered through normal AFC processes.

  3. Synthesis of magnesium silicate from wheat husk ash: Effects of parameters on structural and surface properties


    Pinar Terzioglu; Sevil Yucel


    In the present study, magnesium silicate was produced by using wheat husk ash. Wheat husk was burned at 600 °C to obtain an amorphous ash structure, and the ash was processed with sodium hydroxide solution with heat to extract silica. Sodium silicate solution and magnesium salts were used to synthesize magnesium silicate. The present study investigates effects of the feeding rate on magnesium silicate production (0.6 mL/min, 35 mL/min, 70 mL/min), the type of magnesium salt (MgSO4 • 7H2O or M...

  4. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed H. Javed; Umair Aslam; Mohsin Kazmi; Masooma Rustam; Sheema Riaz; Zahid Munir


    Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW) such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) technique...

  5. High-temperature silicate volcanism on Jupiter's moon Io (United States)

    McEwen, A.S.; Keszthelyi, L.; Spencer, J.R.; Schubert, G.; Matson, D.L.; Lopes-Gautier, R.; Klaasen, K.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Head, J.W.; Geissler, P.; Fagents, S.; Davies, A.G.; Carr, M.H.; Breneman, H.H.; Belton, M.J.S.


    Infrared wavelength observations of Io by the Galileo spacecraft show that at last 12 different vents are erupting lavas that are probably hotter than the highest temperature basaltic eruptions on Earth today. In at least one case, the eruption near Pillan Patea, two independent instruments on Galileo show that the lava temperature must have exceeded 1700 kelvin and may have reached 2000 kelvin. The most likely explanation is that these lavas are ultramafic (magnesium-rich) silicates, and this idea is supported by the tentative identification of magnesium-rich orthopyroxene in lava flows associated with thse high-temperature hot spots.

  6. Alkali-metal silicate binders and methods of manufacture (United States)

    Schutt, J. B. (Inventor)


    A paint binder is described which uses a potassium or sodium silicate dispersion having a silicon dioxide to alkali-metal oxide mol ratio of from 4.8:1 to 6.0:1. The binder exhibits stability during both manufacture and storage. The process of making the binder is predictable and repeatable and the binder may be made with inexpensive components. The high mol ratio is achieved with the inclusion of a silicon dioxide hydrogel. The binder, which also employs a silicone, is in the final form of a hydrogel sol.

  7. Activity composition relationships in silicate melts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glazner, A.F.


    Equipment progress include furnace construction and electron microprobe installation. The following studies are underway: phase equilibria along basalt-rhyolite mixing line (olivine crystallization from natural silicic andensites, distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine and liquid, dist. of Ca and Na between plagioclase and liquid), enthalpy-composition relations in magmas (bulk heat capacity of alkali basalt), density model for magma ascent and contamination, thermobarometry in igneous systems (olivine/plagioclase phenocryst growth in Quat. basalt), high-pressure phase equilibria of alkali basalt, basalt-quartz mixing experiments, phase equilibria of East African basalts, and granitic minerals in mafic magma. (DLC)

  8. Calcium silicate hydrates: Solid and liquid phase composition


    Lothenbach Barbara; Nonat André


    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents a review on the relationship between the composition the structure and the solution in which calcium silicate hydrate (C S H) is equilibrated. The silica chain length in C S H increases with the silicon concentration and the calcium content in the interlayer space with the calcium concentrations. Sodium and potassium are taken up in the interlayer space preferentially at low calcium concentrations and thus by low Ca/Si C S H. Aluminium uptake in C S H ...

  9. Space Weathering of Silicate Asteroids: An Observational Investigation (United States)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Emery, Joshua; Lindsay, Sean S.


    Solar wind exposure and micrometeoroid bombardment are known to cause mineralogical changes in the upper few microns of silicate grains (by forming amorphous “composition” rims with embedded nano-phase Fe0). These processes, jointly called space weathering (SW), affect the light-scattering properties and subsequently the geometric albedo and spectral parameters (spectral slope and band depth). Earth’s Moon exhibits the well known “lunar-style” of SW: albedo decrease, spectral slope increase, and absorption band suppression. However, space mission images of (243) Ida and (433) Eros suggest that different SW “styles” exist among the silicate-bearing (olivine and pyroxene) S-complex asteroids, which exhibit diagnostic absorption features near 1 & 2 μm. While Eros generally shows only albedo differences between younger and older locations, Ida’s surface only shows changes in spectral slope and band depth. It is not clear if these SW styles are unique to Ida and Eros or if they can be observed throughout the entire asteroid population.We hypothesize that the SW styles seen on Eros and Ida also exist on other asteroid surfaces. Additionally, we hypothesize that increased solar wind exposure, smaller regolith particles, higher olivine abundance, and older asteroid surfaces will increase the observed degree of SW. Our dataset includes publicly available Visible (0.4-0.8 μm) and Near Infrared (~0.7-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra of silicate-bearing asteroids (those with 1 & 2 μm bands) from the PDS and the SMASS, S3OS2 and MIT-UH-IRTF spectral surveys. We have also conducted a spectral survey with the IRTF/SpeX targeting 52 silicate asteroids for which we have constraints for regolith grain sizes from interpretation of thermal-IR data. The relevant band parameters to SW and to interpreting mineralogical properties are calculated using the band analysis code, SARA. Geometric albedos are calculated using thermal-IR data from WISE/NEOWISE. Using these derived

  10. Infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of hydrous silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, S.; Stolper, E.


    The focus of this project is the combined appication of infrared spectroscopy and stable isotope geochemistry to the study of hydrogen-bearing species dissolved in silicate melts and glasses. We are conducting laboratory experiments aimed at determining the fractionation of D and H between melt species (OH and H{sub 2}O) and hydrous vapor and the diffusivities of these species in glasses and melts. Knowledge of these parameters is critical to understanding the behavior of hydrogen isotopes during igneous processes and hydrothermal processes. These results also could be valuable in application of glass technology to development of nuclear waste disposal strategies.

  11. Tin in silicate glasses: structure, thermodynamics and kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Verena; Ksenofontov, Vadim [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Aigner, Maria-Louisa; Pfeiffer, Thomas; Sprenger, Dirk [Schott AG Mainz (Germany); Felser, Claudia, E-mail: [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany)


    In this work Moessbauer spectroscopy is used to investigate the oxidation states and structures of tin in silicate glasses. Thermal treatment of the glasses in atmospheres with varying oxygen partial pressure leads to the simultaneous appearance of reduction and diffusion. Experiments with varying treatment time give the opportunity to study diffusion and reduction processes in detail. Comparison of the hyperfine parameters of reference materials with measured parameter provides information about the local surroundings of the tin atoms. An octahedral surrounding for Sn{sup 4+} is presumed, while Sn{sup 2+} and three oxygen atoms form a tetrahedral coordination.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopy and Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Hydrous Silicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolper, Edward


    The focus of this DOE-funded project has been the study of volatile components in magmas and the atmosphere. Over the twenty-one year period of this project, we have used experimental petrology and stable isotope geochemistry to study the behavior and properties of volatile components dissolved in silicate minerals and melts and glasses. More recently, we have also studied the concentration and isotopic composition of CO2 in the atmosphere, especially in relation to air quality issues in the Los Angeles basin.

  13. Calorimetric signature of structural heterogeneity in a ternary silicate glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Yang, G.; Yue, Yuanzheng


    We investigate the structural heterogeneity in a silicate glass by hyperquenching–annealing–calorimetry approach. The results show a striking phenomenon: two separated sub-Tg relaxation peaks appear on the calorimetric curve of the hyperquenched CaO–MgO–SiO2 glass, implying the existence of two...... distinct structural domains of higher and lower potential energies, respectively. The higher energy domains in nanoscale are so unstable that they become ordered during hyperquenching. This is verified by the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image exhibiting nanoordered domains in the glass...

  14. Nutrient accumulation and biomass production of alfafa after soil amendment with silicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus


    Full Text Available Studies on the use of silicate correctives in agriculture show that they have great potential to improve soil chemical characteristics, however, little information is available on the reactivity rates of their particle-size fractions. This study investigated whether the reactivity rates obtained experimentally could be considered in the calculation of ECC (effective calcium carbonate for soil liming, promoting adequate development of alfalfa plants. Six treatments were evaluated in the experiment, consisting of two slag types applied in two rates. The experimental ECC was used to calculate one of the rates and the ECC determined in the laboratory was used to calculate the other. Rates of limestone and wollastonite were based on the ECC determined in laboratory. The rates of each soil acidity corretive were calculated to increase the base saturation to 80%. The treatments were applied to a Rhodic Hapludox and an Alfisol Ferrudalfs. The methods for ECC determination established for lime can be applied to steel slag. The application of slag corrected soil acidity with consequent accumulation of Ca, P, and Si in alfalfa, favoring DM production.

  15. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates; Etude par RMN de la structure des silicates de calcium hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klur, I


    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.) 101 refs.

  16. Anionic silicate organic frameworks constructed from hexacoordinate silicon centres (United States)

    Roeser, Jérôme; Prill, Dragica; Bojdys, Michael J.; Fayon, Pierre; Trewin, Abbie; Fitch, Andrew N.; Schmidt, Martin U.; Thomas, Arne


    Crystalline frameworks composed of hexacoordinate silicon species have thus far only been observed in a few high pressure silicate phases. By implementing reversible Si-O chemistry for the crystallization of covalent organic frameworks, we demonstrate the simple one-pot synthesis of silicate organic frameworks based on octahedral dianionic SiO6 building units. Clear evidence of the hexacoordinate environment around the silicon atoms is given by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Characterization by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculation and analysis of the pair-distribution function showed that those anionic frameworks—M2[Si(C16H10O4)1.5], where M = Li, Na, K and C16H10O4 is 9,10-dimethylanthracene-2,3,6,7-tetraolate—crystallize as two-dimensional hexagonal layers stabilized in a fully eclipsed stacking arrangement with pronounced disorder in the stacking direction. Permanent microporosity with high surface area (up to 1,276 m2 g-1) was evidenced by gas-sorption measurements. The negatively charged backbone balanced with extra-framework cations and the permanent microporosity are characteristics that are shared with zeolites.

  17. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina


    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  18. Anionic silicate organic frameworks constructed from hexacoordinate silicon centres. (United States)

    Roeser, Jérôme; Prill, Dragica; Bojdys, Michael J; Fayon, Pierre; Trewin, Abbie; Fitch, Andrew N; Schmidt, Martin U; Thomas, Arne


    Crystalline frameworks composed of hexacoordinate silicon species have thus far only been observed in a few high pressure silicate phases. By implementing reversible Si-O chemistry for the crystallization of covalent organic frameworks, we demonstrate the simple one-pot synthesis of silicate organic frameworks based on octahedral dianionic SiO6 building units. Clear evidence of the hexacoordinate environment around the silicon atoms is given by (29)Si nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Characterization by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, density functional theory calculation and analysis of the pair-distribution function showed that those anionic frameworks-M2[Si(C16H10O4)1.5], where M = Li, Na, K and C16H10O4 is 9,10-dimethylanthracene-2,3,6,7-tetraolate-crystallize as two-dimensional hexagonal layers stabilized in a fully eclipsed stacking arrangement with pronounced disorder in the stacking direction. Permanent microporosity with high surface area (up to 1,276 m(2) g(-1)) was evidenced by gas-sorption measurements. The negatively charged backbone balanced with extra-framework cations and the permanent microporosity are characteristics that are shared with zeolites.

  19. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.


    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  20. Evidence of yttrium silicate inclusions in YSZ-porcelain veneers. (United States)

    Stoner, Brian R; Griggs, Jason A; Neidigh, John; Piascik, Jeffrey R


    This report introduces the discovery of crystalline defects that can form in the porcelain veneering layer when in contact with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The focus was on dental prostheses and understanding the defects that form in the YSZ/porcelain system; however the data reported herein may have broader implications toward the use and stability of YSZ-based ceramics in general. Specimens were cut from fully sintered YSZ plates and veneering porcelain was applied (veneer. Local EDAX (SEM) was performed in the regions of visible inclusions and showed significant increases in yttrium concentration. TEM specimens also showed apparent inclusions in the porcelain and selected area electron diffraction was performed on these regions and found the inclusions to be crystalline and identified as either yttrium-silicate (Y2 SiO5 ) or yttrium-disilicate (Y2 Si2 O7 ). Micro-CT data showed that yttrium-silicate precipitates were distributed throughout the thickness of the porcelain veneer. Future studies are needed to determine whether many of the premature failures associated with this materials system may be the result of crystalline flaws that form as a result of high temperature yttrium diffusion near the surfaces of YSZ. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, L.; Bareiro, O.; Santos, L.A. dos, E-mail: loreley.morejon@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRG), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dep. de Materiais; Carrodeguas R, Garcia [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio. Dept. de Ceramica


    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  2. Interaction of dispersed polyvynil acetate with silicate in finishing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runova, R. F.


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the processes of interaction between calcium silicate hydrates and dispersed polyvinyl acetate in tight films with the aim of developing compounds meant for restoration and finishing works. The basis of this development relies on the concept concerning the determining role of the crystal-chemical factor of the silicate phase in the formation of organic-mineral compounds of increased durability. The characteristics of dispersed calcium silicate hydrates are portrayed. The preparation conditions, accounting for the synthesis of the product of submicrocrystalline structure, conforming with the stoichiometry CaO∙SiO2 =0.8-2.0 have been determined. The interaction has been studied for compounds achieved by mixing ingredients in a rapid whirling mixer, and subjected to hardening at T=20+2 T. With the aid of XRD, DTA and Infra-Red Spectrometry methods the formation process of the sophisticated polymer silicate phase in the material was observed for a period of 90 days. The properties of the film were investigated and its high resistance against the influence of external factors was established. On this basis a conclusion concerning the quite high effectiveness of substituting portland cement with dispersed calcium silicate hydrate in polymer cement compounds has been made. White colour and other various special properties determine the suitability for repair and finishing works on facades of buildings.

    Este artículo está orientado a estudiar los procesos de interacción entre los silicatos cálcicos hidratados y el acetato de polivinilo disperso en capas impermeables, con el objeto de desarrollar compuestos destinados para la restauración. El fundamento de estos estudios es determinar el papel que los factores cristaloquímicos de las fases silicato tienen en la formación de compuestos órganominerales de elevada durabilidad. Se han descrito las características de los silicatos cálcicos hidratados

  3. Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production (United States)

    Rau, Greg H.; Carroll, Susan A.; Bourcier, William L.; Singleton, Michael J.; Smith, Megan M.; Aines, Roger D.


    We experimentally demonstrate the direct coupling of silicate mineral dissolution with saline water electrolysis and H2 production to effect significant air CO2 absorption, chemical conversion, and storage in solution. In particular, we observed as much as a 105-fold increase in OH− concentration (pH increase of up to 5.3 units) relative to experimental controls following the electrolysis of 0.25 M Na2SO4 solutions when the anode was encased in powdered silicate mineral, either wollastonite or an ultramafic mineral. After electrolysis, full equilibration of the alkalized solution with air led to a significant pH reduction and as much as a 45-fold increase in dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. This demonstrated significant spontaneous air CO2 capture, chemical conversion, and storage as a bicarbonate, predominantly as NaHCO3. The excess OH− initially formed in these experiments apparently resulted via neutralization of the anolyte acid, H2SO4, by reaction with the base mineral silicate at the anode, producing mineral sulfate and silica. This allowed the NaOH, normally generated at the cathode, to go unneutralized and to accumulate in the bulk electrolyte, ultimately reacting with atmospheric CO2 to form dissolved bicarbonate. Using nongrid or nonpeak renewable electricity, optimized systems at large scale might allow relatively high-capacity, energy-efficient (production of carbon-negative H2. Furthermore, when added to the ocean, the produced hydroxide and/or (bi)carbonate could be useful in reducing sea-to-air CO2 emissions and in neutralizing or offsetting the effects of ongoing ocean acidification. PMID:23729814

  4. Influence of silicate on the transport of bacteria in quartz sand and iron mineral-coated sand. (United States)

    Dong, Zhe; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Dan; Ni, Jinren; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping


    The influence of silicate on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media were examined at a constant 20 mM ionic strength with different silicate concentrations (from 0 to 1 mM) at pH 7. Transport experiments were performed in two types of representative porous media, both bare quartz sand and iron mineral-coated quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of silicate in suspensions were lower and the corresponding retained profiles were higher than those without silicate ions, indicating that the presence of silicate in suspensions decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand. Moreover, the decrease of bacteria transport in quartz sand induced by silicate was more pronounced with increasing silicate concentrations from 0 to 1 mM. However, when EPS was removed from cell surfaces, the presence of silicate in cell suspensions (with different concentrations) did not affect the transport behavior of bacteria in quartz sand. The interaction of silicate with EPS on cell surfaces negatively decreased the zeta potentials of bacteria, resulting in the decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand when silicate was copresent in bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the presence of silicate in suspensions increased cell transport in iron mineral-coated sand. Silicate ions competed with bacteria for the adsorption sites on mineral-coated sand, contributing to the increased cell transport in mineral-coated sand with silicate present in cell suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of redox kinetic in silicate melt; Etude cinetique des reactions d'oxydoreduction dans les silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, V


    The aim of this thesis is to understand better iron redox reactions and mechanisms in silicate glasses and melts. Particular interest has been paid to the influence of temperature and chemical composition. For this purpose, the influence of alkali element content, iron content and network formers on the kinetics of redox reactions has been determined through XANES and Raman spectroscopy experiments performed either near the glass transition or above the liquidus temperature. As a complement, electrical conductivity and RBS spectroscopy experiments have been made to characterize the diffusivity of the species that transport electrical charges and the reaction morphology, respectively. Temperature and composition variations can induce changes in the dominating redox mechanism. At a given temperature, the parameters that exert the strongest influence on redox mechanisms are the presence or lack of divalent cations and the existing decoupling between the mobility of network former and modifier elements. Near Tg, the diffusion of divalent cations, when present in the melt, controls the kinetics of iron redox reactions along with a flux of electron holes. Composition, through the degree of polymerization and the silicate network structure, influences the kinetics and the nature of the involved cations, but not the mechanisms of the reaction. Without alkaline earth elements, the kinetics of redox reactions are controlled by the diffusion of oxygen species. With increasing temperatures, the diffusivities of all ionic species tend to become similar. The decoupling between ionic fluxes then is reduced so that several mechanisms become kinetically equivalent and can thus coexist. (author)

  6. Steam based conversion coating on AA6060 alloy: Effect of sodium silicate chemistry and corrosion performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Tabrizian, Naja


    Surface treatment of aluminium alloy AA6060 using an industrially applicable pilot steam jet system with and without silicate chemistry has been investigated. Treatment using steam alone and steam with silicate, resulted in an oxide layer formation with thickness ∼425 nm and ∼160 nm, respectively...

  7. Sodium Silicate Behavior in Porous Media Applied for In-Depth Profile Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein A. Akhlaghi Amiri


    Full Text Available This paper addresses alkaline sodium silicate (Na-silicate behavior in porous media. One of the advantages of the Na-silicate system is its water-like injectivity during the placement stage. Mixing Na-silicate with saline water results in metal silicate precipitation as well as immediate gelation. This work demonstrated that low salinity water (LSW, sea water diluted 25 times could be used as a pre-flush in flooding operations. A water override phenomenon was observed during gel formation which is caused by gravity segregation. Dynamic adsorption tests in the sand-packed tubes showed inconsiderable adsorbed silicon density (about 8.5 × 10−10 kg/cm3 for a solution with 33 mg/L silicon content, which is less than the estimated mono-layer adsorption density of 1.4 × 10−8 kg/cm3. Na-silicate enhanced water sweep efficiency after application in a dual-permeability sand-pack system, without leak off into the oil-bearing low permeability (LP zone. Field-scale numerical sensitivity studies in a layered reservoir demonstrated that higher permeability and viscosity contrasts and lower vertical/horizontal permeability ratio result in lower Na-silicate leakoff into the matrix. The length of the mixing zone between reservoir water and the injected Na-silicate solution, which is formed by low salinity pre-flush, acts as a buffer zone.

  8. Crystal Structure and Chemical Composition of a Presolar Silicate from the Queen Elizabeth Range 99177 Meteorite (United States)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S.


    Mineral characterization of presolar silicate grains, the most abundant stardust phase, has provided valuable information about the formation conditions in circumstellar environments and in super-nova (SN) outflows. Spectroscopic observations of dust around evolved stars suggest a majority of amor-phous, Mg-rich olivine grains, but crystalline silicates, most of which are pyroxene, have also been observed [1]. The chemical compositions of hundreds of presolar silicates have been determined by Auger spectroscopy and reveal high Fe contents and nonstoichiometric compositions intermediate to olivine and pyroxene [2-6]. The unexpectedly high Fe contents can partly be attributed to secondary alteration on the meteorite parent bodies, as some grains have Fe isotopic anomalies from their parent stellar source [7]. Only about 35 presolar silicates have been studied for their mineral structures and chemical compositions by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These grains display a wide range of compositions and structures, including crystalline forsterite, crystalline pyroxene, nanocrystalline grains, and a majority of amorphous nonstoichiometric grains. Most of these grains were identified in the primitive Acfer 094 meteorite. Presolar silicates from this meteorite show a wide range of Fe-contents, suggestive of secondary processing on the meteorite parent body. The CR chondrite QUE 99177 has not suffered as much alteration [8] and displays the highest presolar silicate abundance to date among carbonaceous chondrites [3, 6]. However, no mineralogical studies of presolar silicates from this meteorite have been performed. Here we examine the mineralogy of a presolar silicate from QUE 99177.

  9. Facile synthesis of magnetic hierarchical copper silicate hollow nanotubes for efficient adsorption and removal of hemoglobin. (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Baoyu; Zhang, Yanwei; Li, Weizhen; Gan, Wenjun; Xu, Jingli


    This study reports the fabrication of magnetic copper silicate hierarchical hollow nanotubes, which are featured by a tailored complex wall structure and high surface area. Moreover, they exhibit excellent performance as an easily recycled adsorbent for protein separation. Particularly, this strategy can be extended as a general method to prepare other magnetic metal silicate hollow nanotubes.

  10. FT-IR and 29 Si-NMR for evaluating aluminium silicate precursors for geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Fischer, H.R.; Verkuijlen, M.H.W.; Eck, E.R.H.


    Geopolymers are systems of inorganic binders that can be used for sustainable, cementless concrete and are formed by alkali activation of an aluminium–silicate precursor (often secondary resources like fly ash or slag). The type of aluminium– silicate precursor and its potential variations within

  11. Is Tridymite at Gale Crater Evidence for Silicic Volcanism on Mars? (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Vaniman, David T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Graff, Trevor G.; Downs, Robert T.; Fendrich, Kim; Mertzman, Stanley A.


    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument (CheMin) onboard the MSL rover Curiosity detected 17 wt% of the SiO2 polymorph tridymite (relative to bulk sample) for the Buckskin drill sample (73 wt% SiO2) obtained from sedimentary rock in the Murray formation at Gale Crater, Mars. Other detected crystalline materials are plagioclase, sanidine, cristobalite, cation-deficient magnetite, and anhydrite. XRD amorphous material constitutes approx. 60 wt% of bulk sample, and the position of its broad diffraction peak near approx. 26 deg. 2-theta is consistent with opal-A. Tridymite is a lowpressure, high-temperature mineral (approx. 870 to 1670 deg. C) whose XRD-identified occurrence on the Earth is usually associated with silicic (e.g., rhyolitic) volcanism. High SiO2 deposits have been detected at Gale crater by remote sensing from martian orbit and interpreted as opal-A on the basis H2O and Si-OH spectral features. Proposed opal-A formation pathways include precipitation of silica from lake waters and high-SiO2 residues of acid-sulfate leaching. Tridymite is nominally anhydrous and would not exhibit these spectral features. We have chemically and spectrally analyzed rhyolitic samples from New Mexico and Iwodake volcano (Japan). The glassy (by XRD) NM samples have H2O spectral features similar to opal-A. The Iwodake sample, which has been subjected to high-temperature acid sulfate leaching, also has H2O spectral features similar to opal-A. The Iwodake sample has approx. 98 wt% SiO2 and 1% wt% TiO2 (by XRF), tridymite (>80 wt.% of crystalline material without detectable quartz by XRD), and H2O and Si-OH spectral features. These results open the working hypothesis that the opal-A-like high-SiO2 deposits at Gale crater detected from martian orbit are products of alteration associated with silicic volcanism. The presence or absence of tridymite will depend on lava crystallization temperatures (NM) and post crystallization alteration temperatures (Iwodake).

  12. New estimates of silicate weathering rates and their uncertainties in global rivers (United States)

    Moon, Seulgi; Chamberlain, C. P.; Hilley, G. E.


    This study estimated the catchment- and global-scale weathering rates of silicate rocks from global rivers using global compilation datasets from the GEMS/Water and HYBAM. These datasets include both time-series of chemical concentrations of major elements and synchronous discharge. Using these datasets, we first examined the sources of uncertainties in catchment and global silicate weathering rates. Then, we proposed future sampling strategies and geochemical analyses to estimate accurate silicate weathering rates in global rivers and to reduce uncertainties in their estimates. For catchment silicate weathering rates, we considered uncertainties due to sampling frequency and variability in river discharge, concentration, and attribution of weathering to different chemical sources. Our results showed that uncertainties in catchment-scale silicate weathering rates were due mostly to the variations in discharge and cation fractions from silicate substrates. To calculate unbiased silicate weathering rates accounting for the variations from discharge and concentrations, we suggest that at least 10 and preferably ∼40 temporal chemical data points with synchronous discharge from each river are necessary. For the global silicate weathering rate, we examined uncertainties from infrequent sampling within an individual river, the extrapolation from limited rivers to a global flux, and the inverse model selections for source differentiation. For this weathering rate, we found that the main uncertainty came from the extrapolation to the global flux and the model configurations of source differentiation methods. This suggests that to reduce the uncertainties in the global silicate weathering rates, coverage of synchronous datasets of river chemistry and discharge to rivers from tectonically active regions and volcanic provinces must be extended, and catchment-specific silicate end-members for those rivers must be characterized. With current available synchronous datasets, we

  13. Influence of iron on crystallization behavior and thermal stability of the insulating materials - porous calcium silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng


    The properties of porous calcium silicate for high temperature insulation are strongly influenced by impurities. In this work we determine the influence of Fe3+ on the crystallization behavior and thermal stability of hydrothermally derived calcium silicate. We synthesize porous calcium silicate...... by XRD analysis. The thermal stability and compressive strength of the calcium silicates are seriously influenced by the changes of their crystal structure. Linear shrinkage of the reference sample is 1.3% at 1050°C, whereas the sample with Fe/Si =1.0% does by 30.4%. In conclusion, the presence of Fe3......+ modifies the crystal structure of porous calcium silicates, leading to a significant shrinkage in these materials....

  14. Pilot study on binding of bovine salivary proteins to grit silicates and plant phytoliths. (United States)

    Mau, Marcus; M Kaiser, Thomas; Südekum, Karl-Heinz


    Mostly fed with grass in fresh or conserved form, cattle and other livestock have to cope with silicate defence bodies from plants (phytoliths) and environmental silicates (grit), which abrade tooth enamel and could additionally interact with various salivary proteins. To detect potential candidates for silicate-binding proteins, bovine whole saliva was incubated with grass-derived phytoliths and silicates. Interactions of salivary proteins with pulverized bovine dental enamel and dentine were additionally analysed. After intense washing, the powder fractions were loaded onto 1D-polyacrylamide gels, most prominent adhesive protein bands were cut out and proteins were identified by mass spectrometry within three independent replicates. All materials were mainly bound by bovine odorant-binding protein, bovine salivary protein 30×10(3) and carbonic anhydrase VI. The phytolith/silicate fraction showed additional stronger interaction with haemoglobin β and lactoperoxidase. Conceivably, the binding of these proteins to the surfaces may contribute to biological processes occurring on them.

  15. Apatite: a new redox proxy for silicic magmas? (United States)

    Miles, Andrew; Graham, Colin; Hawkesworth, Chris; Gillespie, Martin; Bromiley, Geoff; Hinton, Richard


    The oxidation states of magmas provide valuable information about the release and speciation of volatile elements during volcanic eruptions, metallogenesis, source rock compositions, open system magmatic processes, tectonic settings and potentially titanium (Ti) activity in chemical systems used for Ti-dependent geothermometers and geobarometers. In this presentation we explore the use of Mn in apatite as an oxybarometer in intermediate and silicic igneous rocks. Increased Mn concentrations in apatite in granitic rocks from the zoned Criffell granitic pluton (southern Scotland) correlate with decreasing Fe2O3 (Fe3+) and Mn in the whole-rock and likely reflect increased Mn2+/Mn3+and greater compatibility of Mn2+ relative to Mn3+ in apatite under reduced conditions. Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in biotites have previously been used to calculate oxygen fugacities (fO2) in the outer zone granodiorites and inner zone granites where redox conditions have been shown to change from close to the magnetite-hematite buffer to close to the nickel-nickel oxide buffer respectively[1]. This trend is apparent in apatite Mn concentrations from a range of intermediate to silicic volcanic rocks that exhibit varying redox states and are shown to vary linearly and negatively with log fO2, such that logfO2=-0.0022(±0.0003)Mn(ppm)-9.75(±0.46) Variations in the Mn concentration of apatites appear to be largely independent of differences in the Mn concentration of the melt. Apatite Mn concentrations may therefore provide an independent oxybarometer that is amenable to experimental calibration, with major relevance to studies on detrital mineral suites, particularly those containing a record of early Earth redox conditions, and on the climatic impact of historic volcanic eruptions[2]. [1] Stephens, W. E., Whitley, J. E., Thirlwall, M. F. and Halliday, A. N. (1985) The Criffell zoned pluton: correlated behaviour of rare earth element abundances with isotopic systems. Contributions to Mineralogy and

  16. Role of organically modified layered silicate both as an active interfacial modifier and nanofiller for immiscible polymer blends.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ray, SS


    Full Text Available ) revealed efficient mixing of the polymers in the presence of organically modified layered silicate. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations showed that silicate layers were either intercalated or exfoliated...

  17. Effects of Silicate, Phosphate, and Calcium on the Stability of Aldopentoses (United States)

    Nitta, Sakiko; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi


    Ribose is an important constituent of RNA: ribose connects RNA bases and forms a strand of sugar phosphates. Accumulation of ribose on prebiotic Earth was difficult because of its low stability. Improvement in the yield of ribose by the introduction of borate or silicate in a formose-like reaction has been proposed. The effects of borates have been further analyzed and confirmed in subsequent studies. Nonetheless, the effects of silicates and phosphates remain unclear. In the present study, we incubated aldopentoses in a highly alkaline aqueous solution at a moderate temperature to determine the effects of silicate or phosphate on the degradation rates of ribose and its isomeric aldopentoses. The formation of a complex of silicate (or phosphate) with ribose was also analyzed in experiments with 29Si and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We found that silicate or phosphate complexes of ribose were not detectable under our experimental conditions. The stability of ribose and lyxose improved after addition of 40-fold molar excess (relative to a pentose) of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate to the alkaline solution. The stability was not improved further when an 80-fold molar excess of sodium silicate or sodium phosphate was added. Calcium was removed from these solutions by precipitation of calcium salts. The drop in Ca2+ concentration might have improved the stability of ribose and lyxose, which are susceptible to aldol addition. The improvement of ribose stability by the removal of Ca2+ and by addition of silicate or phosphate was far smaller than the improvement by borate. Furthermore, all aldopentoses showed similar stability in silicate- and phosphate-containing solutions. These results clearly show that selective stabilization of ribose by borate cannot be replaced by the effects of silicate or phosphate; this finding points to the importance of borate in prebiotic RNA formation.

  18. Geochemical modeling of the influence of silicate mineral alteration on alkalinity production and carbonate precipitation (United States)

    Herda, Gerhard; Kraemer, Stephan M.; Gier, Susanne; Meister, Patrick


    High CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) in deep rock reservoirs causes acidification of the porefluid. Such conditions occur during injection and subsurface storage of CO2 (to prevent the release of greenhouse gas) but also naturally in zones of strong methanogenic microbial activity in organic matter-rich ocean margin sediments. The acidic fluids are corrosive to carbonates and bear the risk of leakage of CO2 gas to the surface. Porefluid acidification may be moderated by processes that increase the alkalinity, i.e. that produce weak acid anions capable of buffering the acidification imposed by the CO2. Often, alkalinity increases as a result of anaerobic microbial activity, such as anaerobic oxidation of methane. However, on a long term the alteration of silicates, in particular, clay minerals, may be a more efficient mechanism of alkalinity production. Under altered temperature, pressure and porefluid composition at depth, clay minerals may change to thermodynamically more stable states, thereby increasing the alkalinity of the porefluid by partial leaching of Mg-(OH)2 and Ca-(OH)2 (e.g. Wallmann et al., 2008; Mavromatis et al., 2014). This alteration may even be enhanced by a high pCO2. Thus, silicate alteration can be essential for a long-term stabilization of volatile CO2 in the form of bicarbonate or may even induce precipitation of carbonate minerals, but these processes are not fully understood yet. The goal of this study is to simulate the alkalinity effect of silicate alteration under diagenetic conditions and high pCO2 by geochemical modeling. We are using the program PHREEQC (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) to generate high rock/fluid ratio characteristics for deep subsurface rock reservoirs. Since we are interested in the long-term evolution of diagenetic processes, over millions of years, we do not consider kinetics but calculate the theoretically possible equilibrium conditions. In a first step we are calculating the saturation state of different clay minerals

  19. Preparation and characterization of bioactive and degradable composites containing ordered mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate and poly(L-lactide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jiajin [Key Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Dong, Xieping, E-mail: [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jiangxi People' s Hospital, Nanchang 330006 (China); Ma, Xuhui [Polymer Science (Shenzhen) New Materials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518101 (China); Tang, Songchao, E-mail: [Key Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wu, Zhaoying; Xia, Ji; Wang, Quanxiang; Wang, Yutao; Wei, Jie [Key Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)


    Highlights: • Mesoporous calcium-magnesium silicate and poly(L-lactide) composite was fabricated. • The composite has good hydrophilicity, in vitro degradation and bioactivity. • The composite could support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. - Abstract: Polylactide (PLA) and its copolymers have been widely used for bone tissue regeneration. In this study, a bioactive composite of ordered mesoporous calcium–magnesium silicate (m-CMS) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) was fabricated by melt blending method. The results indicated that the m-CMS particles were entrapped by polymer phase, and crystallinity of PLLA significantly decreased while the thermal stability of the m-CMS/PLLA composites was not obviously affected by addition of the m-CMS into PLLA. In addition, compared to PLLA, incorporation of the m-CMS into PLLA significantly improved the hydrophilicity, in vitro degradability and bioactivity (apatite-formation ability) of the m-CMS/PLLA composite, which were m-CMS content dependent. Moreover, it was found that incorporation of the m-CMS into PLLA could neutralize the acidic degradation by-products and thus compensated for the decrease of pH value. In cell culture experiments, the results showed that the composite enhanced attachment, proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) of MC3T3-E1 cells, which were m-CMS content dependent. The results indicated that the addition of bioactive materials to PLLA could result in a composite with improved properties of hydrophilicity, degradability, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

  20. Soil microbial response to waste potassium silicate drilling fluid. (United States)

    Yao, Linjun; Naeth, M Anne; Jobson, Allen


    Potassium silicate drilling fluids (PSDF) are a waste product of the oil and gas industry with potential for use in land reclamation. Few studies have examined the influence of PSDF on abundance and composition of soil bacteria and fungi. Soils from three representative locations for PSDF application in Alberta, Canada, with clay loam, loam and sand textures were studied with applications of unused, used once and used twice PSDF. For all three soils, applying ≥40 m3/ha of used PSDF significantly affected the existing soil microbial flora. No microbiota was detected in unused PSDF without soil. Adding used PSDF to soil significantly increased total fungal and aerobic bacterial colony forming units in dilution plate counts, and anaerobic denitrifying bacteria numbers in serial growth experiments. Used PSDF altered bacterial and fungal colony forming unit ratios of all three soils. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. About Fundamental Problems of Hydrosphere and Silicate Karst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ya. Gayev


    Full Text Available Rationale of hydrosphere model with two regions of supply and discharge reveals regularities of ground water formation reflecting the special features of system water – rock – gas – living material and character of interaction of hydrosphere with the other spheres of the Earth. It is necessary to concentrate the development of endogenous hy-drogeology fundamentals with the study of silicate karst on investigation of “white and black smokers”, the structure and isotope composition of water in different phase condi-tions, and on modeling of situation in hydrometagenese zone. It will support the development of geotechnology and providing the humanity with mineral and energetic resources in future.

  2. Intergranular area microalloyed aluminium-silicate ceramics fractal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purenović J.


    Full Text Available Porous aluminium-silicate ceramics, modified by alloying with magnesium and microalloying with alluminium belongs to a group of advanced multifunctional ceramics materials. This multiphase solid-solid system has predominantly amorphous microstructure and micro morphology. Intergranular and interphase areas are very complex, because they represent areas, where numbered processes and interactions take place, making new boundaries and regions with fractal nature. Fractal analysis of intergranular microstructure has included determination of ceramic grain fractal dimension by using Richardson method. Considering the fractal nature of intergranular contacts, it is possible to establish correlation between material electrical properties and fractal analysis, as a tool for future correlation with microstructure characterization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 172057 i br. III 45012

  3. Stylolites, porosity, depositional texture, and silicates in chalk facies sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Borre, Mai K.


    Comparison of chalk on the Ontong Java Plateau and chalk in the Central North Sea indicates that, whereas pressure dissolution is controlled by effective burial stress, pore-filling cementation is controlled by temperature. Effective burial stress is caused by the weight of all overlying water...... and sediments as counteracted by the pressure in the pore fluid, so the regional overpressure in the Central North Sea is one reason why the two localities have different relationships between temperature and effective burial stress. In the chalk of the Ontong Java Plateau the onset of calcite-silicate pressure...... equilibrated to quartz before the onset of pressure dissolution and thus, in this case, dissolution and precipitation of calcite have no lag. This temperature versus effective burial stress induced difference in diagenetic history is of particular relevance when exploring for hydrocarbons in normally pressured...

  4. Tribological properties of silicate materials on nano and microscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tordjeman, Ph., E-mail: [Universite de Toulouse-CNRS, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse UMR 5502, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Morel, N. [Laboratoire IES, Groupe Micro et RheoAcoustique, UMR CNRS 5214, Universite Montpellier 2, CC 082, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Ramonda, M. [Laboratoire de Microscopie a Champ Proche, LMCP, Universite Montpellier 2, CC 082, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)


    We studied the friction properties of four model silicate materials at the nanoscale and microscale. From nanotribology, we characterized the tribological properties at single asperity contact scale and from microtribology, we characterized the tribological properties at multi asperity contact scale. First, for each material we measured chemical composition by XPS, Young's modulus by acoustical microscopy and roughness {sigma} by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Second, we measured the nanofriction coefficients with an AFM and the microfriction coefficients with a ball probe tribometer, for three hardnesses of the ball probe. We identified one friction mechanism at the nanoscale (sliding friction) and two friction mechanisms at the microscale (sliding friction and yielding friction). Comparison of the nano and microfriction coefficients at the same sliding friction regime shown, that the tribological properties of these materials didn't depend on roughness.

  5. High-dose dosimetry using natural silicate minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Lucas S. do; Mendes, Leticia, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Watanabe, Shigueo; Rao, Gundu; Lucas, Natasha; Sato, Karina, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear; Barbosa, Renata F., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Santos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias do Mar


    In the present study, certain natural silicate minerals such as aquamarine (AB), morganite (PB), goshenite (WB), white jadeite (JW), green jadeite (JG), pink tourmaline (PT) and two varieties of jadeite-like quartz, denoted here by JQ1 and JQ2, were investigated using the thermoluminescence technique to evaluate their potential for use as very-high- and high-dose dosimeters. These minerals respond to high doses of γ-rays of up to 1000 kGy and often to very high doses of up to 3000 kGy. The TL response of these minerals may be considered to be satisfactory for applications in high-dose dosimetry. Investigations of electron paramagnetic resonance and optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry are in progress. (author)

  6. Luminescent solar concentrators using uranyl-doped silicate glasses (United States)

    Folcher, G.; Keller, N.; Paris, J.


    The effect of the uranium concentration on the performance of uranyl-doped glass used in solar concentrators was examined experimentally. Na-Ca silicate glass and UO3 additive were prepared at 1250 C, cooled to 600 C, annealed at 700 C, and cooled to ambient for the tests. Light absorption was proportional to uranium content up to a 2 percent concentration. A doped-glass test cell filled with a fluoresceine solution and irradiated at 337 nm and 420 nm with laser light was monitored to measure the luminescent lifetimes of the uranyl ions. A 380 microsec half-lifetime was determined, along with a quantum yield that varied from 0.5 at 1 percent uranyl concentration to 0.3 at a 5 percent concentration. The quantum efficiencies could be attained with 1 cm thick glass with existing manufacturing technologies, and thinner glass with further developments.

  7. A-thermal elastic behavior of silicate glasses (United States)

    Rabia, Mohammed Kamel; Degioanni, Simon; Martinet, Christine; Le Brusq, Jacques; Champagnon, Bernard; Vouagner, Dominique


    Depending on the composition of silicate glasses, their elastic moduli can increase or decrease as function of the temperature. Studying the Brillouin frequency shift of these glasses versus temperature allows the a-thermal composition corresponding to an intermediate glass to be determined. In an intermediate glass, the elastic moduli are independent of the temperature over a large temperature range. For sodium alumino-silicate glasses, the a-thermal composition is close to the albite glass (NaAlSi3O8). The structural origin of this property is studied by in situ high temperature Raman scattering. The structure of the intermediate albite glass and of silica are compared at different temperatures between room temperature and 600 °C. When the temperature increases, it is shown that the high frequency shift of the main band at 440 cm-1 in silica is a consequence of the cristobalite-like alpha-beta transformation of 6-membered rings. This effect is stronger in silica than bond elongation (anharmonic effects). As a consequence, the elastic moduli of silica increase as the temperature increases. In the albite glass, the substitution of 25% of Si4+ ions by Al3+ and Na+ ions decreases the proportion of SiO2 6-membered rings responsible for the silica anomaly. The effects of the silica anomaly balance the anharmonicity in albite glass and give rise to an intermediate a-thermal glass. Different networks, formers or modifiers, can be added to produce different a-thermal glasses with useful mechanical or chemical properties.

  8. Evaluation of apatite silicates as solid oxide fuel cell electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero-Lopez, D. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Martin-Sedeno, M.C.; Aranda, M.A.G. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Pena-Martinez, J. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Instituto de Energias Renovables, Parque Tecnologico, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 02006 Albacete (Spain); Ruiz-Morales, J.C.; Nunez, P. [Dpto. de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramos-Barrado, J.R. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada I, Laboratorio de Materiales y Superficies (Unidad Asociada al C.S.I.C.), Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain)


    Apatite-type silicates have been considered as promising electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC); however studies on the potential use of these materials in SOFC devices have received relatively little attention. The lanthanum silicate with composition La{sub 10}Si{sub 5.5}Al{sub 0.5}O{sub 26.75} has been evaluated as electrolyte with the electrode materials commonly used in SOFC, i.e. manganite, ferrite and cobaltite as cathode materials and NiO-CGO composite, chromium-manganite and Sr{sub 2}MgMoO{sub 6} as anode materials. Chemical compatibility, area-specific resistance and fuel cell studies have been performed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis did not reveal any trace of reaction products between the apatite electrolyte and most of the aforementioned electrode materials. However, the area-specific polarisation resistance (ASR) of these electrodes in contact with apatite electrolyte increased significantly with the sintering temperature, indicating reactivity at the electrolyte/electrode interface. On the other hand, the ASR values are significantly improved using a ceria buffer layer between the electrolyte and electrode materials to prevent reactivity. Maximum power densities of 195 and 65 mWcm{sup -2} were obtained at 850 and 700 C, respectively in H{sub 2} fuel, using an 1 mm-thick electrolyte, a NiO-Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 1.9} composite as anode and La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} as cathode materials. This fuel cell was tested for 100 h in 5%H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere showing stable performance. (author)

  9. Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL


    This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers. (United States)

    Zhou, Hui-min; Du, Tian-feng; Shen, Ya; Wang, Zhe-jun; Zheng, Yu-feng; Haapasalo, Markus


    The cytotoxicity of 2 novel calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers to human gingival fibroblasts was studied. EndoSequence BC (Brasseler, Savannah, GA), MTA Fillapex (Angelus Indústria de Produtos Odontológicos S/A, Londrina, PR, Brazil) and a control sealer (AH Plus; Dentsply DeTrey GmbH, Konstanz, Germany) were evaluated. Human gingival fibroblasts were incubated for 3 days both with the extracts from fresh and set materials in culture medium and cultured on the surface of the set materials in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium. Fibroblasts cultured in Dulbecco-modified Eagle medium were used as a control group. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by flow cytometry, and the adhesion of the fibroblasts to the surface of the set materials was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The data of cell cytotoxicity were analyzed statistically using a 1-way analysis of variance test at a significance level of P extracts from BC Sealer showed higher viabilities at all extract concentrations than cells incubated with extracts from freshly mixed AH Plus and fresh and set MTA Fillapex, esspecially for the high extract concentrations (1:2 and 1:8 dilutions). Extracts from set MTA Fillapex of 2 weeks and older were more cytotoxic than extracts from freshly mixed and 1-week-old cement. With extract concentrations of 1:32 and lower, MTA Fillapex was no longer cytotoxic. After setting, AH Plus was no longer cytotoxic, and the fibroblast cells grew on set AH Plus equally as well as on BC Sealer. BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, the 2 calcium silicate-containing endodontic sealers, exhibited different cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modified tricalcium silicate cement formulations with added zirconium oxide. (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yoshihara, Kumiko; De Munck, Jan; Cokic, Stevan; Pongprueksa, Pong; Putzeys, Eveline; Pedano, Mariano; Chen, Zhi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Van Meerbeek, Bart


    This study aims to investigate the effect of modifying tricalcium silicate (TCS) cements on three key properties by adding ZrO 2 . TCS powders were prepared by adding ZrO 2 at six different concentrations. The powders were mixed with 1 M CaCl 2 solution at a 3:1 weight ratio. Biodentine (contains 5 wt.% ZrO 2 ) served as control. To evaluate the potential effect on mechanical properties, the mini-fracture toughness (mini-FT) was measured. Regarding bioactivity, Ca release was assessed using ICP-AES. The component distribution within the cement matrix was evaluated by Feg-SEM/EPMA. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an XTT assay. Adding ZrO 2 to TCS did not alter the mini-FT (p = 0.52), which remained in range of that of Biodentine (p = 0.31). Ca release from TSC cements was slightly lower than that from Biodentine at 1 day (p > 0.05). After 1 week, Ca release from TCS 30 and TCS 50 increased to a level that was significantly higher than that from Biodentine (p  0.05). EPMA revealed a more even distribution of ZrO 2 within the TCS cements. Particles with an un-reacted core were surrounded by a hydration zone. The 24-, 48-, and 72-h extracts of TCS 50 were the least cytotoxic. ZrO 2 can be added to TCS without affecting the mini-FT; Ca release was reduced initially, to reach a prolonged release thereafter; adding ZrO 2 made TCS cements more biocompatible. TCS 50 is a promising cement formulation to serve as a biocompatible hydraulic calcium silicate cement.

  12. A carbonate-silicate aqueous geochemical cycle model for Mars (United States)

    Schaefer, M. W.; Leidecker, H.


    A model for the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle of an early, wet Mars is under development. The results of this study will be used to constrain models of the geochemical history of Mars and the likely mineralogy of its present surface. Although Mars today is a cold, dry planet, it may once have been much warmer and wetter. Values of total outgassed CO2 from several to about 10 bars are consistent with present knowledge (Pollack et al. 1987), and this amount of CO2 implies an amount of water outgassed at least equal to an equivalent depth of 500-1000 meters (Carr 1986). Pollack et al. (1987), in addition, estimate that a thick CO2 atmosphere may have existed for an extended period of time, perhaps as long as a billion years. The greenhouse effect of such an atmosphere would permit the presence of liquid water on the surface, most likely in the form of a shallow sea in the lowest regions of the planet, such as the northern plains (Schaefer 1990). The treatment of geochemical cycles as complex kinetic chemical reactions has been undertaken for terrestrial systems in recent years with much success (Lasaga 1980, 1981; Berner et al. 1983; Lasaga et al. 1985). Although the Martian system is vastly less well understood, and hence less well-constrained, it is also a much simpler system, due to the lack of biogenic reactions that make the terrestrial system so complex. It should be possible, therefore, to use the same techniques to model the Martian system as have been used for terrestrial systems, and to produce useful results. A diagram of the carbonate-silicate cycle for Mars (simplified from the terrestrial system) is given.

  13. Fluorine in silicate glasses: A multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, T.; Dingwell, D.B.; Keppler, H.; Merwin, L.; Sebald, A. (Univ. Bayreuth (West Germany)); Knoeller, W. (Bruker Analytische Messtechnik, Rheinstetten (West Germany))


    Anhydrous nepheline, jadeite, and albite glasses doped with F as well as hydrous F-containing haplogranitic glasses were investigated using {sup 19}F combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy; {sup 19}F {yields} {sup 29}Si cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (MAS); and high-power {sup 19}F decoupled {sup 29}Si, {sup 23}Na, and {sup 27}Al MAS nuclear magnetic resonance methods. Fluorine preferentially coordinates with Al to form octahedral AlF{sub 6}{sup 3{minus}} complexes in all glasses studied. In addition, F anions bridging two Al cations, units containing octahedral Al coordinated by both O and F, or tetrahedral Al-F complexes might be present. The presence of Si-F bonds cannot be entirely ruled out but appears unlikely on the basis of the {sup 19}F {yields} {sup 29}Si CP/MAS spectra. There is no evidence for any significant coordination of F with alkalis in the glasses studied. Over the range of F contents studied (up to 5 wt.%), there seems to be hardly any dependence of F speciation on the concentration of F in the samples. The spectroscopic results explain the decrease of the viscosity of silicate melts with increasing F content by removal of Al from bridging AlO{sub 4}-units due to complexing with F, which causes depolymerization of the melt. The same mechanism can account for the shift of the eutectic point in the haplogranite system to more feldspar-rich compositions with increasing F content, and for the peraluminous composition of most F-rich granites. Liquid immiscibility in F-rich granitic melts might be caused by formation of (Na,K){sub 3}AlF{sub 6} units in the melt with little or no interaction with the silicate component. The presence of F in granitic melts might increase the solubility of high field strength cations by making nonbridging O atoms available which form complexes with these cations.

  14. Covalently bound organic silicate aluminum hybrid coagulants: preparation, characterization, and coagulation behavior. (United States)

    Zhao, Huazhang; Peng, Jianxiong; Lin, Shrongshi; Zhang, Yan


    Covalently bound organic silicate aluminum hybrid coagulants were synthesized by employing two silane coupling agents [diethoxydimethylsilane (DEDMS), gamma-aminopropylmethyldiethoxysilane (APDES)] as silicon sources. An additional coagulant was synthesized using anothersilane-tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) for comparison. Both the coagulant with DEDMS and that with APDES as the silicon source were shown to be covalently bound by infrared (IR) analysis. All three hybrid coagulants were characterized by pH, zeta potential, Al species distribution, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The results indicated that the silicon source played a significant role in aspects of the chemical and physical structure, Al species distribution, and electrochemistry characteristics. Specifically, the coagulant with APDES as the silicon source featured the highest zeta potential value, the highest content of Al13, and reticulated aggregate. The coagulation behaviors of the three hybrid coagulants were also investigated by treating synthetic water containing humic acid (HA). The hybrid coagulant with APDES as the silicon source exhibited the best coagulation behavior in terms of HA removal and turbidity removal, due to the combination of the zeta potential, Al species distribution, and organic functional groups.

  15. Quaternary polymethacrylate-magnesium aluminum silicate films: molecular interactions, mechanical properties and tackiness. (United States)

    Rongthong, Thitiphorn; Sungthongjeen, Srisagul; Siepmann, Juergen; Pongjanyakul, Thaned


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the addition of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a natural clay, on the properties of polymeric films based on quaternary polymethacrylates (QPMs). Two commercially available aqueous QPM dispersions were studied: Eudragit(®) RS 30D and Eudragit(®) RL 30D (the dry copolymers containing 5 and 10% quaternary ammonium groups, respectively). The composite QPM-MAS films were prepared by casting. Importantly, QPM interacted with MAS and formed small flocculates prior to film formation. Continuous films were obtained up to MAS contents of 19% (referred to the QPM dry mass). ATR-FTIR and PXRD revealed that the positively charged quaternary ammonium groups of QPM interacted with negatively charged SiO(-) groups of MAS, creating nanocomposite materials. This interaction led to improved thermal stability of the composite films. The puncture strength and elongation at break of dry systems decreased with increasing MAS content. In contrast, the puncture strength of the wet QPM-MAS films (upon exposure to acidic or neutral media) increased with increasing MAS content. Furthermore, incorporation of MAS into QPM films significantly decreased the latter's tackiness in the dry and wet state. These findings suggest that nanocomposite formation between QPM and MAS in the systems can enhance the strength of wet films and decrease their tackiness. Thus, MAS offers an interesting potential as novel anti-tacking agent for QPM coatings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Catalytic cracking of HDPE wastes to liquid fuel in the presence of siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (United States)

    Ramli, Anita; Majid, Noor Diana Abdul; Yusup, Suzana


    A siliceous gel was synthesized at 80°C and aged for 5 days at 120°C before it was dried at 120°C for 16 hours and calcined at 500 and 700°C. The calcined Na-Si-MMS samples were then undergone ion exchange with ammonia solution to form NH4- Si - MMS . All samples were characterized for their physicochemical properties using nitrogen (N2) adsorption-desorption isotherm for surface area and porosity; and temperature programme desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3) for determination of acidity. The catalytic activity of all samples was tested in pyrolysis of high density polyethylene (HDPE) waste at catalyst to HDPE ratio of 0.2. The organic liquid product (OLP) collected was analysed using gas chromatography (GC). Results show that presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 500°C promotes the formation of gasoline-like product while presence of Na-Si-MMS calcined at 700°C promotes the formation of both diesel-like and kerosene-like products. On the other hand, presence of all NH4-Si-MMS catalysts promotes the formation of gasoline-like product. These show that the activation process of Si-MMS has a significant effect on the production of fuel-like product from pyrolysis of HDPE.

  17. Relationships between CO2, thermodynamic limits on silicate weathering, and the strength of the silicate weathering feedback (United States)

    Winnick, Matthew J.; Maher, Kate


    Recent studies have suggested that thermodynamic limitations on chemical weathering rates exert a first-order control on riverine solute fluxes and by extension, global chemical weathering rates. As such, these limitations may play a prominent role in the regulation of carbon dioxide levels (pCO2) over geologic timescales by constraining the maximum global weathering flux. In this study, we develop a theoretical scaling relationship between equilibrium solute concentrations and pCO2 based on equilibrium constants and reaction stoichiometry relating primary mineral dissolution and secondary mineral precipitation. We test this theoretical scaling relationship against reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering profiles under open- and closed-system conditions, representing partially and fully water-saturated regolith, respectively. Under open-system conditions, equilibrium bicarbonate concentrations vary as a power-law function of pCO2 (y = kxn) where n is dependent on reaction stoichiometry and k is dependent on both reaction stoichiometry and the equilibrium constant. Under closed-system conditions, bicarbonate concentrations vary linearly with pCO2 at low values and approach open-system scaling at high pCO2. To describe the potential role of thermodynamic limitations in the global silicate weathering feedback, we develop a new mathematical framework to assess weathering feedback strength in terms of both (1) steady-state atmospheric pCO2 concentrations, and (2) susceptibility to secular changes in degassing rates and transient carbon cycle perturbations, which we term 1st and 2nd order feedback strength, respectively. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for the effects of vascular land plant evolution on feedback strength, the potential role of vegetation in controlling modern solute fluxes, and the application of these frameworks to a more complete functional description of the silicate weathering feedback. Most notably, the dependence

  18. Petrophysical Analysis of Siliceous-Ooze Sediments, More Basin, Norwegian Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awedalkarim, Ahmed; Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Pelagic siliceous-ooze sediments occur above the hydrocarbon reservoir of the Ormen Lange gas field in More Basin, Norwegian Sea. A possible hydrocarbon prospect of siliceous ooze was proposed, but siliceous ooze is significantly different in texture from most commonly known reservoir rocks. Logg....... Amplitude-versus-offset analysis indicated that an oil-saturated sandstone layer can be distinguished from water-saturated siliceous ooze.......Pelagic siliceous-ooze sediments occur above the hydrocarbon reservoir of the Ormen Lange gas field in More Basin, Norwegian Sea. A possible hydrocarbon prospect of siliceous ooze was proposed, but siliceous ooze is significantly different in texture from most commonly known reservoir rocks...... was calculated from the gamma-ray log and empirical grain-density data were calibrated with X-ray diffraction analysis data. The grain-density log was used with the calculated true porosity log and the brine density of 1.025 g/cm(3) to convert the bulk-density log from conventional limestone and water scaling...

  19. Evaluation of the effect of sodium silicate addition to mine backfill, Gelfill − Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kermani


    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties of sodium silicate-fortified backfill, called Gelfill, were investigated by conducting a series of laboratory experiments. Two configurations were tested, i.e. Gelfill and cemented hydraulic fill (CHF. The Gelfill has an alkali activator such as sodium silicate in its materials in addition to primary materials of mine backfill which are tailings, water and binders. Large numbers of samples of Gelfill and CHF with various mixture designs were cast and cured for over 28 d. The mechanical properties of samples were investigated using uniaxial compression test, and the results were compared with those of reference samples made without sodium silicate. The test results indicated that the addition of an appropriate amount of an alkali activator such as sodium silicate can enhance the mechanical (uniaxial compressive strength and physical (water retention properties of backfill. The microstructure analysis conducted by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP revealed that the addition of sodium silicate can modify the pore size distribution and total porosity of Gelfill, which can contribute to the better mechanical properties of Gelfill. It was also shown that the time and rate of drainage in the Gelfill specimens are less than those in CHF specimens made without sodium silicate. Finally, the study showed that the addition of sodium silicate can reduce the required setting time of mine backfill, which can contribute to increase mine production in accordance with the mine safety.

  20. Bilateral urinary calculi after treatment with a silicate-containing milk thickener. (United States)

    Ulinski, Tim; Sabot, Jean-François; Bourlon, Isabelle; Cochat, Pierre


    Nephrocalcinosis and/or urinary calculi are rare in infants. Furosemide treatment during the neonatal period, vitamin D intoxication, hereditary diseases such as hyperoxaluria or distal tubular acidosis are among the most common aetiologies. We report the case of a 6-month-old boy with an extra-hepatic biliary duct atresia treated by the Kasai procedure and a gastro-oesophageal reflux treated with a silicate containing milk thickener (Gelopectose, 5.5% colloidal silicate) since the neonatal period. He did not present any other endogenous risk factor for urinary stone formation (normal urinary calcium/creatinine ratio; normal urinary magnesium excretion). The nephrolithiasis was discovered as the boy presented painful episodes of macroscopic haematuria. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral nephrocalcinosis and multiple bilateral calculi without infection or urinary obstruction. Infrared spectroscopy revealed silicate as the major component suggesting silicate absorption to be responsible for the described symptoms. After replacement of the silicate-containing agent by a silicate-free milk thickener, the lesions were completely reversible as confirmed by repeated renal ultrasound examinations over a 2-month period. Silicate-containing milk thickeners can be responsible for urinary calculi and/or nephrocalcinosis.

  1. The preparation of an elastomer/silicate layer nanocompound with an exfoliated structure and a strong ionic interfacial interaction by utilizing an elastomer latex containing pyridine groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Shaojian; Wang Yiqing; Feng Yiping; Liu Qingsheng; Zhang Liqun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Nanomaterials, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)


    A great variety of polymer/layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites have been reported, however, there are few exfoliated PLS nanocomposites and their inorganic-organic interfaces are still a great problem, especially for the elastomers. In this research, a kind of exfoliated elastomer/silicate layer nanocompound was prepared and proved by XRD and TEM, in which 10 phr Na{sup +}-montmorillonite was dispersed in butadiene-styrene-vinyl pyridine rubber by latex compounding method with acidic flocculants. Moreover, a dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) suggested a strong interfacial interaction (interaction parameter B{sub H} = 4.91) between the silicate layers and macromolecules in addition to the weak inorganic-organic interfacial interaction, and solid state {sup 15}N NMR indicated the formation of a strong ionic interface through the acidifying pyridine. Subsequently, a remarkable improvement of the dispersing morphology, mechanical performance and gas barrier property appeared, compared to that using calcium ion flocculants. This supports the formation of an exfoliated structure and an improved interfacial interaction.

  2. Sulfur Saturation Limits in Silicate Melts and their Implications for Core Formation Scenarios for Terrestrial Planets (United States)

    Holzheid, Astrid; Grove, Timothy L.


    This study explores the controls of temperature, pressure, and silicate melt composition on S solubility in silicate liquids. The solubility of S in FeO-containing silicate melts in equilibrium with metal sulfide increases significantly with increasing temperature but decreases with increasing pressure. The silicate melt structure also exercises a control on S solubility. Increasing the degree of polymerization of the silicate melt structure lowers the S solubility in the silicate liquid. The new set of experimental data is used to expand the model of Mavrogenes and O'Neill(1999) for S solubility in silicate liquids by incorporating the influence of the silicate melt structure. The expected S solubility in the ascending magma is calculated using the expanded model. Because the negative pressure dependence of S solubility is more influential than the positive temperature dependence, decompression and adiabatic ascent of a formerly S-saturated silicate magma will lead to S undersaturation. A primitive magma that is S-saturated in its source region will, therefore, become S-undersaturated as it ascends to shallower depth. In order to precipitate magmatic sulfides, the magma must first cool and undergo fractional crystallization to reach S saturation. The S content in a metallic liquid that is in equilibrium with a magma ocean that contains approx. 200 ppm S (i.e., Earth's bulk mantle S content) ranges from 5.5 to 12 wt% S. This range of S values encompasses the amount of S (9 to 12 wt%) that would be present in the outer core if S is the light element. Thus, the Earth's proto-mantle could be in equilibrium (in terms of the preserved S abundance) with a core-forming metallic phase.

  3. Pockels effect of silicate glass-ceramics: Observation of optical modulation in Mach-Zehnder system. (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kazuki; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Terakado, Nobuaki; Miyazaki, Takamichi; Fujiwara, Takumi


    Silicate glass has been used for long time because of its advantages from material's viewpoint. In this paper, we report the observation of Pockels effect by Mach-Zehnder interferometer in polycrystalline ceramics made from a ternary silicate glass via crystallization due to heat-treatment, i.e., glass-ceramics. Since the silicate system is employed as the precursor, merits of glass material are fully utilized to fabricate the optical device component, in addition to that of functional crystalline material, leading us to provide an electro-optic device, which is introducible into glass-fiber network.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. U. Matsapulin


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs. Presented are the results of laboratory research and testing technology of production of insulating foam from a composition based on an aqueous solution of sodium silicate obtained from the local siliceous rocks (diatomite and the liquid alkali component - soapstock, hardener from ferrochrome slag and waste carbonate rock able to harden at a low temperature processing ( 100-110 ° C.

  5. Production of reactive oxygen species from abraded silicates. Implications for the reactivity of the Martian soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Zafirov, Kaloyan; Merrison, Jonathan P.


    to oxidants in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (⋅OH). We found that silicate samples abraded in simulated Martian atmospheres gave rise to a significant production of H2O2 and ⋅OH upon contact with water. Our experiments demonstrated that abraded silicates could lead to a production...... of H2O2 facilitated by atmospheric O2 and inhibited by carbon dioxide. Furthermore, during simulated saltation the silicate particles became triboelectrically charged and at pressures similar to the Martian surface pressure we observed glow discharges. Electrical discharges can cause dissociation of CO...

  6. Carbonate formation in non-aqueous environments by solid-gas carbonation of silicates (United States)

    Day, S. J.; Thompson, S. P.; Evans, A.; Parker, J. E.


    We have produced synthetic analogues of cosmic silicates using the Sol Gel method, producing amorphous silicates of composition Mg(x)Ca(1-x)SiO3. Using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction on Beamline I11 at the Diamond Light Source, together with a newly-commissioned gas cell, real-time powder diffraction scans have been taken of a range of silicates exposed to CO2 under non-ambient conditions. The SXPD is complemented by other techniques including Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy and SEM imaging.

  7. The distribution of chromium among orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate liquid at atmospheric pressure (United States)

    Barnes, S. J.


    The Cr distributions for a synthetic silicate melt equilibrated with bronzitic orthopyroxene and chromite spinel between 1334 and 1151 C over a range of oxygen fugacities between the nickel-nickel oxide and iron-wuestite buffers are studied. The occurrence, chemical composition, and structure of the orthopyroxene-silicate melt and the spinel-silicate melt are described. It is observed that the Cr content between bronzite and the melt increases with falling temperature along a given oxygen buffer and decreases with falling oxygen fugacity at a given temperature; however, the Cr content of the melt in equilibrium with spinel decreases with falling temperature and increases with lower oxygen fugacity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nurhayat Degirmenci


    Full Text Available This study aims to provide the experimental data on the sulphate and acid performance of geopolymer mortar containing pozzolanic materials such as fly ash (FA, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS and natural zeolite (NZ. The alkaline solution was the combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution with the ratio (Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH of 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. The molarity of sodium hydroxide was fixed as 10. The performances of geopolymer mortar were measured in terms of sodium and magnesium sulphate resistance and sulphuric and hydrochlorich acid resistance with 5% and 10 % concentration after 24 weeks. The evaluations were measured as visual observation, measurement of weight change and residual compressive strength. It has been observed that Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH ratio is effective on residual compressive strength of geopolymer mortar in both sulphate and acid exposure. The higher ratio of Na ₂SiO₃/NaOH results in a higher residual compressive strength. The GGBS based geopolymer mortar has a very good resistance in acid media in terms of weight loss and residual compressive strength. The inclusion of FA in the GGBS based geopolymer mixture was found to be a suitable base of geopolymer mortar under ambient curing conditions.

  9. Metal - Silicate Separation in a Deformation Regime: Implications for Early Differentiation Processes (United States)

    Rushmer, T.; Jones, J. H.; Gaetani, G.; Zanda, B.


    The segregation of metallic cores from silicate mantles is one of the earliest, and most important, differentiation process involved in the evolution of the Earth and other terrestrial planetary bodies. The physical segregation of Fe-rich metal from silicate imparted a strong geochemical signature on early silicate mantles due to the preferential incorporation of siderophile elements into the core. Reconciling our estimates of primary bulk silicate mantle with candidate planetary bulk compositions requires an understanding of the geochemical consequences of the different regimes in which core forming material may have been mobile. This includes not only the possible differentiation processes that occurred in the terrestrial planets, but also understanding the differentiation processes in the meteorite parent bodies. Although a magma ocean model is possible for efficient core formation, some scenarios call for segregation of the core from solid silicate and the geochemical consequences can be significantly different. Experimental studies are one way in which insight can be gained into the possible geochemical signatures of metal-silicate segregation. Deformation experiments in addition provide a dynamic component, which allows liquid metal to segregate from solid silicate. Starting materials are cored from a slab of the Kernouve fall which is composed of olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, chromite and chlorapatite; Fe-Ni metal and sulfide form 20-25% of the sample. Experimental conditions are 1.0-1.4 GPa confining pressure with strain rates of 10-4/s to 10-6/s. Temperatures ranging from 900° C to 1050° C produce variable amounts of silicate melt and different mechanisms of metal segregation are observed. In experiments which are below the silicate solidus, mobility of FeS is extensive and deformation textures are cataclastic. Geochemical analyses shows that migration of Fe-S-Ni-O metal through fractures and along grain boundaries produces extensive modification to

  10. Lifetime Predictions of a Titanium Silicate Glass with Machined Flaws (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Nettles, Alan T.; Cagle, Holly


    A dynamic fatigue study was performed on a Titanium Silicate glass to assess its susceptibility to delayed failure and to compare the results with those of a previous study. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions. The material strength and lifetime was seen to increase due to the removal of residual stress through grinding and polishing. Influence on time-to-failure is addressed for the case with and without residual stress present. Titanium silicate glass otherwise known as ultra-low expansion (ULE)* glass is a candidate for use in applications requiring low thermal expansion characteristics such as telescope mirrors. The Hubble Space Telescope s primary mirror was manufactured from ULE glass. ULE contains 7.5% titanium dioxide which in combination with silica results in a homogenous glass with a linear expansion coefficient near zero. delayed failure . This previous study was based on a 230/270 grit surface. The grinding and polishing process reduces the surface flaw size and subsurface damage, and relieves residual stress by removing the material with successively smaller grinding media. This results in an increase in strength of the optic during the grinding and polishing sequence. Thus, a second study was undertaken using samples with a surface finish typically achieved for mirror elements, to observe the effects of surface finishing on the time-to-failure predictions. An allowable stress can be calculated for this material based upon modulus of rupture data; however, this does not take into account the problem of delayed failure, most likely due to stress corrosion, which can significantly shorten lifetime. Fortunately, a theory based on fracture mechanics has been developed enabling lifetime predictions to be made for brittle materials susceptible to delayed failure. Knowledge of the factors governing the rate of subcritical flaw growth in a given environment enables the development of

  11. Crystallisation mechanism of a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurth, R. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Pascual, M.J., E-mail: [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Mather, G.C.; Pablos-Martin, A.; Munoz, F.; Duran, A. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cuello, G.J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Boite Postale 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ruessel, C. [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)


    A base glass of composition 3.5 Li{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.15 Na{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 0.2 K{sub 2}O Bullet-Operator 1.15 MgO Bullet-Operator 0.8 BaO Bullet-Operator 1.5 ZnO Bullet-Operator 20 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} Bullet-Operator 67.2 SiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 2.6 TiO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.7 ZrO{sub 2} Bullet-Operator 1.2 As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in wt.%), melted and provided by SCHOTT AG (Mainz), was used to study the crystallisation mechanism of lithium alumino-silicate glass employing X-ray diffraction combined with neutron diffraction and non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A high-quartz solid solution of LiAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} with nanoscaled crystals forms at 750 Degree-Sign C. Quantitative Rietveld refinement of samples annealed at 750 Degree-Sign C for 8 h determined a crystallised fraction of around 59 wt.%. The room temperature crystallised phase adopts an ordered, {beta}-eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. The Avrami parameter (n {approx} 4), calculated from DSC data using different theoretical approaches, indicates that bulk crystallisation occurs and that the number of nuclei increases during annealing. The activation energy of the crystallisation is 531 {+-} 20 kJ mol{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoscaled high-quartz crystals from a multicomponent lithium alumino-silicate glass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined X-ray and neutron diffraction structural refinement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Eucryptite-like structure (2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 cell) with Li ordered in the structural channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Dimensional bulk crystallisation mechanism with an increasing number of nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Usage and validation of an alternative approach to calculate the Avrami parameter.

  12. Method of chemical analysis of silicate rocks (1962); Methode d'analyse chimique des roches silicatees (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    A rapid method of analysis for the physical and chemical determination of the major constituents of silicate rocks is described. Water losses at 100 deg. C and losses of volatile elements at 1000 deg. C are estimated after staying in oven for these temperatures, or by mean of a thermo-balance. The determination of silica is made by a double insolubilization with hydrochloric acid on attack solution with sodium carbonate; total iron and aluminium, both with calcium and magnesium, after ammoniacal precipitation of Fe and Al, are determined on the filtration product of silica by titrimetry-photometry of their complexes with EDTA. The alkalis Na and K by flame spectrophotometry, Mn by colorimetry of the permanganate, and Ti by mean of his complex with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, are determined on fluosulfuric attack solution. Phosphorus is determined by his complex with 'molybdenum blue' on a fluoro-nitro-boric attack solution; iron is estimated by potentiometry, with the help of bichromate on hydrofluoric solution. (author) [French] Une methode d'analyse rapide est decrite pour la determination physico-chimique des constituants principaux des roches silicatees. Les pertes en eau a 100 deg. C et en matieres volatiles a 1000 deg. C sont evaluees apres passage au four a ces temperatures, ou a l'aide d'une thermobalance. La determination de la silice se fait par double insolubilisation a l'acide chlorhydrique, sur une attaque au carbonate de sodium; le fer total et l'aluminium ainsi que le calcium et le magnesium, apres precipitation a l'ammoniaque des deux premiers metaux, sont determines sur le filtrat de la silice par titrimetrie-photometrie de leurs complexes avec l'E.D.T.A. Les alcalins sodium et potassium par spectrophotometrie de flamme, le manganese par colorimetrie du permanganate, le titane a l'aide de son complexe avec l'eau oxygenee, sont determines sur une attaque fluosulfurique. Le phosphore est determine par son

  13. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette; Krøyer, Hanne


    Pozzolanic submicron-sized silica fume and the non-pozzolanic micron- and nano-sized layer silicates (clay minerals) kaolinite, smectite and palygorskite have been used as additives in Portland cement pastes and mortars. These layer silicates have different particle shape (needles and plates...... is that the cement paste structure and porosity can be engineered by addition of selected layer silicates having specific particle shapes and surface properties (e.g., charge and specific surface area). This seems to be due to the growth of calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) on the clay particle surfaces......), surface charge, and size (micron and nano). The structure of the resulting cement pastes and mortars has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), helium porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption (specific surface area and porosity), low-temperature calorimetry (LTC) and thermal analysis. The main result...

  14. Some observations on use of siliceous mineral waters in reduction of corrosion in RCC structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venugopal, C.

    The corrosion-resisting characteristics of reinforcement in cement blended with siliceous mineral wastes viz. gold tailing and flyash have been evaluated by using an accelerated corrosion technique. The additions of these mineral admixtures...

  15. Geotechnical properties of two siliceous cores from the central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khadge, N.H.

    Physical properties of the siliceous sediments from the Central Indian Basin are measured on two short cores. The properties such as water content, Atterberg limits, porosity specific gravity, wet density show the medium to high plastic sediment...

  16. Black silicate paints: Formulation and performance data on OSO-H (United States)

    Schutt, J. B.; Shai, C. M.


    Formulations and general procedures are given for making and applying space environmentally, as well as atmospherically stable black silicate paints. Compositions are given which meet spacecraft self-contamination requirements, have excellent heat resistance, and are strongly semiconductive.

  17. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I SBIR program is to develop polymer derived rare earth silicate nanocomposite environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for providing...

  18. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blencoe, James G.; Palmer, Donald A.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Beard, James S.


    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  19. Polymer Derived Yttrium Silicate Ablative TPS Materials for Next-Generation Exploration Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through the proposed NASA SBIR program, NanoSonic will optimize its HybridSil® derived yttrium silicates to serve as next-generation reinforcement for carbon...


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. U. Matsapulin; A. B. Toturbiev; V. I. Toturbiev; B. D. Toturbieva; V. I. Cherkashin


    The article analyzes the resource base, reserves and the use of siliceous rocks, their economic feasibility of the use for production of building materials of new generation with low-energy and other costs...

  1. Polymer Derived Rare Earth Silicate Nanocomposite Protective Coatings for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leveraging a rapidly evolving state-of-the-art technical base empowered by Phase I NASA SBIR funding, NanoSonic's polymer derived rare earth silicate EBCs will...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Presented study of coal fluidized-bed ash solidification was accompanied with specific studies of alumino-silicates residues in ashes. The specific technology of fluid coal burning and its relatively low temperature combustion combines coal burning and decomposition of calcium carbonate added to the fluid layer in the main endeavor to capture all sulfur oxides. The burning temperature seems be decisive to the behavior of clayed residues and calcium carbonate decomposition in connection for the future solidification of fluidized bed ash. The calcareous substances in combination with alumino-silicate residues form solid bodies where silicates play decisive role of long-term stability and insolubility of obtained solids. The position of aluminum ions in clayed residues of burned coal were studied by MAS-NMR with attention on aluminum ion coordination to oxygen and formation of roentgen amorphous phase of poly-condensed calcium alumina-silicate.

  3. Effects of soil drenching of water-soluble potassium silicate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of soil drenching of water-soluble potassium silicate on commercial avocado ( Persea americana Mill.) orchard trees infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands on root density, canopy health, induction and concentration of phenolic com.

  4. [Colonization of silicate bacterium strain NBT in wheat roots]. (United States)

    Sheng, Xiafang


    The strain NBT of silicate bacterium was labelled with streptomycin, and a stable streptomycin resistance strain NBT was obtained. Its colonization dynamics and affecting factors in wheat rhizosphere were studied in agar plates and greenhouse pots were studied by counting the method with selective medium. The results of pot culture experiment showed that strain NBT could successfully colonize in the rhizosphere of wheat. In pot cultures of sterile soil, the highest colonization level (3.4 x 10(7) cfu.g-1 root soil) was reached on 9th day after seeds sown; at 54th day, the population of strain NBT tended to stable, and decreased to 1.4 x 10(4) cfu.g-1 root soil. In pot cultures of unsterile soil, the highest colonization level (3.8 x 10(7) cfu.g-1 root soil) was reached at 9th day, and the population of strain NBT tended to a stationary state at 60th day, with the numbers being 1.4 x 10(4) cfu.g-1 root soil. Some biological and abiotic factors could greatly influence the colonization of the beneficial microorganism.

  5. Optical analysis of samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass. (United States)

    Thomas, V; Sofin, R G S; Allen, M; Thomas, H; Biju, P R; Jose, G; Unnikrishnan, N V


    Samarium doped sodium bismuth silicate glass was synthesized using the melt quenching method. Detailed optical spectroscopic studies of the glassy material were carried out in the UV-Vis-NIR spectral range. Using the optical absorption spectra Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters are derived. The calculated values of the JO parameters are utilized in evaluating the various radiative parameters such as electric dipole line strengths (Sed), radiative transition probabilities (Arad), radiative lifetimes (τrad), fluorescence branching ratios (β) and the integrated absorption cross- sections (σa) for stimulated emission from various excited states of Sm3+‡ ion. The principal fluorescence transitions are identified by recording the fluorescence spectrum. Our analysis revealed that the novel glassy system has the optimum values for the key parameters viz. spectroscopic quality factor, optical gain, stimulated emission cross section and quantum efficiency, which are required for a high performance optical amplifier. Calculated chromaticity co-ordinates (0.61, 0.38) also confirm its application potential in display devices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Zuleta


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23 obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC percentage values (better quality, closer contact in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic. The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration.

  7. Mesoporous Calcium Silicate Nanoparticles with Drug Delivery and Odontogenesis Properties. (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yuang; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Wu, Yuan-Haw; Chen, Wan-Chen; Shie, Ming-You


    Calcium silicate (CS) -based materials play an important role in the development of endodontic materials that induce bone/cementum tissue regeneration and inhibit bacterial viability. The aim of this study was to prepare novel mesoporous CS (MesoCS) nanoparticles that have osteogenic, drug delivery, and antibacterial characteristics for endodontic materials and also have an excellent ability to develop apatite mineralization. The MesoCS nanoparticles were prepared using sol-gel methods. In addition, the mesoporous structure, specific surface area, pore volume, and morphology of the MesoCS nanoparticles were analyzed. The apatite mineralization ability, in vitro odontogenic differentiation, drug delivery, and antibacterial properties of the MesoCS nanoparticles were further investigated. The results indicate that the 200-nm-sized MesoCS nanoparticles synthesized using a facile template method exhibited a high specific surface area and pore volume with internal mesopores (average pore size = 3.05 nm). Furthermore, the MesoCS nanoparticles can be used as drug carriers to maintain sustained release of gentamicin and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The MesoCS-loaded FGF-2 might stimulate more odontogenic-related protein than CS because of the FGF-2 release. Based on this work, it can be inferred that MesoCS nanoparticles are potentially useful endodontic materials for biocompatible and osteogenic dental pulp tissue regenerative materials. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant (United States)

    Murciano, Angel; Maté-Sánchez de Val, José E.


    This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S) cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23) obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC) percentage values (better quality, closer contact) in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic). The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration. PMID:28773119

  9. Quaternary ammonium borohydride adsorption in mesoporous silicate MCM-48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luke L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartl, Monika A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Inorganic borohydrides have a high gravimetric hydrogen density but release H2 only under energetically unfavorable conditions. Surface chemistry may help in lowering thermodynamic barriers, but inclusion of inorganic borohydrides in porous silica materials has proved hitherto difficult or impossible. We show that borohydrides with a large organic cation are readily adsorbed inside mesoporous silicates, particularly after surface treatment. Thermal analysis reveals that the decomposition thermodynamics of tetraalkylammonium borohydrides are substantially affected by inclusion in MCM-48. Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data show that the compounds adsorb on the silica surface. Evidence of pore loading is supplemented by DSC/TGA, XRD, FTIR, and BET isotherm measurements. Mass spectrometry shows significant hydrogen release at lower temperature from adsorbed borohydrides in comparison with the bulk borohydrides. INS data measured for partially decomposed samples indicates that the decomposition of the cation and anion is likely simultaneous. Additionally, these data confirm the formation of Si-H bonds on the silica surface upon decomposition of adsorbed tetramethylammonium borohydride.

  10. Intraplate mantle oxidation by volatile-rich silicic magmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Médard, Etienne; Righter, Kevin; Lanzirotti, Antonio


    The upper subcontinental lithospheric mantle below the French Massif Central is more oxidized than the average continental lithosphere, although the origin of this anomaly remains unknown. Using iron oxidation analysis in clinopyroxene, oxybarometry, and melt inclusions in mantle xenoliths, we show that widespread infiltration of volatile (HCSO)-rich silicic melts played a major role in this oxidation. We propose the first comprehensive model of magmatism and mantle oxidation at an intraplate setting. Two oxidizing events occurred: (1) a 365–286 Ma old magmatic episode that produced alkaline vaugnerites, potassic lamprophyres, and K-rich calc-alkaline granitoids, related to the N–S Rhenohercynian subduction, and (2) < 30 Ma old magmatism related to W–E extension, producing carbonatites and hydrous potassic trachytes. These melts were capable of locally increasing the subcontinental lithospheric mantle fO2 to FMQ + 2.4. Both events originate from the melting of a metasomatized lithosphere containing carbonate + phlogopite ± amphibole. The persistence of this volatile-rich lithospheric source implies the potential for new episodes of volatile-rich magmatism. Similarities with worldwide magmatism also show that the importance of volatiles and the oxidation of the mantle in intraplate regions is underestimated.

  11. Calcium silicate hydrates: Solid and liquid phase composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: [Laboratory Concrete & Construction Chemistry, Empa (Switzerland); Nonat, André [ICB, UMR CNRS 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)


    This paper presents a review on the relationship between the composition, the structure and the solution in which calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) is equilibrated. The silica chain length in C–S–H increases with the silicon concentration and the calcium content in the interlayer space with the calcium concentrations. Sodium and potassium are taken up in the interlayer space, preferentially at low calcium concentrations and thus by low Ca/Si C–S–H. Aluminium uptake in C–S–H increases strongly at higher aluminium concentrations in the solution. At low Ca/Si, aluminium substitutes silica in the bridging position, at Ca/Si > 1 aluminium is bound in TAH. Recently developed thermodynamic models are closely related to the structure of C–S–H and tobermorite, and able to model not only the solubility and the chemical composition of the C–S–H, but also to predict the mean silica chain length and the uptake of aluminium.

  12. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Büyüköztürk, Oral, E-mail: [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yip, Sidney [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  13. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)


    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination.

  14. Understanding controlled drug release from mesoporous silicates: theory and experiment. (United States)

    Ukmar, T; Maver, U; Planinšek, O; Kaučič, V; Gaberšček, M; Godec, A


    Based on the results of carefully designed experiments upgraded with appropriate theoretical modeling, we present clear evidence that the release curves from mesoporous materials are significantly affected by drug-matrix interactions. In experimental curves, these interactions are manifested as a non-convergence at long times and an inverse dependence of release kinetics on pore size. Neither of these phenomena is expected in non-interacting systems. Although both phenomena have, rather sporadically, been observed in previous research, they have not been explained in terms of a general and consistent theoretical model. The concept is demonstrated on a model drug indomethacin embedded into SBA-15 and MCM-41 porous silicates. The experimental release curves agree exceptionally well with theoretical predictions in the case of significant drug-wall attractions. The latter are described using a 2D Fokker-Planck equation. One could say that the interactions affect the relative cross-section of pores where the local flux has a non-vanishing axial component and in turn control the effective transfer of drug into bulk solution. Finally, we identify the critical parameters determining the pore size dependence of release kinetics and construct a dynamic phase diagram of the various resulting transport regimes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of rubidium between sodic sanidine and natural silicic liquid (United States)

    Noble, D.C.; Hedge, C.E.


    Phenocrysts of sodic sanidine from twelve upper Cenozoic units of silicic ash-flow tuff and lava from the Western United States contain from 0.25 to 0.45 the Rb present in the associated groundmass materials. The ratios of potassium to rubidium in the sanidines are, on the average, about four times greater than those of the groundmass. Separation of phenocrystic sanidine from salic melts provides an efficient method for raising the Rb content and lowering the K/Rb ratio of the melts, although the amount of differentiation probably is limited by continuous reequilibration of the alkalis between crystal and liquid phases through ion exchange. Syenites of cumulate origin will have appreciably lower Rb contents and higher K/Rb ratios than the melts from which they precipitated. Available data on the distribution of Rb between synthetic biotite and K-sanidine demonstrate that the separation of biotite probably will not deplete salic melts in Rb relative to K. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Pt, Au, Pd and Ru Partitioning Between Mineral and Silicate Melts: The Role of Metal Nanonuggets (United States)

    Malavergne, V.; Charon, E.; Jones, J.; Agranier, A.; Campbell, A.


    The partition coefficients of Pt and other Pt Group Elements (PGE) between metal and silicate D(sub Metal-Silicate) and also between silicate minerals and silicate melts D(sub Metal-Silicate) are among the most challenging coefficients to obtain precisely. The PGE are highly siderophile elements (HSE) with D(sub Metal-Silicate) >10(exp 3) due to the fact that their concentrations in silicates are very low (ppb to ppt range). Therefore, the analytical difficulty is increased by the possible presence of HSE-rich-nuggets in reduced silicate melts during experiments). These tiny HSE nuggets complicate the interpretation of measured HSE concentrations. If the HSE micro-nuggets are just sample artifacts, then their contributions should be removed before calculations of the final concentration. On the other hand, if they are produced during the quench, then they should be included in the analysis. We still don't understand the mechanism of nugget formation well. Are they formed during the quench by precipitation from precursor species dissolved homogeneously in the melts, or are they precipitated in situ at high temperature due to oversaturation? As these elements are important tracers of early planetary processes such as core formation, it is important to take up this analytical and experimental challenge. In the case of the Earth for example, chondritic relative abundances of the HSE in some mantle xenoliths have led to the concept of the "late veneer" as a source of volatiles (such as water) and siderophiles in the silicate Earth. Silicate crystal/liquid fractionation is responsible for most, if not all, the HSE variation in the martian meteorite suites (SNC) and Pt is the element least affected by these fractionations. Therefore, in terms of reconstructing mantle HSE abundances for Mars, Pt becomes a very important player. In the present study, we have performed high temperature experiments under various redox conditions in order to determine the abundances of Pt, Au

  17. Metal-silicate partitioning experiments in the diamond anvil cell: A comment on potential analytical errors (United States)

    Wade, Jon; Wood, Bernard J.


    We have performed simulations of the electron microbeam analysis of metal-silicate partitioning experiments in which a small (˜50 μm) ball of metal is embedded in a silicate matrix. This geometry approximates that found in many high pressure diamond-cell experiments aimed at determining the partition coefficients (Di) of elements between metal and silicate. The simulations involved using the (publicly available) Monte Carlo simulation package PENEPMA which is based on the general-purpose electron-photon transport code PENELOPE. The code allows complex geometrical structures to be defined by quadric surfaces, which enclose homogeneous materials specified by the user. The package simulates both electron and photon transport, keeps track of the X-ray production mechanism and includes the continuum contribution. Our principal results came from simulating the effects of secondary fluorescence on the apparent metal-silicate partition coefficient of Ni for the case of an Ni-rich metal (26.8% Ni, 73.2% Fe) embedded in a silicate matrix. If, as is frequently the case, analysis of the silicate is performed 5-10 μm from the silicate-metal interface then secondary fluorescence of Ni in the metal will increase the apparent NiO concentration in the silicate by ˜1000 ppm. In the case considered, this is 25% of the Ni content of the silicate and the fluorescence effect decreases the apparent DNi from 110 to 84. For this type of experiment, therefore, the fluorescence effect reduces the apparent partition coefficient. We performed similar simulations of the analysis of the centre of a 10 μm diameter metal ball embedded in the silicate matrix to determine apparent Si and O concentrations in the metal. In this case, because the electrons do not penetrate so far into the metal, the fluorescence effect is very small and can be neglected. Finally, we show that focused ion beam (FIB) sections, while providing the potential physically to separate metal from silicate present

  18. Emission and extinction of ground and vapor-condensed silicates from 4 to 14 microns and the 10 micron silicate feature (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.; Rusell, R. W.


    Emission and absorption spectra from 4 to 14 microns of ground and laser-vaporized olivine and enstatite silicates are compared with the 10-micron emission feature of the Orion Trapezium. The agreement in band center and shape between the amorphous laser-vaporized olivine sample and the Trapezium feature suggests that amorphous silicate grains of approximately olivine composition may be a major constituent of interstellar dust. Differences between the emission and absorption spectral profiles (absorption plus scattering) show characteristics that could be used as a sensitive probe of the morphology of interstellar grain systems when high signal-to-noise ratio (30-100) observational spectra become available.

  19. Experimental calibration of a new oxybarometer for silicic magmas based on vanadium partitioning between magnetite and silicate melt (United States)

    Arató, Róbert; Audétat, Andreas


    Partition coefficients of vanadium between magnetite and rhyolitic silicate melt, DVmgt/melt, were experimentally determined as a function of oxygen fugacity (0.7-4.0 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer), temperature (800-1000 °C), melt alumina saturation index (ASI = 0.74-1.14), magnetite composition (0.2-14 wt% TiO2) and pressure (1-5 kbar; at H2O saturation). Experiments were performed by equilibrating small (≤20 μm), V-free magnetite grains in V-doped silicate melts (∼100 ppm V) and then analyzing both phases by LA-ICP-MS. Attainment of equilibrium was demonstrated by several reversal experiments. The results suggest that DVmgt/melt depends strongly on fO2, increasing by 1.5-1.7 log units from the MnO-Mn3O4 buffer to the Ni-NiO buffer, and to lesser (but still considerable) extents on melt alumina saturation index (ASI; increasing by 0.3-0.7 log units over 0.4 ASI units) and temperature (increasing by 0.3-0.7 log units over a 200 °C interval at a fixed fO2 buffer). Magnetite composition and melt water content seem to have negligible effects. The data were fitted by the following linear regression equation: in which temperature is given in K, ASI refers to molar Al2O3/(CaO + Na2O + K2O) and ΔFMQ refers to the deviation of fO2 (in log units) from the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer. This equation reproduces all of our data within 0.3 log units, and 89% of them within 0.15 log units. The main advantages of this new oxybarometer over classical magnetite-ilmenite oxybarometry are (1) that it can be applied to rocks that do not contain ilmenite, and (2) that it is easier to apply to slowly-cooled rocks such as granites.

  20. (Isotope tracer studies of diffusion in silicates and of geological transport processes using actinide elements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserburg, G.J.


    This report consists of sections entitled resonance ionization mass spectrometry of Os, Mg self-diffusion in spinel and silicate melts, neotectonics: U-Th ages of solitary corals from the California coast, uranium-series evidence on diagenesis and hydrology of carbonates of Barbados, diffusion of H{sub 2}O molecules in silicate glasses, and development of an extremely high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kyung-Won, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-City, 28644 (Korea, Republic of)


    IRAS 09425-6040 (I09425) is a silicate carbon star with conspicuous crystalline silicate and water-ice features and emission excesses in the far-infrared and millimeter (mm) wavelength ranges. To understand properties of the dust envelope of I09425, we propose a physical model based on the observations and known properties of asymptotic giant branch stars and dust. We perform radiative transfer model calculations using multiple dust shells and disks with various dust species. We compare the model results with the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) acquired with different telescopes. We find that the physical model for I09425 using multiple shells of carbon and silicate dust and multiple disks of amorphous and crystalline silicates reproduces the observed SED fairly well. This object looks to have detached cold O-rich (silicate and water-ice) dust shells, which could be remnants of the recent chemical transition from O to C and an inner C-rich dust shell. A long-lived thin disk of very large silicate grains can reproduce the emission excess in the mm wavelength band and a recently formed thick disk of crystalline silicates can reproduce the prominent emission features in the spectral range 8–45 μm. The highly crystallized silicates could be recently formed by high temperature annealing due to the last O-rich superwind just before the chemical transition of the central star. I09425 could be a rare object that has the remnants of past O-rich stellar winds in the outer shells as well as in the circumbinary disks.

  2. Fungicides and silicate clay on the control of antracnosis in yellow passionfruit


    Medeiros, André Martins; Autônomo; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Estação Experimental de Urussanga


    The anthracnose, caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorf Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), is the most important fungal disease for aerial parts of yellow passionfruit. However, few studies about anthracnose control in field conditions have been published. The objective of this research was to evaluate silicate clay and fungicides for anthracnose control. Treatments evaluated were: tebuconazole (20g i.a./100L), copper oxychloride (180g i.a./100L), silicate clay (15g /L) and control (untreated ...

  3. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Hydrated Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) Cement Molecular Structure (United States)


    paste consisting of starting configuration of dry cement powder and water mixture by itself is a complex, multi-scale material system. Though...high pressure molecular structural behavior of the hydrated CSH. Portland cement in the powder form consists of four different major constituents...Tricalcium silicate (C3S), Di-Calcium silicate (C2S), Tri-Calcium aluminate (C3A), and Tetra calcium aluminoferrite (C4AF) [1]. Different mixture

  4. AC electrical breakdown phenomena of epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite in needle-plate electrodes. (United States)

    Park, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jae-Young


    Epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite for the insulation of heavy electric equipments were prepared by dispersing 1 wt% of a layered silicate into an epoxy matrix with a homogenizing mixer and then AC electrical treeing and breakdown tests were carried out. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation showed that nano-sized monolayers were exfoliated from a multilayered silicate in the epoxy matrix. When the nano-sized silicate layers were incorporated into the epoxy matrix, the breakdown rate in needle-plate electrode geometry was 10.6 times lowered than that of the neat epoxy resin under the applied electrical field of 520.9 kV/mm at 30 degrees C, and electrical tree propagated with much more branches in the epoxy/layered silicate nanocomposite. These results showed that well-dispersed nano-sized silicate layers retarded the electrical tree growth rate. The effects of applied voltage and ambient temperature on the tree initiation, growth, and breakdown rate were also studied, and it was found that the breakdown rate was largely increased, as the applied voltage and ambient temperature increased.

  5. Silicate Earth’s missing niobium may have been sequestered into asteroidal cores (United States)

    Münker, Carsten; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Schulz, Toni


    Geochemical models describing the behaviour of niobium during Earth’s growth rely on the general paradigm that niobium was delivered by Earth’s asteroidal building blocks at chondritic abundances. This paradigm is based on the observation that niobium is traditionally regarded as a refractory and strongly lithophile element, and thus stored in the silicate portions of Earth and differentiated asteroids. However, Earth’s silicate mantle is instead selectively depleted in niobium, in marked contrast to the silicate mantles of many asteroids and smaller planets that apparently lack any significant depletion in niobium. Here we present results of high-precision measurements for niobium and other lithophile elements in representative meteorites from various small differentiated asteroids. Our data, along with the results of low-pressure experiments, show that in more reduced asteroids--such as Earth’s first building blocks--niobium is moderately chalcophile and more so than its geochemical twin tantalum by an order of magnitude. Accordingly, niobium can be sequestered into the cores of more reduced asteroids during differentiation via the segregation of sulfide melts in a carbon-saturated environment. We suggest that the niobium deficit in Earth’s silicate mantle may be explained by the Earth’s silicate mantle preferentially accreting the silicate portions of reduced asteroidal building blocks.

  6. The Preparation of Flaky Layered Carbon by Using Layered Silicate Template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Oh Yun [Yosu National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyeong Won [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)


    Porous layered carbons with well-developed flake structure were successfully prepared by using layered silicate template. The gallery of layered silicate is composed of two-dimensional spaces with nano scale, which can have a role as nano reactor for chemicals introduced into the gallery. It confirmed that PFO, in this nano reactor, could be transformed easily to layered carbon or graphite structure by the heat treatment, allowing layered carbon-layered silicate nanocomposite (LC-LSN) piled carbon film or graphite sheet in layers of layered silicate. The removal of template from LC-LSN resulted in separated and well-developed flaky layered carbon or graphite with large surface area of 160-240 m{sup 2}/g, which was quite different from carbon black and activated carbon. In recent years, the preparation and application of nanostructure carbon materials such as carbon nanotube and nanoporous carbon has attracted increasing interests. We now report on the preparation of flaky layered carbon by using layered silicates as template. These layered carbons should be applicable potentially in technical field such as the electronics, catalytic and hydrogen-storage system. Layered silicates have exchangeable cations such as Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} in the interlayer space.

  7. Trends in the adsorption and reactivity of hydrogen on magnesium silicate nanoclusters. (United States)

    Oueslati, Ichraf; Kerkeni, Boutheïna; Bromley, Stefan T


    We study nanoclusters of Mg-rich olivine and pyroxene (having (MgO)6(SiO2)3 and (MgO)4(SiO2)4 compositions) with respect to their reactivity towards hydrogen atoms, using density functional calculations. Ultrasmall silicate particles are fundamental intermediates in cosmic dust grain formation and processing, and are thought to make up a significant mass fraction of the grain population. Due to their nanoscale dimensions and high surface area to bulk ratios, they are likely to also have a disproportionately large influence on surface chemistry in the interstellar medium. This work investigates the potential role of silicate nanoclusters in vital interstellar hydrogen-based chemistry by studying atomic H adsorption and H2 formation. Our extensive set of calculations confirm the generality of a Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation between the H2 reaction barrier and the 2Hchem binding energy, suggesting it to be independent of silicate dust grain shape, size, crystallinity and composition. Our results also suggest that amorphous/porous grains with forsteritic composition would tend to dissociate H2, but relatively Mg-poor silicate grains (e.g. enstatite composition) and/or more crystalline/compact silicate grains would tend to catalyse H2 formation. The high structural thermostability of silicate nanoclusters with respect to the heat released during exothermic H2 formation reactions is also verified.

  8. [Effects of silicate on the community structure of phytoplankton in enclosures]. (United States)

    Sun, Ling; Jin, Xiang-can; Yang, Wei; Xu, Min; Zhong, Yuan; Zhu, Lin; Zhuang, Yuan-yi


    Controlling the concentrations of silicate, enclosure experiments were conducted in Xinkai Lake to investigate the influence of Si concentration on the growth and succession of phytoplankton communities in a eutrophic freshwater. The results show that with the addition of silicate, the biomass of diatoms increased and the ratio of diatom species to the total significantly increased from 10.2% to 22.1% . While the species percent of Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta decreased to 61.5%, as compared with 76.8% in control. Several diatom species, such as Synedra ulna, Nitzschia denticula, Nitzschia acicularis, Gomphonema constrictum var. capitata, Gomphonema olivaceum, which were not found in control, were observed in the silicate-enriched treatments. The Shannon indices of 2.17 +/- 0.40 and 2.12 +/- 0.21 were obtained from the medium-Si (atomic ratio N:Si:P = 16:8:1) and high-Si ( N:Si:P = 16:16:1) treatments, which were higher than that of the control enclosure (1.89 +/- 0.55, without silicate addition). At the late phase of the experiments, algal blooms mainly composed of Microcystis aeruginosa appeared in control but not in the silicate-enriched enclosures. The enrichment of silicate can promote the growth of diatoms and the other algal species and change the dominance of few Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyte species. Therefore, it can elevate the algal biodiversity of an aquatic ecosystem and weaken the cyanobacterial blooms to a certain degree.

  9. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman


    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric Acid – Hydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  10. SON68 glass dissolution driven by magnesium silicate precipitation (United States)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Godon, Nicole; Ayral, André; Gin, Stéphane


    Experimental results are reported on the effect of magnesium silicate precipitation on the mechanisms and rate of borosilicate glass dissolution. Leaching experiments with SON68 glass, a borosilicate containing no Mg, were carried out in initially deionized water at 50 °C with a glass-surface-area-to-solution-volume ratio of 20,000 m-1. After 29 days of alteration the experimental conditions were modified by the addition of Mg to trigger the precipitation of Mg-silicate. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the importance of other parameters such as pH or dissolved silica on the mechanisms of precipitation of Mg-silicates and their consequences on the glass dissolution rate. Mg-silicates precipitate immediately after Mg is added. The amount of altered glass increases with the quantity of added Mg, and is smaller when silicon is added in solution. A time lag is observed between the addition of magnesium and the resumption of glass alteration because silicon is first provided by partial dissolution of the previously formed alteration gel. It is shown that nucleation does not limit Mg-silicate precipitation. A pH above 8 is necessary for the phase to precipitate under the investigated experimental conditions. On the other hand the glass alteration kinetics limits the precipitation if the magnesium is supplied in solution at a non-limiting rate. The concentration of i in solution was analyzed as well as that of boron. The quantity of i released from the glass is estimated with the assumption that i and B are released congruently at the glass dissolution front. The remained quantity of the element i is then supposed to be in the gel or in the secondary phase. In this paper, we do not make a difference between gel and hydrated glass using the same word 'gel' whereas Gin et al. [40] makes this difference. Recent papers [40,41] discussed about different key issues related to the passivation properties of the alteration layer including the hydrated glass

  11. Water-bearing, high-pressure Ca-silicates (United States)

    Németh, Péter; Leinenweber, Kurt; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Groy, Thomas; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Kovács, István J.; Kovács, Judit S.; Buseck, Peter R.


    Water-bearing minerals provide fundamental knowledge regarding the water budget of the mantle and are geophysically significant through their influence on the rheological and seismic properties of Earth's interior. Here we investigate the CaO-SiO2-H2O system at 17 GPa and 1773 K, corresponding to mantle transition-zone condition, report new high-pressure (HP) water-bearing Ca-silicates and reveal the structural complexity of these phases. We document the HP polymorph of hartrurite (Ca3SiO5), post-hartrurite, which is tetragonal with space group P4/ncc, a = 6.820 (5), c = 10.243 (8) Å, V = 476.4 (8) Å3, and Z = 4, and is isostructural with Sr3SiO5. Post-hartrurite occurs in hydrous and anhydrous forms and coexists with larnite (Ca2SiO4), which we find also has a hydrous counterpart. Si is 4-coordinated in both post-hartrurite and larnite. In their hydrous forms, H substitutes for Si (4H for each Si; hydrogrossular substitution). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows broad hydroxyl absorption bands at ∼3550 cm-1 and at 3500-3550 cm-1 for hydrous post-hartrurite and hydrous larnite, respectively. Hydrous post-hartrurite has a defect composition of Ca2.663Si0.826O5H1.370 (5.84 weight % H2O) according to electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the Si deficiency relative to Ca is also observed in the single-crystal data. Hydrous larnite has average composition of Ca1.924Si0.851O4H0.748 (4.06 weight % H2O) according to EPMA, and it is in agreement with the Si occupancy obtained using X-ray data collected on a single crystal. Superlattice reflections occur in electron-diffraction patterns of the hydrous larnite and could indicate crystallographic ordering of the hydroxyl groups and their associated cation defects. Although textural and EPMA-based compositional evidence suggests that hydrous perovskite may occur in high-Ca-containing (or low silica-activity) systems, the FTIR measurement does not show a well-defined hydroxyl absorption band for this

  12. Combined effect of carbonate and biotite dissolution in landslides biases silicate weathering proxies (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Galy, A.; Hovius, N.


    Long-term estimates of the dissolution of silicate rock are generally derived from a range of isotopic proxies, such as the radiogenic strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr), which are preserved in sediment archives. For these systems to fairly represent silicate weathering, the changes in isotopic ratios in terrestrial surface waters should correspond to changes in the overall silicate dissolution. This assumes that the silicate mineral phases that act as sources of a given isotope dissolve at a rate that is proportional to the overall silicate weathering. Bedrock landsliding exhumes large quantities of fresh rock for weathering in transient storage, and rapid weathering in these deposits is controlled primarily by dissolution of the most reactive phases. In this study, we test the hypothesis that preferential weathering of these labile minerals can decouple the dissolution of strontium sources from the actual silicate weathering rates in the rapidly eroding Western Southern Alps (WSA) of New Zealand. We find that rapid dissolution of relatively radiogenic calcite and biotite in landslides leads to high local fluxes in strontium with isotopic ratios that offer no clear discrimination between sources. These higher fluxes of radiogenic strontium are in contrast to silicate weathering rates in landslides that are not systematically elevated. On a mountain belt scale, radiogenic strontium fluxes are not coupled to volumes of recent landslides in large (>100 km2) catchments, but silicate weathering fluxes are. Such decoupling is likely due first to the broad variability in the strontium content of carbonate minerals, and second to the combination of radiogenic strontium released from both biotite and carbonate in recent landslides. This study supports previous work suggesting the limited utility of strontium isotopes as a system to study silicate weathering in the WSA. Crucially however, in settings where bedrock landsliding is a dominant erosive process there is

  13. Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Carrasco, M.


    Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na₂CO₃ and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na₂CO₃ y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na₂CO₃ y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²⁹Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

  14. Fluorinated silicate glass for conventional and holographic optical elements (United States)

    Glebov, Leonid


    This presentation is a survey of results of a long-term research at the laboratory of photoinduced processes at CREOL/UCF. A highly homogeneous and transparent sodium-zinc-aluminum-silicate glass doped with fluorine and bromine was developed. Glass is transparent from 220 to 2700 nm. It is a crown-type optical glass having refractive index at 587.5 nm nd=1.4959 and Abbe number νd=59.2. This glass shows low dependence of refractive index on temperature dn/dtGlass can withstand multi-kilowatt laser beams. Nonlinear refractive index is the same as for fused silica. Laser damage threshold for 8 ns is about 40 /cm2. This glass becomes a photosensitive one by doping with silver and cerium. It demonstrates refractive index decrement after exposure to UV radiation followed by thermal development and therefore is used for phase volume hologram recording. Spatial modulation of refractive index resulted from precipitation of nano-crystalline phase of sodium fluoride. The main mechanism of refractive index decrement is a photoelastic effect resulted from strong tensions generated in both crystalline and vitreous phases because of difference in their coefficients of thermal expansion. Volume Bragg gratings recorded in this glass, show extremely narrow spectral and angular selectivity and have low losses combined with high tolerance to laser radiation. These gratings possess a unique ability to produce laser beam transformations directly in angular space. This feature paves a way to creation of high power lasers with stable narrow emission spectra and diffraction limited divergence.

  15. On the origin of silicate-bearing diamondites (United States)

    Dobosi, Gabor; Kurat, Gero


    Garnets and clinopyroxenes, intergrown with diamonds in 37 diamondites (“bort”, “polycrystalline diamond aggregates”, “polycrystalline diamond”, “framesite”), presumably from southern Africa, were analyzed for trace element contents by LA-ICP-MS. The intimate diamond-silicate intergrowths suggest that both precipitated from the same fluids during the same crystallization events. In this study we distinguish 5 chemical garnet groups: “peridotitic” (P), intermediate (I) and 3 “eclogitic” groups (E1, E2 and E3). Chondrite-normalized trace element patterns for the garnet groups roughly correlate with major element abundances. Most of P garnets show complex, mildly sinusoidal REEN patterns with relatively flat HREEN-MREEN, a small hump at Sm-Nd and depleted LREEN, and have relatively high contents of Nb, Ta, U, and Th. The REEN abundance patterns of E garnets differ by showing a continuous increase from LREE to HREE and depletion in LREE and highly incompatible elements relative to the P garnets. Of all garnet groups, E3 garnets are the poorest in highly incompatible trace elements and in Mg. Model equilibrium fluids for P garnets suggest crystallization from magnesian carbonate-bearing fluids/melts, which were very rich in incompatible trace elements — similar to kimberlites. Hypothetical equilibrium melts for E1 and E2 garnets are also magnesian and poorer in LREE and highly incompatible elements relative to typical kimberlitic or carbonatitic melts. Fluids that crystallized the P and most of the E garnets have similar mg numbers indicating a peridotitic source for both. The differences in Cr and highly incompatible element contents can be the result of differences in fluid formation and/or evolution rather than different source rock. The positive correlation of Cr2O3 and mg with the abundances of highly incompatible elements in garnets indicate fluid-rock fractionation processes rather than igneous fractional crystallization processes being

  16. Modeling Silicate Weathering for Elevated CO2 and Temperature (United States)

    Bolton, E. W.


    A reactive transport model (RTM) is used to assess CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering over a wide range of temperature, pCO2, and infiltration rates for basalts and granites. Although RTM's have been used extensively to model weathering of basalts and granites for present-day conditions, we extend such modeling to higher CO2 that could have existed during the Archean and Proterozoic. We also consider a wide range of surface temperatures and infiltration rates. We consider several model basalt and granite compositions. We normally impose CO2 in equilibrium with the various atmospheric ranges modeled and CO2 is delivered to the weathering zone by aqueous transport. We also consider models with fixed CO2 (aq) throughout the weathering zone as could occur in soils with partial water saturation or with plant respiration, which can strongly influence pH and mineral dissolution rates. For the modeling, we use Kinflow: a model developed at Yale that includes mineral dissolution and precipitation under kinetic control, aqueous speciation, surface erosion, dynamic porosity, permeability, and mineral surface areas via sub-grid-scale grain models, and exchange of volatiles at the surface. Most of the modeling is done in 1D, but some comparisons to 2D domains with heterogeneous permeability are made. We find that when CO2 is fixed only at the surface, the pH tends toward higher values for basalts than granites, in large part due to the presence of more divalent than monovalent cations in the primary minerals, tending to decrease rates of mineral dissolution. Weathering rates increase (as expected) with increasing CO2 and temperature. This modeling is done with the support of the Virtual Planetary Laboratory.

  17. Solidification/stabilization and leaching behavior of PbCl₂ in fly-ash hydrated silicate matrix and fly-ash geopolymer matrix. (United States)

    Li, Yang; Gao, Xingbao; Wang, Qi; He, Jie; Yan, Dahai


    Fly ash (FA) for reuse as a construction material is activated using two methods, to produce hydrated silicate and geopolymer gels. We investigated the solidification/stabilization and leaching behavior of PbCl2 in a geopolymer matrix (GM) and hydrated silicate matrix (HSM), based on FA as the source material, to evaluate the environmental and health risks. The GM and HSM synthetic conditions were 60 °C, 20 % relative humidity (RH), and 12 wt% (6 mol/L) NaOH, and 20 ± 2 °C, ≥ 90 % RH, and 30 wt.%, respectively, based on their compressive strength performances. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that Pb participated in hydration and geopolymerization, and was incorporated in the structural components of the hydrated silicate and geopolymer. In leaching experiments, the solidification/stabilization effects of Pb and Cl in the HSM and GM improved with increasing curing time. After long-term curing (28 days), the immobility of Pb in the GM was better than that in the HSM. Sodalite improved the Cl-stabilizing ability of the GM compared with that of the HSM. In static monolithic leaching experiments, HSM and GM had the same Pb-leaching behaviors. Based on the changes in the location of the neutral sphere layer with decreasing acid-neutralizing capacity, Pb release was divided into alkaline-release, stagnation, and acid-release stages. The neutral sphere layer contained the highest Pb concentration during permeation toward the block center from the block edge. This behavior regulation could also apply to other amphoteric metals immobilized by GMs and HSMs.

  18. Fluoride adsorption onto an acid treated lateritic mineral from Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    which was high in alumino-silicate, 47.0%, as well as high-affinity iron and Manganese oxide based surfaces,. 40.2%. .... through the electrochemical double layer close to the adsorbent surface, adsorption affinity and degree of .... in the material and the acid pre-treatment protocol employed in preparation of the adsorbent.

  19. Evaluation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Exfoliated Silicate Nanoclays as a Feed Additive for Fumonisin Detoxification. (United States)

    Yuan, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Ching-Chin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei


    The efficacy of nanosilicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg of feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic aspartate aminotransferase activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis, were considered. Chickens with NSCP inclusion alone at 1000 mg/kg of feed exhibited no changes in hepatic histology, oxidative status, and serum parameters and even had a higher feed intake. Proteomic analysis with liver tissues identified 45 distinct proteins differentially affected by FB1 and/or NSCP, in which proteins involved in thiol metabolism and redox regulation, glycolysis, carcinogenesis, and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase were promoted by FB1, whereas NSCP caused differential changes of protein abundances related to methionine/cysteine and choline/glycine interconversion for glutathione synthesis, redox regulation by peroxiredoxin, toxin/metabolite delivery by albumin, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and chaperon escort for endoplasmic reticulum stress relief. Functional analyses confirmed the enhancement of hepatic metabolic processes for ATP and NAD(P)H production to meet the need for detoxification, antioxidative defense, and toxin/metabolite clearance by FB1 or NSCP ingestion. On the basis of the amelioration of FB1 toxicosis, global profile of hepatic protein expressions, and validated toxicological mechanisms, NSCP were concluded as a safe and effective agent for FB1 detoxification.

  20. Re-mineralizing dentin using an experimental tricalcium silicate cement with biomimetic analogs. (United States)

    Li, Xin; De Munck, Jan; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Pedano, Mariano; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Chen, Zhi; Van Meerbeek, Bart


    To characterize the re-mineralization potential of an experimental zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) containing tricalcium silicate (TCS) cement, TCS 50, with the incorporation of biomimetic analogs at demineralized dentin. Class-I cavities were prepared in non- carious human third molars. The dentin cavities were demineralized using a pH-cycling protocol, involving 50 cyclic immersions in pH-4.8 and pH-7 baths for 0.5h and 2.5h, successively. The cavities were filled with TCS 50 with/without biomimetic analogs (3% polyacrylic acid, 8% sodium trimetaphosphate) being added to the mixed TCS 50 cement prior to application. The commercial hCSCs Biodentine (Septodont) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Sirona) served as controls. After 1 and 6 weeks storage in simulated body fluid (SBF), the polished specimen cross-sections were chemically characterized using a field-emission-gun Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (Feg- EPMA). EPMA line-scans and elemental mappings confirmed early re-mineralization induced by TCS 50 at 1 week. When biomimetic analogs were added to TCS 50, re-mineralization was more efficient after 6 weeks; the relative depth and intensity of re-mineralization were 79.7% and 76.6%, respectively, being significantly greater than at 1 week (pSignificance: The experimental TCS-based cement, TCS 50, proved to be capable of re-mineralizing artificially demineralized dentin. The incorporation of biomimetic analogs promoted re- mineralization upon 6-week SBF storage. However, re-mineralization appeared incomplete, this even for TCS 50 to which biomimetic analogs were added and upon 6-week SBF storage. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Removal of lead from cathode ray tube funnel glass by generating the sodium silicate. (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Zhao, Shuangshuang; Zhang, Shuhao


    In the disposal of electronic waste, cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is an environmental problem of old television sets. Removal of the lead from CRT funnel glass can prevent its release into the environment and allow its reuse. In this research, we reference the dry progress productive technology of sodium silicate, the waste CRT glass was dealt with sodium silicate frit melted and sodium silicate frit dissolved. Adding a certain amount of Na ₂CO₃to the waste CRT glass bases on the material composition and content of it, then the specific modulus of sodium silicate frit is obtained by melting progress. The silicon, potassium and sodium compounds of the sodium silicate frit are dissolved under the conditions of high temperature and pressure by using water as solvent, which shows the tendency that different temperature, pressure, liquid-solid ratio and dissolving time have effect on the result of dissolving. At 175°C(0.75MPa), liquid-solid ratio is 1.5:1, the dissolving time is 1h, the dissolution rate of sodium silicate frit is 44.725%. By using sodium sulfide to separate hydrolysis solution and to collect lead compounds in the solution, the recovery rate of lead in dissolving reached 100% and we can get clean sodium silicate and high purity of lead compounds. The method presented in this research can recycle not only the lead but also the sodium, potassium and other inorganic minerals in CRT glass and can obtain the comprehensive utilization of leaded glass.

  2. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris


    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  3. Experimental Investigation of Irradiation-driven Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in Analogs of Protoplanetary Hydrous Silicate Dust (United States)

    Roskosz, Mathieu; Laurent, Boris; Leroux, Hugues; Remusat, Laurent


    The origin of hydrogen in chondritic components is poorly understood. Their isotopic composition is heavier than the solar nebula gas. In addition, in most meteorites, hydrous silicates are found to be lighter than the coexisting organic matter. Ionizing irradiation recently emerged as an efficient hydrogen fractionating process in organics, but its effect on H-bearing silicates remains essentially unknown. We report the evolution of the D/H of hydrous silicates experimentally irradiated by electrons. Thin films of amorphous silica, amorphous “serpentine,” and pellets of crystalline muscovite were irradiated at 4 and 30 keV. For all samples, irradiation leads to a large hydrogen loss correlated with a moderate deuterium enrichment of the solid residue. The entire data set can be described by a Rayleigh distillation. The calculated fractionation factor is consistent with a kinetically controlled fractionation during the loss of hydrogen. Furthermore, for a given ionizing condition, the deuteration of the silicate residues is much lower than the deuteration measured on irradiated organic macromolecules. These results provide firm evidence of the limitations of ionizing irradiation as a driving mechanism for D-enrichment of silicate materials. The isotopic composition of the silicate dust cannot rise from a protosolar to a chondritic signature during solar irradiations. More importantly, these results imply that irradiation of the disk naturally induces a strong decoupling of the isotopic signatures of coexisting organics and silicates. This decoupling is consistent with the systematic difference observed between the heavy organic matter and the lighter water typically associated with minerals in the matrix of most carbonaceous chondrites.

  4. Physical processes affecting availability of dissolved silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea (United States)

    Young, David K.; Kindle, John C.


    A passive tracer to represent dissolved silicate concentrations, with biologically realistic uptake kinetics, is successfully incorporated into a three-dimensional, eddy-resolving, ocean circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Hypotheses are tested to evaluate physical processes which potentially affect the availability of silicate for diatom production in the Arabian Sea. An alternative mechanism is offered to the idea that open ocean upwelling is primarily responsible for the high, vertical nutrient flux and consequent large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the northwestern Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon. Model results show that dissolved silicate in surface waters available for uptake by diatoms is primarily influenced by the intensity of nearshore upwelling from southwest monsoonal wind forcing and by the offshore advective transport of surface waters. The upwelling, which in the model occurs within 200±50 km of the coast, appears to be a result of a combination of coastal upwelling, Ekman pumping, and divergence of the coastal flow as it turns offshore. Localized intensifications of silicate concentrations appear to be hydrodynamically driven and geographically correlated to coastal topographic features. The absence of diatoms in sediments of the eastern Arabian Basin is consistent with modeled distributional patterns of dissolved silicate resulting from limited westward advection of upwelled coastal waters from the western continental margin of India and rapid uptake of available silicate by diatoms. Concentrations of modeled silicate become sufficiently low to become unavailable for diatom production in the eastern Arabian Sea, a region between 61°E and 70°E at 8°N on the south, with the east and west boundaries converging on the north at ˜67°E, 20°N.

  5. Development of an immobilization process for heavy metal containing galvanic solid wastes by use of sodium silicate and sodium tetraborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydın, Ahmet Alper, E-mail: [Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technische Universität München, Am Coulombwall, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aydın, Adnan [Istanbul Bilim University, School of Health, Esentepe, Istanbul, Sisli, 34394 (Turkey)


    Highlights: • A new physico-chemical process below 1000 °C for immobilization of galvanic sludges. • Sodium tetraborate and sodium silicate have been used as additives. • A strategy for adjustment of solid waste/additive mixture composition is presented. • Strategy is valid for wastes of hydrometallurgical and electro-plating processes. • Lower energy consumption and treated waste volume, shorter process time are provided. - Abstract: Heavy metal containing sludges from wastewater treatment plants of electroplating industries are designated as hazardous waste since their improper disposal pose high risks to environment. In this research, heavy metal containing sludges of electroplating industries in an organized industrial zone of Istanbul/Turkey were used as real-sample model for development of an immobilization process with sodium tetraborate and sodium silicate as additives. The washed sludges have been precalcined in a rotary furnace at 900 °C and fritted at three different temperatures of 850 °C, 900 °C and 950 °C. The amounts of additives were adjusted to provide different acidic and basic oxide ratios in the precalcined sludge-additive mixtures. Leaching tests were conducted according to the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure Method 1311 of US-EPA. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) have been used to determine the physical and chemical changes in the products. Calculated oxide molar ratios in the precalcined sludge-additive mixtures and their leaching results have been used to optimize the stabilization process and to determine the intervals of the required oxide ratios which provide end-products resistant to leaching procedure of US-EPA. The developed immobilization-process provides lower energy consumption than sintering-vitrification processes of glass–ceramics.

  6. Experimental calibration of a new oxybarometer for silicic magmas based on the partitioning of vanadium between magnetite and silicate melt (United States)

    Arató, Róbert; Audétat, Andreas


    Oxygen fugacity is an important parameter in magmatic systems that affects the stability of mineral phases and fluid species. However, there is no well-established method to reconstruct the oxygen fugacity of slowly cooled magmas such as granite, for example, because existing oxybarometers (e.g., magnetite-ilmenite method) are susceptible to re-equilibration processes during slow cooling and thus lead to erroneous results when applied for granitic rocks. In this study, we aim at developing an oxybarometer that is based on the partitioning of vanadium (a redox-sensitive element) between magnetite inclusions and silicate melt inclusions preserved in quartz phenocrysts, where they were protected from subsolidus alteration and can be measured as entities by LA-ICP-MS. In the first - experimental - part of this study we investigated the effects of temperature (800-950 ° C), pressure (1-2 kbar), oxygen fugacity (from ΔFMQ+0.7 to ΔFMQ+4.0), magnetite composition, and melt composition on the partition coefficient of vanadium between magnetite and melt (DVmgt-melt). The experiments were carried out in cold-seal pressure vessels and the starting material was a mixture of V-doped haplogranite glasses or natural obsidian powder with variable aluminum saturation index (ASI), and synthetic, V-free magnetite of 10-20 μm grain size. The vanadium partition coefficient was found to depend strongly on oxygen fugacity, and to lesser (but still considerable) degrees on melt composition and temperature. A more than 1.5 log unit decrease in DVmgt-melt values with increasing oxygen fugacity can be explained by a change of the dominant valence state of V in the silicate melt. For a given oxygen fugacity buffer DVmgt-melt decreases with increasing temperature, but this reflects mostly the change in absolute fO2 values while the net temperature effect is in fact positive. DVmgt-melt depends significantly on melt composition, resulting in higher D-values with increasing aluminum

  7. In vitro characterisation of a sol-gel derived in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowder for bone grafting. (United States)

    Latifi, Seyed Mohsen; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Sharifnabi, Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh


    Design and synthesis of materials with better properties and performance are essential requirements in the field of biomaterials science that would directly improve patient quality of life. For this purpose, in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite (Sc/S.C.HA) nanopowder was synthesized via the sol-gel method. Characterisation of the prepared nanopowder was carried out by XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, ICP, zeta potential, acid dissolution test, and cell culture test. The substitution of the silicate and carbonate ions into hydroxyapatite structure was confirmed by FTIR analysis. XRD analysis showed that silica is an amorphous phase, which played a role in covering the surface of the S.C.HA nanoparticles as confirmed by acid dissolution test. Low thickness and low integrity of the amorphous silica surface layer facilitated ions release from S.C.HA nanoparticles into physiological saline solution. Zeta potential of the prepared nanopowder suspended in physiological saline solution was -27.3±0.2mV at pH7.4. This negatively charged surface, due to the presence of amorphous silica layer upon the S.C.HA nanoparticles, not only had an accelerating effect on in vitro biomineralization of apatite, but also had a positive effect on cell attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. The microstructure and surface morphology of radiopaque tricalcium silicate cement exposed to different curing conditions. (United States)

    Formosa, L M; Mallia, B; Bull, T; Camilleri, J


    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent phase in mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). It is thus postulated that pure tricalcium silicate can replace the Portland cement component of MTA. The aim of this research was to evaluate the microstructure and surface characteristics of radiopaque tricalcium silicate cement exposed to different curing conditions namely at 100% humidity or immersed in either water or a simulated body fluid at 37°C. The materials under study included tricalcium silicate and Portland cements with and without the addition of bismuth oxide radiopacifier. Material characterization was performed on hydrated cements using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with X-ray energy dispersive (EDX) analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. Surface morphology was further investigated using optical profilometry. Testing was performed on cements cured at 100% humidity or immersed in either water or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1 and 28 days at 37°C. In addition leachate analysis was performed by X-ray fluorescence of the storage solution. The pH of the storage solution was assessed. All the cements produced calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide on hydration. Tricalcium silicate showed a higher reaction rate than Portland cement and addition of bismuth oxide seemed to also increase the rate of reaction with more calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide being produced as demonstrated by SEM and XRD analysis and also by surface deposits viewed by the optical profilometer. Cement immersion in HBSS resulted in the deposition of calcium phosphate during the early stages following immersion and extensive calcification after 28 days. The pH of all storage solutions was alkaline. The immersion in distilled water resulted in a higher pH of the solution than when the cements were immersed in HBSS. Leachate analysis demonstrated high calcium levels in all cements tested with higher levels in tricalcium silicate and

  10. Electrical conduction and glass relaxation in alkali- silicate glasses (United States)

    Angel, Paul William

    Electrical response measurements from 1 Hz to 1 MHz between 50o and 540oC were made on potassium, sodium and lithium-silicate glasses with low alkali oxide contents. Conductivity and electrical relaxation responses for both annealed and air quenched glasses of the same composition were compared. Quenching was found to lower the dc conductivity, σdc, and activation energy as well as increase the pre-exponential term when compared to the corresponding annealed glass of the same composition. All of the glasses exhibited Arrhenius behavior in the log σdc against 1/T plots. A sharp decrease in σdc was observed for glasses containing alkali concentrations of 7 mol% or less. The σdc activation energy exhibited similar behavior when plotted as a function of alkali composition and was explained in terms of a mixture of the weak and strong electrolyte models. The depression angle for fits to the complex impedance data were also measured as a function of thermal history, alkali concentration and alkali species. These results were interpreted in terms of changes in the distribution of relaxation times. Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450o to 800oC, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or silicon oil. The complex impedance of both an annealed and the quenched samples were then measured as a function of temperature from 120o to 250oC. The σdc was found to be remain unaffected by heat treatments below 450oC, to increase rapidly over an approximate 200oC range of temperatures that was dependent on cooling rate and to be constant for heat treatments above this range. This behavior is interpreted in terms of the mean structural relaxation time as a function of temperature and cooling rate near the glass transition temperature and glass transformation ranges. A more detailed definition for the transition and transformation temperatures and ranges was also provided.

  11. Spin transition in Fe3+ in Mg-silicate perovskite (United States)

    Catalli, K.; Shim, S.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Zhao, J.; Sturhahn, W.; Liu, H.


    In recent years, spin transitions have been reported in both perovskite (Pv) (Badro et al., 2004) and magnesiowüstite (Mw) (Lin et al., 2005). Although no density change has been detected in ferrous iron bearing Pv (Lundin et al., 2008), large changes in density have been found to occur with the spin transition in Mw (Fei et al., 2007). This difference has been attributed to the diverse coordination and oxidation states of Fe in Pv and has made analysis of previous experimental data difficult. We have measured synchrotron Mössbauer spectroscopy (SMS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) on Mg-silicate Pv with all Fe in Fe3+ (0.9MgSiO3- 0.1Fe2O3) up to 136 GPa in the laser heated diamond anvil cell with an argon pressure medium. Our SMS shows that Fe3+ enters both the dodecahedral and octahedral sites at the entire pressure range we studied (47-136 GPa). We found that both high and low spin Fe3+ exist in the octahedral site between 47 and 63 GPa and then all Fe3+ in the octahedral site becomes low spin at higher pressures, while Fe3+ in the dodecahedral site remains high spin to 136 GPa. Pressure-volume data, measured up to 106 GPa using the gold pressure scale (Tsuchiya, 2003), shows that the spin transition does not effect density but does result in a 10% increase in the bulk modulus near 60 GPa. Below 60 GPa, ferric Pv is 9% more compressible than ferrous Pv, but above 60 GPa, ferric Pv is 17% less compressible than ferrous perovskite. This change in compressibility is likely due to a change in compression mechanism: at low pressure compression is accomplished by a combination of the gradual spin collapse and lattice compression. However, after the spin transition is complete, only lattice compression is at work at higher pressures. If the lower mantle has as much Fe3+ as suggested by McCammon et al. (1997) and Frost et al. (2004), this may result in a global discontinuity at the mid-mantle. If not, local enrichment of Fe3+ can result in a discontinuity, which can be

  12. Through The Looking Glass: New Laboratory Spectra Of Glassy Silicates For The Comparison To Astrophysical Environments (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Whittington, A.; Hofmeister, A.


    Many astrophysical environments exhibit a spectral feature at around 10 microns, which has long been attributed to amorphous silicates, but whose precise nature remains a mystery. Furthermore, the astronomically observed feature varies from location to location, and even within a given object both spatially and temporally. There have been many laboratory studies of potential cosmic dust analogs attempting to determine the exact nature of this dust, but most of those studies have failed to produce laboratory spectra that precisely match the observed astronomical spectra. We present new high-resolution spectra of a selection of silicate glasses whose compositions cover those expected to form in cosmic environments. These include synthetic endmember glasses of major mineral groups such as melilites (akermanite, gehlenite), pyroxenes (enstatite), olivines (forsterite) and silica; glasses produced by remelting natural mineral samples that contain iron and other elements; and a synthetic "cosmic” silicate glass with solar relative abundances of Mg, Si, Ca, Na and Al. Across the compositional range of 12 samples the 10 micron feature changes in peak position by more than a micron, as well as in shape. We discuss the effects of both compositional and structural factors on spectral features in these glassy silicates and we compare our new laboratory glass spectra with synthetic amorphous silicate spectra currently used in most models of dusty astrophysical environments. The synthetic spectra do not match either peak position or shape of any of our glass samples.

  13. Heavily Tm3+-Doped Silicate Fiber for High-Gain Fiber Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Wen Lee


    Full Text Available We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3 doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the absorption/emission cross-sections, upper-state lifetime, fiber background loss, and photodarkening resistance. We show through numerical simulations that a signal gain-per-unit-length of 3.78 dB/cm at 1950 nm can be achieved in a watt-level core-pumped Tm3+-doped silicate fiber amplifier. In addition, an 18-dB 2013-nm amplifier is demonstrated in a 50-cm 7 wt% Tm3+-doped double-clad silicate fiber. Finally, we experimentally confirm that the reported silicate host exhibits no observable photodarkening.

  14. Partitioning of siderophile elements between metallic liquids and silicate liquids under high-pressure and temperature (United States)

    Nakatsuka, A.; Urakawa, S.


    High-pressure metal-silicate element partitioning studies have shown the possibility that the mantle abundance of siderophile elements is consistent with core-mantle equilibration at high pressures and high temperatures. Equilibrium conditions are, however, still under debates partly due to the uncertainty of partition coefficients, which vary not only with pressure, temperature and oxygen fugacity but also with composition. We have carried out partitioning experiments of siderophile elements between liquid metal and ultramafic silicate liquid at high pressure to evaluate the effects of composition on the partition coefficients. Partitioning experiments were conducted by KAWAI-type high pressure apparatus. We used natural peridotite and Fe alloy as starting materials and they were contained in graphite capsule. The quenched samples were examined by electron microprobe. Quenched textures indicate that metallic melts coexisted with silicate melts during experiment. The metallic melt contained 7-9 wt% of C. Oxygen fugacity varied from IW-3 to IW-1 in associated with the composition of the starting material. At the reduced condition, silicate melt was enriched in SiO2 compared to peridotite because of the oxidation of Si in metallic melts. When oxygen fugacity is close to IW buffur, silicate melt was enriched in FeO due to the oxidation of metallic Fe and it had high NBO/T = 3.5-4. The partition coefficients D for Co, Ni and Fe were dependent on oxygen fugacity as well as the chemical compositions.

  15. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of acetic-cure silicone with the addition of magnesium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Vargas Orellana


    Full Text Available Current study evaluates the mechanical properties (tensile and tear strength of an acetic-cure silicone with the addition of 10 or 20% vol. magnesium silicate. Magnesium silicate was added to the silicone at concentrations of 10 (MS-10 and 20% (MS-20 volume, followed by the analysis of tensile strength, maximal elongation during tensile and tear strength. Results were compared to control group of silicone without additives (CG. Mean rates were determined and compared by analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Control group had the greatest elongation when subjected to tensile strength (650%, whereas the MS-10 group statistically showed a better tensile strength (8.8 MPa when compared to CG (7.5 MPa and MS-20 (7.5 MPa groups. Both magnesium silicate groups exhibited statistically similar tear strength, whereas MS-20 group demonstrated statistically greater tear strength. The addition of 10% magnesium silicate increased tensile strength, but tear strength and elongation were similar to control. The addition of 20% magnesium silicate did not affect tensile but increased tear strength.

  16. Trace fossils of Ordovician radiolarian chert and siliceous mudstone in Newfoundland, Canada (United States)

    Kakuwa, Yoshitaka


    Ordovician radiolarian chert and siliceous mudstone in Newfoundland are examined to elucidate the development of trace fossils in and on the Early Paleozoic ocean bottom. Chert sedimentation in the Shoal Arm Formation (SAF) is limited to a short interval, but its sedimentation rate is high with few siliciclastic materials. Trace fossils are common in chert in the SAF, but their development is interrupted by frequent anoxic events. The trace fossils are larger than trace fossils in the contemporary chert of other areas. In contrast, trace fossils in the Strong Island Chert (SIC) are moderately-sized to small, with a few sandstone beds interbedded with chert. Those characteristics reflect differences in the sedimentary environments. Rocks of the SIC were deposited in a basinal part of a back-arc basin; whereas, those in the SAF were deposited on a small isolated basin. Red chert or siliceous rocks that underlie grey cherts and siliceous rocks of the SIC and the SAF bear small and simple trace fossils. This is a common feature of ;oceanic red rocks.; Radiolarian chert and siliceous rocks in Newfoundland also showed that trace fossils are widespread by the Middle Ordovician in the deep-sea environment. The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event is confirmed in the radiolarian siliceous rocks there.

  17. Antimicrobial activities and cellular responses to natural silicate clays and derivatives modified by cationic alkylamine salts. (United States)

    Hsu, Shan-Hui; Tseng, Hsiang-Jung; Hung, Huey-Shan; Wang, Ming-Chien; Hung, Chiung-Hui; Li, Pei-Ru; Lin, Jiang-Jen


    Nanometer-scale silicate platelet (NSP) materials were previously developed by increasing the interlayer space and exfoliation of layered silicate clays such as montmorillonite and synthetic fluorinated mica by the process of polyamine exfoliation. In this study, the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of these nanometer-scale silicate clays were evaluated. The derivatives of NSP (NSP-S) which were modified by C18-fatty amine salts via ionic exchange association exhibited the highest antibacterial activity in the aqueous state among all clays. The high antibacterial activity, however, was accompanied by elevated cytotoxicity. The variations of cell surface markers (CD29 and CD44) and type I collagen expression of fibroblasts treated with the clays were measured to clarify the mechanism of the silicate-induced cytotoxicity. The signal transduction pathway involved the downregulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which appeared to participate in silicate-induced cytotoxicity. This study helped to understand the antibacterial potential of NSP and the interaction of natural and modified clays with cellular activities.

  18. Investigation of the physical properties of tricalcium silicate cement-based root-end filling materials. (United States)

    Grech, L; Mallia, B; Camilleri, J


    Tricalcium silicate-based cements have been displayed as suitable root-end filling materials. The physical properties of prototype radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material was used as a control. The physical properties of a prototype zirconium oxide replaced tricalcium silicate cement and two proprietary cements composed of tricalcium silicate namely Bioaggregate and Biodentine were investigated. Intermediate restorative material (IRM) was used as a control. Radiopacity assessment was undertaken and expressed in thickness of aluminum. In addition the anti-washout resistance was investigated using a novel basket-drop method and the fluid uptake, sorption and solubility were investigated using a gravimetric method. The setting time was assessed using an indentation technique and compressive strength and micro-hardness of the test materials were investigated. All the testing was performed with the test materials immersed in Hank's balanced salt solution. All the materials tested had a radiopacity value higher than 3mm thickness of aluminum. IRM exhibited the highest radiopacity. Biodentine demonstrated a high washout, low fluid uptake and sorption values, low setting time and superior mechanical properties. The fluid uptake and setting time was the highest for Bioaggregate. The addition of admixtures to tricalcium silicate-based cements affects the physical properties of the materials. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric Property of Silicate-Doped CaBi4Ti4O15 Thin Films (United States)

    Ogawa, Shota; Kondoh, Yohta; Kimura, Junichi; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi


    Thin films of silicate-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 were fabricated to enhance the insulating property of one-axis-oriented CaBi4Ti4O15 films under an applied electric field. The crystalline phase of CaBi4Ti4O15, a type of bismuth layer-structured dielectric (BLSD) compound, was successfully grown on (100)LaNiO3/(111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si with the preferential orientation of the (001) plane by the addition of bismuth silicate with a nominal composition of Bi12SiO20 up to 1.00%. The crystallographic orientation of the (001)BLSD plane normal to the substrate surface was degraded by excessive bismuth silicate addition above 1.50%. The breakdown electric field was increased by bismuth silicate addition up to 2.00% without the degraded relative dielectric permittivity (ɛr) of approximately 230. The bismuth silicate could precipitate between the grain boundaries in the CaBi4Ti4O15 films without an interface reaction or a solid solution that enhances the insulating behavior of the BLSD films.

  20. Extraction spectrophotometric method for determination of aluminium in silicates. (United States)

    Banerjee, N L; Sinha, B C


    A simple, rapid and sensitive method has been worked out for spectrophotometric determination of macro and micro amounts of alumina in ceramic raw materials and finished products, including glasses. The method is based on the extraction of aluminum oxinate into chloroform after masking of titanium with chromotropic acid and of iron with ascorbic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline or ferrocyanide at pH 5.2. The absorbance is measured at 385 nm. Interference by Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Co, when present, is overcome by stripping them as cyanide complexes by shaking the chloroform extract with potassium cyanide solution. Zr is masked with quinalizarin sulphonic acid and fluoride with BeSO(4).

  1. Zirconium silicate assisted removal of residual proteins after organic solvent deproteinization of human plasma, enhancing the stability of the LC–ESI-MS response for the bioanalysis of small molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shah; Pezzei, Cornelia [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Güzel, Yüksel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); ADSI-Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, Matthias [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, Christian W., E-mail: [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonn, Günther K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, CCB-Center for Chemistry and Biomedicine, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 80/82, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); ADSI-Austrian Drug Screening Institute, Innrain 66a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    Highlights: • A novel sample preparation technique for isolation of small molecules from human plasma. • Effectiveness of zirconium silicate for the removal of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • Abolishing the consumption of salts for the depletion of residual proteins after protein precipitation. • More than 99.6% removal of plasma proteins. - Abstract: An efficient blood plasma clean-up method was developed, where methanol protein precipitation was applied, followed by zirconium silicate assisted exclusion of residual proteins. A strong binding of zirconium (IV) silicate to the proteins enabled the elimination of remaining proteins after solvent deproteinization through a rapid solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used for monitoring the proteins during clean-up practice applied to human plasma samples. The proteins were quantified by colorimetric detection using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. The presented analytical strategy resulted in the depletion of >99.6% proteins from human plasma samples. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography hyphenated to diode-array and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC–DAD/ESI MS) was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and their metabolites in human plasma. The procedure demonstrated high recoveries for the standard compounds spiked at different concentrations. Cynarin and chlorogenic acid were recovered in the range of 81–86% and 78–83%, respectively. Caffeic acid was extracted in the excess of 89–92%, while ferulic acid and dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid showed a recovery of 87–91% and 92–95%, respectively. The method was partially validated in accordance with FDA-Industry Guidelines for Bioanalytical Method Validation (2001). The presented scheme improves the clean-up efficacy of the methanol deproteinization

  2. Immobilization of Zinc Phthalocyanines in Silicate Matrices and Investigation of Their Photobactericidal Effect on E.coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spas Artarsky


    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to immobilize zinc phthalocyanines in a silicate matrix and to test the photobactericidal properties of the matrices so prepared toward Esherichia coli in model aqueous media. For the purpose, tetra tertiary butyl zinc phthalocyanine (TBZnPc and zinc phthalocyanine tetrasulfonic acid (ZnPcTS were used. The abilities of these two photosensitizers to generate singlet oxygen in solution were compared by following the rate of photobleaching of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF at 430 nm in dimethylformamide (DMF.The results of this study show clearly that, under the conditions used here, the TBZnPc is the more effective generator of singlet oxygen; with it the DPBF was virtually completely photobleached in 4 min, while with the ZnPcTS under the same conditions, it took 12 min to reach this point. Glass conjugates with the two phthalocyanines were obtained by the sol-gel technique and were characterized by a well-defined color due to the phthalocyanine incorporated in the silicate matrix. Glasses with an intense, but inhomogeneous, green color were obtained when the tetrasulfonic derivative of the zinc phthalocyanine was used, while blue glasses of evenly distributed coloration were formed from the tetra tertiary butyl derivative.The ZnPcTS conjugate demonstrates more effective singlet oxygen evolution than is the case with the TBZnPc conjugate. These results are the opposite of those obtained for the free phthalocyanines in solution. The structural formulae of the compounds show that TBZnPc has a more pronounced hydrophobic character than the sulfonic derivative. In our view, the relative reactivities of the conjugates can be explained by the tetrasulfonic derivative being situated mainly in the surface parts of the glass matrix where the hydrophilic character is prevailing, while the tertiary butyl derivative is mainly present in the internal parts of the matrix as a result of which it is less accessible and

  3. Eu-, Tb-, and Dy-Doped Oxyfluoride Silicate Glasses for LED Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Wang, J.; Zhang, M.M.


    Luminescence glass is a potential candidate for the light-emitting diodes (LEDs) applications. Here, we study the structural and optical properties of the Eu-, Tb-, and Dy-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for LEDs by means of X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence spectra, Commission Internationale...... de L’Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates, and correlated color temperatures (CCTs). The results show that the white light emission can be achieved in Eu/Tb/Dy codoped oxyfluoride silicate glasses under excitation by near-ultraviolet light due to the simultaneous generation of blue, green, yellow......, and red-light wavelengths from Tb, Dy, and Eu ions. The optical performances can be tuned by varying the glass composition and excitation wavelength. Furthermore, we observed a remarkable emission spectral change for the Tb3+ single-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses. The 5D3 emission of Tb3+ can...

  4. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Jung; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Schexnailder, Patrick J.; Schmidt, Gudrun


    Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles) for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  5. Electrophoretic deposition of magnesium silicates on titanium implants: Ion migration and silicide interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshar-Mohajer, M. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yaghoubi, A., E-mail: [Center for High Impact Research, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Ramesh, S., E-mail: [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Bushroa, A.R.; Chin, K.M.C.; Tin, C.C. [Center for Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Chiu, W.S. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)


    Magnesium silicates (Mg{sub x}SiO{sub y}) and in particular forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) owing to their low thermal expansion mismatch with metals are promising materials for bioactive coating of implants. Here, we report the electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of forsterite onto titanium substrates using different precursors. Unlike bulk samples which achieve full stoichiometry only beyond 1400 °C, non-stoichiometric magnesium silicate rapidly decomposes into magnesium oxide nanowires during sintering. Elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction suggest that oxygen diffusion followed by ion exchange near the substrate leads to formation of an interfacial Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} layer. Pre-annealed forsterite powder on the other hand shows a comparatively lower diffusion rate. Overall, magnesium silicate coatings do not exhibit thermally induced microcracks upon sintering as opposed to calcium phosphate bioceramics which are currently in use.

  6. Determine the compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks by combined nondestructive method. (United States)

    Brozovsky, Jiri


    The paper deals with the application of combined nondestructive method for assessment of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks. In this case, it is a combination of the rebound hammer method and ultrasonic pulse method. Calibration relationships for determining compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks obtained from nondestructive parameter testing for the combined method as well as for the L-type Schmidt rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse method are quoted here. Calibration relationships are known for their close correlation and are applicable in practice. The highest correlation between parameters from nondestructive measurement and predicted compressive strength is obtained using the SonReb combined nondestructive method. Combined nondestructive SonReb method was proved applicable for determination of compressive strength of calcium silicate bricks at checking tests in a production plant and for evaluation of bricks built in existing masonry structures.

  7. Investigation of the hydration and bioactivity of radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and MTA Angelus. (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sorrentino, François; Damidot, Denis


    Novel root-end filling materials are composed of tricalcium silicate (TCS) and radiopacifier as opposed to the traditional mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) which is made up of clinker derived from Portland cement and bismuth oxide. The aim of this research was to characterize and investigate the hydration of a tricalcium silicate-based proprietary brand cement (Biodentine™) and a laboratory manufactured cement made with a mixture of tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide (TCS-20-Z) and compare their properties to MTA Angelus™. The materials investigated included a cement containing 80% of TCS and 20% zirconium oxide (TCS-20-Z), Biodentine™ and MTA Angelus™. The specific surface area and the particle size distribution of the un-hydrated cements and zirconium oxide were investigated using a gas adsorption method and scanning electron microscopy. Un-hydrated cements and set materials were tested for mineralogy and microstructure, assessment of bioactivity and hydration. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction and calorimetry were employed. The radiopacity of the materials was investigated using ISO 6876 methods. The un-hydrated cements were composed of tricalcium silicate and a radiopacifier phase; zirconium oxide for both Biodentine™ and TCS-20-Z whereas bismuth oxide for MTA Angelus™. In addition Biodentine™ contained calcium carbonate particles and MTA Angelus™ exhibited the presence of dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, calcium, aluminum and silicon oxides. TCS and MTA Angelus™ exhibited similar specific surface area while Biodentine™ had a greater specific surface area. The cements hydrated and produced some hydrates located either as reaction rim around the tricalcium silicate grain or in between the grains at the expense of volume containing the water initially present in the mixture. The rate of reaction of tricalcium

  8. Metal-Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten from 10 to 50 GPa (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Rahman, Z.; Righter, K.


    Geochemical models of core formation are commonly based on core and mantle abundances of siderophile elements that partitioned between silicate and metal in a magma ocean in the early Earth. Tungsten is a moderately siderophile element that may provide constraints on the pressure, temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity conditions, and on the timing of core formation in the Earth. Previous experimental studies suggest that pressure exerts little to no influence over W metal-silicate partitioning up to 24 GPa, and indicate that the stronger influences are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity. However, core formation models based in part on W, predict metal-silicate equilibration pressures outside the available experimental pressure range, requiring extrapolation of parameterized models. Therefore, higher pressure experimental data on W were needed to constrain this important parameter.

  9. The opportunity of silicate product manufacturing with simultaneous pig iron reduction from slag technogenic formations (United States)

    Sheshukov, O. Yu.; Lobanov, D. A.; Mikheenkov, M. A.; Nekrasov, I. V.; Egiazaryan, D. K.


    There are two main kinds of slag in modern steelmaking industry: the electric arc furnace slag (EAF slag) and ladle furnace slag (LF slag). The all known slag processing schemes provide the iron-containing component reduction while silicate component stays unprocessed. On the contrary, the silicate processing schemes doesn't provide the utilization of the iron-containing component. The present-day situation doesn't solve the problem of total slag utilization. The aim of this work is to investigate the opportunity of silicate product obtaining with simultaneous pig iron reduction from EAF and LF slags. The tests are conducted by the method of simplex-lattice design. The test samples are heated and melted under reductive conditions, slowly cooled and then analyzed by XRD methods. The experiment results prove the opportunity: the Portland clinker and pig iron can be simultaneously produced on the basis of these slags with a limestone addition.

  10. Development of Biomedical Polymer-Silicate Nanocomposites: A Materials Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung Wu


    Full Text Available Biomedical polymer-silicate nanocomposites have potential to become critically important to the development of biomedical applications, ranging from diagnostic and therapeutic devices, tissue regeneration and drug delivery matrixes to various bio-technologies that are inspired by biology but have only indirect biomedical relation. The fundamental understanding of polymer-nanoparticle interactions is absolutely necessary to control structure-property relationships of materials that need to work within the chemical, physical and biological constraints required by an application. This review summarizes the most recent published strategies to design and develop polymer-silicate nanocomposites (including clay based silicate nanoparticles and bioactive glass nanoparticles for a variety of biomedical applications. Emerging trends in bio-technological and biomedical nanocomposites are highlighted and potential new fields of applications are examined.

  11. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Kwan, Joe W.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.; Wu, James K.


    We report results on lithium alumino-silicate ion source development in preparation for warmdense-matter heating experiments on the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCXII). The practical limit to the current density for a lithium alumino-silicate source is determined by the maximum operating temperature that the ion source can withstand before running into problems of heat transfer, melting of the alumino-silicate material, and emission lifetime. Using small prototype emitters, at a temperature of ~;;1275 oC, a space-charge-limited Li+ beam current density of J ~;;1 mA/cm2 was obtained. The lifetime of the ion source was ~;;50 hours while pulsing at a rate of 0.033 Hz with a pulse duration of 5-6 mu s.

  12. Stabilization of RNA through Absorption by Functionalized Mesoporous Silicate Nanospheres (United States)


    Fabrication and their laccase immobilization performance. Bioresource Technology 101: 8931–8935. 20. Johnson BJ, Melde BJ, Peterson GW, Schindler BJ...materials. * E-mail: Introduction With the advancement of molecular diagnostic technologies , detection of nucleic acid targets...collection: RNAlater Tissue Collection: RNA Stabilization Solution (Life Technologies , Carlsbad, CA ), RNAlater RNA Stabilization Reagent (Qiagen, Valencia

  13. Synergistic effect of silicate clay and phosphazene-oxyalkyleneamines on thermal stability of cured epoxies. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Min; Liao, Yi-Lin; Lin, Jiang-Jen


    Amine substitution of hexachlorocyclophosphazene (HCP) with poly(oxypropylene)diamines (POP) afforded HCP-POP adducts which were subsequently intercalated into a layered silicate clay. The relative thermal stabilities of the epoxies cured with the phosphazene-amines and the intercalated clays were studied. The organoclays, with the confined HCP-POP from 400 and 2000 g/mol M(w) amines, are nongelled products when using 1/6 M ratio of HCP/POP starting materials in tetrahydrofuran solvent. The intercalation of HCP-POP polyamine salts into sodium montmorillonite afforded the HCP-POP-embedded organoclays with an expanded interlayer silicate spacing (2.4-5.1 nm) from the original 1.2 nm spacing (X-ray diffraction). The effect of silicate clays was evaluated by blending the HCP-POP/clay hybrids into a two-component epoxy system (diglycidyl ether of 4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) and a diamine) and fully cured to form solid materials. The distribution of the exfoliated silicate platelets in the matrix was analyzed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated an enhanced thermal stability for the HCP/clay epoxy nanocomposites, with a delayed weight-loss pattern (temperature of weight loss at 10% (T(10 wt.%)) from 360 to 385 degrees C and temperature of weight loss at 85% (T(85 wt.%)) from 598 to 696 degrees C), compared to the pristine epoxies. By comparing these epoxies with different amounts of phosphazene and/or silicates, the TGA revealed a synergistic effect for the presence of both phosphorous and silicate components. Furthermore, the epoxies had improved physical properties such as hardness (from 3H to 5H) and surface adhesion (observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) on fracture surface). 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Through The Looking Glass: The Causes Of Variations In "Amorphous” Silicate Spectral Features. (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Hofmeister, A. M.; Whittington, A. G.


    Silicate dust plays an essential role in many astrophysical environments. The "amorphous” silicate spectral features have been observed in our solar system, young stellar objects, star formation regions, novae, and the diffuse and dense interstellar medium as well as in extragalactic environments such as quasars and AGN. This dust contributes to the physical processes inherent in star formation processes, as well as to several aspects of interstellar processes such as gas heating and the formation of molecules. The discovery of this almost ubiquitous 10um silicate feature, led to many laboratory studies of potential cosmic dust analogs attempting to determine the exact nature of this dust. However, these various lab studies have produced inconsistent and often conflicting results. Studies of ostensibly the same material produce different spectra, which can be attributed to small differences in samples and techniques, but which leave astronomers at a loss as to interpretation of astrophysical data. We survey the compositional and structural factors that affect spectral features in "amorphous” silicates, illustrated with examples of new high-resolution spectra and previously published spectra of amorphous silicates nominally corresponding in composition to the mineral end-members forsterite (Mg2SiO4), enstatite (MgSiO3) and gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7). These examples highlight the sensitivity of such characteristics as peak shape, peak position, and the ratio of the 10µm and 18µm features, to subtle compositional / structural variations. By careful laboratory study, we can harness these effects on the spectral features of amorphous silicates to understand dust composition more precisely and provide a rich source of information on dust formation and processing.

  15. Silicates Eroded under Simulated Martian Conditions Effectively Kill Bacteria-A Challenge for Life on Mars. (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N; Larsen, Michael G; Moeller, Ralf; Nissen, Silas B; Jensen, Lasse R; Nørnberg, Per; Jensen, Svend J K; Finster, Kai


    The habitability of Mars is determined by the physical and chemical environment. The effect of low water availability, temperature, low atmospheric pressure and strong UV radiation has been extensively studied in relation to the survival of microorganisms. In addition to these stress factors, it was recently found that silicates exposed to simulated saltation in a Mars-like atmosphere can lead to a production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we have investigated the stress effect induced by quartz and basalt abraded in Mars-like atmospheres by examining the survivability of the three microbial model organisms Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Deinococcus radiodurans upon exposure to the abraded silicates. We found that abraded basalt that had not been in contact with oxygen after abrasion killed more than 99% of the vegetative cells while endospores were largely unaffected. Exposure of the basalt samples to oxygen after abrasion led to a significant reduction in the stress effect. Abraded quartz was generally less toxic than abraded basalt. We suggest that the stress effect of abraded silicates may be caused by a production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced by transition metal ions in the basalt leading to hydroxyl radicals through Fenton-like reactions. The low survivability of the usually highly resistant D. radiodurans indicates that the effect of abraded silicates, as is ubiquitous on the Martian surface, would limit the habitability of Mars as well as the risk of forward contamination. Furthermore, the reactivity of abraded silicates could have implications for future manned missions, although the lower effect of abraded silicates exposed to oxygen suggests that the effects would be reduced in human habitats.

  16. Silicates Eroded under Simulated Martian Conditions Effectively Kill Bacteria—A Challenge for Life on Mars (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Larsen, Michael G.; Moeller, Ralf; Nissen, Silas B.; Jensen, Lasse R.; Nørnberg, Per; Jensen, Svend J. K.; Finster, Kai


    The habitability of Mars is determined by the physical and chemical environment. The effect of low water availability, temperature, low atmospheric pressure and strong UV radiation has been extensively studied in relation to the survival of microorganisms. In addition to these stress factors, it was recently found that silicates exposed to simulated saltation in a Mars-like atmosphere can lead to a production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we have investigated the stress effect induced by quartz and basalt abraded in Mars-like atmospheres by examining the survivability of the three microbial model organisms Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Deinococcus radiodurans upon exposure to the abraded silicates. We found that abraded basalt that had not been in contact with oxygen after abrasion killed more than 99% of the vegetative cells while endospores were largely unaffected. Exposure of the basalt samples to oxygen after abrasion led to a significant reduction in the stress effect. Abraded quartz was generally less toxic than abraded basalt. We suggest that the stress effect of abraded silicates may be caused by a production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced by transition metal ions in the basalt leading to hydroxyl radicals through Fenton-like reactions. The low survivability of the usually highly resistant D. radiodurans indicates that the effect of abraded silicates, as is ubiquitous on the Martian surface, would limit the habitability of Mars as well as the risk of forward contamination. Furthermore, the reactivity of abraded silicates could have implications for future manned missions, although the lower effect of abraded silicates exposed to oxygen suggests that the effects would be reduced in human habitats. PMID:28955310

  17. Hydration characteristics of calcium silicate cements with alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling materials. (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette


    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is composed of calcium silicate cement and bismuth oxide added for radiopacity. The bismuth oxide in MTA has been reported to have a deleterious effect on the physical and chemical properties of the hydrated material. This study aimed to investigate the hydration mechanism of calcium silicate cement loaded with different radiopacifiers for use as a root-end filling material. Calcium silicate cement loaded with barium sulfate, gold, or silver/tin alloy was hydrated, and paste microstructure was assessed after 30 days. In addition, atomic ratio plots of Al/Ca versus Si/Ca and S/Ca and Al/Ca were drawn, and X-ray energy dispersive analysis of the hydration products was performed to assess for inclusion of heavy metals. The leachate produced from the cements after storage of the cements in water for 28 days and the leaching of the radiopacifiers in an alkaline solution was assessed by using inductively coupled plasma. The hydrated calcium silicate cement was composed of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, ettringite, and monosulfate. Unhydrated cement particles were few. No heavy metals were detected in the calcium silicate hydrate except for the bismuth in MTA. Calcium was leached out early in large quantities that reduced with time. The barium and bismuth were leached in increasing amounts. Copper was the most soluble in alkaline solution followed by bismuth and barium in smaller amounts. The bismuth oxide can be replaced by other radiopacifiers that do not affect the hydration mechanism of the resultant material. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of phase composition of calcium silicate phosphate component on properties of brushite based composite cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopcak, T., E-mail: [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Medvecky, L.; Giretova, M.; Stulajterova, R.; Durisin, J. [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Girman, V. [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P. J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Faberova, M. [Institute of Materials Research of SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Kosice (Slovakia)


    The composite cement mixtures were prepared by mixing brushite (B) with, the amorphous hydrated calcium silicate phosphate (CSPH) or annealed calcium silicate phosphate (CSP composed of Si-saturated hydroxyapatite, wollastonite and silica) phases and water as liquid component. The contents of the silicate-phosphate phase in composites were 10.30 and 50 wt%. The significant effect of both the Ca/P ratio and different solubility of calcium silicate phosphate component in starting cement systems on setting time and phase composition of the final composite cements was demonstrated. The compressive strength of the set cements increased with the filler addition and the highest value (~ 48 MPa) exhibited the 50CSP/B cement composite. The final setting times of the composite cements decreased with the CSPH addition from about 25 to 17 min in 50CSHP/B and setting time of CSP/B composites was around 30 min. The higher content of silica in cements caused the precipitation of fine hydroxyapatite particles in the form of nanoneedles or thin plates perpendicularly oriented to sample surface. The analysis of in vitro cement cytotoxicity demonstrated the strong reduction in cytotoxicity of 10CSPH/B composite with time of cultivation (a low cytotoxicity after 9 days of culture) contrary to cements with higher calcium silicate-phosphate content. These results were attributed to the different surface topography of composite substrates and possible stimulation of cell proliferation by the slow continuously release of ions from 10CSPH/B cement. - Highlights: • Ca/P ratio and solubility of calcium silicate-phosphate components affect the self-setting properties of cements. • Strong relationship between the composite in vitro cytotoxicity and surface microtopography was demonstrated. • Plate-like morphology of coarser particles allowed cells to better adhere and proliferate as compared with nanoneedles.

  19. Preparation and properties of isotropic Nd-Fe-B bonded magnets with sodium silicate binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.Q.; Hu, R.J.; Yue, M., E-mail:; Yin, Y.X.; Zhang, D.T.


    Graphical abstract: To improve the working temperature of bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets, the heat-resistant binder, sodium silicate, was used to prepare new type bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets. The three-dimensional Si-O-Si structure formed in the curing process has excellent strength; it can ensure that the bonded magnets have a certain shape and usable magnetic properties when working at 200 °C. - Highlights: • Sodium silicate enables bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets to be used for higher operation temperatures. • The sodium silicate bonded magnets exhibit usable maximum energy product of 4.057 MGOe at 200 °C. • The compressive strength of sodium silicate bonded magnets is twice bigger than that of epoxy resin bonded magnets. - Abstract: In present study, sodium silicate, a kind of heat-resistant binder, was used to prepare bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets with improved thermal stability and mechanical strength. Effect of curing temperature and curing time of the new binder to the magnetic properties, microstructure, and mechanical strength of the magnets was systematically investigated. Fracture surface morphology observation show that sodium silicate in bonded magnets could completely be cured at 175 °C for 40 min, and the magnets prepared under this condition exhibit optimal properties. They exhibit usable magnetic properties of B{sub r} of 4.66 kGs, H{sub cj} of 4.84 kOe, and (BH){sub max} of 4.06 MGOe at 200 °C. Moreover, the magnets possess high compressive strength of 63 MPa.

  20. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice. (United States)

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto


    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Silicates Eroded under Simulated Martian Conditions Effectively Kill Bacteria—A Challenge for Life on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebbe N. Bak


    Full Text Available The habitability of Mars is determined by the physical and chemical environment. The effect of low water availability, temperature, low atmospheric pressure and strong UV radiation has been extensively studied in relation to the survival of microorganisms. In addition to these stress factors, it was recently found that silicates exposed to simulated saltation in a Mars-like atmosphere can lead to a production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we have investigated the stress effect induced by quartz and basalt abraded in Mars-like atmospheres by examining the survivability of the three microbial model organisms Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis, and Deinococcus radiodurans upon exposure to the abraded silicates. We found that abraded basalt that had not been in contact with oxygen after abrasion killed more than 99% of the vegetative cells while endospores were largely unaffected. Exposure of the basalt samples to oxygen after abrasion led to a significant reduction in the stress effect. Abraded quartz was generally less toxic than abraded basalt. We suggest that the stress effect of abraded silicates may be caused by a production of reactive oxygen species and enhanced by transition metal ions in the basalt leading to hydroxyl radicals through Fenton-like reactions. The low survivability of the usually highly resistant D. radiodurans indicates that the effect of abraded silicates, as is ubiquitous on the Martian surface, would limit the habitability of Mars as well as the risk of forward contamination. Furthermore, the reactivity of abraded silicates could have implications for future manned missions, although the lower effect of abraded silicates exposed to oxygen suggests that the effects would be reduced in human habitats.

  2. Corrosion of low Si-alloyed steels in aqueous solution at 90 deg. C. Inhibitive action of silicates; Corrosion d'aciers faiblement allies au silicium en solution aqueuse a 90 deg. C. Action inhibitrice des silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordana, S


    Low-Si alloyed steels, with Si content ranging from 0.25 to 3.2 wt%, as potential candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste disposal containers, have been studied four the point of view of their corrosion behaviour at 90 deg C in an aqueous solution simulating groundwater (0.1 M NaCl borate-buffered solution with a pH of 8.5) both in reducing and in aerated conditions. The influence of silicate addition to the solution is examined so as to represent the silicon of groundwater, coming from the clay dissolution. When no silicate was added to the solution, silicon as an alloying element was proved to degrade in the first moments the steel ability to passivate. For longer immersion times, protective effects developed most efficiently on the steel containing 3.2 wt% silicon both in reducing an in aerating conditions, Infrared spectroscopy, EDSX, XRD and Raman microprobe were applied to characterise the oxide layer composition, which was found to be a mixture of magnetite and maghemite. In the presence of silicate in the solution, clay-like iron silicates appeared in the corrosion layer. Electrochemical tests results show that adding silicate into solution resulted in increasing the steel ability to passivate. In the short term, the inhibiting effect of silicate was confirmed by mass loss tests, but the tendency was inverse in the long term. Silicate iron layers were eventually less protective than the magnetite layers formed in the absence of silicate. (author)

  3. Influence of Chemical Conditions on the Nanoporous Structure of Silicate Aerogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Sinkó


    Full Text Available Silica or various silicate aerogels can be characterized by highly porous, open cell, low density structures. The synthesis parameters influence the three-dimensional porous structures by modifying the kinetics and mechanism of hydrolysis and condensation processes. Numerous investigations have shown that the structure of porous materials can be tailored by variations in synthesis conditions (e.g., the type of precursors, catalyst, and surfactants; the ratio of water/precursor; the concentrations; the medium pH; and the solvent. The objectives of this review are to summarize and elucidate the effects of chemical conditions on the nanoporous structure of sol-gel derived silicate aerogels.

  4. Inorganic polymer cement from Fe-Silicate glasses: Varying the activating solution to glass ratio


    Machiels, Lieven; Arnout, Lukas; Jones , Peter Tom; Blanpain, Bart; Pontikes, Yiannis


    Large volumes of Fe-silicate glasses - slags - are produced as residues of metal production and waste treatment processes. It would be interesting if these materials could become an alternative group of precursors for the synthesis of inorganic polymer (IP) cements. This paper investigates the polymerisation of Fe-silicate glasses of composition (in wt%) SiO2: 40; FeO: 30; CaO: 15; Al2O3: 8 and an activating solution of composition (in wt%) Na2O: 15; SiO2: 13; H2O: 72. The mass ratio of the a...

  5. The LithicUB project: A virtual lithotheque of siliceous rocks at the University of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez


    Full Text Available The LithicUB project began in 2009 with two main objectives. The first objective was to make available to the scientific community the description and classification of a set of siliceous rocks that had been recovered from different surveys. The second to make public the lithotheque as a useful tool for archaeological research, related to the procurement and management of lithic raw materials in Prehistory. Thanks to several research projects that have been carried out, the number of samples is steadily increasing and diversifying, including siliceous rocks collected in Spain, Portugal, France, Jordan and Israel.

  6. Nicotine-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit


    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle...... an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased...

  7. Heavily Tm3+-Doped Silicate Fiber for High-Gain Fiber Amplifiers


    Yin-Wen Lee; Han-Wei Chien; Che-Hung Cho; Ju-Zhe Chen; Juin-Shin Chang; Shibin Jiang


    We report on investigation the potential of a 7 wt% (8.35 × 1020 Tm3+/cm3) doped silicate fibers for high-gain fiber amplifiers. Such a high ion concentration significantly reduces the required fiber length of high-power 2 μm fiber laser systems and allows the high-repetition rate operation in 2 μm mode-locked fiber lasers. To evaluate the feasibility of extracting high gain-per-unit-length from this gain medium, we measure several key material properties of the silicate fiber, including the ...

  8. Universality of the high-temperature viscosity limit of silicate liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.; Ellison, Adam J.


    We investigate the high-temperature limit of liquid viscosity by analyzing measured viscosity curves for 946 silicate liquids and 31 other liquids including metallic, molecular, and ionic systems. Our results show no systematic dependence of the high-temperature viscosity limit on chemical...... composition for the studied liquids. Based on theMauro-Yue-Ellison-Gupta-Allan (MYEGA) model of liquid viscosity, the high-temperature viscosity limit of silicate liquids is 10−2.93 Pa·s. Having established this value, there are only two independent parameters governing the viscosity-temperature relation...

  9. Three-dimensional culture of dental pulp stem cells in direct contact to tricalcium silicate cements. (United States)

    Widbiller, M; Lindner, S R; Buchalla, W; Eidt, A; Hiller, K-A; Schmalz, G; Galler, K M


    Calcium silicate cements are biocompatible dental materials applicable in contact with vital tissue. The novel tricalcium silicate cement Biodentine™ offers properties superior to commonly used mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Objective of this study was to evaluate its cytocompatibility and ability to induce differentiation and mineralization in three-dimensional cultures of dental pulp stem cells after direct contact with the material. Test materials included a new tricalcium silicate (Biodentine™, Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France), MTA (ProRoot® MTA, DENSPLY Tulsa Dental Specialities, Johnson City, TN, USA), glass ionomer (Ketac™ Molar Aplicap™, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), human dentin disks and polystyrene. Magnetic activated cell sorting for to the surface antigen STRO-1 was performed to gain a fraction enriched with mesenchymal stem cells. Samples were allowed to set and dental pulp stem cells in collagen carriers were placed on top. Scanning electron microscopy of tricalcium silicate cement surfaces with and without cells was conducted. Cell viability was measured for 14 days by MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity was evaluated (days 3, 7, and 14) and expression of mineralization-associated genes (COL1A1, ALP, DSPP, and RUNX2) was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Nonparametric statistical analysis for cell viability and alkaline phosphatase data was performed to compare different materials as well as time points (Mann-Whitney U test, α = 0.05). Cell viability was highest on tricalcium silicate cement, followed by MTA. Viability on glass ionomer cement and dentin disks was significantly lower. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in cells on new tricalcium silicate cement compared to MTA, whereas expression patterns of marker genes were alike. Increased cell viability and similar levels of mineralization-associated gene expression in three-dimensional cell cultures on the novel tricalcium silicate cement and mineral

  10. Mechanical Properties and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings in Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate Environments (United States)

    Miladinovich, Daniel S.; Zhu, Dongming


    Environmental barrier coatings are being developed and tested for use with SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. Several oxide and silicate based compositons are being studied for use as top-coat and intermediate layers in a three or more layer environmental barrier coating system. Specifically, the room temperature Vickers-indentation-fracture-toughness testing and high-temperature stability reaction studies with Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS or "sand") are being conducted using advanced testing techniques such as high pressure burner rig tests as well as high heat flux laser tests.

  11. Sol-Gel Synthesis, X-Ray Diffraction Studies, and Electric Conductivity of Sodium Europium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Borisova


    Full Text Available Sodium europium silicate, NaEu9(SiO46O2, with apatite structure has been obtained and studied using X-ray diffraction and SEM. It has been shown that sodium sublimation does not take place upon synthesis by the sol-gel method. Rietveld refinement has revealed that sodium atoms are ordered and occupy the 4f position. O(4 atoms not related to silicate ions are placed at the centers of Eu(2 triangles. DC and AC electric conductivity and activation energy have been determined for the compound studied.

  12. Rice field test applied by the granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder


    森本, 正則; 守本, 信一; 宮本, 信彦; 立木, 陽子; 大黒, 撤平; 樋口, 喜三; 駒井, 功一郎


    [Synopsis] The granular fertilizer made of silicate and oyster sell powder was evaluated the efficacy by application for rice production in the paddy field experiment. The fertilizer was formulated oyster sell powder and silicate using granulator during spray a lignin solution as binder to ingredient powder. Finally, the granular fertilizer contents 1~2% water, 40% CaO, 3% SiO_2 and the particle size is 1~2 mm. The experimental setting was along with conventional rice production in Nara Pref....

  13. Low-temperature fabrication of macroporous scaffolds through foaming and hydration of tricalcium silicate paste and their bioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huan, Z.; Chang, J.; Zhou, J.


    A low-temperature fabrication method for highly porous bioactive scaffolds was developed. The two-step method involved the foaming of tricalcium silicate cement paste and hydration to form calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. Scaffolds with a combination of interconnected macro- and

  14. Tracing metal–silicate segregation and late veneer in the Earth and the ureilite parent body with palladium stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creech, J. B.; Moynier, F.; Bizzarro, Martin


    Stable isotope studies of highly siderophile elements (HSE) have the potential to yield valuable insights into a range of geological processes. In particular, the strong partitioning of these elements into metal over silicates may lead to stable isotope fractionation during metal–silicate segrega...... with a late-veneer of chondritic material after core formation....

  15. Effects of polymer intercalation in calcium silicate hydrates on drug loading capacities and drug release kinetics: an X-ray absorption near edge structure study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guo, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Hu, Yongfeng; Wu, Jin; Yiu, Yun-Mui; Sham, Tsun-Kong


    Different calcium silicate hydrate (CSH)/polymer composites are synthesized by using a controlled precipitation reaction between calcium salt and silicate salt, followed by the addition of various polymer solutions at room temperature...

  16. A general route to hollow mesoporous rare-earth silicate nanospheres as a catalyst support. (United States)

    Jin, Renxi; Yang, Yang; Zou, Yongcun; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan


    Hollow mesoporous structures have recently aroused intense research interest owing to their unique structural features. Herein, an effective and precisely controlled synthesis of hollow rare-earth silicate spheres with mesoporous shells is reported for the first time, produced by a simple hydrothermal method, using silica spheres as the silica precursors. The as-prepared hollow rare-earth silicate spheres have large specific surface area, high pore volume, and controllable structure parameters. The results demonstrate that the selection of the chelating reagent plays critical roles in forming the hollow mesoporous structures. In addition, a simple and low-energy-consuming approach to synthesize highly stable and dispersive gold nanoparticle-yttrium silicate (AuNPs/YSiO) hollow nanocomposites has also been developed. The reduction of 4-nitrophenol with AuNPs/YSiO hollow nanocomposites as the catalyst has clearly demonstrated that the hollow rare-earth silicate spheres are good carriers for Au nanoparticles. This strategy can be extended as a general approach to prepare multifunctional yolk-shell structures with diverse compositions and morphologies simply by replacing silica spheres with silica-coated nanocomposites. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Multiple ways of producing intermediate and silicic rocks within Thingmúli and other Icelandic volcanoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charreteur, Gilles; Tegner, Christian; Haase, Karsten


    Major and trace element compositions of rocks and coexisting phenocrysts of the ThingmA(0)li volcano suggest a revision of the existing models for the formation of intermediate and silicic melts in Iceland. The new data define two compositional tholeiitic trends with a significant gap between them...

  18. Investigation on the effects of combining lime and sodium silicate for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expansive clay is unsuitable subgrade material covering about 40% of the area of Ethiopia. Engineering properties of such problematic soils can be improved by chemical stabilization. This study investigated the effects of combining slightly alkaline liquid sodium silicate with hydrated lime for stabilization of expansive clay.

  19. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement. (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Estrela, Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro


    The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO), determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (pbismuth oxide was added showed radiopacity corresponding to the ISO recommendations (>3 mm equivalent of Al). The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC/30% BO group (p>0.05). In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC/50% BO group (pbismuth oxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  20. Powder synthesis, processing and characterization of lanthanum silicates for SOFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jothinathan, E.; Vanmeensel, K. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Vleugels, J., E-mail: jozef.vleugels@mtm.kuleuven.b [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Van der Biest, O. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)


    Recent studies have shown that rare earth silicates exhibit higher oxygen conductivity at lower temperatures (500-800 {sup o}C) compared to traditional yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia. Among the rare earth silicates, doped lanthanum silicates are known to exhibit higher ionic conductivity. The difficulty in sinterability of these powders combined with the fact that the electrolyte material should be sintered onto a porous anode material in a single sintering step to produce SOFC half cells requires very fine starting powders with high sinterability at lower temperatures (1000-1200 {sup o}C). In this paper, we report on the synthesis of lanthanum silicates doped with aluminium or iron using the sol-gel process. Using this fairly simple and quick process, nanometer sized powders with an average grain size below 100 nm have been synthesised, while the intrinsic nanostructure could be maintained in the fully densified electrolyte material after pulsed electric current sintering (PECS) at 1100-1200 {sup o}C.

  1. Anthropogenic Origin of Siliceous Scoria Droplets from Pleistocene and Holocene Archeaological Sites in Northern Syria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thy, Peter; Willcox, George; Barfod, Gry


    to archaeological sites. We therefore conclude that melting of building earth in ancient settlements can occur during !res reaching modest temperatures. There is no evidence to suggest that siliceous scoria droplets result from very high temperature melting of soil and are the result of a cosmic event....

  2. Influence of silicate on enrichment of highly productive microalgae from a mixed culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, P.R.; De Jongh, L.D.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kleerebezem, R.


    Microalgae have the potential to supply a biobased society with essential feedstocks like sugar and lipids. Besides being productive, strains used for this purpose should grow fast, be resistant to predators, and have good harvestability properties. Diatoms, a class of siliceous algae, have these

  3. Effect of soaking of seeds in potassium silicate and uniconazole on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 13, 2011 ... uniconazole on seed germination and seedling growth of two tomato cultivars. Tomato ( ... containing either 50 or 100 mg L-1 potassium silicate or uniconazole and were placed in an environment controlled chamber (25°C, .... determined with a leaf area meter (LI-3100 area meter, LI-COR. Inc., Lincoln ...

  4. Core Formation on Asteroid 4 Vesta: Iron Rain in a Silicate Magma Ocean (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Mittlefehldt, David W.


    Geochemical observations of the eucrite and diogenite meteorites, together with observations made by NASA's Dawn spacecraft, suggest that Vesta resembles H chondrites in bulk chemical composition, possibly with about 25% of a CM-chondrite like composition added in. For this model, the core is 15% by mass (or 8 volume %) of the asteroid. The abundances of moderately siderophile elements (Ni, Co, Mo, W, and P) in eucrites require that essentially all of the metallic phase in Vesta segregated to form a core prior to eucrite solidification. Melting in the Fe-Ni-S system begins at a cotectic temperature of 940 deg. C. Only about 40% of the total metal phase, or 3-4 volume % of Vesta, melts prior to the onset of silicate melting. Liquid iron in solid silicate initially forms isolated pockets of melt; connected melt channels, which are necessary if the metal is to segregate from the silicate, are only possible when the metal phase exceeds about 5 volume %. Thus, metal segregation to form a core does not occur prior to the onset of silicate melting.

  5. The effect of inversion of matrix and inclusions composition in liquation phospho-silicate glasses. (United States)

    Sitarz, M


    Silico-phosphate glasses of XCaPO(4)-SiO(2) and XCaPO(4)-AlPO(4)-SiO(2) (X=Na(+) and/or K(+)) system have been the subject of the presented investigations. Glasses belonging to those systems are characterized by a liquation phenomenon-spherical amorphous inclusions dispersed in an amorphous matrix. Thorough EDX investigations have shown that introduction of aluminum ions into the structure of phospho-silicate glasses results in inversion of matrix and inclusions composition, when XCaPO(4) exceeds 25-35% mol. Such a substantial influence of aluminum ions on phospho-silicate glasses texture as well as matrix and inclusions composition (inversion) must be a result of structural changes. (27)Al MAS NMR research stated that aluminum ions in structures of XCaPO(4)-AlPO(4)-SiO(2) phospho-silicate glasses always acts as a glass-forming ion-i.e. aluminum always occupies fourfold coordinated sites. (23)Na and (31)P MAS NMR research has shown that the inversion of matrix and inclusions composition, brought about by introduction of aluminum ions into the structure of phospho-silicate glasses, is an outcome of a change in phosphorous and alkaline ions coordination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svecova, Blanka


    Ion implantation of Au+ with energy of 1.7 MeV and a fluence of 1 x 1016 along with post-implantation annealing were used to synthesize metal nanoparticles in various types of silicate glasses...

  7. Core–shell Au/Ag nanoparticles embedded in silicate sol–gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    physical rigidity, biodegradation, electrochemical, photochemical, thermal stabilities and optical trans- parency. 14–17 .... charge transfer resistance (Rct) for GC/MTMOS modified electrode due to the silicate matrix film on .... ficient of n = 0⋅99 at a signal to noise ratio of 3. The detection limit was experimentally estimated as.

  8. Characterization of chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate nanocomposite films for buccal delivery of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongjanyakul, Thaned; Khunawattanakul, Wanwisa; Strachan, Clare J


    The objective of this study was to prepare and characterize chitosan-magnesium aluminum silicate (CS-MAS) nanocomposite films as a buccal delivery system for nicotine (NCT). The effects of the CS-MAS ratio on the physicochemical properties, release and permeation, as well as on the mucoadhesive...

  9. Lysozyme-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles: Molecular interaction, bioactivity and release studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Medlicott, Natalie J.; Rades, Thomas


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the adsorption behavior of lysozyme (LSZ) onto magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) at various pHs and to characterize the LSZ–MAS microparticles obtained from the molecular interaction between LSZ and MAS. The results showed that LSZ could be bound...

  10. Effect of magnesium aluminum silicate glass on the thermal shock resistance of BN matrix composite ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Delong; Jia, Dechang; Yang, Zhihua; Zhu, Qishuai; Ocelik, Vaclav; Vainchtein, Ilia D.; De Hosson, Jeff Th M.; Zhou, Yu

    The effects of magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS) glass on the thermal shock resistance and the oxidation behavior of h-BN matrix composites were systematically investigated at temperature differences from 600 degrees C up to 1400 degrees C. The retained strength rate of the composites rose with the

  11. Distribution of nickel between copper-nickel and alumina saturated iron silicate slags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, R.G.; Acholonu, C.C.


    The solubility of nickel in slag is determined in this article by equilibrating copper-nickel alloys with alumina-saturated iron silicate slags in an alumina crucible at 1573 K. The results showed that nickel dissolves in slag both as nickel oxide and as nickel metal. The presence of alumina is shown to increase the solubility of nickel in slags.

  12. Water transport in the nano-pore of the calcium silicate phase: reactivity, structure and dynamics. (United States)

    Hou, Dongshuai; Li, Zongjin; Zhao, Tiejun; Zhang, Peng


    Reactive force field molecular dynamics was utilized to simulate the reactivity, structure and dynamics of water molecules confined in calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) nano-pores of 4.5 nm width. Due to the highly reactive C-S-H surface, hydrolytic reactions occur in the solid-liquid interfacial zone, and partially surface adsorbed water molecules transforming into the Si-OH and Ca-OH groups are strongly embedded in the C-S-H structure. Due to the electronic charge difference, the silicate and calcium hydroxyl groups have binomial distributions of the dipolar moment and water orientation. While Ca-OH contributes to the Ow-downward orientation, the ONB atoms in the silicate chains prefer to accept H-bonds from the surface water molecules. Furthermore, the defective silicate chains and solvated Caw atoms near the surface contribute to the glassy nature of the surface water molecules, with large packing density, pronounced orientation preference, and distorted organization. The stable H-bonds connected with the Ca-OH and Si-OH groups also restrict the mobility of the surface water molecules. The significant reduction of the diffusion coefficient matches well with the experimental results obtained by NMR, QENS and PCFR techniques. Upon increasing the distance from the channel, the structural and dynamic behavior of the water molecules varies and gradually translates into bulk water properties at distances of 10-15 Å from the liquid-solid interface.

  13. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration (United States)

    Bae, Sungchul; Kanematsu, Manabu; Hernández-Cruz, Daniel; Moon, Juhyuk; Kilcoyne, David; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.


    The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h) and acceleration (~4 h) periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H. PMID:28774096

  14. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic). (United States)


    .... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified... modified alkoxysilane salt (generic). 721.9514 Section 721.9514 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  15. 78 FR 14540 - Cyromazine, Silica Silicates (Silica Dioxide and Silica Gel), Glufosinate Ammonium, Dioctyl... (United States)


    ... herbicide that acts by inhibiting glutamine synthetase, which leads to poisoning in plants via the...). Silica silicates, silicon dioxide and silica gel, are insecticides and acaracides used in controlling insects at indoor and outdoor sites including a variety of crops. Silicon dioxide is diatomaceous earth, a...

  16. Porosity distribution in root canals filled with gutta percha and calcium silicate cement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moinzadeh, A.T.; Zerbst, W.; Boutsioukis, C.; Shemesh, H.; Zaslansky, P.


    Objective Gutta percha is commonly used in conjunction with a sealer to produce a fluid-tight seal within the root canal fillings. One of the most commonly used filling methods is lateral compaction of gutta percha coupled with a sealer such as calcium silicate cement. However, this technique may

  17. In Situ Soft X-ray Spectromicroscopy of Early Tricalcium Silicate Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Bae


    Full Text Available The understanding and control of early hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S is of great importance to cement science and concrete technology. However, traditional characterization methods are incapable of providing morphological and spectroscopic information about in situ hydration at the nanoscale. Using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy, we report the changes in morphology and molecular structure of C3S at an early stage of hydration. In situ C3S hydration in a wet cell, beginning with induction (~1 h and acceleration (~4 h periods of up to ~8 h, was studied and compared with ex situ measurements in the deceleration period after 15 h of curing. Analysis of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the Ca binding energy and energy splitting of C3S changed rapidly in the early age of hydration and exhibited values similar to calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H. The formation of C–S–H nanoseeds in the C3S solution and the development of a fibrillar C–S–H morphology on the C3S surface were visualized. Following this, silicate polymerization accompanied by C–S–H precipitation produced chemical shifts in the peaks of the main Si K edge and in multiple scattering. However, the silicate polymerization process did not significantly affect the Ca binding energy of C–S–H.

  18. Core-shell Au/Ag nanoparticles embedded in silicate sol-gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrocatalytic activity of core-shell Au100-Ag ( = 15, 27, 46, and 60) bimetallic nanoparticles embedded in methyl functionalized silicate MTMOS network towards the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric techniques. Core-shell Au/Ag bimetallic ...

  19. Composition dependence of luminescence of Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses for LED applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, C.F.; Chaussedent, S.; Liu, S.


    The Eu and Eu/Tb doped silicate glasses are good candidates for light emitting diode (LED) applications. But the optical performance of these glasses is sensitive to variations in chemical composition. In this paper we report our recent findings about the effect of addition of minor components su...... curves....

  20. Electronic structure of iron in magnesium silicate glasses at high pressure (United States)

    Gu, Chen; Catalli, Krystle; Grocholski, Brent; Gao, Lili; Alp, Ercan; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Cynn, Hyunchae; Evans, William J.; Shim, Sang-Heon


    A recent study attributed the source of an iron partitioning change between silicate melt and minerals at deep mantle conditions to a high-spin to low-spin change in iron, which was found in a Fe-diluted Mg-silicate glass at a similar pressure. We conducted X-ray emission spectroscopy and nuclear forward scattering on iron-rich Mg-silicate glasses at high pressure and 300 K in the diamond-anvil cell: Al-free glass up to 135 GPa and Al-bearing glass up to 93 GPa. In both glasses, the spin moment decreases gradually from 1 bar and does not reach a complete low-spin state even at the peak pressures of this study. The gradual change may be due to the existence of diverse coordination environments for iron in the glasses and continuous structural adjustment of the disordered system with pressure. If the result can be extrapolated to iron in mantle melts, the small, gradual changes in the spin state of iron may not be the dominant factor explaining the reported sudden change in the partitioning behavior of iron between silicate melt and minerals at lower-mantle pressures.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of calcium silicate-reduced graphene oxide composites on titanium substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Talebian, Sepehr


    silicate-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) composites were synthesized, using an in situ hydrothermal method. CS nanowires were uniformly decorated on the rGO, with an appropriate interfacial bonding. The CS-rGO composites behaved like hybrid composites when deposited on a titanium substrate by cathodic...

  2. Preparation and in vivo evaluation of a silicate-based composite bone cement. (United States)

    Ma, Bing; Huan, Zhiguang; Xu, Chen; Ma, Nan; Zhu, Haibo; Zhong, Jipin; Chang, Jiang


    Silicate-based cements have been developed as a class of bioactive and biodegradable bone cements owing to their good in vitro bioactivity and ability to dissolve in a simulated body fluid. Until recently, however, the in vivo evidence of their ability to support bone regeneration is still scarce. In the present study, a pilot in vivo evaluation of a silicate-based composite bone cement (CSC) was carried out in a rabbit femur defect model. The cement was composed of tricalcium silicate, 45S5 bioglass and calcium sulfate, and the self-setting properties of the material were established. The in vivo bone integration and biodegradability of CSC were investigated and compared with those of bioactive glass particulates, and a calcium phosphate cement. The results showed that CSC underwent a relatively slower in vivo degradation as compared with bioactive glass and calcium phosphate cement. Histological observation demonstrated that bone contact area at the interface between the surrounding bone and CSC gradually increased with time proceeding. CSC kept its structural integrity during implantation in vivo because of its acceptable mechanical strength. These results provide evidence of effectiveness in vivo and suggest potential clinical applications of the silicate-based composite bone cements.

  3. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals. (United States)

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C


    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  4. Formation and Detection of Clay Network Structure in Poly(propylene) /Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abranyi, Agnes; Szazdi, Laszlo; Pukanszky Jr., Bela; Vancso, Gyula J.; Pukanszky, B.; Pukanszky, Bela


    The study of the structure and the rheological properties of poly(propylene) (PP)/montmorillonite (MMT)/maleinated PP (MAPP) composites strongly suggests that a silicate network may form under certain conditions. Network formation could not be proven unambiguously with the usual techniques, i.e.,

  5. Energetics of silicate melts from thermal diffusion studies. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.


    Efforts are reported in the following areas: laboratory equipment (multianvils for high P/T work, pressure media, SERC/DL sychrotron), liquid-state thermal diffusion (silicate liquids, O isotopic fractionation, volatiles, tektites, polymetallic sulfide liquids, carbonate liquids, aqueous sulfate solutions), and liquid-state isothermal diffusion (self-diffusion, basalt-rhyolite interdiffusion, selective contamination, chemical diffusion).

  6. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on silicate-substituted tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Bjerre; Bünger, Cody; Kassem, Moustapha


    Autologous bone grafts are currently the gold standard for treatment of large bone defects, but their availability is limited due to donor site morbidity. Different substitutes have been suggested to replace these grafts, and this study presents a bone tissue engineered alternative using silicate...

  7. Effect of ethyl silicate on salt crystallization resistance of Maastricht limestone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.; Hees, R.P.J.; Nijland, T.G.; Bolhuis, J.


    consolidant treatments aim to re-establish the cohesion in declayed materials showing decqay patterns as sanding or powdering. Ethyl silicate (TEOS) is the most used type of consolidant for inorganic porous materials in the last 30 years. This product which works through precipitation of silica gel

  8. Determination of Thermal Conductivity of Silicate Matrix for Applications in Effective Media Theory (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Jerman, Miloš; Reiterman, Pavel; Černý, Robert


    Silicate materials have an irreplaceable role in the construction industry. They are mainly represented by cement-based- or lime-based materials, such as concrete, cement mortar, or lime plaster, and consist of three phases: the solid matrix and air and water present in the pores. Therefore, their effective thermal conductivity depends on thermal conductivities of the involved phases. Due to the time-consuming experimental determination of the effective thermal conductivity, its calculation by means of homogenization techniques presents a reasonable alternative. In the homogenization theory, both volumetric content and particular property of each phase need to be identified. For porous materials the most problematic part is to accurately identify thermal conductivity of the solid matrix. Due to the complex composition of silicate materials, the thermal conductivity of the matrix can be determined only approximately, based on the knowledge of thermal conductivities of its major compounds. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of silicate matrix is determined using the measurement of a sufficiently large set of experimental data. Cement pastes with different open porosities are prepared, dried, and their effective thermal conductivity is determined using a transient heat-pulse method. The thermal conductivity of the matrix is calculated by means of extrapolation of the effective thermal conductivity versus porosity functions to zero porosity. Its practical applicability is demonstrated by calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a three-phase silicate material and comparing it with experimental data.

  9. Potential of secondary resources as aluminium-silicate precursors for geopolymer synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Fischer, H.R.


    Secondary resources containing (catcium) atuminium-silicate phases, e.g., fly ash, slag or bottom ash are used as precursor for binders such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources can be highly variable in terms of their potential to dissolve and form reaction products, analytical methods are

  10. Silicate-SiO reaction in a protoplanetary disk recorded by oxygen isotopes in chondrules (United States)

    Tanaka, Ryoji; Nakamura, Eizo


    The formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos during the earliest stages of the solar protoplanetary disk largely determined the composition and structure of the terrestrial planets. Within a few million years of the birth of the Solar System, chondrule formation and the accretion of the parent bodies of differentiated achondrites and the terrestrial planets took place in the inner protoplanetary disk 1,2 . Here we show that, for chondrules in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites, high-precision Δ17O values (where Δ17O is the deviation of the δ17O value from a terrestrial silicate fractionation line) vary significantly (ranging from -0.49 to +0.84‰) and fall on an array with a steep slope of 1.27 on a three-oxygen-isotope plot. This array can be explained by the reaction between an olivine-rich chondrule melt and an SiO-rich gas derived from vaporized dust and nebular gas. Our study suggests that a large proportion of the building blocks of planetary embryos formed by successive silicate-gas interaction processes: silicate-H2O followed by silicate-SiO interactions under more oxidized and reduced conditions, respectively, within a few million years of the formation of the Solar System.

  11. Silicate availability, vertical mixing and grazing control of phytoplankton blooms in mesocosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escaravage, V.L.; Prins, T.C.


    The present paper explores (i) the way silicate concentrations may control the switch from diatom to non-diatom dominated phytoplankton, (ii) the consequence of mixing intensity and nutrient loading on phytoplankton composition (and potentially harmful species), (iii) to what extent trophic

  12. Calcium-silicate mesoporous nanoparticles loaded with chlorhexidine for both anti- Enterococcus faecalis and mineralization properties. (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Li, Yanyun; Sun, Qing; Ma, Tengjiao; Fan, Bing


    In infected periapical tissues, Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common dominant bacteria. Chlorhexidine has been proved to show strong antibacterial ability against E. faecalis but is ineffective in promoting mineralization for tissues around root apex. Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles are newly synthesized biomaterials with excellent ability to promote mineralization and carry-release bioactive molecules in a controlled manner. In this study, mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles were functionalized with chlorhexidine and their releasing profile, antibacterial ability, effect on cell proliferation and in vitro mineralization property were evaluated. The chlorhexidine was successfully incorporated into mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles by a mixing-coupling method. The new material could release chlorhexidine as well as Ca(2+) and SiO3(2-) in a sustained manner with an alkaline pH value under different conditions. The antimicrobial ability against planktonic E. faecalis was dramatically improved after chlorhexidine incorporation. The nanoparticles with chlorhexidine showed no negative effect on cell proliferation with low concentrations. On dentin slices, the new synthesized material demonstrated a similar inhibitory effect on E. faecalis as the chlorhexidine. After being immersed in SBF for 9 days, numerous apatite crystals could be observed on surfaces of the material tablets. Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles loaded with chlorhexidine exhibited release of ions and chlorhexidine, low cytotoxicity, excellent antibacterial ability and in vitro mineralization. This material could be developed into a new effective intra-canal medication in dentistry or a new bone defect filling material for infected bone defects.

  13. Effect of soaking of seeds in potassium silicate and uniconazole on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of soaking seeds in potassium silicate and uniconazole on seed germination and seedling growth of two tomato cultivars. Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 'Seogeon and Seokwang') seeds were put in a Petri dish filled with 15 ml of a solutions containing either ...

  14. Bio-nanocomposites: Fabrication and characterization of layered silicate nanocomposites based on biocompatible/biodegradable polymers (United States)

    Krikorian, Vahik

    The feasibility of fabricating a polypeptide based layered silicate nanocomposite has been reported for the first time. Poly(l-lysine), a highly cationic polypeptide at neutral pH, was incorporated with unmodified Na+-Montmorillonite resulting in a predominantly intercalated nanocomposite with superior mechanical properties compared to the neat polypeptide matrix. In addition, the effect of organically modified montmorillonite clay incorporation on physical properties and crystallization behavior of a novel biocompatible polymer matrix have also been studied. Three types of commercially available organoclays with different extent of miscibility with a polymer matrix were employed, leading to fully exfoliated (high miscibility) and intercalated (low miscibility) nanocomposite morphologies, respectively. Both nanocomposite films and fibers were fabricated via the exfoliation-adsorption technique with the biodegradable polyester matrix polymer poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) with fibers additionally produced via electrospinning. Bulk kinetics studies and radial spherulite growth rates in nanocomposite films indicate that when a high degree of filler-polymer matrix miscibility is present, nucleation properties of the organoclay are low relative to the less miscible organoclay. Therefore, the overall bulk crystallization rate was increased in the intercalated system and somewhat retarded in the exfoliated system. Surprisingly, spherulite growth rates were significantly increased relative to the bulk in the fully exfoliated nanocomposite. Based on real-time FTIR studies, in the case of neat PLLA, inter-chain interactions preceded intra-chain interactions during the crystallization. Conversely, the exfoliated nanocomposites exhibited the opposite behavior in that 10 3 helix formation and backbone reorientation was followed by the inter-chain interactions. These results explain the non-nucleating behavior of highly miscible and exfoliated nanocomposites. In addition to the

  15. How effectively do hydraulic calcium-silicate cements re-mineralize demineralized dentin. (United States)

    Li, Xin; De Munck, Jan; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Pedano, Mariano; Chen, Zhi; Van Meerbeek, Bart


    To characterize the chemical interplay and to quantify the re-mineralization potential of hydraulic calcium-silicate cements (hCSCs) at demineralized dentin. Pairs of class-I cavities were prepared in non-carious human third molars. One dentin cavity was demineralized with 10% formic acid (5h); the other served as control. The cavities were filled with two resin-free hCSCs (Biodentine, Septodont; ProRoot MTA, Dentsply Sirona) or one resin-based hCSC (TheraCal LC, Bisco). After 1-week, 1-, 3-, and 6-month storage in simulated body fluid (SBF), polished specimen cross-sections were chemically characterized using Field-emission-gun Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (Feg-EPMA) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (μRaman). Feg-EPMA line-scans and elemental mappings confirmed early re-mineralization induced by all three hCSCs at 1week. The relative depth and intensity of re-mineralization were for the resin-free hCSCs in the range of 50.5%-84.8% and 68.1%-89.2%, respectively. Re-mineralization did not significantly differ for the storage periods (p>0.05). Significantly less re-mineralization was achieved by the resin-based hCSC TheraCal LC that reached only at 6months a re-mineralization level that was no longer significantly different from that achieved by the resin-free hCSCs at 1week (p>0.05). Re-mineralization of intertubular dentin, including tubular occlusion, was observed; Si was occasionally detected to have infiltrated the dentin tubules. Dentin re-mineralization by hCSCs was confirmed using μRaman that revealed an increased phosphate peak at 960cm(-1). hCSCs do re-mineralize demineralized dentin. The resin-free cements induced re-mineralization at a higher speed/intensity than the resin-based hCSC. However, re-mineralization was incomplete for all hCSCs tested, this even at 6months. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal and recovery of phosphate from water by calcium-silicate composites-novel adsorbents made from waste glass and shells. (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Amano, Yoshimasa; Machida, Motoi


    The removal and recovery of phosphate from water by calcium-silicate composite (CSC) and alkali-treated calcium-silicate composite (ASC) was investigated. ASC had a higher specific surface area and total pore volume, and exhibited better performance of phosphate adsorption than CSC. In the batch mode adsorption studies, the isotherm adsorption experiments data fitted well the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacities were 120 and 73.0 mg/g for ASC and for CSC, respectively. For the kinetic study, the experimental data fitted very well the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The uptake of phosphate could be performed well over a wide pH range, from 3.0 to 13.0 for ASC and from 4.0 to 13.0 for CSC. The adsorption of phosphate by ASC was very selective even with 10 times higher concentration of other coexistent anions. For the adsorption of low phosphate concentration (10 mg/L), ASC could efficiently remove phosphate at the dosage of 0.8 g/L, while CSC was even difficult to remove phosphate at the dosage of 4.0 g/L. Phosphate fractionation results and FTIR spectra showed that phosphate-Ca complex was formed through phosphate adsorption process. The adsorbed phosphate could be successfully desorbed by 2% citric acid solution, indicating that the adsorbent after adsorbed phosphate could be reusable as fertilizer in the agricultural field.

  17. Termochemical Models For Slags and Silicate Melts, Review and Perspectives (United States)

    Ottonello, G.

    Thermochemical models devoted to the comprehension of reactive and mixing properties of silicate melts and slags may be roughly grouped into four main classes: 1) fictive chemical; 2) quasi chemical; 3) fictive structural; 4) polymeric. In the first class we may group the fictive regular mixture approach of Ghiorso and Carmichael [1,2]and its extensions [3-5]and the subregular model of Berman and Brown [6]. To the second class belong the modified quasi chemical approach of Pelton and coworkers [7,8] , and the Kapoor - Froberg cellular model and its extensions [9-11]. The third class has much to share with the second one (and indeed the cellular model could be ascribed to this class as well). To this class belong the "central surround model" of Sastri and Lahiri [12] , the associated solution models of Bjorkman [13], Hastie and coworkers [14]and Goel and coworkers [15], the two sublattice model of Hillert and coworkers [16]and the polynomial expansions of Hoch and Arpshofen [17] . The fourth class encompasses the models of Masson[18-20] , Toop-Samis [21,22]and its extensions [23-25] . The phylosophy beyond each one of the four classes is basically different. Benefits and drawbacks are present in any of them, and applications are often limited to simple systems (or to sufficiently complex systems, in the case of arbitrary deconvolutions of type 1) and to limited P-T ranges. The crucial aspects of the various models will be outlined to some extent. It will be shown that, often, model conflictuality is only appartent and that, in some cases, model failure is unperceived by acritical utilizers. New perspectives in the future research devoted to the comprehension of melt reactivity in compositionally complex systems, with special enphasis on the solubility of gaseous components and unmixing, will be finally discussed. References: [1] Ghiorso M.S. and Carmichael I.S.E. (1980) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 71, 323-342. [2] Ghiorso M.S., Carmichael I.S.E., Rivers M.L. and Sack

  18. Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Meckler, A N; Sigman, D M; Gibson, K A; François, R; Martínez-García, A; Jaccard, S L; Röhl, U; Peterson, L C; Tiedemann, R; Haug, G H


    Growing evidence suggests that the low atmospheric CO2 concentration of the ice ages resulted from enhanced storage of CO2 in the ocean interior, largely as a result of changes in the Southern Ocean. Early in the most recent deglaciation, a reduction in North Atlantic overturning circulation seems to have driven CO2 release from the Southern Ocean, but the mechanism connecting the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean remains unclear. Biogenic opal export in the low-latitude ocean relies on silicate from the underlying thermocline, the concentration of which is affected by the circulation of the ocean interior. Here we report a record of biogenic opal export from a coastal upwelling system off the coast of northwest Africa that shows pronounced opal maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000 years. These opal peaks are consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water (GNAIW). The loss of GNAIW allowed mixing with underlying silicate-rich deep water to increase the silicate supply to the surface ocean. An increase in westerly-wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean in response to the North Atlantic change has been proposed to drive the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2 (refs 3, 4). However, such a circulation change would have accelerated the formation of Antarctic intermediate water and sub-Antarctic mode water, which today have as little silicate as North Atlantic Deep Water and would have thus maintained low silicate concentrations in the Atlantic thermocline. The deglacial opal maxima reported here suggest an alternative mechanism for the deglacial CO2 release. Just as the reduction in GNAIW led to upward silicate transport, it should also have allowed the downward mixing of warm, low-density surface water to reach into the deep ocean. The resulting decrease in the density of the deep Atlantic relative to the Southern Ocean surface promoted Antarctic overturning

  19. Role of the oxidation state of cerium on the ceria surfaces for silicate adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jihoon [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jinok [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Clean/CMP Technology Team, Memory, Samsung Electronics, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Kangchun [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Junha [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Materials R& D Center, K.C.Tech, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Heesung [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Dong Kee, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Ungyu, E-mail: [WCD Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • We investigated the role of Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surfaces for the silicate adsorption. • As the Ce{sup 3+} concentration increased from 19.3 to 27.6%, the surface density of −OH group increased from 0.34 to 0.72 OH/nm{sup 2}. • The Freundlich constant for the relative adsorption capacity (K{sub F}) and adsorption intensity (1/n) indicated that CeO{sub 2} NPs with high Ce{sup 3+} concentration show higher adsorption affinity with silicate ions. - Abstract: In this study, we have investigated the role of the Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surfaces for silicate adsorption. In aqueous medium, the Ce{sup 3+} sites lead to the formation of −OH groups at the CeO{sub 2} surface through H{sub 2}O dissociation. Silicate ions can adsorb onto the CeO{sub 2} surface through interaction with the −OH groups (−Ce−OH− + −Si−O{sup −} ↔ −Ce−O−Si− + OH{sup −}). As the Ce{sup 3+} concentration increased from 19.3 to 27.6%, the surface density of −OH group increased from 0.34 to 0.72 OH/nm{sup 2}. To evaluate the adsorption behaviors of silicate ions onto CeO{sub 2} NPs, we carried out an adsorption isothermal analysis, and the adsorption isotherm data followed the Freundlich model. The Freundlich constant for the relative adsorption capacity (K{sub F}) and adsorption intensity (1/n) indicated that CeO{sub 2} NPs with high Ce{sup 3+} concentration show higher adsorption affinity with silicate ions. As a result, we have demonstrated that the Ce oxidation state (Ce{sup 3+}/Ce{sup 4+}) on the CeO{sub 2} surface can have a significant influence on the silicate adsorption.

  20. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Yazhao [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)


    Highlights: • Cementitious material was designed according to [SiO{sub 4}] polymerization degree of raw materials. • The cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag yields excellent physical and mechanical properties. • Amorphous C–A–S–H gel and rod-like ettringite are predominantly responsible for the strength development. • Leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests show the cementitious material is environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C–A–S–H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH){sub 2} with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·H{sub 2}O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C–A–S–H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  1. Organoclays Effect on Crystallization of Semicrystalline Poly(L-lactic acid) (United States)

    Krikorian, Vahik; Honggang, Cui; Schultz, Jerold; Pochan, Darrin


    Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is of interest as a neat and composite matrix material due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability via hydrolytic/enzymatic degradation, and high extent of crystallization. We're studying the possibility of making fully exfoliated layered silicate nanocomposites out of PLLA. In the process we've explored the crystallization behavior of PLLA both from solution and the isothermal melt and both with and without organically modified, exfoliated silicate layers. Polarized light microscopy images reveal that in spite of silicate layers acting as crystallization nucleation sites, spherulite sizes become extensively large by clay incorporation into the matrix. Kinetics of spherulite growth has been captured by hotstage-polarized light microscopy and shows highly increased kinetics/radial growth rate due to the interaction with clay platelets. Probing Si, Al and Mg elements, what are all constituents of silicate layers, via Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), shows that silicate layers are randomly distributed and not excluded from growing spherulites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) shows a decrease in crystallinity of the PLLA from the bulk, which is commensurate with a decrease in intensity of Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) peaks corresponding to the crystallites. Single crystals of pure PLLA were also grown from toluene dilute solutions and their lattice parameters were compared with the crystals grown from solution in the presence of silicate layers.

  2. Energetically benign synthesis of lanthanum silicate through “silica garden” route and its characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kavita [Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi (India); Bhattacharjee, Santanu, E-mail: [CSIR-National Metallurgical Laboratory, Jamshedpur (India)


    Lanthanum silicate synthesis through “silica garden” route has been reported as an alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. Under optimum conditions lanthanum chloride crystals react with water glass (sodium silicate) to produce self generating hollow lanthanum silicate precipitation tube(s) (LaSPT). The micro tubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous but are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. They retain their amorphous nature on being heated up to 600 °C beyond which crystallization starts. The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. “As synthesized” LaSPT is heterogeneous and comprises non stoichiometric phases. The exterior and interior surfaces of these tubes are remarkably different in their morphology and chemical composition. LaSPT sintered at 1200 and 1300 °C show fair amount of ionic conductivity. - Graphical abstract: Lanthanum silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) produced through ‘silica garden’ route offers a green alternative to energy intensive milling procedure. - Highlights: • La-silicate precipitation tube (LaSPT) synthesized via silica garden route. • The microtubes are irregular, thick, white coloured and amorphous. • They are hierarchically built from smaller tubules of 10–20 nm diameters. • The major phase in the LaSPT heated at 900 °C is La{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. • LaSPT sintered at 1200 °C is fairly conducting.

  3. Development of novel tricalcium silicate-based endodontic cements with sintered radiopacifier phase. (United States)

    Xuereb, M; Sorrentino, F; Damidot, D; Camilleri, Josette


    All implants, bone and endodontic cements need to be sufficiently radiopaque to be able to be distinguished from neighbouring anatomical structures post-operatively. For this purpose, radiopacifying materials are added to the cements to render them sufficiently radiopaque. Bismuth oxide has been quite a popular choice of radiopacifier in endodontic materials. It has been shown to cause dental discoloration. The aim of this study was to develop, characterize and assess the properties of tricalcium silicate cement with alternative radiopacifiers, which are either inter-ground or sintered to the tricalcium silicate cement. Custom-made endodontic cements based on tricalcium silicate and 20 % barium, calcium or strontium zirconate, which were either inter-ground or sintered at high temperatures, were produced. The set materials stored for 28 days in Hank's balanced salt solution were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Assessment of pH, leaching, interaction with physiological solution, radiopacity, setting time, compressive strength and material porosity were investigated. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Angelus was used as control. Addition of radiopacifying materials improved the radiopacity of the material. The sintered cements exhibited the formation of calcium zirconate together with the respective radiopacifier phase. All materials produced calcium hydroxide on hydration, which interacted with tissue fluids forming hydroxyapatite on the material surface. The physical properties of the tricalcium silicate-based cements were comparable to MTA Angelus. A novel method of producing radiopaque tricalcium silicate-based cements was demonstrated. The novel materials exhibited properties, which were either comparable or else improved over the control. The novel materials can be used to replace MTA for root-end filling, perforation repair and other clinical applications where MTA is indicated.

  4. From illite/smectite clay to mesoporous silicate adsorbent for efficient removal of chlortetracycline from water. (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Tian, Guangyan; Zong, Li; Zhou, Yanmin; Kang, Yuru; Wang, Qin; Wang, Aiqin


    A series of mesoporous silicate adsorbents with superior adsorption performance for hazardous chlortetracycline (CTC) were sucessfully prepared via a facile one-pot hydrothermal reaction using low-cost illite/smectite (IS) clay, sodium silicate and magnesium sulfate as the starting materials. In this process, IS clay was "teared up" and then "rebuilt" as new porous silicate adsorbent with high specific surface area of 363.52m(2)/g (about 8.7 folds higher than that of IS clay) and very negative Zeta potential (-34.5mV). The inert SiOSi (Mg, Al) bonds in crystal framework of IS were broken to form Si(Al) O(-) groups with good adsorption activity, which greatly increased the adsorption sites served for holding much CTC molecules. Systematic evaluation on adsorption properties reveals the optimal silicate adsorbent can adsorb 408.81mg/g of CTC (only 159.7mg/g for raw IS clay) and remove 99.3% (only 46.5% for raw IS clay) of CTC from 100mg/L initial solution (pH3.51; adsorption temperature 30°C; adsorbent dosage, 3g/L). The adsorption behaviors of CTC onto the adsorbent follows the Langmuir isotherm model, Temkin equation and pseudo second-order kinetic model. The mesopore adsorption, electrostatic attraction and chemical association mainly contribute to the enhanced adsorption properties. As a whole, the high-efficient silicate adsorbent could be candidates to remove CTC from the wastewater with high amounts of CTC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Photo-induced changes in optical parameters of silicate glasses multiphoton laser radiation absorption (United States)

    Efimov, Oleg M.; Glebov, Leonid B.; Matveev, Yurii A.; Mekryukov, Andrei M.


    In this paper are the results of investigations of the mechanisms of photo-induced changes of alkali-silicate (crown) and lead-silicate (flint) glasses optical parameters upon the exposure to intense laser radiation, and the basic regularities of these processes are reported. These investigations were performed in Research Center 'S.I. Vavilov State Optical Institute' during the last 15 years. The kinetics of stable and unstable CC formation and decay, the effect of widely spread impurity ions on these processes, the characteristics of fundamental and impure luminescence, the kinetics of refractive index change under conditions of multi-photon glass matrix excitation, and other properties are considered. On the basis of analysis of received regularities it was shown that the nonlinear coloration of alkali-silicate glasses (the fundamental absorption edge is nearly 6 eV) takes place only as a result of two-photon absorption. Important efforts were aimed at the detection of three or more photon matrix ionization of these glasses, but they failed. However it was established that in the lead silicate glasses, the long-wave carriers mobility boundary is placed considerably higher than the fundamental absorption edge of material matrix. This results in that the linear color centers formation in the lead silicate glasses is not observed. The coloration of these glasses arises only from the two- or three-photon matrix ionization, and the excitation occurs through virtual states that are placed in the fundamental absorption region. In the report the available mechanisms of photo-induced changes of glasses optical parameters, and some applied aspects of this problem are discussed.

  6. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva


    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  7. Effects of 401’. Phosphoric Acid Etch on the Compressive Strength of Biodentine (United States)


    copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: Effects of 40ŕ’. Phosphoric Acid Etch on the Compressive Strength of Biodentine Is...Uniformed Services University Date: 04/0112016 26       Effects of 40% Phosphoric Acid Etch on the Compressive Strength of Biodentine ...whether an application of 40% phosphoric acid etch significantly alters the compressive strength of Biodentine , a relatively new calcium silicate

  8. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L


    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (processes in the weathering environment. The remaining transects exhibit a range in variability in surface area distributions along the length of the channel, likely related to variations in eolian input to exposed channel beds, adjacent snow drifts, and to glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  9. Dissolution of glass wool, rock wool and alkaline earth silicate wool: morphological and chemical changes in fibers. (United States)

    Campopiano, Antonella; Cannizzaro, Annapaola; Angelosanto, Federica; Astolfi, Maria Luisa; Ramires, Deborah; Olori, Angelo; Canepari, Silvia; Iavicoli, Sergio


    The behavior of alkaline earth silicate (AES) wool and of other biosoluble wools in saline solution simulating physiological fluids was compared with that of a traditional wool belonging to synthetic vitreous fibers. Morphological and size changes of fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The elements extracted from fibers were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. SEM analysis showed a larger reduction of length-weighted geometric mean fiber diameter at 4.5 pH than at 7.4 pH. At the 7.4 pH, AES wool showed a higher dissolution rate and a dissolution time less than a few days. Their dissolution was highly non-congruent with rapid leaching of calcium. Unlike rock wool, glass wool dissolved more rapidly at physiological pH than at acid pH. Dissolution of AES and biosoluble rock wool is accompanied by a noticeable change in morphology while by no change for glass wool. Biosoluble rock wool developed a leached surface with porous honeycomb structure. SEM analysis showed the dissolution for glass wool is mainly due to breakage transverse of fiber at pH 7.4. AES dissolution constant (Kdis) was the highest at pH 7.4, while at pH 4.5 only biosoluble rockwool 1 showed a higher Kdis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of pressure on tricalcium silicate hydration at different temperatures and in the presence of retarding additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Gary P. (Halliburton); (GIT)


    The hydration of tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S) is accelerated by pressure. However, the extent to which temperature and/or cement additives modify this effect is largely unknown. Time-resolved synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to study cement hydration as a function of pressure at different temperatures in the absence of additives, and at selected temperatures in the presence of retarding agents. The magnitudes of the apparent activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration increased with the addition of the retarders sucrose, maltodextrin, aminotri(methylenephosphonic acid) and an AMPS copolymer. Pressure was found to retard the formation of Jaffeite relative to the degree of C{sub 3}S hydration in high temperature experiments. For one cement slurry studied without additives, the apparent activation volume for C{sub 3}S hydration remained close to {approx} -28 cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} over the range 25 to 60 C. For another slurry, there were possible signs of a decrease in magnitude at the lowest temperature examined.

  11. Evaluation of Three Chitin Metal Silicate Co-Precipitates as a Potential Multifunctional Single Excipient in Tablet Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Al-Shaikh Hamid


    Full Text Available The performance of the novel chitin metal silicate (CMS co-precipitates as a single multifunctional excipient in tablet formulation using direct compression and wet granulation methods is evaluated. The neutral, acidic, and basic drugs Spironolactone (SPL, ibuprofen (IBU and metronidazole (MET, respectively, were used as model drugs. Commercial Aldactone®, Fleximex® and Dumazole® tablets containing SPL, IBU and MET, respectively, and tablets made using Avicel® 200, were used in the study for comparison purposes. Tablets of acceptable crushing strength (>40 N were obtained using CMS. The friability values for all tablets were well below the maximum 1% USP tolerance limit. CMS produced superdisintegrating tablets (disintegration time < 1 min with the three model drugs. Regarding the dissolution rate, the sequence was as follow: CMS > Fleximex® > Avicel® 200, CMS > Avicel® 200 > Dumazole® and Aldactone® > Avicel® 200 > CMS for IBU, MET and SPL, respectively. Compressional properties of formulations were analyzed using density measurements and the compression Kawakita equation as assessment parameters. On the basis of DSC results, CMS co precipitates were found to be compatible with the tested drugs. Conclusively, the CMS co-precipitates have the potential to be used as filler, binder, and superdisintegrant, all-in-one, in the design of tablets by the direct compression as well as wet granulation methods.

  12. Preparation and physicochemical properties of surfactant-free emulsions using electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate. (United States)

    Okajima, Masahiro; Wada, Yuko; Hosoya, Takashi; Hino, Fumio; Kitahara, Yoshiyasu; Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Ishii, Fumiyoshi


    Surfactant-free emulsions by adding jojoba oil, squalane, olive oil, or glyceryl trioctanoate (medium chain fatty acid triglycerides, MCT) to electrolytic-reduction ion water containing lithium magnesium sodium silicate (GE-100) were prepared, and their physiochemical properties (thixotropy, zeta potential, and mean particle diameter) were evaluated. At an oil concentration of 10%, the zeta potential was ‒22.3 ‒ ‒26.8 mV, showing no marked differences among the emulsions of various types of oil, but the mean particle diameters in the olive oil emulsion (327 nm) and MCT emulsion (295 nm) were smaller than those in the other oil emulsions (452-471 nm). In addition, measurement of the hysteresis loop area of each type of emulsion revealed extremely high thixotropy of the emulsion containing MCT at a low concentration and the olive emulsion. Based on these results, since surfactants and antiseptic agents markedly damage sensitive skin tissue such as that with atopic dermatitis, surfactant- and antiseptic-free emulsions are expected to be new bases for drugs for external use.

  13. Adsorption of Carboxylic Acids on Reservoir Minerals from Organic and Aqueous Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Lind, Ida


    Adsorption of organic acids onto North Sea chalk and pure minerals from a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous phase show that the maximum adsorption is larger for calcite than for silicate surfaces in the hydrocarbon phase. The opposite is observed, however, in the aqueous phase. This suggests that ...... that the available silicate surfaces and oil/water ratio may play a role in the wettability of chalk.......Adsorption of organic acids onto North Sea chalk and pure minerals from a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous phase show that the maximum adsorption is larger for calcite than for silicate surfaces in the hydrocarbon phase. The opposite is observed, however, in the aqueous phase. This suggests...

  14. Understanding Vesuvius magmatic processes: Evidence from primitive silicate-melt inclusions in medieval scoria clinopyroxenes (Terzigno formation) (United States)

    Lima, A.; Belkin, H.E.; Torok, K.


    Microthermometric investigations of silicate-melt inclusions and electron microprobe analyses were conducted on experimentally homogenized silicate-melt inclusions and on the host clinopyroxenes from 4 scoria samples of different layers from the Mt. Somma-Vesuvius medieval eruption (Formazione di Terzigno, 893 A.D.). The temperature of homogenization, considered the minimum trapping temperature, ranges from 1190 to 1260??5 ??C for all clinopyroxene-hosted silicate melt inclusions. The major and minor-element compositional trends shown by Terzigno scoria and matrix glass chemical analysis are largely compatible with fractional crystallization of clinopyroxene and Fe-Ti oxides. Sulfur contents of the homogenized silicate-melt inclusions in clinopyroxene phenocrysts compared with that in the host scoria show that S has been significantly degassed in the erupted products; whereas, Cl has about the same abundance in the inclusions and in host scoria. Fluorine is low (infrequently up to 800 ppm) in the silicate-melt inclusions compared to 2400 ppm in the bulk scoria. Electron microprobe analyses of silicate-melt inclusions show that they have primitive magma compositions (Mg# = 75-91). The composition of the host clinopyroxene phenocrysts varies from typical plinian-related (Mg#???85) to non-plinian related (Mg#???85). The mixed source of the host clinopyroxenes and primitive nature of the silicate-melt inclusions implies that these phenocrysts, in part, may be residual and/or have a polygenetic origin. The similar variation trends of major and minor-elements between homogenized silicate-melt inclusions from the Terzigno scoria, and silicate-melt inclusions in olivine and diopside phenocrysts from plinian eruptions (Marianelli et al., 1995) suggest that the trapped inclusions represent melts similar to those that supplied the plinian and sub-plinian magma chambers. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the Vesuvius magmatic system retained a vestige of the most

  15. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis (United States)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.


    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  16. Making Earth's earliest continental crust - an analogue from voluminous Neogene silicic volcanism in NE-Iceland (United States)

    Berg, Sylvia E.; Troll, Valentin R.; Burchardt, Steffi; Riishuus, Morten S.; Deegan, Frances M.; Harris, Chris; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Gústafsson, Ludvik E.


    Borgarfjörður Eystri in NE-Iceland represents the second-most voluminous exposure of silicic eruptive rocks in Iceland and is a superb example of bimodal volcanism (Bunsen-Daly gap), which represents a long-standing controversy that touches on the problem of crustal growth in early Earth. The silicic rocks in NE-Iceland approach 25 % of the exposed rock mass in the region (Gústafsson et al., 1989), thus they significantly exceed the usual ≤ 12 % in Iceland as a whole (e.g. Walker, 1966; Jonasson, 2007). The origin, significance, and duration of the voluminous (> 300 km3) and dominantly explosive silicic activity in Borgarfjörður Eystri is not yet constrained (c.f. Gústafsson, 1992), leaving us unclear as to what causes silicic volcanism in otherwise basaltic provinces. Here we report SIMS zircon U-Pb ages and δ18O values from the region, which record the commencement of silicic igneous activity with rhyolite lavas at 13.5 to 12.8 Ma, closely followed by large caldera-forming ignimbrite eruptions from the Breiðavik and Dyrfjöll central volcanoes (12.4 Ma). Silicic activity ended abruptly with dacite lava at 12.1 Ma, defining a ≤ 1 Myr long window of silicic volcanism. Magma δ18O values estimated from zircon range from 3.1 to 5.5 (± 0.3; n = 170) and indicate up to 45 % assimilation of a low-δ18O component (e.g. typically δ18O = 0 ‰, Bindeman et al., 2012). A Neogene rift relocation (Martin et al., 2011) or the birth of an off-rift zone to the east of the mature rift associated with a thermal/chemical pulse in the Iceland plume (Óskarsson & Riishuus, 2013), likely brought mantle-derived magma into contact with fertile hydrothermally-altered basaltic crust. The resulting interaction triggered large-scale crustal melting and generated mixed-origin silicic melts. Such rapid formation of silicic magmas from sustained basaltic volcanism may serve as an analogue for generating continental crust in a subduction-free early Earth (e.g. ≥ 3 Ga, Kamber et

  17. Silicate and Carbonatite Melts in the Mantle: Adding CO2 to the pMELTS Thermodynamic Model of Silicate Phase Equilibria (United States)

    Antoshechkina, P. M.; Shorttle, O.


    The current rhyolite-MELTS algorithm includes a mixed H2O-CO2 vapor phase, and a self-consistent speciation model for CO2 and CaCO3 in the silicate liquid (Ghiorso & Gualda 2012; 2015). Although intended primarily to model crustal differentiation and degassing, GG15 captures much of the experimentally-observed melting behavior of CO2-rich mafic lithologies, including generation of small-degree carbonatite melts, a miscibility gap between carbonatite and silicate liquids at low P and a smooth transition to a single carbonated-silicate melt at high P (e.g. Dasgupta et al. 2007). However, solid and liquid carbonate phases were not used in calibration of GG15, and it is suitable only for P MySQL database, adapted from LEPR (Hirschmann et al. 2008). Here, we further extend our database, e.g. to include multiple carbonate phases, and combine the calibration scheme with the libalphaMELTS interface to the rhyolite-MELTS, pMELTS, and H2O-CO2 fluid thermodynamic models (see We use a Monte-Carlo type calibration approach to fit the observed phases and compositions, though stop short of a fully Bayesian formulation. The CO2-fluid experimental database has been updated to include more recent and higher P studies, adding approximately 40 pure fluid plus liquid constraints that conform to the selection criteria used in GG15. To further expand the database, we plan to use some or all of: solid carbonate-bearing experiments; coexisting silicate and carbonatite liquids; phase-present, and phase-absent constraints. As a first approximation, we include four carbonate phases: pure calcite and aragonite, and binary solutions for dolomite-ankerite and magnesite-siderite. Following GG15, we have adopted the CO2 fluid model of Duan & Zhang (2006) and added CO2 and CaCO3 species to the pMELTS liquid model. A key question that we hope to address during calibration is whether a Na2CO3 liquid species is justified instead of, or in addition to, CaCO3 for the

  18. Relations between structure and material properties in earth alkaline silicate basing phosphors; Struktureigenschaftsbeziehungen in Erdalkalisilikat basierenden Leuchtstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Wolfgang


    This work is basing on the relation between structure and luminescence of Eu{sup 2+} doped Earth-Alkaline-Silicates. After an overview of Earth-Alkaline-Silicates silicates with an additional cation (Li{sup +}, Al{sup 3+}) and an additional anion (Cl{sup -}, N{sup 3-}) are examined in chapter 4 and 5. Basing on this data an relation between structural influence - like ion-radii, anion and coordination polyeder - and phosphor luminescence is set up. The ability of using as an industrial phosphor is made in the final chapter. (orig.)

  19. Partitioning Behavior of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Zn between an Octahedral Site in Olivine and Silicate Melt


    Hashizume, Hideo; Hariya, Yu


    Partition coefficients of Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ between olivine and silicate melt have been determined in the system Mg2SiO4-SiO2-H2O at high pressure and temperature. A partition coefficient is defined by the ratio of the concentration of an element in olivine to that of the element in silicate melt. Olivine has two octahedral sites (M1 and M2 sites). Elements are partitioned among an M1, an M2 sites and silicate melt. We distributed the bulk concentration of the element in olivine...

  20. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.


    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  1. Production of reactive oxygen species from abraded silicates. Implications for the reactivity of the Martian soil (United States)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Zafirov, Kaloyan; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Jensen, Svend J. Knak; Nørnberg, Per; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.; Finster, Kai


    The results of the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments conducted on Mars by the Viking Landers show that compounds in the Martian soil can cause oxidation of organics and a release of oxygen in the presence of water. Several sources have been proposed for the oxidizing compounds, but none has been validated in situ and the cause of the observed oxidation has not been resolved. In this study, laboratory simulations of saltation were conducted to examine if and under which conditions wind abrasion of silicates, a process that is common on the Martian surface, can give rise to oxidants in the form of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radicals (ṡOH). We found that silicate samples abraded in simulated Martian atmospheres gave rise to a significant production of H2O2 and ṡOH upon contact with water. Our experiments demonstrated that abraded silicates could lead to a production of H2O2 facilitated by atmospheric O2 and inhibited by carbon dioxide. Furthermore, during simulated saltation the silicate particles became triboelectrically charged and at pressures similar to the Martian surface pressure we observed glow discharges. Electrical discharges can cause dissociation of CO2 and through subsequent reactions lead to a production of H2O2. These results indicate that the reactions linked to electrical discharges are the dominant source of H2O2 during saltation of silicates in a simulated Martian atmosphere, given the low pressure and the relatively high concentration of CO2. Our experiments provide evidence that wind driven abrasion could enhance the reactivity of the Martian soil and thereby could have contributed to the oxidation of organic compounds and the O2 release observed in the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments. Furthermore, the release of H2O2 and ṡOH from abraded silicates could have a negative effect on the persistence of organic compounds in the Martian soil and the habitability of the Martian surface.

  2. Silicic volcanism on Mars evidenced by tridymite in high-SiO2 sedimentary rock at Gale crater (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Vaniman, David T.; Blake, David F.; Gellert, Ralf; Chipera, Steve J.; Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morrison, Shaunna M.; Downs, Robert T.; Treiman, Allan H.; Yen, Albert S.; Grotzinger, John P.; Achilles, Cherie N.; Bristow, Thomas F.; Crisp, Joy A.; Des Marais, David J.; Farmer, Jack D.; Fendrich, Kim V.; Frydenvang, Jens; Graff, Trevor G.; Morookian, John-Michael; Stolper, Edward M.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.


    Tridymite, a low-pressure, high-temperature (>870 °C) SiO2 polymorph, was detected in a drill sample of laminated mudstone (Buckskin) at Marias Pass in Gale crater, Mars, by the Chemistry and Mineralogy X-ray diffraction instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. The tridymitic mudstone has ˜40 wt.% crystalline and ˜60 wt.% X-ray amorphous material and a bulk composition with ˜74 wt.% SiO2 (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer analysis). Plagioclase (˜17 wt.% of bulk sample), tridymite (˜14 wt.%), sanidine (˜3 wt.%), cation-deficient magnetite (˜3 wt.%), cristobalite (˜2 wt.%), and anhydrite (˜1 wt.%) are the mudstone crystalline minerals. Amorphous material is silica-rich (˜39 wt.% opal-A and/or high-SiO2 glass and opal-CT), volatile-bearing (16 wt.% mixed cation sulfates, phosphates, and chlorides-perchlorates-chlorates), and has minor TiO2 and Fe2O3T oxides (˜5 wt.%). Rietveld refinement yielded a monoclinic structural model for a well-crystalline tridymite, consistent with high formation temperatures. Terrestrial tridymite is commonly associated with silicic volcanism, and detritus from such volcanism in a “Lake Gale” catchment environment can account for Buckskin's tridymite, cristobalite, feldspar, and any residual high-SiO2 glass. These cogenetic detrital phases are possibly sourced from the Gale crater wall/rim/central peak. Opaline silica could form during diagenesis from high-SiO2 glass, as amorphous precipitated silica, or as a residue of acidic leaching in the sediment source region or at Marias Pass. The amorphous mixed-cation salts and oxides and possibly the crystalline magnetite (otherwise detrital) are primary precipitates and/or their diagenesis products derived from multiple infiltrations of aqueous solutions having variable compositions, temperatures, and acidities. Anhydrite is post lithification fracture/vein fill.

  3. Effect of moisture and chitosan layered silicate on morphology and properties of chitosan/layered silicates films; Efeito do teor de quitosana e do silicato em camadas na morfologia e propriedades dos filmes quitosana/silicatos em camadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.R.M.B. da; Santos, B.F.F. dos; Leite, I.F., E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), PB (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais


    Thin chitosan films have been for some time an object of practical assessments. However, to obtain biopolymers capable of competing with common polymers a significant improvement in their properties is required. Currently, the technology of obtaining polymer/layered silicates nanocomposites has proven to be a good alternative. This work aims to evaluate the effect of chitosan content (CS) and layered silicates (AN) on the morphology and properties of chitosan/ layered silicate films. CS/AN bionanocomposites were prepared by the intercalation by solution in the proportion 1:1 and 5:1. Then were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), diffraction (XRD) and X-ray thermogravimetry (TG). It is expected from the acquisition of films, based on different levels of chitosan and layered silicates, choose the best composition to serve as a matrix for packaging drugs and thus be used for future research. (author)

  4. Lithium iron silicate sol–gel synthesis and electrochemical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Baniasadi, Fazel; Asgari, Sirous, E-mail:


    Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} was synthesized through Sol–Gel method and the effect of calcination temperature, time and chelating agent concentration were investigated. Appropriate calcination temperature above 550 °C was determined by TG/DTA analysis. Afterward, the dried gel powder was calcined at each temperature of 650 °C, 700 °C and 750 °C for 1, 2 and 3 h. XRD studies illustrated the most appropriate calcination temperature of 700 °C for 1 h. To compare the effect of chelating agent concentration, citric acid with molar ratio of 1/3, 2/3 and 1 were used which 1/3 was determined as the best concentration. FE-SEM observation showed that mean grain is size lower than 100 nm. By using this material, a three electrodes test cell was assembled and its electrochemical properties were investigated. The results showed high charge capacity which could be achieved at current density of 0.05 C. - Highlights: • Sol–Gel synthesis of Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} with tetraethyl orthosilicate, lithium acetate, and iron nitrate. • The most appropriate temperature and time for calcinations were 700 °C and 1 h, respectively. • Maximum charge capacity of 175 mAh/g in Charge–discharge tests for the battery with Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4} cathode. • Charge–discharge current density of C/20 for the synthesized material.

  5. The solubility of carbon monoxide in silicate melts at high pressures and its effect on silicate phase relations. [in terrestrial and other planetary interiors (United States)

    Eggler, D. H.; Mysen, B. O.; Hoering, T. C.; Holloway, J. R.


    Autoradiographic analysis and gas chromatography were used to measure the solubility in silicate melts of CO-CO2 vapors (30 to 40% CO by thermodynamic calculation) in equilibrium with graphite at temperatures up to 1700 deg C and pressures to 30 kbar. At near-liquidus temperatures CO-CO2 vapors were found to be slightly more soluble than CO2 alone. As a result of the apparently negative temperature dependence of CO solubility, the solubility of CO-CO2 at superliquidus temperatures is less than that of CO2. Melting points of two silicates were depressed more by CO than by CO2. Phase boundary orientations suggest that CO/CO + CO2 is greater in the liquid than in the vapor. The effect of the presence of CO on periodotite phase relations was investigated, and it was found that melts containing both CO and CO2 are nearly as polymerized as those containing only CO2. These results suggest that crystallization processes in planetary interiors can be expected to be about the same, whether the melts contain CO2 alone or CO2 and CO.

  6. Zircon from historic eruptions in Iceland: Reconstructing storage and evolution of silicic magmas (United States)

    Carley, T.L.; Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.; Bindeman, I.N.; Barth, A.P.


    Zoning patterns, U-Th disequilibria ages, and elemental compositions of zircon from eruptions of Askja (1875 AD), Hekla (1158 AD), ??r??faj??kull (1362 AD) and Torfaj??kull (1477 AD, 871 AD, 3100 BP, 7500 BP) provide insights into the complex, extended, histories of silicic magmatic systems in Iceland. Zircon compositions, which are correlated with proximity to the main axial rift, are distinct from those of mid-ocean ridge environments and fall at the low-Hf edge of the range of continental zircon. Morphology, zoning patterns, compositions, and U-Th ages all indicate growth and storage in subvolcanic silicic mushes or recently solidified rock at temperatures above the solidus but lower than that of the erupting magma. The eruptive products were likely ascending magmas that entrained a zircon "cargo" that formed thousands to tens of thousands of years prior to the eruptions. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Nanoscale Charge Balancing Mechanism in Alkali Substituted Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate Gels

    CERN Document Server

    Özçelik, V Ongun


    Alkali-activated materials and related alternative cementitious systems are sustainable material technologies that have the potential to substantially lower CO$_2$ emissions associated with the construction industry. However, the impact of augmenting the chemical composition of the material on the main binder phase, calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, is far from understood, particularly since this binder phase is disordered at the nanoscale. Here, we reveal the presence of a charge balancing mechanism at the molecular level, which leads to stable structures when alkalis (i.e., Na or K) are incorporated into a calcium-silicate-hydrate gel, as modeled using crystalline 14{\\AA} tobermorite. These alkali containing charge balanced structures possess superior mechanical properties compared to their charge unbalanced counterparts. Our results, which are based on first-principles simulations using density functional theory, include the impact of charge balancing on the optimized geometries of the new model phases, format...

  8. Silicate species of water glass and insights for alkali-activated green cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helén Jansson


    Full Text Available Despite that sodium silicate solutions of high pH are commonly used in industrial applications, most investigations are focused on low to medium values of pH. Therefore we have investigated such solutions in a broad modulus range and up to high pH values (∼14 by use of infrared (IR spectroscopy and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si-NMR. The results show that the modulus dependent pH value leads to more or less charged species, which affects the configurations of the silicate units. This in turn, influences the alkali-activation process of low CO2 footprint cements, i.e. materials based on industrial waste or by-products.

  9. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate; Sorcion de Europio en silicato de circonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia R, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca Km. 36.5, 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO{sub 4}). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  10. Oxyhydroxy Silicate Colloids: A New Type of Waterborne Actinide(IV) Colloids (United States)

    Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Brendler, Vinzenz; Ikeda‐Ohno, Atsushi


    Abstract At the near‐neutral and reducing aquatic conditions expected in undisturbed ore deposits or in closed nuclear waste repositories, the actinides Th, U, Np, and Pu are primarily tetravalent. These tetravalent actinides (AnIV) are sparingly soluble in aquatic systems and, hence, are often assumed to be immobile. However, AnIV could become mobile if they occur as colloids. This review focuses on a new type of AnIV colloids, oxyhydroxy silicate colloids. We herein discuss the chemical characteristics of these colloids and the potential implication for their environmental behavior. The binary oxyhydroxy silicate colloids of AnIV could be potentially more mobile as a waterborne species than the well‐known mono‐component oxyhydroxide colloids. PMID:27957406

  11. Production of reactive oxygen species from abraded silicates. Implications for the reactivity of the Martian soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe N.; Zafirov, Kaloyan; Merrison, Jonathan P.


    , but none has been validated in situ and the cause of the observed oxidation has not been resolved. In this study, laboratory simulations of saltation were conducted to examine if and under which conditions wind abrasion of silicates, a process that is common on the Martian surface, can give rise...... lead to a production of H(2)O(2)facilitated by atmospheric O-2 and inhibited by carbon dioxide. Furthermore, during simulated saltation the silicate particles became triboelectrically charged and at pressures similar to the Martian surface pressure we observed glow discharges. Electrical discharges can...... high concentration of CO2. Our experiments provide evidence that wind driven abrasion could enhance the reactivity of the Martian soil and thereby could have contributed to the oxidation of organic compounds and the O-2 release observed in the Labeled Release and the Gas Exchange experiments...

  12. Verification of Joule heat evolution model for silicate building materials with electrically conductive admixtures (United States)

    Fiala, Lukáš; Maděra, Jiří; Černý, Robert


    Silicate building materials naturally exhibit electrically non-conductive behavior. However, a sufficient amount of electrically conductive admixtures leads to a significant increase of the electrical conductivity. This fact can be utilized in several practical ways, such as for development of self-sensing, electromagnetically-shielding or self-heating materials. In this paper, self-heating ability of chosen silicate material was tested and previously developed heating model was verified by means of comparison of calculated temperature evolution in time data with those experimentally determined by thermocouples placed on lateral sides. Sufficiently electrically conductive mixture with carbon black (CB) in amount of 8.89 % was used for DC experiment. Theoretical data were obtained by subsequent FEM calculations conducted on 3D model of the tested sample.

  13. Float processing of high-temperature complex silicate glasses and float baths used for same (United States)

    Cooper, Reid Franklin (Inventor); Cook, Glen Bennett (Inventor)


    A float glass process for production of high melting temperature glasses utilizes a binary metal alloy bath having the combined properties of a low melting point, low reactivity with oxygen, low vapor pressure, and minimal reactivity with the silicate glasses being formed. The metal alloy of the float medium is exothermic with a solvent metal that does not readily form an oxide. The vapor pressure of both components in the alloy is low enough to prevent deleterious vapor deposition, and there is minimal chemical and interdiffusive interaction of either component with silicate glasses under the float processing conditions. Alloys having the desired combination of properties include compositions in which gold, silver or copper is the solvent metal and silicon, germanium or tin is the solute, preferably in eutectic or near-eutectic compositions.

  14. Adsorption of Basic Brown and Chrysophenine from Water Solution by Magnesium Silicate Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhun Zhao


    Full Text Available Noncrystalline, high surface area magnesium silicate gel was successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. Such product was characterized by BET and XRD to determine surface area 576.4 m2·g−1, average pore width 2.76 nm, and amorphous surface. The adsorption behaviors of Basic Brown and Chrysophenine on magnesium silicate gel were investigated through changing initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, solution pH, contact time, and temperature. The experimental data was analyzed by the adsorption isotherms and kinetics. The results showed the adsorption progress was fast for Basic Brown, and the adsorption equilibrium was finished in 2 h, while the adsorption equilibrium of Chrysophenine was finished in 7 h. Freundlich isotherm model and second-order kinetic models described the adsorption process very well.

  15. Formation of a low-crystalline Zn-silicate in a stream in SW Sardinia, Italy (United States)

    Wanty, Richard B.; De Giudici, G.; Onnis, P.; Rutherford, D.; Kimball, B.A.; Podda, F.; Cidu, R.; Lattanzi, P.; Medas, D.


    n southwestern Sardinia, Italy, the Rio Naracauli drains a catchment that includes several abandoned mines. The drainage from the mines and associated waste rocks has led to extreme concentrations of dissolved Zn, but because of the near-neutral pH, concentrations of other metals remain low. In the reach from approximately 2300 to 3000 m downstream from the headwaters area, an amorphous Zn-silicate precipitates from the water. In this reach, concentrations of both Zn and silica remain nearly constant, but the loads (measured in mass/time) of both increase, suggesting that new Zn and silica are supplied to the stream, likely from emerging groundwater. Zinc isotope signatures of the solid are heavier than the dissolved Zn by about 0.5 permil in 66/64Zn, suggesting that an extracellular biologically mediated adsorption process may be involved in the formation of the Zn-silicate.

  16. Silicates Eroded under Simulated Martian Conditions Effectively Kill Bacteria—A Challenge for Life on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Ebbe Norskov; Larsen, Michael G.; Moeller, Ralf


    The habitability of Mars is determined by the physical and chemical environment. The effect of low water availability, temperature, low atmospheric pressure and strong UV radiation has been extensively studied in relation to the survival of microorganisms. In addition to these stress factors......, it was recently found that silicates exposed to simulated saltation in a Mars-like atmosphere can lead to a production of reactive oxygen species. Here, we have investigated the stress effect induced by quartz and basalt abraded in Mars-like atmospheres by examining the survivability of the three microbial model...... in the basalt leading to hydroxyl radicals through Fenton-like reactions. The low survivability of the usually highly resistant D. radiodurans indicates that the effect of abraded silicates, as is ubiquitous on the Martian surface, would limit the habitability of Mars as well as the risk of forward...

  17. Tin-Containing Silicates: Identification of a Glycolytic Pathway via 3-Deoxyglucosone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Meier, Sebastian; Sádaba, I.


    Inorganic glycolytic systems, capable of transforming glucose through a cascade of catalytic steps, can lead to efficient chemical processes utilising carbohydrates as feedstock. Tin-containing silicates, such as Sn-Beta, are showing potential for the production of lactates from sugars through......-containing silicates. It is possible to influence the relative carbon flux through these pathways by controlling the amount of alkali metal salts present in the reaction mixture. In the absence of added potassium carbonate, at least 15–30% carbon flux via 3-deoxyglucosone is observed. Addition of just a few ppm...... of potassium carbonate makes retro-aldol pathways dominant and responsible for about 60-70% of the overall carbon flux. The 3-deoxyglucosone pathway results in new types of chemical products accessible directly from glucose. Furthermore, it is argued that 3-deoxyglucosone is a contributing source of some...

  18. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft application. I - Silicate matrix formulation (United States)

    Bauer, J. L.; Odonnell, T. P.; Hribar, V. F.


    The formulation of the graphite silicate paints MH-11 and MH-11Z, which will serve as electrically conductive, heat-resistant thermal control coatings for the Galileo spacecraft's 400 Newton engine plume shield, 10 Newton thruster plume shields, and external shunt radiators, is described, and performance results for these paints are reported. The MH-11 is produced by combining a certain grade of graphite powder with a silicate base to produce a black, inorganic, electrically conductive, room temperature cure thermal control paint having high temperature capability. Zinc oxide is added to the MH-11 formulation to produce the blister resistant painta MH-11Z. The mechanical, chemical, thermal, optical, and radiation characteristics of the coatings are reported. The formulation, mixing, application, and surface preparation of the substrates are described, and a method of determining the electrical resistance of the coatings is demonstrated.

  19. Photoluminescent layered Y(III) and Tb(III) silicates doped with Ce(III). (United States)

    Kostova, Mariya H; Sá Ferreira, Rute A; Ananias, Duarte; Carlos, Luís D; Rocha, João


    The synthesis and structural characterization of new layered rare-earth silicates K(3)[M(1-a)Ce(a)Si(3)O(8)(OH)(2)], M = Y(3+), Tb(3+), a silicates, such as intercalation chemistry, and photoluminescence and may find applications in new types of sensor devices. For mixed Tb/Ce-AV-22, evidence has been found for the energy transfer from the large Ce(3+) 4f( 1) --> 5d(1) broad band to the sharp Tb(3+) 4f (8) lines. This energy transfer allows the fine-tuning of the color emission in the blue-green region of the chromaticity diagram. Upon Ce(3+) excitation (342 nm), the radiance of Tb/Ce-AV-22 is approximately 2 times higher than that measured under direct Tb(3+) excitation, which reinforces the existence of effective room-temperature Ce(3+)-to-Tb(3+) energy transfer.

  20. Uranium in the silicate inclusions of stony-iron and iron meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozaz, G.; Sibley, S.F.; Tasker, D.R. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA). McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences)


    The microdistribution of U has been studied, using fission track techniques, in eleven mesosiderites, seven pallasites and four iron meteorites with silicate inclusions. When concentrated, U is usually found in phosphates: merrillite and/or chlorapatite. As in stony meteorites, the U concentrations in a given phosphate phase are highly variable from meteorite to meteorite and sometimes also exhibit variations in the same meteorite. Uranium is found to be concentrated in merrillite in all the mesosiderites except Bondoc where none was observed. No U-rich phase was identified in six of the seven pallasites. In the seventh, Marjalahti, there are merrillite grains with concentrations ranging from 0.06 to 0.14 ppm. Where observed, the phosphates from silicate inclusions in the irons appear to have U concentrations similar to the mesosiderites.

  1. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.


    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...... outcrops were adjacent before the Late Cretaceous rifting that split Madagascar from India, If so, they provide a valuable tool to check and aid traditional Cretaceous India Madagascar reconstructions based on palaeomagnetism, matching Precambrian geological features, and geometric fitting of continental...

  2. Durability of metakaolin geopolymers with various sodium silicate/sodium hydroxide ratios against seawater exposure (United States)

    Jaya, Nur Ain; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Li, Long-Yuan; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ming, Liew Yun


    This work presents an investigation of the performance of metakaolin geopolymers exposed to the continuous immersion of seawater. The geopolymers were prepared from metakaolin by activating with a mixture of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions and cured at 80°C. The ratios of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide were varied from 0.20 to 0.32. The result showed that metakaolin geopolymers reduce in strength after immersion in seawater for 28 days. The unexposed samples with highest compressive strength attained greatest strength retention. White deposits were formed on the surface of the geopolymers after the exposure to seawater which was believed due to the depolymerisation process of the geopolymer network. Even so, the metakaolin geopolymers did not substantially change in dimension and remain structurally intact.

  3. Application of 29Si NMR spectroscopy to study of alkaline aqueous and alcoholic tetraoctylammonium (TOA) silicate solutions (United States)

    Goudarzi, Nasser; Arab Chamjangali, M.; Bagherian, G.


    29Si NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the silicate species existing in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. In the present work, 29Si NMR spectroscopy is used to characterize the species present in alkaline alcoholic solutions of silicates. Tetraoctylammonium (TOA) hydroxide is used as a template. The effects of polymerization/depolymerization of silicate anions on alkaline alcoholic solutions are investigated using different alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 1,3-propane-diol, and glycerin) by 29Si NMR spectroscopy. The esterification of monomeric silicate, Si(OH) 4, in the presence of different alcohols is also studied. Esterification of Si(OH) 4 depends on the alkyl chain as well as the number of hydroxyl groups present in the alcohol.

  4. Application of mean-field model of polymer melt intercalation in organo-silicates for nanocomposites. (United States)

    Meneghetti, Paulo; Qutubuddin, Syed


    The mean-field, lattice-based model of polymer melt intercalation in organically-modified layered silicates (OLS) originally developed by Vaia and Giannelis was applied for different polymers such as poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The nature of each polymer controls significantly the intercalation of the system. The internal energy change caused by the interaction of polymer, surfactant and clay is the strongest factor in determining the equilibrium structure of the nanocomposite system.

  5. Enzyme stabilization by glass-derived silicates in glass-exposed aqueous solutions (United States)

    Ives, J.A.; Moffett, J.R.; Arun, P.; Lam, D.; Todorov, T.I.; Brothers, A.B.; Anick, D.J.; Centeno, J.; Namboodiri, M.A.A.; Jonas, W.B.


    Objectives: To analyze the solutes leaching from glass containers into aqueous solutions, and to show that these solutes have enzyme activity stabilizing effects in very dilute solutions. Methods: Enzyme assays with acetylcholine esterase were used to analyze serially succussed and diluted (SSD) solutions prepared in glass and plastic containers. Aqueous SSD preparations starting with various solutes, or water alone, were prepared under several conditions, and tested for their solute content and their ability to affect enzyme stability in dilute solution. Results: We confirm that water acts to dissolve constituents from glass vials, and show that the solutes derived from the glass have effects on enzymes in the resultant solutions. Enzyme assays demonstrated that enzyme stability in purified and deionized water was enhanced in SSD solutions that were prepared in glass containers, but not those prepared in plastic. The increased enzyme stability could be mimicked in a dose-dependent manner by the addition of silicates to the purified, deionized water that enzymes were dissolved in. Elemental analyses of SSD water preparations made in glass vials showed that boron, silicon, and sodium were present at micromolar concentrations. Conclusions: These results show that silicates and other solutes are present at micromolar levels in all glass-exposed solutions, whether pharmaceutical or homeopathic in nature. Even though silicates are known to have biological activity at higher concentrations, the silicate concentrations we measured in homeopathic preparations were too low to account for any purported in vivo efficacy, but could potentially influence in vitro biological assays reporting homeopathic effects. ?? 2009 The Faculty of Homeopathy.

  6. Irradiation of potassium-silicate glass surfaces: XPS and REELS study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Jiříček, Petr; Zemek, Josef; Houdková, Jana; Jurek, Karel; Gedeon, O.


    Roč. 48, č. 7 (2016), s. 543-546 ISSN 0142-2421. [16th European Conference on Applications of Surface and Interface Analysis (ECASIA). Granada, 28.09.2015-01.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spectroscopy * potassium silicate glass * x-ray irradiation * electron irradiation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.132, year: 2016

  7. The formation of silver metal nanoparticles by ion implantation in silicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vytykačová, S.; Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Špirková, J.; Macková, Anna; Mikšová, Romana; Bottger, R.


    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 245-255 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : silicate glasses * silver nanoparticles * ion implantation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  8. Chemically modified bitumens with enhanced rheology and adhesion properties to siliceous aggregates


    Cuadri Vega, Antonio Abad; Partal López, Pedro; Ahmad, Naveed; Grenfell, James; Airey, Gordon


    Moisture damage is one of the major premature failures that worsens the performance and shortens service life of pavements. This research assesses the effect that two chemical modifiers (thiourea and an isocyanate-functionalized castor oil prepolymer) exerts on the bitumen rheology and on the resistance to potential moisture damage of asphalt mixtures based on siliceous aggregates. Both thiourea and the isocyanate-based prepolymer improve the viscous and viscoelastic behaviours of bitumen at ...

  9. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Angelica Marciano


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO, determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (p 3 mm equivalent of Al. The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC / 30% BO group (p > 0.05. In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC / 50% BO group (p < 0.05. The comparison between 24 hours and 7 days showed higher ΔE for the MTA group, with statistical differences for the CSC / 15% BO and CSC / 50% BO groups (p < 0.05. After 30 days, CSC showed statistically higher ΔE values than CSC / 30% BO and CSC / 50% BO (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  10. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of calcium silicate-based cements on an osteoblast lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract Several calcium silicate-based biomaterials have been developed in recent years, in addition to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis/necrosis in human osteoblast cells (SAOS-2 of pure calcium silicate-based cements (CSC and modified formulations: modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCM and three resin-based calcium silicate cements (CSCR1 (CSCR 2 (CSCR3. The following tests were performed after 24 hours of cement extract exposure: methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, apoptosis/necrosis assay and comet assay. The negative control (CT- was performed with untreated cells, and the positive control (CT+ used hydrogen peroxide. The data for MTT and apoptosis were submitted to analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s posttest (p < 0.05, and the data for the comet assay analysis, to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. The MTT test showed no significant difference among the materials in 2 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL concentrations. CSCR3 showed lower cell viability at 10 mg/mL. Only CSC showed lower cell viability at 50 mg/mL. CSCR1, CSCR2 and CSCR3 showed a higher percentage of initial apoptosis than the control in the apoptosis test, after 24 hours exposure. The same cements showed no genotoxicity in the concentration of 2 mg/mL, with the comet assay. CSC and CSCR2 were also not genotoxic at 10 mg/mL. All experimental materials showed viability with MTT. CSC and CSCR2 presented a better response to apoptosis and genotoxicity evaluation in the 10 mg/mL concentration, and demonstrated a considerable potential for use as reparative materials.

  11. Lithium isotopes in speleothems: Temperature-controlled variation in silicate weathering during glacial cycles (United States)

    Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A. E.; Vaks, Anton; Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Ayalon, Avner; Jacob, Ezekiel; Henderson, Gideon M.


    Terrestrial chemical weathering of silicate minerals is a fundamental component of the global cycle of carbon and other elements. Past changes in temperature, rainfall, ice cover, sea-level and physical erosion are thought to affect weathering but the relative impact of these controls through time remains poorly constrained. This problem could be addressed if the nature of past weathering could be constrained at individual sites. In this study, we investigate the use of speleothems as local recorders of the silicate weathering proxy, Li isotopes. We analysed δ7 Li and [Li] in speleothems that formed during the past 200 ka in two well-studied Israeli caves (Soreq and Tzavoa), as well as in the overlying soils and rocks. Leaching and mass balance of these soils and rocks show that Li is dominantly sourced from weathering of the overlying aeolian silicate soils. Speleothem δ7 Li values are ubiquitously higher during glacials (∼23‰) than during interglacials (∼10‰), implying more congruent silicate weathering during interglacials (where ;congruent; means a high ratio of primary mineral dissolution to secondary mineral formation). These records provide information on the processes controlling weathering in Israel. Consideration of possible processes causing this change of weathering congruency indicates a primary role for temperature, with higher temperatures causing more congruent weathering (lower δ7Lispeleo). The strong relationship observed between speleothem δ7 Li and climate at these locations suggests that Li isotopes may be a powerful tool with which to understand the local controls on weathering at other sites, and could be used to assess the distribution of weathering changes accompanying climate change, such as that of Pleistocene glacial cycles.

  12. Atypical behaviour of dissolved silicate in the Cochin backwater and Periyar river

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Joseph, T.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balachandran, K.K.

    was fitted and it gave a good fit at 5% level (P 0.05). The expected removal of silicate at salinity range 0-5 and 5-35 x 10/3 given by linear relationship was 28.8 and 51.1% respectively. In 5-20 and 20-30 x 10/3 salinity the expected removal as given...

  13. Energetic feedback in galaxies: Processing of interstellar silicate grains by cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G W M; Dai, Z R; Graham, G; Bajt, S; Bradley, J P; Dukes, C A; Felter, T E; Torres, D F; van Breugel, W


    The formation and evolution of stars and galaxies is a complex process that involves the cooling and collapse of dense interstellar clouds as well as energetic feedback on these clouds. Interstellar dust grains are central to the radiative transfer, thermal balance, and molecular processes in these clouds and can provide an important diagnostic. Hence, the effects of energetic processing of interstellar dust may have significant consequences. r This may be studied in our own Galaxy, where observations have shown that an appreciable fraction of silicates formed in the outflows from red giants and supergiants have a crystalline structure. Yet, the fraction of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium is very small, pointing towards an efficient crystalline crystalline-to to-amorphous conversion process. Here we report experimental and modeling results that show that relatively ''low'' energy (0.1 - 5.0 GeV) heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium. The implications of this are briefly discussed. We also examine the effects of cosmic ray processing of silicates in the solar system and in stellar debris disks. In the latter systems, cosmic ray processing may play a role for grains trapped in resonance with planetary companions. We speculate that energetic processing of interstellar dust is likely to be even more important in s star forming galaxies, which have higher cosmic ray fluxes due to tar their much larger star formation rates and their emerging active black holes with associated jets.



    Ulya, M Ridho; Perdana, Indra; Mulyono, Panut


    Konsentrasi yang tinggi dari kelarutan silika dalam larutan geothermal menyebabkan masalah dalam pengoperasian produksi uap di PLTP Dieng. Mitigasi silika scaling diperlukan untuk mengurangi resiko kegagalan produksi uap. Dalam penelitian ini, asam silika dalam larutan geothermal direaksikan dengan kalsium hidroksida (Ca(OH)2) membentuk n ano calcium silicate (NCS). Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membentuk endapan NCS dari surfaktan SLS dan Ca(OH)2 ke dalam larutan geothermal. Mempelajari perub...

  15. Tomography of silicate dust around M-type AGB stars I. Diagnostics based on dynamical models (United States)

    Bladh, S.; Paladini, C.; Höfner, S.; Aringer, B.


    The heavy mass loss observed in evolved asymptotic giant branch stars is usually attributed to a two-step process: atmospheric levitation by pulsation-induced shock waves, followed by radiative acceleration of newly formed dust grains. Detailed wind models suggest that the outflows of M-type AGB stars may be triggered by photon scattering on Fe-free silicates with grain sizes of about 0.1 - 1 $\\mu$m. Due to the low grain temperature, these Fe-free silicates can condense close to the star, but they do not produce the characteristic mid-IR features that are often observed in M-type AGB stars. However, it is probable that the silicate grains are gradually enriched with Fe as they move away from the star, to a degree where the grain temperature stays below the sublimation temperature, but is high enough to produce emission features. We investigate whether differences in grain temperature in the inner wind region, which are related to changes in the grain composition, can be detected with current interferometric techniques, in order to put constraints on the wind mechanism. To investigate this we use radial structures of the atmosphere and wind of an M-type AGB star, produced with the 1D radiation-hydrodynamical code DARWIN. The spectral energy distribution is found to be a poor indicator of different temperature profiles and therefore is not a good tool for distinguishing different scenarios of changing grain composition. However, spatially resolved interferometric observations have promising potential. They show signatures even for Fe-free silicates (found at 2-3 stellar radii), in contrast to the spectral energy distribution. Observations with baselines that probe spatial scales of about 4 stellar radii and beyond are suitable for tracing changes in grain composition, since this is where effects of Fe enrichment should be found.

  16. Electronic structures and physical properties of Na2O doped silicate glass (United States)

    Baral, Khagendra; Ching, Wai-Yim


    Ab initio molecular dynamics has been applied to construct seven sodium silicate glass models with Na2O concentration ranging from 0 to 50 mol. %. The structures of the simulated (Na2O)x(SiO2)1-x glasses are critically analyzed and validated by comparing with available experimental data. Because the initial seed model is based on a near-perfect continuous random network model for amorphous SiO2 with periodic boundaries, the structures of these silicate glasses are highly reliable. The electronic structure, interatomic bonding, and the mechanical and optical properties of seven models are calculated using the first-principles density functional method. In particular, a single quantum mechanical metric, the total bond order density (TBOD), is used to characterize the internal cohesion of sodium silicate glass. This is a significant step beyond the traditional analysis of glasses based purely on the geometric parameters. The TBOD value is found to decrease with increasing Na content, indicating the destruction of silica network connectivity. The calculated mass density and refractive index increase with x are in good agreement with experiment. The elastic coefficients and bulk mechanical properties exhibit a nonlinear variation in the series and depend greatly on the internal bonding and cohesion of the glass. The calculated Poisson's ratio indicates that the glass becomes more ductile with the addition of Na2O. Our results indicate that sodium silicate glass tends to be unstable for x greater than 0.4 due to the total destruction of the SiO2 network.

  17. Velocity of a freely rising gas bubble in a soda-lime silicate glass melt (United States)

    Hornyak, E. J.; Weinberg, M. C.


    A comparison is conducted between measured velocities for the buoyant rise of single bubbles of varying size and composition, in a soda-lime silicate glass melt, with the steady state velocities predicted by the Stokes and Hadamard-Rybczynski formulas. In all cases, the data are noted to fit the Hadamard-Rybczynski expression for steady state rise speed considerably better than the Stokes formula.

  18. A vaporization model for iron/silicate fractionation in the Mercury protoplanet (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.; Cameron, A. G. W.


    A study has been carried out on the vaporization of a totally molten silicate magma of chondritic composition heated into the range 2500-3500 K. The motivation for this was to determine the changes in the composition of the mantle that would occur in the Mercury protoplanet should that body have been subjected to the high-temperature phase in the evolution of the primitive solar nebula, but the results are of more general interest. An empirical model based on ideal mixing of complex components was used to describe the nonideal magma. It is found that vaporization of about 70-80 percent of the original amount of silicate from a chondritic planet is required to produce an iron-rich body with a mean uncompressed density equal to that deduced for Mercury. At this point the silicate is depleted in the alkalis, FeO, and SiO2, and enriched in CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and TiO2 relative to chondritic material.

  19. FORCAST Observations of Galactic Evolved Stars: Measurements of Carbonaceous Dust, Crystalline Silicates, and Fullerenes from SOFIA (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen; Sloan, G. C.; Keller, L. D.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.


    We present preliminary results from two projects to observe the mid-infrared spectra of evolved stars in the Milky Way using the FORCAST instrument on SOFIA. In the first project, we observed a set of 31 carbon stars over the course of three cycles (government shutdowns contributed to the delays in the program execution), covering a wavelength range of 5-13.7 μm, which includes prominent dust and gas diagnostics. The sources were selected to sample portions of period and flux phase space which were not covered in existing samples from older telescopes such as the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) or Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). In the second project, we searched for fullerene emission (C60) at 18.9 μm in Galactic sources with crystalline silicate emission. Although most evolved stars are either carbon-rich or oxygen- (silicate-) rich, fullerenes, a carbon-rich molecule, have been observed in several oxygen-rich evolved stars whose silicate emission features are crystalline rather than the more usual amorphous types. None of our targets show clear signatures of fullerene emission.Support for this work was provided by NASA through awards SOF 03-0079, SOF 03-0104, and SOF 04-0129 issued by USRA.

  20. Understanding the defect chemistry of alkali metal strontium silicate solid solutions: insights from experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Bayliss, Ryan D.


    © the Partner Organisations 2014. Recent reports of remarkably high oxide ion conduction in a new family of strontium silicates have been challenged. It has recently been demonstrated that, in the nominally potassium substituted strontium germanium silicate material, the dominant charge carrier was not the oxygen ion, and furthermore that the material was not single phase (R. D. Bayliss et. al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2014, DOI: 10.1039/c4ee00734d). In this work we re-investigate the sodium-doped strontium silicate material that was reported to exhibit the highest oxide ion conductivity in the solid solution, nominally Sr0.55Na0.45SiO2.775. The results show lower levels of total conductivity than previously reported and sub-micron elemental mapping demonstrates, in a similar manner to that reported for the Sr0.8K0.2Si0.5Ge0.5O2.9 composition, an inhomogeneous chemical distribution correlating with a multiphase material. It is also shown that the conductivity is not related to protonic mobility. A density functional theory computational approach provides a theoretical justification for these new results, related to the high energetic costs associated with oxygen vacancy formation. This journal is