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Sample records for acid residues required

  1. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find......Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... that the protein shows a surprising resilience toward extremes of pH, demonstrating stability and function (cellulose binding) in the pH range from 2 to 11. To ask whether the four charged residues present were required for these properties of this protein, we altered them to nontitratable ones. Remarkably...

  2. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  3. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar... a maximum permissible level for residues of acetic acid, also known as vinegar. DATES: This... humans. It is also naturally produced during the fermentation process in a wide range of foods. In plants...

  4. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  5. A Soluble, Folded Protein without Charged Amino Acid Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Casper; Kofoed, Christian; Espersen, Roall

    2016-01-01

    Charges are considered an integral part of protein structure and function, enhancing solubility and providing specificity in molecular interactions. We wished to investigate whether charged amino acids are indeed required for protein biogenesis and whether a protein completely free of titratable...... side chains can maintain solubility, stability, and function. As a model, we used a cellulose-binding domain from Cellulomonas fimi, which, among proteins of more than 100 amino acids, presently is the least charged in the Protein Data Bank, with a total of only four titratable residues. We find...

  6. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, X.; Li, M.; Xue, S.; Hartley, W.; Chen, C.; Wu, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and...

  7. Fermentative utilization of glycerol residue for the production of acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Trisakti, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Joli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Glycerol residue, frequently known as pitch, is a waste produced from the downstream product of crude glycerine distillation. With the increasing need of pure glycerine in the world, the glycerol residue produced is also increasing. Glycerol residue is a solid waste at room temperature, highly alkaline (pH > 13), corrosive, and categorized as hazardous and poisonous waste. In this research, acetic acid was produced from glycerol residue through the anaerobic fermentation process by using purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of concentration change of glycerol residue on time and to find out the possibility of glycerol residue to be utilized as acetic acid. In this research, at first 400 g of glycerol residue was diluted with 200 ml of distilled water to change the glycerine phase, from solid to liquid at room temperature, acidified by using hydrochloric acid until pH 2. The top layer formed was fatty acid and triglycerides that should be removed. Meanwhile, the bottom layer was diluted glycerol residue which was then neutralized with caustic soda. To produce acetic acid, glycerol residue with various concentrations, salt, and purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacteria were put together into a 100 ml bottle which had been previously sterilized, then incubated for four weeks under the light of 40-watt bulb. The result showed that on the 28th day of fermentation, the produced acetic acid were 0.28, 1.85, and 0.2% (w/w) by using glycerine with the concentration of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% (w/w), respectively.

  8. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid fermentation with date residue by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Momoko; Yamane, Daisuke; Funato, Kouichi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Sambongi, Yoshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Dates are commercially consumed as semi-dried fruit or processed into juice and puree for further food production. However, the date residue after juice and puree production is not used, although it appears to be nutrient enriched. Here, date residue was fermented by a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus brevis, which has been generally recognized as safe. Through degradation of sodium glutamate added to the residue during the fermentation, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which reduces neuronal excitability, was produced at the conversion rate of 80-90% from glutamate. In order to achieve this GABA production level, pretreatment of the date residue with carbohydrate-degrading enzymes, i.e., cellulase and pectinase, was necessary. All ingredients used for this GABA fermentation were known as being edible. These results provide us with a solution for the increasing commercial demand for GABA in food industry with the use of date residue that has been often discarded. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Acid leaching of uranium present in a residue from mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braulio, Walace S.; Ladeira, Ana C.Q. [Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mineral Technology

    2011-07-01

    The acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental problems associated with mining of ores containing sulfides. The treatment of these acid effluents, which contains high concentrations of dissolved metals and anions, is generally by liming. The wastes generated in the liming process may present significant toxicity and their storage in inappropriate places waiting for treatment is a common issue that requires solution. Osamu Utsumi Mine located in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, has been facing this problem. The residue of this mine consists of an alkaline sludge generated from the neutralization of the pH of acid mine drainage and is rich in various metals, including uranium. The main concern is the long term stability of this residue, which is in permanent contact with the acid water in the open pit. The recovery of uranium by hydrometallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching, can be a viable alternative on the reuse of this material. This study aimed at establishing a specific leaching process for the recovery of uranium present in the sludge from Caldas uranium mine. Some parameters such as solid/liquid ratio (0.09 to 0.17), time of leaching (1 to 24 hours) and concentration of sulfuric acid (pH from 0 to 3.0) were assessed. The results showed that it is possible to extract 100% of uranium present in the sludge. The concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the residue was 0.25%, similar to the content of the vein ores which is around 0.20% to 1.0%. The best experimental leaching condition is solid/liquid ratio of 0.17, pH 1.0 and 2 hours of reaction at room temperature (25 deg C). The content of uranium in the liquor is around 440 mgL{sup -1}. The recovery of the uranium from the liquor is under investigation by ionic exchange. (author)

  11. Acid leaching of uranium present in a residue from mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braulio, Walace S.; Ladeira, Ana C.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The acid mine drainage is one of the most important environmental problems associated with mining of ores containing sulfides. The treatment of these acid effluents, which contains high concentrations of dissolved metals and anions, is generally by liming. The wastes generated in the liming process may present significant toxicity and their storage in inappropriate places waiting for treatment is a common issue that requires solution. Osamu Utsumi Mine located in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais, has been facing this problem. The residue of this mine consists of an alkaline sludge generated from the neutralization of the pH of acid mine drainage and is rich in various metals, including uranium. The main concern is the long term stability of this residue, which is in permanent contact with the acid water in the open pit. The recovery of uranium by hydrometallurgical techniques, such as acid leaching, can be a viable alternative on the reuse of this material. This study aimed at establishing a specific leaching process for the recovery of uranium present in the sludge from Caldas uranium mine. Some parameters such as solid/liquid ratio (0.09 to 0.17), time of leaching (1 to 24 hours) and concentration of sulfuric acid (pH from 0 to 3.0) were assessed. The results showed that it is possible to extract 100% of uranium present in the sludge. The concentration of U 3 O 8 in the residue was 0.25%, similar to the content of the vein ores which is around 0.20% to 1.0%. The best experimental leaching condition is solid/liquid ratio of 0.17, pH 1.0 and 2 hours of reaction at room temperature (25 deg C). The content of uranium in the liquor is around 440 mgL -1 . The recovery of the uranium from the liquor is under investigation by ionic exchange. (author)

  12. Residual learning rates in lead-acid batteries: Effects on emerging technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, Schuyler; Williams, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The low price of lead-acid, the most popular battery, is often used in setting cost targets for emerging energy storage technologies. Future cost reductions in lead acid batteries could increase investment and time scales needed for emerging storage technologies to reach cost-parity. In this paper the first documented model of cost reductions for lead-acid batteries is developed. Regression to a standard experience curve using 1989–2012 data yield a poor fit, with R 2 values of 0.17 for small batteries and 0.05 for larger systems. To address this problem, battery costs are separated into material and residual costs, and experience curves developed for residual costs. Depending on the year, residual costs account for 41–86% of total battery cost. Using running-time averages to address volatility in material costs, a 4-year time average experience curve for residual costs yield much higher R 2 , 0.78 for small and 0.74 for large lead-acid batteries. The learning rate for residual costs in lead-acid batteries is 20%, a discovery with policy implications. Neglecting to consider cost reductions in lead-acid batteries could result in failure of energy storage start-ups and public policy programs. Generalizing this result, learning in incumbent technologies must be understood to assess the potential of emerging ones. -- Highlights: •We analyze potential cost reductions in lead-acid batteries. •Modified experience curve for non-material costs gives good empirical fit. •Historical learning rate for non-material costs from 1985–2012 is 19–24%. •Progress in incumbent technology raises barrier to new entrants

  13. Residue Geometry Networks: A Rigidity-Based Approach to the Amino Acid Network and Evolutionary Rate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokas, Alexander S.; Cole, Daniel J.; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid networks (AANs) abstract the protein structure by recording the amino acid contacts and can provide insight into protein function. Herein, we describe a novel AAN construction technique that employs the rigidity analysis tool, FIRST, to build the AAN, which we refer to as the residue geometry network (RGN). We show that this new construction can be combined with network theory methods to include the effects of allowed conformal motions and local chemical environments. Importantly, this is done without costly molecular dynamics simulations required by other AAN-related methods, which allows us to analyse large proteins and/or data sets. We have calculated the centrality of the residues belonging to 795 proteins. The results display a strong, negative correlation between residue centrality and the evolutionary rate. Furthermore, among residues with high closeness, those with low degree were particularly strongly conserved. Random walk simulations using the RGN were also successful in identifying allosteric residues in proteins involved in GPCR signalling. The dynamic function of these residues largely remain hidden in the traditional distance-cutoff construction technique. Despite being constructed from only the crystal structure, the results in this paper suggests that the RGN can identify residues that fulfil a dynamical function. PMID:27623708

  14. Finding coevolving amino acid residues using row and column weighting of mutual information and multi-dimensional amino acid representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Gouveia; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Some amino acid residues functionally interact with each other. This interaction will result in an evolutionary co-variation between these residues - coevolution. Our goal is to find these coevolving residues. RESULTS: We present six new methods for detecting coevolving...... residues. Among other things, we suggest measures that are variants of Mutual Information, and measures that use a multidimensional representation of each residue in order to capture the physico-chemical similarities between amino acids. We created a benchmarking system, in silico, able to evaluate...

  15. 40 CFR 158.270 - Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for residue chemistry. 158.270 Section 158.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Experimental use permit data requirements for residue chemistry. All residue chemistry data, as described in... section 408(r) is sought. Residue chemistry data are not required for an experimental use permit issued on...

  16. Coevolution of amino acid residues in the key photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapralov Maxim V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important model system for studying the dynamics of protein fitness optimization on the evolutionary landscape. In this study we investigated the selective and coevolutionary forces acting on large subunit of land plants Rubisco using Markov models of codon substitution and clustering approaches applied to amino acid substitution histories. Results We found that both selection and coevolution shape Rubisco, and that positively selected and coevolving residues have their specifically favored amino acid composition and pairing preference. The mapping of these residues on the known Rubisco tertiary structures showed that the coevolving residues tend to be in closer proximity with each other compared to the background, while positively selected residues tend to be further away from each other. This study also reveals that the residues under positive selection or coevolutionary force are located within functionally important regions and that some residues are targets of both positive selection and coevolution at the same time. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that coevolution of residues is common in Rubisco of land plants and that there is an overlap between coevolving and positively selected residues. Knowledge of which Rubisco residues are coevolving and positively selected could be used for further work on structural modeling and identification of substitutions that may be changed in order to improve efficiency of this important enzyme in crops.

  17. The effect of delignification process with alkaline peroxide on lactic acid production from furfural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Furfural residues produced from the furfural industry were investigated as a substrate for lactic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF. Alkaline peroxide was used for delignification of furfural residues to improve the final lactic acid concentration. The residue was treated with 1.3% to 1.7% hydrogen peroxide at 80 °C for 1 h with a substrate concentration of 3.33%. SSF of furfural residues with different delignification degrees were carried out to evaluate the effect of delignification degree on lactic acid production. Using corn hydrolysates/ furfural residues as substrates, SSF with different media were carried out to investigate the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria had a negative effect on cellulase, thus resulting in the reduction of enzyme activity. Lignin and nutrients slowed down the decreasing trend of enzyme activity. A higher delignification resulted in a slower fermentation rate and lower yield due to degradation products of lignin and the effect of lignin on the interaction between enzymes and lactic acid bacteria. For the purpose of lactic acid production, a moderate delignification (furfural residues with the lignin content of 14.8% was optimum.

  18. Lactic Acid and Biosurfactants Production from Residual Cellulose Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Rivera, Oscar Manuel; Arzate Martínez, Guillermo; Jarquín Enríquez, Lorenzo; Vázquez Landaverde, Pedro Alberto; Domínguez González, José Manuel

    2015-11-01

    The increasing amounts of residual cellulose films generated as wastes all over the world represent a big scale problem for the meat industry regarding to environmental and economic issues. The use of residual cellulose films as a feedstock of glucose-containing solutions by acid hydrolysis and further fermentation into lactic acid and biosurfactants was evaluated as a method to diminish and revalorize these wastes. Under a treatment consisting in sulfuric acid 6% (v/v); reaction time 2 h; solid liquid ratio 9 g of film/100 mL of acid solution, and temperature 130 °C, 35 g/L of glucose and 49% of solubilized film was obtained. From five lactic acid strains, Lactobacillus plantarum was the most suitable for metabolizing the glucose generated. The process was scaled up under optimized conditions in a 2-L bioreactor, producing 3.4 g/L of biomass, 18 g/L of lactic acid, and 15 units of surface tension reduction of a buffer phosphate solution. Around 50% of the cellulose was degraded by the treatment applied, and the liqueurs generated were useful for an efficient production of lactic acid and biosurfactants using L. plantarum. Lactobacillus bacteria can efficiently utilize glucose from cellulose films hydrolysis without the need of clarification of the liqueurs.

  19. 40 CFR 158.1410 - Residue chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... table. 158.1410 Section 158.1410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... example, most products used in or near kitchens require residue data for risk assessment purposes even... NR PAIRA 7 Analytical methods 860.1340 Residue analytical methods R R R CR CR Residue of concern 1, 3...

  20. Teichuronic acid reducing terminal N-acetylglucosamine residue linked by phosphodiester to peptidoglycan of Micrococcus luteus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, G.T.; Dickie, J.P.; Hamerski, D.A.; Magnuson, J.K.; Anderson, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Teichuronic acid-peptidoglycan complex isolated from Micrococcus luteus cells by lysozyme digestion in osmotically stabilized medium was treated with mild acid to cleave the linkage joining teichuronic acid to peptidoglycan. This labile linkage was shown to be the phosphodiester which joins N-acetylglucosamine, the residue located at the reducing end of the teichuronic acid, through its anomeric hydroxyl group to a 6-phosphomuramic acid, a residue of the glycan strand of peptidoglycan. 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the lysozyme digest of cell walls demonstrated the presence of a phosphodiester which was converted to a phosphomonoester by the conditions which released teichuronic acid from cell walls. Reduction of acid-liberated reducing end groups by NaB 3 H 4 followed by complete acid hydrolysis yielded [ 3 H] glucosaminitol from the true reducing end residue of teichuronic acid and [ 3 H]glucitol from the sites of fragmentation of teichuronic acid. The amount of N-acetylglucosamine detected was approximately stoichiometric with the amount of phosphate in the complex. Partial fragmentation of teichuronic acid provides an explanation of the previous erroneous identification of the reducing end residue

  1. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1023 - Propanoic acid; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Propanoic acid is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance for residues in or on cattle, meat; cattle, meat byproducts; goat, meat; goat, meat byproducts; hog, meat; hog meat byproducts; horse, meat; horse, meat byproducts; sheep, meat; sheep meat byproducts; and, poultry, fat; poultry meat; poultry meat...

  3. Studies on distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in vegetable and soil by using 35S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Zhaoliang; Liu Dayong

    1995-01-01

    Distribution and residue of sulfur in simulated acid rain in two kinds of vegetables (lettuce and Chinese cabbage) and three types of soils (acid yellow earth, acid and neutral purple soils) were studied by using 35 S tracer method. The results showed that the higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in vegetable there would be. The residue of sulfur in vegetable varied with the different physical and chemical properties of soils, the order of sulfur residue in vegetable was: acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. In the same soil, the residue of sulfur in lettuce was higher than that in Chinese cabbage, for the same vegetable, the residue of sulfur in leaves were higher than that in stems. The order of sulfur residue in different soils was acid purple soil>acid yellow earth>neutral purple soil. The higher concentration of acid rain was sprayed, the more residue of sulfur in soil surface there would be. The sulfur residue varied with the depth of soil and the pH value of acid rain. With the increase of soil depth, a slight increase of sulfur residue with rain of ph 6 and a slight decrease with rain of pH 4.0 and 2.5 were found

  4. 40 CFR 161.240 - Residue chemistry data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .../feed (5), (14) [CR] [CR] [CR] [CR] EP EP 171-4 Meat/milk/poultry/eggs (6), (14) [CR] [CR] [CR] [CR... food/feed are required when detectable residues could concentrate on processing and thus require establishment of a food additive tolerance. (6) Livestock feeding studies are required whenever a pesticide...

  5. Effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenak, I; Hormazabal, V; Yndestad, M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cooking on residues of the quinolones oxolinic acid and flumequine in fish was investigated. Salmon containing residues of oxolinic acid and flumequine was boiled or baked in the oven. Samples of raw and cooked muscle, skin, and bone, as well as of the water in which the fish was boiled and juice from the baked fish, were analysed. Oxolinic acid and flumequine did not degrade at the temperatures reached when cooking the fish. However, fish muscle free from drug residues may be contaminated during boiling and baking due to leakage of the drug from reservoirs in the fish.

  6. Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.C. III; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-[ 14 C]alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. The authors propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition

  7. Computational studies on non-succinimide-mediated stereoinversion mechanism of aspartic acid residues assisted by phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi; Oda, Akifumi

    2018-03-01

    Although nearly all of the amino acids that constitute proteins are l-amino acids, d-amino acid residues in human proteins have been recently reported. d-amino acid residues cause a change in the three-dimensional structure of proteins, and d-aspartic acid (Asp) residues are considered to be one of the causes of age-related diseases. The stereoinversion of Asp residues in peptides and proteins is thought to proceed via a succinimide intermediate; however, it has been reported that stereoinversion can occur even under conditions where a succinimide intermediate cannot be formed. In order to elucidate the non-succinimide-mediated stereoinversion pathway, we investigated the stereoinversion of l-Asp to d-Asp catalysed by phosphate and estimated the activation barrier using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the DFT calculations, a model compound in which the Asp residue is capped with acetyl and methyl-amino groups on the N- and C-termini, respectively, was used. The calculated activation barrier was not excessively high for the stereoinversion to occur in vivo. Therefore, this stereoinversion mechanism may compete with the succinimide-mediated mechanism.

  8. Determination of thymine glycol residues in irradiated or oxidized DNA by formation of methylglyceric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellenberg, K.A.; Shaeffer, J.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of DNA solutions with X-irradiation various oxidants including hydrogen peroxide plus ferrous ion, hydrogen peroxide plus copper ion and ascorbate, permanganate, or sonication in the presence of dissolved oxygen all produced varying amounts of thymine glycol residues. After denaturing the DNA with heat, the glycol residues were reduced and labeled at the 6 position with tritium- labeled sodium borohydride. Subsequent reaction with anhydrous methanolic HCl gave a quantitative yield of the methyl ester of methylglyceric acid, which was determined by thin layer chromatography. The method, developed using thymidine as a model, was used to ascertain the requirements for glycol formation in DNA. It was shown that hydroxyl radical generating systems, permanganate, X-irradiation, or sonication in presence of oxygen were required, but hydrogen peroxide in the absence of iron or copper and ascorbate was inactive. Application to determination of DNA damage in vivo is being explored

  9. Characteristics of a continuous denitration by formic acid - electrolytic trimming of residual acid with accompanying the precipitation of metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. W.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. G.; Lee, I. H.

    2003-01-01

    This work has studied the characteristics of destruction of nitric acid and precipitation of several metal ions in a continuous denitration process combining a denitration by formic acid and a residual acid-electrolytic trimming system. The metal ions of Zr, Mo, Fe, and Nd did not affect the electrodes at the step of electrolytic trimming of the residual acid after denitration by formic acid. The Mo ion in electrolytic solution enhanced the generation of nitrite ion during the electrolytic reaction. The mole ratio of formic acid to nitric acid fed into the continuous denitration reactor using formic acid affected much the final acidity, the precipitation yields of metal ions, the precipitate morphology. At the ratio of 1.65, the process had the lowest final acidity of less than 0.1 M, and the precipitation yields of Zr and Mo reached 95% and 83%, respectively as the highest values

  10. Physicochemical pretreatments and hydrolysis of furfural residues via carbon-based sulfonated solid acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bao Jun; Sun, Yuan; Lin, Ke Ying; Li, Bing; Liu, Wan Yi

    2014-03-01

    Potential commercial physicochemical pretreatment methods, NaOH/microwave and NaOH/ultrasound were developed, and the carbon-based sulfonated solid acid catalysts were prepared for furfural residues conversion into reducing sugars. After the two optimum pretreatments, both the content of cellulose increased (74.03%, 72.28%, respectively) and the content of hemicellulose (94.11%, 94.17% of removal rate, respectively) and lignin (91.75%, 92.09% of removal rate, respectively) decreased in furfural residues. The reducing sugar yields of furfural residues with the two physicochemical pretreatments on coal tar-based solid acid reached 33.94% and 33.13%, respectively, higher than that pretreated via NaOH alone (27%) and comparable to that pretreated via NaOH/H2O2 (35.67%). The XRD patterns, IR spectra and SEM images show microwave and ultrasound improve the pretreatment effect. The results demonstrate the carbon-based sulfonated solid acids and the physicochemical pretreatments are green, effective, low-cost for furfural residues conversion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  12. Amendment of Acid Soils with Crop Residues and Biochars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Jin-Hua; XU Ren-Kou; WANG Ning; LI Jiu-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The liming potential of some crop residues and their biochars on an acid Ultisol was investigated using incubation experiments. Rice hulls showed greater liming potential than rice hull biochar, while soybean and pea straws had less liming potential than their biochars. Due to their higher alkalinity, biochars from legume materials increased soil pH much compared to biochars from non-legume materials. The alkalinity of biochars was a key factor affecting their liming potential,and the greater alkalinity of biochars led to greater reductions in soil acidity. The incorporation of biochars decreased soil exchangeable acidity and increased soil exchangeable base cations and base saturation, thus improving soil fertility.

  13. Peptides containing internal residues of pyroglutamic acid: proton NMR characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The proton NMR characteristics of internal pyroglutamic acid (Glp; 5-oxoproline) residues in seven tripeptides of the general structure Boc-Xxx-Glp-Yyy-NH 2 were studied. In general, the chemical shifts of several diagnostic protons moved downfield on going from the Glu-containing peptides (Boc-Xxx-Glu-Yyy-NH 2 ) to the corresponding Glp-containing peptides. The C-2 proton of the Xxx residue was shifted by about 1.1 ppm. The N-2 proton of the Yyy residue was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. The C-2 proton of the Glx residue itself was shifted by about 0.5 ppm. One of the Glx C-3 protons was also shifted by about 0.5 ppm, but the other remained essentially unchanged. Finally, the Glx C-4 protons were shifted by about 0.3 ppm. Internal Glu residues are readily converted chemically into internal Glp residues. This conversion also occurs as a side reaction during HP cleavage of the protecting group from Glu(OBzl) residues. The spontaneous fragmentation of serum proteins C3, C4 and λ 2 -macroglobulin under denaturing conditions is probably due to regioselective hydrolysis of an internal Glp residue formed in each of these proteins upon denaturation. These proton NMR characteristics may be useful in establishing the presence of internal Glp residues in synthetic and natural peptides

  14. Preparation and Characterization of a Solid Acid Catalyst from Macro Fungi Residue for Methyl Palmitate Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the process of fungal polysaccharide extraction for health care products and food factories, a large quantity of macro-fungi residues are produced, but most of the residues are abandoned and become environmental pollutants. A solid acid catalyst, prepared by sulfonating carbonized Phellinus igniarius residue, was shown to be an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst for the esterification of palmitate acid (PA and methanol. As a comparison, two types of common biomass catalysts, wheat straws and wood chips, were prepared. In this study, characterizations, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller assays and elemental analysis, and reaction conditions for the synthesis of methyl palmitate (MP using solid acid catalysts were investigated. Experiments showed that the solid acid catalyst prepared from P. igniarius residue had a higher catalytic activity than the other two catalysts, and the highest yield of MP catalyzed by P. igniarius residue solid acid catalyst was 91.5% under the following optimum conditions: molar ratio of methanol/PA of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 °C, mass ratio of catalyst/substrate of 2%, and a reaction time of 1.5 h. Thus, the use of this catalyst offers a method for producing MP.

  15. Maximizing Selective Cleavages at Aspartic Acid and Proline Residues for the Identification of Intact Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, David J.; Dziekonski, Eric T.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for the identification of intact proteins has been developed that relies on the generation of relatively few abundant products from specific cleavage sites. This strategy is intended to complement standard approaches that seek to generate many fragments relatively non-selectively. Specifically, this strategy seeks to maximize selective cleavage at aspartic acid and proline residues via collisional activation of precursor ions formed via electrospray ionization (ESI) under denaturing conditions. A statistical analysis of the SWISS-PROT database was used to predict the number of arginine residues for a given intact protein mass and predict a m/z range where the protein carries a similar charge to the number of arginine residues thereby enhancing cleavage at aspartic acid residues by limiting proton mobility. Cleavage at aspartic acid residues is predicted to be most favorable in the m/z range of 1500-2500, a range higher than that normally generated by ESI at low pH. Gas-phase proton transfer ion/ion reactions are therefore used for precursor ion concentration from relatively high charge states followed by ion isolation and subsequent generation of precursor ions within the optimal m/z range via a second proton transfer reaction step. It is shown that the majority of product ion abundance is concentrated into cleavages C-terminal to aspartic acid residues and N-terminal to proline residues for ions generated by this process. Implementation of a scoring system that weights both ion fragment type and ion fragment area demonstrated identification of standard proteins, ranging in mass from 8.5 to 29.0 kDa. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  17. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  18. XPS and STEM studies of Allende acid insoluble residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.; Clarke, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on Allende acid residues obtained both before and after etching with hot HNO3 are presented. X-ray photoelectron spectra show predominantly carbonaceous material plus Fe-deficient chromite in both cases. The HNO3 oxidizes the carbonaceous material to some extent. The small chromites in these residues have a wide range of compositions somewhat paralleling those observed in larger Allende chromites and in Murchison chromites, especially in the high Al contents; however, they are deficient in divalent cations, which makes them metastable and indicates that they must have formed at relatively low temperatures. It is suggested that they formed by precipitation of Cr(3+) and Fe(3+) from olivine at low temperature or during rapid cooling.

  19. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaline Caren Coghetto

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87 g L-1, whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59 g L-1, corresponding to a productivity of 1.46 g L-1 h-1. This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors.

  20. Removal of copper from acid wastewater of bioleaching by adsorption onto ramie residue and uptake by Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Buyun; Wang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    A continuous batch bioleaching was built to realize the bioleaching of sewage sludge in large scale. In the treatment, heavy metal in acid wastewater of bioleaching was removed by adsorption onto ramie residue. Then, acid wastewater was reused in next bioleaching batch. In this way, most time and water of bioleaching was saved and leaching efficiency of copper, lead and chromium kept at a high level in continuous batch bioleaching. It was found that residual heavy metal in sewage sludge is highly related to that in acid wastewater after bioleaching. To get a high leaching efficiency, concentration of heavy metal in acid wastewater should be low. Adsorption of copper from acid wastewater onto ramie residue can be described by pseudo first-order kinetics equation and Freundlich isotherm model. Trichoderma viride has the potential to be used for the concentration and recovery of heavy metal adsorbed onto ramie residue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acidic and uncharged polar residues in the consensus motifs of the yeast Ca2+ transporter Gdt1p are required for calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Thines, Louise; Deschamps, Antoine; Flémal, Gaëlle; Demaegd, Didier; Morsomme, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    The UPF0016 family is a recently identified group of poorly characterized membrane proteins whose function is conserved through evolution and that are defined by the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the E-φ-G-D-[KR]-[TS] consensus motif in their transmembrane domain. We showed that 2 members of this family, the human TMEM165 and the budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and are likely to form a new group of Ca 2+ transporters. Mutations in TMEM165 have been demonstrated to cause a new type of rare human genetic diseases denominated as Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated 17 mutations in the yeast Golgi-localized Ca 2+ transporter Gdt1p. Single alanine substitutions were targeted to the highly conserved consensus motifs, 4 acidic residues localized in the central cytosolic loop, and the arginine at position 71. The mutants were screened in a yeast strain devoid of both the endogenous Gdt1p exchanger and Pmr1p, the Ca 2+ -ATPase of the Golgi apparatus. We show here that acidic and polar uncharged residues of the consensus motifs play a crucial role in calcium tolerance and calcium transport activity and are therefore likely to be architectural components of the cation binding site of Gdt1p. Importantly, we confirm the essential role of the E53 residue whose mutation in humans triggers congenital disorders of glycosylation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Volodymyr; Li, Emily Y.; Conforti, Laura; Zahedi, Kamyar A.

    2012-01-01

    The NH2 terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH2-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the amino acids between residues 399 and 424 of NBCe1A contain important sequences that contribute to its localization to the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that GFP-NBCe1A mutants D405A and D416A are retained in the cytoplasm of the polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Examination of functional activities of D405A and D416A reveals that their activities are reduced compared with the wild-type NBCe1A. Similarly, aspartic acid residues 449 and 460 of pancreatic NBCe1 (NBCe1B), which correspond to residues 405 and 416 of NBCe1A, are also required for its full functional activity and accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. In addition, while replacement of D416 with glutamic acid did not affect the targeting or functional activity of NBCe1A, substitution of D405 with glutamic acid led to the retention of the mutated protein in the intracellular compartment and impaired functional activity. These studies demonstrate that aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 in the NH2 terminus of NBCe1A are important in its accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. PMID:22442137

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 cultivation in industrial isolated soybean protein acid residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghetto, Chaline Caren; Vasconcelos, Carolina Bettker; Brinques, Graziela Brusch; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    In this study, physiological aspects of Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 growing in a new, all-animal free medium in bioreactors were evaluated aiming at the production of this important lactic acid bacterium. Cultivations were performed in submerged batch bioreactors using the Plackett-Burman methodology to evaluate the influence of temperature, aeration rate and stirring speed as well as the concentrations of liquid acid protein residue of soybean, soy peptone, corn steep liquor, and raw yeast extract. The results showed that all variables, except for corn steep liquor, significantly influenced biomass production. The best condition was applied to bioreactor cultures, which produced a maximal biomass of 17.87gL -1 , whereas lactic acid, the most important lactic acid bacteria metabolite, peaked at 37.59gL -1 , corresponding to a productivity of 1.46gL -1 h -1 . This is the first report on the use of liquid acid protein residue of soybean medium for L. plantarum growth. These results support the industrial use of this system as an alternative to produce probiotics without animal-derived ingredients to obtain high biomass concentrations in batch bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Computational Analysis of the Interaction Energies between Amino Acid Residues of the Measles Virus Hemagglutinin and Its Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Xu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV causes an acute and highly devastating contagious disease in humans. Employing the crystal structures of three human receptors, signaling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM, CD46, and Nectin-4, in complex with the measles virus hemagglutinin (MVH, we elucidated computationally the details of binding energies between the amino acid residues of MVH and those of the receptors with an ab initio fragment molecular orbital (FMO method. The calculated inter-fragment interaction energies (IFIEs revealed a number of significantly interacting amino acid residues of MVH that played essential roles in binding to the receptors. As predicted from previously reported experiments, some important amino-acid residues of MVH were shown to be common but others were specific to interactions with the three receptors. Particularly, some of the (non-polar hydrophobic residues of MVH were found to be attractively interacting with multiple receptors, thus indicating the importance of the hydrophobic pocket for intermolecular interactions (especially in the case of Nectin-4. In contrast, the electrostatic interactions tended to be used for specific molecular recognition. Furthermore, we carried out FMO calculations for in silico experiments of amino acid mutations, finding reasonable agreements with virological experiments concerning the substitution effect of residues. Thus, the present study demonstrates that the electron-correlated FMO method is a powerful tool to search exhaustively for amino acid residues that contribute to interactions with receptor molecules. It is also applicable for designing inhibitors of MVH and engineered MVs for cancer therapy.

  5. Dynamics of Linker Residues Modulate the Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity. PMID:25029439

  6. Treatment of the acid mine drainage residue for uranium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.M.; Horta, D.G.; Fukuma, H.T.; Villegas, R.A.S.; Carvalho, C.H.T. de; Silva, A.C. da

    2017-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a process that occurs in many mining that have sulfide ores. With water and oxygen, several metals are oxidized, one example being uranium. At the mine pit of the Osamu Utsumi Mine located at INB - Caldas and in two other boot-wastes (mining waste pile), AMD is present and currently, without a technological solution. The acidic water present in the pit is treated with hydrated lime, generating water for disposal and an alkaline residue called calcium diuranate - DUCA. The DUCA has a concentration of approximately 0.32% U 3 O 8 , which makes interesting the development of a process for extracting that metal. One of the processes that can be used is leaching. For this study, it was decided to evaluate the alkaline leaching to extract the uranium present in the residue. It is necessary to optimize operational parameters for the process: percentage of solids, concentration of leaching agent in solution, temperature and reaction time. With these parameters, it is possible to improve the leaching so that the largest amount of uranium is extracted from the sample, to help solve the environmental impact caused by the wastewater from the treatment of acid waters and, in addition, to give an economical destination for this metal that is contained in the deposited DUCA

  7. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  8. Identification of amino acid residues in PEPHC1 important for binding to the tumor-specific receptor EGFRvIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Charlotte Lund; Hansen, Paul Robert; Pedersen, Nina

    2008-01-01

    to identify the amino acid residues important for binding of PEPHC1 to EGFRvIII. The results indicate that the amino acid residues at the N-terminus of PEPHC1 are essential for the binding to the mutated receptor. One analog, [Ala(12)]PEPHC1, showed higher selective binding to EGFRvIII than PEPHC1...

  9. Natively oxidized amino acid residues in the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ryan M; Sallans, Larry; Frankel, Laurie K; Bricker, Terry M

    2018-01-29

    The cytochrome b 6 f complex of oxygenic photosynthesis produces substantial levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been observed that the ROS production rate by b 6 f is 10-20 fold higher than that observed for the analogous respiratory cytochrome bc 1 complex. The types of ROS produced (O 2 •-, 1 O 2 , and, possibly, H 2 O 2 ) and the site(s) of ROS production within the b 6 f complex have been the subject of some debate. Proposed sources of ROS have included the heme b p , PQ p •- (possible sources for O 2 •- ), the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster (possible source of O 2 •- and/or 1 O 2 ), Chl a (possible source of 1 O 2 ), and heme c n (possible source of O 2 •- and/or H 2 O 2 ). Our working hypothesis is that amino acid residues proximal to the ROS production sites will be more susceptible to oxidative modification than distant residues. In the current study, we have identified natively oxidized amino acid residues in the subunits of the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex. The oxidized residues were identified by tandem mass spectrometry using the MassMatrix Program. Our results indicate that numerous residues, principally localized near p-side cofactors and Chl a, were oxidatively modified. We hypothesize that these sites are sources for ROS generation in the spinach cytochrome b 6 f complex.

  10. Identifying SARS-CoV membrane protein amino acid residues linked to virus-like particle assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Tzu Tseng

    Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV membrane (M proteins are capable of self-assembly and release in the form of membrane-enveloped vesicles, and of forming virus-like particles (VLPs when coexpressed with SARS-CoV nucleocapsid (N protein. According to previous deletion analyses, M self-assembly involves multiple M sequence regions. To identify important M amino acid residues for VLP assembly, we coexpressed N with multiple M mutants containing substitution mutations at the amino-terminal ectodomain, carboxyl-terminal endodomain, or transmembrane segments. Our results indicate that a dileucine motif in the endodomain tail (218LL219 is required for efficient N packaging into VLPs. Results from cross-linking VLP analyses suggest that the cysteine residues 63, 85 and 158 are not in close proximity to the M dimer interface. We noted a significant reduction in M secretion due to serine replacement for C158, but not for C63 or C85. Further analysis suggests that C158 is involved in M-N interaction. In addition to mutations of the highly conserved 107-SWWSFNPE-114 motif, substitutions at codons W19, W57, P58, W91, Y94 or F95 all resulted in significantly reduced VLP yields, largely due to defective M secretion. VLP production was not significantly affected by a tryptophan replacement of Y94 or F95 or a phenylalanine replacement of W19, W57 or W91. Combined, these results indicate the involvement of specific M amino acids during SARS-CoV virus assembly, and suggest that aromatic residue retention at specific positions is critical for M function in terms of directing virus assembly.

  11. Characteristics of lactic acid bacteria isolates and their effect on silage fermentation of fruit residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinsong; Tan, Haisheng; Cai, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, chemical composition, and silage fermentation of fruit residues were studied. Eighty-two strains of LAB were isolated from fruit residues such as banana leaf and stem, pineapple peel, and papaya peel. All strains were gram-positive and catalase-negative bacteria, and they were divided into 7 groups (A-G) according to morphological and biochemical characters. Strains in groups A to F were rods, and group G was cocci. Group F produced gas from glucose; other groups did not. Groups A to C and F formed dl-lactic acid, whereas groups D, E, and G formed l-lactic acid. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis, groups A to G strains were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (54.9% of the total isolates), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (3.6%), Lactobacillus nagelii (8.5%), Lactobacillus perolens (4.9%), Lactobacillus casei (11.0%), Lactobacillus fermentum (9.8%), and Enterococcus gallinarum (7.3%), respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei are the most frequently isolated from fruit residues as a dominant species, and they could grow at a lower pH conditions and produce more lactic acid than other isolates. Pineapple and papaya peels contained higher crude protein (11.5-13.8%) and water-soluble carbohydrate (16.8-22.4%), but lower acid detergent fiber contents (21.2 to 26.4%) than banana stems and leaves (8.2% crude protein, 42.8% acid detergent fiber, and 5.1% water-soluble carbohydrate). Compared with banana stem and leaf silages, the pineapple and papaya peel silages were well preserved with a lower pH and higher lactate content. The study suggests that the fruit residues contain excellent LAB species and abundant feed nutrients, and that they can be preserved as silage to be potential food resources for livestock. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experimental use permit microbial....2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to use this table to determine the residue chemistry data...

  13. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohgi Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA, which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  14. Acetic acid can catalyze succinimide formation from aspartic acid residues by a concerted bond reorganization mechanism: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Kirikoshi, Ryota; Manabe, Noriyoshi

    2015-01-12

    Succinimide formation from aspartic acid (Asp) residues is a concern in the formulation of protein drugs. Based on density functional theory calculations using Ace-Asp-Nme (Ace = acetyl, Nme = NHMe) as a model compound, we propose the possibility that acetic acid (AA), which is often used in protein drug formulation for mildly acidic buffer solutions, catalyzes the succinimide formation from Asp residues by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The proposed mechanism comprises two steps: cyclization (intramolecular addition) to form a gem-diol tetrahedral intermediate and dehydration of the intermediate. Both steps are catalyzed by an AA molecule, and the first step was predicted to be rate-determining. The cyclization results from a bond formation between the amide nitrogen on the C-terminal side and the side-chain carboxyl carbon, which is part of an extensive bond reorganization (formation and breaking of single bonds and the interchange of single and double bonds) occurring concertedly in a cyclic structure formed by the amide NH bond, the AA molecule and the side-chain C=O group and involving a double proton transfer. The second step also involves an AA-mediated bond reorganization. Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism.

  15. Residues of the UL25 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus That Are Required for Its Stable Interaction with Capsids ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Shelley K.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Toropova, Katerina; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2011-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL25 gene product is a minor capsid component that is required for encapsidation, but not cleavage, of replicated viral DNA. UL25 is located on the capsid surface in a proposed heterodimer with UL17, where five copies of the heterodimer are found at each of the capsid vertices. Previously, we demonstrated that amino acids 1 to 50 of UL25 are essential for its stable interaction with capsids. To further define the UL25 capsid binding domain, we generated recombinant viruses with either small truncations or amino acid substitutions in the UL25 N terminus. Studies of these mutants demonstrated that there are two important regions within the capsid binding domain. The first 27 amino acids are essential for capsid binding of UL25, while residues 26 to 39, which are highly conserved in the UL25 homologues of other alphaherpesviruses, were found to be critical for stable capsid binding. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of capsids containing either a small tag on the N terminus of UL25 or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused between amino acids 50 and 51 of UL25 demonstrate that residues 1 to 27 of UL25 contact the hexon adjacent to the penton. A second region, most likely centered on amino acids 26 to 39, contacts the triplex that is one removed from the penton. Importantly, both of these UL25 capsid binding regions are essential for the stable packaging of full-length viral genomes. PMID:21411517

  16. Amino acid residues involved in ligand preference of the Snf3 transporter-like sensor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietvorst, J.; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Kielland-Brandt, Morten

    2010-01-01

    /preferences of Snf3. The ability of cells to sense sugars in vivo was monitored by following the degradation of the Mth1 protein, :ill earl., event ill the signal pathway. Our study reveals that Snf3. ill addition to glucose. also senses fructose and mannose, as well as the glucose analogues 2-deoxyglucose, 3-O......-methylglucoside and 6-deoxyglucose. The signalling proficiency of a non-phosphorylatable analogue strongly supports the notion that sensing through Snf3 does not require sugar phosphorylation. Sequence comparisons of Snf3 to glucose transporters indicated amino acid residues possibly involved in sensing of sugars other...... than glucose. By site-specific mutagenesis of the structural gene, roles of specific residues in Snf3 could he established. Change of isoleucine-374 to valine ill transmembrane segment 7 of Snf3 partially abolished sensing of fructose mannose. while mutagenesis causing it change of phenylalanine-462 (4...

  17. Osmium isotope anomalies in chondrites: Results for acid residues and related leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; O'D. Alexander, Conel M.; Walker, Richard J.

    2010-03-01

    We have investigated Os isotope anomalies in acid residues enriched in insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from ten primitive chondrites, acid leachates and residues of these fractions, as well as acid leachates of bulk chondrites. Osmium isotopic compositions of bulk carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites are also reported. Consistent with prior results, bulk chondrites have homogeneous Os isotope compositions for s-, r-, and p-process nuclides that are indistinguishable from terrestrial, at the current level of resolution. In contrast, nearly all the IOM-rich residues are enriched in s-process Os, evidently due to the preferential incorporation of s-process enriched presolar grains (most likely presolar SiC). Presolar silicate grains that formed in red giant branch (RGB) or asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are also likely hosts of additional s-process Os in chondrites. Consistent with one prior study, Os released by weak acid leaching of bulk chondrites is slightly to strongly enriched in r-process nuclides, of which the carrier may be fine-grained presolar silicates formed in supernovae or unidentified solar phases. Collectively, the different, chemically concentrated components in these meteorites are variably enriched in s-, r-, and possibly p-process Os, of which the individual carriers must have been produced in multiple stellar environments. The lack of evidence for Os isotopic heterogeneity among bulk chondrites contrasts with evidence for isotopic heterogeneities for various other elements at approximately the same levels of resolution (e.g., Cr, Mo, Ru, Ba, Sm, and Nd). One possible explanation for this is that the heterogeneities for some elements in bulk materials reflect selective removal of some types of presolar grains as a result of nebular processes, and that because of the strong chemical differences between Os and the other elements, the Os was not significantly affected. Another possible explanation is that late-stage injection

  18. Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharide 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having a β-D-glucuronic acid residue at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hyppönen, T.K.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides, the 4-methoxyphenyl beta-glycosides of beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-D-GlcpA and beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-beta-D-GlcpA-(1->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1->4)-D-GlcpA, is described. D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid residues were

  19. [The importance of C-terminal aspartic acid residue (D141) to the antirestriction activity of the ArdB (R64) protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, A A; Osetrova, M S; Livinyuk, V Ya; Manukhov, I V; Zavilgelsky, G B

    2017-01-01

    Antirestriction proteins of the ArdB/KlcA family are specific inhibitors of restriction (endonuclease) activity of type-I restriction/modification enzymes. The effect of conserved amino acid residues on the antirestriction activity of the ArdB protein encoded by the transmissible R64 (IncI1) plasmid has been investigated. An analysis of the amino acid sequences of ArdB homologues demonstrated the presence of four groups of conserved residues ((1) R16, E32, and W51; (2) Y46 and G48; (3) S81, D83 and E132, and (4) N77, L(I)140, and D141) on the surface of the protein globule. Amino acid residues of the fourth group showed a unique localization pattern with the terminal residue protruding beyond the globule surface. The replacement of two conserved amino acids (D141 and N77) located in the close vicinity of each other on the globule surface showed that the C-terminal D141 is essential for the antirestriction activity of ArdB. The deletion of this residue, as well as replacement by a hydrophobic threonine residue (D141T), completely abolished the antirestriction activity of ArdB. The synonymous replacement of D141 by a glutamic acid residue (D141E) caused an approximately 30-fold decrease of the antirestriction activity of ArdB, and the point mutation N77A caused an approximately 20-fold decrease in activity. The residues D141 and N77 located on the surface of the protein globule are presumably essential for the formation of a contact between ArdB and a currently unknown factor that modulates the activity of type-I restriction/modification enzymes.

  20. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  1. Chlorination of tyrosyl residues in peptides and proteins by hypochlorous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettle, A.J.; Chapman, A.L.P.; Senthilmohan, R.; Vile, G.F.; Chai, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Hypochlorous acid (HOCI) is the major strong oxidant produced by neutrophils. These granulocytic cells use HOCI to kill bacteria and it is also proposed to promote inflammation. Previously, it was shown that HOCI converts tyrosyl residues in proteins to 3-chlorotyrosine. This chlorinated molecule is an ideal biomarker for determining the precise roles HOCI plays in bacterial killing and inflammatory tissue damage. We have investigated the reaction of HOCI with tyrosyl residues in peptides and proteins to establish whether or not chlorinated products in addition to 3-chlorotyrosine are formed. When 200μM HOCI was added to 500μg/ml of bovine serum albumin both 3-chlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine were formed. The monochlorinated amino acid was the predominant product and its formation was complete by 20 minutes whereas levels of 3,5-dichlorotyrosine continued to increase for up to an hour. Amounts of both chlorinated products increased with increasing concentrations of HOCI until a plateau was reached at about 800μM. At all concentrations of HOCI a substantial amount of the tyrosine that had reacted was unaccounted for as either 3-chlorotyrosine or 3,5-dichlorotyrosine. Similar results were obtained with small peptides containing tyrosine. Sub-stoichiometric concentrations of HOCI converted tyrosyl residues in GGYR to 3-chlorotyrosine. At higher concentrations of HOCI, chlorination was rapid and both 3-chlorotyrosine and 3,5-dichlorotyrosine were produced but they accounted for less than 50% of the products. To identify the additional products of the reaction, we reacted HOCI with tyrosine analogues including N-acetyltyrosine, phydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 4-propylphenol. Separation of the reaction mixture by HPLC revealed that numerous products were formed besides mono and dichlorinated derivatives of the parent compounds. Analysis of the products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry strongly indicated that mono and dichlorinated

  2. The periplasmic transaminase PtaA of Pseudomonas fluorescens converts the glutamic acid residue at the pyoverdine fluorophore to α-ketoglutaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Michael T; Dräger, Gerald; Brüser, Thomas

    2017-11-10

    The periplasmic conversion of ferribactin to pyoverdine is essential for siderophore biogenesis in fluorescent pseudomonads, such as pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa or plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescens The non-ribosomal peptide ferribactin undergoes cyclizations and oxidations that result in the fluorophore, and a strictly conserved fluorophore-bound glutamic acid residue is converted to a range of variants, including succinamide, succinic acid, and α-ketoglutaric acid residues. We recently discovered that the pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme PvdN is responsible for the generation of the succinamide, which can be hydrolyzed to succinic acid. Based on this, a distinct unknown enzyme was postulated to be responsible for the conversion of the glutamic acid to α-ketoglutaric acid. Here we report the identification and characterization of this enzyme in P. fluorescens strain A506. In silico analyses indicated a periplasmic transaminase in fluorescent pseudomonads and other proteobacteria that we termed PtaA for " p eriplasmic t ransaminase A " An in-frame-deleted ptaA mutant selectively lacked the α-ketoglutaric acid form of pyoverdine, and recombinant PtaA complemented this phenotype. The ptaA / pvdN double mutant produced exclusively the glutamic acid form of pyoverdine. PtaA is homodimeric and contains a pyridoxal phosphate cofactor. Mutation of the active-site lysine abolished PtaA activity and affected folding as well as Tat-dependent transport of the enzyme. In pseudomonads, the occurrence of ptaA correlates with the occurrence of α-ketoglutaric acid forms of pyoverdines. As this enzyme is not restricted to pyoverdine-producing bacteria, its catalysis of periplasmic transaminations is most likely a general tool for specific biosynthetic pathways. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Process Design Aspects for Scandium-Selective Leaching of Bauxite Residue with Sulfuric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Hatzilyberis; Theopisti Lymperopoulou; Lamprini-Areti Tsakanika; Klaus-Michael Ochsenkühn; Paraskevas Georgiou; Nikolaos Defteraios; Fotios Tsopelas; Maria Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Aiming at the industrial scale development of a Scandium (Sc)-selective leaching process of Bauxite Residue (BR), a set of process design aspects has been investigated. The interpretation of experimental data for Sc leaching yield, with sulfuric acid as the leaching solvent, has shown significant impact from acid feed concentration, mixing time, liquid to solids ratio (L/S), and number of cycles of leachate re-usage onto fresh BR. The thin film diffusion model, as the fundamental theory for l...

  4. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K.; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G.; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K+ channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K+ currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K+ channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance–voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn2+. Low pH similarly reduces Mg2+ sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca2+. Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K+ currents observed in vivo. PMID:23712551

  5. External pH modulates EAG superfamily K+ channels through EAG-specific acidic residues in the voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Marcin; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Bihan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Shi, Yingtang; Wagner, Paul G; Pivaroff-Ward, Kendra; Sassic, Jessica K; Bayliss, Douglas A; Jegla, Timothy

    2013-06-01

    The Ether-a-go-go (EAG) superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels consists of three functionally distinct gene families (Eag, Elk, and Erg) encoding a diverse set of low-threshold K(+) currents that regulate excitability in neurons and muscle. Previous studies indicate that external acidification inhibits activation of three EAG superfamily K(+) channels, Kv10.1 (Eag1), Kv11.1 (Erg1), and Kv12.1 (Elk1). We show here that Kv10.2, Kv12.2, and Kv12.3 are similarly inhibited by external protons, suggesting that high sensitivity to physiological pH changes is a general property of EAG superfamily channels. External acidification depolarizes the conductance-voltage (GV) curves of these channels, reducing low threshold activation. We explored the mechanism of this high pH sensitivity in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. We first examined the role of acidic voltage sensor residues that mediate divalent cation block of voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels because protons reduce the sensitivity of Kv12.1 to Zn(2+). Low pH similarly reduces Mg(2+) sensitivity of Kv10.1, and we found that the pH sensitivity of Kv11.1 was greatly attenuated at 1 mM Ca(2+). Individual neutralizations of a pair of EAG-specific acidic residues that have previously been implicated in divalent block of diverse EAG superfamily channels greatly reduced the pH response in Kv12.1, Kv10.2, and Kv11.1. Our results therefore suggest a common mechanism for pH-sensitive voltage activation in EAG superfamily channels. The EAG-specific acidic residues may form the proton-binding site or alternatively are required to hold the voltage sensor in a pH-sensitive conformation. The high pH sensitivity of EAG superfamily channels suggests that they could contribute to pH-sensitive K(+) currents observed in vivo.

  6. Conformation of dehydropentapeptides containing four achiral amino acid residues – controlling the role of L-valine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Jewgiński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural studies of pentapeptides containing an achiral block, built from two dehydroamino acid residues (ΔZPhe and ΔAla and two glycines, as well as one chiral L-Val residue were performed using NMR spectroscopy. The key role of the L-Val residue in the generation of the secondary structure of peptides is discussed. The obtained results suggest that the strongest influence on the conformation of peptides arises from a valine residue inserted at the C-terminal position. The most ordered conformation was found for peptide Boc-Gly-ΔAla-Gly-ΔZPhe-Val-OMe (3, which adopts a right-handed helical conformation.

  7. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  8. Preparation of Grinding Aid Using Waste Acid Residue from Plasticizer Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingxiao; Feng, Yanchao; Liu, Manchao; Zhao, Fengqing

    2017-09-01

    The grinding aid for granulated blast-furnace slag were prepared from waste acid residue from plasticizer plant through neutralization, de-methanol and granulation process. In this process, sulfuric acid was transformed into gypsum which has much contribution for grinding effect by combined use with the glycerol and poly glycerin in the waste. Fly ash was used for granulation for the composite grinding aid. Methanol can be recycled in the process. The result showed that the suitable addition of grinding aid is 0.03 % of granulated blast-furnace slag (mass). In this case, the specific surface area is 14% higher than that of the blank. Compared with the common grinding aids, it has excellent performance and low cost.

  9. Properties of nanocellulose isolated from corncob residue using sulfuric acid, formic acid, oxidative and mechanical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Bin; Du, Haishun; Lv, Dong; Zhang, Yuedong; Yu, Guang; Mu, Xindong; Peng, Hui

    2016-10-20

    In this work, nanocellulose was extracted from bleached corncob residue (CCR), an underutilized lignocellulose waste from furfural industry, using four different methods (i.e. sulfuric acid hydrolysis, formic acid (FA) hydrolysis, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation, and pulp refining, respectively). The self-assembled structure, morphology, dimension, crystallinity, chemical structure and thermal stability of prepared nanocellulose were investigated. FA hydrolysis produced longer cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) than the one obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and resulted in high crystallinity and thermal stability due to its preferential degradation of amorphous cellulose and lignin. The cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) with fine and individualized structure could be isolated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation. In comparison with other nanocellulose products, the intensive pulp refining led to the CNFs with the longest length and the thickest diameter. This comparative study can help to provide an insight into the utilization of CCR as a potential source for nanocellulose production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature-dependent dynamical transitions of different classes of amino acid residue in a globular protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinglong; Yi, Zheng; Glass, Dennis C; Hong, Liang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Baudry, Jerome; Jain, Nitin; Smith, Jeremy C

    2012-12-05

    The temperature dependences of the nanosecond dynamics of different chemical classes of amino acid residue have been analyzed by combining elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments with molecular dynamics simulations on cytochrome P450cam. At T = 100-160 K, anharmonic motion in hydrophobic and aromatic residues is activated, whereas hydrophilic residue motions are suppressed because of hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, at T = 180-220 K, water-activated jumps of hydrophilic side chains, which are strongly coupled to the relaxation rates of the hydrogen bonds they form with hydration water, become apparent. Thus, with increasing temperature, first the hydrophobic core awakens, followed by the hydrophilic surface.

  11. Study of radionuclide leaching from the residues of K Basin sludge dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, D.B.

    1998-01-01

    The sludges remaining in the K Basins after removal of the spent N Reactor nuclear fuel will be conditioned for disposal. After conditioning, an acid-insoluble residue will remain that may require further leaching to properly condition it for disposal. This document presents a literature study to identify and recommend one or more chemical leaching treatments for laboratory testing, based on the likely compositions of the residues. The processes identified are a nitric acid cerate leach, a silver-catalyzed persulfate leach, a nitric hydrofluoric acid leach, an oxalic citric acid reactor decontamination leach, a nitric hydrochloric acid leach, a ammonium fluoride nitrate leach, and a HEOPA formate dehydesulfoxylate leach. All processes except the last two are recommended for testing in that order

  12. Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharide 4-methoxyphenyl glycosides having a beta-D-glucuronic acid residue at the reducing end

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, K.M.; Slaghek, T.M.; Hypponen, T.K.; Kamerling, J.P.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1999-01-01

    Synthesis of two hyaluronic-acid-related oligosaccharides, the 4-methoxyphenyl β-glycosides of β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA and β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)-β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→4)-β-D-GlcpA-(1→3)- β-D-GJcpNAc-(1→4)-D-GlcpA, is described. D-Glucopyranosyluronic acid residues were obtained by selective

  13. Residual load, renewable surplus generation and storage requirements in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2014-01-01

    I examine the effects of increasing amounts of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load, which is defined as the difference between actual power demand and the feed-in of non-dispatchable and inflexible generators. I draw on policy-relevant scenarios for Germany and make use of extensive sensitivity analyses. Whereas yearly renewable surplus energy is low in most scenarios analyzed, peak surplus power can become very high. Decreasing thermal must-run requirements and increasing biomass flexibility substantially reduce surpluses. I use an optimization model to determine the storage capacities required for taking up renewable surpluses. Allowing curtailment of 1% of the yearly feed-in of non-dispatchable renewables would render storage investments largely obsolete until 2032 under the assumption of a flexible power system. Further restrictions of curtailment as well as lower system flexibility strongly increase storage requirements. By 2050, at least 10 GW of storage are required for surplus integration, of which a sizeable share is seasonal storage. Results suggest that policy makers should work toward avoiding surplus generation, in particular by decreasing the must-run of thermal generators. Concerns about surpluses should not be regarded as an obstacle to further renewable expansion. The findings are also relevant for other countries that shift toward fluctuating renewables. - Highlights: • I examine the effects of fluctuating renewable energy on residual load. • Surplus energies are generally low, but there are high surplus power peaks. • Increasing the flexibility of thermal generators substantially reduces surpluses. • Allowing curtailment of 1% renders storage investments largely obsolete by 2032. • Both storage requirements and the share of seasonal storage increase by 2050

  14. Modulation of procaspase-7 self-activation by PEST amino acid residues of the N-terminal prodomain and intersubunit linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Juliano; Garay-Malpartida, Miguel; Occhiucci, João M; Belizário, José E

    2017-12-01

    Procaspase-7 zymogen polypeptide is composed of a short prodomain, a large subunit (p20), and a small subunit (p10) connected to an intersubunit linker. Caspase-7 is activated by an initiator caspase-8 and -9, or by autocatalysis after specific cleavage at IQAD 198 ↓S located at the intersubunit linker. Previously, we identified that PEST regions made of amino acid residues Pro (P), Glu (E), Asp (D), Ser (S), Thr (T), Asn (N), and Gln (Q) are conserved flanking amino acid residues in the cleavage sites within a prodomain and intersubunit linker of all caspase family members. Here we tested the impact of alanine substitution of PEST amino acid residues on procaspase-7 proteolytic self-activation directly in Escherichia coli. The p20 and p10 subunit cleavage were significantly delayed in double caspase-7 mutants in the prodomain (N18A/P26A) and intersubunit linker (S199A/P201A), compared with the wild-type caspase-7. The S199A/P201A mutants effectively inhibited the p10 small subunit cleavage. However, the mutations did not change the kinetic parameters (k cat /K M ) and optimal tetrapeptide specificity (DEVD) of the purified mutant enzymes. The results suggest a role of PEST-amino acid residues in the molecular mechanism for prodomain and intersubunit cleavage and caspase-7 self-activation.

  15. Differences in sialic acid residues among bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms: a physical, biochemical, and immunological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, P; Farley, J R

    2002-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separates three human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms in serum; two major BALP isoforms, B1 and B2, and a minor fraction, B/I, which is composed on average of 70% bone and 30% intestinal ALP. The current studies were intended to identify an in vitro source of the BALP isoforms for physical, biochemical, and immunological characterizations. The three BALP isoforms were identified in extracts of human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells, by HPLC, after separation by anion-exchange chromatography. All three BALP isoforms were similar with respect to freeze-thaw stability, solubility, heat inactivation, and inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-homoarginine, and levamisole. The isoforms were also kinetically similar (i.e., maximal velocity and KM at pH 8.8 and pH 10.0). The isoforms differed, however, with respect to sensitivity to precipitation with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), P acid residues was estimated to be 29 and 45, for each B1 and B2 homodimer, respectively. Apparent discrepancies between these estimates of molecular weight and estimates based on gel filtration chromatography were attributed to nonspecific interactions between carbohydrate residues and the gel filtration beads. All three BALP isoforms showed similar dose-dependent linearity in the commercial Alkphase-B and Tandem-MP Ostase immunoassays, r = 0.944 and r = 0.985, respectively (P acid residues compared with B/I, which mainly explains the apparent differences in molecular weight. Future investigations will focus on the clinical and functional significance of the revealed differences in sialic acid residues.

  16. Conjugated fatty acid synthesis: residues 111 and 115 influence product partitioning of Momordica charantia conjugase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-05-11

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ(9,11,13), lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ(9,12,15)). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis)) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13trans)). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation.

  17. Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatina fulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K

    1988-01-01

    A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3140796

  18. Catalytically important amino-acid residues of abalone alginate lyase HdAly assessed by site-directed mutagenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Sayo; Sahara, Takehiko; Sato, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Kosei; Ohgiya, Satoru; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Alginate lyase is an enzyme that degrades alginate chains via β-elimination and has been used for the production of alginate oligosaccharides and protoplasts from brown algae. Previously, we deduced the amino-acid sequence of an abalone alginate lyase, HdAly, from its cDNA sequence and, through multiple amino-acid sequence alignment, found that several basic amino-acid residues were highly conserved among the polysaccharide-lyase family 14 (PL-14) enzymes including HdAly. In the present study...

  19. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  20. Lead Isotope Compositions of Acid Residues from Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Tissint: Implications for Heterogeneous Shergottite Source Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, R.; Usui, T.; Yokoyama, T.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Geochemical studies of shergottites suggest that their parental magmas reflect mixtures between at least two distinct geochemical source reservoirs, producing correlations between radiogenic isotope compositions and trace element abundances. These correlations have been interpreted as indicating the presence of a reduced, incompatible element- depleted reservoir and an oxidized, incompatible- element-enriched reservoir. The former is clearly a depleted mantle source, but there is ongoing debate regarding the origin of the enriched reservoir. Two contrasting models have been proposed regarding the location and mixing process of the two geochemical source reservoirs: (1) assimilation of oxidized crust by mantle derived, reduced magmas, or (2) mixing of two distinct mantle reservoirs during melting. The former requires the ancient Martian crust to be the enriched source (crustal assimilation), whereas the latter requires isolation of a long-lived enriched mantle domain that probably originated from residual melts formed during solidification of a magma ocean (heterogeneous mantle model). This study conducts Pb isotope and trace element concentration analyses of sequential acid-leaching fractions (leachates and the final residues) from the geochemically depleted olivine-phyric shergottite Tissint. The results suggest that the Tissint magma is not isotopically uniform and sampled at least two geochemical source reservoirs, implying that either crustal assimilation or magma mixing would have played a role in the Tissint petrogenesis.

  1. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  2. Identification of functional residues essential for dehalogenation by the non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase from Rhizobium sp. RC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Azzmer Azzar Abdul; Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Huyop, Fahrul

    2015-03-01

    The non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase DehE from Rhizobium sp. RC1 catalyzes the removal of the halide from α-haloalkanoic acid D,L-stereoisomers and, by doing so, converts them into hydroxyalkanoic acid L,D-stereoisomers, respectively. DehE has been extensively studied to determine its potential to act as a bioremediation agent, but its structure/function relationship has not been characterized. For this study, we explored the functional relevance of several putative active-site amino acids by site-specific mutagenesis. Ten active-site residues were mutated individually, and the dehalogenase activity of each of the 10 resulting mutants in soluble cell lysates against D- and L-2-chloropropionic acid was assessed. Interestingly, the mutants W34→A,F37→A, and S188→A had diminished activity, suggesting that these residues are functionally relevant. Notably, the D189→N mutant had no activity, which strongly implies that it is a catalytically important residue. Given our data, we propose a dehalogenation mechanism for DehE, which is the same as that suggested for other non-stereospecific α-haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detailing a functional aspect for DehE, and our results could help pave the way for the bioengineering of haloalkanoic acid dehalogenases with improved catalytic properties. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  4. Hereditary folate malabsorption: A positively charged amino acid at position 113 of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) is required for folic acid binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasry, Inbal; Berman, Bluma; Glaser, Fabian; Jansen, Gerrit; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2009-01-01

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT/SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate uptake at acidic pH. Some loss of folic acid (FA) transport mutations in PCFT from hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) patients cluster in R113, thereby suggesting a functional role for this residue. Herein, unlike non-conservative substitutions, an R113H mutant displayed 80-fold increase in the FA transport Km while retaining parental Vmax, hence indicating a major fall in folate substrate affinity. Furthermore, consistent with the preservation of 9% of parental transport activity, R113H transfectants displayed a substantial decrease in the FA growth requirement relative to mock transfectants. Homology modeling based on the crystal structures of the Escherichia coli transporter homologues EmrD and glycerol-3-phosphate transporter revealed that the R113H rotamer properly protrudes into the cytoplasmic face of the minor cleft normally occupied by R113. These findings constitute the first demonstration that a basic amino acid at position 113 is required for folate substrate binding.

  5. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stolterfoht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30 generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro. Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of NcCAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that NcCAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  6. SNBRFinder: A Sequence-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Prediction of Nucleic Acid-Binding Residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Yang

    Full Text Available Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to various fundamental biological processes. Automated methods capable of reliably identifying DNA- and RNA-binding residues in protein sequence are assuming ever-increasing importance. The majority of current algorithms rely on feature-based prediction, but their accuracy remains to be further improved. Here we propose a sequence-based hybrid algorithm SNBRFinder (Sequence-based Nucleic acid-Binding Residue Finder by merging a feature predictor SNBRFinderF and a template predictor SNBRFinderT. SNBRFinderF was established using the support vector machine whose inputs include sequence profile and other complementary sequence descriptors, while SNBRFinderT was implemented with the sequence alignment algorithm based on profile hidden Markov models to capture the weakly homologous template of query sequence. Experimental results show that SNBRFinderF was clearly superior to the commonly used sequence profile-based predictor and SNBRFinderT can achieve comparable performance to the structure-based template methods. Leveraging the complementary relationship between these two predictors, SNBRFinder reasonably improved the performance of both DNA- and RNA-binding residue predictions. More importantly, the sequence-based hybrid prediction reached competitive performance relative to our previous structure-based counterpart. Our extensive and stringent comparisons show that SNBRFinder has obvious advantages over the existing sequence-based prediction algorithms. The value of our algorithm is highlighted by establishing an easy-to-use web server that is freely accessible at http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/SNBRFinder.

  7. SNBRFinder: A Sequence-Based Hybrid Algorithm for Enhanced Prediction of Nucleic Acid-Binding Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Jia; Sun, Jun; Liu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid interactions are central to various fundamental biological processes. Automated methods capable of reliably identifying DNA- and RNA-binding residues in protein sequence are assuming ever-increasing importance. The majority of current algorithms rely on feature-based prediction, but their accuracy remains to be further improved. Here we propose a sequence-based hybrid algorithm SNBRFinder (Sequence-based Nucleic acid-Binding Residue Finder) by merging a feature predictor SNBRFinderF and a template predictor SNBRFinderT. SNBRFinderF was established using the support vector machine whose inputs include sequence profile and other complementary sequence descriptors, while SNBRFinderT was implemented with the sequence alignment algorithm based on profile hidden Markov models to capture the weakly homologous template of query sequence. Experimental results show that SNBRFinderF was clearly superior to the commonly used sequence profile-based predictor and SNBRFinderT can achieve comparable performance to the structure-based template methods. Leveraging the complementary relationship between these two predictors, SNBRFinder reasonably improved the performance of both DNA- and RNA-binding residue predictions. More importantly, the sequence-based hybrid prediction reached competitive performance relative to our previous structure-based counterpart. Our extensive and stringent comparisons show that SNBRFinder has obvious advantages over the existing sequence-based prediction algorithms. The value of our algorithm is highlighted by establishing an easy-to-use web server that is freely accessible at http://ibi.hzau.edu.cn/SNBRFinder.

  8. Metals in proteins: correlation between the metal-ion type, coordination number and the amino-acid residues involved in the coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmanić, Ivan; Sikić, Mile; Tomić, Sanja

    2008-03-01

    Metal ions are constituents of many metalloproteins, in which they have either catalytic (metalloenzymes) or structural functions. In this work, the characteristics of various metals were studied (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd and Ca in proteins with known crystal structure) as well as the specificity of their environments. The analysis was performed on two data sets: the set of protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) determined with resolution metal ion and its electron donors and the latter was used to assess the preferred coordination numbers and common combinations of amino-acid residues in the neighbourhood of each metal. Although the metal ions considered predominantly had a valence of two, their preferred coordination number and the type of amino-acid residues that participate in the coordination differed significantly from one metal ion to the next. This study concentrates on finding the specificities of a metal-ion environment, namely the distribution of coordination numbers and the amino-acid residue types that frequently take part in coordination. Furthermore, the correlation between the coordination number and the occurrence of certain amino-acid residues (quartets and triplets) in a metal-ion coordination sphere was analysed. The results obtained are of particular value for the identification and modelling of metal-binding sites in protein structures derived by homology modelling. Knowledge of the geometry and characteristics of the metal-binding sites in metalloproteins of known function can help to more closely determine the biological activity of proteins of unknown function and to aid in design of proteins with specific affinity for certain metals.

  9. Influences of conformations of peptides on stereoinversions and/or isomerizations of aspartic acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2018-07-01

    Recently, non-enzymatic stereoinversions of aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins and peptides have been reported. Here, we performed replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations of model peptides (exon 6, 26A-1, and 26A-2) extracted from elastin to investigate their structural features, thereby revealing the factor that influences stereoinversions. For REMD trajectories, we calculated distances between carboxyl carbon in Asp and amide nitrogen in the (n + 1) residue (CN distances). Because bond formation between carbon and nitrogen is indispensable to the formation of a succinimide intermediate the distance between them seems to play an important role in stereoinversion. Moreover, we calculated polar surface areas (PSAs) for the trajectories, finding that CN distances and PSA were different for each peptide, with the longest CN distance and smallest PSA observed for exon 6 peptide, where stereoinversion of Asp is the slowest. Although the average CN distance was shorter for exon 26A-1 peptide than for exon 26A-2 peptide, the number of conformations with CN distances acids: biology in the mirror, edited by Dr. Loredano Pollegioni, Dr. Jean-Pierre Mothet and Dr. Molla Gianluca. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of the replacement of aspartic acid/glutamic acid residues with asparagine/glutamine residues in RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus on inhibition of human leukemia cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Motoyoshi, Naomi; Itagaki, Tadashi; Suzuki, Mamoru; Inokuchi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    RNase He1 from Hericium erinaceus, a member of the RNase T1 family, has high identity with RNase Po1 from Pleurotus ostreatus with complete conservation of the catalytic sequence. However, the optimal pH for RNase He1 activity is lower than that of RNase Po1, and the enzyme shows little inhibition of human tumor cell proliferation. Hence, to investigate the potential antitumor activity of recombinant RNase He1 and to possibly enhance its optimum pH, we generated RNase He1 mutants by replacing 12 Asn/Gln residues with Asp/Glu residues; the amino acid sequence of RNase Po1 was taken as reference. These mutants were then expressed in Escherichia coli. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we successfully modified the optimal pH for enzyme activity and generated a recombinant RNase He1 that inhibited the proliferation of cells in the human leukemia cell line. These properties are extremely important in the production of anticancer biologics that are based on RNase activity.

  11. Enzyme active site mimics based on TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides and amino acid residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, H.B.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the scope and limitations of the application of TriAzaCyclophane (TAC)-scaffolded peptides or amino acid residues as enzyme active site mimics, as ligands in asymmetric catalysis and as hydrolysis catalysts attached to vancomycin. For the mimicry of functional group enzymes, of

  12. Evaluation of methods to estimate the essential amino acids requirements of fish from the muscle amino acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José de Almeida Bicudo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many methods to estimate amino acid requirement based on amino acid profile of fish have been proposed. This study evaluates the methodology proposed by Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 and by Tacon (1989 to estimate amino acids requirement of fish, which do exempt knowledge on previous nutritional requirement of reference amino acid. Data on amino acid requirement of pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to validate de accuracy of those methods. Meyer & Fracalossi's and Tacon's methodology estimated the lysine requirement of pacu, respectively, at 13 and 23% above requirement determined using dose-response method. The values estimated by both methods lie within the range of requirements determined for other omnivorous fish species, the Meyer & Fracalossi (2005 method showing better accuracy.

  13. Antimicrobial residual effects of irrigation regimens with maleic acid in infected root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Luque, Carmen Mar?a; Gonz?lez-Castillo, Silvia; Ruiz-Linares, Matilde; Arias-Moliz, Mar?a Teresa; Rodr?guez-Archilla, Alberto; Baca, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of endodontic treatment depends largely on the control of microorganisms present in infected root canals. The aim of this study was to determine the residual antimicrobial activity of several final irrigation protocols with 7% maleic acid (MA) alone and combined with chlorhexidine (CHX), cetrimide (CTR) or both, in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Biofilms of E. faecalis were grown in uniradicular roots for 4 weeks. A total of 72 specimens were divided i...

  14. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiheido, Hirokazu, E-mail: shiheido@ak.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  15. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Momentive Performance Materials submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate and ethenylbenzene on food or feed commodities.

  16. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  17. Mutation-induced quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid affinity at the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4: ligand selectivity results from a synergy of several amino acid residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are key modulators of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The eight mGluR subtypes are seven trans-membrane-spanning proteins that possess a large extracellular amino-terminal domain in which the endogenous ligand binding pocket...... resides. In this study, we have identified four non-conserved amino acid residues that are essential for differentiating mGluR1 from mGluR4. Our approach has been to increase the affinity of the classic mGluR1 agonists, quisqualic acid and ibotenic acid, at mGluR4 by making various point mutations......, the mutations K74Y and K317R induced dramatic triple-order-of-magnitude increases in the affinity of ibotenic acid at mGluR4, making the affinity equivalent to that of mGluR1. Furthermore, the affinity of quisqualic acid at mGluR4 was increased to the same level as mGluR1 by the two double mutations, K74Y/K317R...

  18. Accurate prediction of hot spot residues through physicochemical characteristics of amino acid sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng; Li, Jinyan; Limsoon, Wong; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Hot spot residues of proteins are fundamental interface residues that help proteins perform their functions. Detecting hot spots by experimental methods is costly and time-consuming. Sequential and structural information has been widely used in the computational prediction of hot spots. However, structural information is not always available. In this article, we investigated the problem of identifying hot spots using only physicochemical characteristics extracted from amino acid sequences. We first extracted 132 relatively independent physicochemical features from a set of the 544 properties in AAindex1, an amino acid index database. Each feature was utilized to train a classification model with a novel encoding schema for hot spot prediction by the IBk algorithm, an extension of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The combinations of the individual classifiers were explored and the classifiers that appeared frequently in the top performing combinations were selected. The hot spot predictor was built based on an ensemble of these classifiers and to work in a voting manner. Experimental results demonstrated that our method effectively exploited the feature space and allowed flexible weights of features for different queries. On the commonly used hot spot benchmark sets, our method significantly outperformed other machine learning algorithms and state-of-the-art hot spot predictors. The program is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Accurate prediction of hot spot residues through physicochemical characteristics of amino acid sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Peng

    2013-07-23

    Hot spot residues of proteins are fundamental interface residues that help proteins perform their functions. Detecting hot spots by experimental methods is costly and time-consuming. Sequential and structural information has been widely used in the computational prediction of hot spots. However, structural information is not always available. In this article, we investigated the problem of identifying hot spots using only physicochemical characteristics extracted from amino acid sequences. We first extracted 132 relatively independent physicochemical features from a set of the 544 properties in AAindex1, an amino acid index database. Each feature was utilized to train a classification model with a novel encoding schema for hot spot prediction by the IBk algorithm, an extension of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The combinations of the individual classifiers were explored and the classifiers that appeared frequently in the top performing combinations were selected. The hot spot predictor was built based on an ensemble of these classifiers and to work in a voting manner. Experimental results demonstrated that our method effectively exploited the feature space and allowed flexible weights of features for different queries. On the commonly used hot spot benchmark sets, our method significantly outperformed other machine learning algorithms and state-of-the-art hot spot predictors. The program is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Accurate prediction of hot spot residues through physicochemical characteristics of amino acid sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Li, Jinyan; Wong, Limsoon; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Huang, Jianhua Z; Gao, Xin

    2013-08-01

    Hot spot residues of proteins are fundamental interface residues that help proteins perform their functions. Detecting hot spots by experimental methods is costly and time-consuming. Sequential and structural information has been widely used in the computational prediction of hot spots. However, structural information is not always available. In this article, we investigated the problem of identifying hot spots using only physicochemical characteristics extracted from amino acid sequences. We first extracted 132 relatively independent physicochemical features from a set of the 544 properties in AAindex1, an amino acid index database. Each feature was utilized to train a classification model with a novel encoding schema for hot spot prediction by the IBk algorithm, an extension of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm. The combinations of the individual classifiers were explored and the classifiers that appeared frequently in the top performing combinations were selected. The hot spot predictor was built based on an ensemble of these classifiers and to work in a voting manner. Experimental results demonstrated that our method effectively exploited the feature space and allowed flexible weights of features for different queries. On the commonly used hot spot benchmark sets, our method significantly outperformed other machine learning algorithms and state-of-the-art hot spot predictors. The program is available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/pages/software.aspx. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Identification of essential amino acid residues in the nisin dehydratase NisB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem eKhusainov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a posttranslationally-modified antimicrobial peptide that has the ability to induce its own biosynthesis. Serines and threonines in the modifiable core peptide part of precursor nisin are dehydrated to dehydroalanines and dehydrobutyrines by the dehydratase NisB, and subsequently cysteines are coupled to the dehydroamino acids by the cyclase NisC. In this study, we applied extensive site-directed mutagenesis, together with direct binding studies, to investigate the molecular mechanism of the dehydratase NisB. We use a natural nisin-producing strain as a host to probe mutant-NisB functionality. Importantly, we are able to differentiate between intracellular and secreted fully dehydrated precursor nisin, enabling investigation of the NisB properties needed for the release of dehydrated precursor nisin to its devoted secretion system NisT. We report that single amino acid substitutions of conserved residues, i.e. R83A, R83M and R87A result in incomplete dehydration of precursor nisin and prevention of secretion. Single point NisB mutants Y80F and H961A, result in a complete lack of dehydration of precursor nisin, but do not abrogate precursor nisin binding. The data indicate that residues Y80 and H961 are directly involved in catalysis, fitting well with their position in the recently published 3D-structure of NisB. We confirm, by in vivo studies, results that were previously obtained from in vitro experiments and NisB structure elucidation and show that previous findings translate well to effects seen in the original production host.

  2. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  3. Disappearing or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases after chemotherapy on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging: Is local treatment required?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheonan Hospital, Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Young Kon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Cheol; Huh, Jung Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Suk; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Seung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To evaluate the clinical course of disappearing colorectal liver metastases (DLM) or residual tiny (≤5 mm) colorectal liver metastases (RTCLM) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who had colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and received chemotherapy. Among 137 patients who received chemotherapy for CLM and underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DWI between 2010 and 2012, 43 patients with 168 DLMs and 48 RTCLMs were included. The cumulative in situ recurrence rate of DLM and progression rate of RTCLM and their predictive factors were evaluated. A total of 150 DLMs and 26 RTCLMs were followed up without additional treatment. At 1 and 2 years, respectively, the cumulative in situ recurrence rates for DLM were 10.9 % and 15.7 % and the cumulative progression rates for RTCLM were 27.2 % and 33.2 %. The in situ recurrence rate at 2 years was 4.9 % for the DLM group that did not show reticular hypointensity of liver parenchyma on hepatobiliary phase. DLM on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI and DWI indicates a high possibility of clinical complete response, especially in patients without chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. Thirty-three percent of RTCLMs showed progression at 2 years. (orig.)

  4. Linoleic acid intake and vitamin E requirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, F.C.

    1973-01-01

    In experiments with rats and Peking ducklings it has been investigated to what extent the linoleic acid content of the diet is of influence on the requirement of vitamin E. This requirement was determined by adding D-α-tocopheryl acetate in increasing doses to vitamin E-free diets and to determine

  5. Citric-acid preacidification enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of chromium from chromium-residue-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fansheng; Xue, Hao; Wang, Yeyao; Zheng, Binghui; Wang, Juling

    2018-02-01

    Electrokinetic experiments were conducted on chromium-residue-contaminated soils collected from a chemical plant in China. Acidification-electrokinetic remediation technology was proposed in order to solve the problem of removing inefficient with ordinary electrokinetic. The results showed that electrokinetic remediation removal efficiency of chromium from chromium-contaminated soil was significantly enhanced with acidizing pretreatment. The total chromium [Cr(T)] and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] removal rate of the group acidized by citric acid (0.9 mol/L) for 5 days was increased from 6.23% and 19.01% in the acid-free experiments to 26.97% and 77.66% in the acidification-treated experiments, respectively. In addition, part of chromium with the state of carbonate-combined will be converted into water-soluble state through acidification to improve the removal efficiency. Within the appropriate concentration range, the higher concentration of acid was, the more chromium was released. So the removal efficiency of chromium depended on the acid concentration. The citric acid is also a kind of complexing agent, which produced complexation with Cr that was released by the electrokinetic treatment and then enhanced the removal efficiency. The major speciation of chromium that was removed from soils by acidification-electrokinetics remediation was acid-soluble speciation, revivification speciation and oxidation speciation, which reduced biological availability of chromium.

  6. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves.

  7. Use of radioactive glucosamine in the perfused rat liver to prepare α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) with 3H- or 14C-labelled sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed whereby [1- 14 C]glucosamine was used in a perfused rat liver system to prepare over 2 mg of α 1 -acid glycoprotein with highly radioactive sialic acid and glucosamine residues. The liver secreted radioactive α 1 -acid glycoprotein over a 4-6 h period, and this glycoprotein was purified from the perfusate by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH3.6. The sialic acid on the isolated glycoprotein had a specific radioactivity of 3.1 Ci/mol, whereas the glucosamine-specific radioactivity was 4.3 Ci/mole. The latter amino-sugar residues on the isolated protein were only 13-fold less radioactive than the initially added [1- 14 C]glucosamine. Orosomucoid with a specific radioactivity of 31.3 μCi/mg of protein was obtainable by using [6- 3 H]glucosamine. Many other radioactive glycoproteins were found to be secreted into the perfusate by the liver. Thus this experimental system should prove useful for obtaining other serum glycoproteins with highly radioactive sugar moieties. (author)

  8. [Determination of residual solvents in 7-amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yao, Tong-wei

    2011-01-01

    To develop a gas chromatography method for determination of residual solvents in 7-amino-3-chloro cephalosporanic acid (7-ACCA). The residual levels of acetone, methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, pyridine and toluene in 7-ACCA were measured by gas chromatography using Agilent INNOWAX capillary column (30 m × 0.32 mm,0.5 μm). The initial column temperature was 70° maintained for 6 min and then raised (10°C/min) to 160°C for 1 min. Nitrogen gas was used as carrier and FID as detector. The flow of carrier was 1.0 ml/min, the temperature of injection port and detector was 200°C and 250°C, respectively. The limits of detection for acetone, methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, isobutanol, pyridine, toluene in 7-ACCA were 2.5 μg/ml, 1.5 μg/ml, 15 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml, 2.5 μg/ml and 11 μg/ml, respectively. Only acetone was detected in the sample, and was less than the limits of Ch.P. The method can effectively detect the residual solvents in 7-ACCA.

  9. Amphoteric surfactants containing ?-hydroxy ester group and an amino acid residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of amphoteric surfactants containing α-hydroxy ester group and an amino acid residue were prepared with the addition of epoxy derivatives (which were prepared from epoxidation of alkyl methacrylate to different types of amino acids (glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, serine, threonine, aspartic and anthranilic acid.The structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by infrared spectra, proton magnetic resonance spectra, Mass spectra and elementary analysis. Surface tension, Kraft point, foaming power, critical micelle concentration emulsion and Ca++ stabilities were determined. Antimicrobial activity and biodegradability were also screened.Se prepararon una serie de tensioactivos anfóteros conteniendo un grupo alfa hidroxi éster y un residuo de aminoácido por adición de derivados epoxy (obtenidos mediante epoxidación de metacrilato de alquilo a diferentes tipos de aminoácidos (glicina, alanina, valina, isoleucina, fenilalanina, tirosina, serina, treonina y ácidos aspártico y antranílico. Las estructuras de los compuestos preparados se confirmaron por los espectros de infrarrojo, de masa, resonancia magnética nuclear de protones y análisis elemental. Se determinaron la tensión superficial, el punto de Kraft, el poder espumante, la concentración micelar crítica en emulsión y las estabilidades de Ca++. También se estudiaron la actividad antimicrobiana y la biodegradabilidad.

  10. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acids are required for epidermal permeability barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao-Qiang, M; Elias, P M; Feingold, K R

    1993-08-01

    The permeability barrier is mediated by a mixture of ceramides, sterols, and free fatty acids arranged as extracellular lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum. Whereas prior studies have shown that cholesterol and ceramides are required for normal barrier function, definitive evidence for the importance of nonessential fatty acids is not available. To determine whether epidermal fatty acid synthesis also is required for barrier homeostasis, we applied 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl CoA carboxylase, after disruption of the barrier by acetone or tape stripping. TOFA inhibits epidermal fatty acid by approximately 50% and significantly delays barrier recovery. Moreover, coadministration of palmitate with TOFA normalizes barrier recovery, indicating that the delay is due to a deficiency in bulk fatty acids. Furthermore, TOFA treatment also delays the return of lipids to the stratum corneum and results in abnormalities in the structure of lamellar bodies, the organelle which delivers lipid to the stratum corneum. In addition, the organization of secreted lamellar body material into lamellar bilayers within the stratum corneum interstices is disrupted by TOFA treatment. Finally, these abnormalities in lamellar body and stratum corneum membrane structure are corrected by coapplication of palmitate with TOFA. These results demonstrate a requirement for bulk fatty acids in barrier homeostasis. Thus, inhibiting the epidermal synthesis of any of the three key lipids that form the extracellular, lipid-enriched membranes of the stratum corneum results in an impairment in barrier homeostasis.

  12. Production of bio-sugar and bioethanol from coffee residue (CR) by acid-chlorite pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Choi, Yong-Soo; Lee, Dae-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, coffee residue (CR) after roasting is recognized as one of the most useful resources in the world for producing the biofuel and bio-materials. In this study, we evaluated the potential of bio-sugar and bioethanol production from acid-chlorite treated CR. Notably, CR treated three times with acid-chlorite after organic solvent extraction (OSE-3), showed the high monosaccharide content, and the efficient sugar conversion yield compared to the other pretreatment conditions. The OSE-3 (6% substrate loading, w/v) can produce bio-sugar (0.568g/g OSE-3). Also, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced ethanol (0.266g/g OSE-3), and showed an ethanol conversion yield of 73.8% after a 72-h reaction period. These results suggest that acid-chlorite pretreatment can improve the bio-sugar and bioethanol production of CR by removing the phenolic and brown compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on residual discharge time of lead-acid battery based on fitting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Yu, Wangwang; Jin, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuying

    2017-05-01

    This paper use the method of fitting to discuss the data of C problem of mathematical modeling in 2016, the residual discharge time model of lead-acid battery with 20A,30A,…,100A constant current discharge is obtained, and the discharge time model of discharge under arbitrary constant current is presented. The mean relative error of the model is calculated to be about 3%, which shows that the model has high accuracy. This model can provide a basis for optimizing the adaptation of power system to the electrical motor vehicle.

  14. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  15. Efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser on the Candida albicans biofilm formed on poly(methyl methacrylate): effects on residual biofilm and recolonization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faot, Fernanda; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Mendonça e Bertolini, Martinna de; Pinto, Luciana de Rezende; da Silva, Wander José; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel

    2014-06-23

    It is well known that the use of denture cleansers can reduce Candida albicans biofilm accumulation; however, the efficacy of citric acid denture cleansers is uncertain. In addition, the long-term efficacy of this denture cleanser is not well established, and their effect on residual biofilms is unknown. This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy of citric acid denture cleanser treatment on C. albicans biofilm recolonization on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surface. C. albicans biofilms were developed for 72 h on PMMA resin specimens (n = 168), which were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 cleansing treatments (CTs) overnight (8 h). CTs included purified water as a control (CTC) and two experimental groups that used either a 1:5 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT5) or a 1:8 dilution of citric acid denture cleanser (CT8). Residual biofilms adhering to the specimens were collected and quantified at two time points: immediately after CTs (ICT) and after cleaning and residual biofilm recolonization (RT). Residual biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the viable cells (CFU/mL), and biofilm architecture was evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Denture cleanser treatments and evaluation periods were considered study factors. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). Immediately after treatments, citric acid denture cleansing solutions (CT5 and CT8) reduced the number of viable cells as compared with the control (p recolonization (p recolonization was also detected by CLSM and SEM analysis, which revealed a higher biomass and average biofilm thickness for the CT8 group (p recolonization.

  16. The conserved glycine residues in the transmembrane domain of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein are not required for assembly and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Maofu; Kielian, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. Both the E1 fusion peptide and transmembrane (TM) domain are essential for membrane fusion, but the functional requirements for the TM domain are poorly understood. Here we explored the role of the five TM domain glycine residues, including the highly conserved glycine pair at E1 residues 415/416. SFV mutants with alanine substitutions for individual or all five glycine residues (5G/A) showed growth kinetics and fusion pH dependence similar to those of wild-type SFV. Mutants with increasing substitution of glycine residues showed an increasingly more stringent requirement for cholesterol during fusion. The 5G/A mutant showed decreased fusion kinetics and extent in fluorescent lipid mixing assays. TM domain glycine residues thus are not required for efficient SFV fusion or assembly but can cause subtle effects on the properties of membrane fusion

  17. Panel-reactive antibody levels and renal transplantation rates in sensitized patients after desensitization and human leucocyte antigen amino acid residue matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wenjun; Dong, Laidong; Feng, Guiwen; Wang, Yue; Pang, Xinlu; Li, Jinfeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weihong

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether a new desensitization protocol (mycophenolate mofetil [MMF], plasmapheresis and antithymocyte globulin [ATG], complemented with human leucocyte antigen [HLA] amino acid residue matching) could reduce panel-reactive antibody (PRA) levels in sensitized patients, to facilitate successful renal transplantation. Patients awaiting transplantation with PRA levels >10% received treatment with MMF; those with PRA levels >30% were also treated with plasmapheresis. Patients whose PRA level was desensitization were eligible for transplantation. When a donor became available, traditional HLA matching and HLA amino acid residue matching were performed. All patients received ATG induction therapy postoperatively. Thirty-two sensitized patients were enrolled. Desensitization produced a significant decrease in PRA levels; 27 patients (84.4%) became eligible for transplantation and 26 (81.2%) subsequently underwent successful transplantation. Residue matching improved the proportion with a mismatch number of 0-1 from 7.7% to 65.4%, compared with traditional HLA matching. Postoperatively, all patients showed immediate graft function. Acute rejection occurred in three patients (11.5%) and infections in seven patients (25.9%); all were treated successfully. The combination of a desensitization protocol (MMF, plasmapheresis and ATG) and residue matching appears to be an effective strategy for sensitized patients awaiting renal transplantation.

  18. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  19. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. DNA Three Way Junction Core Decorated with Amino Acids-Like Residues-Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Addamiano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction and physico-chemical behavior of DNA three way junction (3WJ functionalized by protein-like residues (imidazole, alcohol and carboxylic acid at unpaired positions at the core is described. One 5′-C(S-propargyl-thymidine nucleotide was specifically incorporated on each strand to react through a post synthetic CuACC reaction with either protected imidazolyl-, hydroxyl- or carboxyl-azide. Structural impacts of 5′-C(S-functionalization were investigated to evaluate how 3WJ flexibility/stability is affected.

  1. Amino acid residues important for substrate specificity of the amino acid permeases Can I p and Gnp I p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Kielland-Brandt, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Deletion of the general amino acid permease gene GAP1 abolishes uptake of L-citrulline in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, resulting in the inability to grow on L-citrulline as sole nitrogen source. Selection for suppressor mutants that restored growth on L-citrulline led to isolation of 21 mutations...... in the arginine permease gene CAN1. One similar mutation was found in the glutamine-asparagine permease gene GNP1. L-[C-14]citrulline uptake measurements confirmed that suppressor mutations in CAN1 conferred uptake of this amino acid, while none of the mutant permeases had lost the ability to transport L-[C-14......]arginine. Substrate specificity seemed to remain narrow in most cases, and broad substrate specificity was only observed in the cases where mutations affect two proline residues (P148 and P313) that are both conserved in the amino acid-polyamine-choline (APC) transporter superfamily. We found mutations...

  2. Protonation of key acidic residues is critical for the K⁺-selectivity of the Na/K pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Ratheal, Ian M; Artigas, Pablo; Roux, Benoît

    2011-09-11

    The sodium-potassium (Na/K) pump is a P-type ATPase that generates Na(+) and K(+) concentration gradients across the cell membrane. For each hydrolyzed ATP molecule, the pump extrudes three Na(+) and imports two K(+) by alternating between outward- and inward-facing conformations that preferentially bind K(+) or Na(+), respectively. Remarkably, the selective K(+) and Na(+) binding sites share several residues, and how the pump is able to achieve the selectivity required for the functional cycle is unclear. Here, free energy-perturbation molecular dynamics (FEP/MD) simulations based on the crystal structures of the Na/K pump in a K(+)-loaded state (E2·P(i)) reveal that protonation of the high-field acidic side chains involved in the binding sites is crucial to achieving the proper K(+) selectivity. This prediction is tested with electrophysiological experiments showing that the selectivity of the E2P state for K(+) over Na(+) is affected by extracellular pH.

  3. Identification of key amino acid residues modulating intracellular and in vitro microcin E492 amyloid formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina eAguilera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcin E492 (MccE492 is a pore-forming bacteriocin produced and exported by Klebsiella pneumoniae RYC492. Besides its antibacterial activity, excreted MccE492 can form amyloid fibrils in vivo as well as in vitro. It has been proposed that bacterial amyloids can be functional playing a biological role, and in the particular case of MccE492 it would control the antibacterial activity. MccE492 amyloid fibril’s morphology and formation kinetics in vitro have been well characterized, however it is not known which amino acid residues determine its amyloidogenic propensity, nor if it forms intracellular amyloid inclusions as has been reported for other bacterial amyloids. In this work we found the conditions in which MccE492 forms intracellular amyloids in E. coli cells, that were visualized as round-shaped inclusion bodies recognized by two amyloidophillic probes, 2-4´-methylaminophenyl benzothiazole and thioflavin-S. We used this property to perform a flow cytometry-based assay to evaluate the aggregation propensity of MccE492 mutants, that were designed using an in silico prediction of putative aggregation hotspots. We established that the predicted amino acid residues 54-63, effectively act as a pro-amyloidogenic stretch. As in the case of other amyloidogenic proteins, this region presented two gatekeeper residues (P57 and P59, which disfavor both intracellular and in vitro MccE492 amyloid formation, preventing an uncontrolled aggregation. Mutants in each of these gatekeeper residues showed faster in vitro aggregation and bactericidal inactivation kinetics, and the two mutants were accumulated as dense amyloid inclusions in more than 80% of E. coli cells expressing these variants. In contrast, the MccE492 mutant lacking residues 54-63 showed a significantly lower intracellular aggregation propensity and slower in vitro polymerization kinetics. Electron microscopy analysis of the amyloids formed in vitro by these mutants revealed that, although

  4. Two Arginine Residues of Streptococcus gordonii Sialic Acid-Binding Adhesin Hsa Are Essential for Interaction to Host Cell Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Urano-Tashiro

    Full Text Available Hsa is a large, serine-rich protein of Streptococcus gordonii DL1 that mediates binding to α2-3-linked sialic acid termini of glycoproteins, including platelet glycoprotein Ibα, and erythrocyte membrane protein glycophorin A, and band 3. The binding of Hsa to platelet glycoprotein Ibα contributes to the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. This interaction appears to be mediated by a second non-repetitive region (NR2 of Hsa. However, the molecular details of the interaction between the Hsa NR2 region and these glycoproteins are not well understood. In the present study, we identified the amino acid residues of the Hsa NR2 region that are involved in sialic acid recognition. To identify the sialic acid-binding site of Hsa NR2 region, we prepared various mutants of Hsa NR2 fused with glutathione transferase. Fusion proteins harboring Arg340 to Asn (R340N or Arg365 to Asn (R365N substitutions in the NR2 domain exhibited significantly reduced binding to human erythrocytes and platelets. A sugar-binding assay showed that these mutant proteins abolished binding to α2-3-linked sialic acid. Furthermore, we established S. gordonii DL1 derivatives that encoded the corresponding Hsa mutant protein. In whole-cell assays, these mutant strains showed significant reductions in hemagglutination, in platelet aggregation, and in adhesion to human leukocytes. These results indicate that the Arg340 and Arg365 residues of Hsa play an important role in the binding of Hsa to α2-3-linked sialic acid-containing glycoproteins.

  5. Critical lysine residues of Klf4 required for protein stabilization and degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Kim, So-Ra; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Baek, Kwang-Hyun, E-mail: baek@cha.ac.kr

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Klf4 undergoes the 26S proteasomal degradation by ubiquitination on its multiple lysine residues. • Essential Klf4 ubiquitination sites are accumulated between 190–263 amino acids. • A mutation of lysine at 232 on Klf4 elongates protein turnover. • Klf4 mutants dramatically suppress p53 expression both under normal and UV irradiated conditions. - Abstract: The transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) plays a crucial role in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As the ubiquitination and degradation of the Klf4 protein have been suggested to play an important role in its function, the identification of specific lysine sites that are responsible for protein degradation is of prime interest to improve protein stability and function. However, the molecular mechanism regulating proteasomal degradation of the Klf4 is poorly understood. In this study, both the analysis of Klf4 ubiquitination sites using several Klf4 deletion fragments and bioinformatics predictions showed that the lysine sites which are signaling for Klf4 protein degradation lie in its N-terminal domain (aa 1–296). The results also showed that Lys32, 52, 232, and 252 of Klf4 are responsible for the proteolysis of the Klf4 protein. These results suggest that Klf4 undergoes proteasomal degradation and that these lysine residues are critical for Klf4 ubiquitination.

  6. Amino acid compositional shifts during streptophyte transitions to terrestrial habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-02-01

    Across the streptophyte lineage, which includes charophycean algae and embryophytic plants, there have been at least four independent transitions to the terrestrial habitat. One of these involved the evolution of embryophytes (bryophytes and tracheophytes) from a charophycean ancestor, while others involved the earliest branching lineages, containing the monotypic genera Mesostigma and Chlorokybus, and within the Klebsormidiales and Zygnematales lineages. To overcome heat, water stress, and increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which must have accompanied these transitions, adaptive mechanisms would have been required. During periods of dehydration and/or desiccation, proteomes struggle to maintain adequate cytoplasmic solute concentrations. The increased usage of charged amino acids (DEHKR) may be one way of maintaining protein hydration, while increased use of aromatic residues (FHWY) protects proteins and nucleic acids by absorbing damaging UV, with both groups of residues thought to be important for the stabilization of protein structures. To test these hypotheses we examined amino acid sequences of orthologous proteins representing both mitochondrion- and plastid-encoded proteomes across streptophytic lineages. We compared relative differences within categories of amino acid residues and found consistent patterns of amino acid compositional fluxuation in extra-membranous regions that correspond with episodes of terrestrialization: positive change in usage frequency for residues with charged side-chains, and aromatic residues of the light-capturing chloroplast proteomes. We also found a general decrease in the usage frequency of hydrophobic, aliphatic, and small residues. These results suggest that amino acid compositional shifts in extra-membrane regions of plastid and mitochondrial proteins may represent biochemical adaptations that allowed green plants to colonize the land.

  7. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 13C{31P} REDOR NMR Investigation of the Role of Glutamic Acid Residues in Statherin-Hydroxyapatite Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndao, Moise; Ash, Jason T.; Breen, Nicholas F.; Goobes, Gil; Stayton, Patrick S.; Drobny, Gary P.

    2011-01-01

    The side chain carboxyl groups of acidic proteins found in the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) of mineralized tissues play a key role in promoting or inhibiting the growth of minerals such as hydroxyapatite (HAP), the principal mineral component of bone and teeth. Among the acidic proteins found in the saliva is statherin, a 43-residue tyrosine-rich peptide that is a potent lubricant in the salivary pellicle and an inhibitor of both HAP crystal nucleation and growth. Three acidic amino acids – D1, E4, and E5 – are located in the N-terminal 15 amino acid segment, with a fourth amino acid, E26, located outside the N-terminus. We have utilized 13C{31P} REDOR NMR to analyze the role played by acidic amino acids in the binding mechanism of statherin to the HAP surface by measuring the distance between the δ-carboxyl 13C spins of the three glutamic acid side chains of statherin (residues E4, E5, E26) and 31P spins of the phosphate groups at the HAP surface. 13C{31P} REDOR studies of glutamic-5-13C acid incorporated at positions E4 and E26 indicate a 13C–31P distance of more than 6.5 Å between the side chain carboxyl 13C spin of E4 and the closest 31P in the HAP surface. In contrast, the carboxyl 13C spin at E5 has a much shorter 13C–31P internuclear distance of 4.25±0.09 Å, indicating that the carboxyl group of this side chain interacts directly with the surface. 13C T1ρ and slow-spinning MAS studies indicate that the motions of the side chains of E4 and E5 are more restricted than that of E26. Together, these results provide further insight into the molecular interactions of statherin with HAP surfaces. PMID:19678690

  9. Simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon under field conditions by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Di; Zhang, Haizhen; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Fei; Shi, Lihong; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan

    2017-11-01

    An optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes. The recoveries of the fungicides in watermelon, pulp and soil were 72.32-99.20% for difenoconazole, 74.68-87.72% for trifloxystrobin and 78.59-92.66% for trifloxystrobin acid with relative standard deviations of 1.34-14.04%. The dissipation dynamics of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin in watermelon and soil followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives of 3.2-8.8 days in both locations. The final residue levels of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were below 0.1 mg/kg (maximum residue level [MRL] set by China) and 0.2 mg/kg (MRL set by European Union), respectively, in pulp samples collected 14 days after the last application. These results could help Chinese authorities to establish MRL of trifloxystrobin in watermelon and provide guidance for the safe and proper application of both fungicides on watermelon. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Physicochemical and functional characteristics of residual pulp of potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webber Tavares de CARVALHO

    Full Text Available Abstract Starch-rich liquid effluent is generated after peeling, cutting and washing of tubers during the fries processing. After sedimentation of this effluent is recovered a wet residual pulp, and after drying is obtained dry residual pulp or simply named in this study residual pulp of potato (RPP. In order to convert the effluent into a material easy to store for long periods (such as the potato starch, which would make it suitable for various applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the drying conditions, specifically variables temperature and air flow on the drying time and water activity, pH, titratable acidity, instrumental colour parameters, water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption capacity of dry RPP. Central Composite Design was used, with temperature levels from 50.0 to 70.0 °C and air flow from 0.06 to 0.092 m3 m–2 s–1. Temperature and airflow affected the study characteristics, except for lightness (L*, water solubility index and oil absorption capacity. It was concluded that milder conditions (lower temperatures and intermediate air flow resulted in higher-quality final products (lighter, less acidic, although requiring higher drying time. Therefore, depending on the product application, different drying conditions can be used.

  11. The One-carbon Carrier Methylofuran from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Contains a Large Number of α- and γ-Linked Glutamic Acid Residues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmann, Jethro L.; Saurel, Olivier; Ochsner, Andrea M.; Stodden, Barbara K.; Kiefer, Patrick; Milon, Alain; Vorholt, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 uses dedicated cofactors for one-carbon unit conversion. Based on the sequence identities of enzymes and activity determinations, a methanofuran analog was proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation in Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report the structure of the cofactor, which we termed methylofuran. Using an in vitro enzyme assay and LC-MS, methylofuran was identified in cell extracts and further purified. From the exact mass and MS-MS fragmentation pattern, the structure of the cofactor was determined to consist of a polyglutamic acid side chain linked to a core structure similar to the one present in archaeal methanofuran variants. NMR analyses showed that the core structure contains a furan ring. However, instead of the tyramine moiety that is present in methanofuran cofactors, a tyrosine residue is present in methylofuran, which was further confirmed by MS through the incorporation of a 13C-labeled precursor. Methylofuran was present as a mixture of different species with varying numbers of glutamic acid residues in the side chain ranging from 12 to 24. Notably, the glutamic acid residues were not solely γ-linked, as is the case for all known methanofurans, but were identified by NMR as a mixture of α- and γ-linked amino acids. Considering the unusual peptide chain, the elucidation of the structure presented here sets the basis for further research on this cofactor, which is probably the largest cofactor known so far. PMID:26895963

  12. 40 CFR 180.1090 - Lactic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lactic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1090 Lactic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance when used as a plant growth...

  13. Hydrogen bond strengths in phosphorylated and sulfated amino acid residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Rapp

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification by the addition of an oxoanion functional group, usually a phosphate group and less commonly a sulfate group, leads to diverse structural and functional consequences in protein systems. Building upon previous studies of the phosphoserine residue (pSer, we address the distinct nature of hydrogen bonding interactions in phosphotyrosine (pTyr and sulfotyrosine (sTyr residues. We derive partial charges for these modified residues and then study them in the context of molecular dynamics simulation of model tripeptides and sulfated protein complexes, potentials of mean force for interacting residue pairs, and a survey of the interactions of modified residues among experimental protein structures. Overall, our findings show that for pTyr, bidentate interactions with Arg are particularly dominant, as has been previously demonstrated for pSer. sTyr interactions with Arg are significantly weaker, even as compared to the same interactions made by the Glu residue. Our work sheds light on the distinct nature of these modified tyrosine residues, and provides a physical-chemical foundation for future studies with the goal of understanding their roles in systems of biological interest.

  14. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.Y.; Yang, L.X. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Z.F. [Institute of Human Virology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Department of Biochemistry, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Tropical Diseases Control, Sun Yat-sen University, Ministry of Education in China, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-12-02

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation.

  15. The N-terminal 33 amino acid domain of Siva-1 is sufficient for nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.Y.; Yang, L.X.; Huang, Z.F.

    2013-01-01

    Siva-1 induces apoptosis in multiple pathological processes and plays an important role in the suppression of tumor metastasis, protein degradation, and other functions. Although many studies have demonstrated that Siva-1 functions in the cytoplasm, a few have found that Siva-1 can relocate to the nucleus. In this study, we found that the first 33 amino acid residues of Siva-1 are required for its nuclear localization. Further study demonstrated that the green fluorescent protein can be imported into the nucleus after fusion with these 33 amino acid residues. Other Siva-1 regions and domains showed less effect on Siva-1 nuclear localization. By site-mutagenesis of all of these 33 amino acid residues, we found that mutants of the first 1-18 amino acids affected Siva-1 nuclear compartmentalization but could not complete this localization independently. In summary, we demonstrated that the N-terminal 33 amino acid residues were sufficient for Siva-1 nuclear localization, but the mechanism of this translocation needs additional investigation

  16. Effect of the inclusion of fish residue oils in diets on the fatty acid profile of muscles of males and females lambari (Astyanax altiparanae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Uribe Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of two lipids sources of fish residue (tilapia and salmon compared with a vegetable oil source (soybean oil on the fatty acid profiles of male and female lambari. This experiment was developed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments resulting from the combination of the three experimental diets for both sexes, with four replications for each treatment. This study involved 120 male (2.58±0.13 g and 72 female lambari (4.00±0.09 g, fed the experimental diets twice a day until apparent satiation for a period of 60 days. Oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic fatty acids were found at higher concentrations in all experimental oils and diets, as well in the muscle of male and female lambari. The low amounts of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the experimental diets and subsequent greater concentrations in muscle tissue, suggested that lambari are able to desaturate and elongate the chain of fatty acids with 18 carbons. The fish of both sexes that received the diet with soybean oil showed high levels of n-6 fatty acids, especially of C18: 2n-6 and low levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. The diet with salmon residue oil promoted higher levels of fatty acids of the n-3 series and resulted in the best n-3/n-6 ratio in the muscle of male and female lambari. The oils from fish residues can be a substitute for traditional fish oil and its use in the lambari diets does not impair its growth.

  17. Evidence for a Proton Transfer Network and a Required Persulfide-Bond-Forming Cysteine Residue in Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun Jin Kim; Jian Feng; Bramlett, Matthew R.; Lindahl, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    OAK-B135 Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Moorella thermoacetica catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2 at a nickel-iron-sulfur active-site called the C-cluster. Mutants of a proposed proton transfer pathway and of a cysteine residue recently found to form a persulfide bond with the C-cluster were characterized. Four semi-conserved histidine residues were individually mutated to alanine. His116 and His122 were essential to catalysis, while His113 and His119 attenuated catalysis but were not essential. Significant activity was ''rescued'' by a double mutant where His116 was replaced by Ala and His was also introduced at position 115. Activity was also rescued in double mutants where His122 was replaced by Ala and His was simultaneously introduced at either position 121 or 123. Activity was also ''rescued'' by replacing His with Cys at position 116. Mutation of conserved Lys587 near the C-cluster attenuated activity but did not eliminate it. Activity was virtually abolished in a double mutant where Lys587 and His113 were both changed to Ala. Mutations of conserved Asn284 also attenuated activity. These effects suggest the presence of a network of amino acid residues responsible for proton transfer rather than a single linear pathway. The Ser mutant of the persulfide-forming Cys316 was essentially inactive and displayed no EPR signals originating from the C-cluster. Electronic absorption and metal analysis suggests that the C-cluster is absent in this mutant. The persulfide bond appears to be essential for either the assembly or stability of the C-cluster, and/or for eliciting the redox chemistry of the C-cluster required for catalytic activity

  18. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during

  19. Polymers with complexing properties. Simple poly(amino acids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The free amino (0.3 equiv/residue) and carboxyl (0.5 equiv/residue) groups of thermal polylysine increased dramatically on treatment with distilled water. The total hydrolysis of such a polymer was abnormal in that only about 50% of the expected amino acids were recovered. Poly (lysine-co-alanine-co-glycine) under usual conditions hydrolyzed completely in 8 hours; whereas, when it was pretreated with diazomethane, a normal period of 24 hours was required to give (nearly) the same amounts of each free amino acid as compared with those obtained from the untreated polymer. The amino groups of the basic thermal poly(amino acids) were sterically hindered. The existence of nitrogen atoms linking two or three chains and reactive groups (anhydride, imine) were proposed.

  20. Composition, texture and methane potential of cellulosic residues from Lewis acids organosolv pulping of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Sandra; Barakat, Abdellatif; Robitzer, Mike; Di Renzo, Francesco; Dumas, Claire; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Cellulosic pulps have been successfully isolated from wheat straw through a Lewis acids organosolv treatment. The use of Lewis acids with different hardness produced pulps with different delignification degrees. The cellulosic residue was characterised by chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, N2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and potential for anaerobic digestibility. Surface area and pore volume increased with the hardness of the Lewis acid, in correspondence with the decrease of the amount of lignin and hemicellulose in the pulp. The non linearity of the correlation between porosity and composition suggests that an agglomeration of cellulose fibrils occurs in the early stages of pulping. All organosolv pulps presented a significantly higher methane potential than the parent straw. A methane evolution of 295Ncm(3)/g OM was reached by a moderate improvement of the accessibility of the native straw. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  2. Amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by streptococcal IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batten, MR; Senior, BW; Kilian, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    The amino acid sequence requirements in the hinge of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) for cleavage by IgA1 proteases of different species of Streptococcus were investigated. Recombinant IgA1 antibodies were generated with point mutations at proline 227 and threonine 228, the residues lying on either...... side of the peptide bond at which all streptococcal IgA1 proteases cleave wild-type human IgA1. The amino acid substitutions produced no major effect upon the structure of the mutant IgA1 antibodies or their functional ability to bind to Fcalpha receptors. However, the substitutions had a substantial...... effect upon sensitivity to cleavage with some streptococcal IgA1 proteases, with, in some cases, a single point mutation rendering the antibody resistant to a particular IgA1 protease. This effect was least marked with the IgA1 protease from Streptococcus pneumoniae, which showed no absolute requirement...

  3. Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Decreases Allogeneic Transfusion Requirements in Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Andrew J; Sanders, Thomas L; Trousdale, Robert T; Sierra, Rafael J

    2016-01-01

    Bernese (Ganz) periacetabular osteotomy is associated with significant blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusion. Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss and minimizes transfusion rates in total joint arthroplasty. However, no reports have described its use in patients undergoing Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. This study reports the use of intravenous tranexamic acid in these patients. The study included 137 patients (150 hips) who underwent isolated periacetabular osteotomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2014. Of these, 68 patients (75 hips) received intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g at the time of incision and 1 g at the time of closure. A group of 69 patients (75 hips) served as control subjects who underwent periacetabular osteotomy without administration of intravenous tranexamic acid. Thromboembolic disease was defined as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurring within 6 weeks of surgery. Outcomes measured included transfusion requirements, pre- and postoperative hemoglobin values, operative times, and thromboembolic disease rates. Aspirin was used as the thromboembolic prophylactic regimen in 95% of patients. The rate of allogeneic transfusion was 0 in the tranexamic acid group compared with 21% in the control group (P=.0001). No significant difference was found in the autologous cell salvage requirement (.96 vs 1.01; P=.43) or the thromboembolic disease rate between the tranexamic acid group and the control group (2.67% vs 1.33%; P=.31). The use of intravenous tranexamic acid led to a decreased transfusion requirement with no increased risk of thromboembolic disease in this contemporary cohort of patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Sulfhydryl oxidation of mutants with cysteine in place of acidic residues in the lactose permease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, J; Sun, J; Venkatesan, P; Kaback, H R

    1998-06-02

    To examine further the role of charge-pair interactions in the structure and function of lactose permease, Asp237 (helix VII), Asp240 (helix VII), Glu126 (cytoplasmic loop IV/V), Glu269 (helix VIII), and Glu325 (helix X) were replaced individually with Cys in a functional mutant devoid of Cys residues. Each mutant was then oxidized with H2O2 in order to generate a sulfinic and/or sulfonic acid at these positions. Due to the isosteric relationship between aspartate and sulfinate, in particular, and the lower pKa of the sulfinic and sulfonic acid side chains, oxidized derivatives of Cys are useful probes for examining the role of carboxylates. Asp237-->Cys or Asp240-->Cys permease is inactive, as shown previously, but H2O2 oxidation restores activity to an extent similar to that observed when a negative charge is reintroduced by other means. Glu126-->Cys, Glu269-->Cys, or Glu325-->Cys permease is inactive, but oxidation does not restore active lactose transport. The data are consistent with previous observations indicating that Asp237 and Asp240 are not critical for active lactose transport, while Glu126, Glu269, and Glu325 are irreplaceable. Although Glu269-->Cys permease does not transport lactose, the oxidized mutant exhibits significant transport of beta,D-galactosylpyranosyl 1-thio-beta,D-galactopyranoside, a property observed with Glu269-->Asp permease. The observation supports the idea that an acidic residue at position 269 is important for substrate recognition. Finally, oxidized Glu325-->Cys permease catalyzes equilibrium exchange with an apparent pKa of about 6.5, more than a pH unit lower than that observed with Glu325-->Asp permease, thereby providing strong confirmatory evidence that a negative charge at position 325 determines the rate of translocation of the ternary complex between the permease, substrate, and H+.

  5. The One-carbon Carrier Methylofuran from Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 Contains a Large Number of α- and γ-Linked Glutamic Acid Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmann, Jethro L; Saurel, Olivier; Ochsner, Andrea M; Stodden, Barbara K; Kiefer, Patrick; Milon, Alain; Vorholt, Julia A

    2016-04-22

    Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 uses dedicated cofactors for one-carbon unit conversion. Based on the sequence identities of enzymes and activity determinations, a methanofuran analog was proposed to be involved in formaldehyde oxidation in Alphaproteobacteria. Here, we report the structure of the cofactor, which we termed methylofuran. Using an in vitro enzyme assay and LC-MS, methylofuran was identified in cell extracts and further purified. From the exact mass and MS-MS fragmentation pattern, the structure of the cofactor was determined to consist of a polyglutamic acid side chain linked to a core structure similar to the one present in archaeal methanofuran variants. NMR analyses showed that the core structure contains a furan ring. However, instead of the tyramine moiety that is present in methanofuran cofactors, a tyrosine residue is present in methylofuran, which was further confirmed by MS through the incorporation of a (13)C-labeled precursor. Methylofuran was present as a mixture of different species with varying numbers of glutamic acid residues in the side chain ranging from 12 to 24. Notably, the glutamic acid residues were not solely γ-linked, as is the case for all known methanofurans, but were identified by NMR as a mixture of α- and γ-linked amino acids. Considering the unusual peptide chain, the elucidation of the structure presented here sets the basis for further research on this cofactor, which is probably the largest cofactor known so far. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Effects of the substitution of amino acid residues, through chemical synthesis, on the conformation and activity of antimicrobial peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Adão

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides make up an assorted group of molecules which contain from 12 to 50 amino acid residues and which may be produced by microorganisms, plants and animals. From the discovery that these biomolecules are lethal to bacteria, inhibiting the pathogenic organism’s growth, and are also related to innate and adapted defense mechanisms, the investigation of such molecules came to be an emergent research field, in which more than 1800 antimicrobial peptides have so far been discovered throughout the last three decades. These molecules are potential representatives of a new generation of antibiotic agents and the main motivation for such use is their activity against a wide variety of pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi and viruses. An important class of comprising some of these peptides may be found in anurans, from which it has been isolated, a considerable number of antimicrobial peptides with diverse sequences and structures, including linear and dimeric ones. In this work monomeric chains (CH1 e CH2 of the heterodimeric antimicrobial peptide distinctin (isolated in 1999 from Phyllomedusa distincta anurans, as well as its mutated monomers (CH1-S and CH2-S and the heterodimer itself were synthesized. The distinctin is the peptide with two chains of different sequences (Table 1 bound each other by disulfide bond from the cystein residues constituting the heterodimer. To investigate the effects on the biological activity by amino acids substitution at normal distinctin CH1 and CH2 chains, both were synthesized as well as their similar chains (CH1-S and CH2-S in which the cystein (Fig.1 a residues of each chain were changed by serin residues (Fig. 1 b. The new chains were named mutants. The synthesis was carried out in solid phase, using Fmoc strategy. The heterodimer distinctin was obtained from CH1 and CH2 chains coupling through cystein residues air oxidation. The results from HPLC

  7. Application of Ganghwa Mugwort in Combination with Ascorbic Acid for the Reduction of Residual Nitrite in Pork Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Lee, Choong-Hee; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-01-01

    The application of ganghwa mugwort (GM), ascorbic acid (AC), and their combinations for reduction of residual nitrite contents was analyzed in pork sausages during storage of 28 d. Six treatments of pork sausages contained the following: Control (no antioxidant added), AC (0.05% AC), GM 0.1 (0.1% GM), GM 0.2 (0.2% GM), AC+GM 0.1 (0.05% AC + 0.1% GM) and AC+GM 0.2 (0.05% AC + 0.2% GM). Results showed that the mixture of 0.05% AC and 0.2% GM was most effective for reducing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and residual nitrite contents than the control and GM added sausages alone (pcolor values of all treatments were significantly affected by adding GM (either alone or with AC). Additionally, the total color difference (ΔE) and hue angle (H°) values of treatments added with GM were higher than those of the control as the amount of GM increased (p0.05). Our results showed possible applications of antioxidant combination, for preventing the lipid oxidation and decreasing the residual nitrite levels of meat products. PMID:26760936

  8. Influence of residual elements in lead on oxygen- and hydrogen-gassing rates of lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, L. T.; Ceylan, H.; Haigh, N. P.; Lwin, T.; Rand, D. A. J.

    Raw lead materials contain many residual elements. With respect to setting 'safe' levels for these elements, each country has its own standard, but the majority of the present specifications for the lead used to prepare battery oxide apply to flooded batteries that employ antimonial grids. In these batteries, the antimony in the positive and negative grids dominates gassing characteristics so that the influence of residual elements is of little importance. This is, however, not the case for valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, which use antimony-free grids and less sulfuric acid solution. Thus, it is necessary to specify 'acceptable' levels of residual elements for the production of VRLA batteries. In this study, 17 elements are examined, namely: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, germanium, iron, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, tellurium, thallium, tin, and zinc. The following strategy has been formulated to determine the acceptable levels: (i) selection of a control oxide; (ii) determination of critical float, hydrogen and oxygen currents; (iii) establishment of a screening plan for the elements; (iv) development of a statistical method for analysis of the experimental results. The critical values of the float, hydrogen and oxygen currents are calculated from a field survey of battery failure data. The values serve as a base-line for comparison with the corresponding measured currents from cells using positive and negative plates produced either from the control oxide or from oxide doped with different levels of the 17 elements in combination. The latter levels are determined by means of a screening plan which is based on the Plackett-Burman experimental design. Following this systematic and thorough exercise, two specifications are proposed for the purity of the lead to be used in oxide production for VRLA technology.

  9. Multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the function of the rat P2X4 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B Rokic

    Full Text Available The binding of ATP to trimeric P2X receptors (P2XR causes an enlargement of the receptor extracellular vestibule, leading to opening of the cation-selective transmembrane pore, but specific roles of vestibule amino acid residues in receptor activation have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, alanine or cysteine scanning mutagenesis of V47-V61 and F324-N338 sequences of rat P2X4R revealed that V49, Y54, Q55, F324, and G325 mutants were poorly responsive to ATP and trafficking was only affected by the V49 mutation. The Y54F and Y54W mutations, but not the Y54L mutation, rescued receptor function, suggesting that an aromatic residue is important at this position. Furthermore, the Y54A and Y54C receptor function was partially rescued by ivermectin, a positive allosteric modulator of P2X4R, suggesting a rightward shift in the potency of ATP to activate P2X4R. The Q55T, Q55N, Q55E, and Q55K mutations resulted in non-responsive receptors and only the Q55E mutant was ivermectin-sensitive. The F324L, F324Y, and F324W mutations also rescued receptor function partially or completely, ivermectin action on channel gating was preserved in all mutants, and changes in ATP responsiveness correlated with the hydrophobicity and side chain volume of the substituent. The G325P mutant had a normal response to ATP, suggesting that G325 is a flexible hinge. A topological analysis revealed that the G325 and F324 residues disrupt a β-sheet upon ATP binding. These results indicate multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the P2X4R function: the V49 residue is important for receptor trafficking to plasma membrane, the Y54 and Q55 residues play a critical role in channel gating and the F324 and G325 residues are critical for vestibule widening.

  10. Networks of High Mutual Information Define the Structural Proximity of Catalytic Sites: Implications for Catalytic Residue Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buslje, Cristina Marino; Teppa, Elin; Di Doménico, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    other non-functional conserved residues. Using a data set of 434 Pfam families included in the catalytic site atlas (CSA) database, we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that MI can complement amino acid conservation scores to detect CR. The Kullback-Leibler (KL) conservation measurement was shown.......90, the Cls method was found to have a sensitivity of 0.816. In summary, we demonstrate that networks of residues with high MI provide a distinct signature on CR and propose that such a signature should be present in other classes of functional residues where the requirement to maintain a particular function...

  11. Pyrolytic characteristics of biomass acid hydrolysis residue rich in lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqin; Wei, Zhiguo; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi

    2012-01-01

    Pyrolytic characteristics of acid hydrolysis residue (AHR) of corncob and pinewood (CAHR, WAHR) were investigated using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a self-designed pyrolysis apparatus. Gasification reactivity of CAHR char was then examined using TGA and X-ray diffractometer. Result of TGA showed that thermal degradation curves of AHR descended smoothly along with temperature increasing from 150 °C to 850 °C, while a "sharp mass loss stage" for original biomass feedstock (OBF) was observed. Char yield from AHR (42.64-30.35 wt.%) was found to be much greater than that from OBF (26.4-19.15 wt.%). In addition, gasification reactivity of CAHR char was lower than that of corncob char, and there was big difference in micro-crystallite structure. It was also found that CAHR char reactivity decreased with pyrolysis temperature, but increased with pyrolysis heating rate and gasification temperature at 850-950 °C. Furthermore, CAHR char reactivity performed better under steam atmosphere than under CO2 atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of alkali or acid treatment on the isomerization of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Taketo; Mutaguchi, Yuta; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-10-01

    The effect of alkali treatment on the isomerization of amino acids was investigated. The 100×D/(D+L) values of amino acids from peptide increased with increase in the number of constituent amino acid residues. Furthermore, the N-terminal amino acid of a dipeptide was isomerized to a greater extent than the C-terminal residue. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Evaluation of ozonation technique for pesticide residue removal and its effect on ascorbic acid, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and polyphenols in apple (Malus domesticus) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Saurabh; Muzammil, Raunaq; Saha, Supradip; Shabeer, Ahammed; Oulkar, Dasharath; Banerjee, Kaushik; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2016-05-01

    Ozonated water dip technique was evaluated for the detoxification of six pesticides, i.e., chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, azoxystrobin, hexaconazole, methyl parathion, and chlorothalonil from apple fruits. Results revealed that ozonation was better than washing alone. Ozonation for 15 min decreased residues of the test pesticides in the range of from 26.91 to 73.58%, while ozonation for 30 min could remove the pesticide residues by 39.39-95.14 % compared to 19.05-72.80 % by washing. Cypermethrin was the least removed pesticide by washing as well as by ozonation. Chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, and azoxystrobin were removed up to 71.45-95.14 % in a 30-min ozonation period. In case of methyl parathion removal, no extra advantage could be obtained by ozonation. The HPLC analysis indicated that ozonation also affected adversely the ascorbic acid and cyanidin-3-glucoside content of apples. However, 11 polyphenols studied showed a mixed trend. Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechin, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin, and kaempferol were found to decrease while syringic acid, rutin, and resveratrol were found to increase in 30-min ozonation.

  14. Identification of amino acid residues in the ligand-binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor causing the species-specific response to omeprazole: possible determinants for binding putative endogenous ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Kawanishi, Masanobu; Yagi, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Omeprazole (OME) induces the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as CYP1A1, via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) both in vivo and in vitro. However, the precise mechanism of OME-mediated AhR activation is still under investigation. While elucidating species-specific susceptibility to dioxin, we found that OME-mediated AhR activation was mammalian species specific. Moreover, we previously reported that OME has inhibitory activity toward CYP1A1 enzymes. From these observations, we speculated that OME-mediated AhR target gene transcription is due to AhR activation by increasing amounts of putative AhR ligands in serum by inhibition of CYP1A1 activity. We compared the amino acid sequences of OME-sensitive rabbit AhR and nonsensitive mouse AhR to identify the residues responsible for the species-specific response. Chimeric AhRs were constructed by exchanging domains between mouse and rabbit AhRs to define the region required for the response to OME. OME-mediated transactivation was observed only with the chimeric AhR that included the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the rabbit AhR. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed three amino acids (M328, T353, and F367) in the rabbit AhR that were responsible for OME-mediated transactivation. Replacing these residues with those of the mouse AhR abolished the response of the rabbit AhR. In contrast, substitutions of these amino acids with those of the rabbit AhR altered nonsensitive mouse AhR to become sensitive to OME. These results suggest that OME-mediated AhR activation requires a specific structure within LBD that is probably essential for binding with enigmatic endogenous ligands.

  15. Operation of the radioactive acid-digestion test unit (RADTU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasewitz, A.G.; Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Ely, P.C.; Richardson, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, research and development work concerned with the acid digestion of combustible waste with high plutonium content is being carried out. The main objectives are the reduction of the waste volume, the recovery of the plutonium and the transformation of the process residues into a product suitable for final disposal. For this purpose an inactive demonstration plant with a throughput of 1.5 kg/h has been constructed. In the first version, the reactor of this plant was a tray reactor of the HEDL type. During test operations the sedimentation of a residue was observed on the tray. The density of this residue was higher than that of the residue suspended in the reaction acid. Experiments using tantalum oxide (D=8.4 g/cm 3 ) to simulate the plutonium oxide (D=11.5 g/cm 3 ) have verified this observation. This means that in active operation a sedimentation of plutonium oxide on the tray is to be expected. With respect to these results a new reactor was developed where the settling of the residue is avoided by appropriate design and high circulation velocity of the reaction acid. The reactor consists of a tube 50-80 mm in diameter, which is curved to form a closed loop with an arm length of about 1x1 m. Since October 1979 this ring reactor has been under inactive test operation. Its behaviour is very stable. The velocity of the reaction acid in the heater is 0.5-1 m/s. A settling of residues or tantalum oxide has not been observed. The throughput attained is comparable to that of the tray reactor but the space requirement is three times smaller, and the volume of the reaction acid four times smaller. (author)

  16. Identification and modulation of the key amino acid residue responsible for the pH sensitivity of neoculin, a taste-modifying protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Nakajima

    Full Text Available Neoculin occurring in the tropical fruit of Curculigo latifolia is currently the only protein that possesses both a sweet taste and a taste-modifying activity of converting sourness into sweetness. Structurally, this protein is a heterodimer consisting of a neoculin acidic subunit (NAS and a neoculin basic subunit (NBS. Recently, we found that a neoculin variant in which all five histidine residues are replaced with alanine elicits intense sweetness at both neutral and acidic pH but has no taste-modifying activity. To identify the critical histidine residue(s responsible for this activity, we produced a series of His-to-Ala neoculin variants and evaluated their sweetness levels using cell-based calcium imaging and a human sensory test. Our results suggest that NBS His11 functions as a primary pH sensor for neoculin to elicit taste modification. Neoculin variants with substitutions other than His-to-Ala were further analyzed to clarify the role of the NBS position 11 in the taste-modifying activity. We found that the aromatic character of the amino acid side chain is necessary to elicit the pH-dependent sweetness. Interestingly, since the His-to-Tyr variant is a novel taste-modifying protein with alternative pH sensitivity, the position 11 in NBS can be critical to modulate the pH-dependent activity of neoculin. These findings are important for understanding the pH-sensitive functional changes in proteinaceous ligands in general and the interaction of taste receptor-taste substance in particular.

  17. Identification of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and their fatty acid esters in residues and distillates of structured lipids purified by short-path distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Akoh, Casimir C

    2013-01-09

    The fate of endogenous vitamin E isomers during production and purification of structured lipids (SLs) was investigated. Two SLs involving tripalmitin, stearidonic acid soybean oil, and docosahexaenoic acid were synthesized by transesterification catalyzed by Novozym 435 (NSL) and acidolysis by Lipozyme TL IM (LDHA) and purified by short-path distillation (SPD). The electron impact and chemical ionization mass spectra of tocopheryl and tocotrienyl fatty acid esters in the distillates measured by GC-MS in synchronous scan/SIM mode demonstrated that these esters were formed during acidolysis as well as transesterification. The predominant esters were tocopheryl palmitate, tocopheryl oleate, and tocopheryl linoleate homologues, and no tocopheryl or tocotrienyl linolenate, stearidonate, or docosahexaenoate was found. Meanwhile, none of these esters were detected in the residues for either NSL or LDHA. Less than 50% of vitamin E isomers were present in residues after SPD. This loss played a major role in the rapid oxidative deterioration of SLs from previous studies with less contribution from the formation of tocopheryl and tocotrienyl esters. The lost tocopherols and tocotrienols present at high concentration in the distillates may be recovered and used to improve the oxidative stability of SLs.

  18. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  19. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  20. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH water column. However extrapolation of this concept to a field

  1. A non-catalytic histidine residue influences the function of the metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Brian M; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Mpl, a thermolysin-like metalloprotease, and PC-PLC, a phospholipase C, are synthesized as proenzymes by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. During intracellular growth, L. monocytogenes is temporarily confined in a membrane-bound vacuole whose acidification leads to Mpl autolysis and Mpl-mediated cleavage of the PC-PLC N-terminal propeptide. Mpl maturation also leads to the secretion of both Mpl and PC-PLC across the bacterial cell wall. Previously, we identified negatively charged and uncharged amino acid residues within the N terminus of the PC-PLC propeptide that influence the ability of Mpl to mediate the maturation of PC-PLC, suggesting that these residues promote the interaction of the PC-PLC propeptide with Mpl. In the present study, we identified a non-catalytic histidine residue (H226) that influences Mpl secretion across the cell wall and its ability to process PC-PLC. Our results suggest that a positive charge at position 226 is required for Mpl functions other than autolysis. Based on the charge requirement at this position, we hypothesize that this residue contributes to the interaction of Mpl with the PC-PLC propeptide.

  2. Aqueous methods for recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Killion, M.E.; Fisher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the recovery of plutonium from the pyrochemical residue salts from the Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) and Electrorefining (ER) processes have shown that chloride anion exchange is useful and effective. Our previous studies have defined the operating limits for obtaining low level effluent plutonium losses on the order of 10 -3 g/l. The knowledge obtained in work on DOR salt was extended to ER salt and a process has been demonstrated to be feasible on a larger scale. Studies of oxalate precipitation of plutonium (III) from the eluat exhibit the expected losses to the filtrate as a function of the acidity. Two alternatives to chloride anion exchange, caustic leaching and direct oxalate precipitation are also shown to be feasible for the recovery of plutonium from ER salts. The results of studies of coprocessing DOR and ER residue salts to increase ER salt throughput and decrease HC1 requirements are also presented. The feasibility of coprocessing other pyrochemical residues, such as black salts, anode heel, and ER scrapeout will be discussed

  3. Identification of two critical amino acid residues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for its variation in zoonotic tropism transition via a double substitution strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiu-Xia; Hao, Pei; Song, Xi-Jun; Jiang, Si-Ming; Liu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Pei-Gang; Rao, Xi; Song, Huai-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yue; Zuo, Yu; Zheng, Ai-Hua; Luo, Min; Wang, Hua-Lin; Deng, Fei; Wang, Han-Zhong; Hu, Zhi-Hong; Ding, Ming-Xiao; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Deng, Hong-Kui

    2005-08-19

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is a recently identified human coronavirus. The extremely high homology of the viral genomic sequences between the viruses isolated from human (huSARS-CoV) and those of palm civet origin (pcSARS-CoV) suggested possible palm civet-to-human transmission. Genetic analysis revealed that the spike (S) protein of pcSARS-CoV and huSARS-CoV was subjected to the strongest positive selection pressure during transmission, and there were six amino acid residues within the receptor-binding domain of the S protein being potentially important for SARS progression and tropism. Using the single-round infection assay, we found that a two-amino acid substitution (N479K/T487S) of a huSARS-CoV for those of pcSARS-CoV almost abolished its infection of human cells expressing the SARS-CoV receptor ACE2 but no effect upon the infection of mouse ACE2 cells. Although single substitution of these two residues had no effects on the infectivity of huSARS-CoV, these recombinant S proteins bound to human ACE2 with different levels of reduced affinity, and the two-amino acid-substituted S protein showed extremely low affinity. On the contrary, substitution of these two amino acid residues of pcSARS-CoV for those of huSRAS-CoV made pcSARS-CoV capable of infecting human ACE2-expressing cells. These results suggest that amino acid residues at position 479 and 487 of the S protein are important determinants for SARS-CoV tropism and animal-to-human transmission.

  4. The Nucleosome Acidic Patch Regulates the H2B K123 Monoubiquitylation Cascade and Transcription Elongation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Cucinotta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes regulate gene expression and other nuclear processes through the posttranslational modification of histones. In S. cerevisiae, the mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B on lysine 123 (H2B K123ub affects nucleosome stability, broadly influences gene expression and other DNA-templated processes, and is a prerequisite for additional conserved histone modifications that are associated with active transcription, namely the methylation of lysine residues in H3. While the enzymes that promote these chromatin marks are known, regions of the nucleosome required for the recruitment of these enzymes are undefined. To identify histone residues required for H2B K123ub, we exploited a functional interaction between the ubiquitin-protein ligase, Rkr1/Ltn1, and H2B K123ub in S. cerevisiae. Specifically, we performed a synthetic lethal screen with cells lacking RKR1 and a comprehensive library of H2A and H2B residue substitutions, and identified H2A residues that are required for H2B K123ub. Many of these residues map to the nucleosome acidic patch. The substitutions in the acidic patch confer varying histone modification defects downstream of H2B K123ub, indicating that this region contributes differentially to multiple histone modifications. Interestingly, substitutions in the acidic patch result in decreased recruitment of H2B K123ub machinery to active genes and defects in transcription elongation and termination. Together, our findings reveal a role for the nucleosome acidic patch in recruitment of histone modification machinery and maintenance of transcriptional integrity.

  5. RBscore&NBench: a high-level web server for nucleic acid binding residues prediction with a large-scale benchmarking database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2016-07-08

    RBscore&NBench combines a web server, RBscore and a database, NBench. RBscore predicts RNA-/DNA-binding residues in proteins and visualizes the prediction scores and features on protein structures. The scoring scheme of RBscore directly links feature values to nucleic acid binding probabilities and illustrates the nucleic acid binding energy funnel on the protein surface. To avoid dataset, binding site definition and assessment metric biases, we compared RBscore with 18 web servers and 3 stand-alone programs on 41 datasets, which demonstrated the high and stable accuracy of RBscore. A comprehensive comparison led us to develop a benchmark database named NBench. The web server is available on: http://ahsoka.u-strasbg.fr/rbscorenbench/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. 40 CFR 180.1187 - L-glutamic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-glutamic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1187 L-glutamic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. L-glutamic acid is exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all food commodities when used in accordance...

  7. Importance of Terminal Amino Acid Residues to the Transport of Oligopeptides across the Caco-2 Cell Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Long; Wang, Liying; Yu, Zhipeng; Ma, Sitong; Du, Zhiyang; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Jingbo

    2017-09-06

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of terminal amino acids on the transport of oligopeptides across the Caco-2 cell monolayer. Ala-based tetra- and pentapeptides were designed, and the N- or C-terminal amino acid residues were replaced by different amino acids. The results showed that the oligopeptides had a wide range of transport permeability across the Caco-2 cell monolayer and could be divided into four categories: non-/poor permeability, low permeability, intermediate permeability, and good permeability. Tetrapeptides with N-terminal Leu, Pro, Ile, Cys, Met, and Val or C-terminal Val showed the highest permeability, with apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) values over 10 × 10 -6 cm/s (p transport of tetrapeptides. Pentapeptides with N- or C-terminal Tyr also showed high permeability levels, with P app values of about 10 × 10 -6 cm/s. The amino acids Glu, Asn, and Thr at the N terminus or Lys, Asp, and Arg at the C terminus were also beneficial for the transport of tetra- and pentapeptides, with P app values ranging from 1 × 10 -6 to 10 × 10 -6 cm/s. In addition, peptides with amino acids replaced at the N terminus generally showed higher permeability than those with amino acids replaced at the C terminus (p transport of oligopeptides across the Caco-2 cell monolayer.

  8. Coevolving residues of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins play roles in stabilizing active site architecture and coordinating protein dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbo; Xu, Feng; Hu, Hairong; Wang, Feifei; Wu, Qi; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Honghai

    2008-12-01

    Indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) is a representative of (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel proteins-the most common enzyme fold in nature. To better understand how the constituent amino-acids work together to define the structure and to facilitate the function, we investigated the evolutionary and dynamical coupling of IGPS residues by combining statistical coupling analysis (SCA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The coevolving residues identified by the SCA were found to form a network which encloses the active site completely. The MD simulations showed that these coevolving residues are involved in the correlated and anti-correlated motions. The correlated residues are within van der Waals contact and appear to maintain the active site architecture; the anti-correlated residues are mainly distributed on opposite sides of the catalytic cavity and coordinate the motions likely required for the substrate entry and product release. Our findings might have broad implications for proteins with the highly conserved (betaalpha)(8)-barrel in assessing the roles of amino-acids that are moderately conserved and not directly involved in the active site of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The results of this study could also provide useful information for further exploring the specific residue motions for the catalysis and protein design based on the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel scaffold.

  9. Conversion of agroindustrial residues for high poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 via solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bao; Xu, Hong; Xu, Zongqi; Xu, Cen; Xu, Zheng; Lei, Peng; Qiu, Yibin; Liang, Jinfeng; Feng, Xiaohai

    2015-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (γ-PGA) production by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 was carried out through solid-state fermentation with dry mushroom residues (DMR) and monosodium glutamate production residues (MGPR; a substitute of glutamate) for the first time. Dry shiitake mushroom residue (DSMR) was found to be the most suitable solid substrate among these DMRs; the optimal DSMR-to-MGPR ratio was optimized as 12:8. To increase γ-PGA production, industrial waste glycerol was added as a carbon source supplement to the solid-state medium. As a result, γ-PGA production increased by 34.8%. The batch fermentation obtained an outcome of 115.6 g kg(-1) γ-PGA and 39.5×10(8) colony forming units g(-1) cells. Furthermore, a satisfactory yield of 107.7 g kg(-1) γ-PGA was achieved by compost experiment on a scale of 50 kg in open air, indicating that economically large-scale γ-PGA production was feasible. Therefore, this study provided a novel method to produce γ-PGA from abundant and low-cost agroindustrial residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prediction of beta-turns from amino acid sequences using the residue-coupled model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, K; Shukla, S

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated the prediction of beta-turns from amino acid sequences using the residue-coupled model with an enlarged representative protein data set selected from the Protein Data Bank. Our results show that the probability values derived from a data set comprising 425 protein chains yielded an overall beta-turn prediction accuracy 68.74%, compared with 94.7% reported earlier on a data set of 30 proteins using the same method. However, we noted that the overall beta-turn prediction accuracy using probability values derived from the 30-protein data set reduces to 40.74% when tested on the data set comprising 425 protein chains. In contrast, using probability values derived from the 425 data set used in this analysis, the overall beta-turn prediction accuracy yielded consistent results when tested on either the 30-protein data set (64.62%) used earlier or a more recent representative data set comprising 619 protein chains (64.66%) or on a jackknife data set comprising 476 representative protein chains (63.38%). We therefore recommend the use of probability values derived from the 425 representative protein chains data set reported here, which gives more realistic and consistent predictions of beta-turns from amino acid sequences.

  11. Studies on bound residues of 14C-malathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Azam, F.; Malik, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extractability and formation of bound 14 C-labelled residues in clay loam soil under laboratory conditions were investigated with malathion. 14 C-malathion rapidly decomposed to 14 CO 2 . Twelve days after treatment 56% of the applied dose was lost as 14 CO 2 . Methanol gave the highest extraction efficiency; 6% of the applied radiocarbon was extractable while bound residues amounted to 38%. The soil containing 14 C-labelled residues was fractionated into humic acid, fulvic acid and humin fractions. These fractions contained 7.83%, 16.81% and 19.36%, respectively of applied radiocarbon. (author)

  12. Branched chain amino acids requirements and metabolism in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    There is an interest to reduce the dietary crude protein (CP) level to promote the gut health of piglets, eliminate the environmental nitrogen load from intensive pig farming, and to reduce diet costs. This is possible by estimating individual amino acid (AA) requirements and by optimizing the diet...... according to the ideal protein profile that is compatible with the animal AA demand for normal body function. During the past decades, it has been tried to understand and characterize branched chain amino acids (BCAA) requirements, biological importance, and mode of actions. This is interesting for two...... of the last “-omics”, is a global analysis and interpretation of metabolome in specific health or nutritional status. Non-targeted metabolomics is used for screening the metabolic profile, and the metabolic signature could be used for hypothesis generation. The results of a non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics...

  13. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  14. Annatto seed residue (Bixa orellana L.: nutritional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alessandra Valério

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that annatto seeds are rich in protein, the present work aimed to evaluate the biological quality of this nutrient in the meal residue originating from annatto seed processing. We determined the general composition, mineral levels, amino acid composition and chemical scores, antinutritional factors, and protein quality using biological assays. The following values were obtained: 11.50% protein, 6.74% moisture, 5.22% ash, 2.22% lipids, 42.19% total carbohydrates and 28.45% fiber. The residue proved to be a food rich in fiber and also a protein source. Antinutritional factors were not detected. The most abundant amino acids were lysine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine. Valine was the most limiting amino acid (chemical score 0.22. The protein quality of the seed residue and the isolated protein showed no significant differences. The biological value was lower than that of the control protein but higher than that found in other vegetables. Among the biochemical analyses, only creatinine level was decreased in the two test groups compared to the control group. Enzyme tests did not indicate liver toxicity. The results showed favorable aspects for the use of annatto seed residue in the human diet, meriting further research.

  15. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  16. 21 CFR 556.590 - Salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salicylic acid. 556.590 Section 556.590 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.590 Salicylic acid. A tolerance of zero is established for residues of salicylic acid in milk from dairy animals. ...

  17. Asthma induction in mice leads to appearance of alpha2-3- and alpha2-6-linked sialic acid residues in respiratory goblet-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Jensen, Niels-Erik Viby; Mandel, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Allergic asthmatic inflammation in mice was induced by sensitization with ovalbumin and lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli and visualized in the airways of asthmatic mice by spatial and temporal changes of carbohydrates containing sialic acid residues. Immunohistochemistry was used...

  18. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. C. Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein docking (PPD predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions.

  19. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Kyohei; Imamura, Masataka; Fudo, Satoshi; Uemura, Takeshi; Saiki, Ryotaro; Hoshino, Tyuji; Toida, Toshihiko; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2014-01-01

    Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  20. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  1. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated

  2. Impact of arterial occlusion during partial nephrectomy on residual renal function. An evaluation with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Ito, Fumio; Onitsuka, Shiro; Ryoji, Osamu; Yago, Rie; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Toma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Partial nephrectomy (PNx) has been performed with temporary renal arterial occlusion and in situ renal hypothermia (conventional PNx). However, the impact of temporary renal arterial occlusion on residual renal function has not been well assessed. To address this question, we performed renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for the quantitative measurement of postoperative residual renal function after conventional PNx and partial nephrectomy without arterial occlusion (non-clamping PNx). Thirty-four patients underwent postoperative DMSA scintigraphy after PNx for renal cell carcinoma. No obvious difference in preoperative renal function between the diseased kidney and the contralateral kidney was found in any of the patients. Of these patients, 24 underwent conventional PNx, and 10 underwent non-clamping PNx. Residual renal function was evaluated using the relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney. The relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney was 39.9{+-}7.3% (25.1-58.8) after conventional PNx compared to 34.8{+-}8.9% (13.5-45.5) after non-clamping PNx. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.15). Total ischemic time during conventional PNx had no adverse influence on the residual renal function. In the analysis of the other determinant factors influencing residual renal function, tumor size was the only significant factor that inversely correlated with the relative DMSA uptake. Our results showed that arterial clamping during PNx has no negative impact on the functional residual capacity as long as in situ renal hypothermia is adequately performed. (author)

  3. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  4. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  5. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for... § 180.473 Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...

  6. 37 CFR 1.823 - Requirements for nucleotide and/or amino acid sequences as part of the application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may not include material other than part of the sequence listing. A fixed-width font should be used... integer expressing the number of bases or amino acid residues M. Type Whether presented sequence molecule is DNA, RNA, or PRT (protein). If a nucleotide sequence contains both DNA and RNA fragments, the type...

  7. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  8. Effects of mutagenesis of aspartic acid residues in the putative phosphoribosyl diphosphate binding site of Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase on metal ion specificity and ribose-5-phosphate binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoës, Martin; Nilsson, Dan; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The three conserved aspartic acid residues of the 5-phospho-d-ribosyl a-1-diphosphate binding site (213-GRDCVLVDDMIDTGGT-228) of Escherichia coli phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase were studied by analysis of the mutant enzymes D220E, D220F, D221A, D224A, and D224S. The mutant enzymes showed...... enzymes were dependent on the metal ion present, suggesting a function of the investigated aspartic acid residues both in the binding of ribose 5-phosphate, possibly via a divalent metal ion, and in the interaction with a divalent metal ion during catalysis....

  9. Evaluation of crop residues on potassium kinetics in an acid soil and potassium use efficiency in potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted on an acid soil in order to evaluate the role of two crop residues i.e. paddy and wheat along with farmyard manure on potassium kinetics and its availability in the potato-garlic sequence using tracer 86 Rb. Under rapid equilibrium, application of crop residues of paddy, wheat straw and FYM were able to enhance soil pH and organic carbon content. In addition, their application helped in enhancing soil K availability indices like water soluble, available and non-exchangeable -K. This was further augmented by the Q/I studies using 86 Rb where application of organic residues helped in lowering the potassium buffering capacity of the soil. Greenhouse study supplemented the results obtained from laboratory study where application of crop residues/FYM were able to improve the potato yield significantly and maintained higher concentration of K in potato leaf at early growth stages. A significant correlation was obtained between leaf K and haulms-K with that of 86 Rb activities in potato leaf at 35 days and 86 Rb absorbed in the haulms, respectively. Residues/ FYM and PK application to potato left sufficient residual effect on succeeding garlic crop. In potato-garlic sequence, K recovery was highest with FYM while N and P recoveries were higher with wheat residues. The nutrient recoveries with PK application followed law of diminishing returns. (author)

  10. The contribution of coevolving residues to the stability of KDO8P synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon H Ackerman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary tree of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate (KDO8P synthase (KDO8PS, a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes a key step in the biosynthesis of bacterial endotoxin, is evenly divided between metal and non-metal forms, both having similar structures, but diverging in various degrees in amino acid sequence. Mutagenesis, crystallographic and computational studies have established that only a few residues determine whether or not KDO8PS requires a metal for function. The remaining divergence in the amino acid sequence of KDO8PSs is apparently unrelated to the underlying catalytic mechanism.The multiple alignment of all known KDO8PS sequences reveals that several residue pairs coevolved, an indication of their possible linkage to a structural constraint. In this study we investigated by computational means the contribution of coevolving residues to the stability of KDO8PS. We found that about 1/4 of all strongly coevolving pairs probably originated from cycles of mutation (decreasing stability and suppression (restoring it, while the remaining pairs are best explained by a succession of neutral or nearly neutral covarions.Both sequence conservation and coevolution are involved in the preservation of the core structure of KDO8PS, but the contribution of coevolving residues is, in proportion, smaller. This is because small stability gains or losses associated with selection of certain residues in some regions of the stability landscape of KDO8PS are easily offset by a large number of possible changes in other regions. While this effect increases the tolerance of KDO8PS to deleterious mutations, it also decreases the probability that specific pairs of residues could have a strong contribution to the thermodynamic stability of the protein.

  11. Studies on the utilization of agricultural residues in the manufacture of pulp and paper, and industrial chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, V.S.; Kamath, G.P.; Basu, S.

    1980-03-15

    While demand for pulp and paper products in India is increasing at the annual rate of 7 to 8%, availability of cellulosic raw material to meet the ever increasing demand is becoming a serious problem. It has been estimated that bamboo, the traditional source of cellulosic raw material in India, even after ensuring the most scientific and best possible exploitation, could provide less than 50% of the requirement. In a big agricultural country like India, agri-residues like straws and bagasse, along with jute sticks, available in huge quantity, could provide substantial amount of cellulosic resources to the pulp and paper industry. Realizing the importance of agri-residue utilization in Indian economy, a series of research projects have been initiated and completed during the last 15 years to study the techno-economic feasibility of manufacturing pulp, paper, and industrial chemicals, based on rice and wheat straws, bagasse, and jute sticks. The economic advantages of the mechano-chemical pulping process, as compared to the conventional pressure, pulping process, for the conversion of agri-residues into pulp and paer is evaluated. For highlighting the importance of agri-residues in the field of useful chemical recovery possibilities, experimental data are given on the saccarification of agri-residues into reducing sugars by the simple acid hydrolysis method with the help of concentrated sulfuric acid.

  12. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protein structure based prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, J Eduardo; Fiser, Andras

    2013-02-22

    Worldwide structural genomics projects continue to release new protein structures at an unprecedented pace, so far nearly 6000, but only about 60% of these proteins have any sort of functional annotation. We explored a range of features that can be used for the prediction of functional residues given a known three-dimensional structure. These features include various centrality measures of nodes in graphs of interacting residues: closeness, betweenness and page-rank centrality. We also analyzed the distance of functional amino acids to the general center of mass (GCM) of the structure, relative solvent accessibility (RSA), and the use of relative entropy as a measure of sequence conservation. From the selected features, neural networks were trained to identify catalytic residues. We found that using distance to the GCM together with amino acid type provide a good discriminant function, when combined independently with sequence conservation. Using an independent test set of 29 annotated protein structures, the method returned 411 of the initial 9262 residues as the most likely to be involved in function. The output 411 residues contain 70 of the annotated 111 catalytic residues. This represents an approximately 14-fold enrichment of catalytic residues on the entire input set (corresponding to a sensitivity of 63% and a precision of 17%), a performance competitive with that of other state-of-the-art methods. We found that several of the graph based measures utilize the same underlying feature of protein structures, which can be simply and more effectively captured with the distance to GCM definition. This also has the added the advantage of simplicity and easy implementation. Meanwhile sequence conservation remains by far the most influential feature in identifying functional residues. We also found that due the rapid changes in size and composition of sequence databases, conservation calculations must be recalibrated for specific reference databases.

  14. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical... ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. This document is being... requirement of a tolerance for ``polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids'' pursuant to a...

  15. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  16. Stable nuclide tracer studies and human amino acid requirements. A summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, V.R.

    1994-01-01

    The nutritional requirements for proteins have been estimated for various age groups. The current status of knowledge concerning the quantitative needs for specific indispensable amino acids was reviewed and it was concluded that, except for infants, current values for pre-school children, school age children and healthy adults are based on limited experimental data and/or on results from nitrogen balance determinations which are open to serious question regarding their nutritional significance. A review of 13 C-labelled tracer studies carried out in MIT laboratories was undertaken to demonstrate the applicability of stable nuclide tracer studies for purposes of determining the amino acid requirements of humans. 5 refs

  17. PAMP-induced defense responses in potato require both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Vincentius A; Altmann, Simone; Ellinger, Dorothea; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Miersch, Otto; Scheel, Dierk; Rosahl, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-induced defense responses in potato (Solanum tuberosum), the role of the signaling compounds salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was analyzed. Pep-13, a PAMP from Phytophthora, induces the accumulation of SA, JA and hydrogen peroxide, as well as the activation of defense genes and hypersensitive-like cell death. We have previously shown that SA is required for Pep-13-induced defense responses. To assess the importance of JA, RNA interference constructs targeted at the JA biosynthetic genes, allene oxide cyclase and 12-oxophytodienoic acid reductase, were expressed in transgenic potato plants. In addition, expression of the F-box protein COI1 was reduced by RNA interference. Plants expressing the RNA interference constructs failed to accumulate the respective transcripts in response to wounding or Pep-13 treatment, neither did they contain significant amounts of JA after elicitation. In response to infiltration of Pep-13, the transgenic plants exhibited a highly reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species as well as reduced hypersensitive cell death. The ability of the JA-deficient plants to accumulate SA suggests that SA accumulation is independent or upstream of JA accumulation. These data show that PAMP responses in potato require both SA and JA and that, in contrast to Arabidopsis, these compounds act in the same signal transduction pathway. Despite their inability to fully respond to PAMP treatment, the transgenic RNA interference plants are not altered in their basal defense against Phytophthora infestans.

  18. Identification of functional amino acid residues involved in polyamine and agmatine transport by human organic cation transporter 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyohei Higashi

    Full Text Available Polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine and agmatine uptake by the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2 was studied using HEK293 cells transfected with pCMV6-XL4/hOCT2. The Km values for putrescine and spermidine were 7.50 and 6.76 mM, and the Vmax values were 4.71 and 2.34 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Spermine uptake by hOCT2 was not observed at pH 7.4, although it inhibited both putrescine and spermidine uptake. Agmatine was also taken up by hOCT2, with Km value: 3.27 mM and a Vmax value of 3.14 nmol/min/mg protein. Amino acid residues involved in putrescine, agmatine and spermidine uptake by hOCT2 were Asp427, Glu448, Glu456, Asp475, and Glu516. In addition, Glu524 and Glu530 were involved in putrescine and spermidine uptake activity, and Glu528 and Glu540 were weakly involved in putrescine uptake activity. Furthermore, Asp551 was also involved in the recognition of spermidine. These results indicate that the recognition sites for putrescine, agmatine and spermidine on hOCT2 strongly overlap, consistent with the observation that the three amines are transported with similar affinity and velocity. A model of spermidine binding to hOCT2 was constructed based on the functional amino acid residues.

  19. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  20. Quantum-mechanical analysis of amino acid residues function in the proton transport during F0F1-ATP synthase catalytic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivontsin, L. A.; Mashkovtseva, E. V.; Nartsissov, Ya R.

    2017-11-01

    Implications of quantum-mechanical approach to the description of proton transport in biological systems are a tempting subject for an overlapping of fundamental physics and biology. The model of proton transport through the integrated membrane enzyme FoF1-ATP synthase responsible for ATP synthesis was developed. The estimation of the mathematical expectation of the proton transfer time through the half-channel was performed. Observed set of proton pathways through the inlet half-channel showed the nanosecond timescale highly dependable of some amino acid residues. There were proposed two types of crucial amino acids: critically localized (His245) and being a part of energy conserving system (Asp119).

  1. Control of instability in nitric acid evaporators for plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    Improved control of the nitric acid process evaporators requires the detection of spontaneously unstable operating conditions. This process reduces the volume of contaminated liquid by evaporating nitric acid and concentrating salt residues. If a instability is identified quickly, prompt response can avert distillate contamination. An algorithm applied to the runtime data was evaluated to detect this situation. A snapshot of data from a histogram in the old process control software was captured during the unstable conditions and modeled

  2. Involvement of tyrosine residues, N-terminal amino acids, and beta-alanine in insect cuticular sclerotization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2007-09-01

    During sclerotization of insect cuticle the acyldopamines, N-acetyldopamine (NADA) and N-beta-alanyldopamine (NBAD), are oxidatively incorporated into the cuticular matrix, thereby hardening and stabilizing the material by forming crosslinks between the proteins in the cuticular matrix and by forming polymers filling the intermolecular spaces in the cuticle. Sclerotized cuticle from the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor, was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid, and from the hydrolysates some components presumably degradation products of cuticular crosslinks were isolated. In two of the components, the sidechain of 3,4-dihydroxyacetophenone was linked to the amino groups of glycine and beta-alanine, respectively, and in the third component to the phenolic group of tyrosine. These three compounds, glycino-dihydroxyacetophenone, beta-alanino-dihydroxyacetophenone, and O-tyrosino-dihydroxyacetophenone, as well as the previously reported compound, lysino-dihydroxyacetophenone [Andersen, S.O., Roepstorff, P., 2007. Aspects of cuticular sclerotization in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the beetle, Tenebrio molitor. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37, 223-234], are suggested to be degradation products of cuticular crosslinks, in which amino acid residues formed linkages to both the alpha- and beta-positions of the sidechain of acyldopamines.

  3. Metabolism and Residues of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid in DAS-40278-9 Maize (Zea mays) Transformed with Aryloxyalkanoate Dioxygenase-1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Rotondaro, Sandra L; Ma, Mingming; Rosser, Steve W; Olberding, Ed L; Wendelburg, Brian M; Adelfinskaya, Yelena A; Balcer, Jesse L; Blewett, T Craig; Clements, Bruce

    2016-10-12

    DAS-40278-9 maize, which is developed by Dow AgroSciences, has been genetically modified to express the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein and is tolerant to phenoxy auxin herbicides, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). To understand the metabolic route and residue distribution of 2,4-D in DAS-40278-9 maize, a metabolism study was conducted with 14 C-radiolabeled 2,4-D applied at the maximum seasonal rate. Plants were grown in boxes outdoors. Forage and mature grain, cobs, and stover were collected for analysis. The metabolism study showed that 2,4-D was metabolized to 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which was then rapidly conjugated with glucose. Field-scale residue studies with 2,4-D applied at the maximum seasonal rate were conducted at 25 sites in the U.S. and Canada to measure the residues of 2,4-D and free and conjugated 2,4-DCP in mature forage, grain, and stover. Residues of 2,4-D were not detectable in the majority of the grain samples and averaged <1.0 and <1.5 μg/g in forage and stover, respectively. Free plus conjugated 2,4-DCP was not observed in grain and averaged <1.0 μg/g in forage and stover.

  4. Residue-specific description of non-native transient structures in the ensemble of acid-denatured structures of the all-beta protein c-src SH3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösner, Heike I; Poulsen, Flemming Martin

    2010-01-01

    -src loop to the third beta-strand, exhibited an apparent helicity of nearly 45%. Furthermore, the RT loop and the diverging turn appeared to adopt non-native-like helical conformations. Interestingly, none of the residues found in transient helical conformations exhibited significant varphi-values [Riddle......Secondary chemical shift analysis has been used to characterize the unfolded state of acid-denatured c-src SH3. Even though native c-src SH3 adopts an all-beta fold, we found evidence of transient helicity in regions corresponding to native loops. In particular, residues 40-46, connecting the n...

  5. Conformational dynamics and role of the acidic pocket in ASIC pH-dependent gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Sabrina; Bonifacio, Gaetano; Roy, Sophie; Johner, Niklaus; Bernèche, Simon; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2017-04-04

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated Na + channels expressed in the nervous system, where they are involved in learning, fear behaviors, neurodegeneration, and pain sensation. In this work, we study the role in pH sensing of two regions of the ectodomain enriched in acidic residues: the acidic pocket, which faces the outside of the protein and is the binding site of several animal toxins, and the palm, a central channel domain. Using voltage clamp fluorometry, we find that the acidic pocket undergoes conformational changes during both activation and desensitization. Concurrently, we find that, although proton sensing in the acidic pocket is not required for channel function, it does contribute to both activation and desensitization. Furthermore, protonation-mimicking mutations of acidic residues in the palm induce a dramatic acceleration of desensitization followed by the appearance of a sustained current. In summary, this work describes the roles of potential pH sensors in two extracellular domains, and it proposes a model of acidification-induced conformational changes occurring in the acidic pocket of ASIC1a.

  6. Facile and Low-Cost Preparation of Nb/Al Oxide Catalyst with High Performance for the Conversion of Kiwifruit Waste Residue to Levulinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kiwifruit industry is booming worldwide. As a result, a great deal of kiwifruit waste residue (KWR containing monosaccharides is produced and discarded. This material shows great potential for the production of platform chemicals. In this study, a series of Nb/Al oxide catalysts were synthesized via a facile and low-cost coprecipitation method, and their structures were characterized using: thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, XRD, FESEM, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, NH3-TPD, N2 adsorption-desorption, and FTIR-Pyridine adsorption. Experimental results of sugar-to-levulinic acid (LA conversion revealed that the 20%Nb/Al oxide catalyst provided the highest catalytic performance and durability in terms of LA yield from fructose (74.2% at 463 K after 10 min and from glucose (47.5% at 473 K after 15 min. Notably, the 20% Nb/Al oxide catalyst with a 10% dosage is capable of converting kiwifruit waste residue to LA at 473 K after 10 min. In conclusion, the enhanced catalytic performance was obtained due to the high acidity, and large surface areaof Nb/Al oxide catalyst.

  7. Optimization of a Nucleic Acids united-RESidue 2-Point model (NARES-2P) with a maximum-likelihood approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Coarse-grained models are useful tools to investigate the structural and thermodynamic properties of biomolecules. They are obtained by merging several atoms into one interaction site. Such simplified models try to capture as much as possible information of the original biomolecular system in all-atom representation but the resulting parameters of these coarse-grained force fields still need further optimization. In this paper, a force field optimization method, which is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of the simulated to the experimental conformational ensembles and least-squares fitting of the simulated to the experimental heat-capacity curves, is applied to optimize the Nucleic Acid united-RESidue 2-point (NARES-2P) model for coarse-grained simulations of nucleic acids recently developed in our laboratory. The optimized NARES-2P force field reproduces the structural and thermodynamic data of small DNA molecules much better than the original force field

  8. Blocking of proteolytic processing and deletion of glycosaminoglycan side chain of mouse DMP1 by substituting critical amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao; Huang, Bingzhen; Sun, Yao; Lu, Yongbo; Bonewald, Lynda; Chen, Shuo; Butler, William T; Feng, Jerry Q; D'Souza, Rena N; Qin, Chunlin

    2009-01-01

    Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of dentin and bone as processed NH(2)- and COOH-terminal fragments, resulting from proteolytic cleavage at the NH(2) termini of 4 aspartic acid residues during rat DMP1 processing. One cleavage site residue, Asp(181) (corresponding to Asp(197) of mouse DMP1), and its flanking region are highly conserved across species. We speculate that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) of mouse DMP1 represents an initial, first-step scission in the whole cascade of proteolytic processing. To test if Asp(197) is critical for initiating the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1, we substituted Asp(197) with Ala(197) by mutating the corresponding nucleotides of mouse cDNA that encode this amino acid residue. This mutant DMP1 cDNA was cloned into a pcDNA3.1 vector. Data from transfection experiments indicated that this single substitution blocked the proteolytic processing of mouse DMP1 in HEK-293 cells, indicating that cleavage at the NH(2) terminus of Asp(197) is essential for exposing other cleavage sites for the conversion of DMP1 to its fragments. The NH(2)-terminal fragment of DMP1 occurs as a proteoglycan form (DMP1-PG) that contains a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain. Previously, we showed that a GAG chain is linked to Ser(74) in rat DMP1 (Ser(89) in mouse DMP1). To confirm that mouse DMP1-PG possesses a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89), we substituted Ser(89) by Gly(89). Data from transfection analysis indicated that this substitution completely prevented formation of the GAG-containing form, confirming that DMP1-PG contains a single GAG chain attached to Ser(89) in mouse DMP1. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Chlortetracycline and Oxytetracycline Residues in Poultry Tissues and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, W. E.; Weiser, H. H.; Winter, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    A pad-plate method of assaying residual amounts of chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Bacillus cereus 213 was used to determine amounts of antibiotic left in tissues and eggs of poultry fed 1,000 and 200 ppm of CTC and OTC in basal feed mixtures. The effects of various methods of cooking the tissues and eggs and the potentiating effect of terephthalic acid (TPA) were studied. It was found that normal methods of roasting, frying, and autoclaving poultry tissue destroyed all residual CTC and OTC, even with the potentiating effect of TPA. The largest amounts of residual antibiotic were found in the liver, then breast, and then thigh tissue when assayed for CTC. Tissue assays for CTC revealed that it was not taken up as extensively as CTC and the largest amounts were found in the liver, then breast. OTC residue was seldom found in the thigh tissue. Terephthalic acid in 0.5% concentration increased the concentration found in all cases. Cooking by poaching and scrambling eggs did not destroy the antibiotic in all cases. PMID:14264853

  10. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  11. Acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa residue for ethanol and lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong Mai; Nguyen, Thanh Ngoc; Choi, Gyung Ja; Choi, Yong Ho; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Park, Youn-Je; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the acid hydrolysis of Curcuma longa waste, to obtain the hydrolysate containing lactic acid and ethanol fermentative sugars. A central composite design for describing regression equations of variables was used. The selected optimum condition was 4.91% sulphuric acid, 122.68°C and 50 min using the desirability function under the following conditions: the maximum reducing sugar (RS) yield is within the limited range of the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural concentrations. Under the condition, the obtained solution contained 144 g RS/L, 0.79 g furfural/L and 2.59 g HMF/L and was directly fermented without a detoxification step. The maximum product concentration, average productivity, RS conversion and product yield were 115.36 g/L, 2.88 g/L/h, 89.43% and 64% for L-lactic acid; 113.92 g/L, 2.59 g/L/h, 88.31% and 63.29% for D-lactic acid; and 55.03 g/L, 1.38 g/L/h, 42.66 and 30.57%, respectively, for ethanol using a 7-L jar fermenter. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Extended hormone binding site of the human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor: distinctive acidic residues in the hinge region are involved in bovine thyroid stimulating hormone binding and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra; Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2008-06-27

    The human thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR) belongs to the glycoprotein hormone receptors that bind the hormones at their large extracellular domain. The extracellular hinge region of the TSHR connects the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain with the membrane-spanning serpentine domain. From previous studies we reasoned that apart from hormone binding at the leucine-rich repeat domain, additional multiple hormone contacts might exist at the hinge region of the TSHR by complementary charge-charge recognition. Here we investigated highly conserved charged residues in the hinge region of the TSHR by site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acids interacting with bovine TSH (bTSH). Indeed, the residues Glu-297, Glu-303, and Asp-382 in the TSHR hinge region are essential for bTSH binding and partially for signal transduction. Side chain substitutions showed that the negative charge of Glu-297 and Asp-382 is necessary for recognition of bTSH by the hTSHR. Multiple combinations of alanine mutants of the identified positions revealed an increased negative effect on hormone binding. An assembled model suggests that the deciphered acidic residues form negatively charged patches at the hinge region resulting in an extended binding mode for bTSH on the hTSHR. Our data indicate that certain positively charged residues of bTSH might be involved in interaction with the identified negatively charged amino acids of the hTSHR hinge region. We demonstrate that the hinge region represents an extracellular intermediate connector for both hormone binding and signal transduction of the hTSHR.

  13. Method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloheris, A.P.; Lefever, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of purifying phosphoric acid after solvent extraction is described. The phosphoric acid is contacted with a sorbent which sorbs or takes up the residual amount of organic carrier and the phosphoric acid separated from the organic carrier-laden sorbent. The method is especially suitable for removing residual organic carrier from phosphoric acid after solvent extraction uranium recovery. (author)

  14. Construction of hevein (Hev b 6.02) with reduced allergenicity for immunotherapy of latex allergy by comutation of six amino acid residues on the conformational IgE epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisola, Piia; Mikkola, Jari; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Airenne, Kari J; Laitinen, Olli H; Repo, Susanna; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Reunala, Timo; Turjanmaa, Kristiina; Johnson, Mark S; Palosuo, Timo; Kulomaa, Markku S; Alenius, Harri

    2004-02-15

    Recently we have established that IgE Abs bind to conformational epitopes in the N- and C-terminal regions of the major natural rubber latex allergen, hevein (Hev b 6.02). To identify the critical amino acid residues that interact with IgE, the hevein sequence was scanned by using site-specific mutations. Twenty-nine hevein mutants were designed and produced by a baculovirus expression system in insect cells and tested by IgE inhibition-ELISA using sera from 26 latex allergic patients. Six potential IgE-interacting residues of hevein (Arg(5), Lys(10), Glu(29), Tyr(30), His(35), and Gln(38)) were identified and characterized further in detail. Based on these six residues, two triple mutants (Hdelta3A, Hdelta3B) and hevein mutant where all six residues were mutated (Hdelta6), were designed, modeled, and produced. Structural and functional properties of these combinatory mutants were compared experimentally and in silico with those of recombinant hevein. The IgE-binding affinity of the mutants decreased by three to five orders of magnitude as compared with that of recombinant hevein. Skin prick test reactivity of the triple mutant HDelta3A was drastically reduced and that of the six-residue mutant Hdelta6 was completely abolished in all patients examined in this study. The approach presented in this paper offers tools for identification and modification of amino acid residues on conformational epitopes of allergens that interact with IgE. Hevein with a highly reduced ability to bind IgE should provide a valuable candidate molecule for immunotherapy of latex allergy and is anticipated to have a low risk of systemic side effects.

  15. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  16. Harties' two-man acid plant now fully on stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Hartebeesfontein gold mine is the most modern of its kind in South Africa. Only two men are required to operate this R12 million acid plant. The plant is capable of producing 140 000 t of sulphuric acid a year, and will meet its own uranium recovery process requirements as well as those of other uranium producers in the Klerksdorp and Stilfontein areas. In simplified form the process involves roasting pyrite to form sulphur dioxide. This is then cleaned, dried, heated and reacted over catalyst to produce sulphur tri-oxide which is combined with water to form sulphuric acid. Where the pyrite is gold-bearing, the resultant calcines from the roasting process are pumped to the mine's recovery plant where the residual gold is extracted. The main reason for the construction of the plant was to supply Hartebeesfontein and other uranium producers in the Klerksdorp and Stilfontein areas with sulphuric acid which is used in the uranium leaching process

  17. Identification of NAD interacting residues in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Gajendra PS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small molecular cofactors or ligands play a crucial role in the proper functioning of cells. Accurate annotation of their target proteins and binding sites is required for the complete understanding of reaction mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or NAD is one of the most commonly used organic cofactors in living cells, which plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, storage and regulatory processes. In the past, several NAD binding proteins (NADBP have been reported in the literature, which are responsible for a wide-range of activities in the cell. Attempts have been made to derive a rule for the binding of NAD+ to its target proteins. However, so far an efficient model could not be derived due to the time consuming process of structure determination, and limitations of similarity based approaches. Thus a sequence and non-similarity based method is needed to characterize the NAD binding sites to help in the annotation. In this study attempts have been made to predict NAD binding proteins and their interacting residues (NIRs from amino acid sequence using bioinformatics tools. Results We extracted 1556 proteins chains from 555 NAD binding proteins whose structure is available in Protein Data Bank. Then we removed all redundant protein chains and finally obtained 195 non-redundant NAD binding protein chains, where no two chains have more than 40% sequence identity. In this study all models were developed and evaluated using five-fold cross validation technique on the above dataset of 195 NAD binding proteins. While certain type of residues are preferred (e.g. Gly, Tyr, Thr, His in NAD interaction, residues like Ala, Glu, Leu, Lys are not preferred. A support vector machine (SVM based method has been developed using various window lengths of amino acid sequence for predicting NAD interacting residues and obtained maximum Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC 0.47 with accuracy 74.13% at window length 17

  18. Altered lipid metabolism in residual white adipose tissues of Bscl2 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqin Chen

    Full Text Available Mutations in BSCL2 underlie human congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 disease. We previously reported that Bscl2 (-/- mice develop lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT due to unbridled lipolysis. The residual epididymal WAT (EWAT displays a browning phenotype with much smaller lipid droplets (LD and higher expression of brown adipose tissue marker proteins. Here we used targeted lipidomics and gene expression profiling to analyze lipid profiles as well as genes involved in lipid metabolism in WAT of wild-type and Bscl2(-/- mice. Analysis of total saponified fatty acids revealed that the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/- mice contained a much higher proportion of oleic 18:1n9 acid concomitant with a lower proportion of palmitic 16:0 acid, as well as increased n3- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA remodeling. The acyl chains in major species of triacylglyceride (TG and diacylglyceride (DG in the residual EWAT of Bscl2(-/- mice were also enriched with dietary fatty acids. These changes could be reflected by upregulation of several fatty acid elongases and desaturases. Meanwhile, Bscl2(-/- adipocytes from EWAT had increased gene expression in lipid uptake and TG synthesis but not de novo lipogenesis. Both mitochondria and peroxisomal β-oxidation genes were also markedly increased in Bscl2(-/- adipocytes, highlighting that these machineries were accelerated to shunt the lipolysis liberated fatty acids through uncoupling to dissipate energy. The residual subcutaneous white adipose tissue (ScWAT was not browning but displays similar changes in lipid metabolism. Overall, our data emphasize that, other than being essential for adipocyte differentiation, Bscl2 is also important in fatty acid remodeling and energy homeostasis.

  19. Tsetse salivary gland proteins 1 and 2 are high affinity nucleic acid binding proteins with residual nuclease activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Caljon

    Full Text Available Analysis of the tsetse fly salivary gland EST database revealed the presence of a highly enriched cluster of putative endonuclease genes, including tsal1 and tsal2. Tsal proteins are the major components of tsetse fly (G. morsitans morsitans saliva where they are present as monomers as well as high molecular weight complexes with other saliva proteins. We demonstrate that the recombinant tsetse salivary gland proteins 1&2 (Tsal1&2 display DNA/RNA non-specific, high affinity nucleic acid binding with K(D values in the low nanomolar range and a non-exclusive preference for duplex. These Tsal proteins exert only a residual nuclease activity with a preference for dsDNA in a broad pH range. Knockdown of Tsal expression by in vivo RNA interference in the tsetse fly revealed a partially impaired blood digestion phenotype as evidenced by higher gut nucleic acid, hematin and protein contents.

  20. Mutational analysis of amino acid residues involved in catalytic activity of a family 18 chitinase from tulip bulbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzukawa, Keisuke; Yamagami, Takeshi; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Hirakawa, Hideki; Kuhara, Satoru; Aso, Yoichi; Ishiguro, Masatsune

    2003-02-01

    We expressed chitinase-1 (TBC-1) from tulip bulbs (Tulipa bakeri) in E. coli cells and used site-directed mutagenesis to identify amino acid residues essential for catalytic activity. Mutations at Glu-125 and Trp-251 completely abolished enzyme activity, and activity decreased with mutations at Asp-123 and Trp-172 when glycolchitin was the substrate. Activity changed with the mutations of Trp-251 to one of several amino acids with side-chains of little hydrophobicity, suggesting that hydrophobic interaction of Trp-251 is important for the activity. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analysis with hevamine as the model compound showed that the distance between Asp-123 and Glu-125 was extended by mutation of Trp-251. Kinetic studies of Trp-251-mutated chitinases confirmed these various phenomena. The results suggested that Glu-125 and Trp-251 are essential for enzyme activity and that Trp-251 had a direct role in ligand binding.

  1. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  2. Amino acid code of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, B V

    2003-01-01

    The calculation of protein three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence is a fundamental problem to be solved. This paper presents principles of the code theory of protein secondary structure, and their consequence--the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. The doublet code model of protein secondary structure, developed earlier by the author (Shestopalov, 1990), is part of this theory. The theory basis are: 1) the name secondary structure is assigned to the conformation, stabilized only by the nearest (intraresidual) and middle-range (at a distance no more than that between residues i and i + 5) interactions; 2) the secondary structure consists of regular (alpha-helical and beta-structural) and irregular (coil) segments; 3) the alpha-helices, beta-strands and coil segments are encoded, respectively, by residue pairs (i, i + 4), (i, i + 2), (i, i = 1), according to the numbers of residues per period, 3.6, 2, 1; 4) all such pairs in the amino acid sequence are codons for elementary structural elements, or structurons; 5) the codons are divided into 21 types depending on their strength, i.e. their encoding capability; 6) overlappings of structurons of one and the same structure generate the longer segments of this structure; 7) overlapping of structurons of different structures is forbidden, and therefore selection of codons is required, the codon selection is hierarchic; 8) the code theory of protein secondary structure generates six variants of the amino acid code of protein secondary structure. There are two possible kinds of model construction based on the theory: the physical one using physical properties of amino acid residues, and the statistical one using results of statistical analysis of a great body of structural data. Some evident consequences of the theory are: a) the theory can be used for calculating the secondary structure from the amino acid sequence as a partial solution of the problem of calculation of protein three

  3. 12 CFR 23.21 - Estimated residual value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated residual value. 23.21 Section 23.21...) Leases § 23.21 Estimated residual value. (a) Recovery of investment and costs. A national bank's estimate of the residual value of the property that the bank relies upon to satisfy the requirements of a full...

  4. Efficiency Improvement of Some Agricultural Residue Modified Materials for Textile Dyes Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsong, P.; Paksamut, J.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the adsorption efficiency was investigated of some agricultural residue modified materials as natural bio-adsorbents which were rice straw (Oryza sativa L.) and pineapple leaves (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) for the removal of textile dyes. Reactive dyes were used in this research. The improvement procedure of agricultural residue materials properties were alkali-acid modification with sodium hydroxide solution and hydrochloric acid solution. Adsorption performance has been investigated using batch experiments. Investigated adsorption factors consisted of adsorbent dose, contact time, adsorbent materials and pH of solution. The results were found that rice straw had higher adsorption capacity than pineapple leaves. The increasing of adsorption capacity depends on adsorbent dose and contact time. Moreover, the optimum pH for dye adsorption was acidic range because lowering pH increased the positively charges on the adsorbent surface which could be attacked by negatively charge of acid dyes. The agricultural residue modified materials had significant dye removal efficiency which these adsorbents could be used for the treatment of textile effluent in industries.

  5. γ-Oryzanol and tocopherol contents in residues of rice bran oil refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana-Bauer, Vanessa Ribeiro; Zambiazi, Rui C; Mendonça, Carla R B; Beneito-Cambra, Miriam; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2012-10-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) contains significant amounts of the natural antioxidants γ-oryzanol and tocopherols, which are lost to a large degree during oil refining. This results in a number of industrial residues with high contents of these phytochemicals. With the aim of supporting the development of profitable industrial procedures for γ-oryzanol and tocopherol recovery, the contents of these phytochemicals in all the residues produced during RBO refining were evaluated. The samples included residues from the degumming, soap precipitation, bleaching earth filtering, dewaxing and deodorisation distillation steps. The highest phytochemical concentrations were found in the precipitated soap for γ-oryzanol (14.2 mg g(-1), representing 95.3% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO), and in the deodorisation distillate for tocopherols (576 mg 100 g(-1), representing 6.7% of total tocopherols in crude RBO). Therefore, among the residues of RBO processing, the deodorisation distillate was the best source of tocopherols. As the soap is further processed for the recovery of fatty acids, samples taken from every step of this secondary process, including hydrosoluble fraction, hydrolysed soap, distillation residue and purified fatty acid fraction, were also analyzed. The distillation residue left after fatty acid recovery from soap was found to be the best source of γ-oryzanol (43.1 mg g(-1), representing 11.5% of total γ-oryzanol in crude RBO). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of a divalent metal cation binding site in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 required for HSV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Kevin F; Yan, Zhipeng; Dreyfus, David H; Knipe, David M

    2012-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ICP8 is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is necessary for viral DNA replication and exhibits recombinase activity in vitro. Alignment of the HSV-1 ICP8 amino acid sequence with ICP8 homologs from other herpesviruses revealed conserved aspartic acid (D) and glutamic acid (E) residues. Amino acid residue D1087 was conserved in every ICP8 homolog analyzed, indicating that it is likely critical for ICP8 function. We took a genetic approach to investigate the functions of the conserved ICP8 D and E residues in HSV-1 replication. The E1086A D1087A mutant form of ICP8 failed to support the replication of an ICP8 mutant virus in a complementation assay. E1086A D1087A mutant ICP8 bound DNA, albeit with reduced affinity, demonstrating that the protein is not globally misfolded. This mutant form of ICP8 was also recognized by a conformation-specific antibody, further indicating that its overall structure was intact. A recombinant virus expressing E1086A D1087A mutant ICP8 was defective in viral replication, viral DNA synthesis, and late gene expression in Vero cells. A class of enzymes called DDE recombinases utilize conserved D and E residues to coordinate divalent metal cations in their active sites. We investigated whether the conserved D and E residues in ICP8 were also required for binding metal cations and found that the E1086A D1087A mutant form of ICP8 exhibited altered divalent metal binding in an in vitro iron-induced cleavage assay. These results identify a novel divalent metal cation-binding site in ICP8 that is required for ICP8 functions during viral replication.

  7. Effect of No-Clean Flux Residues on the Performance of Acrylic Conformal Coating in Aggressive Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathinavelu, Umadevi; Jellesen, Morten S.; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    at various temperatures was quantified using ion chromatography by extracting the residue, and surface morphology of the residues was investigated using optical microscopy. The flux residue in general consists of both resin and activator components such as carboxylic acids. Coated samples with flux residues...

  8. Identification of genetic determinants and enzymes involved with the amidation of glutamic acid residues in the peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Figueiredo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutamic acid residues of the peptidoglycan of Staphylococcus aureus and many other bacteria become amidated by an as yet unknown mechanism. In this communication we describe the identification, in the genome of S. aureus strain COL, of two co-transcribed genes, murT and gatD, which are responsible for peptidoglycan amidation. MurT and GatD have sequence similarity to substrate-binding domains in Mur ligases (MurT and to the catalytic domain in CobB/CobQ-like glutamine amidotransferases (GatD. The amidation of glutamate residues in the stem peptide of S. aureus peptidoglycan takes place in a later step than the cytoplasmic phase--presumably the lipid phase--of the biosynthesis of the S. aureus cell wall precursor. Inhibition of amidation caused reduced growth rate, reduced resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and increased sensitivity to lysozyme which inhibited culture growth and caused degradation of the peptidoglycan.

  9. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  10. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  11. Bioethanol production from microwave-assisted acid or alkali-pretreated agricultural residues of cassava using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooja, N S; Sajeev, M S; Jeeva, M L; Padmaja, G

    2018-01-01

    The effect of microwave (MW)-assisted acid or alkali pretreatment (300 W, 7 min) followed by saccharification with a triple enzyme cocktail (Cellic, Optimash BG and Stargen) with or without detoxification mix on ethanol production from three cassava residues (stems, leaves and peels) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Significantly higher fermentable sugar yields (54.58, 47.39 and 64.06 g/L from stems, leaves and peels, respectively) were obtained after 120 h saccharification from MW-assisted alkali-pretreated systems supplemented (D+) with detoxification chemicals (Tween 20 + polyethylene glycol 4000 + sodium borohydride) compared to the non-supplemented (D0) or MW-assisted acid-pretreated systems. The percentage utilization of reducing sugars during fermentation (48 h) was also the highest (91.02, 87.16 and 89.71%, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels) for the MW-assisted alkali-pretreated (D+) systems. HPLC sugar profile indicated that glucose was the predominant monosaccharide in the hydrolysates from this system. Highest ethanol yields ( Y E , g/g), fermentation efficiency (%) and volumetric ethanol productivity (g/L/h) of 0.401, 78.49 and 0.449 (stems), 0.397, 77.71 and 0.341 (leaves) and 0.433, 84.65 and 0.518 (peels) were also obtained for this system. The highest ethanol yields (ml/kg dry biomass) of ca. 263, 200 and 303, respectively, for stems, leaves and peels from the MW-assisted alkali pretreatment (D+) indicated that this was the most effective pretreatment for cassava residues.

  12. L-Altruronic acid formed by epimerization of D-galacturonic acid methyl esters during saponification of citrus pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, D; Qiu, F; Mort, A J

    2001-02-15

    While searching for oligosaccharides containing rhamnose residues in the endopolygalacturonase (EPG) digest of saponified citrus pectin, we found several oligomers containing, in addition to galacturonic acid, a sugar previously unreported in pectin. The 1- and 2-D 1H NMR spectra of the oligosaccharides were consistent with the sugar being a uronic acid with its 2- and 3-hydroxyls being axial and 4-hydroxyl being equatorial. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry indicated that the oligomers consisted solely of uronic acids. Reduction of the uronic acids in the oligosaccharides converted them to galactose and altrose. The altrose was found to be the L enantiomer by comparison of its trimethylsilyl (-)-2-butyl glycosides to those of authentic D-altrose and a racemic mixture. The sugar was not found in oligosaccharides prepared from EPG digestion of citrus pectin deesterified with pectin methylesterase rather than saponification. Thus, it appears that during saponification, a small proportion of the methylesterified galacturonic acid residues in pectins is epimerized at C-5 leading to formation of L-altruronic acid residues.

  13. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  14. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Karolina M.; Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of 13 C 6 -ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the 13 C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. 13 C-FA and 13 C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The 13 C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of 13 C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated

  15. A combinatorial approach to detect coevolved amino acid networks in protein families of variable divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baussand

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication between distant sites often defines the biological role of a protein: amino acid long-range interactions are as important in binding specificity, allosteric regulation and conformational change as residues directly contacting the substrate. The maintaining of functional and structural coupling of long-range interacting residues requires coevolution of these residues. Networks of interaction between coevolved residues can be reconstructed, and from the networks, one can possibly derive insights into functional mechanisms for the protein family. We propose a combinatorial method for mapping conserved networks of amino acid interactions in a protein which is based on the analysis of a set of aligned sequences, the associated distance tree and the combinatorics of its subtrees. The degree of coevolution of all pairs of coevolved residues is identified numerically, and networks are reconstructed with a dedicated clustering algorithm. The method drops the constraints on high sequence divergence limiting the range of applicability of the statistical approaches previously proposed. We apply the method to four protein families where we show an accurate detection of functional networks and the possibility to treat sets of protein sequences of variable divergence.

  16. Quantitation of some amino-terminal residues in proteins using 3H-labelled dansyl chloride and 14C labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flengsrud, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method for quantitation of amino-terminal residues in proteins is presented. The method is a modification of a double isotope-labelling technique, using 3 H-labelled dansyl chloride and 14 C-labelled amino acids as internal standards. The method is demonstrated on human fibrinogen, horse myoglobin and on mouse myoloma IgA. A linear relationship between the ratio 3 H/ 14 C in the separated amino-terminal amino acid of the protein and the amount of protein added in the labelling mixture was obtained with standard deviations of +- 7.4%, +-3.4% and +-10.3%, respectively. An application of the method is demonstrated by measuring the increase in amino-terminal glycine in fibrinogen following the proteolytic action of thrombin. The method seems to be useful when 0.1 nmol or more of protein is used. (author)

  17. Biodiesel production from residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Pin; Chang, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This work was to study technical and economic feasibilities of converting residual oils recovered from spent bleaching earth generated at soybean oil refineries into useable biodiesel. Experimental results showed that fatty acids in the SBE residual oil were hexadecenoic acid (58.19%), stearic acid (21.49%) and oleic acid (20.32%), which were similar to those of vegetable oils. The methyl ester conversion via a transesterification process gave a yield between 85 and 90%. The biodiesel qualities were in reasonable agreement with both EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. A preliminary financial analysis showed that the production cost of biodiesel from SBE oils was significantly lower than the pre-tax price of fossil diesel or those made of vegetable oils or waste cooking oils. The effects of the crude oil price and the investment on the production cost and the investment return period were also conducted. The result showed that the investment would return faster at higher crude oil price. (author)

  18. Role of four conserved aspartic acid residues of EF-loops in the metal ion binding and in the self-assembly of ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Duan, Lian; Sun, Tijian; Yang, Binsheng

    2016-12-01

    Ciliate Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (EoCen) is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein closely related to the prototypical calcium sensor protein calmodulin. Four mutants (D37K, D73K, D110K and D146K) were created firstly to elucidate the importance of the first aspartic acid residues (Asp37, Asp73, Asp110 and Asp146) in the beginning of the four EF-loops of EoCen. Aromatic-sensitized Tb 3+ fluorescence indicates that the aspartic acid residues are very important for the metal-binding of EoCen, except for Asp73 (in EF-loop II). Resonance light scattering (RLS) measurements for different metal ions (Ca 2+ and Tb 3+ ) binding proteins suggest that the order of four conserved aspartic acid residues for contributing to the self-assembly of EoCen is Asp37 > Asp146 > Asp110 > Asp73. Cross-linking experiment also exhibits that Asp37 and Asp146 play critical role in the self-assembly of EoCen. Asp37, in site I, which is located in the N-terminal domain, plays the most important role in the metal ion-dependent self-assembly of EoCen, and there is cooperativity between N-terminal and C-terminal domain (especially the site IV). In addition, the dependence of Tb 3+ induced self-assembly of EoCen and the mutants on various factors, including ionic strength and pH, were characterized using RLS. Finally, 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) binding, ionic strength and pH control experiments indicate that in the process of EoCen self-assembly, molecular interactions are mediated by both electrostatic and hydrophobic forces, and the hydrophobic interaction has the important status.

  19. TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts: searching for mRNA fragments with miRNA binding sites with encoded amino acid residues

    OpenAIRE

    Berillo, Olga; Régnier, Mireille; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    microRNAs are small RNA molecules that inhibit the translation of target genes. microRNA binding sites are located in the untranslated regions as well as in the coding domains. We describe TmiRUSite and TmiROSite scripts developed using python as tools for the extraction of nucleotide sequences for miRNA binding sites with their encoded amino acid residue sequences. The scripts allow for retrieving a set of additional sequences at left and at right from the binding site. The scripts presents ...

  20. Argillization by descending acid at Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; White, Donald E.; Hemley, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    Steamboat Springs, Nevada, an area of present-day hot springs, clearly illustrates the genetic dependence of some kaolin deposits on hot-spring activity. Andesite, granodiorite and arkosic sediments are locally altered at the land surface to siliceous residues consisting of primary quartz and anatase, plus opal from primary silicates. These siliceous residues commonly exhibit the textural and structural features of their unaltered equivalents. Beneath the siliceous residues, kaolin and alunite replace primary silicates and fill open spaces, forming a blanketlike deposit. Beneath the kaolin-alunite zone, montmorillonite, commonly accompanied by pyrite, replaces the primary silicates. On the ground surface, the same alteration mineral zones can be traced outward from the siliceous residue; however, hematite rather than pyrite accompanies montmorillonite.Chemical analysis indicates that sulfuric acid is the active altering agent. The acid forms from hydrogen sulfide that exsolves from deep thermal water, rises above the water table and is oxidized by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria living near the ground surface. This acid dissolves in precipitation or condensed water vapor and percolates downward destroying most of the primary minerals producing a siliceous residue. Coincidence of the water table with the downward transition from siliceous residue to kaolin-alunite signifies decreasing hydrogen metasomatism because of dilution of descending acid by ground water.In hot-spring areas, beds of siliceous sinter deposited at the surface by hypogene thermal water look, superficially, like areas of surficial acid alteration. Features diagnostic of a surficial alteration are the relict rock structures of a siliceous residue and a kaolin-alunite zone immediately beneath.

  1. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  2. An amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system for the incorporation of non-canonical amino acid analogs into proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Blom, Amrita; Hughes, Randall A; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-05-20

    Residue-specific incorporation of non-canonical amino acids into proteins is usually performed in vivo using amino acid auxotrophic strains and replacing the natural amino acid with an unnatural amino acid analog. Herein, we present an efficient amino acid depleted cell-free protein synthesis system that can be used to study residue-specific replacement of a natural amino acid by an unnatural amino acid analog. This system combines a simple methodology and high protein expression titers with a high-efficiency analog substitution into a target protein. To demonstrate the productivity and efficacy of a cell-free synthesis system for residue-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids in vitro, we use this system to show that 5-fluorotryptophan and 6-fluorotryptophan substituted streptavidin retain the ability to bind biotin despite protein-wide replacement of a natural amino acid for the amino acid analog. We envisage this amino acid depleted cell-free synthesis system being an economical and convenient format for the high-throughput screening of a myriad of amino acid analogs with a variety of protein targets for the study and functional characterization of proteins substituted with unnatural amino acids when compared to the currently employed in vivo methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Guillain-Barre Syndrome – rehabilitation outcome, residual deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis for locomotion at 1 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anupam; Taly, Arun B; Srivastava, Abhishek; Murali, Thyloth

    2010-01-01

    To analyse long-term functional recovery, deficits and requirement of lower limb orthosis (LLO) for locomotion in patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Neurological Rehabilitation unit of university hospital. Sixty-nine patients of GBS admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Thirty-five patients (M:F, 19:16) reporting after 1 year follow-up (50.72%) were included in study (between September 2005 and July 2009). Their residual deficits and requirement of LLO were recorded and analysed. Age ranged from 4 to 65 year (29.74 ± 15.75). Twenty-seven patients had typical GBS and eight patients had acute motor axonal neuropathy variant. Twenty-eight patients (80%) had neuropathic pain needing medication with 11 required more than one drug. Twenty-one patients (60%) had foot drop and advised ankle-foot orthosis-AFO (20 bilateral AFO). Thirty patients (85.71%) needed assistive devices also for locomotion at discharge. After 1 year, foot drop was still present in 12 patients (34.28%) using orthosis. Modified Barthel Index scores, Modified Rankin Scale and Hughes Disability Scale were used to assess functional disabilities. Significant recovery was observed at the time of discharge and after 1 year (p < 0.001 each). Patients with GBS continue to show significant functional recovery for long period. They have residual deficits even after 1 year with requirement of orthosis in large number of patients.

  4. Identification of a highly reactive threonine residue at the active site of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stole, E.; Seddon, A.P.; Wellner, D.; Meister, A.

    1990-01-01

    γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase an enzyme of major importance in glutathione metabolism, was inactivated by treating it with L-(αS,5S)-α-amino-3-chloro-4,5-dihydro-5-[3- 14 C]isoxazoleacetic acid. This selective reagent binds stoichiometrically to the enzyme; more than 90% of the label was bound to its light subunit. Enzymatic digestion of the light subunit gave a 14 C-labeled peptide that corresponds to amino acid residues 517-527 of the enzyme and two incomplete digestion products that contain this labeled peptide moiety. The radioactivity associated with this peptide was released with threonine-523 during sequencing by the automated gas-phase Edman method. The light subunit contains 14 other threonine residues and a total of 19 serine residues; these were not labeled. Threonine-523 is situated in the enzyme in an environment that greatly increases its reactivity, indicating that other amino acid residues of the enzyme must also participate in the active-site chemistry of the enzyme

  5. Thermodynamic Effects of Replacements of Pro Residues in Helix Interiors of Maltose-Binding Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, RS; Lingaraju, GM; Bacchawat, Kiran; Surolia, Avadhesha; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2003-01-01

    Introduction of Pro residues into helix interiors results in protein destabilization. It is currently unclear if the converse substitution (i.e., replacement of Pro residues that naturally occur in helix interiors would be stabilizing). Maltose-binding protein is a large 370-amino acid protein that contains 21 Pro residues. Of these, three nonconserved residues (P48, P133, and P159) occur at helix interiors. Each of the residues was replaced with Ala and Ser. Stabilities were characterized by...

  6. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  7. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  8. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  9. Tyrosine residues modification studied by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santrucek, Jiri; Strohalm, Martin; Kadlcik, Vojtech; Hynek, Radovan; Kodicek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Amino acid residue-specific reactivity in proteins is of great current interest in structural biology as it provides information about solvent accessibility and reactivity of the residue and, consequently, about protein structure and possible interactions. In the work presented tyrosine residues of three model proteins with known spatial structure are modified with two tyrosine-specific reagents: tetranitromethane and iodine. Modified proteins were specifically digested by proteases and the mass of resulting peptide fragments was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results show that there are only small differences in the extent of tyrosine residues modification by tetranitromethane and iodine. However, data dealing with accessibility of reactive residues obtained by chemical modifications are not completely identical with those obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystallography. These interesting discrepancies can be caused by local molecular dynamics and/or by specific chemical structure of the residues surrounding

  10. Large-scale evaluation of dynamically important residues in proteins predicted by the perturbation analysis of a coarse-grained elastic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekpinar Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds It is increasingly recognized that protein functions often require intricate conformational dynamics, which involves a network of key amino acid residues that couple spatially separated functional sites. Tremendous efforts have been made to identify these key residues by experimental and computational means. Results We have performed a large-scale evaluation of the predictions of dynamically important residues by a variety of computational protocols including three based on the perturbation and correlation analysis of a coarse-grained elastic model. This study is performed for two lists of test cases with >500 pairs of protein structures. The dynamically important residues predicted by the perturbation and correlation analysis are found to be strongly or moderately conserved in >67% of test cases. They form a sparse network of residues which are clustered both in 3D space and along protein sequence. Their overall conservation is attributed to their dynamic role rather than ligand binding or high network connectivity. Conclusion By modeling how the protein structural fluctuations respond to residue-position-specific perturbations, our highly efficient perturbation and correlation analysis can be used to dissect the functional conformational changes in various proteins with a residue level of detail. The predictions of dynamically important residues serve as promising targets for mutational and functional studies.

  11. Conserved residues of the human mitochondrial holocytochrome c synthase mediate interactions with heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E; San Francisco, Brian; Bretsnyder, Eric C; Kranz, Robert G

    2014-08-19

    C-type cytochromes are distinguished by the covalent attachment of a heme cofactor, a modification that is typically required for its subsequent folding, stability, and function. Heme attachment takes place in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and, in most eukaryotes, is mediated by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS). HCCS is the primary component of the eukaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathway, known as System III. The catalytic function of HCCS depends on its ability to coordinate interactions between its substrates: heme and cytochrome c. Recent advancements in the recombinant expression and purification of HCCS have facilitated comprehensive analyses of the roles of conserved residues in HCCS, as demonstrated in this study. Previously, we proposed a four-step model describing HCCS-mediated cytochrome c assembly, identifying a conserved histidine residue (His154) as an axial ligand to the heme iron. In this study, we performed a systematic mutational analysis of 17 conserved residues in HCCS, and we provide evidence that the enzyme contains two heme-binding domains. Our data indicate that heme contacts mediated by residues within these domains modulate the dynamics of heme binding and contribute to the stability of the HCCS-heme-cytochrome c steady state ternary complex. While some residues are essential for initial heme binding (step 1), others impact the subsequent release of the holocytochrome c product (step 4). Certain HCCS mutants that were defective in heme binding were corrected for function by exogenous aminolevulinic acid (ALA, the precursor to heme). This chemical "correction" supports the proposed role of heme binding for the corresponding residues.

  12. Gas-Phase Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Labeling of Select Peptide Ion Conformer Types: a Per-Residue Kinetics Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Kondalaji, Samaneh Ghassabi; Tafreshian, Amirmahdi; Valentine, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    The per-residue, gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics for individual amino acid residues on selected ion conformer types of the model peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK have been examined using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and HDX-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) techniques. The [M + 4H](4+) ions exhibit two major conformer types with collision cross sections of 418 Å(2) and 446 Å(2); the [M + 3H](3+) ions also yield two different conformer types having collision cross sections of 340 Å(2) and 367 Å(2). Kinetics plots of HDX for individual amino acid residues reveal fast- and slow-exchanging hydrogens. The contributions of each amino acid residue to the overall conformer type rate constant have been estimated. For this peptide, N- and C-terminal K residues exhibit the greatest contributions for all ion conformer types. Interior D and I residues show decreased contributions. Several charge state trends are observed. On average, the D residues of the [M + 3H](3+) ions show faster HDX rate contributions compared with [M + 4H](4+) ions. In contrast the interior I8 and I9 residues show increased accessibility to exchange for the more elongated [M + 4H](4+) ion conformer type. The contribution of each residue to the overall uptake rate showed a good correlation with a residue hydrogen accessibility score model calculated using a distance from charge site and initial incorporation site for nominal structures obtained from molecular dynamic simulations (MDS).

  13. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M.; Andersen, Wendy C.; Turnipseed, Sherri B.; Storey, Joseph M.; Madson, Mark R.; Miller, Keith E.; Gieseker, Charles M.; Miller, Ron A.; Rummel, Nathan G.; Reimschuessel, Renate

    2009-01-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H] - m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 μg kg -1 of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n = 107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 μg kg -1 . An internal standard, 13 C 3 -labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D. = 15%, n = 18) with an MDL of 7.4 μg kg -1 . Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D. = 10%, n = 13) with an MDL of 3.5 μg kg -1

  14. SigniSite: Identification of residue-level genotype-phenotype correlations in protein multiple sequence alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Ivar; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Site does not require any pre-definition of subgroups or binary classification. Input is a set of protein sequences where each sequence has an associated real number, quantifying a given phenotype. SigniSite will then identify which amino acid residues are significantly associated with the data set......) using a set of human immunodeficiency virus protease-inhibitor genotype–phenotype data and corresponding resistance mutation scores from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database, and a data set of protein families with experimentally annotated SDPs. For both data sets, SigniSite was found...

  15. gRINN: a tool for calculation of residue interaction energies and protein energy network analysis of molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serçinoglu, Onur; Ozbek, Pemra

    2018-05-25

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generate a wealth of information related to the dynamics of proteins. If properly analyzed, this information can lead to new insights regarding protein function and assist wet-lab experiments. Aiming to identify interactions between individual amino acid residues and the role played by each in the context of MD simulations, we present a stand-alone software called gRINN (get Residue Interaction eNergies and Networks). gRINN features graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and a command-line interface for generating and analyzing pairwise residue interaction energies and energy correlations from protein MD simulation trajectories. gRINN utilizes the features of NAMD or GROMACS MD simulation packages and automatizes the steps necessary to extract residue-residue interaction energies from user-supplied simulation trajectories, greatly simplifying the analysis for the end-user. A GUI, including an embedded molecular viewer, is provided for visualization of interaction energy time-series, distributions, an interaction energy matrix, interaction energy correlations and a residue correlation matrix. gRINN additionally offers construction and analysis of Protein Energy Networks, providing residue-based metrics such as degrees, betweenness-centralities, closeness centralities as well as shortest path analysis. gRINN is free and open to all users without login requirement at http://grinn.readthedocs.io.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  17. A requirement of TolC and MDR efflux pumps for acid adaptation and GadAB induction in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari N W Deininger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The TolC outer membrane channel is a key component of several multidrug resistance (MDR efflux pumps driven by H(+ transport in Escherichia coli. While tolC expression is under the regulation of the EvgA-Gad acid resistance regulon, the role of TolC in growth at low pH and extreme-acid survival is unknown. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TolC was required for extreme-acid survival (pH 2 of strain W3110 grown aerobically to stationary phase. A tolC deletion decreased extreme-acid survival (acid resistance of aerated pH 7.0-grown cells by 10(5-fold and of pH 5.5-grown cells by 10-fold. The requirement was specific for acid resistance since a tolC defect had no effect on aerobic survival in extreme base (pH 10. TolC was required for expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GadA, GadB, a key component of glutamate-dependent acid resistance (Gad. TolC was also required for maximal exponential growth of E. coli K-12 W3110, in LBK medium buffered at pH 4.5-6.0, but not at pH 6.5-8.5. The TolC growth requirement in moderate acid was independent of Gad. TolC-associated pump components EmrB and MdtB contributed to survival in extreme acid (pH 2, but were not required for growth at pH 5. A mutant lacking the known TolC-associated efflux pumps (acrB, acrD, emrB, emrY, macB, mdtC, mdtF, acrEF showed no growth defect at acidic pH and a relatively small decrease in extreme-acid survival when pre-grown at pH 5.5. CONCLUSIONS: TolC and proton-driven MDR efflux pump components EmrB and MdtB contribute to E. coli survival in extreme acid and TolC is required for maximal growth rates below pH 6.5. The TolC enhancement of extreme-acid survival includes Gad induction, but TolC-dependent growth rates below pH 6.5 do not involve Gad. That MDR resistance can enhance growth and survival in acid is an important consideration for enteric organisms passing through the acidic stomach.

  18. Abscisic acid-dependent multisite phosphorylation regulates the activity of a transcription activator AREB1

    OpenAIRE

    Furihata, Takashi; Maruyama, Kyonoshin; Fujita, Yasunari; Umezawa, Taishi; Yoshida, Riichiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2006-01-01

    bZIP-type transcription factors AREBs/ABFs bind an abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive cis-acting element named ABRE and transactivate downstream gene expression in Arabidopsis. Because AREB1 overexpression could not induce downstream gene expression, activation of AREB1 requires ABA-dependent posttranscriptional modification. We confirmed that ABA activated 42-kDa kinase activity, which, in turn, phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues of R-X-X-S/T sites in the conserved regions of AREB1. Amino acid subs...

  19. Spectrofluorometric and Molecular Modeling Studies on Binding of Nitrite Ion with Bovine Hemoglobin: Effect of Nitrite Ion on Amino Acid Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, T.; Bagheri, H.; Afkhami, A.

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between nitrite ion and bovine hemoglobin was investigated by a spectrofluorometric technique. The experimental results indicated that the interaction causes a static quenching of the fluorescence of bovine hemoglobin, that the binding reaction is spontaneous, and that H-bonding interactions play a major role in binding of this ion to bovine hemoglobin. The formation constant for this interaction was calculated. Based on Förster's theory of nonradiative energy transfer, the binding distance between this ion and bovine hemoglobin was determined. Furthermore, the interaction of nitrite ion with tyrosine and tryptophan was investigated with synchronous fluorescence. There was no significant shift of the maximum emission wavelength with interactions of the mentioned ion with bovine hemoglobin, which implies that interaction of nitrite ion with bovine hemoglobin does not affect the microenvironment around the tryptophan and tyrosine residues. Furthermore, the effect of nitrite ion on amino acid residues of bovine hemoglobin was studied by a molecular docking technique.

  20. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Biotechnological Production of Organic Acids from Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleissner, Daniel; Dietz, Donna; van Duuren, Jozef Bernhard Johann Henri; Wittmann, Christoph; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki; Venus, Joachim

    2017-03-07

    Biotechnological processes are promising alternatives to petrochemical routes for overcoming the challenges of resource depletion in the future in a sustainable way. The strategies of white biotechnology allow the utilization of inexpensive and renewable resources for the production of a broad range of bio-based compounds. Renewable resources, such as agricultural residues or residues from food production, are produced in large amounts have been shown to be promising carbon and/or nitrogen sources. This chapter focuses on the biotechnological production of lactic acid, acrylic acid, succinic acid, muconic acid, and lactobionic acid from renewable residues, these products being used as monomers for bio-based material and/or as food supplements. These five acids have high economic values and the potential to overcome the "valley of death" between laboratory/pilot scale and commercial/industrial scale. This chapter also provides an overview of the production strategies, including microbial strain development, used to convert renewable resources into value-added products.

  2. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A.; Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2011-01-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 μg/g U 3 O 8 for ores with an initial content of 2,700 μg/g U 3 O 8 . With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in one column and 1,100 μg/g U 3 O 8 for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  3. Study of uranium leaching from industrial residues of Industrias Nucleares do Brazil S.A. (INB), Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formiga, Thiago S.; Morais, Carlos A., E-mail: cmorais@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Gomiero, Luiz A., E-mail: gomiero@inb.gov.b [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S/A (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The uraniferous district of Lagoa Real, located in the south-central region of the state of Bahia, has reserves estimated at 100,000 tons of uranium, which is enough to supply Angra I, II and III for 100 more years. The process adopted for the beneficiation of the uranium ore from Lagoa Real is heap leaching, a static process in which the ore is crushed, disposed in heaps and irrigated with a sulfuric acid solution to remove the uranium. This technique has a relatively low cost of implementation, although the yield of uranium recovery is low, with an uranium content in the leached residue of 700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for ores with an initial content of 2,700 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. With the deepening of the mine pit, an increase in the carbonate content in the ore was noted, which required a higher acid consumption in the leaching. In order to reduce the concentration of carbonates, a study of the ore concentration by flotation column was accomplished. The flotation reject had high carbonate content, with a uranium content of about 2,300 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in one column and 1,100 {mu}g/g U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for flotation in two columns. This paper presents the study of the leaching process for the recovery of the uranium present in the residue of the heap leaching and in the carbonated residue from the flotation of the anomaly 13 ore. The results indicate the feasibility of treating the waste of the heap leaching through dynamic leaching. The study of the uranium leaching from the flotation residue through acid leaching technique indicated a recovery of 96% of uranium, however with a high consumption of acid, around 450 kg/t, showing that for this case, the most suitable technique for the process is alkaline leaching. (author)

  4. Transformation kinetics of corn and clover residues in mineral substrates of different composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskii, D. L.; Maltseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Dmitrieva, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Mineralization kinetics of corn and clover residues in quartz sand, loam, sand + 15% bentonite, and sand + 30% kaolinite have been studied. A scheme has been proposed for the transformation of plant residues in mineral substrates. Kinetic parameters of mineralization have been calculated with the use of a first-order two-term exponential polynomial. It has been shown that the share of labile organic carbon pool in the clover biomass is higher (57-63%) than in the corn biomass (47-49%), which is related to the biochemical composition of plant residues. The mineralization constants of clover residues generally significantly exceed those of corn because of the stronger stabilization of the decomposition products of corn residues. The turnover time of the labile clover pool (4-9 days) in all substrates and that of the labile corn pool (8-10 days) in sands and substrates containing kaolinites and bentonite are typical for organic acids, amino acids, and simple sugars. In the loamy substrate, the turnover time of labile corn pool is about 46 days due to the stronger stabilization of components of the labile pool containing large amounts of organic acids. The turnover time of the stable clover pool (0.95 years) is significantly lower than that of the stable corn pool (1.60 years) and largely corresponds to the turnover time of plant biomass.

  5. Amino acid substrates impose polyamine, eIF5A, or hypusine requirement for peptide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Byung-Sik; Katoh, Takayuki; Gutierrez, Erik; Kim, Joo-Ran; Suga, Hiroaki; Dever, Thomas E

    2017-08-21

    Whereas ribosomes efficiently catalyze peptide bond synthesis by most amino acids, the imino acid proline is a poor substrate for protein synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the translation factor eIF5A and its bacterial ortholog EF-P bind in the E site of the ribosome where they contact the peptidyl-tRNA in the P site and play a critical role in promoting the synthesis of polyproline peptides. Using misacylated Pro-tRNAPhe and Phe-tRNAPro, we show that the imino acid proline and not tRNAPro imposes the primary eIF5A requirement for polyproline synthesis. Though most proline analogs require eIF5A for efficient peptide synthesis, azetidine-2-caboxylic acid, a more flexible four-membered ring derivative of proline, shows relaxed eIF5A dependency, indicating that the structural rigidity of proline might contribute to the requirement for eIF5A. Finally, we examine the interplay between eIF5A and polyamines in promoting translation elongation. We show that eIF5A can obviate the polyamine requirement for general translation elongation, and that this activity is independent of the conserved hypusine modification on eIF5A. Thus, we propose that the body of eIF5A functionally substitutes for polyamines to promote general protein synthesis and that the hypusine modification on eIF5A is critically important for poor substrates like proline. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  6. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein B Requires a Cysteine Residue at Position 633 for Folding, Processing, and Incorporation into Mature Infectious Virus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquerre, Sylvie; Anderson, Dina B.; Argnani, Rafaela; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    1998-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein B (gB) resides in the virus envelope in an oligomeric form and plays an essential role in virus entry into susceptible host cells. The oligomerizing domain is a movable element consisting of amino acids 626 to 653 in the gB external domain. This domain contains a single cysteine residue at position 633 (Cys-633) that is predicted to form an intramolecular disulfide bridge with Cys-596. In this study, we examined gB oligomerization, processing, and incorporation into mature virus during infection by two mutant viruses in which either the gB Cys-633 [KgB(C633S)] or both Cys-633 and Cys-596 [KgB(C596S/C633S)] residues were mutated to serine. The result of immunofluorescence studies and analyses of released virus particles showed that the mutant gB molecules were not transported to the cell surface or incorporated into mature virus envelopes and thus infectious virus was not produced. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the mutant gB molecules were in an oligomeric configuration and that these mutants produced hetero-oligomers with a truncated form of gB consisting of residues 1 to 43 and 595 to 904, the latter containing the oligomerization domain. Pulse-chase experiments in combination with endoglycosidase H treatment determined that the mutant molecules were improperly processed, having been retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the cysteine mutations resulted in gB misfolding and retention by the molecular chaperones calnexin, calreticulin, and Grp78 in the ER. The altered conformation of the gB mutant glycoproteins was directly detected by a reduction in monoclonal antibody recognition of two previously defined distinct antigenic sites located within residues 381 to 441 and 595 to 737. The misfolded molecules were not transported to the cell surface as hetero-oligomers with wild-type gB, suggesting that the conformational change could not be corrected by

  8. Observation of the side chain O-methylation of glutamic acid or aspartic acid containing model peptides by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, A Emin; Guray, Melda Z; Yalcin, Talat

    2017-03-15

    O-methylation of the side chains of glutamic acid (E) and aspartic acid (D) residues is generally observed modification when an acidified methanol/water (MeOH/dH 2 O) mixture is used as a solvent system during sample preparation for proteomic research. This chemical modification may result misidentification with endogenous protein methylation; therefore, a special care should be taken during sample handling prior to mass spectrometric analysis. In the current study, we systematically examined the extent of E/D methylation and C-terminus carboxyl group of synthetic model peptides in terms of different incubation temperatures, storage times, and added acid types as well as its percentages. To monitor these effects, C-terminus amidated and free acid forms of synthetic model peptides comprised of E or D residue(s) have been analyzed by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Additionally, LC-MS/MS experiments were performed to confirm the formation of methylated peptide product. The results showed that the rate of methylation was increased as the temperature increases along with prolong incubation times. Moreover, the extent of methylation was remarkably high when formic acid (FA) used as a protonation agent instead of acetic acid (AA). In addition, it was found that the degree of methylation was significantly decreased by lowering acid percentages in ESI solution. More than one acidic residue containing model peptides have been also used to explore the extent of multiple methylation reaction. Lastly, the ethanol (EtOH) and isopropanol (iPrOH) have been substituted separately with MeOH in sample preparation step to investigate the extent of esterification reaction under the same experimental conditions. However, in the positive perspective of view, this method can be used as a simple, rapid and cheap method for methylation of acidic residues under normal laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of residual oils for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Antonio Canesin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The obtained results suggesting that it is possible to take advantage of these residues for biodiesel production as the obtained products were approved according to the rules established by the National Association of Petroleum (ANP; the bovine samples were the exception regarding moisture and acidity.

  10. The study on process of recycling uranium in mixture of residue and liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jie; Shen Weiwei; Hao Jidong; Wu Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    The treat method of mixture of residue and liquid produced from HWR nuclear fuel chemical process using some kind of U_3O_8 powder was studied in this experiment. For recycling the uranium in mixture of residue and liquid, chemical dissolving method, washing and centrifuging method and dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was contrasted in this test. The merit of dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method is simpler, more effective and higher uranium recycling ratio. Next, dilute nitric acid leaching uranium method was studied systematically. As a result, the main influence factors of uranium recycling ratio is dip sour degree and dip sour temperature. The influence law of factors to uranium recycling ratio and filtering effect was found out also. Along with increasing of dip sour degree and dip sour temperature, uranium recycling ratio increases and speed of filtrate increases also. At last, the process of batch treating mixture of residue and liquid was build and abundant uranium was recycled. (authors)

  11. Current issues in determining dietary protein and amino-acid requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pencharz, P; Jahoor, F; Kurpad, A

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and the first two years of life are periods of rapid growth and yet the knowledge of requirements for protein and dietary indispensable amino acids is very limited. The development of carbon oxidation methods opens the way to studies that should fill these important gaps in knowledge.Eu.......European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 15 January 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.297....

  12. [Construction of a microbial consortium RXS with high degradation ability for cassava residues and studies on its fermentative characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mao, Zhong-Gui; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Hong-Jian

    2012-03-01

    A microbial consortium with high effective and stable cellulosic degradation ability was constructed by successive enrichment and incubation in a peptone cellulose medium using cassava residues and filter paper as carbon sources, where the inoculums were sampled from the environment filled with rotten lignocellulosic materials. The degradation ability to different cellulosic materials and change of main parameters during the degradation process of cassava residues by this consortium was investigated in this study. It was found that, this consortium can efficiently degrade filter paper, absorbent cotton, avicael, wheat-straw and cassava residues. During the degradation process of cassava residues, the key hydrolytic enzymes including cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase showed a maximum enzyme activity of 34.4, 90.5 and 15.8 U on the second or third day, respectively. After 10 days' fermentation, the degradation ratio of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of cassava residues was 79.8%, 85.9% and 19.4% respectively, meanwhile the loss ratio of cassava residues reached 61.5%. Otherwise,it was found that the dominant metabolites are acetic acid, butyric acid, caproic acid and glycerol, and the highest hydrolysis ratio is obtained on the second day by monitoring SCOD, total volatile fatty acids and total sugars. The above results revealed that this consortium can effectively hydrolyze cassava residues (the waste produced during the cassava based bioethanol production) and has great potential to be utilized for the pretreatment of cassava residues for biogas fermentation.

  13. The performance of maize crop during acid amelioration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Journal of Science ... This study evaluated acid ameliorative potential and their effects on maize growth of four organic residues namely wild spikenard, cordia, cowpea and pigeon peas ... The finding suggests different acid ameliorating potential of residues, pigeon peas and cordia being the most effective.

  14. Recovery of plutonium from insulation, scrap glass, and sand-slag residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Garnett, J.E.; Fraser, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate methods for removing plutonium from insulation, glass leach heel, and sand and slag heel. The methods evaluated included hydrochloric acid leaching, nitric acid leaching, and a treatment consisting of a fusion step followed by acid leaching. Results indicate that a nitric acid leach is effective in lowering the plutonium concentration of these solid wastes to the desired limit, if multiple contacts are used. A hydrochloric acid leach was found to be superior to a nitric acid leach for removing plutonium from the residues

  15. The leaching kinetics of cadmium from hazardous Cu-Cd zinc plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Zheng, Shili; Liu, Biao; Du, Hao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Tafaghodi, Leili; Zhang, Yi

    2017-07-01

    A large amount of Cu-Cd zinc plant residues (CZPR) are produced from the hydrometallurgical zinc plant operations. Since these residues contain substantial amount of heavy metals including Cd, Zn and Cu, therefore, they are considered as hazardous wastes. In order to realize decontamination treatment and efficient extraction of the valuable metals from the CZPR, a comprehensive recovery process using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and air as the oxidizing reagent has been proposed. The effect of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed on the cadmium extraction efficiency was investigated. The leaching kinetics of cadmium was also studied. It was concluded that the cadmium leaching process was controlled by the solid film diffusion process. Moreover, the order of the reaction rate constant versus H 2 SO 4 concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed was calculated. The XRD and SEM-EDS analysis results showed that the main phases of the secondary sulfuric acid leaching residues were lead sulfate and calcium sulfate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation of thorium (IV) from lanthanide concentrate (LC) and water leach purification (WLP) residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M.; Majid, Amran Ab.; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2014-01-01

    Thorium (IV) content in industrial residue produced from rare earth elements production industry is one of the challenges to Malaysian environment. Separation of thorium from the lanthanide concentrate (LC) and Water Leach Purification (WLP) residue from rare earth elements production plant is described. Both materials have been tested by sulphuric acid and alkaline digestions. Th concentrations in LC and WLP were determined to be 1289.7 ± 129 and 1952.9±17.6 ppm respectively. The results of separation show that the recovery of Th separation from rare earth in LC after concentrated sulphuric acid dissolution and reduction of acidity to precipitate Th was found 1.76-1.20% whereas Th recovery from WLP was less than 4% after concentrated acids and alkali digestion processes. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was used to determine Th concentrations in aqueous phase during separation stages. This study indicated that thorium maybe exists in refractory and insoluble form which is difficult to separate by these processes and stays in WLP residue as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM)

  17. Role of a single amino acid substitution of VP3 H142D for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Khulape, Sagar A; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at pH value below 6.5. After the uptake of FMDV by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of FMDV genome inside endosomes. Nevertheless, dissociation of FMDV particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated FMD vaccine less effective. To improve the acid stability of inactivated FMD vaccine during the manufacturing process, a serotype A IND 40/2000 (in-use vaccine strain) mutant with increased resistance to acid inactivation was generated through reverse genetics approach. Based upon the earlier reports, the crucial amino acid residue, H142 of VP3 capsid protein was substituted separately to various amino acid residues Arg (R), Phe (F), Ala (A), and Asp (D) on the full-genome length cDNA clone. While the H142 → R or H142 → F or H142 → A substitutions resulted in non-infectious FMDV, H142 → D mutation on VP3 protein (H3142D) resulted in the generation of mutant virus with enhanced resistance to acid-induced inactivation. In addition, H3142D substitution did not alter the replication ability and antigenicity of mutant as compared to the parental virus. However, the virus competition experiments revealed that the H3142D substitution conferred a loss of fitness for the mutant virus. Results from this study demonstrate that the H3142D substitution is the molecular determinant of acid-resistant phenotype in FMDV serotype A.

  18. Protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Larsen, Marie Sofie Yoo; Banerjee, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global residue-specific amino acid mutagenesis can provide important biological insight and generate proteins with altered properties, but at the risk of protein misfolding. Further, targeted libraries are usually restricted to a handful of amino acids because there is an exponential...... correlation between the number of residues randomized and the size of the resulting ensemble. Using GFP as the model protein, we present a strategy, termed protein evolution via amino acid and codon elimination, through which simplified, native-like polypeptides encoded by a reduced genetic code were obtained...... simultaneously), while retaining varying levels of activity. Combination of these substitutions to generate a Phe-free variant of GFP abolished fluorescence. Combinatorial re-introduction of five Phe residues, based on the activities of the respective single amino acid replacements, was sufficient to restore GFP...

  19. Strains of Lactococcus lactis with a partial pyrimidine requirement show sensitivity toward aspartic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The growth rate of the widely used laboratory strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 was reduced if aspartic acid were present in the growth medium. The strain LM0230 is a plasmid- and phage-cured derivative of L. lactis subsp. cremoris C2, the ancestor of the original dairy isolate L...... with the wild-type strain, and this varied with the concentration of aspartic acid. The observed effect of aspartate could be explained by the accumulation of the toxic pyrimidine de novo pathway intermediate, carbamoyl aspartate. Assays of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes of L. lactis LM0230 showed...... that the partial pyrimidine requirement can be explained by a low specific activity of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzymes. In conclusion, L. lactis LM0230 during the process of plasmid- and prophage-curing has acquired a partial pyrimidine requirement resulting in sensitivity toward aspartic acid....

  20. Hydrochloric acid leach of Agnew Lake uranium concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.; Ipekoglue, B.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrochloric acid leaching was conducted on the radioactive mineral concentrate separated from the Agenw Lake uranium ore. Leach tests conducted at the optimum conditions (75 0 C; 36 hours; 66.0 Kg HCl/tonne; solid:liquid -1:1) resulted in the extraction of 87% uranium and 84% radium. The radionuclide level of the residue was U-0.016%, Th-0.24% and Ra-65 pCi/g solids. However to obtain a residue almost free of radium (i.e., Ra level at the detection limit: 4-6 pCi/g solids), the first stage leach residue was further treated with hydrochloric acid. The radium level in the best second stage leach residue was also above the target level. Therefore, multistage (3 or 4) hydrochloric acid and/or neutral chloride leaching is recommended to obtain tailings almost free of radionuclide

  1. A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Peters

    Full Text Available Structures of the multidrug-binding repressor protein QacR with monovalent and bivalent cationic drugs revealed that the carboxylate side-chains of E90 and E120 were proximal to the positively charged nitrogens of the ligands ethidium, malachite green and rhodamine 6G, and therefore may contribute to drug neutralization and binding affinity. Here, we report structural, biochemical and in vivo effects of substituting these glutamate residues. Unexpectedly, substitutions had little impact on ligand affinity or in vivo induction capabilities. Structures of QacR(E90Q and QacR(E120Q with ethidium or malachite green took similar global conformations that differed significantly from all previously described QacR-drug complexes but still prohibited binding to cognate DNA. Strikingly, the QacR(E90Q-rhodamine 6G complex revealed two mutually exclusive rhodamine 6G binding sites. Despite multiple structural changes, all drug binding was essentially isoenergetic. Thus, these data strongly suggest that rather than contributing significantly to ligand binding affinity, the role of acidic residues lining the QacR multidrug-binding pocket is primarily to attract and guide cationic drugs to the "best available" positions within the pocket that elicit QacR induction.

  2. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 protein: Analysis of domain I and V amino acid interactions and membrane fusion activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Qianlong [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Blissard, Gary W. [Boyce Thompson Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, United State (United States); Liu, Tong-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Li, Zhaofei, E-mail: zhaofeili73@outlook.com [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Key Laboratory of Northwest Loess Plateau Crop Pest Management of Ministry of Agriculture, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. Although the post-fusion structure of GP64 has been solved, its pre-fusion structure and the detailed mechanism of conformational change are unknown. In GP64, domain V is predicted to interact with two domain I segments that flank fusion loop 2. To evaluate the significance of the amino acids involved in these interactions, we examined 24 amino acid positions that represent interacting and conserved residues within domains I and V. In several cases, substitution of a single amino acid involved in a predicted interaction disrupted membrane fusion activity, but no single amino acid pair appears to be absolutely required. We identified 4 critical residues in domain V (G438, W439, T452, and T456) that are important for membrane fusion, and two residues (G438 and W439) that appear to be important for formation or stability of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64. - Highlights: • The baculovirus envelope glycoprotein GP64 is a class III viral fusion protein. • The detailed mechanism of conformational change of GP64 is unknown. • We analyzed 24 positions that might stabilize the post-fusion structure of GP64. • We identified 4 residues in domain V that were critical for membrane fusion. • Two residues are critical for formation of the pre-fusion conformation of GP64.

  3. Residue-specific incorporation of noncanonical amino acids for protein engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldijk, Mark B.; van Hest, Jan C.M.; Lemke, E.A.

    2018-01-01

    The incorporation of noncanonical amino acids has given protein chemists access to an expanded repertoire of amino acids. This methodology has significantly broadened the scope of protein engineering allowing introduction of amino acids with non-native functionalities, such as bioorthogonal reactive

  4. Amino-terminal residues of ΔNp63, mutated in ectodermal dysplasia, are required for its transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, Anna Maria; Duca, Sara; Novelli, Flavia; Melino, Sonia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Melino, Gerry; Candi, Eleonora

    2015-11-13

    p63, a member of the p53 family, is a crucial transcription factor for epithelial development and skin homeostasis. Heterozygous mutations in TP63 gene have been associated with human ectodermal dysplasia disorders. Most of these TP63 mutations are missense mutations causing amino acidic substitutions at p63 DNA binding or SAM domains that reduce or abolish the transcriptional activity of mutants p63. A significant number of mutants, however, resides in part of the p63 protein that apparently do not affect DNA binding and/or transcriptional activity, such as the N-terminal domain. Here, we characterize five p63 mutations at the 5' end of TP63 gene aiming to understand the pathogenesis of the diseases and to uncover the role of ΔNp63α N-terminus residues in determining its transactivation potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coagulation of some humic acid solutions by Moringa oleifera lam seeds: effect on chlorine requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Bawa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study humic acid solutions and surface waters coagulation by Moringa oleifera Lam seeds aqueous extract. High amounts of such extract (up to 10 g/L were required to clarify humic acid solutions whereas 0.5 g/L were used to remove 90% of initial turbidity of a surface water. The treatment of water with low turbidity (Moringa oleifera Lam seeds extract released a high amount of organic compounds in treated solutions leading to a high chlorine requirement.

  6. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  7. Distinct functional domains within the acidic cluster of tegument protein pp28 required for trafficking and cytoplasmic envelopment of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyejin; Hong, Sookyung; Britt, William J

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded tegument protein pp28 contains a 16 aa acidic cluster that is required for pp28 trafficking to the assembly compartment (AC) and the virus assembly. However, functional signals within the acidic cluster of pp28 remain undefined. Here, we demonstrated that an acidic cluster rather than specific sorting signals was required for trafficking to the AC. Recombinant viruses with chimeric pp28 proteins expressing non-native acidic clusters exhibited delayed viral growth kinetics and decreased production of infectious virus, indicating that the native acidic cluster of pp28 was essential for wild-type virus assembly. These results suggested that the acidic cluster of pp28 has distinct functional domains required for trafficking and for efficient virus assembly. The first half (aa 44-50) of the acidic cluster was sufficient for pp28 trafficking, whereas the native acidic cluster consisting of aa 51-59 was required for the assembly of wild-type levels of infectious virus.

  8. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  9. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  10. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  11. Exploration of a mechanism for the production of highly unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. at low temperature grown on oil crop residue based medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinghan; Li, Kun; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Chen, Paul; Zhou, Wenguang

    2017-11-01

    The ability of algae to produce lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids varies with strains and culture conditions. This study investigates the effect of temperature on the production of unsaturated fatty acids in Scenedesmus sp. grown on oil crop residue based medium. At low temperature (10°C), synthesis of lipids compromising of high contents of unsaturated fatty acids took place primarily in the early stage while protein accumulation mainly occurred in the late stage. This stepwise lipid-protein synthesis process was found to be associated with the contents of acetyl-CoA and α-KG in the algal cells. A mechanism was proposed and tested through simulation experiments which quantified the carbon flux allocation in algal cells at different cultivation stages. It is concluded that low culture temperature such as 10°C is suitable for the production of lipids comprising of unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications. Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue) proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, psalt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (psalt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins.

  13. Comparison of topical use of protamine and tranexamic acid in surgical patients requiring cardio-pulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqeh, M.; Siddiqi, R.; Ali, N.; Iqbal, A.; Younus, Z.; Haq, I.U.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of local protamine in reducing post-operative blood loss compared to local tranexamic acid. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases Rawalpindi from January 2011 to September 2011. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty cardiac surgical patients were randomly divided into two equal groups, one receiving local protamine while the other group receiving local tranexamic acid before chest closure. The efficiency was measured as post-operative blood loss and requirement of blood and blood products in the post-surgical ICU. Results: Average blood loss in protamine group was significantly less (252.97 ml) compared to tranexamic acid group (680.67 ml). Number of patients requiring no post-operative blood transfusion was significantly higher in protamine group (76.7%) compared to tranexamic acid group (53.3%). Conclusion: Local protamine is more effective in reducing post-operative blood loss than local tranexamic acid. (author)

  14. Mechanisms of mono- and poly-ubiquitination: Ubiquitination specificity depends on compatibility between the E2 catalytic core and amino acid residues proximal to the lysine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowski Martin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ubiquitination involves the attachment of ubiquitin to lysine residues on substrate proteins or itself, which can result in protein monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination. Ubiquitin attachment to different lysine residues can generate diverse substrate-ubiquitin structures, targeting proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection are not well understood. Ubiquitination by the largest group of E3 ligases, the RING-family E3 s, is catalyzed through co-operation between the non-catalytic ubiquitin-ligase (E3 and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2, where the RING E3 binds the substrate and the E2 catalyzes ubiquitin transfer. Previous studies suggest that ubiquitination sites are selected by E3-mediated positioning of the lysine toward the E2 active site. Ultimately, at a catalytic level, ubiquitination of lysine residues within the substrate or ubiquitin occurs by nucleophilic attack of the lysine residue on the thioester bond linking the E2 catalytic cysteine to ubiquitin. One of the best studied RING E3/E2 complexes is the Skp1/Cul1/F box protein complex, SCFCdc4, and its cognate E2, Cdc34, which target the CDK inhibitor Sic1 for K48-linked polyubiquitination, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Our recent studies of this model system demonstrated that residues surrounding Sic1 lysines or lysine 48 in ubiquitin are critical for ubiquitination. This sequence-dependence is linked to evolutionarily conserved key residues in the catalytic region of Cdc34 and can determine if Sic1 is mono- or poly-ubiquitinated. Our studies indicate that amino acid determinants in the Cdc34 catalytic region and their compatibility to those surrounding acceptor lysine residues play important roles in lysine selection. This may represent a general mechanism in directing the mode of ubiquitination in E2 s.

  15. Structural Requirements of Alkylglyceryl-l-Ascorbic Acid Derivatives for Melanogenesis Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Norihisa; Katsuyama, Yushi; Yoshioka, Masato; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2018-04-10

    l-Ascorbic acid has multifunctional benefits on skin aesthetics, including inhibition of melanin production, and is widely used in cosmetics. It, however, has low stability and poor skin penetration. We hypothesize that alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives, highly stable vitamin C-alkylglycerol conjugates, would have similar anti-melanogenic activity with better stability and penetration. We test 28 alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives ( 1 - 28 ) on theophylline-stimulated B16 melanoma 4A5 cells to determine if they inhibit melanogenesis and establish any structure-function relationships. Although not the most potent inhibitors, 3- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-2- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 6 , IC 50 = 81.4 µM) and 2- O -(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-3- O -hexyl-l-ascorbic acid ( 20 , IC 50 = 117 µM) are deemed the best candidate derivatives based on their inhibitory activities and low toxicities. These derivatives are also found to be more stable than l-ascorbic acid and to have favorable characteristics for skin penetration. The following structural requirements for inhibitory activity of alkylglyceryl-l-ascorbic acid derivatives are also determined: (i) alkylation of glyceryl-l-ascorbic acid is essential for inhibitory activity; (ii) the 3- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 2 - 14 ) exhibit stronger inhibitory activity than the corresponding 2- O -alkyl-derivatives ( 16 - 28 ); and (iii) derivatives with longer alkyl chains have stronger inhibitory activities. Mechanistically, our studies suggest that l-ascorbic acid derivatives exert their effects by suppressing the mRNA expression of tyrosinase and tyrosine-related protein-1.

  16. Mobilidade de íons em solo ácido com aplicação de calcário, ácido orgânico e material vegetal em superfície Ion mobility in acid soils with surface application of lime, organic acid and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Ferreira Moraes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsias quanto à eficiência da correção da acidez da camada subsuperficial pela aplicação de calcário na presença de materiais vegetais de plantas de cobertura e faltam informações sobre os mecanismos envolvidos no processo. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a contribuição dos materiais vegetais de plantas de cobertura, com ênfase nos seus conteúdos de ácidos orgânicos de baixa massa molar e nutrientes solúveis, sobre a mobilização, no perfil do solo, dos produtos da dissolução do calcário aplicado em superfície. Foram desenvolvidos dois experimentos em laboratório, usando colunas de PVC de 30 cm de altura com amostras deformadas de um Latossolo Vermelho textura muito argilosa. Os tratamentos constituíram-se da aplicação isolada ou conjunta de calcário para atingir 80 % de saturação por bases (6,1 t ha-1 e de materiais vegetais (20 t ha-1 de nabo forrageiro e aveia-preta, bem como de soluções de ácidos orgânicos e sais neutros aproximadamente equivalentes ao conteúdo dessas espécies. A calagem isolada ou em associação com os materiais vegetais promoveu a redução da acidez somente na camada superficial (0-8 cm. A baixa taxa de recuperação dos ácidos orgânicos adicionados (The efficiency of subsurface acidity alleviation by surface liming in the presence of crop residues is controversial and more information is needed. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of cover crop residues, regarding their contents of low molar mass organic acids and soluble nutrients to mobilization in the soil profile of the reaction products of surface-applied lime. Two experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions using 30 cm high PVC cylinders filled with acid and clayey Red Latosol. Treatments consisted of liming to 80 % soil base saturation (6.1 t ha-1 solely as or liming combined with radish (Raphanus sativus or with black oat (Avena strigosa crop residues (20 t ha-1, as

  17. Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Bing; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residues using bioleaching was investigated in this paper. The maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 93% by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at 4.0 g/l sulfur after bioleaching of 9days, while the maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 81% by pyrite-leaching bacteria at 4.0 g/l pyrite. The series bioleaching first by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and followed by pyrite-leaching bacteria evidently promoted the extraction of manganese, witnessing the maximum extraction efficiency of 98.1%. In the case of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, the strong dissolution of bio-generated sulfuric acid resulted in extraction of soluble Mn2+, while both the Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ and weak acidic dissolution of Mn2+ accounted for the extraction of manganese with pyrite-leaching bacteria. The chemical simulation of bioleaching process further confirmed that the acid dissolution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ were the bioleaching mechanisms involved for Mn extraction from electrolytic manganese residues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Casein kinase 1-Like 3 is required for abscisic acid regulation of seed germination, root growth, and gene expression in Arabidopsis. M Wang, D Yu, X Guo, X Li, J Zhang, L Zhao, H Chang, S Hu, C Zhang, J Shi, X Liu ...

  19. The Shigella flexneri OmpA amino acid residues 188EVQ190 are essential for the interaction with the virulence factor PhoN2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Daniela; Damico, Rosanna; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Superti, Fabiana; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Conte, Maria Pia; Longhi, Catia; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Zagaglia, Carlo; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Shigella flexneri is an intracellular pathogen that deploys an arsenal of virulence factors promoting host cell invasion, intracellular multiplication and intra- and inter-cellular dissemination. We have previously reported that the interaction between apyrase (PhoN2), a periplasmic ATP-diphosphohydrolase, and the C-terminal domain of the outer membrane (OM) protein OmpA is likely required for proper IcsA exposition at the old bacterial pole and thus for full virulence expression of Shigella flexneri (Scribano et al., 2014). OmpA, that is the major OM protein of Gram-negative bacteria, is a multifaceted protein that plays many different roles both in the OM structural integrity and in the virulence of several pathogens. Here, by using yeast two-hybrid technology and by constructing an in silico 3D model of OmpA from S. flexneri 5a strain M90T, we observed that the OmpA residues 188 EVQ 190 are likely essential for PhoN2-OmpA interaction. The 188 EVQ 190 amino acids are located within a flexible region of the OmpA protein that could represent a scaffold for protein-protein interaction.

  20. On the Evolution of Specificity in Members of the Yeast Amino Acid Transporter Family as Parts of Specific Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Gournas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, molecular modeling and substrate docking, coupled with biochemical and genetic analyses have identified the substrate-binding residues of several amino acid transporters of the yeast amino acid transporter (YAT family. These consist of (a residues conserved across YATs that interact with the invariable part of amino acid substrates and (b variable residues that interact with the side chain of the amino acid substrate and thus define specificity. Secondary structure sequence alignments showed that the positions of these residues are conserved across YATs and could thus be used to predict the specificity of YATs. Here, we discuss the potential of combining molecular modeling and structural alignments with intra-species phylogenetic comparisons of transporters, in order to predict the function of uncharacterized members of the family. We additionally define some orphan branches which include transporters with potentially novel, and to be characterized specificities. In addition, we discuss the particular case of the highly specific l-proline transporter, PrnB, of Aspergillus nidulans, whose gene is part of a cluster of genes required for the utilization of proline as a carbon and/or nitrogen source. This clustering correlates with transcriptional regulation of these genes, potentially leading to the efficient coordination of the uptake of externally provided l-Pro via PrnB and its enzymatic degradation in the cell.

  1. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  2. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  3. Stability of the anthocyanins extracted from residues of the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Clemente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are highly important due to their antioxidant capacity. They are the most important among the phenolic compounds and one of the main natural dyes used in the food industry. In this research, residue of processed grapes was used to investigate the presence of anthocyanins, the possibility of their extraction from the residue, and their stability. The extraction solution consisted of 70 mL of ethanol 70% and 30 mL of HCl 0.1% at pH 2.0. The results found for the processed grapes residue was 26.20 mg.100 g-1. In order to evaluate stability, caffeic acid was added at 0.5:1 w/v; 0.8:1 w/v; and 1:1 w/v concentrations. Anthocyanins extract reached the greatest stability at 0.5:1 w/v concentration, with 82.47% color retention and a half-life period of 15 days. Therefore, the use of this organic acid as a stabilizer for anthocyanins is feasible.

  4. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1281 - S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-cyclohex-2-enyl)-3-methyl-penta-(2Z,4E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1281 S-Abscisic Acid, (S)-5-(1-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxo-1-cyclohex-2... from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of S-Abscisic Acid in or on all food...

  6. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS LEASING § 714.5 What is...

  7. Structure and properties of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutorskii, I.A.; Sultanova, A.S.; Belkina, E.V.; Fomin, A.G. [Lomonosov Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-03-01

    Colloidal characteristics of compositions based on petroleum sulfonic acids were studied. Neutralized heavy oil residue exhibits surface-active properties and contains an ultradisperse filler. Analysis of the compositions by size-exclusion-chromatography shows deep structural changes in the heavy acid residue upon neutralization with calcium carbonate.

  8. Identification of oligo-N-glycolylneuraminic acid residues in mammal-derived glycoproteins by a newly developed immunochemical reagent and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, C; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y

    1998-01-30

    The occurrence of the alpha2-->8-linked oligomeric form of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (oligo-Neu5Gc) residues in mammalian glycoproteins was unequivocally demonstrated using a newly developed anti-oligo/poly-Neu5Gc monoclonal antibody as well as by chemical and biochemical methods. First, the antibody, designated mAb.2-4B, which specifically recognized oligo/poly-Neu5Gc with a degree of polymerization of >2, was developed by establishing a hybridoma cell line from P3U1 myeloma cells fused with splenocytes from an MRL autoimmune mouse immunized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated oligo/poly-Neu5Gc. Second, oligo-Neu5Gc was shown to occur in glycoproteins derived from pig spleen by Western blot analysis using mAb.2-4B, which was also confirmed by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the product of periodate oxidation/reduction/acid hydrolysis of the purified glycopeptide fractions and by TLC and 600-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis of their mild acid hydrolysates. Finally, the ubiquitous occurrence of oligo-Neu5Gc chains as glycoproteinaceous components in Wistar rat tissue was immunochemically indicated. This is the first example demonstrating the diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure in mammalian glycoproteins, where only poly-N-acetylneuraminic acid is known to occur. Such diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure also implicates a diverged array of biological functions of this glycan unit in glycoproteins.

  9. Determination of cyanuric acid residues in catfish, trout, tilapia, salmon and shrimp by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbiwnyk, Christine M. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States)], E-mail: christine.karbiwnyk@fda.hhs.gov; Andersen, Wendy C.; Turnipseed, Sherri B. [Animal Drugs Research Center, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Storey, Joseph M.; Madson, Mark R. [Denver District Laboratory, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, P.O. Box 25087, Denver, CO 80225-0087 (United States); Miller, Keith E. [Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 8401 Muirkirk Road, Laurel, MD 20708 (United States); Gieseker, Charles M.; Miller, Ron A.; Rummel, Nathan G.; Reimschuessel, Renate [University of Denver, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Denver, CO 80208 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    In May 2007, investigators discovered that waste material from the pet food manufacturing process contaminated with melamine (MEL) and/or cyanuric acid (CYA) had been added to hog and chicken feeds. At this time, investigators also learned that adulterated wheat gluten had been used in the manufacture of aquaculture feeds. Concern that the contaminated feed had been used in aquaculture and could enter the human food supply prompted the development of a method for the determination of CYA residues in the edible tissues of fish and shrimp. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed as a sensitive technique for the analysis of CYA in catfish, tilapia, salmon, trout and shrimp tissue. CYA was extracted from ground fish or shrimp with an acetic acid solution, defatted with hexane, and isolated with a graphitic carbon black solid-phase extraction column. Residues were separated from matrix components using a porous graphitic carbon LC column, and then analyzed with electrospray ionization in negative ion mode on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Selective reaction monitoring was performed on the [M-H]{sup -}m/z 128 ion resulting in the product ions m/z 85 and 42. Recoveries from catfish, tilapia and trout fortified with 10-100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} of CYA averaged 67% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 18% (n = 107). The average method detection limit (MDL) for catfish, tilapia and trout is 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. An internal standard, {sup 13}C{sub 3}-labeled CYA, was used in the salmon and shrimp extractions. Average recovery of CYA from salmon was 91% (R.S.D. = 15%, n = 18) with an MDL of 7.4 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Average recovery of CYA from shrimp was 85% (R.S.D. = 10%, n = 13) with an MDL of 3.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1}.

  10. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praphulla Chandra, Boggarapu; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-04-01

    In the North West Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r ≥ 0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62 ± 0.18 ppb), benzene (2.51 ± 0.28 ppb), toluene (3.72 ± 0.41 ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88 ± 0.30 ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55 ± 0.19 ppb) and CO (552 ± 113 ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97 ± 0.17 ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6 ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of

  11. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation conditions for improved bioethanol production from potato peel residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Taher, Imen; Fickers, Patrick; Chniti, Sofien; Hassouna, Mnasser

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was the optimization of the enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues (PPR) for bioethanol production. The process included a pretreatment step followed by an enzyme hydrolysis using crude enzyme system composed of cellulase, amylase and hemicellulase, produced by a mixed culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei. Hydrothermal, alkali and acid pretreatments were considered with regards to the enhancement of enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues. The obtained results showed that hydrothermal pretreatment lead to a higher enzyme hydrolysis yield compared to both acid and alkali pretreatments. Enzyme hydrolysis was also optimized for parameters such as temperature, pH, substrate loading and surfactant loading using a response surface methodology. Under optimized conditions, 77 g L -1 of reducing sugars were obtained. Yeast fermentation of the released reducing sugars led to an ethanol titer of 30 g L -1 after supplementation of the culture medium with ammonium sulfate. Moreover, a comparative study between acid and enzyme hydrolysis of potato peel residues was investigated. Results showed that enzyme hydrolysis offers higher yield of bioethanol production than acid hydrolysis. These results highlight the potential of second generation bioethanol production from potato peel residues treated with onsite produced hydrolytic enzymes. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:397-406, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  12. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pcontamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  13. Evaluation of the number of ionogenic groups of inulinase by acid-base titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, T A; Holyavka, M G; Rezvan, S G; Kozhedub, S V

    2008-06-01

    Acid base titration showed that Aspergillus awamori inulinase includes 178 asparaginic and glutamic acid residues, 20 histidine, 10 serine, and 34 lysine and tyrosine residues. Denaturation temperature for this enzyme was calculated using analysis of the proportion of stabilizing and destabilizing amino acids in the molecule.

  14. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This instructor's guide presents analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. This publication is intended…

  15. Determination of Residual Chlorine and Turbidity in Drinking Water. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This student's manual covers analytical methods for residual chlorine and turbidity. Topics include sample handling, permissable concentration levels, substitution of residual chlorine for bacteriological work, public notification, and the required analytical techniques to determine residual chlorine and turbidity. The publication is intended for…

  16. Studies on the protein and sulfur amino acid requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with purified diets to examine the influence of protein level and to estimate the sulfur amino acid (S.A.A.) requirement of young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). These studies demonstrated (I) that 26% protein was sufficient for rapid growth when the diet was supplemented with methionine; (2) that diets containing higher levels of protein (29.3% and 31.3%) failed to support satisfactory growth unless they contained supplemental methionine; and (3) that young Bobwhite quail require no more than 1.0% sulfur-containing amino acids for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization. A fifth experiment was conducted to examine the protein and S.A.A. requirements of young Bobwhite quail using practical rations and to compare results with those obtained with purified diets. Diets containing 24%, 26% and 28% protein were supplied with and without supplemental methionine in a five week study. Results showed significant growth responses to protein and supplemental methionine. Responses showed that Bobwhite quail require no more than 26% protein for maximum growth and efficiency of feed utilization when the S.A.A. level of the diet was approximately 1.0%. The results were in close agreement with those obtained with purified diets. These findings define more precisely than had been known the quantitative requirements of young Bobwhite quail for protein and for the S.A.A. necessary for optimal growth.

  17. Bromopyruvate, an active site-directed inactivator of E. coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate(KHG) aldolase, modifies glutamic acid residue-45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, C.J.; Dekker, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    E. coli KHG-aldolase (2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate ↔ pyruvate + glyoxylate), a novel trimeric Class I aldolase, requires one active-site lysine residue (Lys 133)/subunit for Schiff-base formation as well as one arginine residue (Arg 49)/subunit for catalytic activity. The substrate analog, 3-bromopyruvate (BRPY), causes a time- and concentration-dependent loss of KHG-aldolase activity. This inactivation is regarded as active site-directed since: (a) BRPY modification results in complete loss of enzymatic activity; (b) saturation kinetics are exhibited, suggesting that a reversible complex is formed between the aldolase and BRPY prior to the rate-limiting inactivation step; (c) over 90% of the initial aldolase activity is protected by either substrate, pyruvate or KHG; (d) 1.1 mol of 14 C-BRPY is bound/enzyme subunit. Peptide isolation and sequencing show that the incorporated radioactivity is associated with residue Glu-45. Denaturation of the enzyme with guanidine x HCl following treatment with excess 14 C-BRPY allows for the incorporation of carbon-14 at Cys-159 and Cys-180 as well. The presence of pyruvate protects Glu-45 from being esterified but does not prevent the alkylation of the two cysteine residues. These results suggest that Glu-45 is essential for the catalytic activity of E. coli KHG-aldolase, most likely functioning as the active-site amphoteric proton donor/acceptor moiety that is involved in the overall mechanism of the reaction catalyzed by this enzyme

  18. Stabilization of plutonium bearing residues at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (US DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has plutonium holdings including metal, oxide and residue materials, all of which need stabilization of some type. Residue materials include calcined ash, calcined precipitates, pyrochemical salts, glove box sweepings, metallurgical samples, graphite, and pyrochemical ceramic crucibles. These residues are typical of residues stored throughout the US DOE plutonium sites. The stabilization process selected for each of these residues requires data on chemical impurities, physical attributes, and chemical forms of the plutonium. This paper outlines the characterization and stabilization of LLNL ash residues, pyrochemical salts, and graphite

  19. Growth hormone receptor C-terminal domains required for growth hormone-induced intracellular free Ca2+ oscillations and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Bouchelouche, P; Allevato, G

    1995-01-01

    of varying frequency and amplitude. GH-induced transcription of the serine protease inhibitor 2.1 gene required the same C-terminal 52-amino acid domain of the receptor as for Ca2+ signaling. Mutation of the four proline residues in the conserved box 1 region of the GHR, which is responsible for binding...

  20. Forest residues management guidelines for the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pierovich; Edward H. Clarke; Stewart G. Pickford; Franklin R. Ward

    1975-01-01

    Forest residues often require treatment to meet land management objectives. Guideline statements for managing forest residues are presented to provide direction for achieving these objectives. The latest research information and the best knowledge of experts in various land management disciplines were used to formulate these statements. A unique keying system is...

  1. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual ...

  2. Identification of amino acids in the human tetherin transmembrane domain responsible for HIV-1 Vpu interaction and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ode, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Takeshi; Sato, Kei; Gee, Peter; Yamamoto, Seiji P; Ebina, Hirotaka; Strebel, Klaus; Sato, Hironori; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Tetherin, also known as BST-2/CD317/HM1.24, is an antiviral cellular protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) is a specific antagonist of human tetherin that might contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1. In this study, we show that three amino acid residues (I34, L37, and L41) in the transmembrane (TM) domain of human tetherin are critical for the interaction with Vpu by using a live cell-based assay. We also found that the conservation of an additional amino acid at position 45 and two residues downstream of position 22, which are absent from monkey tetherins, are required for the antagonism by Vpu. Moreover, computer-assisted structural modeling and mutagenesis studies suggest that an alignment of these four amino acid residues (I34, L37, L41, and T45) on the same helical face in the TM domain is crucial for the Vpu-mediated antagonism of human tetherin. These results contribute to the molecular understanding of human tetherin-specific antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu.

  3. Effect of Refining Processes on Magnitude and Nature of Malathion and Carbofuran Residues in Cotton Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.; Mahdy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Cotton seeds obtained from 14 C-carbofuran or 14 C-malathion-treated plants contained 0.25% and 0.11% of the originally applied radioactivity, respectively. The concentration of malathion residues in oil, methanol soluble and in the seed cake amounted to 0.94, 2.6 and 1.7 ppm, respectively. Commercial processing procedures led to a gradual decrease in the total amount of 14 C-residues in oils with aged residues as well as in oil fortified with the radiolabelled insecticides. The refined oil contained only about 20% of the 14 C-residues originally present. The major residue in processed oil contained malathion, malathion monocarboxylic acid and alpha-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithio)-propionic acid. The concentration of 14 C-carbofuran residues in cotton seed oil, methanol extract and cake was 1.7, 12.3 and 2.4 ppm, respectively. The main residues in the oil were carbofuran and its phenol. The methanol solubles contained conjugated metabolites, which upon hydrolysis gave 3-hydroxy-carbofuran as a major product. Refinement reduced the residue in oil to 0.26 ppm. The residue in refined oil contained carbofuran and carbofuran phenol as main constituents together with smaller amounts of 3-hydroxy- and 3-keto carbofuran

  4. Residues in the alternative reading frame tumor suppressor that influence its stability and p53-independent activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommaso, Anne di; Hagen, Jussara; Tompkins, Van; Muniz, Viviane; Dudakovic, Amel; Kitzis, Alain; Ladeveze, Veronique; Quelle, Dawn E.

    2009-01-01

    The Alternative Reading Frame (ARF) protein suppresses tumorigenesis through p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. Most of ARF's anti-proliferative activity is conferred by sequences in its first exon. Previous work showed specific amino acid changes occurred in that region during primate evolution, so we programmed those changes into human p14ARF to assay their functional impact. Two human p14ARF residues (Ala 14 and Thr 31 ) were found to destabilize the protein while two others (Val 24 and Ala 41 ) promoted more efficient p53 stabilization and activation. Despite those effects, all modified p14ARF forms displayed robust p53-dependent anti-proliferative activity demonstrating there are no significant biological differences in p53-mediated growth suppression associated with simian versus human p14ARF residues. In contrast, p53-independent p14ARF function was considerably altered by several residue changes. Val 24 was required for p53-independent growth suppression whereas multiple residues (Val 24 , Thr 31 , Ala 41 and His 60 ) enabled p14ARF to block or reverse the inherent chromosomal instability of p53-null MEFs. Together, these data pinpoint specific residues outside of established p14ARF functional domains that influence its expression and signaling activities. Most intriguingly, this work reveals a novel and direct role for p14ARF in the p53-independent maintenance of genomic stability.

  5. Indigenous microbial capability in solid manure residues to start-up solid-phase anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, S D; Astals, S; Jensen, P D; Batstone, D J; Tait, S

    2017-06-01

    Batch solid-phase anaerobic digestion is a technology for sustainable on-farm treatment of solid residues, but is an emerging technology that is yet to be optimised with respect to start-up and inoculation. In the present study, spent bedding from two piggeries (site A and B) were batch digested at total solids (TS) concentration of 5, 10 and 20% at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) temperatures, without adding an external inoculum. The results showed that the indigenous microbial community present in spent bedding was able to recover the full methane potential of the bedding (140±5 and 227±6L CH 4 kgVS fed -1 for site A and B, respectively), but longer treatment times were required than for digestion with an added external inoculum. Nonetheless, at high solid loadings (i.e. TS level>10%), the digestion performance was affected by chemical inhibition due to ammonia and/or humic acid. Thermophilic temperatures did not influence digestion performance but did increase start-up failure risk. Further, inoculation of residues from the batch digestion to subsequent batch enhanced start-up and achieved full methane potential recovery of the bedding. Inoculation with liquid residue (leachate) was preferred over a solid residue, to preserve treatment capacity for fresh substrate. Overall, the study highlighted that indigenous microbial community in the solid manure residue was capable of recovering full methane potential and that solid-phase digestion was ultimately limited by chemical inhibition rather than lack of suitable microbial community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of tranexamic acid on intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Bhavna; Chouhan, Rajendra Singh; Rath, Girija Prasad; Bithal, Parmod Kumar; Suri, Ashish; Lamsal, Ritesh

    2017-07-01

    Surgical excision of meningioma is often complicated by significant blood loss requiring blood transfusion with its attendant risks. Although tranexamic acid is used to reduce perioperative blood loss, its blood conservation effect is uncertain in neurosurgery. Sixty adults undergoing elective craniotomy for meningioma excision were randomized to receive either tranexamic acid or placebo, initiated prior to skin incision. Patients in the tranexamic acid group received intravenous bolus of 20mg/kg over 20min followed by an infusion of 1mg/kg/h till the conclusion of surgery. Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion requirements and estimation of surgical hemostasis using a 5-grade scale were noted. Postoperatively, the extent of tumor excision on CT scan and complications were observed. Demographics, tumor characteristics, amount of fluid infusion, and duration of surgery and anesthesia were comparable between the two groups. The amount of blood loss was significantly less in tranexamic acid group compared to placebo (830mlvs 1124ml; p=0.03). The transfusion requirement was less in tranexamic acid group (p>0.05). The patients in tranexamic acid group fared better on a 5-grade surgical hemostasis scale with more patients showing good hemostasis (p=0.007). There were no significant differences between the groups with regards to extent of tumor removal, perioperative complications, hospital stay or neurologic outcome. To conclude, administration of tranexamic acid significantly reduced blood loss in patients undergoing excision of meningioma. Fewer patients in the tranexamic acid group received blood transfusions. Surgical field hemostasis was better achieved in patients who received tranexamic acid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HPLC identification of isoniazid residues in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite R.M.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the identification of isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide in the milk of cattle treated with a dose of 25 mg/kg/day in alternated days. The effect of milk pasteurization on the isoniazid residue concentration was also studied. The drug excretion presented a cyclic variation, with higher levels in the first day after administration (aa, a mean of 1104.48µg/l, and a decrease two days aa, with a mean of 104.12µg/l. Four days after the last administration of the drug it was not possible to identify residues of isoniazid in the milk of treated animals. Body weight and milk yield influenced the amount of the excreted drug, and pasteurization decreased (mean 47.07% the concentration of isoniazid residue in milk.

  8. Sugar and Sugar Derivatives in Residues Produced from the UV Irradiation of Astrophysical Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuevo, M.; Sandford, S. A.; Cooper, G.

    2016-01-01

    A large variety and number of organic compounds of prebiotic interest are known to be present in carbonaceous chondrites. Among them, one sugar (dihydroxyacetone) as well as several sugar acids, sugar alcohols, and other sugar derivatives have been reported in the Murchison and Murray meteorites. Their presence, along with amino acids, amphiphiles, and nucleobases strongly suggests that molecules essential to life can form abiotically under astrophysical conditions. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory studies on the formation of complex organic molecules from the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of simulated astrophysical ice mixtures consisting of H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4, NH3, etc., at low temperature. In the past 15 years, these studies have shown that the organic residues recovered at room temperature contain amino acids, amphiphiles, nucleobases, as well as other complex organics. However, no systematic search for the presence of sugars and sugar derivatives in laboratory residues have been reported to date, despite the fact that those compounds are of primary prebiotic significance. Indeed, only small (up to 3 carbon atoms) sugar derivatives including glycerol and glyceric acid have been detected in residues so far.

  9. Molecular evolution of the nicotinic acid requirement within the Shigella/EIEC pathotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Maria Letizia; Fioravanti, Rosa; Barbabella, Giada; Prosseda, Gianni; Colonna, Bianca; Casalino, Mariassunta

    2013-12-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a crucial cofactor in several anabolic and catabolic reactions. NAD derives from quinolinic acid (QUIN) which in Escherichia coli is obtained through a pyridine salvage pathway or a de novo synthesis pathway. In the latter case, two enzymes, L-aspartate oxidase (NadB) and quinolinate synthase (NadA), are required for the synthesis of QUIN. In contrast to its E. coli ancestor, Shigella spp., the causative agent of bacillary dissentery, lacks the de novo pathway and strictly requires nicotinic acid for growth (Nic⁻ phenotype). This phenotype depends on the silencing of the nadB and nadA genes and its pathoadaptive nature is suggested by the observation that QUIN attenuates the Shigella invasive process. Shigella shares the pathogenicity mechanism with enteronvasive E. coli (EIEC), a group of pathogenic E. coli. On the basis of this similarity EIEC and Shigella have been grouped into a single E. coli pathotype. However EIEC strains do not constitute a homogeneous group and do not possess the complete set of characters that define Shigella strains. In this work we have analysed thirteen EIEC strains belonging to different serotypes and originating from different geographic areas. We show that, in contrast to Shigella, only some EIEC strains require nicotinic acid for growth in minimal medium. Moreover, by studying the emergence of the Nic⁻ phenotype in all serotypes of S. flexneri, as well as in S. sonnei and S. dysenteriae, we describe which molecular rearrangements occurred and which mutations are responsible for the inactivation of the nadA and nadB genes. Our data confirm that the genome of Shigella is extremely dynamic and support the hypothesis that EIEC might reflect an earlier stage of the pathoadaptation process undergone by Shigella. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. UVB-induced photoperoxidation of lipids of human low and high density lipoproteins. A possible role of tryptophan residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, S.; Maziere, J.C.; Santus, R.; Bouchemal, N.; Morliere, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation of the UVB region readily destroys tryptophan (Trp) residues of low (LDL) and high (HDL) density lipoproteins. The photooxidation of tryptophan residues is accompanied by peroxidation of low and high density lipoproteins unsaturated fatty acids, as measured by thiobarbituric acid assay. Moreover, low and high density lipoproteins are natural carriers of vitamin E and carotenoids. These two antioxidants are also rapidly bleached by UVB. The UVA radiation promotes neither tryptophan residue destruction nor lipid photoperoxidation. The redox cycling Cu 2+ ions considerably increase lipid photoperoxidation. The synergistic action of photo and auto (Cu 2+ -induced) peroxidation induces marked post-irradiation modifications of apolipoproteins as illustrated by degradation of most tryptophan residues after overnight incubation in the dark of pre-irradiated samples. (author)

  11. Purification, cloning, characterization and essential amino acid residues analysis of a new ι-carrageenase from Cellulophaga sp. QY3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ma

    Full Text Available ι-Carrageenases belong to family 82 of glycoside hydrolases that degrade sulfated galactans in the red algae known as ι-carrageenans. The catalytic mechanism and some substrate-binding residues of family GH82 have been studied but the substrate recognition and binding mechanism of this family have not been fully elucidated. We report here the purification, cloning and characterization of a new ι-carrageenase CgiA_Ce from the marine bacterium Cellulophaga sp. QY3. CgiA_Ce was the most thermostable carrageenase described so far. It was most active at 50°C and pH 7.0 and retained more than 70% of the original activity after incubation at 50°C for 1 h at pH 7.0 or at pH 5.0-10.6 for 24 h. CgiA_Ce was an endo-type ι-carrageenase; it cleaved ι-carrageenan yielding neo-ι-carrabiose and neo-ι-carratetraose as the main end products, and neo-ι-carrahexaose was the minimum substrate. Sequence analysis and structure modeling showed that CgiA_Ce is indeed a new member of family GH82. Moreover, sequence analysis of ι-carrageenases revealed that the amino acid residues at subsites -1 and +1 were more conserved than those at other subsites. Site-directed mutagenesis followed by kinetic analysis identified three strictly conserved residues at subsites -1 and +1 of ι-carrageenases, G228, Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce, which played important roles for substrate binding. Furthermore, our results suggested that Y229 and R254 in CgiA_Ce interacted specifically with the sulfate groups of the sugar moieties located at subsites -1 and +1, shedding light on the mechanism of ι-carrageenan recognition in the family GH82.

  12. A single arginine residue is required for the interaction of the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) with three of its dehydrogenase partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R

    2003-12-01

    The interaction of several dehydrogenases with the electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF) is a crucial step required for the successful transfer of electrons into the electron transport chain. The exact determinants regarding the interaction of ETF with its dehydrogenase partners are still unknown. Chemical modification of ETF with arginine-specific reagents resulted in the loss, to varying degrees, of activity with medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD). The kinetic profiles showed the inactivations followed pseudo-first-order kinetics for all reagents used. For activity with MCAD, maximum inactivation of ETF was accomplished by 2,3-butanedione (4% residual activity after 120 min) and it was shown that modification of one arginine residue was responsible for the inactivation. Almost 100% restoration of this ETF activity was achieved upon incubation with free arginine. However, the same 2,3-butanedione modified ETF only possessed decreased activity with dimethylglycine-(DMGDH, 44%) and sarcosine- (SDH, 27%) dehydrogenases unlike the abolition with MCAD. Full protection of ETF from arginine modification by 2,3-butanedione was achieved using substrate-protected DMGDH, MCAD and SDH respectively. Cross-protection studies of ETF with the three dehydrogenases implied use of the same single arginine residue in the binding of all three dehydrogenases. These results lead us to conclude that this single arginine residue is essential in the binding of the ETF to MCAD, but only contributes partially to the binding of ETF to SDH and DMGDH and thus, the determinants of the dehydrogenase binding sites overlap but are not identical.

  13. Sonchus oleraceus Residue Improves Nutritive and Health-Promoting Value of Common Bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.): A Metabolic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mahmoud O; Saleh, Ahmed M; AbdElgawad, Hamada

    2018-03-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the use of the phenolic-rich Sonchus oleraceus residue as an environmentally safe approach to induce the nutritive and health-promoting values of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Bronco). S. oleraceus shoot residue, at rates of 150 and 300 g m -2 , has improved soil fertility via accumulation of soil macronutrients, organic matter, organic carbon, and total phenolics. The growth and yield of bean were significantly increased. Moreover, chemical composition of the treated seeds was significantly altered, whereas higher levels of total antioxidant capacity, proteins, carbohydrates, and most of the individual phenolic acids, flavonoids, vitamins, essential amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids were recorded. Interestingly, a concentration dependent effect was also observed, for instance, a lower saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acid ratio was only observed in the case of the lower residue rate. These findings recommend the use of S. oleraceus in organic farming of bean to enhance the health benefits of the produced seeds.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF AGROINDUSTRIAL RESIDUES WITH A VIEW TO ITS EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Cabrera Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial residues are considered one of the most important renewable resources to obtain products of economic and social interest. This study assesses the potential use of coconut husk, sugar cane straw and sugar cane bagasse marrow through their chemical characterization. For this, the total solid contents, the ash, lignin, holocellulose and extractive contents are determined, as well as the zero charge Ph and the total acid and basic groups of materials. Results show a large lignin percentage in coconut husk composition (42.3 ± 1.03%, which is significantly higher than that of the other residues. That is why this material is a promising feedstock to obtain high-added value chemical products like phenolic compounds, which can replace those derived from crude oil. Straw and marrow have high holocellulose percentages of 61.1 ± 1.0% and 60.3 ± 1.3%, respectively, deserving attention as feedstock for biofuels production and chemical compound synthesis. On the other hand, all residues have higher number of acid sites with a predominance of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups according to infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Therefore, all materials display potentialities for heavy metals and dissolving colorants biosorption.

  15. Identification of Amino Acids in the Human Tetherin Transmembrane Domain Responsible for HIV-1 Vpu Interaction and Susceptibility▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Ode, Hirotaka; Yoshida, Takeshi; Sato, Kei; Gee, Peter; Yamamoto, Seiji P.; Ebina, Hirotaka; Strebel, Klaus; Sato, Hironori; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Tetherin, also known as BST-2/CD317/HM1.24, is an antiviral cellular protein that inhibits the release of HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) is a specific antagonist of human tetherin that might contribute to the high virulence of HIV-1. In this study, we show that three amino acid residues (I34, L37, and L41) in the transmembrane (TM) domain of human tetherin are critical for the interaction with Vpu by using a live cell-based assay. We also found that the conservation of an additional amino acid at position 45 and two residues downstream of position 22, which are absent from monkey tetherins, are required for the antagonism by Vpu. Moreover, computer-assisted structural modeling and mutagenesis studies suggest that an alignment of these four amino acid residues (I34, L37, L41, and T45) on the same helical face in the TM domain is crucial for the Vpu-mediated antagonism of human tetherin. These results contribute to the molecular understanding of human tetherin-specific antagonism by HIV-1 Vpu. PMID:21068238

  16. Comparison of 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolism and kinetics in the isolated rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Holden, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Time courses of radioactivity (residue curves) were obtained following bolus injection into working rat hearts of two 125 I-labeled long chain fatty acids: 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA). Residue curves were analyzed in terms of a rapid vascular washout component, an early tissue clearance component, and a very slow late component. For IHDA and IPPA in control hearts, early myocardial clearance kinetics were limited by the diffusion of catabolites. Sensitivity of the kinetics to impaired fatty acid oxidation was examined by pretreatment of animals with 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). Decreased fatty acid oxidation was indicated in IHDA and IPPA residue curves by a decrease in the relative size of the early clearance component. Analysis of radiolabeled species in coronary effluent and heart homogenates showed that back diffusion of IPPA was slower than that of IHDA; this discrepancy was most apparent in POCA hearts. In vitro binding assays suggested higher tissue: Albumin relative affinity for IPPA than for IHDA. Thus, IPPA early clearance kinetics were more closely related to the clearance of labeled (catabolite(s)) and were therefore more sensitive to the oxidation rate of long chain fatty acids. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolism and kinetics in the isolated rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Ng, C.K.; Raffel, D.M.; Holden, J.E.

    1988-12-01

    Time courses of radioactivity (residue curves) were obtained following bolus injection into working rat hearts of two /sup 125/I-labeled long chain fatty acids: 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA). Residue curves were analyzed in terms of a rapid vascular washout component, an early tissue clearance component, and a very slow late component. For IHDA and IPPA in control hearts, early myocardial clearance kinetics were limited by the diffusion of catabolites. Sensitivity of the kinetics to impaired fatty acid oxidation was examined by pretreatment of animals with 2(5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl)oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). Decreased fatty acid oxidation was indicated in IHDA and IPPA residue curves by a decrease in the relative size of the early clearance component. Analysis of radiolabeled species in coronary effluent and heart homogenates showed that back diffusion of IPPA was slower than that of IHDA; this discrepancy was most apparent in POCA hearts. In vitro binding assays suggested higher tissue: Albumin relative affinity for IPPA than for IHDA. Thus, IPPA early clearance kinetics were more closely related to the clearance of labeled (catabolite(s)) and were therefore more sensitive to the oxidation rate of long chain fatty acids.

  18. Comparison of 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) metabolism and kinetics in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrado, T R; Holden, J E; Ng, C K; Raffel, D M; Gatley, S J

    1988-01-01

    Time courses of radioactivity (residue curves) were obtained following bolus injection into working rat hearts of two 125I-labeled long chain fatty acids: 16-iodohexadecanoic acid (IHDA) and 15-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA). Residue curves were analyzed in terms of a rapid vascular washout component, an early tissue clearance component, and a very slow late component. For IHDA and IPPA in control hearts, early myocardial clearance kinetics were rate limited by the diffusion of catabolites. Sensitivity of the kinetics to impaired fatty acid oxidation was examination by pretreatment of animals with 2[5(4-chlorophenyl)pentyl]oxirane-2-carboxylate (POCA). Decreased fatty acid oxidation was indicated in IHDA and IPPA residue curves by a decrease in the relative size of the early clearance component. Analysis of radiolabeled species in coronary effluent and heart homogenates showed that back diffusion of IPPA was slower than that of IHDA; this discrepancy was most apparent in POCA hearts. In vitro binding assays suggested higher tissue:albumin relative affinity for IPPA than for IHDA. Thus, IPPA early clearance kinetics were more closely related to the clearance of labeled catabolite(s) and were therefore more sensitive to the oxidation rate of long chain fatty acids.

  19. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar KE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. Results The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. Conclusions The primary contributions of this work are to (1 demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2 show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  20. Literature mining of protein-residue associations with graph rules learned through distant supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Ke; Liu, Haibin; Cohn, Judith D; Wall, Michael E; Verspoor, Karin

    2012-10-05

    We propose a method for automatic extraction of protein-specific residue mentions from the biomedical literature. The method searches text for mentions of amino acids at specific sequence positions and attempts to correctly associate each mention with a protein also named in the text. The methods presented in this work will enable improved protein functional site extraction from articles, ultimately supporting protein function prediction. Our method made use of linguistic patterns for identifying the amino acid residue mentions in text. Further, we applied an automated graph-based method to learn syntactic patterns corresponding to protein-residue pairs mentioned in the text. We finally present an approach to automated construction of relevant training and test data using the distant supervision model. The performance of the method was assessed by extracting protein-residue relations from a new automatically generated test set of sentences containing high confidence examples found using distant supervision. It achieved a F-measure of 0.84 on automatically created silver corpus and 0.79 on a manually annotated gold data set for this task, outperforming previous methods. The primary contributions of this work are to (1) demonstrate the effectiveness of distant supervision for automatic creation of training data for protein-residue relation extraction, substantially reducing the effort and time involved in manual annotation of a data set and (2) show that the graph-based relation extraction approach we used generalizes well to the problem of protein-residue association extraction. This work paves the way towards effective extraction of protein functional residues from the literature.

  1. Treatment of mine water and solid residues (RS) in San Rafael mining and milling complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asenjo, Armando R.; Perrino, Juan F.

    2006-01-01

    San Rafael Mining and Milling Complex is located in Mendoza Province, in San Rafael Department, 38 km West from San Rafael city and 240 km south from Mendoza city, capital of the province. Activities related with yellow cake production were performed from 1979 to 1999. Nowadays the mine and the plant are in stand by. At the moment technical, economic and environmental studies are being done in order to restart the activities. Different kind of residues are accumulated in the site: a) Tailing; b) Sludges; c) Low grade ores; e) Waste rock; f) Mine water; g) Solid residues (RS). In this paper methodology to treat mine water and solid residues (RS) will be informed. a) Mine water: 800.000 m 3 of mine water are accumulated in different open pit. Uranium, radium and arsenic are the main ions to take into account to treat the water. Several laboratory and pilot test have been performed in order to define the treatment of the water, according with the regulatory requirement. A methodology using anion exchange resin to fix uranium and precipitation using barium chloride and iron sulfate to separate radium and arsenic has been developed. b) Solid residues (RS): these residues (precipitates) have been produced by neutralization of effluents in a nuclear purification process (TBP process). They are accumulated in drums. These residues come from Cordoba plant, a factory which produces UO 2 powder. The total content of uranium in the precipitate is 14.249 kg with an average uranium concentration of 1,33%. A methodology using sulfuric acid dissolution of the precipitates and anion exchange resin to recovery the uranium has been developed. (author) [es

  2. Recovery of plutonium from the combustion residues of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gompper, K.; Wieczorek, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental researches on plutonium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid in inactive and alpha-bearing wastes are presented in this report. After a review of the literature published on dissolution methods of PuO 2 combustion residues. Then results obtained in the ALONA plant on the dissolution of plutonium containing ashes in sulfuric acid and nitric acid are presented. Plutonium purification is studied. At last a simplified scheme of processing based on results obtained

  3. A chloroplast lipoxygenase is required for wound-induced jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1995-09-12

    Plant lipoxygenases are thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of lipid-derived signaling molecules. The potential involvement of a specific Arabidopsis thaliana lipoxygenase isozyme, LOX2, in the biosynthesis of the plant growth regulators jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid was investigated. Our characterization of LOX2 indicates that the protein is targeted to chloroplasts. The physiological role of this chloroplast lipoxygenase was analyzed in transgenic plants where cosuppression reduced LOX2 accumulation. The reduction in LOX2 levels caused no obvious changes in plant growth or in the accumulation of abscisic acid. However, the wound-induced accumulation of JA observed in control plants was absent in leaves of transgenic plants that lacked LOX2. Thus, LOX2 is required for the wound-induced synthesis of the plant growth regulator JA in leaves. We also examined the expression of a wound- and JA-inducible Arabidopsis gene, vsp, in transgenic and control plants. Leaves of transgenic plants lacking LOX2 accumulated less vsp mRNA than did control leaves in response to wounding. This result suggests that wound-induced JA (or some other LOX2-requiring component of the wound response pathway) is involved in the wound-induced regulation of this gene.

  4. Reverse Conservation Analysis Reveals the Specificity Determining Residues of Cytochrome P450 Family 2 (CYP 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sung Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conservation of amino acids is widely used to identify important alignment positions of orthologs. The assumption is that important amino acid residues will be conserved in the protein family during the evolutionary process. For paralog alignment, on the other hand, the opposite concept can be used to identify residues that are responsible for specificity. Assuming that the function-specific or ligand-specific residue positions will have higher diversity since they are under evolutionary pressure to fit the target specificity, these function-specific or ligand-specific residues positions will have a lower degree of conservation than other positions in a highly conserved paralog alignment. This study assessed the ability of reverse conservation analysis to identify function-specific and ligand-specific residue positions in closely related paralog. Reverse conservation analysis of paralog alignments successfully identified all six previously reported substrate recognition sites (SRSs in cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP 2. Further analysis of each subfamily identified the specificity-determining residues (SDRs that have been experimentally found. New potential SDRs were also predicted and await confirmation by further experiments or modeling calculations. This concept may be also applied to identify SDRs in other protein families.

  5. Poly-gamma-glutamic acid a substitute of salivary protein statherin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, Z.; Rahim, Z.B.H.A.; Fatima, T.

    2016-01-01

    The modus operandi of salivary proteins in reducing the kinetics of enamel dissolution during simulated caries challenges is thought to be associated with interaction of glutamic acid residues with human teeth surfaces. Japanese traditional food stuff natto is rich with chain of repeating glutamic acid residues linked by gamma-peptide bond and hence, named poly-gamma-glutamic acid (PGGA). It is a naturally occurring polypeptide and may therefore perform similar caries inhibitory functions as statherin. (author)

  6. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  7. The Yin and Yang of SagS: Distinct Residues in the HmsP Domain of SagS Independently Regulate Biofilm Formation and Biofilm Drug Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Jozef; Poudyal, Bandita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of inherently drug-tolerant biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the sensor-regulator hybrid SagS, with ΔsagS biofilms being unstructured and exhibiting increased antimicrobial susceptibility. Recent findings indicated SagS to function as a switch to control biofilm formation and drug tolerance independently. Moreover, findings suggested the periplasmic sensory HmsP domain of SagS is likely to be the control point in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm cells transitioning to a drug-tolerant state. We thus asked whether specific amino acid residues present in the HmsP domain contribute to the switch function of SagS. HmsP domain residues were therefore subjected to alanine replacement mutagenesis to identify substitutions that block the sensory function(s) of SagS, which is apparent by attached cells being unable to develop mature biofilms and/or prevent transition to an antimicrobial-resistant state. Mutant analyses revealed 32 residues that only contribute to blocking one sensory function. Moreover, amino acid residues affecting attachment and subsequent biofilm formation but not biofilm tolerance also impaired histidine kinase signaling via BfiS. In contrast, residues affecting biofilm drug tolerance but not attachment and subsequent biofilm formation negatively impacted BrlR transcription factor levels. Structure prediction suggested the two sets of residues affecting sensory functions are located in distinct areas that were previously described as being involved in ligand binding interactions. Taken together, these studies identify the molecular basis for the dual regulatory function of SagS. IMPORTANCE The membrane-bound sensory protein SagS plays a pivotal role in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and biofilm cells gaining their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents, with SagS being the control point at which both pathways diverge. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the two

  8. The Distribution of Charged Amino Acid Residues and the Ca2+ Permeability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: A Predictive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fucile

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs are cation-selective ligand-gated ion channels exhibiting variable Ca2+ permeability depending on their subunit composition. The Ca2+ permeability is a crucial functional parameter to understand the physiological role of nAChRs, in particular considering their ability to modulate Ca2+-dependent processes such as neurotransmitter release. The rings of extracellular and intracellular charged amino acid residues adjacent to the pore-lining TM2 transmembrane segment have been shown to play a key role in the cation selectivity of these receptor channels, but to date a quantitative relationship between these structural determinants and the Ca2+ permeability of nAChRs is lacking. In the last years the Ca2+ permeability of several nAChR subtypes has been experimentally evaluated, in terms of fractional Ca2+ current (Pf, i.e., the percentage of the total current carried by Ca2+ ions. In the present study, the available Pf-values of nAChRs are used to build a simplified modular model describing the contribution of the charged residues in defined regions flanking TM2 to the selectivity filter controlling Ca2+ influx. This model allows to predict the currently unknown Pf-values of existing nAChRs, as well as the hypothetical Ca2+ permeability of subunit combinations not able to assemble into functional receptors. In particular, basing on the amino acid sequences, a Pf > 50% would be associated with homomeric nAChRs composed by different α subunits, excluding α7, α9, and α10. Furthermore, according to the model, human α7β2 receptors should have Pf-values ranging from 3.6% (4:1 ratio to 0.1% (1:4 ratio, much lower than the 11.4% of homomeric α7 nAChR. These results help to understand the evolution and the function of the large diversity of the nicotinic receptor family.

  9. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  10. Thermal decomposition of the amino acids glycine, cysteine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine, arginine and histidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingrid M; Muth, Christina; Drumm, Robert; Kirchner, Helmut O K

    2018-01-01

    The pathways of thermal instability of amino acids have been unknown. New mass spectrometric data allow unequivocal quantitative identification of the decomposition products. Calorimetry, thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry were used to follow the thermal decomposition of the eight amino acids G, C, D, N, E, Q, R and H between 185 °C and 280 °C. Endothermic heats of decomposition between 72 and 151 kJ/mol are needed to form 12 to 70% volatile products. This process is neither melting nor sublimation. With exception of cysteine they emit mainly H 2 O, some NH 3 and no CO 2 . Cysteine produces CO 2 and little else. The reactions are described by polynomials, AA→ a NH 3 + b H 2 O+ c CO 2 + d H 2 S+ e residue, with integer or half integer coefficients. The solid monomolecular residues are rich in peptide bonds. Eight of the 20 standard amino acids decompose at well-defined, characteristic temperatures, in contrast to commonly accepted knowledge. Products of decomposition are simple. The novel quantitative results emphasize the impact of water and cyclic condensates with peptide bonds and put constraints on hypotheses of the origin, state and stability of amino acids in the range between 200 °C and 300 °C.

  11. Application of activated carbons from coal and coconut shell for removing free residual chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Ueda, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuko; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of free residual chlorine by activated carbon (AC). ACs were prepared from coal (AC1) and coconut shell (AC2). The specific surface area of AC1 was larger than that of AC2. The removal of free residual chlorine increased with elapsed time and amount of adsorbent. The removal mechanism of free residual chlorine was the dechlorination reaction between hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite ion and AC. Moreover, AC1 was useful in the removal of free residual chlorine in tap water. The optimum condition for the removal of free residual chlorine using a column is space velocity 306 1/h; liner velocity 6.1 m/h.

  12. Mapping the residues of protein kinase CK2 implicated in substrate recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarno, S; Boldyreff, B; Marin, O

    1995-01-01

    , hampering the calculation of kinetic parameters. In contrast 3 mutants (K74-77A, K79R80K83A and R191,195K198A) phosphorylated the peptide with reduced efficiency accounted for by increased Km and decreased Vmax values. By using derivatives of the RRRADDSDDDDD peptide in which individual aspartyl residues......, respectively. These data support the conclusion that the basic residues present in the p+1 loop of CK2 alpha specifically recognize the acidic determinant adjacent to the C-terminal side of serine, while the specificity determinants located more down-stream are variably recognized by different residues...

  13. Identification of residues within the African swine fever virus DP71L protein required for dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α and inhibiting activation of pro-apoptotic CHOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Claire; Netherton, Chris; Goatley, Lynnette [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom); Moon, Alice; Goodbourn, Steve [Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George' s, University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Dixon, Linda, E-mail: linda.dixon@pirbright.ac.uk [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate the translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and avoid shut-off of global protein synthesis and downstream activation of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Residues V16 and F18A were critical for binding of DP71L to PP1. Mutation of this PP1 binding motif or deletion of residues between 52 and 66 reduced the ability of DP71L to cause dephosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibit CHOP induction. The residues LSAVL, between 57 and 61, were also required. PP1 was co-precipitated with wild type DP71L and the mutant lacking residues 52- 66 or the LSAVL motif, but not with the PP1 binding motif mutant. The residues in the LSAVL motif play a critical role in DP71L function but do not interfere with binding to PP1. Instead we propose these residues are important for DP71L binding to eIF2α. - Highlights: •The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate translation initiation factor eIF2α (eIF2α). •The residues V{sup 16}, F{sup 18} of DP71L are required for binding to the α, β and γ isoforms of PP1 and for DP71L function. •The sequence LSAVL downstream from the PP1 binding site (residues 57–61) are also important for DP71L function. •DP71L mutants of the LSAVL sequence retain ability to co-precipitate with PP1 showing these sequences have a different role to PP1 binding.

  14. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  15. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silveira Carlos H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR. We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. Results We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI, ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. Conclusions The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine residues (with some exceptions. Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the

  16. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina; Togawa, Roberto C; Neshich, Izabella A P; Mazoni, Ivan; Mancini, Adauto L; Minardi, Raquel C de Melo; da Silveira, Carlos H; Jardine, José G; Santoro, Marcelo M; Neshich, Goran

    2010-10-20

    Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR). We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes. The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine) residues (with some exceptions). Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the interfaces between the "miscellaneous-virus" subfamily

  17. Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitis, Mehmet

    2004-03-01

    Peracetic acid is a strong disinfectant with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Due to its bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal effectiveness as demonstrated in various industries, the use of peracetic acid as a disinfectant for wastewater effluents has been drawing more attention in recent years. The desirable attributes of peracetic acid for wastewater disinfection are the ease of implementing treatment (without the need for expensive capital investment), broad spectrum of activity even in the presence of heterogeneous organic matter, absence of persistent toxic or mutagenic residuals or by-products, no quenching requirement (i.e., no dechlorination), small dependence on pH, short contact time, and effectiveness for primary and secondary effluents. Major disadvantages associated with peracetic acid disinfection are the increases of organic content in the effluent due to acetic acid (AA) and thus in the potential microbial regrowth (acetic acid is already present in the mixture and is also formed after peracetic acid decomposition). Another drawback to the use of peracetic acid is its high cost, which is partly due to limited production capacity worldwide. However, if the demand for peracetic acid increases, especially from the wastewater industry, the future mass production capacity might also be increased, thus lowering the cost. In such a case, in addition to having environmental advantages, peracetic acid may also become cost-competitive with chlorine.

  18. Conserved amino acid motifs from the novel Piv/MooV family of transposases and site-specific recombinases are required for catalysis of DNA inversion by Piv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiason, D M; Buchner, J M; Thiel, W H; Gernert, K M; Karls, A C

    2001-02-01

    Piv, a site-specific invertase from Moraxella lacunata, exhibits amino acid homology with the transposases of the IS110/IS492 family of insertion elements. The functions of conserved amino acid motifs that define this novel family of both transposases and site-specific recombinases (Piv/MooV family) were examined by mutagenesis of fully conserved amino acids within each motif in Piv. All Piv mutants altered in conserved residues were defective for in vivo inversion of the M. lacunata invertible DNA segment, but competent for in vivo binding to Piv DNA recognition sequences. Although the primary amino acid sequences of the Piv/MooV recombinases do not contain a conserved DDE motif, which defines the retroviral integrase/transposase (IN/Tnps) family, the predicted secondary structural elements of Piv align well with those of the IN/Tnps for which crystal structures have been determined. Molecular modelling of Piv based on these alignments predicts that E59, conserved as either E or D in the Piv/MooV family, forms a catalytic pocket with the conserved D9 and D101 residues. Analysis of Piv E59G confirms a role for E59 in catalysis of inversion. These results suggest that Piv and the related IS110/IS492 transposases mediate DNA recombination by a common mechanism involving a catalytic DED or DDD motif.

  19. Piv site-specific invertase requires a DEDD motif analogous to the catalytic center of the RuvC Holliday junction resolvases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, John M; Robertson, Anne E; Poynter, David J; Denniston, Shelby S; Karls, Anna C

    2005-05-01

    Piv, a unique prokaryotic site-specific DNA invertase, is related to transposases of the insertion elements from the IS110/IS492 family and shows no similarity to the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine- or serine-recombinase families. Piv tertiary structure is predicted to include the RNase H-like fold that typically encompasses the catalytic site of the recombinases or nucleases of the retroviral integrase superfamily, including transposases and RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvases. Analogous to the DDE and DEDD catalytic motifs of transposases and RuvC, respectively, four Piv acidic residues D9, E59, D101, and D104 appear to be positioned appropriately within the RNase H fold to coordinate two divalent metal cations. This suggests mechanistic similarity between site-specific inversion mediated by Piv and transposition or endonucleolytic reactions catalyzed by enzymes of the retroviral integrase superfamily. The role of the DEDD motif in Piv catalytic activity was addressed using Piv variants that are substituted individually or multiply at these acidic residues and assaying for in vivo inversion, intermolecular recombination, and DNA binding activities. The results indicate that all four residues of the DEDD motif are required for Piv catalytic activity. The DEDD residues are not essential for inv recombination site recognition and binding, but this acidic tetrad does appear to contribute to the stability of Piv-inv interactions. On the basis of these results, a working model for Piv-mediated inversion that includes resolution of a Holliday junction is presented.

  20. A thioesterase bypasses the requirement for exogenous fatty acids in the plsX deletion of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, J.B.; Frank, M.W.; Eleveld, M.J.; Schalkwijk, J.; Broussard, T.C.; Jonge, M.I. de; Rock, C.O.

    2015-01-01

    PlsX is an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP):phosphate transacylase that interconverts the two acyl donors in Gram-positive bacterial phospholipid synthesis. The deletion of plsX in Staphylococcus aureus results in a requirement for both exogenous fatty acids and de novo type II fatty acid

  1. Differentiating chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans using collision-induced dissociation; uronic acid cross-ring diagnostic fragments in a single stage of tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailemia, Muchena J; Patel, Anish B; Johnson, Dane T; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The stereochemistry of the hexuronic acid residues of the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is a key feature that affects their interactions with proteins and other biological functions. Electron based tandem mass spectrometry methods, in particular electron detachment dissociation (EDD), have been able to distinguish glucuronic acid (GlcA) from iduronic acid (IdoA) residues in some heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides by producing epimer-specific fragments. Similarly, the relative abundance of glycosidic fragment ions produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) or EDD has been shown to correlate with the type of hexuronic acid present in chondroitin sulfate GAGs. The present work examines the effect of charge state and degree of sodium cationization on the CID fragmentation products that can be used to distinguish GlcA and IdoA containing chondroitin sulfate A and dermatan sulfate chains. The cross-ring fragments (2,4)A(n) and (0,2)X(n) formed within the hexuronic acid residues are highly preferential for chains containing GlcA, distinguishing it from IdoA. The diagnostic capability of the fragments requires the selection of a molecular ion and fragment ions with specific ionization characteristics, namely charge state and number of ionizable protons. The ions with the appropriate characteristics display diagnostic properties for all the chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate chains (degree of polymerization of 4-10) studied.

  2. Computational design, construction, and characterization of a set of specificity determining residues in protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Chioko; Izako, Nozomi; Soga, Shinji; Khan, Samia Haseeb; Kawabata, Shigeki; Shirai, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Proteins interact with different partners to perform different functions and it is important to elucidate the determinants of partner specificity in protein complex formation. Although methods for detecting specificity determining positions have been developed previously, direct experimental evidence for these amino acid residues is scarce, and the lack of information has prevented further computational studies. In this article, we constructed a dataset that is likely to exhibit specificity in protein complex formation, based on available crystal structures and several intuitive ideas about interaction profiles and functional subclasses. We then defined a "structure-based specificity determining position (sbSDP)" as a set of equivalent residues in a protein family showing a large variation in their interaction energy with different partners. We investigated sequence and structural features of sbSDPs and demonstrated that their amino acid propensities significantly differed from those of other interacting residues and that the importance of many of these residues for determining specificity had been verified experimentally. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of perfluorinated phosponic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in water, sludge and sediment by LC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esperza, X.; Moyano, E.; de Boer, J.; Galceran, M.T.; van Leeuwen, S.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of perfluorinated phosphonic acids (PFPAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were investigated in various Dutch surface waters, sludge and sediments. For this purpose, a liquid chromatographic (LC) method was optimized by testing several columns with different mobile phases.

  4. A Mineralogical Assessment on Residues after Acidic Leaching of Bauxite Residue (Red Mud for Titanium Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Alkan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its alkalinity, red mud produced by the Bayer process may affect both the environment and human health. For this reason, its further utilization instead of disposal is of great importance. Numerous methods have already been studied for hydrometallurgical treatment of red mud, especially for the recovery of various metallic components such as iron, aluminum, titanium or rare earth elements. This study focuses on the extraction of titanium from red mud and in particular the mineralogical changes, induced by leaching. Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and their combination have been utilized as leaching agents with the same leaching parameters. It has been determined that sulfuric acid is the best candidate for the red mud treatment in terms of titanium leaching efficiency at the end of 2 h with a value of 67.3%. Moreover, samples from intermediate times of reaction revealed that leaching of Ti exhibit various reaction rates at different times of reaction depending on acid type. In order to explain differences, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM and QEMSCAN techniques were utilized. Beside titanium oxide (TiO2 with available free surface area, a certain amount of the TiO2 was detected as entrapped in Fe dominating oxide. These associations between Ti and Fe phases were used to explain different leaching reaction rates and a reaction mechanism was proposed to open a process window.

  5. Energetics of coal substitution by briquettes of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, Pallav; Tripathi, Arun Kumar; Kandpal, Tara Chandra [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2006-07-15

    The suitability of using biomass briquettes to substitute coal is debatable, as a substantial amount of energy is required for briquetting of biomass. In the present work, an attempt to evaluate the energetic viability of briquetting of agricultural residues compared with the energy embodied in coal in India has been made. Briquetting of agricultural residues is not found to be an energetically viable option even for locations at a distance of about 1500km from the coal pithead (even if the briquetting unit is located very close to the place of availability of the agricultural residues). A need for transportation of agricultural residues further pushes this critical distance upwards. (author)

  6. Residual extrapolation operators for efficient wavefield construction

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-02-27

    Solving the wave equation using finite-difference approximations allows for fast extrapolation of the wavefield for modelling, imaging and inversion in complex media. It, however, suffers from dispersion and stability-related limitations that might hamper its efficient or proper application to high frequencies. Spectral-based time extrapolation methods tend to mitigate these problems, but at an additional cost to the extrapolation. I investigate the prospective of using a residual formulation of the spectral approach, along with utilizing Shanks transform-based expansions, that adheres to the residual requirements, to improve accuracy and reduce the cost. Utilizing the fact that spectral methods excel (time steps are allowed to be large) in homogeneous and smooth media, the residual implementation based on velocity perturbation optimizes the use of this feature. Most of the other implementations based on the spectral approach are focussed on reducing cost by reducing the number of inverse Fourier transforms required in every step of the spectral-based implementation. The approach here fixes that by improving the accuracy of each, potentially longer, time step.

  7. The effects of amino acid composition of glutamine-rich domains on amyloid formation and fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I Alexandrov

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of amyloid polymers by the chaperone Hsp104 allows them to propagate as prions in yeast. The factors which determine the frequency of fragmentation are unclear, though it is often presumed to depend on the physical strength of prion polymers. Proteins with long polyglutamine stretches represent a tractable model for revealing sequence elements required for polymer fragmentation in yeast, since they form poorly fragmented amyloids. Here we show that interspersion of polyglutamine stretches with various amino acid residues differentially affects the in vivo formation and fragmentation of the respective amyloids. Aromatic residues tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine strongly stimulated polymer fragmentation, leading to the appearance of oligomers as small as dimers. Alanine, methionine, cysteine, serine, threonine and histidine also enhanced fragmentation, while charged residues, proline, glycine and leucine inhibited polymerization. Our data indicate that fragmentation frequency primarily depends on the recognition of fragmentation-promoting residues by Hsp104 and/or its co-chaperones, rather than on the physical stability of polymers. This suggests that differential exposure of such residues to chaperones defines prion variant-specific differences in polymer fragmentation efficiency.

  8. Daily Intake of Protein from Cod Residual Material Lowers Serum Concentrations of Nonesterified Fatty Acids in Overweight Healthy Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iselin Vildmyren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved process technologies have allowed fishing vessels to utilize residuals from cod fillet production (head, backbone, skin, cuttings, and entrails and convert this to high-quality protein powders for human consumption. In this double-blind pilot study, 42 healthy overweight or obese adults were randomized to three experimental groups consuming tablets corresponding to 6 g/day of proteins from cod residuals as presscake meal (Cod-PC, presscake and stickwater meal (Cod-PCW, or placebo tablets (control for eight weeks. The primary outcome of this study was changes in metabolites related to glucose regulation in overweight or obese healthy adults after intake of proteins from cod residuals. Cod-PC supplementation decreased postprandial serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA concentration and increased gene expressions of diglyceride acyltransferase 1 and 2 in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with controls. Fasting insulin increased while fasting NEFA and 120-min postprandial glucose decreased within the Cod-PC group, but these changes did not differ from the other groups. In conclusion, supplementation with Cod-PC beneficially affected postprandial serum NEFA concentration compared with the other groups in overweight or obese adults. Supplementation with Cod-PCW, which contains a higher fraction of water-soluble protein compared to Cod-PC, did not affect serum markers of glucose regulation.

  9. GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Lijun; Zhou, Zhongjing; Su, Sha; Yan, An; Gan, Yinbo

    2012-02-01

    Cell differentiation generally corresponds to the cell cycle, typically forming a non-dividing cell with a unique differentiated morphology, and Arabidopsis trichome is an excellent model system to study all aspects of cell differentiation. Although gibberellic acid is reported to be involved in trichome branching in Arabidopsis, the mechanism for such signaling is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that GLABROUS INFLORESCENCE STEMS (GIS) is required for the control of trichome branching through gibberellic acid signaling. The phenotypes of a loss-of-function gis mutant and an overexpressor showed that GIS acted as a repressor to control trichome branching. Our results also show that GIS is not required for cell endoreduplication, and our molecular and genetic study results have shown that GIS functions downstream of the key regulator of trichome branching, STICHEL (STI), to control trichome branching through the endoreduplication-independent pathway. Furthermore, our results also suggest that GIS controls trichome branching in Arabidopsis through two different pathways and acts either upstream or downstream of the negative regulator of gibbellic acid signaling SPINDLY (SPY).

  10. Identities of P2 and P3 Residues of H-2Kb-Bound Peptides Determine Mouse Ly49C Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa A Marquez

    Full Text Available Ly49 receptors can be peptide selective in their recognition of MHC-I-peptide complexes, affording them a level of discrimination beyond detecting the presence or absence of specific MHC-I allele products. Despite this ability, little is understood regarding the properties that enable some peptides, when bound to MHC-I molecules, to support Ly49 recognition, but not others. Using RMA-S target cells expressing MHC-I molecules loaded with individual peptides and effector cells expressing the ectodomain of the inhibitory Ly49C receptor, we found that two adjacent amino acid residues, P2 and P3, both buried in the peptide binding groove of H-2Kb, determine mouse Ly49C specificity. If both are aliphatic residues, this is supportive. Whereas, small amino acids at P2 and aromatic amino acids at the P3 auxiliary anchor residue are detrimental to Ly49C recognition. These results resemble those with a rat Ly49 where the identity of a peptide anchor residue determines recognition, suggesting that dependence on specific peptide residues buried in the MHC-I peptide-binding groove may be fundamental to Ly49 peptide selectivity and recognition.

  11. Management of municipal solid waste incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbas, T.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.; Astrup, T.; Hjelmar, O.; Mostbauer, P.; Cappai, G.; Magel, G.; Salhofer, S.; Speiser, C.; Heuss-Assbichler, S.; Klein, R.; Lechner, P.

    2003-01-01

    The management of residues from thermal waste treatment is an integral part of waste management systems. The primary goal of managing incineration residues is to prevent any impact on our health or environment caused by unacceptable particulate, gaseous and/or solute emissions. This paper provides insight into the most important measures for putting this requirement into practice. It also offers an overview of the factors and processes affecting these mitigating measures as well as the short- and long-term behavior of residues from thermal waste treatment under different scenarios. General conditions affecting the emission rate of salts and metals are shown as well as factors relevant to mitigating measures or sources of gaseous emissions

  12. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  13. Treatment of the acid mine drainage residue for uranium recovery; Tratamento do resíduo da drenagem ácida de mina para recuperação de urânio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M.M.; Horta, D.G., E-mail: mmartinsdias@uol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Núcleo de Engenharia de Minas, Poços de Caldas-MG (Brazil); Fukuma, H.T.; Villegas, R.A.S.; Carvalho, C.H.T. de; Silva, A.C. da [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas/Setor de Processos Químicos

    2017-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a process that occurs in many mining that have sulfide ores. With water and oxygen, several metals are oxidized, one example being uranium. At the mine pit of the Osamu Utsumi Mine located at INB - Caldas and in two other boot-wastes (mining waste pile), AMD is present and currently, without a technological solution. The acidic water present in the pit is treated with hydrated lime, generating water for disposal and an alkaline residue called calcium diuranate - DUCA. The DUCA has a concentration of approximately 0.32% U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, which makes interesting the development of a process for extracting that metal. One of the processes that can be used is leaching. For this study, it was decided to evaluate the alkaline leaching to extract the uranium present in the residue. It is necessary to optimize operational parameters for the process: percentage of solids, concentration of leaching agent in solution, temperature and reaction time. With these parameters, it is possible to improve the leaching so that the largest amount of uranium is extracted from the sample, to help solve the environmental impact caused by the wastewater from the treatment of acid waters and, in addition, to give an economical destination for this metal that is contained in the deposited DUCA.

  14. Dissolution behavior of PFBR MOX fuel in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Kapoor, Y.S.; Singh, Mamta; Meena, D.L.; Pandey, Ashish; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Present paper describes the dissolution characteristics of PFBR MOX fuel (U,Pu)O 2 in nitric acid. An overview of batch dissolution experiments, studying the percentage dissolution of uranium and plutonium in (U, Pu)O 2 MOX sintered pellets with different percentage of PuO 2 with reference to time and nitric acid concentration are described. 90% of uranium and plutonium of PFBR MOX gets dissolves in 2 hrs and amount of residue increases with the decrease in nitric acid concentration. Overall variation in percentage residue in PFBR MOX fuel after dissolution test also described. (author)

  15. Chemical modifications of therapeutic proteins induced by residual ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Louise; Sloey, Christopher; Zhang, Zhongqi; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Kim, Hyojin; Ren, Da; Kanapuram, Sekhar

    2015-02-01

    Ethylene oxide (EtO) is widely used in sterilization of drug product primary containers and medical devices. The impact of residual EtO on protein therapeutics is of significant interest in the biopharmaceutical industry. The potential for EtO to modify individual amino acids in proteins has been previously reported. However, specific identification of EtO adducts in proteins and the effect of residual EtO on the stability of therapeutic proteins has not been reported to date. This paper describes studies of residual EtO with two therapeutic proteins, a PEGylated form of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Peg-GCSF) and recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) formulated with human serum albumin (HSA). Peg-GCSF was filled in an EtO sterilized delivery device and incubated at accelerated stress conditions. Glu-C peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO reacted with Peg-GCSF and resulted in EtO modifications at two methionine residues (Met-127 and Met-138). In addition, tryptic peptide mapping and LC-MS analyses revealed residual EtO in plastic vials reacted with HSA in EPO formulation at Met-328 and Cys-34. This paper details the work conducted to understand the effects of residual EtO on the chemical stability of protein therapeutics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Unusual chemical properties of N-terminal histidine residues of glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefford, M.A.; Evans, R.M.; Oda, G.; Kaplan, H.

    1985-01-01

    An N-terminal histidine residue of a protein or peptide has two functional groups, viz., an alpha-amino group and an imidazole group. A new procedure, based on the competitive labeling approach described by Duggleby and Kaplan has been developed by which the chemical reactivity of each functional group in such a residue can be determined as a function of pH. Only very small amounts of material are required, which makes it possible to determine the chemical properties in dilute solution or in proteins and polypeptides that can be obtained in only minute quantities. With this approach, the reactivity of the alpha-amino group of histidylglycine toward 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.64 +/- 0.07 at 37 degrees C, in good agreement with a value of 7.69 +/- 0.02 obtained by acid-base titration. However, the reactivity of the imidazole function gave an apparent pK /sub a/ value of 7.16 +/- 0.07 as compared to the pK /sub a/ value of 5.85 +/- 0.01 obtained by acid-base titration. Similarly, in glucagon and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), apparent pKa values of 7.60 +/- 0.04 and 7.88 +/- 0.18, respectively, were obtained for the alpha-amino of their N-terminal histidine, and pKa values of 7.43 +/- 0.09 and 7.59 +/- 0.18 were obtained for the imidazole function

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the microbiological and physicochemical parameters and on the phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, Jessica Bomtorin; Negri, Talita Costa; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2017-01-01

    Agroindustrial residues have high levels of nutrients, but are little exploited for consumption because they require prior treatment to ensure microbiological safety. Irradiation is an effective process for the reduction of microbial counts with maintenance of the product characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the microbiological quality, physicochemical properties and phenolic compounds of a fruit residue flour during storage. The flour was obtained from dehydrated residues of pineapple, melon, papaya and apple, which were submitted to irradiation doses of (0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy). The microbiological (coliforms, moulds, yeast and Salmonella sp. counts) and physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, water activity, colour parameters L⁎, a⁎ and b⁎ and phenolic compounds) parameters were evaluated after 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. All the irradiation treatments reduced the microbial count, and the presence of Salmonella sp was not detected in any of the samples. The acidity and pH showed changes during storage. The soluble solids and water activity showed no significant differences between the doses during storage. The phenolic compounds were preserved by the application of irradiation. The colour of the flour samples darkened slightly with irradiation. It was concluded that the most effective doses for the maintenance of the microbiological quality and physicochemical characteristics of the flour were 2 and 3 kGy. (author)

  18. Superabsorbent materials from grafting of acrylic acid onto Thai agricultural residues by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit

    2016-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers based on ubiquitous agricultural residues: sugarcane, water hyacinth, rice straw, coconut shell and palm fruit bunch substrates, were successfully synthesized. Gamma radiation from Co-60 was employed to graft acrylic acid (AA) onto the substrates. Rice straw exhibited the highest equilibrium swelling ratio of 78.90 g/g at 6 kGy of absorbed gamma ray dose and 14%v/v AA concentration. The rate of water absorption was rapid at the beginning and became reduced with increasing immersion time. After about 3.5 hours, the absorption reached approximately 90% of the saturation value. Temperature plays a critical role on the rate of water evaporation from the superabsorbent. As for the one experiencing 35degC-40degC temperature, the weight of the saturated superabsorbent reduced to approximately 50% of the original value in 13 hours. However, for the one experiencing room temperature (24.2degC-27.7degC), approximately 58 hours were needed to reduce the weight by half. The superabsorbent polymer was able to absorb about 203% of the polymer's dry weight and did not release urea when eluded by water. Moreover, the polymer was able to hold water very well for at least 3 weeks and did not degrade until at least 6 weeks, ensuring biodegradability. (author)

  19. SucStruct: Prediction of succinylated lysine residues by using structural properties of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Yosvany; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil Pranit; Taherzadeh, Ghazaleh; Michaelson, Jacob; Sattar, Abdul; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Sharma, Alok

    2017-06-15

    Post-Translational Modification (PTM) is a biological reaction which contributes to diversify the proteome. Despite many modifications with important roles in cellular activity, lysine succinylation has recently emerged as an important PTM mark. It alters the chemical structure of lysines, leading to remarkable changes in the structure and function of proteins. In contrast to the huge amount of proteins being sequenced in the post-genome era, the experimental detection of succinylated residues remains expensive, inefficient and time-consuming. Therefore, the development of computational tools for accurately predicting succinylated lysines is an urgent necessity. To date, several approaches have been proposed but their sensitivity has been reportedly poor. In this paper, we propose an approach that utilizes structural features of amino acids to improve lysine succinylation prediction. Succinylated and non-succinylated lysines were first retrieved from 670 proteins and characteristics such as accessible surface area, backbone torsion angles and local structure conformations were incorporated. We used the k-nearest neighbors cleaning treatment for dealing with class imbalance and designed a pruned decision tree for classification. Our predictor, referred to as SucStruct (Succinylation using Structural features), proved to significantly improve performance when compared to previous predictors, with sensitivity, accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient equal to 0.7334-0.7946, 0.7444-0.7608 and 0.4884-0.5240, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sakhawy, M.M.; Hassan, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of microcrystalline cellulose prepared from local agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sakhawy, M M; Hassan, M L [Cellulose and Paper Dept., National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-07-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was prepared from local agricultural residues, namely, bagasse, rice straw, and cotton stalks bleached pulps. Hydrolysis of bleached pulps was carried out using hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to study the effect of the acid used on the properties of produced microcrystalline cellulose such as degree of polymerization (DP), crystallinity index (CrI), crystallite size, bulk density, particle size, and thermal stability. The mechanical properties of tablets made from microcrystalline cellulose of the different agricultural residues were tested and compared to commercial grade MCC. The use of rice straw pulp in different proportions as a source of silica to prepare silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) was carried out. The effect of the percent of silica on the mechanical properties of tablets before and after wet granulation was tested.

  2. The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypothiocyanous acid inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatases via oxidation of key cysteine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Naomi L.; Moeke, Cassidy H.; Fantoni, Luca I.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is critical to cellular processes, and is regulated by kinases and phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs contain a redox-sensitive active site Cys residue, which is readily oxidized. Myeloperoxidase, released from activated leukocytes, catalyzes thiocyanate ion (SCN...

  3. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  4. Flanking signal and mature peptide residues influence signal peptide cleavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Shoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal peptides (SPs mediate the targeting of secretory precursor proteins to the correct subcellular compartments in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Identifying these transient peptides is crucial to the medical, food and beverage and biotechnology industries yet our understanding of these peptides remains limited. This paper examines the most common type of signal peptides cleavable by the endoprotease signal peptidase I (SPase I, and the residues flanking the cleavage sites of three groups of signal peptide sequences, namely (i eukaryotes (Euk (ii Gram-positive (Gram+ bacteria, and (iii Gram-negative (Gram- bacteria. Results In this study, 2352 secretory peptide sequences from a variety of organisms with amino-terminal SPs are extracted from the manually curated SPdb database for analysis based on physicochemical properties such as pI, aliphatic index, GRAVY score, hydrophobicity, net charge and position-specific residue preferences. Our findings show that the three groups share several similarities in general, but they display distinctive features upon examination in terms of their amino acid compositions and frequencies, and various physico-chemical properties. Thus, analysis or prediction of their sequences should be separated and treated as distinct groups. Conclusion We conclude that the peptide segment recognized by SPase I extends to the start of the mature protein to a limited extent, upon our survey of the amino acid residues surrounding the cleavage processing site. These flanking residues possibly influence the cleavage processing and contribute to non-canonical cleavage sites. Our findings are applicable in defining more accurate prediction tools for recognition and identification of cleavage site of SPs.

  5. Evaluation of various soaking agents as a novel tool for pesticide residues mitigation from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asghar, Ali; Pasha, Imran; Usman, Rabia; Shamoon, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Arslan; Irshad, Muhammad Asim; Ahmad, Naveed

    2016-08-01

    The increasing use of pesticides for boosting the yield of agricultural crops also impart toxic residues which ultimately extend to numerous physiological disorders upon consumption. The present study was designed as an effort to assess the reduction potential of various chemical solutions and to minimize the pesticide residues in cauliflower ( Brassica oleracea var. botrytis ). The samples were soaked in various solutions along with tap water to mitigate pesticide residues. Afterwards, the extracted supernatant was passed through column containing anhydrous sodium sulfate trailed by activated carbon for clean-up. Eluents were first evaporated and then completely dried under gentle stream of Nitrogen. Finally, the residues were determined using gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Results revealed the highest reduction of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues with acetic acid (10 %) was 1.133 ± 0.007 (41 %), 0.870 ± 0.022 (60 %) and 0.403 ± 0.003 (75 %), respectively among the tested solutions. However, simple tap water treatment also resulted in 0.990 ± 0.02 (12 %), 1.323 ± 0.015 (14 %) and 1.274 ± 0.002 (21 %) elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively. Moreover, among various solutions, acetic acid depicted maximum reduction potential followed by citric acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate solutions. The percent reduction by various solutions ranged from 12 to 41, 14 to 60 and 21 to 75 % for the elimination of endosulfan, bifenthrin and cypermethrin residues, respectively.

  6. Retinoic acid activates two pathways required for meiosis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Koubova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In all sexually reproducing organisms, cells of the germ line must transition from mitosis to meiosis. In mice, retinoic acid (RA, the extrinsic signal for meiotic initiation, activates transcription of Stra8, which is required for meiotic DNA replication and the subsequent processes of meiotic prophase. Here we report that RA also activates transcription of Rec8, which encodes a component of the cohesin complex that accumulates during meiotic S phase, and which is essential for chromosome synapsis and segregation. This RA induction of Rec8 occurs in parallel with the induction of Stra8, and independently of Stra8 function, and it is conserved between the sexes. Further, RA induction of Rec8, like that of Stra8, requires the germ-cell-intrinsic competence factor Dazl. Our findings strengthen the importance of RA and Dazl in the meiotic transition, provide important details about the Stra8 pathway, and open avenues to investigate early meiosis through analysis of Rec8 induction and function.

  7. Networks of high mutual information define the structural proximity of catalytic sites: implications for catalytic residue identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marino Buslje

    Full Text Available Identification of catalytic residues (CR is essential for the characterization of enzyme function. CR are, in general, conserved and located in the functional site of a protein in order to attain their function. However, many non-catalytic residues are highly conserved and not all CR are conserved throughout a given protein family making identification of CR a challenging task. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that CR carry a particular signature defined by networks of close proximity residues with high mutual information (MI, and that this signature can be applied to distinguish functional from other non-functional conserved residues. Using a data set of 434 Pfam families included in the catalytic site atlas (CSA database, we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that MI can complement amino acid conservation scores to detect CR. The Kullback-Leibler (KL conservation measurement was shown to significantly outperform both the Shannon entropy and maximal frequency measurements. Residues in the proximity of catalytic sites were shown to be rich in shared MI. A structural proximity MI average score (termed pMI was demonstrated to be a strong predictor for CR, thus confirming the proposed hypothesis. A structural proximity conservation average score (termed pC was also calculated and demonstrated to carry distinct information from pMI. A catalytic likeliness score (Cls, combining the KL, pC and pMI measures, was shown to lead to significantly improved prediction accuracy. At a specificity of 0.90, the Cls method was found to have a sensitivity of 0.816. In summary, we demonstrate that networks of residues with high MI provide a distinct signature on CR and propose that such a signature should be present in other classes of functional residues where the requirement to maintain a particular function places limitations on the diversification of the structural environment along the course of evolution.

  8. Networks of high mutual information define the structural proximity of catalytic sites: implications for catalytic residue identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Buslje, Cristina; Teppa, Elin; Di Doménico, Tomas; Delfino, José María; Nielsen, Morten

    2010-11-04

    Identification of catalytic residues (CR) is essential for the characterization of enzyme function. CR are, in general, conserved and located in the functional site of a protein in order to attain their function. However, many non-catalytic residues are highly conserved and not all CR are conserved throughout a given protein family making identification of CR a challenging task. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that CR carry a particular signature defined by networks of close proximity residues with high mutual information (MI), and that this signature can be applied to distinguish functional from other non-functional conserved residues. Using a data set of 434 Pfam families included in the catalytic site atlas (CSA) database, we tested this hypothesis and demonstrated that MI can complement amino acid conservation scores to detect CR. The Kullback-Leibler (KL) conservation measurement was shown to significantly outperform both the Shannon entropy and maximal frequency measurements. Residues in the proximity of catalytic sites were shown to be rich in shared MI. A structural proximity MI average score (termed pMI) was demonstrated to be a strong predictor for CR, thus confirming the proposed hypothesis. A structural proximity conservation average score (termed pC) was also calculated and demonstrated to carry distinct information from pMI. A catalytic likeliness score (Cls), combining the KL, pC and pMI measures, was shown to lead to significantly improved prediction accuracy. At a specificity of 0.90, the Cls method was found to have a sensitivity of 0.816. In summary, we demonstrate that networks of residues with high MI provide a distinct signature on CR and propose that such a signature should be present in other classes of functional residues where the requirement to maintain a particular function places limitations on the diversification of the structural environment along the course of evolution.

  9. Acid digestion and pressurization control in combustible radwaste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Cowan, R.G.; Grelecki, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to process radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September, 1977, and is currently undergoing nonradioactive shakedown tests. Radioactive operation is expected in May, 1978. Because of uncertainties in waste composition and reactivity, the system was required to contain pressurizations. This led to the development of a simple and inexpensive system, which is capable of attenuating a shock wave from a full scale vapor detonation. The system has potential application in a wide spectrum of chemical reactors, since the fabrication materials are resistant to a very wide range of corrosive chemical attack

  10. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Crop Residues and Animal Manure Common in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueli; Zhao, Guanglu; Zhang, Yang; Han, Lujia; Xiao, Weihua

    2017-10-25

    Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (k A ) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (k P ) ranged from 3.97 to 4.57 and from 2.76 to 4.31 for crop residues and animal manure, respectively. Of note, conversion factors were strongly affected by amino acid composition and levels of nonprotein nitrogen. Thus, k P values of 4.23 for crop residues, 4.11 for livestock manure, and 3.11 for poultry manure are recommended to better estimate protein content from total nitrogen.

  11. A hierarchical structure through imprinting of a polyimide precursor without residual layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, I-Ting; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Leu, Ing-Chi

    2008-01-01

    A patterned polyimide without a residual layer is obtained by imprinting with the assistance of a residual solvent. The effects of the wetting behaviors of the poly-amic acid (PAA) solution coated on various surfaces are examined and the formation of hierarchical patterns without residual layers is demonstrated. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and PEI/PDMS are used as imprinting molds with Si and 300 nm SiO 2 /Si as substrates. The results indicate that the various ambits of patterns without a residual layer are formed due to the dewetting phenomena caused by surface tension (Suh 2006 Small 2 832). During imprinting, PDMS with a low surface energy makes the PAA solution flow away from its surface exposing the contact area due to dewetting. Self-organized hierarchical structures are also obtained from this process due to effective dewetting. The present study provides a new approach for fabricating patterns without residual layers and the consequent preparation of hierarchical structures, which is considered to be impossible using the lithographic technique

  12. Systems for harvesting and handling cotton plant residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In the warmer regions of the United States, cotton plant residue must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insect pests such as the pink bollworm. Most of the field operations used to bury the residue are high energy consumers and tend to degrade soil structure, thereby increasing the potential for erosion. The residue is of little value as a soil amendment and consequently is considered a negative value biomass. A commercial system to harvest cotton plant residue would be of both economic and environmental benefit to cotton producers. Research has been underway at the University of Arizona since the spring of 1991 to develop a commercially viable system for harvesting cotton plant residue. Equipment durability, degree of densification, energy required, cleanliness of the harvested material, and ease of product handling and transport are some of the performance variables which have been measured. Two systems have proven superior. In both, the plants are pulled from the ground using an implement developed specifically for the purpose. In one system, the stalks are baled using a large round baler, while in the other the stalks are chopped with a forage harvester, and then made into packages using a cotton module maker. Field capacities, energy requirements, package density and durability, and ease of handling with commercially available equipment have been measured for both systems. Selection of an optimum system for a specific operation depends upon end use of the product, and upon equipment availability.

  13. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Recycling of air pollution control residues from municipal solid waste incineration into lightweight aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quina, Margarida J; Bordado, João M; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2014-02-01

    This work focuses on the assessment of technological properties and on the leaching behavior of lightweight aggregates (LWA) produced by incorporating different quantities of air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. Currently this hazardous waste has been mostly landfilled after stabilization/solidification. The LWA were produced by pelletizing natural clay, APC residues as-received from incineration plant, or after a washing treatment, a small amount of oil and water. The pellets were fired in a laboratory chamber furnace over calcium carbonate. The main technological properties of the LWA were evaluated, mainly concerning morphology, bulk and particle densities, compressive strength, bloating index, water adsorption and porosity. Given that APC residues do not own expansive (bloating) properties, the incorporation into LWA is only possible in moderate quantities, such as 3% as received or 5% after pre-washing treatment. The leaching behavior of heavy metals from sintered LWA using water or acid solutions was investigated, and despite the low acid neutralization capacity of the synthetic aggregates, the released quantities were low over a wide pH range. In conclusion, after a washing pre-treatment and if the percentage of incorporation is low, these residues may be incorporated into LWA. However, the recycling of APC residues from MSW incineration into LWA does not revealed any technical advantage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of binding modes between protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase and peptide substrates including isomerized aspartic acid residues using in silico analytic methods for the substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Noji, Ikuhiko; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2015-12-10

    Because the aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins are occasionally isomerized in the human body, not only l-α-Asp but also l-β-Asp, D-α-Asp and D-β-Asp are found in human proteins. In these isomerized aspartic acids, the proportion of D-β-Asp is the largest and the proportions of l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp found in human proteins are comparatively small. To explain the proportions of aspartic acid isomers, the possibility of an enzyme able to repair l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp is frequently considered. The protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (PIMT) is considered one of the possible repair enzymes for l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp. Human PIMT is an enzyme that recognizes both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp, and catalyzes the methylation of their side chains. In this study, the binding modes between PIMT and peptide substrates containing l-β-Asp or D-α-Asp residues were investigated using computational protein-ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that carboxyl groups of both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp were recognized in similar modes by PIMT and that the C-terminal regions of substrate peptides were located in similar positions on PIMT for both the l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp peptides. In contrast, for peptides containing l-α-Asp or D-β-Asp residues, which are not substrates of PIMT, the computationally constructed binding modes between PIMT and peptides greatly differed from those between PIMT and substrates. In the nonsubstrate peptides, not inter- but intra-molecular hydrogen bonds were observed, and the conformations of peptides were more rigid than those of substrates. Thus, the in silico analytical methods were able to distinguish substrates from nonsubstrates and the computational methods are expected to complement experimental analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  17. A single extracellular amino acid in Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 defines antagonist species selectivity and G protein selection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Bolognini, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    selectivity and mutational swap studies confirmed this hypothesis. Extending these studies to agonist function indicated that although the lysine - arginine variation between human and mouse orthologs had limited effect on G protein-mediated signal transduction, removal of positive charge from this residue...... produced a signalling-biased variant of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 2 in which Gi-mediated signalling by both short chain fatty acids and synthetic agonists was maintained whilst there was marked loss of agonist potency for signalling via Gq/11 and G12/13 G proteins. A single residue at the extracellular face...

  18. Effects of acid impregnated steam explosion process on xylose recovery and enzymatic conversion of cellulose in corncob.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoguang; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Hongjia; Li, Menghua; Wang, Shizeng; Yuan, Qipeng

    2014-12-19

    Corncob residue is a cellulose-rich byproduct obtained from industrial xylose production via dilute acid hydrolysis processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in acid hydrolysis residue of corncob (AHRC) is often less efficient without further pretreatment. In this work, the process characteristics of acid impregnated steam explosion were studied in conjunction with a dilute acid process, and their effects on physiochemical changes and enzymatic saccharification of corncob residue were compared. With the acid impregnated steam explosion process, both higher xylose recovery and higher cellulose conversion were obtained. The maximum conversion of cellulose in acid impregnated steam explosion residue of corncob (ASERC) reached 85.3%, which was 1.6 times higher than that of AHRC. Biomass compositional analysis showed similar cellulose and lignin content in ASERC and AHRC. XRD analysis demonstrated comparable crystallinity of ASERC and AHRC. The improved enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was attributed to higher porosity in ASERC, measured by mercury porosimetry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of residues important for the activity of aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase through investigation into the structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Bao, Luyao; Jia, Chenjun; Li, Mei; Li, Jian-Jun; Lu, Xuefeng

    2017-03-16

    Aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty alk(a/e)nes in cyanobacteria. However, cADO (cyanobacterial ADO) showed extreme low activity with the k cat value below 1 min -1 , which would limit its application in biofuel production. To identify the activity related key residues of cADO is urgently required. The amino acid residues which might affect cADO activity were identified based on the crystal structures and sequence alignment of cADOs, including the residues close to the di-iron center (Tyr39, Arg62, Gln110, Tyr122, Asp143 of cADO-1593), the protein surface (Trp 178 of cADO-1593), and those involved in two important hydrogen bonds (Gln49, Asn123 of cADO-1593, and Asp49, Asn123 of cADO-sll0208) and in the oligopeptide whose conformation changed in the absence of the di-iron center (Leu146, Asn149, Phe150 of cADO-1593, and Thr146, Leu148, Tyr150 of cADO-sll0208). The variants of cADO-1593 from Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and cADO-sll0208 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 were constructed, overexpressed, purified and kinetically characterized. The k cat values of L146T, Q49H/N123H/F150Y and W178R of cADO-1593 and L148R of cADO-sll0208 were increased by more than two-fold, whereas that of R62A dropped by 91.1%. N123H, Y39F and D143A of cADO-1593, and Y150F of cADO-sll0208 reduced activities by ≤ 20%. Some important amino acids, which exerted some effects on cADO activity, were identified. Several enzyme variants exhibited greatly reduced activity, while the k cat values of several mutants are more than two-fold higher than the wild type. This study presents the report on the relationship between amino acid residues and enzyme activity of cADOs, and the information will provide a guide for enhancement of cADO activity through protein engineering.

  20. Contribution of post-harvest agricultural paddy residue fires in the N.W. Indo-Gangetic Plain to ambient carcinogenic benzenoids, toxic isocyanic acid and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, B P; Sinha, Vinayak

    2016-03-01

    In the north west Indo-Gangetic Plain (N.W.IGP), large scale post-harvest paddy residue fires occur every year during the months of October-November. This anthropogenic perturbation causes contamination of the atmospheric environment with adverse impacts on regional air quality posing health risks for the population exposed to high concentrations of carcinogens such as benzene and toxic VOCs such as isocyanic acid. These gases and carbon monoxide are known to be emitted from biomass fires along with acetonitrile. Yet no long-term in-situ measurements quantifying the impact of this activity have been carried out in the N.W. IGP. Using high quality continuous online in-situ measurements of these gases at a strategic downwind site over a three year period from 2012 to 2014, we demonstrate the strong impact of this anthropogenic emission activity on ambient concentrations of these gases. In contrast to the pre-paddy harvest period, excellent correlation of benzenoids, isocyanic acid and CO with acetonitrile (a biomass burning chemical tracer); (r≥0.82) and distinct VOC/acetonitrile emission ratios were observed for the post-paddy harvest period which was also characterized by high ambient concentrations of these species. The average concentrations of acetonitrile (1.62±0.18ppb), benzene (2.51±0.28ppb), toluene (3.72±0.41ppb), C8-aromatics (2.88±0.30ppb), C9-aromatics (1.55±0.19ppb) and CO (552±113ppb) in the post-paddy harvest periods were about 1.5 times higher than the annual average concentrations. For isocyanic acid, a compound with both primary and secondary sources, the concentration in the post-paddy harvest period was 0.97±0.17ppb. The annual average concentrations of benzene, a class A carcinogen, exceeded the annual exposure limit of 1.6ppb at NTP mandated by the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of India (NAAQS). We show that mitigating the post-harvest paddy residue fires can lower the annual average concentration of benzene and ensure

  1. Effect of inorganic chelate of zinc and restaurant residual oil added ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... residual oil added to feed mixture on the biochemical traits of thigh muscles in .... The basal diet (Soybean + corn); T2 = basal diet + 0% RRO + 50 mg/kg ZnO; T3 = basal ... fatty acids, using gas chromatography (AOAC, 1999).

  2. Process of converting actinide ions present in the solid residues of a sulphating process for radioactive solid waste containing actinides into a useful state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieczorek, H.; Oser, B.

    1985-01-01

    Stages of the process: a) The residue is dissolved in water or 1 to 2 mole nitric acid, where the greater part is dissolved. b) The solution formed is separated from the insoluble part of the residue and is heated to a temperature below its boiling point. c) The hot solution has an aquaeous barium nitrate solution added to it with a quantity which slightly exceeds that required for the stochiometric complete precipitation of the sulphate ions. The solution is kept at the selected temperature for a period of 0.5 to 2 hours. d) After subsequent cooling to room temperature, the precipitated barium sulphate is separated and e) the actinide-nitrate solution is fed into an extractive reprocessing process. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Changes in FGFR2 amino-acid residue Asn549 lead to Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome with hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Apra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor II (FGFR2 have been identified in patients with Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome, among which rare mutations of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Correlating subtle phenotypes with each rare mutation is still in progress. In Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, we identified three patients harboring three different pathogenic variants of the same amino acid residue Asn-549 located in this domain: in addition to a very typical crouzonoid appearance, they all developed clinically relevant hydrocephalus, which is an inconstant feature of Crouzon and Pfeiffer syndrome. Overall, FGFR2 tyrosine kinase domain mutations account for 5/67 (7.4% cases in our hospital. We describe a novel mutation, p.Asn549Ser, and new cases of p.Asn549His and p.Asn549Thr mutations, each reported once before. Our three cases of Asn-549 mutations, alongside with rare previously reported cases, show that these patients are at higher risk of hydrocephalus. Clinical and imaging follow-up, with possible early surgery, may help prevent secondary intellectual disability.

  4. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  5. Treatment of alpha-bearing combustible wastes using acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Allen, C.R.; Blasewitz, A.G.

    1977-11-01

    Acid digestion has been developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington to reduce the volume of combustible nuclear waste materials, while converting them to an inert, noncombustible residue. A 100 kg/day test unit has recently been constructed to demonstrate the process using radioactively contaminated combustible wastes. The unit, called the Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was completed in September 1977 and is currently undergoing cold shakedown tests. Hot operation is expected in May 1978. Features of RADTU include: storage and transfer station for incoming wastes, a feed preparation station, an extrusion feed mechanism for transfer of the waste to the acid digester, the acid digester, a residue recovery system, and an off-gas treatment system

  6. Concentration determination of nucleic acids and proteins using the micro-volume BioSpec-nano-spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-02-17

    Nucleic acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells.

  7. Concentration Determination of Nucleic Acids and Proteins Using the Micro-volume Bio-spec Nano Spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukumaran, Suja

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic Acid quantitation procedures have advanced significantly in the last three decades. More and more, molecular biologists require consistent small-volume analysis of nucleic acid samples for their experiments. The BioSpec-nano provides a potential solution to the problems of inaccurate, non-reproducible results, inherent in current DNA quantitation methods, via specialized optics and a sensitive PDA detector. The BioSpec-nano also has automated functionality such that mounting, measurement, and cleaning are done by the instrument, thereby eliminating tedious, repetitive, and inconsistent placement of the fiber optic element and manual cleaning. In this study, data is presented on the quantification of DNA and protein, as well as on measurement reproducibility and accuracy. Automated sample contact and rapid scanning allows measurement in three seconds, resulting in excellent throughput. Data analysis is carried out using the built-in features of the software. The formula used for calculating DNA concentration is: Sample Concentration = DF · (OD260-OD320)· NACF (1) Where DF = sample dilution factor and NACF = nucleic acid concentration factor. The Nucleic Acid concentration factor is set in accordance with the analyte selected1. Protein concentration results can be expressed as μg/ mL or as moles/L by entering e280 and molecular weight values respectively. When residue values for Tyr, Trp and Cysteine (S-S bond) are entered in the e280Calc tab, the extinction coefficient values are calculated as e280 = 5500 x (Trp residues) + 1490 x (Tyr residues) + 125 x (cysteine S-S bond). The e280 value is used by the software for concentration calculation. In addition to concentration determination of nucleic acids and protein, the BioSpec-nano can be used as an ultra micro-volume spectrophotometer for many other analytes or as a standard spectrophotometer using 5 mm pathlength cells. PMID:21372788

  8. Optoelectronic switch matrix as a look-up table for residue arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R I

    1987-10-01

    The use of optoelectronic matrix switches to perform look-up table functions in residue arithmetic processors is proposed. In this application, switchable detector arrays give the advantage of a greatly reduced requirement for optical sources by comparison with previous optoelectronic residue processors.

  9. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  10. Co-production of bio-ethanol, electricity and heat from biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, J.H.; Den Uil, H.; Van Veen, H. [ECN Biomass, Petten (Netherlands); De Laat, W.T.A.M.; Niessen, J.J. [Royal Nedalco, Bergen op Zoom (Netherlands); De Jong, E.; Elbersen, H.W.; Weusthuis, R. [Agrotechnological Research Institute ATO, BU Renewable Resources, Wageningen (Netherlands); Van Dijken, J.P.; Raamsdonk, L. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    The use of lignocellulose biomass residues as a feedstock offers good perspectives for large scale production of fuel ethanol at competitive costs. An evaluation was performed to assess the international status of lignocellulose-to-bioethanol technology and the economical and ecological system performance, to identify RandD approaches for further development. Deriving fermentable sugars from the hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of lignocellulose materials via suitable pretreatment and enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis is a critical RandD issue. Further development of pretreatment via mild, low temperature alkaline extraction or weak acid hydrolysis using CO2, dissolved in pressurized hot water ('carbonic acid process') shows good perspectives. Enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis with the currently available industrial cellulases accounts for 36-45% of ethanol production costs. At least a 10-fold increase of cellulase cost-effectiveness is required. Despite substantial RandD efforts, no suitable fermentation system is currently available for the fermentation of pentoses (mainly xylose) from the hemicellulose fraction. Several strains of anaerobic, thermophilic bacteria are able to convert all (hemi)cellulose components into ethanol. Follow-up RandD will focus on isolation of suitable strain(s) from this group. The system evaluation shows a 40-55% energetic efficiency (LHV basis) for conversion of lignocellulose feedstocks to ethanol. Thermal conversion of non-fermentable residues (mainly lignin) in a Biomass-Integrated-Gasifier/Combined Cycle (BIG/CC) system can provide the total steam and electricity requirement for the production process and an electricity surplus for export to the grid, giving a total system efficiency of 56-68%. Water consumption in the process (28-54 liter water/liter ethanol) is much higher than in current ethanol production (lo-15 l/l ethanol). The large amount of process water (used in the pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis

  11. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  12. Phyloproteomic Analysis of 11780 Six-Residue-Long Motifs Occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Galzitskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How is it possible to find good traits for phylogenetic reconstructions? Here, we present a new phyloproteomic criterion that is an occurrence of simple motifs which can be imprints of evolution history. We studied the occurrences of 11780 six-residue-long motifs consisting of two randomly located amino acids in 97 eukaryotic and 25 bacterial proteomes. For all eukaryotic proteomes, with the exception of the Amoebozoa, Stramenopiles, and Diplomonadida kingdoms, the number of proteins containing the motifs from the first group (one of the two amino acids occurs once at the terminal position made about 20%; in the case of motifs from the second (one of two amino acids occurs one time within the pattern and third (the two amino acids occur randomly groups, 30% and 50%, respectively. For bacterial proteomes, this relationship was 10%, 27%, and 63%, respectively. The matrices of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a motif from the set of 11780 motifs appears at least once in 9 kingdoms and 5 phyla of bacteria were calculated. Among the correlation coefficients for eukaryotic proteomes, the correlation between the animal and fungi kingdoms (0.62 is higher than between fungi and plants (0.54. Our study provides support that animals and fungi are sibling kingdoms. Comparison of the frequencies of six-residue-long motifs in different proteomes allows obtaining phylogenetic relationships based on similarities between these frequencies: the Diplomonadida kingdoms are more close to Bacteria than to Eukaryota; Stramenopiles and Amoebozoa are more close to each other than to other kingdoms of Eukaryota.

  13. Detecting coevolving amino acid sites using Bayesian mutational mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimmic, Matthew W.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Bustamente, Carlos D.

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: The evolution of protein sequences is constrained by complex interactions between amino acid residues. Because harmful substitutions may be compensated for by other substitutions at neighboring sites, residues can coevolve. We describe a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to the detection...

  14. PPII propensity of multiple-guest amino acids in a proline-rich environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Babin, Volodymyr; Sagui, Celeste; Roland, Christopher

    2011-07-07

    There has been considerable debate about the intrinsic PPII propensity of amino acid residues in denatured polypeptides. Experimentally, this scale is based on the behavior of guest amino acid residues placed in the middle of proline-based hosts. We have used classical molecular dynamics simulations combined with replica-exchange methods to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the conformational equilibria of proline-based host oligopeptides with multiple guest amino acids including alanine, glutamine, valine, and asparagine. The tracked structural characteristics include the secondary structural motifs based on the Ramachandran angles and the cis/trans isomerization of the prolyl bonds. In agreement with our recent study of single amino acid guests, we did not observe an intrinsic PPII propensity in any of the guest amino acids in a multiple-guest setting. Instead, the experimental results can be explained in terms of (i) the steric restrictions imposed on the C-terminal guest amino acid that is immediately followed by a proline residue and (ii) an increase in the trans content of the prolyl bonds due to the presence of guest residues. In terms of the latter, we found that the more guests added to the system, the larger the increase in the trans content of the prolyl bonds, which results in an effective increase in the PPII content of the peptide.

  15. Three-residue turns in alpha/beta-peptides and their application in the design of tertiary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Nagendar, Pendem; Ramakrishna, Kallaganti V S; Chandramouli, Nagula; Choudhary, Madavi; Kunwar, Ajit C

    2008-06-02

    A new three-residue turn was serendipitously discovered in alpha/beta hybrid peptides derived from alternating C-linked carbo-beta-amino acids (beta-Caa) and L-Ala residues. The three-residue beta-alpha-beta turn at the C termini, nucleated by a helix at the N termini, resulted in helix-turn (HT) supersecondary structures in these peptides. The turn in the HT motif is stabilized by two H bonds-CO(i-2)-NH(i), with a seven-membered pseudoring (gamma turn) in the backward direction, and NH(i-2)-CO(i), with a 13-membered pseudoring in the forward direction (i being the last residue)--at the C termini. The study was extended to generalize the new three-residue turn (beta-alpha-beta) by using different alpha- and beta-amino acids. Furthermore, the HT motifs were efficiently converted, by an extension with helical oligomers at the C termini, into peptides with novel helix-turn-helix (HTH) tertiary structures. However, this resulted in the destabilization of the beta-alpha-beta turn with the concomitant nucleation of another three-residue turn, alpha-beta-beta, which is stabilized by 11- and 15-membered bifurcated H bonds. Extensive NMR spectroscopic studies were carried out to delineate the secondary and tertiary structures in these peptides, which are further supported by molecular dynamics (MD) investigations.

  16. Report of the Task Force on Sawmill Wood Residue Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The Sawmill Wood Residue Task Force was established in 1993 to seek solutions to managing wood residue at sawmills, shingle mills, and log sort yards in British Columbia without burning or landfilling. In particular, the Task Force was formed to address the phaseout of beehive-type wood waste burners by January 1, 1996. The Task Force was formed at the forest product industry's request and included representatives from industry associations and government. It reviewed existing information on the quantities of mill residues and the options available for reducing, reusing, and recycling the residues. Nearly half of all the province's residues of 5 million bone dry tonnes/y is disposed of by burning with no energy recovery, or by landfilling. It was recognized that the total volume of wood residue cannot be handled by any one method suitable for all sources but that in the near term, electricity generation could deal with a significant percentage of wood currently being burned. The most immediate technically viable opportnity by industry in this area may be in cogeneration of electricity for load displacement at pulp mills. Other opportunities exist such as conversion of wood residue to liquid fuels but these require greater commitments to research and development. The need to handle bark and sawdust was identified as a critical requirement for alternate uses. Small niche uses for wood residue must be examined on a case by case basis for each company or group of companies in a region. The provincial government can also promote better use of wood wastes through policies such as social costing of power generation options and sales tax exemption for ethanol fuel. 1 tab

  17. Inconsistent Distances in Substitution Matrices can be Avoided by Properly Handling Hydrophobic Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baussand

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of substitution matrices to model evolutionary relationships between amino acid sequences can be numerically evaluated by checking the mathematical property of triangle inequality for all triplets of residues. By converting substitution scores into distances, one can verify that a direct path between two amino acids is shorter than a path passing through a third amino acid in the amino acid space modeled by the matrix. If the triangle inequality is not verified, the intuition is that the evolutionary signal is not well modeled by the matrix, that the space is locally inconsistent and that the matrix construction was probably based on insufficient biological data. Previous analysis on several substitution matrices revealed that the number of triplets violating the triangle inequality increases with sequence divergence. Here, we compare matrices which are dedicated to the alignment of highly divergent proteins. The triangle inequality is tested on several classical substitution matrices as well as in a pair of “complementary” substitution matrices recording the evolutionary pressures inside and outside hydrophobic blocks in protein sequences. The analysis proves the crucial role of hydrophobic residues in substitution matrices dedicated to the alignment of distantly related proteins.

  18. Manipulation of charged residues within the two-peptide lantibiotic lacticin 3147

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deegan, Lucy H.; Suda, Srinivas; Lawton, Elaine M.; Draper, Lorraine A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Peschel, Andreas; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Lantibiotics are antimicrobial peptides which contain a high percentage of post-translationally modified residues. While most attention has been paid to the role of these critical structural features, evidence continues to emerge that charged amino acids also play a key role in these peptides. Here

  19. Identification of key amino acid residues in the hTGR5-nomilin interaction and construction of its binding model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takashi; Mita, Moeko; Ikari, Naho; Kuboyama, Ayane; Hashimoto, Shuzo; Kaneko, Tatsuya; Ishiguro, Masaji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2017-01-01

    TGR5, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is activated by bile acids. Because TGR5 promotes energy expenditure and improves glucose homeostasis, it is recognized as a key target in treating metabolic diseases. We previously showed that nomilin, a citrus limonoid, activates TGR5 and confers anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects in mice. Information on the TGR5-nomilin interaction regarding molecular structure, however, has not been reported. In the present study, we found that human TGR5 (hTGR5) shows higher nomilin responsiveness than does mouse TGR5 (mTGR5). Using mouse-human chimeric TGR5, we also found that three amino acid residues (Q77ECL1, R80ECL1, and Y893.29) are important in the hTGR5-nomilin interaction. Based on these results, an hTGR5-nomilin binding model was constructed using in silico docking simulation, demonstrating that four hydrophilic hydrogen-bonding interactions occur between nomilin and hTGR5. The binding mode of hTGR5-nomilin is vastly different from those of other TGR5 agonists previously reported, suggesting that TGR5 forms various binding patterns depending on the type of agonist. Our study promotes a better understanding of the structure of TGR5, and it may be useful in developing and screening new TGR5 agonists.

  20. Removal of six pesticide residues in cowpea with alkaline electrolysed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; An, Quanshun; Pan, Canping

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of six pesticide residues (isoprocarb, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin, beta-cypermethrin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in cowpea by alkaline electrolysed water (AlEW) solutions with different pH was investigated. The commonly used washing treatments in household processing were used for comparison. The residue magnitudes were determined by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Results showed that the removal effect of AlEW solution on the six pesticides was superior to tap water, 5% sodium chloride, 5% sodium carbonate and 5% acetic acid solution. AlEW with pH 12.2 had more potential to eliminate the six pesticides in cowpeas. Moreover, the reduction of pesticide residues gradually increased with the increase of washing time. This study demonstrated that AlEW solution with pH of 12.2 could be used to reduce pesticide residues on fresh cowpea samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Western Canadian wood residue production and consumption trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation considered various trends in western Canadian wood residue production and consumption. Potential markets for wood residue products were also discussed. Trends were reviewed by province for the years 2000-2004. British Columbia (BC) is currently the largest producer of residue in the country, and also retains the largest surpluses of bark, sawdust and shavings. Wood residues in BC are used in pulp and plywood mill production, as well as in the creation of particleboard and MDF. Surplus mill wood residue production in the province has greatly increased due to the Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) infestation, which has in turn spurred expansion of the BC interior sawmill industry. The infestation has also resulted in a glut of pulp chips. Current wood residue products in Alberta are mostly used in pulp mill combined heat and power (CHP) systems, as well as for wood pellet production and the creation of particleboard and MDF. It was noted that surplus residues are rapidly declining in the province. Saskatchewan's wood residue storage piles are estimated to contain 2,900,000 BDt, while Manitoba surpluses are relatively minor. It was suggested that high natural gas prices have increased the payback on wood energy systems to approximately 2 years. The value of wood residue is now greater than $100/BDt as a substitute for natural gas once the wood energy system has been fully depreciated. Sawmills may now wish to consider equipping themselves to sell wood residue products, as most sawmills only require 20 per cent of their residues for heating purposes. It was concluded that markets for hog fuel wood pellets should be developed in Canada and internationally. Future markets may also develop if natural gas currently used in pulp mill power boilers and lime kilns is replaced with wood residue energy systems. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Stress-Softening and Residual Strain Effects in Suture Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the experimental characterization of suture material samples of MonoPlus, Monosyn, polyglycolic acid, polydioxanone 2–0, polydioxanone 4–0, poly(glycolide-co-epsilon-caprolactone, nylon, and polypropylene when subjected to cyclic loading and unloading conditions. It is found that all tested suture materials exhibit stress-softening and residual strain effects related to the microstructural material damage upon deformation from the natural, undistorted state of the virgin suture material. To predict experimental observations, a new constitutive material model that takes into account stress-softening and residual strain effects is developed. The basis of this model is the inclusion of a phenomenological nonmonotonous softening function that depends on the strain intensity between loading and unloading cycles. The theory is illustrated by modifying the non-Gaussian average-stretch, full-network model to capture stress-softening and residual strains by using pseudoelasticity concepts. It is shown that results obtained from theoretical simulations compare well with suture material experimental data.

  3. Collision-Induced Dissociation of Deprotonated Peptides. Relative Abundance of Side-Chain Neutral Losses, Residue-Specific Product Ions, and Comparison with Protonated Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuxue; Neta, Pedatsur; Yang, Xiaoyu; Stein, Stephen E

    2018-03-01

    High-accuracy MS/MS spectra of deprotonated ions of 390 dipeptides and 137 peptides with three to six residues are studied. Many amino acid residues undergo neutral losses from their side chains. The most abundant is the loss of acetaldehyde from threonine. The abundance of losses from the side chains of other amino acids is estimated relative to that of threonine. While some amino acids lose the whole side chain, others lose only part of it, and some exhibit two or more different losses. Side-chain neutral losses are less abundant in the spectra of protonated peptides, being significant mainly for methionine and arginine. In addition to the neutral losses, many amino acid residues in deprotonated peptides produce specific negative ions after peptide bond cleavage. An expanded list of fragment ions from protonated peptides is also presented and compared with those of deprotonated peptides. Fragment ions are mostly different for these two cases. These lists of fragments are used to annotate peptide mass spectral libraries and to aid in the confirmation of specific amino acids in peptides. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Residue preference mapping of ligand fragments in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lirong; Xie, Zhaojun; Wipf, Peter; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2011-04-25

    The interaction between small molecules and proteins is one of the major concerns for structure-based drug design because the principles of protein-ligand interactions and molecular recognition are not thoroughly understood. Fortunately, the analysis of protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) enables unprecedented possibilities for new insights. Herein, we applied molecule-fragmentation algorithms to split the ligands extracted from PDB crystal structures into small fragments. Subsequently, we have developed a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) algorithm to map the profiles of the interactions between these fragments and the 20 proteinogenic amino acid residues. A total of 4032 fragments were generated from 71 798 PDB ligands by a ring cleavage (RC) algorithm. Among these ligand fragments, 315 unique fragments were characterized with the corresponding fragment-residue interaction profiles by counting residues close to these fragments. The interaction profiles revealed that these fragments have specific preferences for certain types of residues. The applications of these interaction profiles were also explored and evaluated in case studies, showing great potential for the study of protein-ligand interactions and drug design. Our studies demonstrated that the fragment-residue interaction profiles generated from the PDB ligand fragments can be used to detect whether these fragments are in their favorable or unfavorable environments. The algorithm for a ligand fragment and residue preference mapping (LigFrag-RPM) developed here also has the potential to guide lead chemistry modifications as well as binding residues predictions.

  5. Replacement of C305 in heart/muscle-type isozyme of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I with aspartic acid and other amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Taisuke; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Takenori; Otsuki, Kaoru; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2010-04-01

    Liver- and heart/muscle-type isozymes of human carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (L- and M-CPTI, respectively) show a certain similarity in their amino acid sequences, and mutation studies on the conserved amino acids between these two isozymes often show essentially the same effects on their enzymatic properties. Earlier mutation studies on C305 in human M-CPTI and its counterpart residue, C304, in human L-CPTI showed distinct effects of the mutations, especially in the aspect of enzyme stability; however, simple comparison of these effects on the conserved Cys residue between L- and M-CPTI was difficult, because these studies were carried out using different expression systems and distinct amino acids as replacements. In the present study, we carried out mutation studies on the C305 in human M-CPTI using COS cells for the expression system. Our results showed that C305 was replaceable with aspartic acid but that substitution with other amino acids caused both loss of function and reduced expression.

  6. Murine protein H is comprised of 20 repeating units, 61 amino acids in length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Torsten; Tack, B F

    1986-01-01

    A cDNA library constructed from size-selected (greater than 28 S) poly(A)+ RNA isolated from the livers of C57B10. WR mice was screened by using a 249-base-pair (bp) cDNA fragment encoding 83 amino acid residues of human protein H as a probe. Of 120,000 transformants screened, 30 hybridized......, 448 bp of 3'-untranslated sequence, and a polyadenylylated tail of undetermined length. Murine pre-protein H was deduced to consist of an 18-amino acid signal peptide and 1216 residues of H-protein sequence. Murine H was composed of 20 repetitive units, each about 61 amino acid residues in length...

  7. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  8. Role of long- and short-range hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues contact network in protein’s structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Dhriti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three-dimensional structure of a protein can be described as a graph where nodes represent residues and the strength of non-covalent interactions between them are edges. These protein contact networks can be separated into long and short-range interactions networks depending on the positions of amino acids in primary structure. Long-range interactions play a distinct role in determining the tertiary structure of a protein while short-range interactions could largely contribute to the secondary structure formations. In addition, physico chemical properties and the linear arrangement of amino acids of the primary structure of a protein determines its three dimensional structure. Here, we present an extensive analysis of protein contact subnetworks based on the London van der Waals interactions of amino acids at different length scales. We further subdivided those networks in hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged residues networks and have tried to correlate their influence in the overall topology and organization of a protein. Results The largest connected component (LCC of long (LRN-, short (SRN- and all-range (ARN networks within proteins exhibit a transition behaviour when plotted against different interaction strengths of edges among amino acid nodes. While short-range networks having chain like structures exhibit highly cooperative transition; long- and all-range networks, which are more similar to each other, have non-chain like structures and show less cooperativity. Further, the hydrophobic residues subnetworks in long- and all-range networks have similar transition behaviours with all residues all-range networks, but the hydrophilic and charged residues networks don’t. While the nature of transitions of LCC’s sizes is same in SRNs for thermophiles and mesophiles, there exists a clear difference in LRNs. The presence of larger size of interconnected long-range interactions in thermophiles than mesophiles, even at

  9. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  10. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.T.; Brown, P.E.; Pateman, R.J.; Wilkinson, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  11. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  12. Multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains using modified magnetic nanoparticle adsorbent for facile and efficient cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Qi, Peipei; Wang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiwei; Xu, Xiahong; Chen, Wenxue; Wu, Liyu; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan

    2017-09-01

    A facile, rapid sample pretreatment method was developed based on magnetic nanoparticles for multi-pesticides residue analysis of grains. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe 3 O 4 -PSA) and commercial C18 were selected as the cleanup adsorbents to remove the target interferences of the matrix, such as fatty acids and non-polar compounds. Rice was used as the representative grain sample for method optimization. The amount of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA and C18 were systematically investigated for selecting the suitable purification conditions, and the simultaneous determination of 50 pesticides and 8 related metabolites in rice was established by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Under the optimal conditions, the method validation was performed including linearity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and precision, which all satisfy the requirement for pesticides residue analysis. Compared to the conventional QuEChERS method with non-magnetic material as cleanup adsorbent, the present method can save 30% of the pretreatment time, giving the high throughput analysis possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radium, uranium and metals in acidic or alkaline uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, St.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium mill study sites have been chosen in function of their different characteristics: deposits age, treatment nature (alkaline or acid), mill origin. The realization of specific drilling allowed the simultaneous study of the interstitial water and the solid fraction of samples, cut at determined deep. A radiation imbalance between 230 Th and 226 Ra is observed in the acid treatment residues. The trace elements concentration spectrum is directly bound to the nature of the ore. Diamagnetic evolutions are observed in residues. The uranium concentrations are higher in carbonated waters than in calcic sulfated waters. The selective sequential lixiviation showed that the 226 Ra activity of the interstitial water is controlled by the Gypsum in acid treatment residues. In other hand in the alkaline treatment waters, the carbonates occur. The Ra retention is largely bound to the Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. (A.L.B.)

  14. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  15. Metabolism-oriented amino acid requirement determination by means of the catabolic rates of 14C- and 15N-labelled lysine under maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Bergner, H.; Adam, K.

    1977-01-01

    Male Wistar rats (of 60 g live weight) allotted in 10 groups were fed diets with gradually increasing lysine levels ranging from 1.4 to 7.4 g lysine/16 g N. Feed intake was restricted so much that the experimental animals did not change their live weights during the last 3 days of the 8-day experimental period. On the 7the experimental day, 4 animals of each group were injected, i. p. 14 C-L-lysine, the 14 CO 2 -excretion being subsequently measured over a period of 2 hours. On the next day, 6 animals of each group were applied an i. p. injection of 15 N-L-lysine, the urine being collected over the following 24-hour period to measure the 15 N-frequency. Applying both labelling methods, an increased catabolisation of the amino acid was observed after the metabolically necessary lysine requirement had been covered. The methods are very sensitive and revealed, under the experimental conditions chosen, a lysine requirement coverage of about 3 g lysine/16 g N. The possibility of using also 15 N-labelled compounds in the metabolism-oriented amino acid requirement determination is likely to facilitate the transfer of the methodology to farm animals would thus allow to study the amino acid requirement of man. The metabolism-oriented amino acid requirement determination will likewise allow to estimate exact amino acid requirement data under conditions that cannot be rated on the basis of productive yields. (author)

  16. Predicting dihedral angle probability distributions for protein coil residues from primary sequence using neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Glennie; Fonseca, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    residue in the input-window. The trained neural network shows a significant improvement (4-68%) in predicting the most probable bin (covering a 30°×30° area of the dihedral angle space) for all amino acids in the data set compared to first order statistics. An accuracy comparable to that of secondary...... seem to have a significant influence on the dihedral angles adopted by the individual amino acids in coil segments. In this work we attempt to predict a probability distribution of these dihedral angles based on the flanking residues. While attempts to predict dihedral angles of coil segments have been...... done previously, none have, to our knowledge, presented comparable results for the probability distribution of dihedral angles. Results: In this paper we develop an artificial neural network that uses an input-window of amino acids to predict a dihedral angle probability distribution for the middle...

  17. Roles of the β 146 histidyl residue in the molecular basis of the Bohr Effect of hemoglobin: A proton nuclear magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, M.R.; Mace, J.E.; Ho, N.T.; Ho, Chien

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of the roles of the carboxyl-terminal β146 histidyl residues in the alkaline Bohr effect in human and normal adult hemoglobin by high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy requires assignment of the resonances corresponding to these residues. By a careful spectroscopic study of human normal adult hemoglobin, enzymatically prepared des(His146β)-hemoglobin, and the mutant hemoglobins Cowtown (β146His → Leu) and York (β146His → Pro), the authors have resolved some of these conflicting results. By a close incremental variation of pH over a wide range in chloride-free 0.1 M N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid buffer, a single resonance has been found to be consistently missing in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of these hemoglobin variants. The results indicate that the contribution of the β146 histidyl residues is 0.52 H + /hemoglobin tetramer at pH 7.6, markedly less than 0.8 H + /hemoglobin tetramer estimated by study of the mutant hemoglobin Cowtown (β146His → Leu) by Shih and Perutz. They have found that at least two histidyl residues in the carbonmonoxy form of this mutant have pK values that are perturbed, and they suggest that these pK differences may in part account for this discrepancy. The results show that the pK values of β146 histidyl residues in the carbonmonoxy form of hemoglobin are substantially affected by the presence of chloride and other anions in the solvent, and thus, the contribution of this amino acid residue to the alkaline Bohr effect can be shown to vary widely in magnitude, depending on the solvent composition. These results demonstrate that the detailed molecular mechanisms of the alkaline Bohr effect are not unique but are affected both by the hemoglobin structure and by the interactions with the solvent components in which the hemoglobin molecule resides

  18. Study on indium leaching from mechanically activated hard zinc residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, changes in physicochemical properties and leachability of indium from mechanically activated hard zinc residue by planetary mill were investigated. The results showed that mechanical activation increased specific surface area, reaction activity of hard zinc residue, and decreased its particle size, which had a positive effect on indium extraction from hard zinc residue in hydrochloric acid solution. Kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled and activated hard zinc residue were also investigated, respectively. It was found that temperature had an obvious effect on indium leaching rate. Two different kinetic models corresponding to reactions which are diffusion controlled, [1-(1- x1/3]2=kt and (1-2x/3-(1-x2/3=kt were used to describe the kinetics of indium leaching from unmilled sample and activated sample, respectively. Their activation energies were determined to be 17.89 kJ/mol (umilled and 11.65 kJ/mol (activated within the temperature range of 30°C to 90°C, which is characteristic for a diffusion controlled process. The values of activation energy demonstrated that the leaching reaction of indium became less sensitive to temperature after hard zinc residue mechanically activated by planetary mill.

  19. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of some additive residues in bulk raw milk collected from Pakdasht area in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Moosavi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important sources of human nutrition and because of high nutrient content; it is a very suitable medium for microbial growth and spoilage. Sometimes farmers cheat and add some additives to milk in order to cover the spoilage or other defects in milk. In this study 120 samples of bulk raw milk (10 samples each month were collected from dairy farms of Pakdasht under sterile condition and send to veterinary faculty of GarmsarUniversity. The following tests were done on each sample: Anti-microbial residues, residues milk acidity neutralizer, evaluation of sugar, formalin, Hydrogen peroxide, Salicylic acid and salt presence. Results were analyzed with Spss software and the results of the first six months of the year were compared statistically with the results of the second six months of the year. The mean of antimicrobial agents, milk acid neutralizer, formalin, hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid showed no significant difference. But sugar in first semester were more than second semester (p

  1. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  2. Protein Nanopore-Based Discrimination between Selected Neutral Amino Acids from Polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asandei, Alina; Rossini, Aldo E; Chinappi, Mauro; Park, Yoonkyung; Luchian, Tudor

    2017-12-19

    Nanopore probing of biological polymers has the potential to achieve single-molecule sequencing at low cost, high throughput, portability, and minimal sample preparation and apparatus. In this article, we explore the possibility of discrimination between neutral amino acid residues from the primary structure of 30 amino acids long, engineered peptides, through the analysis of single-molecule ionic current fluctuations accompanying their slowed-down translocation across the wild type α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the transient presence inside the α-HL of alanine or tryptophan residues from the primary sequence of engineered peptides results in distinct features of the ionic current fluctuation pattern associated with the peptide reversibly blocking the nanopore. We propose that α-HL sensitivity to the molecular exclusion at the most constricted region mediates ionic current blockade events correlated with the volumes that are occluded by at least three alanine or tryptophan residues, and provides the specificity needed to discriminate between groups of neutral amino acids. Further, we find that the pattern of current fluctuations depends on the orientation of the threaded amino acid residues, suggestive of a conformational anisotropy of the ensemble of conformations of the peptide on the restricted nanopore region, related to its relative axial orientation inside the nanopore.

  3. Disruption of key NADH-binding pocket residues of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA affects DD-CoA binding ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel J; Robb, Kirsty; Vetter, Beatrice V; Tong, Madeline; Molle, Virginie; Hunt, Neil T; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2017-07-05

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health problem that affects over 10 million people. There is an urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial therapies to combat TB. To achieve this, a thorough understanding of key validated drug targets is required. The enoyl reductase InhA, responsible for synthesis of essential mycolic acids in the mycobacterial cell wall, is the target for the frontline anti-TB drug isoniazid. To better understand the activity of this protein a series of mutants, targeted to the NADH co-factor binding pocket were created. Residues P193 and W222 comprise a series of hydrophobic residues surrounding the cofactor binding site and mutation of both residues negatively affect InhA function. Construction of an M155A mutant of InhA results in increased affinity for NADH and DD-CoA turnover but with a reduction in V max for DD-CoA, impairing overall activity. This suggests that NADH-binding geometry of InhA likely permits long-range interactions between residues in the NADH-binding pocket to facilitate substrate turnover in the DD-CoA binding region of the protein. Understanding the precise details of substrate binding and turnover in InhA and how this may affect protein-protein interactions may facilitate the development of improved inhibitors enabling the development of novel anti-TB drugs.

  4. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  5. Microwave assisted solvent extraction and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection use of an analytical restricted-access-medium column for the efficient multi-residue analysis of acidic pesticides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoom, E A; Huls, R; Dijkman, E; Hoogerbrugge, R

    2001-12-14

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of acidic pesticides in various types of soils. Methodology is based on the use of microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) for fast and efficient extraction of the analytes from the soils and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC-LC) with UV detection at 228 nm for the instrumental analysis of uncleaned extracts. Four types of soils, including sand, clay and peat, with a range in organic matter content of 0.3-13% and ten acidic pesticides of different chemical families (bentazone, bromoxynil, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-DP, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-DB and MCPB) were selected as matrices and analytes, respectively. The method developed included the selection of suitable MASE and LC-LC conditions. The latter consisted of the selection of a 5-microm GFF-II internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP, Pinkerton) analytical column (50 x 4.6 mm, I.D.) as the first column in the RAM-C18 configuration in combination with an optimised linear gradient elution including on-line cleanup of sample extracts and reconditioning of the columns. The method was validated with the analysis of freshly spiked samples and samples with aged residues (120 days). The four types of soils were spiked with the ten acidic pesticides at levels between 20 and 200 microg/kg. Weighted regression of the recovery data showed for most analyte-matrix combinations, including freshly spiked samples and aged residues, that the method provides overall recoveries between 60 and 90% with relative standard deviations of the intra-laboratory reproducibility's between 5 and 25%; LODs were obtained between 5 and 50 microg/kg. Evaluation of the data set with principal component analysis revealed that the parameters (i) increase of organic matter content of the soil samples and (ii) aged residues negatively effect the recovery of the analytes.

  6. Dependence of magnetic permeability on residual stresses in alloyed steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hristoforou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for the monitoring of residual stress distribution in steels has been developed based on non-destructive surface magnetic permeability measurements. In order to investigate the potential utilization of the magnetic method in evaluating residual stresses, the magnetic calibration curves of various ferromagnetic alloyed steels’ grade (AISI 4140, TRIP and Duplex were examined. X-Ray diffraction technique was used for determining surface residual stress values. The overall measurement results have shown that the residual stress determined by the magnetic method was in good agreement with the diffraction results. Further experimental investigations are required to validate the preliminary results and to verify the presence of a unique normalized magnetic stress calibration curve.

  7. Dependence of magnetic permeability on residual stresses in alloyed steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristoforou, E.; Ktena, A.; Vourna, P.; Argiris, K.

    2018-04-01

    A method for the monitoring of residual stress distribution in steels has been developed based on non-destructive surface magnetic permeability measurements. In order to investigate the potential utilization of the magnetic method in evaluating residual stresses, the magnetic calibration curves of various ferromagnetic alloyed steels' grade (AISI 4140, TRIP and Duplex) were examined. X-Ray diffraction technique was used for determining surface residual stress values. The overall measurement results have shown that the residual stress determined by the magnetic method was in good agreement with the diffraction results. Further experimental investigations are required to validate the preliminary results and to verify the presence of a unique normalized magnetic stress calibration curve.

  8. Monitoring and Auditing Residual Information on the User’s Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladlena Sergeevna Oladk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of violation of information security components such as confidentiality and availability in the event of a computer user's residual information. Analyze the requirements of regulators and mechanisms to be applied in the organization to monitor the residual information or its destruction.Approach to monitoring and auditing residual information on the user's computer, which allows monitoring the residual information in certain areas proposed. Approach allows us to identify the detected information and rank it according to the degree of criticality, as well as calculate the risk of leakage and its potential to develop recommendations aimed at its reduction. The proposed approach is formally described and automated in a software system.

  9. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  10. Disposing of coal combustion residues in inactive surface mines: Effects on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.G.; Ackman, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    The disposal of coal combustion residues (CCR) in surface and underground coal mines can provide a stable, low-maintenance alternative to landfills, benefiting the mining and electric power industries. The material may be able to improve water quality at acid generating abandoned or reclaimed coal mine sites. Most combustion residues are alkaline, and their addition to the subsurface environment could raise the pH, limiting the propagation of pyrite oxidizing bacteria and reducing the rate of acid generation. Many of these CCR are also pozzolanic, capable of forming cementitious grouts. Grouts injected into the buried spoil may decrease its permeability and porosity, diverting water away from the pyritic material. Both mechanisms, alkaline addition and water diversion, are capable of reducing the amount of acid produced at the disposal site. The US Bureau of Mines is cooperating in a test of subsurface injection of CCR into a reclaimed surface mine. Initially, a mixture of fly ash, lime, and acid mine drainage (AMD) sludge was injected. Lime was the source of calcium for the formation of the pozzolanic grout. Changes in water quality parameters (pH, acidity, anions, and trace metals) in water samples from wells and seeps indicate a small but significant improvement after CCR injection. Changes in the concentration of heavy metals in the water flowing across the site were apparently influenced by the presence of flyash

  11. Effects of Acid treatment on the compression and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of acid treatment on the compression and mechanical properties of the cellulosic fibrous residue obtained after a high proportion of starch has been removed from the peeled and rasped tuberous root of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Family: Araceae). Powdered fibrous residues were subjected ...

  12. Fatty acid oxidation is required for active and quiescent brown adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic programing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Gonzalez-Hurtado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecular, and physiologic response of brown adipose tissue to disparate paradigms of chronic thermogenic stimulation. Methods: Mice with an adipose-specific loss of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2A−/−, that lack mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation, were subjected to environmental and pharmacologic interventions known to promote thermogenic programming in adipose tissue. Results: Chronic administration of β3-adrenergic (CL-316243 or thyroid hormone (GC-1 agonists induced a loss of BAT morphology and UCP1 expression in Cpt2A−/− mice. Fatty acid oxidation was also required for the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT and the induction of UCP1 in WAT. In contrast, chronic cold (15 °C stimulation induced UCP1 and thermogenic programming in both control and Cpt2A−/− adipose tissue albeit to a lesser extent in Cpt2A−/− mice. However, thermoneutral housing also induced the loss of UCP1 and BAT morphology in Cpt2A−/− mice. Therefore, adipose fatty acid oxidation is required for both the acute agonist-induced activation of BAT and the maintenance of quiescent BAT. Consistent with this data, Cpt2A−/− BAT exhibited increased macrophage infiltration, inflammation and fibrosis irrespective of BAT activation. Finally, obese Cpt2A−/− mice housed at thermoneutrality exhibited a loss of interscapular BAT and were refractory to β3-adrenergic-induced energy expenditure and weight loss. Conclusion: Mitochondrial long chain fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of the brown adipocyte phenotype both during times of activation and quiescence. Keywords: Fatty acid oxidation, Brown adipose tissue, Cold induced thermogenesis, Adrenergic signaling, Adipose macrophage

  13. Nitric acid recycling and copper nitrate recovery from effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jô, L F; Marcus, R; Marcelin, O

    2014-01-01

    The recycling of nitric acid and copper nitrate contained in an industrial effluent was studied. The experiments conducted on such a medium showed that the presence of copper nitrate significantly improves nitric acid-water separation during distillation in an azeotropic medium. At the temperature of the azeotrope, however, this metal salt starts to precipitate, making the medium pasty, thus inhibiting the nitric acid extraction process. The optimisation of parameters such as column efficiency and adding water to the boiler at the azeotrope temperature are recommended in this protocol in order to collect the various components while avoiding the formation of by-products: NOx compounds. Thus, the absence of column, along with the addition of a small volume of water at a temperature of 118 °C, significantly increases the yield, allowing 94 % nitric acid to be recovered at the end of the process, along with the residual copper nitrate. The resulting distillate, however, is sufficiently dilute to not be used as is. Rectification is required to obtain concentrated nitric acid at 15 mol·l(-1), along with a weakly acidic distillate from the distillation front. This latter is quenched using potassium hydroxide and is used as a fertiliser solution for horticulture or sheltered market gardening. This process thus allows complete recycling of all the medium's components, including that of the distillate resulting from the nitric acid rectification operation.

  14. Theoretical study on keto-enol tautomerisation of glutarimide for exploration of the isomerisation reaction pathway of glutamic acid in proteins using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Nakayoshi, Tomoki; Takahashi, Ohgi; Oda, Akifumi

    2017-03-01

    In order to elucidate the reason why glutamic acid residues have lesser racemisation reactivity than asparaginic acid, we investigated the racemisation energy barrier of piperidinedione, which is the presumed intermediate of the isomerisation reaction of L-Glu to D-Glu, by density functional theory calculations. In two-water-molecule-assisted racemisation, the activation barrier for keto-enol isomerisation was 28.1 kcal/mol. The result showed that the activation barrier for the racemisation of glutamic acid residues was not different from that for the racemisation of aspartic acid residues. Thus, glutamic acid residues can possibly cause the racemisation reaction if the cyclic intermediate stably exists.

  15. Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol moieties. Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteheart, S.W.; Shenbagamurthi, P.; Chen, L.; Cotter, R.J.; Hart, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), an important eukaryotic translation factor, transports charged aminoacyl-tRNA from the cytosol to the ribosomes during poly-peptide synthesis. Metabolic radiolabeling with [ 3 H] ethanolamine shows that, in all cells examined, EF-1 alpha is the major radiolabeled protein. Radiolabeled EF-1 alpha has an apparent Mr = 53,000 and a basic isoelectric point. It is cytosolic and does not contain N-linked oligosaccharides. Trypsin digestion of murine EF-1 alpha generated two major [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled peptides. Three peptides were sequenced and were identical to two distinct regions of the human EF-1 alpha protein. Blank sequencing cycles coinciding with glutamic acid in the human cDNA-derived sequence were also found to release [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and compositional analysis of these peptides confirmed the presence of glutamic acid. Dansylation analysis demonstrates that the amine group of the ethanolamine is blocked. These results indicate that EF-1 alpha is posttranslationally modified by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine via an amide bond to at least two specific glutamic acid residues (Glu-301 and Glu-374). The hydroxyl group of the attached ethanolamine was shown by mass spectrometry and compositional analysis, to be further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit. This novel posttranslational modification may represent an important alteration of EF-1 alpha, comparable to the regulatory effects of posttranslational methylation of EF-1 alpha lysine residues

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  17. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    An overflow system for continuous esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using an economical process was developed using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Continuous production compared to batch production at the same condition had higher product purity. The optimum condition for the esterification process was a 8.8:1:0.05 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD to sulfuric acid catalyst, 60 min of residence time at 75 C under its own pressure. The free fatty acid (FFA) content in the PFAD was reduced from 93 to less than 1.5%wt by optimum esterification. The esterified product had to be neutralized with 10.24%wt of 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 C for 20 min to reduce the residual FFA and glycerides. The components and properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could meet the standard requirements for biodiesel fuel. Eventually the production costs were calculated to disclose its commercialization. (author)

  18. Estimation of selected residual antibiotics in muscle, kidney, liver, and egg of layer chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjad, H.; Iqbal, J.; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present studies were conducted for the estimation of quinolone residues in our local poultry products. The poultry products included muscle, kidney, liver and egg (yolk and white). The quinolones included in this study were, oxolonic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. An assessment of the variation of each analyte (quinolones antibiotic residues) in these products was made. A comparison was made among the analyte (quinolones) concentrations in different tissues/organs and their internationally permissible safer maximum residue limits (MRLS'). Infra Red spectra were used to detect the presence and identification of different quinolones. HPLC with ODS Column and U.V. detector was used for the quantification. (author)

  19. Saturation mutagenesis in selected amino acids to shift Pseudomonas sp. acidic lipase Lip I.3 substrate specificity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Paola; Cesarini, Silvia; Diaz, Pilar; Rodríguez Giordano, Sonia

    2015-01-25

    Several Pseudomonas sp. CR611 Lip I.3 mutants with overall increased activity and a shift towards longer chain substrates were constructed. Substitution of residues Y29 and W310 by smaller amino acids provided increased activity on C18-substrates. Residues G152 and S154, modified to study their influence on interfacial activation, displayed a five and eleven fold increased activity.

  20. Residual Tensile Property of Plain Woven Jute Fiber/Poly(Lactic Acid) Green Composites during Thermal Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katogi, Hideaki; Takemura, Kenichi; Akiyama, Motoki

    2016-07-14

    This study investigated the residual tensile properties of plain woven jute fiber reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) during thermal cycling. Temperature ranges of thermal cycling tests were 35-45 °C and 35-55 °C. The maximum number of cycles was 10³ cycles. The quasi-static tensile tests of jute fiber, PLA, and composite were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Thermal mechanical analyses of jute fiber and PLA were conducted after thermal cycling tests. Results led to the following conclusions. For temperatures of 35-45 °C, tensile strength of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 10% compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. For temperatures of 35-55 °C, tensile strength and Young's modulus of composite at 10³ cycles decreased 15% and 10%, respectively, compared to that of composite at 0 cycles. Tensile properties and the coefficient of linear expansion of PLA and jute fiber remained almost unchanged after thermal cycling tests. From observation of a fracture surface, the length of fiber pull out in the fracture surface of composite at 10³ cycles was longer than that of composite at 0 cycles. Therefore, tensile properties of the composite during thermal cycling were decreased, probably because of the decrease of interfacial adhesion between the fiber and resin.

  1. Requirement of tyrosine residues 333 and 338 of the growth hormone (GH) receptor for selected GH-stimulated function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobie, P E; Allevato, G; Norstedt, G

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the involvement of tyrosine residues 333 and 338 of the growth hormone (GH) receptor in the cellular response to GH. Stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clones expressing a receptor with tyrosine residues at position 333 and 338 of the receptor substituted for phenylalanine (...

  2. The amino acid composition of rumen-undegradable protein: a comparison between forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, B; Südekum, K-H; Bennett, R; Schröder, A; Spiekers, H; Schwarz, F J

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve knowledge regarding the amino acid profile of the insoluble portion of ingested forage escaping rumen degradation. Six forage categories were analyzed. Categories varied in botanical composition and each contained 2 samples. Samples within categories were derived from the same parent material but differed in harvest, maturity, or conservation type. The rumen-undegradable protein of all forages was measured by incubation for 16h in the rumen of 3 nonlactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization. The AA profile of the residue was different to the original profile. Degradation trends of individual AA, in terms of increase or decrease relative to the original concentration, were similar between all forages. The AA profiles of forage residues, both within and between categories, were more similar to each other than to their respective original profile. This information may aid in improving the accuracy of estimating postruminal AA supply from forages while decreasing the number of samples required to be analyzed. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.; Hoerr, R.A.; Young, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of [1-13C]valine (and [2H3]leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fasted state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1

  4. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  5. Potential for the use of hydrochloric acid in fission reactor fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailen, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry and the effects of the use of hydrochloric acid as the aqueous phase in fuel recycle are surveyed. Available data are sufficient to suggest that separations of actinides and fission products can be at least as good in an HCl-trialkyl amine system as in Purex. Advantages of the HCl system are simpler operations of the off-gas system, better separation of neptunium from uranium and plutonium, better control of oxidation states of the dissolved species, and simpler recycle of the acid. A possible advantage is the more complete dissolution of the fission products, leaving very little insoluble residue. Disadvantages include lack of development of methods for dissolution of oxide fuel in hydrochloric acid, the requirement for processing equipment constructed of titanium, possible complications in the waste-handling system, and the dissolution of much of the cladding in the case of stainless-steel clad fuel

  6. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... (LOQ) of 0.05 ppm for total residues of spiroxamine is being submitted. The extraction and hydrolysis... detection (ECD), and convert residues of amitraz to 2,4-DMA by acid and base hydrolysis, respectively. The...-(hydrogen sulfobutanedioate), 1- (C 8 -C 20 linear and branched alkyl) ethers, sodium salts (CAS No. 1079993...

  7. Aging impacts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) on furfural production residue-derived biochars: Porosity, functional properties, and inorganic minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guocheng; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhixiang; Zheng, Hao; Dai, Yanhui; Luo, Xianxiang; Wang, Zhenyu

    2017-12-31

    The aging of biochar by low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), which are typical root-derived exudates, is not well understood. Three LMWOAs (ethanoic, malic, and citric acids) were employed to investigate their aging impacts on the biochars from furfural production residues at 300-600°C (BC300-600). The LMWOAs created abundant macropores in BC300, whereas they significantly increased the mesoporosity and surface area of BC600 by 13.5-27.0% and 44.6-61.5%, respectively. After LMWOA aging, the content of C and H of the biochars increased from 51.3-60.2% and 1.87-3.45% to 56.8-69.9% and 2.06-4.45%, respectively, but the O content decreased from 13.8-24.8% to 7.82-19.4% (except BC300). For carbon fraction in the biochars, the LMWOAs barely altered the bulk and surface functional properties during short-term aging. The LMWOAs facilitated the dissolution of minerals (e.g., K 2 Mg(PO 3 ) 4 , AlPO 4 , and Pb 2 P 2 O 7 ) and correspondingly promoted the release of not only plant nutrients (K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Fe 3+ , PO 4 3- , and SO 4 2- ) but also toxic metals (Al 3+ and Pb 2+ ). This research provided systematic insights on the responses of biochar properties to LMWOAs and presented direct evidence for acid activation of inorganic minerals in the biochars by LMWOAs, which could enhance the understanding of environmental behaviors of biochars in rhizosphere soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A proposed residual stress model for oblique turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhabeery, M. M.

    2001-01-01

    A proposed mathematical model is presented for predicting the residual stresses caused by turning. Effects of change in tool free length, cutting speed, feed rate, and the tensile strength of work piece material on the maximum residual stress are investigated. The residual stress distribution in the surface region due to turning under unlubricated condition is determined using a deflection etching technique. To reduce the number of experiments required and build the mathematical model for these variables, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used. In addition, variance analysis and an experimental check are conducted to determine the prominent parameters and the adequacy of the model. The results show that the tensile stress of the work piece material, cutting speed, and feed rate have significant effects on the maximum residual stresses. The proposed model, that offering good correlation between the experimental and predicted results, is useful in selecting suitable cutting parameters for the machining of different materials. (author)

  9. Residual stress effects in LMFBR fracture assessment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Two post-yield fracture mechanics methods, which have been developed into fully detailed failure assessment procedures for ferritic structures, have been reviewed from the point of view of the manner in which as-welded residual stress effects are incorporated, and comparisons then made with finite element and theoretical models of centre-cracked plates containing residual/thermal stresses in the form of crack-driving force curves. Applying the procedures to austenitic structures, comparisons are made in terms of failure assessment curves and it is recommended that the preferred method for the prediction of critical crack sizes in LMFBR austenitic structures containing as-welded residual stresses is the CEGB-R6 procedure based on a flow stress defined at 3% strain in the parent plate. When the prediction of failure loads in such structures is required, it is suggested that the CEGB-R6 procedure be used with residual/thermal stresses factored to give a maximum total stress of flow stress magnitude

  10. Identification of the roles of individual amino acid residues of the helix E of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII) by alanine scanning mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Rao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Chunhong

    2014-10-01

    The functions of the helix E (W97-F105), an amphiphilic lumenal 310 helix of the major antenna of photosystem II (LHCII), are still unidentified. To elucidate the roles of individual amino acid residue of the helix E, alanine scanning mutagenesis has been performed to mutate every residue of this domain to alanine. The influence of every alanine substitution on the structure and function of LHCII has been investigated biochemically and spectroscopically. The results show that all mutations have little impact on the pigment binding and configuration. However, many mutants presented decreased thermo- or photo-stability compared with the wild type, highlighting the significance of this helix to the stability of LHCII. The most critical residue for stability is W97. The mutant W97A yielded very fragile trimeric pigment protein complexes. The structural analysis revealed that the hydrogen bonding and aromatic interactions between W97, F195, F194 and a water molecule contributed greatly to the stability of LHCII. Moreover, Q103A and F105A have been identified to be able to reinforce the tendency of aggregation in vitro. The structural analysis suggested that the enhancement in aggregation formation for Q103A and F105A might be attributed to the changing hydrophobicity of the region. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2005-01-01

    on conversion of nifursol and its metabolites with an intact 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DNSH) side chain to the 2-nitrophenyl analogue of nifursol (NPDNSH) by treatment with dilute hydrochloric acid and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Nifuroxazide (salicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) added......Nifursol (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (5-nitrofurfurylidene) hydrazide) is mainly used as a feed additive for the prevention of blackhead disease in turkeys. The objective of the present work was to establish information on nifursol residues in turkey and chicken meat. The analytical method was based...

  12. High-Order Hyperbolic Residual-Distribution Schemes on Arbitrary Triangular Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct high-order hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for general advection-diffusion problems on arbitrary triangular grids. We demonstrate that the second-order accuracy of the hyperbolic schemes can be greatly improved by requiring the scheme to preserve exact quadratic solutions. We also show that the improved second-order scheme can be easily extended to third-order by further requiring the exactness for cubic solutions. We construct these schemes based on the LDA and the SUPG methodology formulated in the framework of the residual-distribution method. For both second- and third-order-schemes, we construct a fully implicit solver by the exact residual Jacobian of the second-order scheme, and demonstrate rapid convergence of 10-15 iterations to reduce the residuals by 10 orders of magnitude. We demonstrate also that these schemes can be constructed based on a separate treatment of the advective and diffusive terms, which paves the way for the construction of hyperbolic residual-distribution schemes for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Numerical results show that these schemes produce exceptionally accurate and smooth solution gradients on highly skewed and anisotropic triangular grids, including curved boundary problems, using linear elements. We also present Fourier analysis performed on the constructed linear system and show that an under-relaxation parameter is needed for stabilization of Gauss-Seidel relaxation.

  13. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  14. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  15. ORGANIC ACIDS CONCENTRATION IN WINE STOCKS AFTER Saccharomyces cerevisiae FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bayraktar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical constituents in wine stocks that influence the flavor and quality of wine are investigated in the paper. The tested parameters consist of volume fraction of ethanol, residual sugar, phenolic compounds, tartaric, malic, citric, lactic, acetic acids, titratable acidity and volatile acids. The wine stocks that were received from white and red grape varieties Tairov`s selection were tested. There was a correlation between titratable acidity and volatile acids in the wine stocks from white and red grape varieties. High correlation was also found between lactic and acetic acids, between volatile acids, acetic acid and sugar. It was determined that wine stocks with a high concentration of ethanol originated from those yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in a fermented grape must of high speed of enzyme activity. The taste of wine stocks correlated with the ratio of tartaric to malic acid. Analysis showed significant differences between the varieties of white and red wine stocks in concentrations of organic acids, phenolic compounds, residual sugar, and volume fraction of ethanol. Positive correlation was indicated for both studied groups for volatile acids and acetic acid, tartaric, malic, lactic acids and total sugar. Prospective yeast cultures with high productivity of alcohol (ethanol were selected for winemaking biotechnology.

  16. Efficient subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis virus receptor activity requires the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor and proper display on the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J

    2008-11-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection.

  17. Efficient Subgroup C Avian Sarcoma and Leukosis Virus Receptor Activity Requires the IgV Domain of the Tvc Receptor and Proper Display on the Cell Membrane▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Audelia; Federspiel, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    We recently identified and cloned the receptor for subgroup C avian sarcoma and leukosis viruses [ASLV(C)], i.e., Tvc, a protein most closely related to mammalian butyrophilins, which are members of the immunoglobulin protein family. The extracellular domain of Tvc contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, IgV and IgC, which presumably each contain a disulfide bond important for native function of the protein. In this study, we have begun to identify the functional determinants of Tvc responsible for ASLV(C) receptor activity. We found that the IgV domain of the Tvc receptor is responsible for interacting with the glycoprotein of ASLV(C). Additional experiments demonstrated that a domain was necessary as a spacer between the IgV domain and the membrane-spanning domain for efficient Tvc receptor activity, most likely to orient the IgV domain a proper distance from the cell membrane. The effects on ASLV(C) glycoprotein binding and infection efficiency were also studied by site-directed mutagenesis of the cysteine residues of Tvc as well as conserved amino acid residues of the IgV Tvc domain compared to other IgV domains. In this initial analysis of Tvc determinants important for interacting with ASLV(C) glycoproteins, at least two aromatic amino acid residues in the IgV domain of Tvc, Trp-48 and Tyr-105, were identified as critical for efficient ASLV(C) infection. Interestingly, one or more aromatic amino acid residues have been identified as critical determinants in the other ASLV(A-E) receptors for a proper interaction with ASLV glycoproteins. This suggests that the ASLV glycoproteins may share a common mechanism of receptor interaction with an aromatic residue(s) on the receptor critical for triggering conformational changes in SU that initiate the fusion process required for efficient virus infection. PMID:18768966

  18. The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification.

  19. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Oyama

    Full Text Available CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH family 5 enzyme exhibiting both β-1,4-mannosidic and β-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196 in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity.

  20. Mutational and structural analyses of Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus Man5B reveal novel active site residues for family 5 glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Takuji; Schmitz, George E; Dodd, Dylan; Han, Yejun; Burnett, Alanna; Nagasawa, Naoko; Mackie, Roderick I; Nakamura, Haruki; Morikawa, Kosuke; Cann, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    CpMan5B is a glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 5 enzyme exhibiting both β-1,4-mannosidic and β-1,4-glucosidic cleavage activities. To provide insight into the amino acid residues that contribute to catalysis and substrate specificity, we solved the structure of CpMan5B at 1.6 Å resolution. The structure revealed several active site residues (Y12, N92 and R196) in CpMan5B that are not present in the active sites of other structurally resolved GH5 enzymes. Residue R196 in GH5 enzymes is thought to be strictly conserved as a histidine that participates in an electron relay network with the catalytic glutamates, but we show that an arginine fulfills a functionally equivalent role and is found at this position in every enzyme in subfamily GH5_36, which includes CpMan5B. Residue N92 is required for full enzymatic activity and forms a novel bridge over the active site that is absent in other family 5 structures. Our data also reveal a role of Y12 in establishing the substrate preference for CpMan5B. Using these molecular determinants as a probe allowed us to identify Man5D from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii as a mannanase with minor endo-glucanase activity.

  1. Mineralization of phenmedipham and derivates by Trichoderma viride. Immobilization of 14C residues. Effects on biological activity and germ number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinck, C.; Mayaudon, J.

    1979-01-01

    The degradation of phenmedipham and derivates by T. viride was investigated. This microorganisms is unable to cleave the aromatic ring but demethylates the three herbicides. The half-life periods of the phenylcarbamates vary from 11 to 38 days; those of their residues from 250 to 900 days. The most part of residual 14 C is found as soluble material. Adsorption varies in the following order: humin > humic acids > fulvic acids. No intact herbicide can be detected forty days after soil treatment. 14 C phenylcarbamates or 14 C residues are found by autoradiography in mycelial fragments and spores of T. viride. The period of most active degradation of herbicides is characterized by a numerical increase of germs and a fall of biological activity [fr

  2. Crop residues quantification to obtain self-consumption compost in an organic garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Fuentes, Pilar; Lopez Merino, María; Remedios Alvir, María; Briz de Felipe, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on quantifying the crop residue left after the campaign fall/winter (2011) for the organic garden crops of Agricultural ETSI, located in practice fields, to get compost for self-generated residues arising from within their own fields. This compost is produced by mixing this material with an organic residues source animal. In this way the plant organic residues provided the nitrogen required for an appropriate C/N and the animal organic residues can provide the carbon amount required to achieve an optimal scenario. The garden has a surface area of 180 m2 which was cultured with different seasonal vegetables, different families and attending practices and species associations' rotations, proper of farming techniques. The organic material of animal origin referred to, is rest from sheep renew bed, sustained management support the precepts of organic farming and cottage belongs to practice fields too. At the end of crop cycle, we proceeded to the harvest and sorting of usable crop residues, which was considered as net crop residues. In each case, these residues were subjected to a cutting treatment by the action of a mincing machine and then weighed to estimate the amounts given by each crop. For the sheep bed residue 1m2 was collected after three months having renewed. It had been made by providing 84 kg of straw bales in July and introducing about 12 Kg each. The herd consisted of three females and one playe. Each one of them was feed 300g and 600 g of straw per day. Two alternating different pens were used to simulate a regime of semi-intensive housing. A balance on how much organic residue material was obtained at the end and how much was obtained in the compost process is discussed in terms of volume and nutrients content is discussed.

  3. Fatty acid oxidation is required for active and quiescent brown adipose tissue maintenance and thermogenic programing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hurtado, Elsie; Lee, Jieun; Choi, Joseph; Wolfgang, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To determine the role of fatty acid oxidation on the cellular, molecula