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Sample records for acid lowers plasma

  1. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  3. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

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    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  4. Caffeic acid as active principle from the fruit of Xanthium strumarium to lower plasma glucose in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, F L; Chen, Y C; Cheng, J T

    2000-04-01

    The antihyperglycemic effect of caffeic acid, one of the phenolic compounds contained in the fruit of Xanthium strumarium, was investigated. After an intravenous injection of caffeic acid into diabetic rats of both streptozotocin-induced and insulin-resistant models, a dose-dependent decrease of plasma glucose was observed. However, a similar effect was not produced in normal rats. An insulin-independent action of caffeic acid can thus be considered. Otherwise, this compound reduced the elevation of plasma glucose level in insulin-resistant rats receiving a glucose challenge test. Also, glucose uptake into the isolated adipocytes was raised by caffeic acid in a concentration-dependent manner. Increase of glucose utilization by caffeic acid seems to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

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    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  7. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  8. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  9. Sporadic plasma heating in the lower chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    It is usually assumed that heating of the chromosphere is caused by the precipitation of energetic particles (electrons and protons) accelerated in the solar corona, namely, at flare arc tops. On the other hand, recently obtained observational data show that the chromospheric footpoints of compact magnetic loops are directly heated to ≥106 K, and hot plasma erupted from the footpoints of such loops. The plasma mechanism of the THz emission of flares may also indicate that deep chromospheric layers with densities up to n ≈ 1015 cm-3 can be heated to about 105-106 K. It has been shown that electrons can be accelerated and plasma can be heated in the lower chromosphere when the Rayleigh-Taylor instability develops at magnetic loop chromo-spheric footpoints. This instability results in the penetration of the upper chromospheric plasma into a loop and induces an electric field that effectively accelerates electrons and leads to in situ heating of the chromo-sphere.

  10. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  11. Lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Past ten years progress on Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have demonstrated the largest non-inductive current (3.6 MA, JT-60U), the longest current sustainment (2 hours, TRIAM-1M), non-inductive current drive at the highest density (n-bar{sub e} - 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}, ALCATOR-C) and the highest current drive efficiency ({eta}{sub CD} = 3.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2}A/W, JT-60). These results indicate that LHCD is one of the most promising methods to drive non-inductive current in the present tokamak plasmas. This paper presents recent experimental results on LHCD experiments. Basic theories of LH waves, the wave propagation and the current drive are briefly summarized. The main part of this paper describes several important results and their physical pictures on recent LHCD experiments; 1) the experimental set-up, 2) the current drive efficiency, 3) the control of current profile and MHD activities, 4) the global energy confinement, 5) the global power flow, 6) fast electron behavior, 7) interaction between LH waves and thermal/fast ions, 8) combination with other CD method. (author)

  12. Lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi

    1999-03-01

    Past ten years progress on Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have demonstrated the largest non-inductive current (3.6 MA, JT-60U), the longest current sustainment (2 hours, TRIAM-1M), non-inductive current drive at the highest density (n-bar e - 10 20 m -3 , ALCATOR-C) and the highest current drive efficiency (η CD = 3.5x10 19 m -2 A/W, JT-60). These results indicate that LHCD is one of the most promising methods to drive non-inductive current in the present tokamak plasmas. This paper presents recent experimental results on LHCD experiments. Basic theories of LH waves, the wave propagation and the current drive are briefly summarized. The main part of this paper describes several important results and their physical pictures on recent LHCD experiments; 1) the experimental set-up, 2) the current drive efficiency, 3) the control of current profile and MHD activities, 4) the global energy confinement, 5) the global power flow, 6) fast electron behavior, 7) interaction between LH waves and thermal/fast ions, 8) combination with other CD method. (author)

  13. Fish oil in combination with high or low intakes of linoleic acid lowers plasma triacylglycerols but does not affect other cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Frøkiær, Hanne; Andersen, Anders D.

    2008-01-01

    with a high- or low-LA intake affects overall CVD risk profile. Healthy men (n = 64) were randomized to 5 mL/d fish oil capsules (FO) [mean intake 3.1 g/d (n-3) LCPUFA] or olive oil capsules (control) and to oils and spreads with either a high (S/B) or a low (R/K) LA content, resulting in a 7.3 g/d higher LA......Both (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) and linoleic acid [LA, 18:2(n-6)] improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, but a high-LA intake may weaken the effect of (n-3) LCPUFA. In a controlled, double-blind, 2 x 2-factorial 8-wk intervention, we investigated whether fish oil combined......, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, P-selectin, oxidized LDL, cluster of differentiation antigen 40 ligand (CD40L), adiponectin, or fasting or postprandial BP or HR after adjustment for body weight changes. In conclusion, neither fish oil supplementation nor the LA...

  14. Relationship between the concentrations of plasma phospholipid stearic acid and plasma lipoprotein lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the plasma phospholipid (PL) saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (as a surrogate marker of SFA intake) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in 139 healthy Australian men aged 20-55 years old with widely varying intakes of saturated fat (vegans, n=18; ovolacto vegetarians, n=43; moderate meat eaters, n=60; high meat eaters, n=18). Both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups demonstrated significant decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol concentrations compared with both the high-meat-eater and moderate-meat-eater groups. Total SFA and individual SFA [palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and arachidic acid (20:0)] in the plasma PL were significantly lower in both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups than in both the high- and moderate-meat-eater groups, while myristic acid (14:0) was significantly lower in the vegans than in the high-meat-eaters. Bivariate analysis of the results showed that the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (P<0.0001), with r(2) values of 0.655, 0.518 and 0.43 respectively. In multiple linear regression, after controlling for potential confounding factors (such as exercise, dietary group, age, body mass index, plasma PL myristic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate and fibre intake), the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was still strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P=0.006) concentrations. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for the population to reduce their dietary total SFA intake rather than to replace other SFA with stearic acid.

  15. Wave propagation near the lower hybrid resonance in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, K.; Ohasa, K.; Matsuura, K.

    1975-10-01

    Dielectric tensor and equipotential curves (ray trajectories) of an electrostatic wave near the lower hybrid resonance are investigated for the toroidal plasma with a shear magnetic field. The ray trajectories start from the vicinity of the plasma surface, and rotate in a spiral form around the magnetic axis, and then reach the lower or upper parts of lower hybrid resonance layer. The numerical computations are performed on the parameters of JIPP T-II device with two dimensional inhomogeneity. (auth.)

  16. Energy confinement in JT-60 lower hybrid current driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, K.; Imai, T.; Naito, O.; Ikeda, Y.; Tsuji, S.; Uehara, K.

    1990-01-01

    The energy confinement in high power lower hybrid current driven (LHCD) plasmas has been studied in the JT-60 tokamak. At a plasma current of 1 MA, the diamagnetically estimated energy confinement time in LHCD plasmas has almost the same value as the confinement time in ohmically heated plasmas at n-bar e ∼ 1.0x10 19 m -3 . The confinement time of high power LHCD plasmas (P LH E varies as to P LH α n e β I p 0 with α + β ∼ -0.3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 5 figs

  17. Xylopia Aethiopica lowers Plasma Lipid Precursors of Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xylopia Aethiopica lowers Plasma Lipid Precursors of Reproductive Hormones in Wister Rats. PC Onyebuagu, CP Aloamaka, JC Igweh. Abstract. This study investigated the effects of dietary Xylopia aethiopica on reproductive hormones and plasma lipids in rats. 10 male and 10 female Wistar rats weighing 200-220g and ...

  18. Lowering dietary n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: interaction with brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashmali, Shoug M; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the brain, where they have many biological effects, including on inflammation, cell-signaling, appetite regulation, and blood flow. The Western diet contains a high ratio of n-6: n-3 PUFA. Although interest in lowering this ratio has largely focused on increasing intake of n-3 PUFA, few studies have examined lowering dietary n-6 PUFA. This review will evaluate the effect of lowering dietary n-6 PUFA on levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in animal models and in humans, with a primary focus on the brain. In animal models, lowering dietary ARA or linoleic acid generally lowers levels of brain ARA and raises DHA. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA can also modulate the levels of ARA and DHA metabolizing enzymes, as well as their associated bioactive mediators. Human studies examining changes in plasma fatty acid composition following n-6 PUFA lowering demonstrate no changes in levels of ARA and DHA, though there is evidence of alterations in their respective bioactive mediators. Lowering dietary n-6 PUFA, in animal models, can alter the levels and metabolism of ARA and DHA in the brain, but it remains to be determined whether these changes are clinically meaningful.

  19. On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  20. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

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    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  1. Lower hybrid wave current ramp-up and plasma equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Xueyu

    1996-01-01

    Questions on lower hybrid driven current and plasma equilibrium are studied. With the induced electric field taken into account, a system of self-consistent equations is obtained. This theory has been applied to some moments of the current ramp-up phase for the Tokamak Engineering Test Breeder (TETB) to study the lower hybrid current drive and MHD equilibrium. So, better electron current and safety factor profiles are obtained

  2. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  3. Plasma cytokine expression after lower-limb compression in rats

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    Mauricio Wanderley Moral Sgarbi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Muscle injury due to crushing (muscle compression injury is associated with systemic manifestations known as crush syndrome. A systemic inflammatory reaction may also be triggered by isolated muscle injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma levels of interleukins (IL 1, 6 and 10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, which are markers for possible systemic inflammatory reactions, after isolated muscle injury resulting from lower-limb compression in rats.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1 h of compression of their lower limbs by means of a rubber band. The plasma levels of IL 1, 6 and 10 and TNF-α were measured 1, 2 and 4 h after the rats were released from compression.RESULTS: The plasma levels of IL 10 decreased in relation to those of the other groups, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05. The method used did not detect the presence of IL 1, IL 6 or TNF-α.CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the changes in plasma levels of IL 10 that were found may have been a sign of the presence of circulating interleukins in this model of lower-limb compression in rats.

  4. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  5. Pulsed lower-hybrid wave penetration in reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    Providing lower-hybrid power in short, intense (GW) pulses allows enhanced wave penetration in reactor-grade plasmas. We examine nonlinear absorption, ray propagation, and parametric instability of the intense pulses. We find that simultaneously achieving good penetration while avoiding parametric instabilities is possible, but imposes restrictions on the peak power density, pulse duration, and/or r.f. spot shape. In particular, power launched in narrow strips, elongated along the field direction, is desired

  6. The marker of cobalamin deficiency, plasma methylmalonic acid, correlates to plasma creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Juul, S; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the two diagnostic tests, plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins, and their association with plasma creatinine, age and sex. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of simultaneous laboratory measurements. SETTING: County of Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS......: Records on 1689 patients who had their first plasma methylmalonic acid measurement during 1995 and 1996, and who had a simultaneous measurement of plasma cobalamins. Plasma creatinine values measured within a week of measurements of plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins were available for 1255...... of the patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictors of variation in plasma methylmalonic acid; plasma cobalamins, plasma creatinine, age and sex. RESULTS: Plasma methylmalonic acid was positively correlated with plasma creatinine, even for plasma creatinine within the normal range. These associations remained...

  7. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  8. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Crystallochemical particularities of complexes with lower representatives of dicarboiylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrova, G.I.; Kiosse, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of crystallochemical particularities of nonsubstituted dicarboxylic acids, HOOC-(CHsub(2))sub(n)-COOH, complexes with lower representatives of the given series (n=0.1). Besides published data, the studies on the structures obtained by the authors are included herein. From the structure data of salts and complexes with the lower representatives of dicarboxylic acids and oxyacids (among which there are complexes of rare earths and niobium) one can distinguish the formation of two-and polynuclear chelate complexes. Configuration of molecules of oxalic and malonic (and its derivatives) acids does not depend on the type of the compounds formed. The turn of carboxylic groups with respect to the plane of central carbon atoms in oxalate- and malonate-ions depends on their structural environment. The structures of complexes with malonic acid derivatives are not studied well although they are of great theoretical and practical interest

  10. Low-Dose Creatine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Guanidinoacetate, but Not Plasma Homocysteine, in a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Ilievski, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-10-01

    Creatine synthesis from guanidinoacetate consumes ~50% of s-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-derived methyl groups, accounting for an equivalent proportion of s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and total homocysteine (tHcys) synthesis. Dietary creatine inhibits the synthesis of guanidinoacetate, thereby lowering plasma tHcys in rats. We tested the hypotheses that creatine supplementation lowers plasma guanidinoacetate, increases blood SAM, lowers blood SAH, and lowers plasma tHcys. Bangladeshi adults were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 12 wk: placebo (n = 101), 3 g/d creatine (Cr; n = 101), 400 μg/d folic acid (FA; n = 153), or 3 g/d creatine plus 400 μg/d folic acid (Cr+FA; n = 103). The outcomes of plasma guanidinoacetate and tHcys, as well as whole blood SAM and SAH, were analyzed at baseline and week 12 by HPLC. Treatment effects of creatine supplementation were examined with the use of the group comparisons of Cr vs. placebo and Cr+FA vs. FA. Plasma guanidinoacetate declined by 10.6% (95% CI: 4.9, 15.9) in the Cr group while increasing nonsignificantly in the placebo group (3.7%; 95% CI: -0.8, 8.5) (Pgroup difference = 0.0002). Similarly, plasma guanidinoacetate declined by 9.0% (95% CI: 3.4, 14.2) in the Cr+FA group while increasing in the FA group (7.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 12.2) (Pgroup difference creatine supplementation downregulates endogenous creatine synthesis, this may not on average lower plasma tHcys in humans. However, tHcys did decrease in those participants who experienced a decline in plasma guanidinoacetate while receiving creatine plus folic acid supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Low-Dose Creatine Supplementation Lowers Plasma Guanidinoacetate, but Not Plasma Homocysteine, in a Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Ilievski, Vesna; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Creatine synthesis from guanidinoacetate consumes ∼50% of s-adenosylmethionine (SAM)–derived methyl groups, accounting for an equivalent proportion of s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and total homocysteine (tHcys) synthesis. Dietary creatine inhibits the synthesis of guanidinoacetate, thereby lowering plasma tHcys in rats. Objective: We tested the hypotheses that creatine supplementation lowers plasma guanidinoacetate, increases blood SAM, lowers blood SAH, and lowers plasma tHcys. Methods: Bangladeshi adults were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 treatments for 12 wk: placebo (n = 101), 3 g/d creatine (Cr; n = 101), 400 μg/d folic acid (FA; n = 153), or 3 g/d creatine plus 400 μg/d folic acid (Cr+FA; n = 103). The outcomes of plasma guanidinoacetate and tHcys, as well as whole blood SAM and SAH, were analyzed at baseline and week 12 by HPLC. Treatment effects of creatine supplementation were examined with the use of the group comparisons of Cr vs. placebo and Cr+FA vs. FA. Results: Plasma guanidinoacetate declined by 10.6% (95% CI: 4.9, 15.9) in the Cr group while increasing nonsignificantly in the placebo group (3.7%; 95% CI: −0.8, 8.5) (Pgroup difference = 0.0002). Similarly, plasma guanidinoacetate declined by 9.0% (95% CI: 3.4, 14.2) in the Cr+FA group while increasing in the FA group (7.0%; 95% CI: 2.0, 12.2) (Pgroup difference creatine supplementation downregulates endogenous creatine synthesis, this may not on average lower plasma tHcys in humans. However, tHcys did decrease in those participants who experienced a decline in plasma guanidinoacetate while receiving creatine plus folic acid supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. PMID:26311810

  12. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  13. Homocysteine-lowering effect of 500 ug folic acid every other day versus 250 ug/day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Blom, H.J.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are a risk factor for neural tube defects and vascular diseases. Supplementation with folic acid decreases tHcy. We investigated whether supplementation with 500 ?g folic acid every other day is as effective in lowering tHcy as 250 ?g folic

  14. Physicians' use of plasma methylmalonic acid as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Vestergaard, H; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    with a plasma methylmalonic acid measurement above the reference interval. Information on diagnostic decisions was available for 177 patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and the reactions to the finding of elevated plasma methylmalonic acid. RESULTS: An explicit......OBJECTIVES: To investigate physicians' reasons for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid and their reactions to an increased concentration of plasma methylmalonic acid. DESIGN: Study of medical records. SETTING: Three somatic district hospitals in Denmark. SUBJECTS: Medical records of 198 patients...... reason for requesting plasma methylmalonic acid was stated in 57% of 198 examined medical records, known or suspected anaemia being the most frequent reason. No further action was taken in 109 (62%) of the 177 cases available for follow-up. Amongst the remaining 68 patients, the finding of an increased...

  15. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  16. Postnatal development of plasma amino acids in hyperphagic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadó, M J; Segués, T; Arola, L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of feeding a highly palatable high-energy cafeteria diet on individual amino acid levels in plasma during postnatal development of the rat has been evaluated and compared to chow-fed controls. The cafeteria diet selected by the rats was hypercaloric and hyperlipidic, with practically the same amount of carbohydrate as the control diet, and slightly hyperproteic. In response to cafeteria feeding, significant decreases were observed in plasma serine and cysteine along the period studied. Significant changes with age during the growth period were shown by cafeteria-fed animals, which were not observed in control rats. Citrulline levels were lower on days 10 and 14 in cafeteria pups than in chow pups. Methionine was highest on day 30. Threonine was also higher at days 20 and 30, as was valine but with a nadir at day 10. Lysine showed maximal values on days 14 and 30.

  17. Lower hybrid resonance heating of the JET plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Lallia, P.; Nguyen Trong, K.

    1975-10-01

    A preliminary proposition is presented to apply high power L.H.R. heating to the JET plasma, using a phased weveguide array (the Grill). The frequency is first choosen in order to locate the energy absorption region well within the plasma. The theory of the grill as a launching structure is then used to define the most appropriate Grill parameters compatible with the access available on the JET. Finally, a source and circuit realization capable of launching 10MW to the plasma is proposed [fr

  18. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  19. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  1. Metformin lowers plasma triglycerides by promoting VLDL-triglyceride clearance by brown adipose tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerling, Janine J; Boon, Mariëtte R; van der Zon, Gerard C; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; van den Hoek, Anita M; Lombès, Marc; Princen, Hans M G; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; Guigas, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Metformin is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides its well-characterized antihyperglycemic properties, metformin also lowers plasma VLDL triglyceride (TG). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. We found that metformin markedly lowered plasma total cholesterol and TG levels, an effect mostly due to a decrease in VLDL-TG, whereas HDL was slightly increased. Strikingly, metformin did not affect hepatic VLDL-TG production, VLDL particle composition, and hepatic lipid composition but selectively enhanced clearance of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles into brown adipose tissue (BAT). BAT mass and lipid droplet content were reduced in metformin-treated mice, pointing to increased BAT activation. In addition, both AMP-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1) expression and activity and HSL and mitochondrial content were increased in BAT. Furthermore, therapeutic concentrations of metformin increased AMPK and HSL activities and promoted lipolysis in T37i differentiated brown adipocytes. Collectively, our results identify BAT as an important player in the TG-lowering effect of metformin by enhancing VLDL-TG uptake, intracellular TG lipolysis, and subsequent mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Targeting BAT might therefore be considered as a future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

  2. Filamentation instability of lower hybrid waves in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaw, P.K.

    1976-02-01

    It is shown that a strong lower hybrid wave is modulationally unstable to perturbations propagating along its own wave vector. The instability relies critically on the finite thermal corrections to the lower hybrid dispersion relation

  3. TRIIODOTHYRONINE RAPIDLY LOWERS PLASMA-LIPOPROTEIN (A) IN HYPOTHYROID SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; HOOGENBERG, K; SLUITER, WJ

    Background: Increases in plasma low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo-B) are well known in primary hypothyroidism, but it is uncertain whether thyroid dysfunction is associated with elevated levels of the atherogenic lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)). Methods: The effect of

  4. Collisional effect on lower hybrid waves instability in a dusty plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of particle collisions on lower hybrid modes in a dusty plasma is studied. The dispersion relation derived from fluid theory is numerically solved for plasma parameters relevant to determine the modification in wave propagation due to collisions. This study is relevant to the earth's lower atmosphere, in particular, the ...

  5. Cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in view of bile acid pathway of resveratrol and resveratrol-glucuronides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol (Res) was previously reported to be capable of lowering plasma TC and LDL-C. The mechanism behind Res is not clearly understood, although it is presumed to have an effect on bile acid metabolism in the liver: a significant way in eliminating cholesterol from the body. As one of the major...

  6. Higher intake of fish and fat is associated with lower plasma s-adenosylhomocysteine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Mads Vendelbo; Lauritzen, Lotte; Pedersen, Oluf Borbye

    2017-01-01

    . In addition we assessed whole-blood fatty acid composition and plasma alkylresorcinols. Plasma s-adenosylmethionine (SAM), s-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), homocysteine (Hcy) and vitamin B12 was included as one-carbon metabolism markers. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to explore dietary patterns...

  7. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  8. Curcuminoids Lower Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2  = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates the assoc......Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates...... the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude...

  10. Conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and fast magnetosonic waves at a plasma density cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.O.

    2004-01-01

    Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas

  11. Plasma Ascorbic Acid and Non-Enzymatic Antioxidants Level in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathology of several diseases including cataract. Ascorbic acid functions as the major chain breaking antioxidant vitamin in the aqueous phase. Bilirubin, albumin and uric acid are regarded as natural antioxidants. There are conflicting reports on plasma concentrations of these ...

  12. On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  13. Low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a magnetized dusty plasma has been examined. These modes arise on account of the inequalities of charge and number densities of electrons, ions, and dust particles, and finite Larmor radius effects in a dusty plasma. (author). 14 refs

  14. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  15. Coupling and absorption of lower-hybrid waves in a thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, S.; Tutter, M.

    1975-01-01

    The three important aspects, namely 1) accessibility, 2) matching and 3) absorption of the lower-hybrid waves in a thermonuclear plasma are studied under idealized but physically pertinent conditions within the framework of linearized theory. (orig.) [de

  16. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  17. Poloidal rotation induced by injecting lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yiming; Gao Qingdi; Shi Bingren

    2001-01-01

    The poloidal rotation of the magnetized edge plasma in tokamak driven by the ponderomotive force which is generated by injecting lower hybrid wave (LHW) electric field has been studied. The LHW is launched from a waveguide in the plasma edge, and by Brambilla's grill theory, analytic expressions for the wave electric field in the slab model of an inhomogeneous cold plasma have been derived. It is shown that a strong wave electric field will be generated in the plasma edge by injecting LH wave of the power in MW magnitude, and this electric field will induce a poloidal rotation with a sheared poloidal velocity

  18. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  19. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  20. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  1. Ozone synthesis improves by increasing number density of plasma channels and lower voltage in a nonthermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif Malik, Muhammad; Hughes, David

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in ozone synthesis from air and oxygen by increasing the number density of plasma channels and lower voltage for the same specific input energy (SIE) were explored in a nonthermal plasma based on a sliding discharge. The number of plasma channels and energy per pulse increased in direct proportion to the increase in the effective length of the anode (the high voltage electrode). Decreasing the discharge gap increased the energy per pulse for the same length and allowed the installation of more electrode pairs in the same space. It allowed the increase of the number of plasma channels in the same space to achieve the same SIE at a lower peak voltage with less energy per plasma channel. The ozone concentration gradually increased to ~1500 ppmv (140 to 50 g kWh-1) from air and to ~6000 ppmv (400 to 200 g kWh-1) from oxygen with a gradual increase in the SIE to ~200 J L-1, irrespective of the variations in electrode geometry, applied voltage or flow rate of the feed gas. A gradual increase in SIE beyond 200 J L-1 gradually increased the ozone concentration to a certain maximum value followed by a decline, but the rate of increase and the maximum value was higher for the greater number of plasma channels and lower peak voltage combination. The maximum ozone concentration was ~5000 ppmv (~30 g kWh-1) from air and ~22 000 ppmv (~80 g kWh-1) from oxygen. The results are explained on the basis of characteristics of the plasma and ozone synthesis mechanism.

  2. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  3. Effects of squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on plasma free amino acid concentrations in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Hisamine; Mawatari, Kazunori; Akita, Keiichi; Inaguma, Asami; Watanabe, Satoko; Bajotto, Gustavo; Sato, Juichi

    2009-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine alterations in plasma free amino acid concentrations induced by squat exercise and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation in young, untrained female subjects. In the morning on the exercise session day, participants ingested drinks containing either BCAA (isoleucine:leucine:valine=1:2.3:1.2) or dextrin (placebo) at 0.1 g/kg body weight 15 min before a squat exercise session, which consisted of 7 sets of 20 squats, with 3 min intervals between sets. In the placebo trial, plasma BCAA concentrations were decreased subsequent to exercise, whereas they were significantly increased in the BCAA trial until 2 h after exercise. Marked changes in other free amino acids in response to squat exercise and BCAA supplementation were observed. In particular, plasma concentrations of methionine and aromatic amino acids were temporarily decreased in the BCAA trial, being significantly lower than those in the placebo trial. These results suggest that BCAA intake before exercise affects methionine and aromatic amino acid metabolism.

  4. The nonlinear distortion of propagation cones of lower hybrid wave in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, Heiji; Ogino, Tatsuki.

    1976-12-01

    Nonlinear propagation of externally driven waves in the lower hybrid frequency range in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated. The results of finite temperature, inhomogeneity of the plasma and density depression due to the ponderomotive force are emphasized since these effects are responsible for the propagation characteristics of the waves. The results shows that the waves are localized in a spatial wave packet that propagates into the plasma center along the conical trajectory which makes a small angle with respect to the confining magnetic field. (auth.)

  5. Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves in Classical and Degenerate Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayub, M.; Shah, H.A.; Qureshi, M.N.S.; Salimullah, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dispersion relation for general dust low frequency electrostatic surface waves propagating on an interface between a magnetized dusty plasma region and a vacuum is derived by using specular reflection boundary conditions both in classical and quantum regimes. The frequency limit ω ≪ ω ci ≪ ω ce is considered and the dispersion relation for the Dust-Lower-Hybrid Surface Waves (DLHSW's) is derived for both classical and quantum plasma half-space and analyzed numerically. It is shown that the wave behavior changes as the quantum nature of the problem is considered. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  6. Continuum Lowering and Fermi-Surface Rising in Strongly Coupled and Degenerate Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S. X.

    2017-01-01

    Here, continuum lowering is a well-known and important physics concept that describes the ionization potential depression (IPD) in plasmas caused by thermal-/pressure-induced ionization of outer-shell electrons. The existing IPD models are often used to characterize plasma conditions and to gauge opacity calculations. Recent precision measurements have revealed deficits in our understanding of continuum lowering in dense hot plasmas. However, these investigations have so far been limited to IPD in strongly coupled but nondegenerate plasmas. Here, we report a first-principles study of the K-edge shifting in both strongly coupled and fully degenerate carbon plasmas, with quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) calculations based on the all-electron density-functional theory (DFT). The resulted K-edge shifting versus plasma density, as a probe to the continuum lowering and the Fermi-surface rising, is found to be significantly different from predictions of existing IPD models. In contrast, a simple model of “single atom in box” (SAIB), developed in this work, accurately predicts K-edge locations as what ab-initio calculations provide.

  7. The effect of folic acid supplementation on total plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines 90 days of oral supplementation of a liquid supplement, containing folic acid and vitamin B12, on the plasma homocysteine levels in 20 sedentary adult men, aged 20-60 years. Supplier recommended dosage was administered daily. Blood was drawn pre- and post-test for measuring homocysteine, ...

  8. Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected coronary disease risk factors in Tanzania. ... Conclusion: Our results indicate that, there are significant differences in dietary patterns among the three study areas, and that the intake of fish is inversely associated with selected risk factors for coronary heart ...

  9. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  10. Effect of Uric Acid Lowering on Renin-Angiotensin-System Activation and Ambulatory BP: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Borgi, Lea; Fisher, Naomi; Curhan, Gary; Forman, John

    2017-05-08

    Higher serum uric acid levels, even within the reference range, are strongly associated with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and risk of incident hypertension. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on RAS activity in humans is unknown, although the data that lowering serum uric acid can reduce BP are conflicting. In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from 2011 to 2015, we randomly assigned 149 overweight or obese adults with serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dl to uric acid lowering with either probenecid or allopurinol, or to placebo. The primary endpoints were kidney-specific and systemic RAS activity. Secondary endpoints included mean 24-hour systolic BP, mean awake and asleep BP, and nocturnal dipping. Allopurinol and probenecid markedly lowered serum uric acid after 4 and 8 weeks compared with placebo (mean serum uric acid in allopurinol, probenecid, and placebo at 8 weeks was 2.9, 3.5, and 5.6 mg/dl, respectively). The change in kidney-specific RAS activity, measured as change in the median (interquartile range) renal plasma flow response to captopril (in ml/min per 1.73 m 2 ) from baseline to 8 weeks, was -4 (-25 to 32) in the probenecid group ( P =0.83), -4 (-16 to 9) in the allopurinol group ( P =0.32), and 1 (-21 to 17) in the placebo group ( P =0.96), with no significant treatment effect ( P =0.77). Similarly, plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II levels did not significantly change with treatment. The change in mean (±SD) 24-hour systolic BPs from baseline to 8 weeks was -1.6±10.1 with probenecid ( P =0.43), -0.4±6.1 with allopurinol ( P =0.76), and 0.5±6.0 with placebo ( P =0.65); there was no significant treatment effect ( P =0.58). Adverse events occurred in 9%, 12%, and 2% of those given probenecid, allopurinol, or placebo, respectively. In contrast to animal experiments and observational studies, this randomized, placebo-controlled trial found that uric acid lowering had no effect on kidney

  11. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  12. Conceptual study of lower hybrid frequency heating of the J.E.T. plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonon, G.; Bernard, M.; Brambilla, M.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of this report is to bring up the conclusions of the conceptual study of the J.E.T. plasma heating by lower hybrid waves. While giving an overall view of potential use for lower hybrid heating (LHH) in the J.E.T. plasma, this study deals more specificaly with the following concerns: up-to-date status of LHH theory and experiment; the physics of LHH on J.E.T.: RF requirements and expected results from numerical computations; the J.E.T. LHH coupling structure; the 10 MW RF generator; the associated RF diagnostics; the time schedule and the cost estimates

  13. Role of boundary plasma in lower-hybrid-frequency heating of a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Takumi; Fujii, Tsuneyuki

    1982-01-01

    Boundary plasma of a circular tokamak has been investigated by means of electrostatic probes during lower-hybrid heating. The reflection coefficient is affected by the density gradient in front of the launcher. An effective ion heating is performed in the main plasma region when the boundary electron temperature is relatively high enough to suppress the parametric decay instabilities. The simultaneous injection of neutral beams as well as the lower-hybrid wave brings the suppression of instabilities with increase of the electron temperature coming from the neutral beam heating. (author)

  14. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  15. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  16. Cross effects on electron-cyclotron and lower-hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.; Krivenski, V.; Mazzucato, E.; Ziebell, L.F.

    1986-11-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance current drive in a tokamak plasma in the presence of a lower hybrid tail is investigated using a 2D Fokker-Planck code. For an extraordinary mode at oblique propagation and down-shifted frequency it is shown that the efficiency of electron cyclotron current drive becomes, i) substantially greater than the corresponding efficiency of a Maxwellian plasma at the same bulk temperature, ii) equal or greater than that of the lower hybrid waves, iii) comparable with the efficiency of a Maxwellian plasma at much higher temperature. This enhancement results from a beneficial cross-effect of the two waves on the formation of the current carrying electron tail. (5 fig; 17 refs)

  17. Interaction of plasma cloud with external electric field in lower ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Dimant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the auroral lower-E and upper-D region of the ionosphere, plasma clouds, such as sporadic-E layers and meteor plasma trails, occur daily. Large-scale electric fields, created by the magnetospheric dynamo, will polarize these highly conducting clouds, redistributing the electrostatic potential and generating anisotropic currents both within and around the cloud. Using a simplified model of the cloud and the background ionosphere, we develop the first self-consistent three-dimensional analytical theory of these phenomena. For dense clouds, this theory predicts highly amplified electric fields around the cloud, along with strong currents collected from the ionosphere and circulated through the cloud. This has implications for the generation of plasma instabilities, electron heating, and global MHD modeling of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling via modifications of conductances induced by sporadic-E clouds.

  18. Plasma kinetics of 14C-uric acid in bulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma kinetics of uric acid were followed by 14C labelled uric acid to measure the effects of feed intake upon kinetic parameters. Two bulls (average L W 346±79 kg) were given an intravenous administration of a tracer (8-14C-uric acid, 250μCi/50 ml) by single injection via a jugular catheter. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed as 95 and 60 % of the voluntary intake. Voluntary intakes were 8 kg/d as fed for two bulls. Blood samples, were collected at 0, 0.5,1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24 and 28 h after tracer administration. Fractional rates of clearance from the blood and pool size of compartments in the blood were estimated using plasma 8-14C-counts, following the method proposed by Chen and Franklin. The mean values of fractional rates (K 2,1 , K 1,2 ) and compartments pool size (V 1 , V 2 ) and the total pool size of compartments I and 2 at 60% and 95% feeding level were 1.97 and 1.44, 1.06 and 0.78; 76.9 L and 94.5 L, 137.01 L and 163.51 L; 214.0 L and 250.3 L respectively. Plasma kinetic parameters of 14C-uric acid were not affected at different feed intakes

  19. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Ilse; Voshol, Peter J.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Romijn, Johannes A.; Emeis, Jef J.; Havekes, Louis M.; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem F.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed. Our goal was to

  20. Dietary sphingolipids lower plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol and prevent liver steatosis in APOE*3Leiden mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, I.; Voshol, P.J.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Duyvenvoorde, W. van; Romijn, J.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity resulting from excess energy intake and physical inactivity is increasing. The liver plays a pivotal role in systemic lipid homeostasis. Effective, natural dietary interventions that lower plasma lipids and promote liver health are needed.

  1. Investigation of impurity confinement in lower hybrid wave heated plasma on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Wu, Z. W.; Zhang, L.; Gao, W.; Ye, Y.; Chen, K. Y.; Yuan, Y.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, P. F.; Huang, J.; Wu, C. R.; Morita, S.; Oishi, T.; Zhang, J. Z.; Duan, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Ding, S. Y.; Liu, H. Q.; Chen, J. L.; Hu, L. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Guo, H. Y.; the EAST Team

    2018-01-01

    The transient perturbation method with metallic impurities such as iron (Fe, Z  =  26) and copper (Cu, Z  =  29) induced in plasma-material interaction (PMI) procedure is used to investigate the impurity confinement characters in lower hybrid wave (LHW) heated EAST sawtooth-free plasma. The dependence of metallic impurities confinement time on plasma parameters (e.g. plasma current, toroidal magnetic field, electron density and heating power) are investigated in ohmic and LHW heated plasma. It is shown that LHW heating plays an important role in the reduction of the impurity confinement time in L-mode discharges on EAST. The impurity confinement time scaling is given as 42IP0.32Bt0.2\\overline{n}e0.43Ptotal-0.4~ on EAST, which is close to the observed scaling on Tore Supra and JET. Furthermore, the LHW heated high-enhanced-recycling (HER) H-mode discharges with ~25 kHz edge coherent modes (ECM), which have lower impurity confinement time and higher energy confinement time, provide promising candidates for high performance and steady state operation on EAST.

  2. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-11-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid phosphatases tested from potato, wheat germ, milk, and bovine prostate did not show this degree of specificity. The plasma membrane activity also dephosphorylated phosphotyrosine histone at a much greater rate than did the other acid phosphatases. pH profiles for free O-phosphotyrosine and phosphotyrosine histone showed a shift toward physiological pH, indicating possible physiological significance. Phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation activity was nearly 10 times greater than that seen for phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation, and Km values were much lower for phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (0.5 microM vs. 10 microM). Fluoride and zinc significantly inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation. Vanadate, on the other hand, was a potent inhibitor of phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (50% inhibition at 0.5 microM) but not of phosphoserine histone. ATP stimulated phosphotyrosine histone dephosphorylation (160-250%) but inhibited phosphoserine histone dephosphorylation (95%). These results suggest the existence of a highly specific phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase activity associated with the plasma membrane of human astrocytoma.

  3. Tail anisotropy instability during plasma current rise by lower-hybrid waves in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru.

    1986-01-01

    Tail anisotropy instability during lower-hybrid current rise is investigated. Tail formation by lower-hybrid waves is studied by using a Fokker-Planck equation combined with the return field and the rf associated terms. Quasi-linear relaxation of the electron tail distribution under the influence of the plasma waves excited due to the instability is examined. It is found that the instability condition is related to the strength of the parallel diffusion by lower-hybrid waves and the ratio of the electron cyclotron frequency to the electron plasma frequency. The time scale between the instability spikes and the suppression of the instability by electron cyclotron heating are also discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of fenfluramine on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, E; Stein, D J; Saoud, J B; DeCaria, C M; Cooper, T B; Islam, M N; Liebowitz, M R; Stanley, M

    1992-01-01

    The specificity of fenfluramine as a pharmacological probe of the serotonin system has been questioned, since animal studies with high dose l-fenfluramine show increases in striatal levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid. To test the specificity of fenfluramine in humans with clinical doses, we compared plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentration in healthy volunteers after administration of fenfluramine (60 mg) and placebo. There were no significant effects on pHVA, which supports previous findings that at doses used in pharmacological challenge paradigms, the effect of fenfluramine on the dopamine system is insufficient to alter measures of its change.

  5. Effect of exchange correlation potential on dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave in degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimza, Tripti; Sharma, Prerana

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave are studied in electron-iondegenerate plasma with exchange effect in non-relativistic regime. It is found that the combined effect of Bohm potential and exchange correlation potential significantly modifies the dispersion properties of lower hybrid wave. The graphical results explicitly show the influence of degeneracy pressure, Bohm force and exchange correlation potential on the frequency of the lower hybrid mode. Present work should be of relevance for the dense astrophysical environments like white dwarfs and for laboratory experiments.

  6. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  7. Lowering of phytic acid content by enhancement of phytase and acid phosphatase activities during sunflower germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Silva Agostini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the germination of hybrid sunflowers BRS191 and C11 as a means of lowering phytic acid (PA content by enhancing the activity of endogenous phytase and acid phosphatase. The concentration of PA in hybrid sunflower achenes varied from 2.16 to 2.83g/100g of sample (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a germinação de girassóis híbridos BRS 191 e C11 com finalidade de reduzir o teor de AF e aumentar as atividades de phytases e fosfatases endógenas. A concentração do AF nos aquênios de girassóis híbridos variou de 2,16 a 2,83 g /100g de amostra (p< 0,005. As atividades de fitases e fosfatases de girassóis BRS191 e C11 foram elevadas no 4º e 5º dia de germinação, respectivamente, com liberação do fósforo necessário para o desenvolvimento da semente. Estes resultados indicam que o AF do girassol hibrido reduz e a atividade de phytase aumenta em períodos distintos da germinação, possibilitando assim a aplicação desta enzima no controle do teor de AF em cereais, melhorando o seu valor nutricional.

  8. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  9. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  10. Regional amino acid transport into brain during diabetes: Effect of plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mans, A.M.; DeJoseph, M.R.; Davis, D.W.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Transport of phenylalanine and lysine into the brain was measured in 4-wk streptozotocin-diabetic rats to assess the effect on the neutral and basic amino acid transport systems at the blood-brain barrier. Amino acid concentrations in plasma and brain were also measured. Regional permeability-times-surface area (PS) products and influx were determined using a continuous infusion method and quantitative autoradiography. The PS of phenylalanine was decreased by an average of 40% throughout the entire brain. Influx was depressed by 35%. The PS of lysine was increased by an average of 44%, but the influx was decreased by 27%. Several plasma neutral amino acids (branched chain) were increased, whereas all basic amino acids were decreased. Brain tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine contents were markedly decreased. The transport changes were almost entirely accounted for by the alterations in the concentrations of the plasma amino acids that compete for the neutral and basic amino acid carriers. The reduced influx could be responsible for the low brain content of some essential amino acids, with possibly deleterious consequences for brain functions

  11. Plasma homovanillic acid and prolactin in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markianos, Manolis; Panas, Marios; Kalfakis, Nikos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2009-05-01

    Dopaminergic activity is expected to be altered in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and be related to factors like duration and severity of illness or patients' specific symptomatology like dementia, depression, or psychotic features. We assessed plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma prolactin (pPRL), two correlates of dopaminergic activity, in 116 subjects with CAG repeats expansion in the HD gene, 26 presymptomatic (18 females) and 90 with overt symptomatology (43 females). Patients were evaluated using the Unified HD Rating Scale and the Total Functional Capacity Scale. Presence of dementia, depression, and psychotic features were also assessed. The age range of the patients was 22-83 years, duration of illness from 0.5 to 27 years, and CAG repeat number from 34 to 66. A group of 60 age and sex matched healthy subjects served as control group. Plasma PRL in subjects at risk and in neuroleptic-free patients, evaluated separately for males and females, did not differ from controls. Plasma HVA levels did not differ from controls in the group of presymptomatic subjects, but were significantly higher in the patients group. This increase was positively associated mainly with severity of illness and functional capacity of the patients, and not with presence of depression or dementia. Plasma HVA levels may be proven to be a peripheral index of disease progression. Reducing dopaminergic activity may have not only symptomatic, but also neuroprotective effects in HD.

  12. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: accumulation of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and absence of 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma from patients with peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, H. J.; Schor, D. S.; Kok, R. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.

    1992-01-01

    A stable isotope dilution method was developed for the measurement of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma. In plasma from healthy individuals and from patients with Refsum's disease, 2-hydroxyphytanic acid was found at levels less than 0.2 mumol/l, whereas the acid accumulated in

  13. MTHFR Gene and Serum Folate Interaction on Serum Homocysteine Lowering: Prospect for Precision Folic Acid Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Qin, Xianhui; Yang, Wenbin; Liu, Lishun; Jiang, Chongfei; Zhang, Xianglin; Jiang, Shanqun; Bao, Huihui; Su, Hai; Li, Ping; He, Mingli; Song, Yun; Zhao, Min; Yin, Delu; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianping; Yang, Renqang; Wu, Yanqing; Hong, Kui; Wu, Qinhua; Chen, Yundai; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Tang, Genfu; Wang, Binyan; Cai, Yefeng; Hou, Fan Fan; Huo, Yong; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xiaobin; Cheng, Xiaoshu

    2018-03-01

    This post hoc analysis of the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial) assessed the individual variation in total homocysteine (tHcy)-lowering response after an average 4.5 years of 0.8 mg daily folic acid therapy in Chinese hypertensive adults and evaluated effect modification by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) C677T genotypes and serum folate levels. This analysis included 16 413 participants from the CSPPT, who were randomly assigned to 2 double-blind treatment groups: either 10-mg enalapril+0.8-mg folic acid or 10-mg enalapril, daily and had individual measurements of serum folate and tHcy levels at baseline and exit visits and MTHFR C677T genotypes. Mean baseline tHcy levels were comparable between the 2 treatment groups (14.5±8.5 versus 14.4±8.1 μmol/L; P =0.561). After 4.5 years of treatment, mean tHcy levels were reduced to 12.7±6.1 μmol/L in the enalapril+folic acid group, but almost stayed the same in the enalapril group (14.4±7.9 μmol/L, group difference: 1.61 μmol/L; 11% reduction). More importantly, tHcy lowering varied by MTHFR genotypes and serum folate levels. Compared with CC and CT genotypes, participants with the TT genotype had a more prominent L-shaped curve between tHcy and serum folate levels and required higher folate levels (at least 15 ng/mL) to eliminate the differences in tHcy by genotypes. Compared with CC or CT, tHcy in the TT group manifested a heightened L-shaped curve from low to high folate levels, but this difference in tHcy by genotype was eliminated when plasma folate levels reach ≈15 ng/mL or higher. Our data raised the prospect to tailor folic acid therapy according to individual MTHFR C677T genotype and folate status. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Anion exchange purification of plutonium at lower acidities (Preprint No. CT-6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartha, P.K.S.; Ravi, S.; Achuthan, P.V.; Das, S.K.; Madhusudan, A.; Janardhanan, C.; Rao, K.S.; Ramanujam, A.; Dhumwad, R.K.

    1988-02-01

    During concentration and purification of plutonium by anion exchange, 7.2 M HNO 3 is used as loading acidity for absorbing Pu(IV). In this study, the feasibility of utilizing lower acidities like 5.2 and 6.2 M has been investigated. The results indicate that lower acidities can be used in this step if reduced resin capacities are acceptable. (author)

  15. SGLT2 inhibitor lowers serum uric acid through alteration of uric acid transport activity in renal tubule by increased glycosuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, Yukihiro; Samukawa, Yoshishige; Sakai, Soichi; Nakai, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-01-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been reported to lower the serum uric acid (SUA) level. To elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reduction, SUA and the urinary excretion rate of uric acid (UEUA) were analysed after the oral administration of luseogliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, to healthy subjects. After dosing, SUA decreased, and a negative correlation was observed between the SUA level and the UEUA, suggesting that SUA decreased as a result of the increase in the UEUA. The increase in UEUA was correlated with an increase in urinary d-glucose excretion, but not with the plasma luseogliflozin concentration. Additionally, in vitro transport experiments showed that luseogliflozin had no direct effect on the transporters involved in renal UA reabsorption. To explain that the increase in UEUA is likely due to glycosuria, the study focused on the facilitative glucose transporter 9 isoform 2 (GLUT9ΔN, SLC2A9b), which is expressed at the apical membrane of the kidney tubular cells and transports both UA and d-glucose. It was observed that the efflux of [14C]UA in Xenopus oocytes expressing the GLUT9 isoform 2 was trans-stimulated by 10 mm d-glucose, a high concentration of glucose that existed under SGLT2 inhibition. On the other hand, the uptake of [14C]UA by oocytes was cis-inhibited by 100 mm d-glucose, a concentration assumed to exist in collecting ducts. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that the UEUA could potentially be increased by luseogliflozin-induced glycosuria, with alterations of UA transport activity because of urinary glucose. PMID:25044127

  16. Effect of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Yotsutsuji, T; Kurachi, M; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Saitoh, O

    1998-07-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have been suggested to provide a measure of dopaminergic activity in the central nervous system. The present study investigated the effect of mental stress by the Kraepelin test, a test of continuous arithmetic addition of single-digit figures for 30 min, on pHVA levels in 13 male psychiatrically normal healthy volunteers. Following an overnight fast and restricted physical activity, plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the administration of the Kraepelin test. Plasma HVA levels following the administration of the Kraepelin test were significantly lower than the pretest pHVA levels. The percent change in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pretest pHVA levels. The observed reduction in pHVA levels by mental stress in normal subjects may reflect some aspects of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain.

  17. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S.; Palmquist, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-[ 14 C]palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO 2 were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min -1 ; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO 2 were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased 14 C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO 2 , and percent of CO 2 from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected

  18. Non-linear effects and plasma heating by lower-hybrid waves in the Petula tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, P.; Dupas, L.; Golovato, S.N.; Singh, C.M.; Melin, G.; Grelot, P.; Legardeur, R.; Zymanski, S.

    1979-01-01

    Lower hybrid waves were excited by a two-waveguide 'grill' (nsub(parallel) approximately 1-10, Esub(grill) approximately 3kVcm -1 , Psub(grill) approximately 5kWcm -2 ) at 1.25GHz, 3ms, 600kW. Plasma heating was observed separately as due to non-linear effects alone as well as to a combination of linear and non-linear mechanisms. (author)

  19. Excitation of lower hybrid waves by electron beams in finite geometry plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucri, M.m.; Gagne, R.R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The quasi-static lower hybrid eigenmodes of a plasma column in a cylindrical waveguide are determined, and their linear excitation by a small density electron beam is discussed for the cases of a hot electron beam as well as for a cold electron beam. It is shown that under certain conditions, finite geometry effects introduce important quantitative and qualitative differences with respect to the results obtained in an infinite geometry. (author)

  20. Interactive network analysis of the plasma amino acids profile in a mouse model of hyperglycemia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Mochida, Taiga; Maki, Yukihiro; Shiraki, Yasuko; Mori, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Ando, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Endo, Fumio; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Amino acids are a group of metabolites that are important substrates for protein synthesis, are important as signaling molecules and play central roles as highly connected metabolic hubs, and therefore, there are many reports that describe disease-specific abnormalities in plasma amino acids profile. However, the causes of progression from a healthy control to a manifestation of the plasma amino acid changes remain obscure. Here, we extended the plasma amino acids profile to relationships tha...

  1. Lower uric acid is associated with poor short-term outcome and a higher frequency of posterior arterial involvement in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanxiang; Reynolds, Gavin P; Wang, Wenmin; Wei, Xianwen

    2018-03-06

    Uric acid has neuroprotective properties in experimental and clinical studies of neurodegenerative disease. It is, however, associated with increased risk of stroke, yet, despite some inconsistent findings, increasing evidence suggests it may also be related to improved stroke outcomes. We have determined whether there is an effect of plasma uric acid on the short-term outcome of stroke patients in a general hospital setting using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We also investigated the relationship of uric acid with other clinical correlates. Plasma uric acid was determined in 108 acute ischemic stroke patients and their mRS scores measured. Patients with a poor outcome (mRS > 2) had significantly lower uric acid than those with a better outcome; this remained after correcting for the effect of sex on uric acid concentrations. There was no significant association with other epidemiological factors or with cognitive function determined by Mini-Mental State Examination. An association between uric acid and the cerebral circulation was also found in which lower uric acid occurs with posterior artery involvement. These findings demonstrate in a naturalistic cohort of patients the association of uric acid with short-term disability following ischemic stroke. They also raise the question of whether uric acid may influence the regional brain involvement in stroke.

  2. Xanthohumol lowers body weight and fasting plasma glucose in obese male Zucker fa/fa rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legette, Leecole L; Luna, Arlyn Y Moreno; Reed, Ralph L; Miranda, Cristobal L; Bobe, Gerd; Proteau, Rosita R; Stevens, Jan F

    2013-07-01

    Obesity contributes to increased risk for several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Xanthohumol, a prenylated flavonoid from hops (Humulus lupulus), was tested for efficacy on biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in 4 week old Zucker fa/fa rats, a rodent model of obesity. Rats received daily oral doses of xanthohumol at 0, 1.86, 5.64, and 16.9 mg/kg BW for 6 weeks. All rats were maintained on a high fat (60% kcal) AIN-93G diet for 3 weeks to induce severe obesity followed by a normal AIN-93G (15% kcal fat) diet for the last 3 weeks of the study. Weekly food intake and body weight were recorded. Plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were assessed using commercial assay kits. Plasma and liver tissue levels of XN and its metabolites were determined by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and liver tissue levels of xanthohumol were similar between low and medium dose groups and significantly (peffect on body weight and plasma glucose levels. The highest dose group (n=6) had significantly lower plasma glucose levels compared to the control group (n=6) in male but not female rats. There was also a significant decrease in body weight for male rats in the highest dose group (16.9 mg/kg BW) compared to rats that received no xanthohumol, which was also not seen for female rats. Plasma cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and MCP-1 as well as food intake were not affected by treatment. The findings suggest that xanthohumol has beneficial effects on markers of metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasmas - causes and effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V; Giannone, L.; Bartiromo, R [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Rome (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati

    1994-04-01

    The frequency spectral broadening of lower hybrid (LH) waves injected into tokamak plasmas is extensively analyzed with reference mostly to experimental data from the ASDEX tokamak. The link between the magnitude of the pump spectral width and the degradation of the LH current drive efficiency (up to a factor of 2), pointed out in previous works, is explained. The experimental behaviour of LH power absorption is also well reproduced, even in situations when the access of the launched LH waves to the core plasma should be largely forbidden. Experiments are described that are aimed at determined whether parametric decay instabilities (PDIs) or scattering of LH waves by density fluctuations in the plasma edge are causes of the broadening of the LH pump frequency spectrum. Fluctuations emerge as the largely dominant process, while no signature of PDI processes is observed. Careful measurements of the density fluctuations in the ASDEX scrape-off layer plasma allow the analytical description given by Andrews and Perkins to be assumed as the appropriate model of LH scattering. Indeed, it supplies the correct magnitude for the frequency spectral width of the LH pump, and explains quantitatively, together with a ray tracing code, why the CD efficiency decreases with the broadening of the pump spectrum. It can also account for the observed LH power absorption coefficient. (author). 48 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs.

  4. Heterogeneity in plasma homovanillic Acid levels in schizophreniform disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, N; Harihar, C; Das, P; Andrade, C

    1992-04-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia 'on medication' and 17 cases of schizophrenia 'off medication'. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these results suggest plasticity of the dopaminergic system to neuroleptics.

  5. HETEROGENEITY IN PLASMA HOMOVANILLIC ACID LEVELS IN SCHIZOPHRENIFORM DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, N.; Harihar, C.; Das, P.; Andrade, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were estimated in 20 cases of schizophreniform disorder, 14 cases of schizophrenia ‘on medication’ and 17 cases of schizophrenia ‘off medication’. A bimodal distribution of pHVA was seen in schizophreniform disorder subjects, suggesting heterogenous groups in terms of dopaminergic function. No significant difference in the pHVA values was seen in the 3 groups, nor was there a relationship between the severity of the illness and the pHVA values; these res...

  6. Plasma-surface interactions with ICRF antennas and lower hybrid grills in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.H.; Hutter, T.; Hogan, J.T.; Basiuk, V.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Bremond, S.; Carter, M.D.; Goniche, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Guilhem, D.; Haste, G.R.; Hoffman, D.J.; Litaudon, X.; Nguyen, F.

    1997-01-01

    The edge plasma interactions of the actively cooled radio-frequency heating launchers in Tore Supra ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) antennas and lower-hybrid (LH) grills are studied using infrared video imaging. On the two-strap ICRF antennas, operated in fast-wave electron heating or current drive mode, hot spots with temperatures of 500-900 C are observed by the end of 2 s power pulses of 2 MW per antenna. The steady-state temperature distribution is determined principally by the relative phase of the two antenna straps: dipole (heating) phasing results in significantly less antenna heating than does 90 (current drive) phasing. Transient heat fluxes of 1-20 MW/m 2 are measured on the lateral protection bumpers at ICRF turn-on; these fluxes are primarily a function of plasma and radio frequency (rf) control. The remarkable feature of the lower hybrid edge interaction is the production of beams of heat flux in front of the grills; these beams propagate along the helical magnetic field lines and can deliver fluxes of 5-10 MW/m 2 over areas of several cm 2 to plasma-facing components. Both the ICRF and LH phenomena appear to result from the acceleration of particles by the near fields of the launchers. Modeling of the heat flux deposition on components and its relation to sputtering processes is presented. (orig.)

  7. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  8. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  9. Plasma oxalate levels in prevalent hemodialysis patients and potential implications for ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuguan; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Langman, Craig B; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Berns, Jeffrey S; Handelman, Garry J; Sirover, William D

    2016-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation may increase hemoglobin levels and decrease erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose requirement in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). While plasma AA levels >100μM may be supratherapeutic, levels of at least 30μM may be needed to improve wound healing and levels may need to reach 70μM to optimize erythropoiesis. Of concern, oxalate (Ox), an AA metabolite, can accumulate in ESRD. Historically, if plasma Ox levels remain ≥30μM, oxalosis was of concern. Contemporary hemodialysis (HD) efficiencies may decrease the risk of oxalosis by maintaining pre-HD Ox levels HD patients. A prospective, observational study of 197 HD patients with pre-HD AA levels and pre-HD and post-HD Ox levels. Mean plasma Ox levels decreased 71% during the intradialytic period (22.3±11.1μM to 6.4±3.2μM, PHD plasma AA levels ≤100μM were not associated with a pre-HD plasma Ox level≥30μM, even if ferritin levels were increased. Pre-HD plasma Ox levels ≥20 or ≥30μM were not associated with lower cumulative 4-year survival. Pre-HD plasma AA levels up to 100μM in HD patients do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing secondary oxalosis, as the corresponding pre-HD plasma Ox level appears to be maintained at tolerable levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  11. Lower hybrid current drive at ITER-relevant high plasma densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Marinucci, M.; Panaccione, L.; Pericoli-Ridolfini, V.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Tudisco, O.; Calabro, G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent experiments indicated that a further non-inductive current, besides bootstrap, should be necessary for developing advanced scenario for ITER. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) should provide such tool, but its effectiveness was still not proved in operations with ITER-relevant density of the plasma column periphery. Progress of the LH deposition modelling is presented, performed considering the wave physics of the edge, and different ITER-relevant edge parameters. Operations with relatively high edge electron temperatures are expected to reduce the LH || spectral broadening and, consequently, enabling the LH power to propagate also in high density plasmas ( || is the wavenumber component aligned to the confinement magnetic field). New results of FTU experiments are presented, performed by following the aforementioned modeling: they indicate that, for the first time, the LHCD conditions are established by operating at ITER-relevant high edge densities.

  12. Dust-cyclotron and dust-lower-hybrid modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of two new ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes, namely, dust-cyclotron mode and dust-lower-hybrid mode, propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field, in a self-gravitating magnetized two fluid dusty plasma system. It has been shown that the effect of the self-gravitational force, acting on both dust grains and ions, significantly modifies the dispersion properties of both of these two electrostatic modes. It is also found that under certain conditions, this self-gravitational effect can destabilize these ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  13. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A Plasma Metabolomic Signature of the Exfoliation Syndrome Involves Amino Acids, Acylcarnitines, and Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leruez, Stéphanie; Bresson, Thomas; Chao de la Barca, Juan M; Marill, Alexandre; de Saint Martin, Grégoire; Buisset, Adrien; Muller, Jeanne; Tessier, Lydie; Gadras, Cédric; Verny, Christophe; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Lenaers, Guy; Gohier, Philippe; Bonneau, Dominique; Simard, Gilles; Milea, Dan; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma. We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18). A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0.51) associated with a low risk of over-fitting (permQ2 = -0.48, CV-ANOVA P-value <0.001). The metabolites contributing the most to the signature were octanoyl-carnitine (C8) and decanoyl-carnitine (C10), the branched-chain amino acids (i.e., isoleucine, leucine, and valine), and tyrosine, all of which were at higher concentrations in the XFS group, whereas spermine and spermidine, together with their precursor acetyl-ornithine, were at lower concentrations than in the control group. We identified a significant metabolomic signature in the plasma of individuals with XFS. Paradoxically, this signature, characterized by lower concentrations of the neuroprotective spermine and spermidine polyamines than in controls, partially overlaps the plasma metabolomic profile associated with insulin resistance, despite the absence of evidence of insulin resistance in XFS.

  15. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  16. Plasma current startup by lower hybrid waves in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Ohkubo, K.; Kawahata, K.

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristic behaviours of lower hybrid current startup in JIPP T-IIU. The current startup is carried out by injection of 800 MHz lower hybrid waves into cold and low density plasmas (Te = 10 - 20 eV, n-bar e = 1 - 2 x 10 12 cm -3 ) produced by electron cyclotron resonance or lower hybrid waves only. The plasma current rises up with a characteristic rise time τ r (> approx 30 - 50 ms) and approaches a quasi-steady state value I pm (= 5 - 20 kA), when LHW power of 10 - 50 kW is injected into a torus, controlling the vertical field. The rise time is inversely proportional to the bulk electron density n-bar e , and is comparable to the collision time of current-carrying high energy electrons with bulk plasmas. On the other hand, the current drive efficiency in the quasi-steady state is almost independent of n-bar e , i.e., I pm /P LH = 0.4 - 0.7 A/W for n-bar e = 0.8 - 4 x 10 12 cm -3 . The conversion efficiency of rf energy injected into the torus is typically 5 % during current rise phase, and 10 % at the most efficient case. The effects of the initial injection of ECH power and the observed parametric instabilities on the current startup are investigated from a viewpoint of seed current generation. During rapid current rise when appreciably negative loop voltage is observed the bulk electrons are heated up to 150 eV. Various heating mechanisms responsible for the bulk electron heating are discussed. (author)

  17. Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically active mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S. I.; Rozumenko, V. T.; Tyrnov, O. F.; Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the lower mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency and consequently of the transition of the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the datasets on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude), and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University, Ukraine (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented by [Meek, C.E., Manson, A.H., Martynenko, S.I., Rozumenko, V.T., Tyrnov, O.F. Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. 66, 881-890, 2004. 10.1016/j.jastp.2004.02.002]. The large mesospheric electric fields in the 60-67-km altitude range are experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the 0 < E < 2.5 V/m interval. These data have permitted the resulting differential distributions of relative disturbances in the electron temperature, θ, and the effective electron collision frequency, η, to be determined. The most probable θ and η values are found to be in the 1.4-2.2 interval, and hence the nonstationary state of the lower part of the D region needs to be accounted for in studying processes coupling the electrically active mesosphere and the lower ionospheric plasma.

  18. Intense lower-hybrid wave penetration and current drive in reactor-grade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D; Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M.

    1990-01-01

    Apply lower-hybrid power in short, intense pulses can overcome Landau damping, allowing penetration into the core of reactor-grade plasmas. We present a theoretical description of the absorption and parametric stability of the pulses, and show results of ray-tracing calculations which include the absorption calculation. Consideration of the absorption and potential source availability lead to the consideration of 5--10 GW peak power, 30--100 μs pulses for ITER, and ∼ 2 MW, 20 μs pulses for a proof-of-principle experiment in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

  19. Reduction of the equation for lower hybrid waves in a plasma to a nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karney, C. F. F.

    1977-01-01

    Equations describing the nonlinear propagation of waves in an anisotropic plasma are rarely exactly soluble. However it is often possible to make approximations that reduce the exact equations into a simpler equation. The use of MACSYMA to make such approximations, and so reduce the equation describing lower hybrid waves into the nonlinear Schrodinger equation which is soluble by the inverse scattering method is demonstrated. MACSYMA is used at several stages in the calculation only because there is a natural division between calculations that are easiest done by hand, and those that are easiest done by machine.

  20. Intense lower-hybrid wave penetration and current drive in reactor-grade plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bonoli, P.T.; Porkolab, M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Plasma Fusion Center)

    1990-01-01

    Apply lower-hybrid power in short, intense pulses can overcome Landau damping, allowing penetration into the core of reactor-grade plasmas. We present a theoretical description of the absorption and parametric stability of the pulses, and show results of ray-tracing calculations which include the absorption calculation. Consideration of the absorption and potential source availability lead to the consideration of 5--10 GW peak power, 30--100 {mu}s pulses for ITER, and {approximately} 2 MW, 20 {mu}s pulses for a proof-of-principle experiment in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  1. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  2. Guanidinoacetic acid loading affects plasma γ-aminobutyric acid in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine and an innovative dietary agent, activates γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors yet clinical effects of dietary GAA on GABA metabolism are currently unknown. The main aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether GAA loading affected peripheral GABA homeostasis in healthy humans. Eight healthy male volunteers aged 22-25 years were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (three grams daily) or placebo by oral administration for 3 weeks. At baseline and after 3 weeks participants provided fasting blood samples for free plasma levels of GABA, GAA, creatine and glutamine. Following 3 weeks of intervention, plasma GABA level dropped significantly in participants receiving 3 g of GAA per day as compared to the placebo (P = 0.03). GAA loading significantly decreased plasma GABA by 88.8 nmol/L (95% confidence interval; 5.4-172.1) after 3 weeks of intervention as compared to the baseline (P = 0.03). GAA intervention positively affected both plasma GAA and creatine (P GABA metabolism, and potentially down-regulates GABA synthesis in peripheral tissues. Possible GABAergic action of dietary GAA adds to the safety profile of this novel dietary supplement.

  3. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...... under the curve for insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher during the GLP-1 administration, whereas glucagon levels were unchanged. Neither triglycerides nor free fatty acids were affected. GLP-1 administration decreased hunger and prospective food intake and increased satiety, whereas...

  4. Awake craniotomy induces fewer changes in the plasma amino acid profile than craniotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, Jaap W; Klimek, Markus; van der Heide-Mulder, Marieke; Stronks, Dirk; Vincent, Arnoud J; Klein, Jan; Zijlstra, Freek J; Fekkes, Durk

    2009-04-01

    In this prospective, observational, 2-armed study, we compared the plasma amino acid profiles of patients undergoing awake craniotomy to those undergoing craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups were also compared with a healthy, age-matched and sex-matched reference group not undergoing surgery. It is our intention to investigate whether plasma amino acid levels provide information about physical and emotional stress, as well as pain during awake craniotomy versus craniotomy under general anesthesia. Both experimental groups received preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative dexamethasone. The plasma levels of 20 amino acids were determined preoperative, perioperative, and postoperatively in all groups and were correlated with subjective markers for pain, stress, and anxiety. In both craniotomy groups, preoperative levels of tryptophan and valine were significantly decreased whereas glutamate, alanine, and arginine were significantly increased relative to the reference group. Throughout time, tryptophan levels were significantly lower in the general anesthesia group versus the awake craniotomy group. The general anesthesia group had a significantly higher phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio, which may suggest higher oxidative stress, than the awake group throughout time. Between experimental groups, a significant increase in large neutral amino acids was found postoperatively in awake craniotomy patients, pain was also less and recovery was faster. A significant difference in mean hospitalization time was also found, with awake craniotomy patients leaving after 4.53+/-2.12 days and general anesthesia patients after 6.17+/-1.62 days; P=0.012. This study demonstrates that awake craniotomy is likely to be physically and emotionally less stressful than general anesthesia and that amino acid profiling holds promise for monitoring postoperative pain and recovery.

  5. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Observation of Self-Generated Flows in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower-Hybrid-Driven Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Wallace, G.; Parker, R.; Fiore, C.; Hughes, J. W.; Bonoli, P.; Shiraiwa, S.; Hubbard, A.; Wolfe, S.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Bitter, M.; Wilson, J.; Hill, K.

    2009-01-01

    In Alcator C-Mod discharges lower hybrid waves have been shown to induce a countercurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 60 km/s in the central region of the plasma (r/a∼<0.4). This modification of the toroidal rotation profile develops on a time scale comparable to the current redistribution time (∼100 ms) but longer than the energy and momentum confinement times (∼20 ms). A comparison of the co- and countercurrent injected waves indicates that current drive (as opposed to heating) is responsible for the rotation profile modifications. Furthermore, the changes in central rotation velocity induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are well correlated with changes in normalized internal inductance. The application of LHCD has been shown to generate sheared rotation profiles and a negative increment in the radial electric field profile consistent with a fast electron pinch

  7. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat’s intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower. PMID:29267361

  9. Intestinal tract is an important organ for lowering serum uric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yu; Yin, Hua; Gao, Zhiyi; Li, Yue; Gao, Tao; Duan, Jinlian; Yang, Rong; Dong, Xianxiang; Zhang, Lumei; Duan, Weigang

    2017-01-01

    The kidney was recognized as a dominant organ for uric acid excretion. The main aim of the study demonstrated intestinal tract was an even more important organ for serum uric acid (SUA) lowering. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated normally or with antibiotics, uric acid, adenine, or inosine of the same molar dose orally or intraperitoneally for 5 days. Rat's intestinal tract was equally divided into 20 segments except the cecum. Uric acid in serum and intestinal segment juice was assayed. Total RNA in the initial intestinal tract and at the end ileum was extracted and sequenced. Protein expression of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and urate oxidase (UOX) was tested by Western blot analysis. The effect of oral UOX in lowering SUA was investigated in model rats treated with adenine and an inhibitor of uric oxidase for 5 days. SUA in the normal rats was 20.93±6.98 μg/ml, and total uric acid in the intestinal juice was 308.27±16.37 μg, which is two times more than the total SUA. The uric acid was very low in stomach juice, and attained maximum in the juice of the first segment (duodenum) and then declined all the way till the intestinal end. The level of uric acid in the initial intestinal tissue was very high, where XDH and most of the proteins associated with bicarbonate secretion were up-regulated. In addition, SUA was decreased by oral UOX in model rats. The results suggested that intestinal juice was an important pool for uric acid, and intestinal tract was an important organ for SUA lowering. The uric acid distribution was associated with uric acid synthesis and secretion in the upper intestinal tract, and reclamation in the lower.

  10. The Modification of Cellulosic Surface with Fatty Acids via Plasma Mediated Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    , etc. The cyto-compatiability of the new product was investigated using the cytotoxicity test to identify the cytotoxic potentials of the grafted samples. The highest yield was obtained in the thermal curing (at 140°C, 3 min, and a 20% solution of azide derivative -- 170°C, 3 min, and a 2.5% solution of allylic ketone derivatives) of the iododeoxycellulose fabrics with either linoleic azide or the allylic ketone derivative. Atmospheric plasma machines were used for this study such as NCAPS (dielectric barrier discharge plasma) and APJeT. APJet plasma machine was used in two different modes namely downstream and in-situ. Although, the plasma treatment uses a lower energy to achieve the chemical reactions between the two components, the APJet obtained good results in the in-situ mode (at 800 Watts/cm3 RF power, 45 sec. exposure time) while retaining sufficient tensile strength. In general samples treated with the allylic ketone of linoleic acid treated samples showed higher graft yield than the azide derivative, especially those treated via thermal curing. Moreover, they are more cytologically compatible than the plasma treated samples. In the course of producing a wound healing product that contains or releases fatty acids, allylic beta-CD was synthesized for first time as a textile finishing agent. Per(2, 3, 6- tri-O-allyl)-beta-CD was synthesized and characterized using spectral analysis. Cellulosic derivatives were treated with per(2, 3, 6- tri-O-allyl)-beta-CD via either pad-thermofixation technique or plasma treatment. Thermal treatment showed superior efficiency over plasma techniques to activate the vinyl groups and creating a self-assembled CD network chemically bonded with the cellulose derivatives (at 180°C, 3 min, and a 20 % solution of Per(2, 3, 6- tri- O-allyl)-beta-CD). APJeT machine (in-situ mode) succeeded only to activate cellulose/ allylic CD reaction, but however, it could not offer enough energy to stimulate vinyl-vinyl reactions. Oleic acid with

  11. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  12. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  13. Effect of Maillard browning reaction on protein utilization and plasma amino acid response by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, S M; Lee, T C; Wolke, R E; Meade, T L

    1985-12-01

    The effect of the Maillard browning reaction in the diet of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) on growth and amino acid availability was investigated. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis methods were applied for the detection of the losses of amino acids in a model protein browning system. Arginine and lysine exhibited the greatest losses in the mixture of fish protein isolate and glucose stored for 40 d at 37 degrees C. The apparent digestibility and absorption of individual amino acids, particularly lysine, was lower in trout fed browned protein than in those fed the control protein. Plasma lysine levels were significantly depressed, while the plasma levels of glucose and most other amino acids were elevated in relation to the loss in nutritive value of dietary protein after browning. The early Maillard reaction derivative of lysine, epsilon-deoxy-fructosyl-lysine, was recovered from browned protein (by using the in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis procedure) and from the plasma of trout fed browned protein. Analysis of plasma free amino acids provided an indication of lysine bioavailability and identified lysine as the first-limiting amino acid in the diets containing browned protein.

  14. Energy and momentum deposition to plasmas due to the lower hybrid wave by a finite source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Abe, Hirotada; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1981-10-01

    Heating and current generation due to the lower hybrid wave are studied using the particle simulation. In contrast with previous work, where only the single mode is treated, main interests of this work are focused on the physical problems on a propagation cone consisting of many Fourier-expanded modes. It is found that the trajectory of the propagation cone is well described up to the lower hybrid resonance layer using both cold plasma approximation and the WKB method. An ion cross-field drift due to the ponderomotive force is observed. It is a main discovery that the modes in the higher side of the spectrum of the antenna play a key role for creation of the ion high energy tail. This process cannot be explained by the linear theory and is called the cascade process judging from the time variation of the damping of each mode. The particle model is significantly improved using the elongated grid and the quadric spatial interpolation. Many applications of this model to the simulations on other problems are expected to be very fruitful in the research of the plasma physics and nuclear fusion. (author)

  15. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  16. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  17. Plasma-surface interactions with ICRF antennas and lower hybrid grills in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutter, T. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Hogan, J.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    The edge plasma interactions of the actively cooled radio-frequency heating launchers in Tore Supra- ion-cyclotron range-of-frequencies (ICRF) antennas and lower-hybrid (LH) grills-are studied using infrared video imaging. On the two-strap ICRF antennas, operated in fast-wave electron heating or current drive mode, hot spots with temperatures of 500-900{degrees} C are observed by the end of 2-s power pulses of 2 MW per antenna. The distribution and maximum values of temperature are determined principally by the relative phase of the two antenna straps: dipole (heating) phasing results in significantly less antenna heating than does 90` (current drive) phasing. Transient heat fluxes of 1-20 MW/m{sup 2} are measured on the lateral protection bumpers at ICRF turn-on; these fluxes are primarily a function of plasma and radio frequency (rf) control, and are not simply correlated with the strap phasing or the final surface temperature distributions. The remarkable feature of the lower hybrid edge interaction is the production of beams of heat flux in front of the grills; these beams propagate along the helical magnetic field lines and can deliver fluxes of 5-10 MW/m{sup 2} over areas of several cm{sup 2} to plasma-facing components such as the grill or antenna lateral bumpers. Both the ICRF and LH phenomena appear to result from the acceleration of particles by the near fields of the launchers. Modeling of the heat flux deposition on components and its relation to sputtering processes is presented, and possibilities for controlling these interactions are discussed.

  18. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise B.; Hellgren, Lars; Raff, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations......, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human...... or high content of chlorophyll. RESULTS: There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730) concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24%) compared to phytanic acid group (15...

  19. Glycated albumin is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tetsuhiro; Otsuki, Michio; Tamada, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Yukiko; Mukai, Kosuke; Morita, Shinya; Kasayama, Soji; Shimomura, Iichiro; Koga, Masafumi

    2013-09-23

    Glycated albumin (GA) is an indicator of glycemic control, which has some specific characters in comparison with HbA1c. Since glucocorticoids (GC) promote protein catabolism including serum albumin, GC excess state would influence GA levels. We therefore investigated GA levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We studied 16 patients with Cushing's syndrome (8 patients had diabetes mellitus and the remaining 8 patients were non-diabetic). Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 32 non-diabetic subjects matched for age, sex and BMI were used as controls. In the patients with Cushing's syndrome, GA was significantly correlated with HbA1c, but the regression line shifted downwards as compared with the controls. The GA/HbA1c ratio in the patients with Cushing's syndrome was also significantly lower than the controls. HbA1c in the non-diabetic patients with Cushing's syndrome was not different from the non-diabetic controls, whereas GA was significantly lower. In 7 patients with Cushing's syndrome who performed self-monitoring of blood glucose, the measured HbA1c was matched with HbA1c estimated from mean blood glucose, whereas the measured GA was significantly lower than the estimated GA. We clarified that GA is set lower in relation to plasma glucose levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-07-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after oral methionine challenge (100 mg/kg). We also studied the relationship of their plasma folic acid with the decline of fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine after 7 days of folic acid supplementation (5 mg/day). The three approaches suggested a cutoff value of 10 nmol/L. The chances of individuals to significantly (P ine after folic acid supplementation proved significantly higher at plasma folic acid concentrations < or = 10 nmol/L, as compared with folic acid concentrations above this value (odds ratio, 5.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-13.73). We suggest adopting a 10 nmo/L plasma folic acid cutoff value on functional grounds.

  1. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  2. Sodium phenylbutyrate decreases plasma branched-chain amino acids in patients with urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Lindsay C; Jain, Mahim; Gandolfo, Laura; Lee, Brendan H; Nagamani, Sandesh C S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPBA) is a commonly used medication for the treatment of patients with urea cycle disorders (UCDs). Previous reports involving small numbers of patients with UCDs have shown that NaPBA treatment can result in lower plasma levels of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) but this has not been studied systematically. From a large cohort of patients (n=553) with UCDs enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Urea Cycle Disorders, a collaborative multicenter study of the Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium, we evaluated whether treatment with NaPBA leads to a decrease in plasma BCAA levels. Our analysis shows that NaPBA use independently affects the plasma BCAA levels even after accounting for multiple confounding covariates. Moreover, NaPBA use increases the risk for BCAA deficiency. This effect of NaPBA seems specific to plasma BCAA levels, as levels of other essential amino acids are not altered by its use. Our study, in an unselected population of UCD subjects, is the largest to analyze the effects of NaPBA on BCAA metabolism and potentially has significant clinical implications. Our results indicate that plasma BCAA levels should to be monitored in patients treated with NaPBA since patients taking the medication are at increased risk for BCAA deficiency. On a broader scale, these findings could open avenues to explore NaPBA as a therapy in maple syrup urine disease and other common complex disorders with dysregulation of BCAA metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  4. Plasma homovanillic acid in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Kurachi, M; Kurokawa, K; Yotsutsuji, T; Uehara, T; Itoh, H; Saitoh, O

    2000-03-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have been used as a peripheral measure of central dopaminergic activity. Despite a large body of studies investigating pHVA in schizophrenia, little is known about pHVA in patients in the prodromal phase of the illness. Plasma HVA levels of 12 male outpatients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for the prodromal phase of schizophrenia at the time of blood sampling (who later developed psychotic symptoms) were compared with those of 12 normal male healthy volunteers. Task amounts in the Kraepelin arithmetic test at the time of blood sampling were compared between the prodromal patients and normal controls and were correlated with pHVA levels. The prodromal patients had significantly higher pHVA levels compared with normal control subjects. The mean amount of the arithmetic task for the prodromal patients was significantly less than that for controls. In the patient group, a significant negative correlation was observed between pHVA levels and the task amounts. Data from the present study indicate the presence of dopaminergic dysfunction in the prodromal stage of schizophrenia that is associated with neuropsychological impairment. Increased pHVA levels in the prodromal patients may have implications for early detection of schizophrenia.

  5. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Takayuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Matsuki, Takahiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Inada, Kenichi [First Department of Pathology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi (Japan); Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Akimoto, Shigeru [Department of Microbiology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan); Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro [Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo (Japan); Ichinose, Masao, E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama-city, Wakayama 641-0012 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  6. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Takayuki; Matsuki, Takahiro; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Inada, Kenichi; Magari, Hirohito; Inoue, Izumi; Maekita, Takao; Ueda, Kazuki; Enomoto, Shotaro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Akimoto, Shigeru; Nomoto, Koji; Tanaka, Ryuichiro; Ichinose, Masao

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the alterations in lower intestinal microflora induced by gastric acid reduction, the dynamics of 12 major genera or groups of bacteria comprising the microflora in feces and colonic contents were examined by quantitative real-time PCR in proton pump inhibitor-treated rats and in asymptomatic human subjects with hypochlorhydria. In both rat and human experiments, most genera or groups of intestinal microflora (facultative and obligate anaerobes) proliferated by gastric acid reduction, and marked and significant increases in the Lactobacilli group and Veillonella, oropharyngeal bacteria, were observed. In rats, potent gastric acid inhibition led to a marked and significant increase of intestinal bacteria, including the Bacteroidesfragilis group, while Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial species, remained at a constant level. These results strongly indicate that the gastric acid barrier not only controls the colonization and growth of oropharyngeal bacteria, but also regulates the population and composition of lower intestinal microflora.

  7. Plasma free amino acid kinetics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a bolus injection of 15N-labeled amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jacob William; Yanke, Dan; Mirza, Jeff; Ballantyne, James Stuart

    2011-02-01

    To gain insight into the metabolic design of the amino acid carrier systems in fish, we injected a bolus of (15)N amino acids into the dorsal aorta in mature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The plasma kinetic parameters including concentration, pool size, rate of disappearance (R(d)), half-life and turnover rate were determined for 15 amino acids. When corrected for metabolic rate, the R(d) values obtained for trout for most amino acids were largely comparable to human values, with the exception of glutamine (which was lower) and threonine (which was higher). R(d) values ranged from 0.9 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (lysine) to 22.1 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1) (threonine) with most values falling between 2 and 6 μmol 100 g(-1) h(-1). There was a significant correlation between R(d) and the molar proportion of amino acids in rainbow trout whole body protein hydrolysate. Other kinetic parameters did not correlate significantly with whole body amino acid composition. This indicates that an important design feature of the plasma-free amino acids system involves proportional delivery of amino acids to tissues for protein synthesis.

  8. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  9. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Mariarita; Noce, Annalisa; Bertucci, Pierfrancesco; Noce, Gianluca; Rizza, Stefano; De Stefano, Alessandro; Manca di Villahermosa, Simone; Bernardini, Sergio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2014-03-21

    Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from "Tor Vergata" University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector.The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p HD patients (p HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient.

  10. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  11. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Chin Hua

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

  12. Evidence connecting old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Martin L; Brønden, Andreas; Sonne, David P

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are amphipathic water-soluble steroid-based molecules best known for their important lipid-solubilizing role in the assimilation of fat. Recently, bile acids have emerged as metabolic integrators with glucose-lowering potential. Among a variety of gluco-metabolic effects, bile acids have...... current evidence connecting established glucose-lowering drugs to bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion and discusses whether bile acid-induced GLP-1 secretion may constitute a new basis for understanding how metformin, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile acids transporter, and bile acid...... sequestrants - old, new and neglected glucose-lowering drugs - improve glucose metabolism....

  13. Elevated prostaglandin E metabolites and abnormal plasma fatty acids at baseline in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael Glenn; Thomsen, Kelly; Brown, Rebekah F; Laposata, Michael; Seegmiller, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels. Patients with CF age 6-18 years with pancreatic insufficiency were recruited. Each participant completed 3 four-week study periods: DHA at two different doses (high dose and low dose) and placebo with a minimum 4 week wash-out between each period. Blood, urine, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were collected at baseline and after each study period for measurement of plasma fatty acids as well as prostaglandin E metabolites. Seventeen participants were enrolled, and 12 participants completed all 3 study periods. Overall, DHA supplementation was well tolerated without significant adverse events. There was a significant increase in plasma DHA levels with supplementation, but no significant change in arachidonic acid (AA) or LA levels. However, at baseline, AA levels were lower and LA levels were higher than previously reported for individuals with CF. Urine PGE-M levels were elevated in the majority of participants at baseline, and while levels decreased with DHA supplementation, they also decreased with placebo. Urine PGE-M levels are elevated at baseline in this cohort of pediatric CF patients, but there was no significant change in these levels with DHA supplementation compared to placebo. In addition, baseline plasma fatty acid levels for this cohort showed some difference to prior reports, including higher levels of LA and lower levels of AA, which may reflect changes in clinical care, and consequently warrants further

  14. A Novel Technique of Supra Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Hyaluronic Acid Injection for Lower Face Lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Sahawatwong, Sinijchaya; Sirithanabadeekul, Punyaphat; Patanajareet, Vasiyapha; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various methods attempting to correct sagging of the lower face focus mainly on manipulation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Each technique has its own limitation. The authors propose a relatively simple, conservative method utilizing hyaluronic acid injection just above the superficial musculoaponeurotic System. Objective: To address a novel hyaluronic injection technique to lift the lower face. Methods: Details of the injection techniques are described. The Positio...

  15. Free Amino Acids in the Blood Plasma of Pigs during Total Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperlovic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Stosic, D. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    From the nutritional point of view it is interesting to establish whether the level of free amino acids in the blood plasma can be used as an indicator of protein anabolism and catabolism. Investigations to date have given no answer to this question. It is known that numerous exogenous and endogenous factors affect protein metabolism. These effects also vary with the level of protein intake and make the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative composition of the free amino acids pool and the total protein metabolism even more complicated. To reduce some of these factors, these investigations were done under the conditions of complete exclusion of exogenous nutrition. Piglets, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to total starvation in the course of 28 d. During this period, the body weight, serum protein content, plasma amino acid concentration and plasma urea concentration were followed. During the whole experimental period the body weight decreased, rapidly at the beginning and more slowly towards the end. The mean total body weight loss was 44.6 % of the first day's weight. The serum protein content increased slightly at the beginning of starvation and then, towards the end of the experiment, decreased, reaching a value that was only a little lower than the protein content determined before the onset of starvation. Changes of the quantitative composition.of the free amino acid pool did not follow the changes of the serum protein content. At the beginning of starvation, concentrations of a great number of amino acids increased in accordance with some earlier results. After long periods of starvation, however, differences between individual amino acids become more clear. Concentrations of some amino acids, e.g. lysine, increased continually during the whole period, while concentrations of most of the other amino acids remained for some time at high levels and only in the last week of starvation decreased to the values similar to those observed at the

  16. Visualization of phosphatidic acid fluctuations in the plasma membrane of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P Ferraz-Nogueira

    Full Text Available We developed genetically-encoded fluorescent sensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer to monitor phosphatidic acid (PA fluctuations in the plasma membrane using Spo20 as PA-binding motif. Basal PA levels and phospholipase D activity varied in different cell types. In addition, stimuli that activate PA phosphatases, leading to lower PA levels, increased lamellipodia and filopodia formation. Lower PA levels were observed in the leading edge than in the trailing edge of migrating HeLa cells. In MSC80 and OLN93 cells, which are stable cell lines derived from Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, respectively, a higher ratio of diacylglycerol to PA levels was demonstrated in the membrane processes involved in myelination, compared to the cell body. We propose that the PA sensors reported here are valuable tools to unveil the role of PA in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways.

  17. Lower hybrid resonance plasma heating in the LISA machine. Aquecimento do plasma na ressonancia hibrida inferior na maquina LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J C.X. da; Cunha Rapozo, C da [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1988-10-01

    Plasma of helium was obtained using microwave source of f[sub RF] = 2.45 GHz and P[sub RF] = 800 W. Temperature and electron density were investigated for plasma excited by radiofrequency of f = 30 MHz and P[sub RF] = 0.1 kw. (M.C.K.).

  18. Efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göke, R; Eschenbach, P; Dütting, E D

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG) as single-pill combinations (SPCs) with metformin. The randomized crossover, open-label, active-controlled study design assessed the FPG-lowering abilities of a vildagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC compared with a sitagliptin/metformin (50/1000 mg twice daily) SPC after 2 weeks of treatment in 99 type 2 diabetes patients uncontrolled by stable metformin therapy (1000-2000 mg/day). The change in FPG from baseline to day 14 was significantly greater (P vildagliptin [-21.9 mg/dL (SD 27.0)] than with sitagliptin [-14.5 mg/dL (SD 23.0)]. After 14 days of treatment, the mean FPG was 137.8 mg/dL (SD 28.5) with vildagliptin and 140.1mg/dL (SD 26.5) with sitagliptin (P vildagliptin produced a significantly greater reduction in FPG vs baseline compared with sitagliptin, which may translate into clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical mechanism of parametric instabilities near the lower-hybrid frequency in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1974-10-01

    The dispersion relation for parametric instabilities near the lower-hybrid frequency is obtained from model fluid equations. The following instabilities are discussed: for rf pump frequencies ω 0 greater than or equal to 3ω/sub LH/, ω/sub pe/ approximately equal to Ω/sub e/, resonant decay into ion sound (ion cyclotron) modes (previously predicted) is found. In the regime of 1 less than or equal to ω 0 /ω/sub LH/ less than or equal to 3, ω/sub pe/ approximately equal to Ω/sub e/, decay into ion quasi-modes is found. In strong magnetic fields decay into quasi-modes is also found for 3 less than or equal to ω 0 /ω/sub LH/. This mechanism is similar to nonlinear Landau damping in weak turbulence theory. In addition, decay into the purely growing mode and fluid-quasi modes may also occur. The results are compared with recent calculations from the Vlasov equation. The effects of plasma-inhomogeneities are considered, including effective thresholds due to density gradients and finite pump extent. The implications of these results to rf heating of tokamaks near the lower-hybrid frequency are discussed. (auth)

  20. Glucose-lowering effects and mechanisms of the bile acid-sequestering resin sevelamer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønden, Andreas; Mikkelsen, Kristian; Sonne, David P

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Sevelamer, a non-absorbable amine-based resin used for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, has been demonstrated to hold a marked bile acid-binding potential alongside beneficial effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate the glucose-lowering effect and me...

  1. Tranexamic Acid for Lower GI Hemorrhage: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen R; Murray, David; Pockney, Peter G; Bendinelli, Cino; Draganic, Brian D; Carroll, Rosemary

    2018-01-01

    Lower GI hemorrhage is a common source of morbidity and mortality. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic that has been shown to reduce blood loss in a variety of clinical conditions. Information regarding the use of tranexamic acid in treating lower GI hemorrhage is lacking. The aim of this trial was to determine the clinical efficacy of tranexamic acid when used for lower GI hemorrhage. This was a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral university hospital in Australia. Consecutive patients aged >18 years with lower GI hemorrhage requiring hospital admission from November 2011 to January 2014 were screened for trial eligibility (N = 265). A total of 100 patients were recruited after exclusions and were randomly assigned 1:1 to either tranexamic acid or placebo. The primary outcome was blood loss as determined by reduction in hemoglobin levels. The secondary outcomes were transfusion rates, transfusion volume, intervention rates for bleeding, length of hospital stay, readmission, and complication rates. There was no difference between groups with respect to hemoglobin drop (11 g/L of tranexamic acid vs 13 g/L of placebo; p = 0.9445). There was no difference with respect to transfusion rates (14/49 tranexamic acid vs 16/47 placebo; p = 0.661), mean transfusion volume (1.27 vs 1.93 units; p = 0.355), intervention rates (7/49 vs 13/47; p = 0.134), length of hospital stay (4.67 vs 4.74 d; p = 0.934), readmission, or complication rates. No complications occurred as a direct result of tranexamic acid use. A larger multicenter trial may be required to determine whether there are more subtle advantages with tranexamic acid use in some of the secondary outcomes. Tranexamic acid does not appear to decrease blood loss or improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with lower GI hemorrhage in the context of this trial. see Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A453.

  2. Plasma debrisoquin levels in the assessment of reduction of plasma homovanillic acid. The debrisoquin method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Jatlow, P I; Anderson, G M; Cho, S C; Hardin, M T; Cohen, D J; Leckman, J F

    1989-06-01

    Plasma concentrations of unconjugated homovanillic acid (pHVA) reflect both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral dopamine metabolism. Debrisoquin sulfate (DBQ) blocks peripheral, but not CNS, production of HVA from dopamine. Administration of DBQ has been used to decrease the proportion of peripherally produced HVA in pHVA measurements, making such measurements more reflective of CNS turnover of dopamine. We studied the relationships between DBQ dose, plasma DBQ (pDBQ) levels, and changes in pHVA in a group of 21 subjects (9 normal controls and 12 with Tourette's syndrome). DBQ dose was moderately correlated with pDBQ levels (r = 0.63, p = 0.002). Subjects (n = 8) with mean pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml had a 48% to 66% decrease in mean pHVA levels; this may reflect nearly complete inhibition of peripheral HVA production. Subjects (n = 13) with mean pDBQ levels below 55 ng/ml had decreases in pHVA levels from 10% to 58%. No debrisoquin was detected in cerebrospinal fluid samples. These data suggest that pDBQ levels above 60 ng/ml are sufficient to assure substantial inhibition of peripheral HVA production and that monitoring pDBQ levels may be useful when employing this method for studying CNS metabolism.

  3. Generation of runaway electrons during deterioration of lower hybrid power coupling in lower hybrid current drive plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Ju, H J; Zhu, J X; Li, M; Cai, W D; Liang, H F; Wan, B N; Shi, Y J; Xu, H D

    2009-01-01

    Efficient coupling of lower hybrid (LH) power from the wave launcher to the plasma is a very important issue in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments. The large unbalanced reflections in the grill trigger the LH protection system, which will trip the power, resulting in the reduction of the coupled LH power. The generation of runaway electrons has been investigated in LHCD plasmas with deterioration of LH coupling in the HT-7 tokamak. The deterioration of LH coupling results in an increase of the loop voltage and a more energetic fast electron population. These two effects favor the generation of a runaway population. It is found that most of the fast electrons generated by LH waves through parallel electron Landau damping were converted into a runaway population through the acceleration from the toroidal electric field when significant deterioration of LH coupling occurs.

  4. Mediation of Endogenous β-Endorphin by Tetrandrine to Lower Plasma Glucose in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hao Hsu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of β-endorphin in the plasma glucose-lowering action of tetrandrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats was investigated. The plasma glucose concentration was assessed by the glucose oxidase method. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the plasma level of β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER. The mRNA levels of glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT4 in soleus muscle and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats were detected by Northern blotting analysis. The expressed protein of GLUT4 or PEPCK was characterized by Western blotting analysis. Tetrandrine dose-dependently increased plasma BER in a manner parallel to the decrease of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats. Moreover, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of tetrandrine was inhibited by naloxone and naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid μ-receptors. Further, tetrandrine failed to produce plasma glucose-lowering action in opioid μ-receptor knockout diabetic mice. Bilateral adrenalectomy eliminated the plasma glucose-lowering effect and plasma BER-elevating effect of tetrandrine in STZ-diabetic rats. Both effects were abolished by treatment with hexamethonium or pentolinium at doses sufficient to block nicotinic receptors. Tetrandrine enhanced BER release directly from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-diabetic rats and this action was abolished by the blockade of nicotinic receptors. Repeated intravenous administration of tetrandrine (1.0 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 3 days resulted in an increase in the mRNA and protein levels of the GLUT4 in soleus muscle, in addition to the lowering of plasma glucose. Similar treatment with tetrandrine reversed the elevated mRNA and protein levels of PEPCK in the liver of STZ-diabetic rats. The obtained results suggest that tetrandrine may induce the activation of nicotinic receptors in adrenal medulla to enhance the secretion of

  5. Associations between plasma branched-chain amino acids, β-aminoisobutyric acid and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietman, Annemarie; Stanley, Takara L; Clish, Clary; Mootha, Vamsi; Mensink, Marco; Grinspoon, Steven K; Makimura, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are elevated in obesity and associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. β-Aminoisobutyric acid (B-AIBA), a recently identified small molecule metabolite, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of BCAA and B-AIBA with each other and with detailed body composition parameters, including abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A cross-sectional study was carried out with lean (n 15) and obese (n 33) men and women. Detailed metabolic evaluations, including measures of body composition, insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolomics were completed. Plasma BCAA were higher (1·6 (se 0·08) (×10(7)) v. 1·3 (se 0·06) (×10(7)) arbitrary units; P = 0·005) in obese v. lean subjects. BCAA were positively associated with VAT (R 0·49; P = 0·0006) and trended to an association with SAT (R 0·29; P = 0·052). The association between BCAA and VAT, but not SAT, remained significant after controlling for age, sex and race on multivariate modelling (P BCAA were also associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index: R -0·50, P = 0·0004; glucose AUC: R 0·53, P BCAA were not associated with B-AIBA (R -0·04; P = 0·79). B-AIBA was negatively associated with SAT (R -0·37; P = 0·01) but only trended to an association with VAT (R 0·27; P = 0·07). However, neither relationship remained significant after multivariate modelling (P > 0·05). Plasma B-AIBA was associated with parameters of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index R 0·36, P = 0·01; glucose AUC: R -0·30, P = 0·04). Plasma BCAA levels were positively correlated with VAT and markers of insulin resistance. The results suggest a possible complex role of adipose tissue in BCAA homeostasis and insulin resistance.

  6. Plasma homovanillic acid in adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramón; Martínez-Mallen, Esteve; Baeza, Immaculada; Fernández, Lorena; Lázaro, Luisa; Toro, Josep; Vila, Montserrat; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-12-30

    Dopaminergic abnormalities in bulimia nervosa have been reported in some studies, but results are not consistent across studies. In the present study, clinical characteristics, plasma level of homovanillic acid (pHVA) and two scales - the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) - were assessed in 36 adolescent bulimia nervosa patients (mean age16.3 years, S.D. 1.1) who were consecutively seen on an Eating Disorder Unit. Levels of pHVA were also measured in 16 healthy control adolescents from the general population. Patients had significantly higher mean pHVA than controls. Eighteen patients (50%) had a pHVA level equal to or higher than the mean of control subjects plus one standard deviation, and this group of patients had significantly higher mean BDI scores and non-significantly higher mean EAT scores, although they did not differ from the other patients in age, time elapsed since the onset of disorder, body mass index and number of binges or vomits. Moreover, in logistic regression analysis the BDI score proved to be an independent predictor of high pHVA. The level of pHVA is increased in bulimia nervosa patients with high scores on measures of depressive and eating symptomatology.

  7. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  8. Consequences of ponderomotive effects at the plasma periphery on the electrical behaviour of a multijunction grill lower hybrid launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtak, O.; Klima, R.; Petrzilka, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    A radiofrequency power-plasma coupling code which takes into account ponderomotive effects at the plasma periphery is developed for a multijunction grill. At a frequency of 4.6 GHz, if the RF power density increases, the power reflection coefficient remains fairly low, while the distribution of power among subsidiary waveguides deteriorates. At lower frequencies, the danger of overloading individual waveguides is expected to be still greater. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 14 refs, 4 figs

  9. Some amino acids levels: glutamine,glutamate, and homocysteine, in plasma of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Essam, Rascha G; Elghoroury, Eman A; El-Saeed, Gamila S M; El-Toukhy, Safinaz E; Ibrahim, Mona Hamed

    2014-03-01

    The high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition is a critical issue for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid (AA) profile. Of these, the plasma levels of glutamine, glutamate and homocysteine, correlate well with nutritional status. We measured some plasma AAs in children with different stages CKD to provide information in monitoring the therapeutic strategy, particularly in AA supplementary therapy or protein restriction. Three amino acids were evaluated along with albumin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in 30 patients with advanced CKD stages 4 and 5. They were divided into two groups undergoing conservative treatment (CT) (n=15) or hemodialysis (HD) (n=15). An additional group of patients with nephrotic syndrome [CKD stage 2] was also studied to assess the alterations of plasma free amino acids with the early stage of CKD. Another 30 age- and sex-matched healthy children served as controls. A significant increase in plasma concentration of amino acid glutamine was observed in children with advanced CKD stages 4 and 5 when compared with controls (P=0.02).Plasma glutamine level was significantly higher in ESRD children on HD than in children with nephrotic syndrome (P=0.02). We did not find a significant difference between HD children and CT children as regard to glutamine level. Notable differences were in the plasma homocysteine level detected in the CKD groups patients, which was greater than that in controls (P=0.0001). Plasma homocysteine level was significantly higher in children on HD than in children with nephrotic syndrome (P=0.01). A significant differences was observed in hs-CRP levels between the CKD groups and the controls (P=0.04). Albumin levels were lower in CKD groups than in controls (p=0.01). Glutamine showed significant positive correlations with blood urea level (r=0.84, P=0.002) and blood ammonia level (r=0.72, P=0

  10. Simultaneous analysis of plasma free fatty acids and their 3-hydroxy analogs in fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. G.; Dorland, L.; Holwerda, U.; de Almeida, I. T.; Poll-The, B. T.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new derivatization procedure for the simultaneous gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids and 3-hydroxyfatty acids in plasma. Derivatization of target compounds involved trifluoroacetylation of hydroxyl groups and tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl

  11. Identification and quantification of intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in plasma of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onkenhout, W.; Venizelos, V.; van der Poel, P. F.; van den Heuvel, M. P.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The free fatty acid and total fatty acid profiles in plasma of nine patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, two with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and two with mild-type multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD-m) deficiency, were analyzed by gas

  12. Plasma 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol and homovanillic acid measurements in deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, F; Ribeyre, J M; Dourmap, N; Ménard, J F; Dollfus, S; Petit, M

    1998-01-01

    Discrepancies in the biochemical research on negative symptoms in schizophrenia may be ascribed to the lack of differentiation into primary and secondary negative symptoms. We have used Carpenter's criteria to define the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia as the presence of enduring and primary negative symptoms and measured catecholaminergic parameters in deficit as compared with nondeficit schizophrenics. We have investigated plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) concentrations in 34 DSM-III-R neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients who were classified into deficit (n = 14) and nondeficit (n = 20) forms of schizophrenia. All these patients were in a stable clinical and therapeutic status for the preceding 12 months. The 14 deficit schizophrenic patients had lower plasma levels of pHVA and higher plasma concentrations of pMHPG from 9 AM to 12 AM as compared with the 20 nondeficit schizophrenic patients. The two groups did not differ on any demographic, therapeutic, or clinical variable considered. Our data are consistent with the postulated distinct pathophysiological basis for the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia and suggest that opposite alterations in the pHVA or pMHPG levels may reflect specific changes in noradrenergic and dopaminergic functions in these deficit patients.

  13. GABA and homovanillic acid in the plasma of Schizophrenic and bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúe, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; González-Torres, Miguel A; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, Maria I; Anguiano, Juan B; Guimón, José

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The research was undertaken in a geographic area with an ethnically homogeneous population. The HVA plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the schizophrenic patients compared to the bipolar patients. The levels of pGABA was significantly lower in the two groups of patients compared to the control group, while the pHVA/pGABA ratio was significantly greater in the both groups of patients compared to the controls. As the levels of pHVA and pGABA are partially under genetic control it is better to compare their concentrations within an homogeneous population. The values of the ratio pHVA/pGABA are compatible with the idea of an abnormal dopamine-GABA interaction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The pHVA/pGABA ratio may be a good peripheral marker in psychiatric research.

  14. Response of plasma membrane H+-ATPase in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings to simulated acid rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chanjuan; Ge, Yuqing; Su, Lei; Bu, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the adaptation of plants to acid rain is important to find feasible approaches to alleviate such damage to plants. We studied effects of acid rain on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate during stress and recovery periods. Simulated acid rain at pH 5.5 did not affect plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity, intracellular H(+), membrane permeability, photosynthetic efficiency, and relative growth rate. Plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and transcription in leaves treated with acid rain at pH 3.5 was increased to maintain ion homeostasis by transporting excessive H(+) out of cells. Then intracellular H(+) was close to the control after a 5-day recovery, alleviating damage on membrane and sustaining photosynthetic efficiency and growth. Simulated acid rain at pH 2.5 inhibited plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity by decreasing the expression of H(+)-ATPase at transcription level, resulting in membrane damage and abnormal intracellular H(+), and reduction in photosynthetic efficiency and relative growth rate. After a 5-day recovery, all parameters in leaves treated with pH 2.5 acid rain show alleviated damage, implying that the increased plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity and its high expression were involved in repairing process in acid rain-stressed plants. Our study suggests that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase can play a role in adaptation to acid rain for rice seedlings.

  15. Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2α) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease.

  16. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  17. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  18. n-3 fatty acids reduce plasma 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emilie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B; Watts, Gerald F; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase leads to the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that regulates vascular function, sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids is known to alter arachidonic acid metabolism and reduce the formation of the lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, but the effect of n-3 fatty acids on 20-HETE has not been studied. We previously reported a significant effect of n-3 fatty acids but not coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) to reduce BP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, wherein patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomized to n-3 fatty acids (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma and urinary 20-HETE in the same study, as well as plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, and relate these to changes in BP. Seventy-four patients completed the 8-week intervention. n-3 fatty acids but not CoQ significantly reduced plasma 20-HETE (P = 0.001) and F2-isoprostanes (P fatty acids. This is the first report that n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces plasma 20-HETE in humans and that this associates with reduced BP. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the reduction in BP observed in patients with CKD following n-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  19. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  20. Effect of dairy fat on plasma phytanic acid in healthy volunteers - a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drachmann Tue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytanic acid produced in ruminants from chlorophyll may have preventive effects on the metabolic syndrome, partly due to its reported RXR and PPAR- α agonist activity. Milk from cows fed increased levels of green plant material, contains increased phytanic acid concentrations, but it is unknown to what extent minor increases in phytanic acid content in dairy fat leads to higher circulating levels of phytanic acid in plasma of the consumers. Objective To investigate if cow feeding regimes affects concentration of plasma phytanic acid and risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 4 wk, parallel intervention study 14 healthy young subjects were given 45 g milk fat/d from test butter and cheese with 0.24 wt% phytanic acid or a control diet with 0.13 wt% phytanic acid. Difference in phytanic acid was obtained by feeding roughage with low or high content of chlorophyll. Results There tended to be a difference in plasma phytanic acid (P = 0.0730 concentration after the dietary intervention. Plasma phytanic acid increased significantly within both groups with the highest increase in control group (24% compared to phytanic acid group (15%. There were no significant effects of phytanic acid on risk markers for the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The results indicate that increased intake of dairy fat modify the plasma phytanic acid concentration, regardless of cows feeding regime and the minor difference in dietary phytanic acid. Whether the phytanic acid has potential to affects the risk markers of the metabolic syndrome in human still remain to be elucidated. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01343576

  1. Use of milk fatty acids to estimate plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations as an indicator of animal energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, J R R; French, E A; Armentano, L E

    2017-08-01

    Negative energy balance is an important part of the lactation cycle, and measuring the current energy balance of a cow is useful in both applied and research settings. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if milk fatty acid (FA) proportions were consistently related to plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA); (2) to determine if an individual cow with a measured milk FA profile is above or below a NEFA concentration, (3) to test the universality of the models developed within the University of Wisconsin and US Dairy Forage Research Center cows. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 105 Holstein cows from 3 studies. Plasma NEFA was quantified and a threshold of 600 µEq/L was applied to classify animals above this concentration as having high NEFA (NEFA high ). Thirty milk FA proportions and 4 milk FA ratios were screened to evaluate their capacity to classify cows with NEFA high according to determined milk FA threshold. In addition, 6 linear regression models were created using individual milk FA proportions and ratios. To evaluate the universality of the linear relationship between milk FA and plasma NEFA found in the internal data set, 90 treatment means from 21 papers published in the literature were compiled to test the model predictions. From the 30 screened milk FA, the odd short-chain fatty acids (C7:0, C9:0, C11:0, and C13:0) had sensitivity slightly greater than the other short-chain fatty acids (83.3, 94.8, 80.0, and 85.9%, respectively). The sensitivities for milk FA C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0 were 78.8, 85.3, 80.1, and 83.9%, respectively. The threshold values to detect NEFA high cows for the last group of milk FA were ≤2.0, ≤0.94, ≤1.4, and ≤1.8 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The milk FA C14:0 and C15:0 had sensitivities of 88.7 and 85.0% and a threshold of ≤6.8 and ≤0.53 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The linear regressions using the milk FA ratios C18:1 to C15:0 and C17:0 to C15:0 presented lower

  2. Production of a hot ion plasma at the lower hybrid resonance and measurement of its parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.M.; Dyubajlov, A.G.; Krivov, N.A.; Martynenko, V.V.; Skosyrev, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields delayed along a magnetic field have been created within a plasma with the aid of a coil encircling the plasma column. When these waves were propagated transversely in relation to the magnetic field in a plasma with density rising along its radius, they were delayed in the direction of propagation. The amplitude and phase distributions of the electromagentic fields along the radius of the plasma column were measured at different moments in time. The existence of an absorption band of these waves within the plasma was detected. The absorption band was shifted towards the outer boundary from the plasma when plasma density was increased. By four independent methods it was established that the gas-kinetic pressure of the plasma, measured according to its diamagnetism, is determined by the ion component. It was found that the energy of electrons at right angles to the magnetic field is considerably less than that of the ions. The cause of limited heating was an increase in density and energy losses in the charge-exchange process. In order to improve vacuum conditions, the coil around the plasma was placed in a metallic chamber, and the UHF plasma source used in the original experiments was replaced by a hydride-film source. This made it possible to increase the internal energy of the plasma to 3x10 15 eV cm -3 at a density of (1-3)x10 12 cm -3 . The mean energy of atoms leaving the plasma at right angles to the magnetic field as a result of charge exchange reached 1 keV. The region of change in plasma parameters (density and magnetic field) for which heating was observed corresponded to the linear transformation theory. Non-linear effects could occur only in the first stage of heating, when the electric fields were strong, but plasma temperature was low. Heating efficiency was measured by a reflectometer installed in the coaxial line connecting the generator and the HF input coil to the plasma. The measurements showed that about 20% of the power

  3. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.; Harper, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with [ 14 C]valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samples were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of [ 14 C]valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain

  4. Interactions among the branched-chain amino acids and their effects on methionine utilization in growing pigs: effects on plasma amino- and keto-acid concentrations and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, S; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D S; Dewey, P; Fuller, M F

    2000-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to elucidate the mechanism of the methionine-sparing effect of excess branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reported in the previous paper (Langer & Fuller, 2000). Twelve growing gilts (30-35 kg) were prepared with arterial catheters. After recovery, they received for 7 d a semipurified diet with a balanced amino acid pattern. On the 7th day blood samples were taken before (16 h postabsorptive) and after the morning meal (4 h postprandial). The animals were then divided into three groups and received for a further 7 d a methionine-limiting diet (80% of requirement) (1) without any amino acid excess; (2) with excess leucine (50% over requirement); or (3) with excesses of all three BCAA (leucine, isoleucine, valine, each 50% over the requirement). On the 7th day blood samples were taken as in the first period, after which the animals were killed and liver and muscle samples taken. Plasma amino acid and branched-chain keto acid (BCKA) concentrations in the blood and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH; EC 1.2.4.4) activity in liver and muscle homogenates were determined. Compared with those on the balanced diet, pigs fed on methionine-limiting diets had significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma methionine concentrations in the postprandial but not in the postabsorptive state. There was no effect of either leucine or a mixture of all three BCAA fed in excess on plasma methionine concentrations. Excess dietary leucine reduced (P < 0.05) the plasma concentrations of isoleucine and valine in both the postprandial and postabsorptive states. Plasma concentrations of the BCKA reflected the changes in the corresponding amino acids. Basal BCKDH activity in the liver and total BCKDH activity in the biceps femoris muscle were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by excesses of leucine or all BCAA.

  5. Research into esterification of mixture of lower dicarboxylic acids by 2-ethylhexan-1-ol in the presence of p-toluensulfonic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk, Stepan; Melnyk, Yuriy; Nykulyshyn, Irena; Shevchuk, Liliya

    2017-01-01

    Regularities of esterification of the mixture of lower dicarboxylic acids (succinic, glutaric, adipic) by 2-ethylhexan-1-ol in the presence of catalysts – p-toluensulfonic and sulfuric acids under non-stationary conditions were studied. It was found that in the presence of mineral acid, the reaction flows at a lower rate. Application of benzene as a substance that facilitates separation of water, formed in the esterification reaction, makes it possible, due to a lower reaction temperature, to...

  6. A comparison of plasma homovanillic acid in the deficit and nondeficit subtypes of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyre, J M; Lesieur, P; Varoquaux, O; Dollfus, S; Pays, M; Petit, M

    1994-08-15

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured over a 13 hr-period in 16 DMS-III-R schizophrenic patients, all treated with neuroleptic drugs and in a stable clinical and therapeutic status for the preceeding 12 months. Patients were categorized into deficit (n = 9) and nondeficit (n = 7) forms of schizophrenia according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) criteria. As compared to the nondeficit group, deficit patients display significantly lower mean pHVA concentrations from 9 AM to 12 AM and a lack of diurnal variations. None of the demographic, clinical, and therapeutic variables can explain these biological differences. These data suggest a specific biochemical basis for the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia as defined by the SDS criteria, that is, primary, enduring, negative symptoms.

  7. A study of quasi-mode parametric excitations in lower-hybrid heating of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalon, E.; Bers, A.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed linear and non-linear analysis of quasi-mode parametric excitations relevant to experiments in supplementary heating of tokamak plasmas is presented. The linear analysis includes the full ion-cyclotron harmonic quasi-mode spectrum. The non-linear analysis, considering depletion of the pump electric field, is applied to the recent Alcator A heating experiment. Because of the very different characteristics of a tokamak plasma near the wall (in the shadow of the limiter) and inside, the quasi-mode excitations are studied independently for the plasma edge and the main bulk of the plasma, and for two typical regimes in overall density, the low (peak in density, n 0 =1.5x10 14 cm -3 ) and high (n 0 =5x10 14 cm -3 ) density regimes. At the edge of the plasma and for the low-density regime, it is found that higher nsub(z)(nsub(z)=cksub(z)/ω) than those predicted by the linear theory are strongly excited. Inside the plasma, the excitation of higher wave numbers is also significant. These results indicate that a large amount of the RF-power may not penetrate to the plasma centre, but will rather be either Landau-damped on the electrons or mode-converted into thermal modes, close to the plasma edge. Moreover, for sufficiently high peaks in density, it is found that all the RF-power is mode-converted before reaching the plasma centre. Inside the plasma, the power density of the excited sideband fields is shown to be always very small in comparison with their excitation at the plasma edge. (author)

  8. Relation of soya bean meal level to the concentration of plasma free amino acids and body growth in white rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tapas K; Parvin, Nargish; Mondal, Santanu; Saxena, Vijaylaxmi; Saxena, Ashok K; Sarkar, Sabyasachi; Saha, Mitali

    2012-04-01

    Amino acid (AA) levels in plasma and body growth were determined in rats (n20) fed diets with different soya bean meal levels. Free AA in plasma was determined by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. We have used four levels of protein diets like 8%, 15%, 23% and 35% in this trial. Rats which were fed the low-protein (8%) diet with low percentage of soya bean meal were found to be growth-retarded. The body weight gain of high protein group (35%) was lower than that of the 23% groups. In the rats fed with the low-soya bean meal diet, some nonessential AA (NEAA) in plasma like asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid and serine increased, whereas the essential AA (EAA), with the exception of arginine, methionine and valine decreased. Here, plasma EAA-to-NEAA ratios were not correlated to growth and experimental diet. We hypothesize that AA metabolism is associated to changes in growth in rats on different protein intake. This study has showed the sensitivity of body mass gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate of rats to four levels of protein in the diet under controlled experimental conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Reference values of amino acids and of common clinical chemistry in plasma of healthy infants aged 1 and 4 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude

    2016-01-01

    To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding reference limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific reference limits in infants are warranted.

  10. Detection of lower hybrid waves in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas with microwave backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Marmar, E. S.; Wallace, G. M.; Lau, C.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave backscattering experiments have been performed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in order to investigate the propagation of lower hybrid (LH) waves in reactor-relevant, high-density plasmas. When the line-averaged density is raised above 1 × 10 20 m –3 , lower hybrid current drive efficiency is found to be lower than expected [Wallace et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 062505 (2012)] and LH power is thought to be dissipated at the plasma edge. Using a single channel (60 GHz) ordinary-mode (O-mode) reflectometer system, we demonstrate radially localized LH wave measurements in the scrape-off layer of high density plasmas (n ¯ e  ≳ 0.9×10 20  m −3 ). Measured backscattered O-mode power varies depending on the magnetic field line mapping, suggesting the resonance cone propagation of LH waves. Backscattered power is also sensitive to variations in plasma density and the launched parallel refractive index of the LH waves. LH ray-tracing simulations have been carried out to interpret the observed variations. To understand the measured LH waves in regions not magnetically connected to the launcher, two hypotheses are examined. One is the weak single pass absorption and the other is scattering of LH waves by non-linear effects

  11. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    , plasma fatty acids, and preheparin lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. Design: Six test fats high (approximate to 43% by wt) in stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitic + myristic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid (trans 18:1), and linoleic acid were produced...... to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted......Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  12. An acid phosphatase in the plasma membranes of human astrocytoma showing marked specificity toward phosphotyrosine protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Leis, J F; Kaplan, N O

    1982-01-01

    The plasma membrane from the human tumor astrocytoma contains an active acid phosphatase activity based on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate. Other acid phosphatase substrates--beta-glycerophosphate, O-phosphorylcholine, and 5'-AMP--are not hydrolyzed significantly. The phosphatase activity is tartrate insensitive and is stimulated by Triton X-100 and EDTA. Of the three known phosphoamino acids, only free O-phosphotyrosine is hydrolyzed by the membrane phosphatase activity. Other acid pho...

  13. Long distance coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET plasmas with edge and coretransport barriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ekedahl, A.; Granucci, G.; Mailloux, J.; Baranov, Y.; Erents, S. K.; Joffrin, E.; Litaudon, X.; Loarte, A.; Lomas, P. J.; McDonald, D.; Petržílka, Václav; Rantamäki, K.; Rimini, F.G.; Silva, C.; Stamp, M.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2005), s. 351-359 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH grill * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.418, year: 2005

  14. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  15. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid lowers bile lithogenicity by regulating SCP2 expression in rabbit cholesterol gallstone models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Zhonglian; Zhao, Erpeng; Zhang, Ju; Cui, Naiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We designed this study to get insight into the disorder of lipid metabolism during cholesterol gallstone formation and evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on the improvement of bile lithogenicity and on expression of lipid related genes. Methods: Rabbit cholesterol gallstone models were induced by high cholesterol diet. Bile, blood and liver tissues were obtained from rabbits after 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. Bile and blood lipids were measured enzymatically. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), cytochrome P450, family 7, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) mRNA expressions were detected by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cholesterol saturation index (CSI) was calculated by using Carey table to represent the bile lithogenicity. Results: Rates of gallstone formation of the 4 and 5 week treatment groups were 100 %, but that of the ursodeoxycholic acid treatment group was only 33.3 %. Expression of HMGCR and SCP2 mRNA in the 4 week group was upregulated and that of CYP7A1 mRNA decreased as compared with the 0 week group. Ursodeoxycholic acid could significantly extend nucleation time of bile and lower CSI. Ursodeoxycholic acid could reduce the expression of SCP2, but couldn't influence expression of HMGCR and CYP7A1. Conclusions: Abnormal expression of HMGCR, CYP7A1 and SCP2 might lead to high lithogenicity of bile. Ursodeoxycholic acid could improve bile lipids and lower bile lithogenicity, thereby reducing the incidence of gallstones. So it might be a good preventive drug for cholesterol gallstones. PMID:27847447

  17. Markedly Lower Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 67 Protein Levels in a Subset of Boutons in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, Brad R; Lewis, David A; Fish, Kenneth N

    2016-06-15

    Convergent findings indicate that cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic circuitry is altered in schizophrenia. Postmortem studies have consistently found lower levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) messenger RNA (mRNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects with schizophrenia. At the cellular level, the density of GABA neurons with detectable levels of GAD67 mRNA is ~30% lower across cortical layers. Knowing how this transcript deficit translates to GAD67 protein levels in axonal boutons is important for understanding the impact it might have on GABA synthesis. In addition, because reductions in GAD67 expression before, but not after, the maturation of GABAergic boutons results in a lower density of GABAergic boutons in mouse cortical cultures, knowing if GABAergic bouton density is altered in schizophrenia would provide insight into the timing of the GAD67 deficit. PFC tissue sections from 20 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects were immunolabeled for the vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) and GAD67. vGAT+ bouton density did not differ between subject groups, consistent with findings that vGAT mRNA levels are unaltered in the illness and confirming that the number of cortical GABAergic boutons is not lower in schizophrenia. In contrast, in schizophrenia subjects, the proportion of vGAT+ boutons with detectable GAD67 levels (vGAT+/GAD67+ boutons) was 16% lower and mean GAD67 levels were 14% lower in the remaining vGAT+/GAD67+ boutons. Our findings suggest that GABA production is markedly reduced in a subset of boutons in the PFC of schizophrenia subjects and that this reduction likely occurs after the maturation of GABAergic boutons. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-spectral interferences due to the presence of sulfuric acid in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Poyo, M. Carmen; Grindlay, Guillermo; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de, E-mail: margaretha.deloos@ugent.be [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281 - S12, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Mora, Juan, E-mail: juan.mora@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 – Alicante (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Results of a systematic study concerning non-spectral interferences from sulfuric acid containing matrices on a large number of elements in inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are presented in this work. The signals obtained with sulfuric acid solutions of different concentrations (up to 5% w w{sup −1}) have been compared with the corresponding signals for a 1% w w{sup −1−} nitric acid solution at different experimental conditions (i.e., sample uptake rates, nebulizer gas flows and r.f. powers). The signals observed for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +} and {sup 75}As{sup +} were significantly higher when using sulfuric acid matrices (up to 2.2-fold for {sup 128}Te{sup +} and {sup 78}Se{sup +} and 1.8-fold for {sup 75}As{sup +} in the presence of 5 w w{sup -1} sulfuric acid) for the whole range of experimental conditions tested. This is in agreement with previously reported observations. The signal for {sup 31}P{sup +} is also higher (1.1-fold) in the presence of sulfuric acid. The signal enhancements for {sup 128}Te{sup +}, {sup 78}Se{sup +}, {sup 75}As{sup +} and {sup 31}P{sup +} are explained in relation to an increase in the analyte ion population as a result of charge transfer reactions involving S{sup +} species in the plasma. Theoretical data suggest that Os, Sb, Pt, Ir, Zn and Hg could also be involved in sulfur-based charge transfer reactions, but no experimental evidence has been found. The presence of sulfuric acid gives rise to lower ion signals (about 10–20% lower) for the other nuclides tested, thus indicating the negative matrix effect caused by changes in the amount of analyte loading of the plasma. The elemental composition of a certified low-density polyethylene sample (ERM-EC681K) was determined by ICP-MS after two different sample digestion procedures, one of them including sulfuric acid. Element concentrations were in agreement with the certified values, irrespective of the acids used for the digestion. These

  19. Dust-lower-hybrid waves in a magnetized self-gravitating dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Roy Chowdhury, A.; Dasgupta, B.

    1997-11-01

    General dispersion relation for a self-gravitating magnetized and finite temperature dusty plasma has been derived using the Vlasov-kinetic theory in guiding center technique. Results of earlier studies in unmagnetized situations turn out to be special cases of our general dispersion relation. In addition to the usual dust-acoustic waves in unmagnetized plasmas, we find an ultra-low-frequency mode in the frequency range between cyclotron frequencies of ions and charged dust particles and the Jean's instability of the self-gravitating dusty plasma systems. (author)

  20. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  1. Global magnetospheric perturbations stimulated by the plasma wave discharge in the lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, G.A.; Chugunov, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we discuss a new method of controlled stimulation of global perturbations and the diagnostics of plasma physical processes in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth. The method was realized with a series of rocket experiments by means of excitation of the radio frequency plasma wave discharge in the near field of the dipole antenna. We focus considerable attention on the results obtained in these experiments testifying to the wide choice and diversity of potentialities of this new method

  2. Measurements of continuum lowering in solid-density plasmas created from elements and compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciricosta, O.; Vinko, S.M.; Barbrel, B.; Rackstraw, D.S.; Preston, T.R.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Cho, B.I.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G.L.; Engelhorn, K.; Hájková, Věra; Heimann, P.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Toleikis, S.; Turner, J.J.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, May (2016), 1-7, č. článku 11713. ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/0571 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : solid-density plasmas * X-ray * Linac Coherent Light Source * ionization potential depression (IPD) * equation of state (EOS) Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016

  3. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Alvarez, Ronald D; Partridge, Edward E; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index-BMI, body fat-BF and waist circumference-WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest. Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41-4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40-4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95% = 1.14-3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02-3.13, P = 0.041). Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

  4. Quantum-Mechanical Calculation of Ionization-Potential Lowering in Dense Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kil Son (손상길

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The charged environment within a dense plasma leads to the phenomenon of ionization-potential depression (IPD for ions embedded in the plasma. Accurate predictions of the IPD effect are of crucial importance for modeling atomic processes occurring within dense plasmas. Several theoretical models have been developed to describe the IPD effect, with frequently discrepant predictions. Only recently, first experiments on IPD in Al plasma have been performed with an x-ray free-electron laser, where their results were found to be in disagreement with the widely used IPD model by Stewart and Pyatt. Another experiment on Al, at the Orion laser, showed disagreement with the model by Ecker and Kröll. This controversy shows a strong need for a rigorous and consistent theoretical approach to calculate the IPD effect. Here, we propose such an approach: a two-step Hartree-Fock-Slater model. With this parameter-free model, we can accurately and efficiently describe the experimental Al data and validate the accuracy of standard IPD models. Our model can be a useful tool for calculating atomic properties within dense plasmas with wide-ranging applications to studies on warm dense matter, shock experiments, planetary science, inertial confinement fusion, and nonequilibrium plasmas created with x-ray free-electron lasers.

  5. Assessment of quasi-linear effect of RF power spectrum for enabling lower hybrid current drive in reactor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.

  6. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Anne; Meulenbroek, Olga; van Hees, Anneke M J; Sijben, John W C; Vellas, Bruno; Shah, Raj C; Bennett, David A; Scheltens, Philip; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in synapse formation and neural functioning. Here, we investigated whether, and to what extent, circulating levels of micronutrients and fatty acids can be affected by oral supplementation with Souvenaid (containing a specific nutrient combination), using data derived from three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and an open-label extension (OLE) study with follow-up data from 12 to 48 weeks. Subjects with mild (RCT1, RCT2) or mild-to-moderate AD (RCT3) received active or control product once daily for 12-24 weeks or active product during the 24-week OLE following RCT2 (n = 212-527). Measurements included plasma levels of B vitamins, choline, vitamin E, selenium, uridine and homocysteine and proportions of DHA, EPA and total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes. Between-group comparisons were made using t tests or non-parametric alternatives. We found that 12-24-week active product intake increased plasma and/or erythrocyte micronutrients: uridine; choline; selenium; folate; vitamins B6, B12 and E; and fatty acid levels of DHA and EPA (all p Souvenaid. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of sustained dietary intake of uridine monophosphate on plasma uridine levels in humans. Uptake of nutrients is observed within 6 weeks, and a plateau phase is reached for most nutrients during prolonged intake, thus increasing the availability of precursors and cofactors in the circulation that may be used for the formation and function of neuronal membranes and synapses in the brain.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  8. Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Simultaneous Determination of Ursodiol and its Major Metabolites, Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Glycoursodeoxycholic Acid in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganesan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method is described for the quantification of ursodiol and its major metabolites glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA in human plasma using single internal standard (Ursodeoxycholic Acid d4. Solid phase extraction was performed and chromatographic separation of 5µL injected sample was achieved using Waters Xterra, 5µm column with a mobile phase comprised of methanol and 5 mM ammonium formate with 0.1 % acetic acid ( 70 : 30, v/v . The mass spectrometer was used in negative ion mode and multiple reactions monitoring using electro spray ionization mode as an interface. The method was fully validated and the calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 25.9 to 15300.1 ng/mL for ursodiol, 2.7 to 1587.5ng/mLfor tauroursodeoxycholicacid and 25.4 to 15040.9 ng/mL for glycoursodeoxycholic acid. The method was sensitive and specific, with the lower limit of quantification of 25.9, 2.7 and 25.4 ng/ml for ursodiol, tauroursodeoxycholic acid and glycoursodeoxycholic acid respectively. The present method includes a simple and rapid sample preparation with shorter analysis run time and less flow rate compared to previously reported methods. The method was applied successfully for a bioequivalence study in healthy subjects.

  9. Plasma free amino acid profiles of Boer goat bucks as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The RG group had higher concentrations of valine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, methionine, lysine, taurine, ornithine, hydroxyproline and tri-methyl-histidine, while glycine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine, histidine and proline levels were similar in both groups. From the results it can be concluded that plasma ...

  10. Surface modification of polylactic acid films by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtseva, V. L.; Zhuravlev, M. V.; Tverdokhlebov, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    A new approach for the modification of polylactic acid (PLA) materials using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) is described. PLA films plasma exposure time was 20, 60, 120 s. The surface morphology and wettability of the obtained PLA films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the sitting drop method. The atmospheric pressure plasma increased the roughness and surface energy of PLA film. The wettability of PLA has been improved with the application of an atmospheric plasma surface treatment. It was shown that it is possible to obtain PLA films with various surface relief and tunable wettability. Additionally, we demonstrated that the use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for surface activation allows for the immobilization of bioactive compounds like hyaluronic acid (HA) on the surface of obtained films. It was shown that composite PLA-HA films have an increased long-term hydrophilicity of the films surface.

  11. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  12. Incorporation of deuterium-labeled trans- and cis-13-octadecenoic acids in human plasma lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emken, E.A.; Adlof, R.O.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Gulley, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The absorption and distribution of deuterated trans- and cis-13-octadecenoic acid (13t-18:1 and 13c-18:1) in plasma lipids were compared to deuterated cis-9-octadecenoic acid (9c-18:1) in two young adult male subjects. A mixture of triglycerides was fed in a multiple-labeled experiment where each triglyceride contained a fatty acid labeled with a different number of deuterium atoms. Analysis of human plasma lipids by mass spectroscopy allowed the distribution of the two 13-octadecenoic acid isomers to be directly compared to cis-9-octadecenoic acid. Plasma lipids selectively excluded both the 13t-18:1 and 13c-18:1 isomers relative to 9c-18:1 in all neutral and phospholipid fractions. Discrimination against incorporation of the 13t-18:1 isomer into plasma cholesteryl ester and 2-acyl phosphatidylcholine was nearly absolute. The 1-acyl phosphatidylcholine fraction exhibited a large positive selectivity for the 13t-18:1 isomer. Differences in the relative distribution of the trans and cis 13-18:1 isomers vs. 9c-18:1 in the various lipoprotein lipid classes were found. Analysis of the chylomicron triglyceride component of the plasma lipids indicated all three fatty acids were equally well absorbed

  13. High Protein Intake Does Not Prevent Low Plasma Levels of Conditionally Essential Amino Acids in Very Preterm Infants Receiving Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Colin; Burgess, Laura

    2017-03-01

    We have shown that increasing protein intake using a standardized, concentrated, added macronutrients parenteral (SCAMP) nutrition regimen improves head growth in very preterm infants (VPIs) compared with a control parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen. VPIs are at risk of conditionally essential amino acid (CEAA) deficiencies because of current neonatal PN amino acid (AA) formulations. We hypothesized that the SCAMP regimen would prevent low plasma levels of CEAAs. To compare the plasma AA profiles at approximately day 9 of life in VPIs receiving SCAMP vs a control PN regimen. VPIs (parenteral and enteral protein, energy, and individual AA intake and the first plasma AA profile. Plasma profiles of the 20 individual protogenic AA levels were measured using ion exchange chromatography. Plasma AA profiles were obtained at median (interquartile range [IQR]) age of 9 (8-10) days in both SCAMP (n = 59) and control (n = 67) groups after randomizing 150 VPIs. Median (IQR) plasma levels of individual essential AAs were higher than the reference population mean (RPM) in both groups, especially for threonine. SCAMP infants had higher plasma levels of essential AAs than did the controls. Median (IQR) plasma levels of glutamine, arginine, and cysteine (CEAAs) were lower than the RPM in both groups. Plasma AA levels in PN-dependent VPIs indicate there is an imbalance in essential and CEAA provision in neonatal PN AA formulations that is not improved by increasing protein intake.

  14. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    levels relative to rats fed soy protein or casein. Concomitantly, the saithe FPH fed rats had reduced liver lipids and fasting plasma TAG levels. Furthermore, visceral adipose tissue mass was reduced and expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure was induced in perirenal....../retroperitoneal adipose tissues of rats fed saithe FPH. Our results provide the first evidence that dietary protein sources with different amino acid compositions can modulate the level of plasma bile acids and our data suggest potential novel mechanisms by which dietary protein sources can affect energy metabolism....

  15. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  16. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  17. Serum trans-fatty acids level are positively associated with lower food security among american adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2018-03-07

    In the current study we aimed to assess whether the food security is associated with serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and dietary fat. Analyses were restricted to participants (from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) with data available on serum and diet TFAs and food security status from 2009 to 2010. All statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and linear regression) accounted for the survey design and sample weights. We included 3876 participants, overall (48.6%) participants were men, and (51.4%) were women, generally (69.0%) had high food security. Subjects with higher food security had a higher level of education as well (p security (all p security. Further, age, sex, race, education, and energy intake adjusted mean of dietary fatty acids show that total polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in subjects with higher food security (p = 0.026) while, cholesterol consumption is higher in subjects with lower food security (p = 0.039). Our findings provide more evidence on the association between food insecurity and the higher level of TFAs in serum and different type of fat in the diet.

  18. Recognition of acidic phospholipase A2 activity in plasma membranes of resident peritoneal macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Abiko, Y.; Ohno, H.; Araki, T.; Takiguchi, H.

    1988-01-01

    Phospholipase (PLase) activities in the plasma membrane of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages were studied, as these enzymes having such activity may be candidates for the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from phosphatidylcholine (PC). An AA release system operating at acidic pH was identified in the macrophage plasma membrane and characterized. This membrane-bound acidic PLase A 2 had an optimum pH at 4.5, and enzyme activation was observed in Ca ++ -free medium; but the maximum activity was found at 0.5 mM Ca ++ concentration. The Km value for PC of acidic PLase A 2 was 4.2 μM, and a Michaelis-Menten relationship was evident. Calcium might act as a cofactor at some intermediate step during the activation of acidic PLase A 2 in light of the uncompetitive manner of Ca ++ action. Furthermore, the release of [ 3 H]-AA from preradiolabelled macrophage plasma membranes occurred with the addition of Ca ++ at pH 4.5. These data suggest that the acid PLase A 2 is a component of the plasma membrane and is not due to lysosomal contamination since membrane-bound acidic PLase A 2 properties are opposite to those found for lysosomal PLase A 2

  19. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma samples from schizophrenic patients by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diego Soares; Crevelin, Eduardo José; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Cecilio Hallak, Jaime Eduardo; de Souza Crippa, José Alexandre; Costa Queiroz, Maria Eugênia

    2015-03-01

    A sensitive, reproducible, and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of underivatized amino acids (aspartate, serine, glycine, alanine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) and neurotransmitters (glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid) in plasma samples using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. The plasma concentrations of amino acids and neurotransmitters obtained from 35 schizophrenic patients in treatment with clozapine (27 patients) and olanzapine (eight patients) were compared with those obtained from 38 healthy volunteers to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. The chromatographic conditions separated ten target compounds within 3 min. This method presented linear ranges that varied from (lower limit of quantification: 9.7-13.3 nmol/mL) to (upper limit of quantification: 19.4-800 nmol/mL), intra- and interassay precision with coefficients of variation lower than 10%, and relative standard error values of the accuracy ranged from -2.1 to 9.9%. The proposed method appropriately determines amino acids and neurotransmitters in plasma from schizophrenic patients. Compared with the control group (healthy volunteers), the plasma levels of methionine in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine are statistically significantly higher. Moreover, schizophrenic patients treated with clozapine tend to have increased plasma levels of glutamate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Biological activity of alligator, avian, and mammalian insulin in juvenile alligators: plasma glucose and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M; Coulson, R A

    1993-02-01

    The biological activity of alligator, turkey, and bovine insulin on plasma glucose and plasma amino acids was tested in fasted juvenile alligators. Preliminary experiments showed that the stress associated with taking the initial blood sample resulted in a hyperglycemic response lasting more than 24 hr. Despite repeated bleedings no additional hyperglycemic events occurred, and blood glucose declined slowly over the next 7 days. Under these conditions the smallest dose of insulin eliciting a hypoglycemic response was 40 micrograms/kg body wt. A dose of 400 micrograms/kg body wt of either alligator or bovine insulin caused a pronounced hypoglycemia by 12 hr postinjection. Maximum decline in plasma glucose occurred at 24 to 36 hr with a slow return to control levels by 120 hr. There were no significant differences in the hypoglycemic responses to any of the three insulins tested. The decline in plasma amino acids was much more rapid than the decline in plasma glucose in response to insulin. Even at the 40 micrograms/kg body wt dose a significant difference from saline-injected control was seen at 2 hr postinjection. Maximum decline in plasma amino acids occurred at 8 to 12 hr with a return to baseline by 36 hr. These results show that the relatively conservative changes in the sequence of alligator insulin (three amino acid substitutions in the B-chain compared with that of chicken) have little effect on biological activity and that alligator insulin receptors do not appear to discriminate among the three insulins.

  1. Treatment with clozapine and its effect on plasma homovanillic acid and norepinephrine concentrations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Stern, R G; Hirschowitz, J; Apter, S; Knott, P; Davis, K L

    1993-02-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA), is an indirect tool to assess changes in dopamine turnover. Levels of pHVA have been reported to decrease during treatment with conventional antidopaminergic, neuroleptics, with the decrement correlating with symptomatic improvement in schizophrenic symptoms. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, is the only drug proved to be effective in treatment-refractory patients. However, the mechanism mediating this unique efficacy has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effect of clozapine on pHVA concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Since clozapine potently binds to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, plasma norepinephrine (pNE) concentrations were also measured. Twenty-eight treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients (24 men, 4 women) were treated with clozapine (up to 600 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after a minimum 1-week drug-free period. Symptomatology and pHVA and pNE concentrations were measured at the last drug-free day and weekly for 5 weeks. Fourteen patients responded to clozapine treatment, while an equal number did not. Mean pHVA concentrations did not significantly change during treatment with clozapine. Although clozapine tended to lower pHVA concentrations in treatment responders, the effect was small and not significant. Clozapine treatment significantly raised pNE concentrations, but this did not differentiate responders from nonresponders to clozapine. These findings suggest that clozapine's effect on DA turnover is small and that clozapine may be effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, dopamine receptor blockade. However, since about one-third of NE is metabolized into HVA, the clozapine-induced increase in pNE may have overshadowed a possible lowering effect of clozapine on pHVA.

  2. Lower n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid values in patients with phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Decsi, Tamás

    2013-07-01

    The mainstream of phenylketonuria (PKU) management is lifelong restriction of protein intake; however, this dietary restriction may be accompanied by insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The objective of this review was to assess whether significant depletion of LCPUFA can be detected in PKU patients on low-protein diet and whether LCPUFA supplementation is an effective way to increase the availability of LCPUFA in PKU patients. The method included structured search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction procedure, and meta-analysis. We evaluated 9 case-control studies and 6 randomized controlled trials, dated from the inception of the databases to 2012. The meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed significantly lower values of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all biomarkers investigated and that of arachidonic acid in total plasma lipids in PKU patients as compared with healthy controls. There were sufficient data to demonstrate that dietary DHA supplementation of patients with PKU significantly increases the contribution of DHA to total plasma lipids. In summary, suboptimal LCPUFA status, especially that of n-3 LCPUFA, can be detected in PKU patients. Supplementing DHA to the diet of PKU patients may improve their LCPUFA status; however, further research is needed to determine the optimal supplementation dosage and to establish beneficial functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  4. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  5. A neural network detection system for lower-hybrid cavities in electron plasma density measured by the FREJA satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemark, J.; Karlsson, Jan

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents a lower-hybrid cavity detection system, CDS, for measurements of electron plasma density on the FREJA satellite wave experiment. The system can reduce the amount of data to be analysed by as much as 96% and still retain more than 85% of the desired information. The CDS is a combination of a hybrid neural network, HNN and expert rules. The HNN is a Self Organizing Map, SOM, combined with a feed forward back propagation neural net, BP. The CDS can be controlled by the user to operate with various degrees of sensitivity. Maximum detection capability is as high as 95% with data reduction lowered to 85%. 10 refs

  6. Simulation of lower hybrid current drive in enhanced reversed shear plasmas in the tokamak fusion test reactor using the lower hybrid simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Enhanced Reversed Shear (ERS) mode has already shown great potential for improving the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and other devices. Sustaining the ERS, however, remains an outstanding problem. Lower hybrid (LH) current drive is a possible method for modifying the current profile and controlling its time evolution. To predict its effectiveness in TFTR, the Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) model is used in the TRANSP code and the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). Among the results from the simulations are the following. (1) Single-pass absorption is expected in TFTR ERS plasmas. The simulations show that the LH current follows isotherms of the electron temperature. The ability to control the location of the minimum in the q profile (q min ) has been demonstrated by varying the phase velocity of the launched LH waves and observing the change in the damping location. (2) LH current drive can been used to sustain the q min location. The tendency of qmin to drift inward, as the inductive current diffuses during the formation phase of the reversed shear discharge, is prevented by the LH current driven at a fixed radial location. If this results in an expanded plasma volume with improved confinement as high power neutral beam injection is applied, the high bootstrap currents induced during this phase can then maintain the larger qmin radius. (3) There should be no LH wave damping on energetic beam particles. The values of perpendicular index of refraction in the calculations never exceed about 20, while ions at TFR injection energies are resonant with waves having values closer to 100. Other issues being addressed in the study include the LH current drive efficiency in the presence of high bootstrap currents, and the effect of fast electron diffusion on LH current localization

  7. Generation of suprathermal electrons during plasma current startup by lower hybrid waves in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, K.; Toi, K.; Kawahata, K.

    1984-10-01

    Suprathermal electrons which carry a seed current are generated by non-resonant parametric decay instability during initial phase of lower hybrid current startup in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. From the numerical analysis, it is found that parametrically excited lower hybrid waves at lower side band can bridge the spectral gap between the thermal velocity and the low velocity end in the pump power spectrum. (author)

  8. Plasma bile acids are not associated with energy metabolism in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brufau Gemma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bile acids (BA have recently been shown to increase energy expenditure in mice, but this concept has not been tested in humans. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between plasma BA levels and energy expenditure in humans. Type 2 diabetic (T2DM patients (n = 12 and gender, age and BMI-matched healthy controls (n = 12 were studied before and after 8 weeks of treatment with a BA sequestrant. In addition, patients with liver cirrhosis (n = 46 were investigated, since these display elevated plasma BA together with increased energy expenditure. This group was compared to gender-, age- and BMI-matched healthy controls (n = 20. Fasting plasma levels of total BA and individual BA species as well as resting energy expenditure were determined. In response to treatment with the BA sequestrant, plasma deoxycholic acid (DCA levels decreased in controls (-60%, p

  9. Post hoc analysis of plasma amino acid profiles: towards a specific pattern in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, Jean-Baptiste; Patin, Franck; Lagrue, Emmanuelle; Le Tilly, Olivier; Bruno, Clement; Vuillaume, Marie-Laure; Raynaud, Martine; Benz-De Bretagne, Isabelle; Laumonnier, Frederic; Vourc'h, Patrick; Andres, Christian; Blasco, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability present a challenge for therapeutic and dietary management. We performed a re-analysis of plasma amino acid chromatography of children with autism spectrum disorders ( n = 22) or intellectual disability ( n = 29) to search for a metabolic signature that can distinguish individuals with these disorders from controls ( n = 30). Methods We performed univariate and multivariate analyses using different machine learning strategies, from the raw data of the amino acid chromatography. Finally, we analysed the metabolic pathways associated with discriminant biomarkers. Results Multivariate analysis revealed models to discriminate patients with autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability and controls from plasma amino acid profiles ( P intellectual disability patients shared similar differences relative to controls, including lower glutamate ( P intellectual disability revealed the involvement of urea, 3-methyl-histidine and histidine metabolism. Biosigner analysis and univariate analysis confirmed the role of 3-methylhistidine ( P = 0.004), histidine ( P = 0.003), urea ( P = 0.0006) and lysine ( P = 0.002). Conclusions We revealed discriminant metabolic patterns between autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and controls. Amino acids known to play a role in neurotransmission were discriminant in the models comparing autism spectrum disorders or intellectual disability to controls, and histidine and b-alanine metabolism was specifically highlighted in the model.

  10. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    expression through activation of the SREBPs. In the LDLR(-/-) background, hepatic S1P KD significantly reduced Blp-c levels. Hepatic S1P is a physiological modulator of plasma Blp metabolism through its regulation of LDLR and PCSK9. Hepatic S1P is a valid target for lowering plasma Blp-c levels in the situation where LDLR function is compromised.

  11. Study of lower hybrid wave propagation and absorption in a tokamak plasma using hard X-Ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbeaux, F.

    1999-01-01

    Control of the current density profile is a critical issue in view to obtain high fusion performances in tokamak plasmas? It is therefore important to be able to control the power deposition profile of the lower hybrid wave, which has the highest current drive efficiency among all other non-inductive additional methods. Propagation and absorption of this wave are investigated in the Tore Supra tokamak using a new hard x-ray tomographic system and a new ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck code. These tools are described in detail and allow to analyse the lower hybrid power deposition profile dependence as a function of various plasma parameters (density, magnetic field, current) and of the injected wave spectrum. A good agreement between the code and the measurements found when the central electron temperature is greater than about 3 keV, that is in regimes where the wave undergoes only a few reflections before being absorbed. The simulations are then used to interpret the experimental trends. The lower hybrid power deposition profile is in nearly all discharges localised at a normalised minor radius of 0.2-0.3, and is weakly sensitive to variations of plasma parameters. It is hence difficult to perform an efficient control of the current profile generated by the lower hybrid wave in Tore Supra. This goal may nevertheless be reached by using an original method, which uses an auxiliary lower hybrid wave injected by a vertical port of the torus. This method is investigated by means of the simulation code. (author)

  12. Effects of allopurinol on plasma uric acid levels in normouricaemic and hyperuricaemic green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Divers, S J; Martinez-Jimenez, D; Bush, S; Latimer, K S; Zwart, P; Kroeze, E J B Veldhuis

    2008-01-26

    A two-phase cross-over therapeutic study was performed with 19 green iguanas (Iguana iguana) maintained within a preferred optimum temperature range of 26 to 37 degrees C. During phase 1, they were fed a normal vegetarian diet and medicated orally with either allopurinol or a placebo control once a day for seven days. Uric acid concentrations, total protein, packed-cell volumes (pcv) and bodyweights were recorded from each lizard before and after treatment to determine the effects of allopurinol. In phase 2, after a 10-day washout period, the iguanas were fed a high protein diet to induce hyperuricaemia. Normo- and hyperuricaemic iguanas that received 24.2 (3.2) mg/kg allopurinol had significantly lower mean (sd) uric acid concentrations (100.3 [53.1] micromol/l) than the controls (159.3 [100.3] micromol/l). There were no detectable interactions between the doses of allopurinol or placebo, and the iguanas' diet, weight, pcv or total protein. The allopurinol was well tolerated, and there was no significant clinical, gross or histological evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity in the iguanas that received the drug. However, in the kidneys of the hyperuricaemic iguanas that did not receive allopurinol there were proliferative changes in the glomeruli and degeneration of tubular epithelia. Allopurinol given orally at 25 mg/kg daily is able to reduce plasma uric acid levels by 41 to 45 per cent, and is therefore recommended for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in the green iguana.

  13. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirover, William D; Liu, Yuguan; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Benz, Robert L; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Handelman, Garry J

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid [AA]) deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease, the effect of supplemental AA on plasma AA concentrations, and the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect plasma AA concentrations in this patient population. In study 1, we compared the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on plasma AA concentrations between patients with low and high pre-HD AA concentrations. In study 2, we analyzed kinetic and nonkinetic factors for their association with increased plasma AA concentrations in patients on maintenance HD. Study 1 was performed in a single outpatient HD clinic in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Study 2 was performed in 4 outpatient HD clinics in Southern New Jersey. In study 1, we collected plasma samples from 8 adult patients on maintenance HD at various time points around their HD treatment and assayed them for AA concentration. In study 2, we enrolled 203 adult patients and measured pre-HD plasma AA concentrations. We ascertained supplemental AA use and assessed dietary AA intake. In study 1, plasma AA concentrations were compared during the intradialytic and interdialytic period. In study 2, pre-HD plasma AA concentrations were correlated with supplement use and demographic factors. Study 1 showed that over the course of a single HD treatment, the plasma AA concentration decreased by a mean (±standard deviation) of 60% (±6.6). In study 2, the median pre-HD plasma AA concentration was 15.7 μM (interquartile range, 8.7-66.8) in patients who did not take a supplement and 50.6 μM (interquartile range, 25.1-88.8) in patients who did take a supplement (P HD plasma AA concentration ≥30 μM. HD depletes plasma AA concentrations, and AA supplementation allows patients to achieve higher plasma AA concentrations. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma Amino Acid Responses After Consumption of Beverages with Varying Protein Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    saturated fat Protein Total earbohydT;ltes dietary fiber soluble fiber total sugar lactose sucrose other carbohydrates (maltodextrin. cocoa powder...provided by the manufacturer, 6 Plasma Amino Acids 7 coagulate for 30 min before being centrifuged for 10 min at 3,600 rpm. Resulting plasma and serum...Therefore, consumers should be aware that these products might not contain the specific protein sources being advertised. Acknowledgment The authors

  15. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-01-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were m...

  16. Water table lowering to improve excavation performance and to reduce acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppe, J.C.; Costa, J.F.; Laurent, O. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses the water table level fluctuations using wells located adjacent to the stripping cuts at the Butia-Leste coal mine, southernmost of Brazil. Piezometers monitored the water table fluctuations. Geological mapping provided additional information aiding the interpretation of the results. A contouring software was also used as tool to aid the interpretation of the data and the results visualisation. The parameters necessary in selecting the location of the wells and pumping volumes were calculated from the data obtained in the water table lowering tests. The results were used to minimise two main problems: the generation of acid mine drainage and the reduction of the excavation performance of the fleet used in overburden removal. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations and urinary orotic acid excretion during long-term fasting in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Groff, J M; Fisher, C; Bee, D; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the changes in nitrogen balance, plasma free amino acid concentrations, urinary orotic acid excretion and body weight during long-term fasting in adult obese cats. Results from eight cats that fasted rather than eat an unpalatable diet are reported. After 5 to 6 wk of weight loss, six of the eight cats developed signs of hepatic lipidosis, and the livers of all cats were severely infiltrated with lipids. Cats lost (mean +/- SE) 33.2 +/- 1.4% of their pre-fasting body weight. Mean nitrogen balance (+/- SE) was -547 +/- 54 mg.d-1.kg-2/3 for the first week, and then the net nitrogen losses decreased to a plateau (-303 +/- 52 mg.d-1.kg-2/3) after 4 wk. Fasting was associated with a decrease in plasma concentration of essential amino acids. When plasma amino acid concentrations were considered individually, concentrations of alanine, methionine, taurine, citrulline, arginine and tryptophan decreased the most (> or = 50%), whereas concentrations of glutamine, glutamate and ornithine significantly increased. Orotic acid was not detected in the urine during the fast. After 1 wk of fasting, obese cats had reduced nitrogen excretion, but not to the same extent as has been shown in obese humans or obese rats. It is suggested that the availability of several amino acids may become limiting for liver protein synthesis during fasting and that these deficiencies may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis. Orotic acid was not linked to hepatic lipidosis caused by fasting in cats.

  18. Higher versus lower amino acid intake in parenteral nutrition for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, David A; Schindler, Tim; Jones, Lisa J; Sinn, John Kh; Bolisetty, Srinivas

    2018-03-05

    Sick newborn and preterm infants frequently are not able to be fed enterally, necessitating parenteral fluid and nutrition. Potential benefits of higher parenteral amino acid (AA) intake for improved nitrogen balance, growth, and infant health may be outweighed by the infant's ability to utilise high intake of parenteral AA, especially in the days after birth. The primary objective is to determine whether higher versus lower intake of parenteral AA is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival in newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition.Secondary objectives include determining whether:• higher versus lower starting or initial intake of amino acids is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects;• higher versus lower intake of amino acids at maximal intake is associated with improved growth and disability-free survival without side effects; and• increased amino acid intake should replace non-protein energy intake (glucose and lipid), should be added to non-protein energy intake, or should be provided simultaneously with non-protein energy intake.We conducted subgroup analyses to look for any differences in the effects of higher versus lower intake of amino acids according to gestational age, birth weight, age at commencement, and condition of the infant, or concomitant increases in fluid intake. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2 June 2017), MEDLINE (1966 to 2 June 2017), Embase (1980 to 2 June 2017), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 2 June 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and citations of articles. Randomised controlled trials of higher versus lower intake of AAs as parenteral nutrition in newborn infants. Comparisons of higher intake at commencement, at maximal intake, and at both commencement and maximal

  19. The observation of nitric acid-containing particles in the tropical lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Popp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne in situ measurements over the eastern Pacific Ocean in January 2004 have revealed a new category of nitric acid (HNO3-containing particles in the tropical lower stratosphere. These particles are most likely composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT. They were intermittently observed in a narrow layer above the tropopause (18±0.1 km and over a broad geographic extent (>1100 km. In contrast to the background liquid sulfate aerosol, these particles are solid, much larger (1.7-4.7 µm vs. 0.1µm in diameter, and significantly less abundant (-4 cm-3 vs. 10 cm-3. Microphysical trajectory models suggest that the NAT particles grow over a 6-14 day period in supersaturated air that remains close to the tropical tropopause and might be a common feature in the tropics. The small number density of these particles implies a highly selective or slow nucleation process. Understanding the formation of solid NAT particles in the tropics could improve our understanding of stratospheric nucleation processes and, therefore, dehydration and denitrification.

  20. Laboratory generated artifacts in plasma amino acid quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth Nanjunda Rao

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The pace of physicians? involvement in amino acid metabolism has been enormous in the last five decades. With further development of technology to identify and quantitate upto picomoles of amino acids, their metabolites and related peptides, diagnosis and effective medical intervention in cases of inherited metabolic disorders have been well within the reach of the clinician. Automatic amino acid analyzers have become an essential part of major medical and research centers around the world. The technology has come indeed as a boon to physicians who in particular deal with inherited defects of amino acid metabolism. However, the technology comes with the risk of major deviations from the actual results when a few minor variations are not looked into. Trivial variations in basic steps of obtaining the sample, the choice of anticoagulant, hemolysis etc. can cause significant variations in the resulting values, particularly while dealing with inherited defects of amino acid metabolism and their treatment/management. Effects of such factors are revisited here for the benefit of the modern day laboratory personnel.

  1. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study...... the absorption of phenolic acids. The difference between the artery and the vein for all phenolic acids was small, indicating that the release of phenolic acids in the large intestine was not sufficient to create a porto-arterial concentration difference. Although, the porto-arterial difference was small...... consumed. Benzoic acid derivatives showed low concentration in the plasma (phenolic acids, likely because it is an intermediate in the phenolic acid metabolism...

  2. The issue of HPLC determination of endogenous lipoic acid in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechovcová, Soňa; Královcová, Pavla; Kanďár, Roman; Ventura, Karel

    2018-05-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is used extensively as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases. Many methods have been reported for the determination of LA plasma levels and its metabolites after its supplementation, but available information concerning endogenous plasma levels is still scarce. Studies which directly focused on determining the endogenous plasma levels provided highly controversial results, endogenous plasma levels of LA: 2.4 and 4.9 nmol/L respectively. However, the levels of free LA in the plasma of nonsupplemented voluntary blood donors were not detectable in all cases. The presented results of our study show that endogenous concentrations of LA are <1.85 nmol/L. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Acid gas degradation by non-thermal plasma and energy estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia-Barrientos, R; Pacheco-Sotelo, J; Pacheco-Pacheco, M; Rivera-Rodríguez, C; Ibañez-Olvera, M; Estrada-Martinez, N; Silva-Rosas, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method to estimate the energy efficiency in the system performed to treat acid gases by plasma discharges. The electrical energy consumed by the plasma is evaluated by an electrical diagnosis, taking into account the experimental voltage and current applied to the power source. The estimation of the electrical energy generated by solid oxide fuel cells is based on the method of modeling the energy produced by the species generated by the plasma discharge and taking also into account the temperature of the gases.

  4. Effect of dietary proteins on the incorporation of amino acids in plasma proteins of ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, Usha R.; Singh, U.B.; Kumar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on nine male calves (Hariana x Holstein) of about one and a half years of age and fed different amounts of crude protein. 14 C-DL-leucine was injected into the blood of the animals and specific radioactivity of plasma protein measured. There was linear correlation between nitrogen ingested, digested and retained by the animals and the specific radioactivity of total plasma proteins. The experiments suggest the possible use of the incorporation of amino acids into plasma proteins as an index of nutritional status of the animals. (auth.)

  5. Plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenics: supportive evidence for the two-subtype hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Lee, C F; Lung, F W; Lee, T C; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Yeh, E K; Chang, W H

    1989-06-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a major metabolite of dopamine (DA), were measured in a group of 51 schizophrenic inpatients before and during 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. Steady-state plasma drug concentrations were monitored in parallel with pHVA. Good responders (n = 22) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels as compared to poor responders (n = 22). Differential pHVA changes during neuroleptic treatment were also found between each group. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, duration of illness, severity of presenting symptoms, neuroleptic, dose, or plasma drug concentration. Two hypothetical subtypes in the group of schizophrenics were proposed.

  6. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  7. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-10-29

    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain.

  8. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefo....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure.......OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...

  9. Radio frequency plasma heating in large tokamak systems near the lower hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Hooke, W.M.

    1975-01-01

    The frequency range, power, efficiency, and pulse length of a high power rf system are discussed as they might be applied to the TFTR Tokamak facility as well as on a full scale reactor. Comparisons are made of the size, power output, and costs to obtain microwave power sufficient to satisfy the physics requirements. A new microwave feed concept is discussed which will improve the coupling of the microwave energy into the plasma. The unique advantages of waveguide feed systems is apparent when one considers the practical problems associated with coupling supplementary heating energy into a reactor

  10. Análise de ácidos graxos em plasma humano Analysis of fatty acids in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse fascículo da revista, o estudo de Morais et al. (2010 avaliou quatro metodologias clássicas de extração de lipídeos (métodos de Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb e Gerber e uma técnica alternativa, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da extração e a composição em ácidos graxos de plasma humano. O método alternativo proposto pelos autores usou o forno de micro-ondas como ferramenta e foi considerado muito rápido na extração lipídica e adequado na identificação de ácidos graxos, mas não em sua quantificação. O método de extração mais indicado para quantificação de ácidos graxos em plasma humano foi o método de Folch.In this issue of the journal, the study by Morais et al. (2010 evaluated four classical methodologies of lipid extraction (methods of Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb and Gerber, and an alternative technique, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction and fatty acid composition of human plasma. The alternative method proposed by the authors used the microwave oven as a tool, and was considered very fast in lipid extraction and identification of fatty acids, but not in their quantification. The most suitable extraction method for quantification of fatty acids in human plasma was the method of Folch.

  11. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Jun 2012 | Vol 2 | Issue 1 |. Address for ... acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood cell production or morphology may be affected. Objective: To .... Morley A. A platelet cycle in normal individuals. Austr Ann ... practices and the role of mothers and community health.

  12. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco snuffing, like cigarette smoking, is known to be a common habit among the adults of Igbo communities in Nigeria. In view of the various pharmacological actions of nicotine and other additive constituents of tobacco snuff, there is growing concern that ascorbic acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood ...

  13. Coupling properties and edge plasma interaction characteristics of the new Tore Supra lower hybrid antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibet, Ph.; Fuchs, V.; Mailloux, J.

    1999-01-01

    A significant part of the non-inductive in Tore Supra will be driven by a new launcher, to be installed in September 1999. The antenna phase 2 is made of 6 rows with 48 active waveguides and 9 passive ones in each. Passive waveguides are inserted at every 6. active one. This grill has been designed in the frame of the CIEL project. It will inject 4 MW at 3.7 GHz at a safe power density of 25 MW/m 2 for a pulse length of 1000 s. The radiated spectrum peaks at N // = 2.03 with a possible variation of ± 0.35 and a FWHM of 0.35. In order to prepare for operation with this grill, the coupling properties and the power directivity of the radiated spectra have been studied as a function of: the electron density and electron density gradient ; the feeding phase shift between the 8 antenna modules; the geometry of the antenna. Furthermore, the interaction of plasma edge electrons with the antenna is analysed and a comparison with the previous Tore Supra antenna is made. This is done for a range of plasma parameters and feeding phase. (authors)

  14. Modified electron-acoustic and lower-hybrid drift dissipative instability in a two-electron temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, M.

    1989-01-01

    It is often found, in fusion devices as well as in the auroral ionosphere, that the electrons consist of two distinct group, viz., hot and cold. These two-temperature electron model is sometimes convenient for analytical purposes. Thus the authors have considered a two-temperature electron plasma. In this paper, they investigated analytically the drift dissipative instabilities of modified electron-acoustic and lower-hybrid wve in a two-electron temperature plasma. It is found that the modified electron-acoustic drift dissipative mode are strongly dependent on the number density of cold electrons. From the expression of the growth rate, it is clear that these cold electrons can control the growth of this mode as well

  15. Psychopathological and nutritional correlates of plasma homovanillic acid in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramón; Baeza, Immaculada; Casulà, Vanessa; Saura, Begoña; Lázaro, Luisa; Puig, Josefina; Toro, Josep; Bernardo, Miquel

    2008-02-01

    Dopaminergic abnormalities have been described in anorexia nervosa but studies about plasma level of homovanillic acid (pHVA) have yielded conflicting results probably due to the small number and the heterogeneity of patients. Plasma HVA, nutritional and hormonal parameters and several scales - the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Leyton Obsessional Inventory-child version (LOI-C) and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) - were assessed in 44 adolescent anorexia nervosa patients (mean age 14.7 years, SD 1.7) consecutively admitted to an Eating Disorder Unit. They were evaluated at admission, at discharge and, in 34 cases, after 9 months of follow-up. pHVA was also assessed in 16 control adolescents. Patients had significantly higher pHVA than controls (p = .002). About 31% of patients had a very high level of pHVA, a significantly higher (p = .006) mean score in the BDI and a non significantly higher mean score in the EAT. After weight recovery some laboratory parameters improved as well as the EAT (p = .019), the BDI (p = 001) and the Interference score of the LOI-C (p = .004). Moreover, pHVA decreased significantly (p=.036). At follow-up, patients with normal weight had lower (p = .037) pHVA than patients with low weight. The conclusion would be that there is a dopaminergic dysfunction in anorexic patients, specially in a subgroup with high depressive and anorexic symptomatology. With weight recovery and psychopathological improvement, pHVA tends to normalization.

  16. Plasma homovanillic acid differences in clinical subgroups of first episode schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramon; de la Serna, Elena; Goti, Javier; Salvà, Joan; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluates the relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, which have been used to study the role of central dopamine in schizophrenia, and the positive/negative syndrome in first episode schizophrenic patients before and after antipsychotic treatment. Forty neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients were monitored at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical status was evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale. Plasma HVA levels were also measured. Patients were divided into predominantly positive or negative syndrome groups by subtracting SAPS from SANS scores, at baseline. A healthy control group was also enrolled. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly higher pHVA levels than controls at baseline (20.50+/-11.85 vs. 13.04+/-7.22 ng/ml). Moreover, 12 predominantly negative syndrome patients had similar mean baseline pHVA levels (21.30+/-12.36 ng/ml) to those of 28 predominantly positive syndrome patients (19.40+/-11.33 ng/ml). During follow-up, there was a different evolution of pHVA levels in the predominantly positive syndrome group than in the predominantly negative syndrome group, with a significantly greater global reduction of pHVA levels in the former. Although both groups showed clinical improvement following 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone, pHVA levels at endpoint were lower (13.29+/-5.91 ng/ml) than at baseline in patients in the predominantly positive syndrome group, while among those in the predominantly negative syndrome group there was no difference in pHVA levels before and after treatment (21.02+/-13.06 ng/ml). The different pHVA level profiles observed in predominantly positive and negative syndrome first episode patients after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone suggest that each syndrome may have a different underlying neurobiology.

  17. Plasma Amino Acids vs Conventional Predictors of Insulin Resistance Measured by the Hyperinsulinemic Clamp

    OpenAIRE

    Labonte, Cherise C.; Farsijani, Samaneh; Marliss, Errol B.; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Morais, José A.; Pereira, Sandra; Bassil, Maya; Winter, Aaron; Murphy, Jessica; Combs, Terry P.; Chevalier, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Context: Specific plasma amino acid (AA) profiles including elevated postabsorptive branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been associated with insulin resistance (IR), mostly estimated by homeostatic model assessment. This study assessed the associations of postabsorptive AAs with IR directly measured by insulin-mediated glucose disposal and determined the quantitative value of AAs and conventional IR predictors. Design: Fifty-one healthy, 31 overweight or obese (Ow/Ob), and 52 men and wome...

  18. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma ami...

  19. The Interpretation of Cholesterol Balance Derived Synthesis Data and Surrogate Noncholesterol Plasma Markers for Cholesterol Synthesis under Lipid Lowering Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Stellaard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol balance procedure allows the calculation of cholesterol synthesis based on the assumption that loss of endogenous cholesterol via fecal excretion and bile acid synthesis is compensated by de novo synthesis. Under ezetimibe therapy hepatic cholesterol is diminished which can be compensated by hepatic de novo synthesis and hepatic extraction of plasma cholesterol. The plasma lathosterol concentration corrected for total cholesterol concentration (R_Lath as a marker of de novo cholesterol synthesis is increased during ezetimibe treatment but unchanged under treatment with ezetimibe and simvastatin. Cholesterol balance derived synthesis data increase during both therapies. We hypothesize the following. (1 The cholesterol balance data must be applied to the hepatobiliary cholesterol pool. (2 The calculated cholesterol synthesis value is the sum of hepatic de novo synthesis and the net plasma—liver cholesterol exchange rate. (3 The reduced rate of biliary cholesterol absorption is the major trigger for the regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism under ezetimibe treatment. Supportive experimental and literature data are presented that describe changes of cholesterol fluxes under ezetimibe, statin, and combined treatments in omnivores and vegans, link plasma R_Lath to liver function, and define hepatic de novo synthesis as target for regulation of synthesis. An ezetimibe dependent direct hepatic drug effect cannot be excluded.

  20. Aleurone flour increases red-cell folate and lowers plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter; Topping, David

    2005-03-01

    Aleurone flour (ALF) is a rich source of natural folate (>500 microg/100 g wet weight). Our objective was to establish whether intake of ALF in man can significantly improve folate status and reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine. We performed a randomised, controlled intervention, of 16 weeks duration, in free-living healthy individuals (mean age 46-52 years). Participants were assigned to one of three groups: ALF, 175 g bread made with ALF and placebo tablet each day; PCS, 175 g bread made with pericarp seed coat (PCS) flour and placebo tablet each day (low-folate control); or FA, 175 g bread made with PCS flour and tablet containing 640 microg folic acid each day (high-folate control). The daily folate intake contributed by the bread and tablet was 233 microg in the PCS group, 615 microg in the ALF group and 819 microg in the FA group. The number of participants completing all phases of the PCS, ALF and FA interventions was twenty-five, twenty-five and eighteen, respectively. Plasma and red-cell folate increased significantly (Pine decreased significantly (Pine in the ALF group decreased from 9.1 (8.2, 10.0) micromol/l at baseline to 6.8 (6.2, 7.5) micromol/l after 16 weeks. In conclusion, moderate dietary intake of ALF can increase red-cell folate and decrease plasma homocyst(e)ine substantially.

  1. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  2. Alteration in plasma free amino acid levels and its association with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahbub, M H; Yamaguchi, Natsu; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi-Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Kageyama, Naoko; Nakamura, Mina; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-03-16

    Studies on the association of plasma-free amino acids with gout are very limited and produced conflicting results. Therefore, we sought to explore and characterize the plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profile in patients with gout and evaluate its association with the latter. Data from a total of 819 subjects (including 34 patients with gout) undergoing an annual health examination program in Shimane, Japan were considered for this study. Venous blood samples were collected from the subjects and concentrations of 19 plasma amino acids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Student's t-test was applied for comparison of variables between patient and control groups. The relationships between the presence or absence of gout and individual amino acids were investigated by logistic regression analysis controlling for the effects of potential demographic confounders. Among 19 amino acids, the levels of 10 amino acids (alanine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, tryptophan, valine) differed significantly (P gout. The observed significant changes in PFAA profiles may have important implications for improving our understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis and prevention of gout. The findings of this study need further confirmation in future large-scale studies involving a larger number of patients with gout.

  3. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry.

  4. Fatty Acid Content of Plasma Triglycerides May Contribute to the Heterogeneity in the Relationship Between Abdominal Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Juan C; Barona, Jacqueline; Gonzalez-Zapata, Laura I; Deossa, Gloria C; Estrada, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    About one-third of the people with abdominal obesity do not exhibit the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fatty acids in plasma triglycerides (TGs) may help to explain part of this heterogeneity. This study compared TG fatty acid profile of adults with and without abdominal obesity and examined the associations of these fatty acids with MetS components. Fifty-four abdominally obese subjects were matched by age and sex with 54 adults without abdominal obesity. People were classified with MetS according to the harmonizing criteria for MetS. Fatty acids in plasma TGs were analyzed by gas chromatography. There were no differences in fatty acids of plasma TGs between people with and without abdominal obesity. However, there were differences between abdominally obese people with and without MetS. The abdominally obese group with MetS had higher palmitic (+2.9%; P = 0.012) and oleic (+4.0%; P = 0.001) acids and lower linoleic (-6.4%; P = 0.018) and arachidonic (-1.2%; P = 0.004) acids. After adjustment for abdominal obesity, age, and sex, a stepwise regression analysis showed that palmitic acid positively contributed to the variance in insulin (β = +1.08 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index (β = +1.09 ± 1.01; P = 0.000) and myristic acid positively contributed to the variance in systolic blood pressure (β = +1.09 ± 1.03; P = 0.006). In contrast, linoleic acid negatively contributed to the variance in glucose (β = -0.321 ± 0.09; P = 0.001) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; β = -1.05 ± 1.01; P = 0.000). There were no differences in the plasma TG fatty acid profile between people with and without abdominal obesity. Likewise, fatty acids in plasma TGs associated with many of the MetS variables independently of abdominal obesity. These results suggest that the plasma TG fatty acid profile may help to explain part of the heterogeneity

  5. Plasma Modification of Poly Lactic Acid Solutions to Generate High Quality Electrospun PLA Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nikiforov, Anton; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-02-02

    Physical properties of pre-electrospinning polymer solutions play a key role in electrospinning as they strongly determine the morphology of the obtained electrospun nanofibers. In this work, an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma directly submerged in the liquid-phase was used to modify the physical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) spinning solutions in an effort to improve their electrospinnability. The electrical characteristics of the plasma were investigated by two methods; V-I waveforms and Q-V Lissajous plots while the optical emission characteristics of the plasma were also determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). To perform a complete physical characterization of the plasma-modified polymer solutions, measurements of viscosity, surface tension, and electrical conductivity were performed for various PLA concentrations, plasma exposure times, gas flow rates, and applied voltages. Moreover, a fast intensified charge-couple device (ICCD) camera was used to image the bubble dynamics during the plasma treatments. In addition, morphological changes of PLA nanofibers generated from plasma-treated PLA solutions were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performed plasma treatments were found to induce significant changes to the main physical properties of the PLA solutions, leading to an enhancement of electrospinnability and an improvement of PLA nanofiber formation.

  6. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  7. Excitation of lower hybrid waves by electron beams in finite geometry plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, R.R.J.; Shoucri, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dispersion relations for the quasi-static lower hybrid surface waves are derived. Conditions for their existence and their linear excitation by a small density electron beam are discussed. Instabilities appearing in low-frequency surface waves are also discussed. (author)

  8. Plasma cytokines eotaxin, MIP-1α, MCP-4, and vascular endothelial growth factor in acute lower respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Relster, Mette Marie; Holm, Anette; Pedersen, Court

    2017-01-01

    ), monocyte chemoattractant protein 4 (MCP-4), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in 40 patients hospitalized with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI). The cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of several inflammatory respiratory diseases, indicating a potential as markers for LRTI....... Patients were stratified according to etiology and severity of LRTI, based on baseline C-reactive protein and CURB-65 scores. Using a multiplex immunoassay of plasma, levels of eotaxin and MCP-4 were shown to increase from baseline until day 6 after admission to hospital. The four cytokines were unable...

  9. Assessment on the capability of quasi-optical grill to launch lower hybrid waves in iter plasma. UE contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.; Preinhaelter, J.

    1998-12-01

    The quasi-optical grill has been considered as a convenient system to launch Lower Hybrid Waves in a reactor-like plasma. In recent years, efforts to study the capability and the efficiency of this launcher have been done in Europe with the intent to test it in a large experimental device. Even if this test is still missing, a wide analysis of different schemes of such a launcher is now available in the literature. This report is devoted to critically review this theoretical analysis and consequently to assess the convenience of using quasi-optical grill in future Tokamaks [it

  10. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aetiology of autism is unclear and autistic symptoms had been attributed to an abnormal functional imbalance in neurotransmitter amines such as dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin. Objective: To study plasma essential and non-essential amino acid levels, protein electrophoresis, serum ammonia, ...

  11. Plasma ascorbic acid, a priori diet quality score, and incident hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, D.R.; Steffen, L.M.; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other's predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and

  12. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were...

  13. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma Ascorbic Acid in Insulin and Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood glucose, plasma ascorbic acid and haemoglobin levels were estimated in insulin dependent diabetics, non-insulin dependent diabetics and controls matched for number, sex and age. Significantly higher levels of these parameters were found in control group than in the other two groups. Statistically differences were ...

  15. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  16. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  17. Plasma bile acids are not associated with energy metabolism in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brufau, Gemma; Bahr, Matthias J.; Staels, Bart; Claudel, Thierry; Ockenga, Johann; Boker, Klaus H. W.; Murphy, Elizabeth J.; Prado, Kris; Stellaard, Frans; Manns, Michael P.; Kuipers, Folkert; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) have recently been shown to increase energy expenditure in mice, but this concept has not been tested in humans. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between plasma BA levels and energy expenditure in humans. Type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients (n = 12) and gender, age and

  18. Selective enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in human plasma lipid motifs following intake of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic, age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids in human plasma are incorporated...

  19. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Mardinoglu A; Gogg S; Lotta LA; Stancáková A; Nerstedt A; Boren J; Blüher M; Ferrannini E; Langenberg C; Wareham NJ; Laakso M; Smith U

    2018-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB) has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR) using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D), we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associat...

  20. Lowering Low-Density Lipoprotein Particles in Plasma Using Dextran Sulphate Co-Precipitates Procoagulant Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma extracellular vesicles (EVs are lipid membrane vesicles involved in several biological processes including coagulation. Both coagulation and lipid metabolism are strongly associated with cardiovascular events. Lowering very-low- and low-density lipoprotein ((VLDL particles via dextran sulphate LDL apheresis also removes coagulation proteins. It remains unknown, however, how coagulation proteins are removed in apheresis. We hypothesize that plasma EVs that contain high levels of coagulation proteins are concomitantly removed with (VLDL particles by dextran sulphate apheresis. For this, we precipitated (VLDL particles from human plasma with dextran sulphate and analyzed the abundance of coagulation proteins and EVs in the precipitate. Coagulation pathway proteins, as demonstrated by proteomics and a bead-based immunoassay, were over-represented in the (VLDL precipitate. In this precipitate, both bilayer EVs and monolayer (VLDL particles were observed by electron microscopy. Separation of EVs from (VLDL particles using density gradient centrifugation revealed that almost all coagulation proteins were present in the EVs and not in the (VLDL particles. These EVs also showed a strong procoagulant activity. Our study suggests that dextran sulphate used in LDL apheresis may remove procoagulant EVs concomitantly with (VLDL particles, leading to a loss of coagulation proteins from the blood.

  1. Lower Plasma Fetuin-A Levels Are Associated With a Higher Mortality Risk in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuechen; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Li, Qing; Li, Yanping; Ling, Wenhua

    2017-11-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the association of circulating fetuin-A with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality. We measured plasma fetuin-A in 1620 patients using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The patients were members of the Guangdong coronary artery disease cohort and were recruited between October 2008 and December 2011. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma fetuin-A and the risk of mortality. A total of 206 deaths were recorded during a median follow-up of 5.9 years, 146 of whom died from CVD. The hazard ratios for the second and third tertiles of the fetuin-A levels (using the first tertile as a reference) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.96) and 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) for CVD mortality ( P =0.005) and 0.65 (95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.91) and 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.70) for all-cause mortality ( P <0.001), respectively. Lower plasma fetuin-A levels were associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in patients with coronary artery disease independently of traditional CVD risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ET and serum folic acid, vitamin B12 levels in patients with alzheimer diseases (AD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hongchao; Wang Jun; Jiang Jiandong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma endothelin(ET) and folic acid and Vitamin B 12 (VitB 12 ) levels in patients with Alzheimer diseases. Methods: Plasma levels of ET was determined with RIA and serum levels of Folic acid. VitaminB 12 were measured by automated chemiluminescence system in 41 patients with Alzheimer disease and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P 12 levels were significantly lower (P 12 levels were mutually negatively correlated (r=-0.6018, -0.7124, P 12 levels was helpful for the prediction of treatment efficacy in patients with Alzheimer disease. (authors)

  3. SEC24A deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol through reduced PCSK9 secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, He; Bajaj, Kanika; Zhang, Pengcheng; Meng, Zhuo-Xian; Ma, Danjun; Bai, Yongsheng; Liu, Hui-Hui; Adams, Elizabeth; Baines, Andrea; Yu, Genggeng; Sartor, Maureen A; Zhang, Bin; Yi, Zhengping; Lin, Jiandie; Young, Stephen G; Schekman, Randy; Ginsburg, David

    2013-01-01

    The secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells packages cargo proteins into COPII-coated vesicles for transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. We now report that complete genetic deficiency for the COPII component SEC24A is compatible with normal survival and development in the mouse, despite the fundamental role of SEC24 in COPII vesicle formation and cargo recruitment. However, these animals exhibit markedly reduced plasma cholesterol, with mutations in Apoe and Ldlr epistatic to Sec24a, suggesting a receptor-mediated lipoprotein clearance mechanism. Consistent with these data, hepatic LDLR levels are up-regulated in SEC24A-deficient cells as a consequence of specific dependence of PCSK9, a negative regulator of LDLR, on SEC24A for efficient exit from the ER. Our findings also identify partial overlap in cargo selectivity between SEC24A and SEC24B, suggesting a previously unappreciated heterogeneity in the recruitment of secretory proteins to the COPII vesicles that extends to soluble as well as trans-membrane cargoes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00444.001 PMID:23580231

  4. Study on Energetic Ions Behavior in Plasma Facing Materials at Lower Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Y.; Sugiyama, T.; Akahori, S.; Kodama, H.; Tega, E.; Sasaki, M.; Oyaidu, M.; Kimura, H.; Okuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus equipped with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) was constructed to study interactions of energetic hydrogen isotopes with plasma facing materials. It is a remarkable feature of the apparatus that energetic ion implantation is carried out at around 150K to study reactions of energetic ions with matrix by suppressing the reactions of thermalized ions. Using this apparatus, TDS experiments for pyrolytic graphite implanted with energetic D 2 ions at 173 and 373K were carried out. The experimental results suggest that the deuterium implanted was released through a four-step release processes, involving three D 2 and one CD x (x = 2, 3 and 4) desorption processes. Two deuterium and CD x desorption processes were observed in the temperature range from 700 to 1200 K. In addition, a new deuterium desorption process was observed for the deuterium-implanted sample at 173 K. This has never been observed for deuterium-implanted graphite implanted at temperatures higher than room temperature

  5. Myotoxic reactions to lipid-lowering therapy are associated with altered oxidation of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paul S; Ciaraldi, Theodore P; Kim, Dong-Lim; Verity, M Anthony; Wolfson, Tanya; Henry, Robert R

    2009-02-01

    Despite exceptional efficacy and safety, fear of muscle toxicity remains a major reason statins are underutilized. Evidence suggests that statin muscle toxicity may be mediated by abnormalities in lipid metabolism. To test the hypothesis that myotubes from patients intolerant of lipid-lowering therapies have abnormal fatty acid oxidation (FAO) responses we compared muscle from 11 subjects with statin intolerance (Intolerant) with muscle from seven statin-naive volunteers undergoing knee arthroplasty (Comparator). Gross muscle pathology was graded and skeletal muscle cell cultures were produced from each subject. FAO was assessed following treatment with increasing statin concentrations. There was no difference in muscle biopsy myopathy scores between the groups. Basal octanoate oxidation was greater in Intolerant than in Comparator subjects (P = 0.03). Lovastatin-stimulated palmitate oxidation tended to be greater for Intolerant compared to Control subjects' myotubes (P = 0.07 for 5 microM and P = 0.06 for 20 microM lovastatin). In conclusion abnormalities in FAO of Intolerant subjects appear to be an intrinsic characteristic of these subjects that can be measured in their cultured myotubes.

  6. On the formation of sulfuric acid-water particles via homogeneous nucleation in the lower troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerminen, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    Production of new sulfur derived particles via homogeneous nucleation between sulfuric acid and water vapors, and other related aerosol processes taking place in a variety of tropospheric environments, were studied using theoretical and model approaches. For nucleation to occur in the lower troposphere, cool and humid conditions combined with relatively strong solar radiation were usually required. Regardless of the system concerned, production of nuclei was found to be favored also by high SO{sub 2}(g) to fine particulate matter ratios. Urban post-fog situations, which are encountered commonly during severe air pollution episodes, were shown to favor new particle production considerably above the corresponding `background` conditions. A simple procedure for evaluating post-fog nucleation probabilities from routinely obtained data was developed and applied to real aerosol systems. Nucleation in the remote marine environment, which is an essential phenomenon in linking natural sulfur emissions to global climate change, was studied from a dynamic point of view. It was demonstrated that new particle production occurs more often in association with relative humidity transitions typical for many boundary layer processes than under averaged or steady conditions of the kind assumed explicitly in most earlier model studies. Power plant plumes were shown to be a particularly significant source of atmospheric nuclei, due primarily to their frequently high SO{sub 2}-to-particulate matter ratios. Factors affecting the probability of nucleation during plume dispersion were examined in detail, and finally, strategies for the control of in-plume particle production were analyzed. (author)

  7. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-05-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were measured, and psychiatric symptoms were scored. In the NDS patients, both positive and negative symptoms improved. However, only the positive symptom scores changed in the DS patients. On day 4, pHVA concentrations of the NDS patients alone were significantly elevated. Plasma bromperidol concentrations did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that bromperidol exerts different effects on negative symptoms and pHVA concentrations between NDS and DS patients, effects that are unrelated to plasma bromperidol concentrations.

  8. Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brandilyn A; Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Parvez, Faruque; Sanchez, Tiffany R; van Geen, Alexander; Mey, Jacob L; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Islam, Tariqul; Balac, Olgica; Ilievski, Vesna; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that > 140 million people worldwide are exposed to arsenic (As)-contaminated drinking water. As undergoes biologic methylation, which facilitates renal As elimination. In folate-deficient individuals, this process is augmented by folic acid (FA) supplementation, thereby lowering blood As (bAs). Creatinine concentrations in urine are a robust predictor of As methylation patterns. Although the reasons for this are unclear, creatine synthesis is a major consumer of methyl donors, and this synthesis is down-regulated by dietary/supplemental creatine. Our aim was to determine whether 400 or 800 μg FA and/or creatine supplementation lowers bAs in an As-exposed Bangladeshi population. We conducted a clinical trial in which 622 participants were randomized to receive 400 μg FA, 800 μg FA, 3 g creatine, 3 g creatine+400 μg FA, or placebo daily. All participants received an As-removal filter on enrollment, and were followed for 24 weeks. After the 12th week, half of the two FA groups were switched to placebo to evaluate post-treatment bAs patterns. Linear models with repeated measures indicated that the decline in ln(bAs) from baseline in the 800-μg FA group exceeded that of the placebo group (weeks 1-12: β= -0.09, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.01; weeks 13-24: FA continued: β= -0.12, 95% CI: -0.24, -0.00; FA switched to placebo: β= -0.14, 95% CI: -0.26, -0.02). There was no rebound in bAs related to cessation of FA supplementation. Declines in bAs observed in the remaining treatment arms were not significantly different from those of the placebo group. In this mixed folate-deficient/replete study population, 12- and 24-week treatment with 800 μg (but not 400 μg) FA lowered bAs to a greater extent than placebo; this was sustained 12 weeks after FA cessation. In future studies, we will evaluate whether FA and/or creatine altered As methylation profiles.

  9. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-05

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs.

  10. A sulfur amino acid-free meal increases plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J; Lee, Kichun S; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2011-08-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18-36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma (1)H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma (1)H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism.

  11. Nonlinear coupling of lower-hybrid waves at the edge of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapchev, V.B.; Theilhaber, K.S.; Ko, K.C.; Bers, A.

    1981-01-01

    We solve the steady-state coupling problem of lower-hybrid waves excited by a waveguide array. The theory takes into account the ponderomotive density modulation to all orders in the electric field amplitude but assumes that the nonlinear effects are important only along the magnetic field lines. The important new feature is the appearance of a resonant term in the transverse refractive index, which is due to the finite size of the excitation structure. A calculation for two waveguides, linear density profile, and constant temperature is presented

  12. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... the two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient...

  13. Acid etching and plasma sterilization fail to improve osseointegration of grit blasted titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mikkel Saksø; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Saksø, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interaction between implant surface and surrounding bone influences implant fixation. We attempted to improve the bone-implant interaction by 1) adding surface micro scale topography by acid etching, and 2) removing surface-adherent pro-inflammatory agents by plasma cleaning. Implant fixation...... was evaluated by implant osseointegration and biomechanical fixation.The study consisted of two paired animal sub-studies where 10 skeletally mature Labrador dogs were used. Grit blasted titanium alloy implants were inserted press fit in each proximal tibia. In the first study grit blasted implants were...... compared with acid etched grit blasted implants. In the second study grit blasted implants were compared with acid etched grit blasted implants that were further treated with plasma sterilization. Implant performance was evaluated by histomorphometrical investigation (tissue-to-implant contact, peri-implant...

  14. Acid-Base and Plasma Biochemical Changes Using Crystalloid Fluids in Stranded Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Quintana, María Del Pino; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and effects on acid-base and electrolyte status of several crystalloid fluids in 57 stranded juvenile loggerhead turtles. Within a rehabilitation program four different crystalloid fluids were administered (0.9% Na Cl solution; 5% dextrose + 0.9% Na Cl solutions 1:1; 0.9% Na Cl + lactated Ringer's solutions 1:1; lactated Ringer's solution). Crystalloid fluids were intracoelomically administered during three days (20 ml/kg/day). Animals were sampled at three different moments: Upon admission for evaluating the type of acid-base or biochemical disorder, post-fluid therapy treatment for controlling the evolution of the disorder, and post-recovery period for obtaining the baseline values for rehabilitated loggerhead turtles. Each sample was analyzed with a portable electronic blood analyzer for pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose, and BUN concentration. Admission and post-fluid therapy treatment values were compared with those obtained for each turtle immediately before release. The highest percentage of acid-base recovery and electrolyte balance was observed in turtles treated with mixed saline-lactated Ringer's solution (63.6%), followed by turtles treated with physiological saline solution (55%), lactated Ringer's solution (33.3%), and dextrose-saline solutions (10%). Most turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had lower lactate concentrations compared with their initial values; however, 66.6% of turtles treated with lactated Ringer's solution had metabolic alkalosis after therapy. Significant higher concentrations of glucose were detected after saline-dextrose administration compared with all the remaining fluids. This is the first study evaluating the effects of several crystalloid fluids on the acid-base status and plasma biochemical values in stranded loggerhead sea turtles. Reference convalescent venous blood gas, acid-base, and plasma biochemical values, useful for veterinary

  15. Bone marrow endothelial progenitors augment atherosclerotic plaque regression in a mouse model of plasma lipid lowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Longbiao; Heuser-Baker, Janet; Herlea-Pana, Oana; Iida, Ryuji; Wang, Qilong; Zou, Ming-Hui; Barlic-Dicen, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The major event initiating atherosclerosis is hypercholesterolemia-induced disruption of vascular endothelium integrity. In settings of endothelial damage, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are mobilized from bone marrow into circulation and home to sites of vascular injury where they aid endothelial regeneration. Given the beneficial effects of EPCs in vascular repair, we hypothesized that these cells play a pivotal role in atherosclerosis regression. We tested our hypothesis in the atherosclerosis-prone mouse model in which hypercholesterolemia, one of the main factors affecting EPC homeostasis, is reversible (Reversa mice). In these mice normalization of plasma lipids decreased atherosclerotic burden; however, plaque regression was incomplete. To explore whether endothelial progenitors contribute to atherosclerosis regression, bone marrow EPCs from a transgenic strain expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of endothelial cell-specific Tie2 promoter (Tie2-GFP+) were isolated. These cells were then adoptively transferred into atheroregressing Reversa recipients where they augmented plaque regression induced by reversal of hypercholesterolemia. Advanced plaque regression correlated with engraftment of Tie2-GFP+ EPCs into endothelium and resulted in an increase in atheroprotective nitric oxide and improved vascular relaxation. Similarly augmented plaque regression was also detected in regressing Reversa mice treated with the stem cell mobilizer AMD3100 which also mobilizes EPCs to peripheral blood. We conclude that correction of hypercholesterolemia in Reversa mice leads to partial plaque regression that can be augmented by AMD3100 treatment or by adoptive transfer of EPCs. This suggests that direct cell therapy or indirect progenitor cell mobilization therapy may be used in combination with statins to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23081735

  16. Particle simulation on the propagation and plasma heating of the lower hybrid wave in the nonuniform system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hirotada; Kajitani, Hiroyuki; Itatani, Ryohei.

    1977-07-01

    A particle simulation model which treats the wave excitation and propagation in the nonuniform density by the external source is developed and applied for study of the lower hybrid heating in a fusion device. As the linear theory predicts, the cold lower hybrid wave is observed to increase its perpendicular wave number as it propagates to the higher density region and to damp away near the turning point. When the wave amplitude is large or the wave energy is about a half of the initial kinetic energy at a surface of plasma, the following features are observed for the increase of the ion and electron kinetic energies. Ion perpendicular energy distributions are observed to be approximated by the two Maxwell distributions or to have the components of the high energy tail, whose parallel velocities satisfy the resonance condition: νparallel = (ω-IOTAΩ sub(iota))/kappa parallel, where ω and kappa parallel the frequency and the parallel wave number of the external source, IOTA is an integer, and Ω sub(iota) is the ion cyclotron frequency. An strong increase of the parallel kinetic energy of the electron is observed near the plasma surface. These are mainly due to the trapped electrons and the collisional heating. (auth.)

  17. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 /sup 123/I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble (France)); Vidal, M. (U.S.M.G., 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of /sup 123/I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid.

  18. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 123I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of 123 I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid [fr

  19. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r=0.522 (P<0.01) and r=0.42 (P<0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P<0.01 between groups). These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis.

  20. Palmitic acid follows a different metabolic pathway than oleic acid in human skeletal muscle cells; lower lipolysis rate despite an increased level of adipose triglyceride lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Siril S; Moro, Cedric; Nikolić, Nataša; Hessvik, Nina P; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Lauvhaug, Line; Fredriksson, Katarina; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Boekschoten, Mark V; Kersten, Sander; Gaster, Michael; Thoresen, G Hege; Rustan, Arild C

    2012-10-01

    Development of insulin resistance is positively associated with dietary saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with monounsaturated fatty acids. To clarify aspects of this difference we have compared the metabolism of oleic (OA, monounsaturated) and palmitic acids (PA, saturated) in human myotubes. Human myotubes were treated with 100μM OA or PA and the metabolism of [(14)C]-labeled fatty acid was studied. We observed that PA had a lower lipolysis rate than OA, despite a more than two-fold higher protein level of adipose triglyceride lipase after 24h incubation with PA. PA was less incorporated into triacylglycerol and more incorporated into phospholipids after 24h. Supporting this, incubation with compounds modifying lipolysis and reesterification pathways suggested a less influenced PA than OA metabolism. In addition, PA showed a lower accumulation than OA, though PA was oxidized to a relatively higher extent than OA. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that 24h of PA treatment upregulated lipogenesis and fatty acid β-oxidation and downregulated oxidative phosphorylation compared to OA. The differences in lipid accumulation and lipolysis between OA and PA were eliminated in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid (polyunsaturated fatty acid). In conclusion, this study reveals that the two most abundant fatty acids in our diet are partitioned toward different metabolic pathways in muscle cells, and this may be relevant to understand the link between dietary fat and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  2. Acrylic acid grafted PDMS preliminary activated by Ar{sup +}beam plasma and cell observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, A.; Zaekov, N. [Institute of Biophysics, BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Keranov, I. [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy (UCTM), Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma based Ar{sup +} beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar{sup +}beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or ba resurfaces. The cell response seem sto be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar{sup +} beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting. Key words: Biomaterials; Surface treatment of PDMS; Plasma based Ar{sup +} beam; Acrylic acid grafting; Fibroblast cells.

  3. Autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid axis is a novel molecular target for lowering intraocular pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Iyer

    Full Text Available Primary open-angle glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness in the United States and is commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP resulting from diminished aqueous humor (AH drainage through the trabecular pathway. Developing effective therapies for increased IOP in glaucoma patients requires identification and characterization of molecular mechanisms that regulate IOP and AH outflow. This study describes the identification and role of autotaxin (ATX, a secretory protein and a major source for extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, in regulation of IOP in a rabbit model. Quantitative proteomics analysis identified ATX as an abundant protein in both human AH derived from non-glaucoma subjects and in AH from different animal species. The lysophospholipase D (LysoPLD activity of ATX was found to be significantly elevated (by ∼1.8 fold; n=20 in AH derived from human primary open angle glaucoma patients as compared to AH derived from age-matched cataract control patients. Immunoblotting analysis of conditioned media derived from primary cultures of human trabecular meshwork (HTM cells has confirmed secretion of ATX and the ability of cyclic mechanical stretch of TM cells to increase the levels of secreted ATX. Topical application of a small molecular chemical inhibitor of ATX (S32826, which inhibited AH LysoPLD activity in vitro (by >90%, led to a dose-dependent and significant decrease of IOP in Dutch-Belted rabbits. Single intracameral injection of S32826 (∼2 µM led to significant reduction of IOP in rabbits, with the ocular hypotensive response lasting for more than 48 hrs. Suppression of ATX expression in HTM cells using small-interfering RNA (siRNA caused a decrease in actin stress fibers and myosin light chain phosphorylation. Collectively, these observations indicate that the ATX-LPA axis represents a potential therapeutic target for lowering IOP in glaucoma patients.

  4. Lower levels of uric acid and striatal dopamine in non-tremor dominant Parkinson's disease subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Huertas

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD patients who present with tremor and maintain a predominance of tremor have a better prognosis. Similarly, PD patients with high levels of uric acid (UA, a natural neuroprotectant, have also a better disease course. Our aim was to investigate whether PD motor subtypes differ in their levels of UA, and if these differences correlate with the degree of dopamine transporter (DAT availability. We included 75 PD patients from whom we collected information about their motor symptoms, DAT imaging and UA concentration levels. Based on the predominance of their motor symptoms, patients were classified into postural instability and gait disorder (PIGD, n = 36, intermediate (I, n = 22, and tremor-dominant (TD, n = 17 subtypes. The levels of UA and striatal DAT were compared across subtypes and the correlation between these two measures was also explored. We found that PIGD patients had lower levels of UA (3.7 vs 4.5 vs 5.3 mg/dL; P<0.001 and striatal DAT than patients with an intermediate or TD phenotype. Furthermore, UA levels significantly correlated with the levels of striatal DAT. We also observed that some PIGD (25% and I (45% patients had a predominance of tremor at disease onset. We speculate that UA might be involved in the maintenance of the less damaging TD phenotype and thus also in the conversion from TD to PIGD. Low levels of this natural antioxidant could lead to a major neuronal damage and therefore influence the conversion to a more severe motor phenotype.

  5. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Abdulbari Kassem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  6. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  7. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  8. Plasma Nervonic Acid Is a Potential Biomarker for Major Depressive Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Yuki; Kasahara, Takaoki; Nakamura, Takemichi; Hattori, Kotaro; Deguchi, Yasuhiko; Tani, Munehide; Kuroda, Kenji; Yoshida, Sumiko; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Inoue, Koki; Kato, Tadafumi

    2018-03-01

    Diagnostic biomarkers of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are urgently needed, because none are currently available. We performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of plasma samples from drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (n=9), bipolar disorder (n=6), schizophrenia (n=17), and matched healthy controls (n=19) (cohort 1) using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A significant effect of diagnosis was found for 2 metabolites: nervonic acid and cortisone, with nervonic acid being the most significantly altered. The reproducibility of the results and effects of psychotropic medication on nervonic acid were verified in cohort 2, an independent sample set of medicated patients [major depressive disorder (n=45), bipolar disorder (n=71), schizophrenia (n=115)], and controls (n=90) using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The increased levels of nervonic acid in patients with major depressive disorder compared with controls and patients with bipolar disorder in cohort 1 were replicated in the independent sample set (cohort 2). In cohort 2, plasma nervonic acid levels were also increased in the patients with major depressive disorder compared with the patients with schizophrenia. In cohort 2, nervonic acid levels were increased in the depressive state in patients with major depressive disorder compared with the levels in the remission state in patients with major depressive disorder and the depressive state in patients with bipolar disorder. These results suggested that plasma nervonic acid is a good candidate biomarker for the depressive state of major depressive disorder. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Jeong, Tae-Sook; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial...

  10. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  11. Depletion of abundant plasma proteins by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Ventura-Espejo, Estela; Jensen, Ole N

    2014-01-01

    the application of pH-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles for removal of abundant plasma proteins, prior to proteome analysis by MS. Protein depletion occurs by two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogel particles incubated with low concentrations of plasma capture abundant proteins...... proteins are released and recovered in the eluate. We developed a series of distinct depletion protocols that proved useful for sample depletion and fractionation and facilitated targeted analysis of putative biomarkers such as IGF1-2, IBP2-7, ALS, KLK6-7, ISK5, and PLF4 by selected reaction monitoring...

  12. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan-Pijuan, Mercedes; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    The new sample preparation concept “Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME)” was evaluated for extraction of the acidic drugs ketoprofen, fenoprofen, diclofenac, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen, and gemfibrozil from human plasma samples. Plasma samples (250 μL) were loaded into individual......-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection of the individual acceptor solutions. Important PALME parameters including the chemical composition of the liquid membrane, extraction time, and sample pH were optimized, and the extraction performance was evaluated. Except for flurbiprofen, exhaustive...

  13. Elevated Plasma Levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid Are Associated With Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Mardinoglu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs metabolite, 3-Hydroxyisobutyric acid (3-HIB has been identified as a secreted mediator of endothelial cell fatty acid transport and insulin resistance (IR using animal models. To identify if 3-HIB is a marker of human IR and future risk of developing Type 2 diabetes (T2D, we measured plasma levels of 3-HIB and associated metabolites in around 10,000 extensively phenotyped individuals. The levels of 3-HIB were increased in obesity but not robustly associated with degree of IR after adjusting for BMI. Nevertheless, also after adjusting for obesity and plasma BCAA, 3-HIB levels were associated with future risk of incident T2D. We also examined the effect of 3-HIB on fatty acid uptake in human cells and found that both HUVEC and human cardiac endothelial cells respond to 3-HIB whereas human adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells do not respond to 3-HIB. In conclusion, we found that increased plasma level of 3-HIB is a marker of future risk of T2D and 3-HIB may be important for the regulation of metabolic flexibility in heart and muscles.

  14. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  16. Evident anomalous inward particle pinch in full non-inductive plasmas driven by lower hybrid waves on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, G.T.; Bourdelle, C.; Pegourie, B.; Artaud, J.F.; Bucalossi, J.; Clairet, F.; Fenzi-Bonizec, C.; Garbet, X.; Gil, C.; Guirlet, R.; Imbeaux, F.; Lasalle, J.; Loarer, T.; Lowry, C.; Schunke, B.; Travere, J.M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2003-01-01

    These slides present some characteristics concerning peaked density profile observed in Tore-Supra. It appears that density profile remains peaked for more than 3 minutes in fully LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) discharges. The absence of toroidal electric field and the fact that the ware pinch has vanished across the entire plasma show that toroidal electric field and ware pinch are not the cause of the peaked profile. It is shown that peaked profile is linked to transport properties and can only be explained by a particle pinch velocity 2 orders of magnitude above the neoclassical pinch. It is also shown that the radial profile is in agreement with Isitchenko's formula. (A.C.)

  17. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans.To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure.The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry.Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders.High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  18. Identification of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors in bovine plasma as fatty acids and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, D M; Yanuck, M D; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    A preparative purification of endogenous inhibitors of the Na+/K+-ATPase has been carried out from bovine blood. Dried plasma was deproteinized, hexane-extracted and desalted, followed by further purification through a series of reverse-phase HPLC fractionations. Fractions active in inhibiting Na...... ouabain, and in addition it enhanced ouabain binding at high dilutions. These properties are indicative of nonspecific interactions with the Na+/K+-ATPase. The active fraction was identified by TLC, HPLC, NMR, GLC and GC-MS, to be a mixture of three unesterified fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (72...

  19. Deposition of LDH on plasma treated polylactic acid to reduce water permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Bugatti, Valeria

    2013-04-01

    A simple and scalable deposition process was developed to prepare polylactic acid (PLA) coatings with enhanced water barrier properties for food packaging applications. This method based on electrostatic interactions between the positively charged layers of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified with ionic liquids (ILs) and the negatively charged plasma treated polylactic acid leads to homogeneous, stable, and highly durable coatings. Deposition of the LDH coatings increases the surface hydrophobicity of the neat PLA, which results to a decrease in water permeability by about 35%. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  20. A biotin enrichment strategy identifies novel carbonylated amino acids in proteins from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Davies, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is an irreversible protein oxidation correlated with oxidative stress, various diseases and ageing. Here we describe a peptide-centric approach for identification and characterisation of up to 14 different types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins. The modified residues...... in vitro metal ion-catalysed oxidation. Furthermore, we assigned 133 carbonylated sites in 36 proteins in native human plasma protein samples. The optimised workflow enabled detection of 10 hitherto undetected types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins: aldehyde and ketone modifications of leucine...

  1. Effect of whey protein on plasma amino acids in diabetic mice

    OpenAIRE

    HAN, TING; CAI, DONGLIAN; GENG, SHANSHAN; WANG, YING; ZHEN, HUI; WU, PEIYING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on plasma amino acid levels in a mouse model of type II diabetes, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and content of amino acids in the whey proteins were analyzed using HPLC. Type I and type II diabetic mouse models were prepared using streptozotocin (STZ) and normal mice were used as a control. The ICR mice in each group were then randomly divided into four subgroups, to which 0, 10, 20 and ...

  2. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  3. Exhaustive and stable electromembrane extraction of acidic drugs from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The first part of the current work systematically described the screening of different types of organic solvents as the supported liquid membrane (SLM) for electromembrane extraction (EME) of acidic drugs, including different alcohols, ketones, and ethers. Seven acidic drugs with a wide logP rang......). With this SLM, exhaustive EME was performed from diluted human plasma, and the recoveries of five out of seven analytes were over 91% after 10min EME. This approach was evaluated using HPLC-UV, and the evaluation data were found to be satisfactory...... to increasing viscosity and decreasing α and π* values. The system-current during EME was found to be dependent on the type and the volume of the SLM. In contact with human plasma, an SLM of pure 1-heptanol was unstable, and to improve stability, 1-heptanol was mixed with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  4. Dynamic monitoring of plasma amino acids and carnitine during chemotherapy of patients with alimentary canal malignancies and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang XY

    2015-08-01

    level of Val appeared to increase significantly. The levels of Asp, Glu, and Met were clearly different among patients with gastric carcinoma, rectal cancer, and colon cancer. Compared to the control group, aspartate amino transferase and alanine aminotransferase were found to be higher in eight patients with hypocarnitinemia, yet TTP, PFS, and RR (response rate were lower. No significant difference was observed for adverse reactions. The indexes in 12 patients with citrullinemia showed no difference compared with control group. All the results showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05.Conclusion: Real-time monitoring of plasma amino acids and carnitine in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies can directly reflect the body’s metabolism and nutritional status. The results provide a reference for nutrition therapy or support for patients with alimentary canal malignancies. Hypocarnitinemia is a risk factor for gastrointestinal cancer patients and affects TTP, PFS, and RR by liver function. This study shows that tandem mass spectrometry can be used to detect blood amino acids and carnitine spectrum may be used for an early diagnosis and evaluation of adverse reactions and prognosis of the digestive tract malignant tumor patients.Keywords: plasma amino acid, carnitine and acylcarnitines, gastrointestinal cancer, high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, chemotherapy

  5. Determination of uric acid in plasma and allantoic fluid of chicken embryos by capillary electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějčková, J.; Tůma, P.; Samcová, E.; Zemanová, Zdeňka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 12 (2007), s. 1947-1952 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0972 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/0896 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * microsamples of plasma * uric acid Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.632, year: 2007

  6. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) in chronic schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Poirier, M F; Aymard, N; Leyris, A; Beauverie, P; Bourdel, M C; Loo, H

    1998-06-01

    In a 4-week study of 14 drug-free schizophrenic patients (according to DSM-III-R), free and conjugated fractions of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) were repeatedly measured. Free HVA levels decreased during the first 2 h of haloperidol intake (P pHVA may be a better reflection of the action of haloperidol than free pHVA levels and it may be of prognostic value in terms of drug response.

  7. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  8. Lower cerebrospinal fluid/plasma fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 ratios and placental FGF21 production in gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee K Tan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21 levels are increased in insulin resistant states such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. In addition, GDM is associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. We sought to study human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and corresponding circulating FGF21 levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and in age and BMI matched control subjects. We also assessed FGF21 secretion from GDM and control human placental explants. DESIGN: CSF and corresponding plasma FGF21 levels of 24 women were measured by ELISA [12 GDM (age: 26-47 years, BMI: 24.3-36.3 kg/m(2 and 12 controls (age: 22-40 years, BMI: 30.1-37.0 kg/m(2]. FGF21 levels in conditioned media were secretion from GDM and control human placental explants were also measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Glucose, HOMA-IR and circulating NEFA levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Plasma FGF21 levels were significantly higher in women with GDM compared to control subjects [234.3 (150.2-352.7 vs. 115.5 (60.5-188.7 pg/ml; P<0.05]. However, there was no significant difference in CSF FGF21 levels in women with GDM compared to control subjects. Interestingly, CSF/Plasma FGF21 ratio was significantly lower in women with GDM compared to control subjects [0.4 (0.3-0.6 vs. 0.8 (0.5-1.6; P<0.05]. FGF21 secretion into conditioned media was significantly lower in human placental explants from women with GDM compared to control subjects (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The central actions of FGF21 in GDM subjects maybe pivotal in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in GDM subjects. The significance of FGF21 produced by the placenta remains uncharted and maybe crucial in our understanding of the patho-physiology of GDM and its associated maternal and fetal complications. Future research should seek to elucidate these points.

  9. Population pharmacokinetic study of benznidazole in pediatric Chagas disease suggests efficacy despite lower plasma concentrations than in adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Altcheh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to long term cardiac morbidity. Treatment of children with benznidazole is effective, but no pediatric pharmacokinetics data are available and clinical pharmacology information on the drug is scarce.Prospective population pharmacokinetic (PK cohort study in children 2-12 years old with Chagas disease treated with oral benznidazole 5-8 mg/kg/day BID for 60 days. (clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00699387.Forty children were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 7.3 years. A total of 117 samples were obtained from 38 patients for PK analysis. A one compartment model best fit the data. Weight-corrected clearance rate (CL/F showed a good correlation with age, with younger patients having a significantly higher CL/F than older children and adults. Simulated median steady-state benznidazole concentrations, based on model parameters, were lower for children in our study than for adults and lowest for children under 7 years of age. Treatment was efficacious in the 37 patients who completed the treatment course, and well tolerated, with few, and mild, adverse drug reactions (ADRs.Observed benznidazole plasma concentrations in children were markedly lower than those previously reported in adults (treated with comparable mg/kg doses, possibly due to a higher CL/F in smaller children. These lower blood concentrations were nevertheless associated to a high therapeutic response in our cohort. Unlike adults, children have few adverse reactions to the drug, suggesting that there may be a direct correlation between drug concentrations and incidence of ADRs. Our results suggest that studies with lower doses in adults may be warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00699387.

  10. Stability study of polyacrylic acid films plasma-polymerized on polypropylene substrates at medium pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morent, Rino, E-mail: Rino.Morent@Ugent.be [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Geyter, Nathalie [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Trentesaux, Martine; Gengembre, Leon [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bat. C3, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Dubruel, Peter [Department of Organic Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Faculty of Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Leys, Christophe [Department of Applied Physics, Research Unit Plasma Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Payen, Edmond [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bat. C3, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-11-01

    Plasma polymerization of acrylic acid has become an interesting research subject, since these coatings are expected to be beneficial for biomedical applications due to their high surface density of carboxylic acid functional groups. However, the application of these monomers is counteracted by their low stability in humid environments, since a high stability is a required characteristic for almost any biological application. The present work investigates whether it is possible to obtain stable deposits with a high retention of carboxylic acid functions by performing plasma polymerization on polypropylene substrates with a dielectric barrier discharge operating at medium pressure. In order to obtain coatings with the desired properties, the plasma parameters need to be optimized. Therefore, in this paper, the influence of discharge power and location of the substrate in the discharge chamber is examined in detail. The properties of the deposited films are studied using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, to determine whether the obtained deposits are soluble in water, the coatings are once again analyzed after rinsing in water. This paper will clearly show that stable COOH-rich surfaces can be obtained at high discharge power and close to the monomer inlet, which might open perspectives for future biomedical applications.

  11. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and acetic acid at lower reaction severity under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Alchris Woo; Sutanto, Sylviana; NguyenThi, Bich Thuyen; Cabatingan, Luis K.; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (trans)Esterification of oils under subcritical conditions. • Acetic acid as catalyst and co-solvent in biodiesel production. • Influence of reactor hydrodynamic (loading and stirring) on FAME yield. • High methyl ester yield can be obtained at less severe reaction conditions. - Abstract: Soybean oil (56–80 g) was reacted with methanol (40–106 mL) to produce fatty acid methyl ester in the presence of 1–6% acetic acid under subcritical condition at 250 °C. Stirring and loading of the reaction system affected the yield and severity of the process. The presence of acetic acid improved the yield of FAME from 32.1% to 89.5% at a methanol to oil molar ratio of 20 mL/g. Acetic acid was found to act strongly as an acid catalyst and to some extent improved the solubility between oil and methanol. Reaction pressure higher than the supercritical pressure of methanol (7.85 MPa) was not required to achieve high FAME yield (89.5–94.8%) in short time (30–60 min)

  13. Activation of Short and Long Chain Fatty Acid Sensing Machinery in the Ileum Lowers Glucose Production in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh-Tahmasebi, Melika; Duca, Frank A; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Bauer, Paige V; Côté, Clémence D; Filippi, Beatrice M; Lam, Tony K T

    2016-04-15

    Evidence continues to emerge detailing the myriad of ways the gut microbiota influences host energy homeostasis. Among the potential mechanisms, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the byproducts of microbial fermentation of dietary fibers, exhibit correlative beneficial metabolic effects in humans and rodents, including improvements in glucose homeostasis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain elusive. We here report that one of the main bacterially produced SCFAs, propionate, activates ileal mucosal free fatty acid receptor 2 to trigger a negative feedback pathway to lower hepatic glucose production in healthy rats in vivo We further demonstrate that an ileal glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor-dependent neuronal network is necessary for ileal propionate and long chain fatty acid sensing to regulate glucose homeostasis. These findings highlight the potential to manipulate fatty acid sensing machinery in the ileum to regulate glucose homeostasis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  15. The Effect of Post-Resistance Exercise Amino Acids on Plasma MCP-1 and CCR2 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Wells

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment and infiltration of classical monocytes into damaged muscle is critical for optimal tissue remodeling. This study examined the effects of an amino acid supplement on classical monocyte recruitment following an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men (24.7 ± 3.4 years; 90.1 ± 11.3 kg; 176.0 ± 4.9 cm ingested supplement (SUPP or placebo (PL immediately post-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. Blood samples were obtained at baseline (BL, immediately (IP, 30-min (30P, 1-h (1H, 2-h (2H, and 5-h (5H post-exercise to assess plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, myoglobin, cortisol and insulin concentrations; and expressions of C-C chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2, and macrophage-1 antigen (CD11b on classical monocytes. Magnitude-based inferences were used to provide inferences on the true effects of SUPP compared to PL. Changes in myoglobin, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were similar between treatments. Compared to PL, plasma MCP-1 was “very likely greater” (98.1% likelihood effect in SUPP at 2H. CCR2 expression was “likely greater” at IP (84.9% likelihood effect, “likely greater” at 1H (87.7% likelihood effect, “very likely greater” at 2H (97.0% likelihood effect, and “likely greater” at 5H (90.1% likelihood effect in SUPP, compared to PL. Ingestion of SUPP did not influence CD11b expression. Ingestion of an amino acid supplement immediately post-exercise appears to help maintain plasma MCP-1 concentrations and augment CCR2 expression in resistance trained men.

  16. Evaluation of mechanism of cold atmospheric pressure plasma assisted polymerization of acrylic acid on low density polyethylene (LDPE) film surfaces: Influence of various gaseous plasma pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, M. C.; Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha; Arun Kumar, A.; Padmanabhan, P. V. A.; Uday Kumar, S.; Gopinath, P.; Bendavid, A.; Cools, P.; De Geyter, N.; Morent, R.; Deshmukh, R. R.

    2018-05-01

    Owing to its exceptional physiochemical properties, low density poly ethylene (LDPE) has wide range of tissue engineering applications. Conversely, its inadequate surface properties make LDPE an ineffectual candidate for cell compatible applications. Consequently, plasma-assisted polymerization with a selected precursor is a good choice for enhancing its biocompatibility. The present investigation studies the efficiency of plasma polymerization of acrylic acid (AAC) on various gaseous plasma pretreated LDPE films by cold atmospheric pressure plasma, to enhance its cytocompatibility. The change in chemical composition and surface topography of various gaseous plasma pretreated and acrylic deposited LDPE films has been assessed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The changes in hydrophilic nature of surface modified LDPE films were studied by contact angle (CA) analysis. Cytocompatibility of the AAC/LDPE films was also studied in vitro, using RIN-5F cells. The results acquired by the XPS and AFM analysis clearly proved that cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma assisted polymerization of AAC enhances various surface properties including carboxylic acid functional group density and increased surface roughness on various gaseous plasma treated AAC/LDPE film surfaces. Moreover, contact angle analysis clearly showed that the plasma polymerized samples were hydrophilic in nature. In vitro cytocompatibility analysis undoubtedly validates that the AAC polymerized various plasma pretreated LDPE films surfaces stimulate cell distribution and proliferation compared to pristine LDPE films. Similarly, cytotoxicity analysis indicates that the AAC deposited various gaseous plasma pretreated LDPE film can be considered as non-toxic as well as stimulating cell viability significantly. The cytocompatible properties of AAC polymerized Ar + O2 plasma pretreated LDPE films were found to be more pronounced compared to the other plasma pretreated

  17. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... omega 3 (n-3), omega 6 (n-6) and omega 9 (n-9) fatty acids and are essential in the ... the maintenance of different physiological functions. (Aaes-Jorgensen .... was easier to recognize each one of these cellular types. Mating.

  18. One year B-vitamins increases serum and whole blood folate forms and lowers plasma homocysteine in older Germans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Kruse, Vera; Eckert, Rudolf; Gräber, Stefan; Geisel, Jürgen; Obeid, Rima

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to study the effect of long-term supplementation of B-vitamins on folate forms in serum and whole blood (WB) in elderly German subjects. 59 participants (mean age 67 years) were randomized to daily receive either vitamin D3 (1200 IU), folic acid (500 μg), vitamin B12 (500 μg), vitamin B6 (50 mg), and calcium carbonate (456 mg) or vitamin D3 plus calcium carbonate. Serum and WB folate forms were measured before and after 6 and 12 months. B-vitamins supplementation for 6 months led to higher concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF) in serum (mean 49.1 vs. 19.6 nmol/L) and WB (1332 vs. 616 nmol/L). Also non-methyl-folate concentrations in serum and WB were higher after 6 months with B-vitamins supplementation. Unmetabolized folic acid (UFA) increased after supplementation. tHcy concentration was lowered after 1 year of B-vitamin supplementation (mean 13.1 vs. 9.6 μmol/L). A stronger reduction of tHcy after 1 year was found in participants who had baseline level >12.5 μmol/L (mean 17.0 vs. 11.9 μmol/L) compared to those with baseline tHcy lower than this limit (mean 9.1 vs. 7.4 μmol/L). In contrast, the increases in serum and WB 5-methylTHF were comparable between the two groups. One year B-vitamins supplementation increased the levels of 5-methylTHF and non-methyl-folate in serum and WB, normalized tHcy, but caused an increase in the number of cases with detectable UFA in serum. Lowering of tHcy was predicted by baseline tHcy, but not by baseline serum or WB 5-methylTHF.

  19. Bile acids modulate signaling by functional perturbation of plasma membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Maxwell, Kelsey N; Sezgin, Erdinc; Lu, Maryia; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F; Dial, Elizabeth J; Lichtenberger, Lenard M; Levental, Ilya

    2013-12-13

    Eukaryotic cell membranes are organized into functional lipid and protein domains, the most widely studied being membrane rafts. Although rafts have been associated with numerous plasma membrane functions, the mechanisms by which these domains themselves are regulated remain undefined. Bile acids (BAs), whose primary function is the solubilization of dietary lipids for digestion and absorption, can affect cells by interacting directly with membranes. To investigate whether these interactions affected domain organization in biological membranes, we assayed the effects of BAs on biomimetic synthetic liposomes, isolated plasma membranes, and live cells. At cytotoxic concentrations, BAs dissolved synthetic and cell-derived membranes and disrupted live cell plasma membranes, implicating plasma membrane damage as the mechanism for BA cellular toxicity. At subtoxic concentrations, BAs dramatically stabilized domain separation in Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles without affecting protein partitioning between coexisting domains. Domain stabilization was the result of BA binding to and disordering the nonraft domain, thus promoting separation by enhancing domain immiscibility. Consistent with the physical changes observed in synthetic and isolated biological membranes, BAs reorganized intact cell membranes, as evaluated by the spatial distribution of membrane-anchored Ras isoforms. Nanoclustering of K-Ras, related to nonraft membrane domains, was enhanced in intact plasma membranes, whereas the organization of H-Ras was unaffected. BA-induced changes in Ras lateral segregation potentiated EGF-induced signaling through MAPK, confirming the ability of BAs to influence cell signal transduction by altering the physical properties of the plasma membrane. These observations suggest general, membrane-mediated mechanisms by which biological amphiphiles can produce their cellular effects.

  20. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  1. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. Short communication: Prepartum plasma insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations based on day of insemination are lower in cows developing postpartum diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechotta, M; Sander, A K; Kastelic, J P; Wilde, R; Heppelmann, M; Rudolphi, B; Schuberth, H J; Bollwein, H; Kaske, M

    2012-03-01

    Because peripartal production diseases are prevalent in dairy cows, early recognition is crucial. Several studies reported metabolic variables as risk predictors for subsequent diseases. To improve on-farm testing and application of those methods, the sampling procedure should take into account variation in gestation length. Furthermore, additional variables indicating cows at risk of any production disease should be sought. Therefore, the objective was to characterize differences between cows with and without postpartum production disease (retained fetal membranes, ketosis, hypocalcemia, abomasal displacement, metritis, mastitis) by prepartum measurement of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations relative to the artificial insemination (AI) that established pregnancy. Blood was collected from 41 Holstein Friesian cows on 235 to 241, 242 to 248, 249 to 255, 256 to 262, 263 to 269, 270 to 276, 277 to 283, and 284 to 290 d after AI. Health status was assessed daily for 3 wk after calving; 25 cows (66%) had at least one production disease. Cows developing postpartum diseases had higher mean serum NEFA concentrations (450 ± 26 μmol/L; mean ± SE) and lower plasma IGF-I concentrations (78 ± 6 ng/mL) prepartum compared with healthy cows (259 ± 19 μmol/L and 117 ± 8 ng/mL, respectively). In conclusion, because of substantial variation among cows in gestation length, blood samples should be collected and studies performed on risk prediction relative to AI rather than expected date of calving. As the somatotropic axis is one of the key regulators of metabolic adaption for onset of lactation, IGF-I might be a useful variable to differentiate between cows susceptible to production diseases and cows that are able to adapt adequately within the transition period and remain healthy. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amino acid composition of parturient plasma, the intervillous space of the placenta and the umbilical vein of term newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.S. Camelo Jr.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the levels of amino acids in maternal plasma, placental intervillous space and fetal umbilical vein in order to identify the similarities and differences in amino acid levels in these compartments of 15 term newborns from normal pregnancies and deliveries. All amino acids, except tryptophan, were present in at least 186% higher concentrations in the intervillous space than in maternal venous blood, with the difference being statistically significant. This result contradicted the initial hypothesis of the study that the plasma amino acid levels in the placental intervillous space should be similar to those of maternal plasma. When the maternal venous compartment was compared with the umbilical vein, we observed values 103% higher on the fetal side which is compatible with currently accepted mechanisms of active amino acid transport. Amino acid levels of the placental intervillous space were similar to the values of the umbilical vein except for proline, glycine and aspartic acid, whose levels were significantly higher than fetal umbilical vein levels (average 107% higher. The elevated levels of the intervillous space are compatible with syncytiotrophoblast activity, which maintain high concentrations of free amino acids inside syncytiotrophoblast cells, permitting asymmetric efflux or active transport from the trophoblast cells to the blood in the intervillous space. The plasma amino acid levels in the umbilical vein of term newborns probably may be used as a standard of local normality for clinical studies of amino acid profiles.

  4. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  5. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on plasma oxysterols and fatty acids in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Zerbinati, Chiara; Pacelli, Antonio; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Lubrano, Carla; Ducheix, Simon; Guillou, Hervé; Iuliano, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and the related entity metabolic syndrome are characterized by altered lipid metabolism and associated with increased morbidity risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxysterols belong to a large family of cholesterol-derived molecules known to play crucial role in many signaling pathways underlying several diseases. Little is known on the potential effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on oxysterols in human. In this work, we questioned whether circulating oxysterols might be significantly altered in obese patients and in patients with metabolic syndrome. We also tested the potential correlation between circulating oxysterols and fatty acids. 60 obese patients and 75 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study along with 210 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, used as control group. Plasma oxysterols were analyzed by isotope dilution GC/MS, and plasma fatty acids profiling was assessed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection. We found considerable differences in oxysterols profiling in the two disease groups that were gender-related. Compared to controls, males showed significant differences only in 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol levels in obese and metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, females showed consistent differences in 7-oxocholesterol, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and triol. Concerning fatty acids, we found minor differences in the levels of these variables in males of the three groups. Significant changes were observed in plasma fatty acid profile of female patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We found significant correlations between various oxysterols and fatty acids. In particular, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, which is reduced in obesity and metabolic syndrome, correlated with a number of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are end-products of de novo lipogenesis. Our data provide the first evidence that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with

  6. Long distance coupling of lower hybrid waves in ITER relevant edge conditions in jet reversed shear plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Mailloux, J.; Baranov, Y.; Erents, K.; Lomas, P.J.; McDonald, D.; Stamp, M. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Culham Lab; Petrzilka, V.; Zacek, F. [Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Praha (Czech Republic); Rantamaki, K. [Assiciation Euratom-Tekes, VTT Processes (Finland); Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes (Finland); Noterdaeme, J.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom, Garching (Germany); Gent University, EESA Dept. (Belgium); Pericoli, V.; Tuccillo, A.A. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sartori, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    A significant step towards demonstrating the feasibility of coupling Lower Hybrid (LH) waves in ITER has been achieved in the latest LH current drive experiments in JET. The local electron density in front of the LH launcher was increased by injecting gas (D{sub 2} or CD{sub 4}) from a dedicated gas injection module magnetically connected to the launcher. P(LHCD) = 3 MW was coupled with an average reflection coefficient of 5%, at a distance between the last closed flux surface and the launcher of 10 cm, in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and H-mode edge, with type 1 and type 3 ELMs (edge localized modes). Following a modification of the gas injection system, in order to optimise the gas localisation with respect to the LH launcher, injection of D{sub 2} proved to be more efficient than CD{sub 4}. A D{sub 2} flux of 5-8 x 10{sup 21} el/s was required at 9 cm. The plasma performance (neutron rate, H-factor, ion temperature) was similar with D{sub 2} and CD{sub 4}. An additional advantage with D{sub 2} injection was found, as it reduced the amplitude of the ELMs, which further facilitated the LH coupling. Furthermore, preliminary results of the study of the behaviour of electron density profile in the scrape-off layer during injection of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} are reported. Finally, the appearance of hot spots, resulting from parasitic absorption of LHCD power in front of the launcher mouth, was studied in the long distance discharges with near gas injection. (authors)

  7. Plasma free amino acid profiles evaluate risk of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension in a large Asian population

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Natsu; Mahbub, MH; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Hase, Ryosuke; Ishimaru, Yasutaka; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Amano, Hiroki; Kobayashi- Miura, Mikiko; Kanda, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Mai; Kikuchi, Shinya; Ikeda, Atsuko; Takasu, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently, the association of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile and lifestyle-related diseases has been reported. However, few studies have been reported in large Asian populations, about the usefulness of PFAAs for evaluating disease risks. We examined the ability of PFAA profiles to evaluate lifestyle-related diseases in so far the largest Asian population. Methods We examined plasma concentrations of 19 amino acids in 8589 Japanese subjects, and determined the association wit...

  8. Plasma uric acid and tumor volume are highly predictive of outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hui; Lin, Huan-Xin; Ge, Nan; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Rui; Hu, Wei-Han

    2013-01-01

    The combined predictive value of plasma uric acid and primary tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has not yet been determined. In this retrospective study, plasma uric acid level was measured after treatment in 130 histologically-proven NPC patients treated with IMRT. Tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning CT scans. Overall (OS), progression-free (PFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test, and Cox multivariate and univariate regression models were created. Patients with a small tumor volume (<27 mL) had a significantly better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a large tumor volume. Patients with a high post-treatment plasma uric acid level (>301 μmol/L) had a better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a low post-treatment plasma uric acid level. Patients with a small tumor volume and high post-treatment plasma uric acid level had a favorable prognosis compared to patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level (7-year overall OS, 100% vs. 48.7%, P <0.001 and PFS, 100% vs. 69.5%, P <0.001). Post-treatment plasma uric acid level and pre-treatment tumor volume have predictive value for outcome in NPC patients receiving IMRT. NPC patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level may benefit from additional aggressive treatment after IMRT

  9. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation in women with lower folate status may explain the MTHFR C677T polymorphism associated higher risk of CIN in the US post folic acid fortification era.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguna Badiga

    Full Text Available Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+. However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1 The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2 The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3 The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s, in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk.The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN.The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017.This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation.

  10. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  11. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  12. High Folic Acid Intake during Pregnancy Lowers Body Weight and Reduces Femoral Area and Strength in Female Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro S. P. Huot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats fed gestational diets high in multivitamin or folate produce offspring of altered phenotypes. We hypothesized that female rat offspring born to dams fed a gestational diet high in folic acid (HFol have compromised bone health and that feeding the offspring the same HFol diet attenuates these effects. Pregnant rats were fed diets with either recommended folic acid (RFol or 10-fold higher folic acid (HFol amounts. Female offspring were weaned to either the RFol or HFol diet for 17 weeks. HFol maternal diet resulted in lower offspring body weights (6%, P=0.03 and, after adjusting for body weight and femoral length, smaller femoral area (2%, P=0.03, compared to control diet. After adjustments, HFol pup diet resulted in lower mineral content (7%, P=0.01 and density (4%, P=0.002 of lumbar vertebra 4 without differences in strength. An interaction between folate content of the dam and pup diets revealed that a mismatch resulted in lower femoral peak load strength (P=0.01 and stiffness (P=0.002. However, the match in folate content failed to prevent lower weight gain. In conclusion, HFol diets fed to rat dams and their offspring affect area and strength of femurs and mineral quantity but not strength of lumbar vertebrae in the offspring.

  13. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Seon-Min; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Woo Song; Jeong, Tae-Sook; McGregor, Robin A; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-09-21

    Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML) or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE) to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 GCE (2 g/day) or placebo (starch, 2 g/day) for 10 weeks. At baseline and after 10 weeks, body composition, plasma cholesterol and diet were assessed. Blood analysis was also conducted to examine plasma lipoproteins, triglycerides, adipocytokines and antioxidants. EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p GCE had no effect on triglycerides, non-HDL-C, adipocytokines or antioxidants when compared to placebo supplementation. However, HDL-C was higher in the EGML group (p GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Effects of lipid-lowering pharmaceuticals bezafibrate and clofibric acid on lipid metabolism in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Anna; Caminada, Daniel; Galicia, Hector; Fent, Karl

    2009-12-01

    The lipid-lowering agents bezafibrate and clofibric acid, which occur at concentrations up to 3.1 and 1.6 microg/L, respectively, are among the most frequently found human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. In contrast to knowledge about their environmental occurrence, little is known about their effects in the environment. The aim of the present study was to analyze effects of these lipid-lowering agents in fish by focusing on their modes of action, lipid metabolism. Fathead minnows were exposed in aquaria to measured concentrations of 0.1, 1.27, 10.18, 101.56, and 106.7 mg/L bezafibrate and to 1.07, 10.75, and 108.91 mg/L clofibric acid for 14 and 21 d, respectively. After exposure, fish liver was analyzed for expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the PPAR-regulated enzyme fatty acyl-coenzyme-A oxidase (FAO) involved in fatty acid oxidation. Bezafibrate had no effect, either on PPARalpha expression or on FAO activity, at all concentrations. In contrast, clofibric acid induced FAO activity in male fathead minnows at 108.91 mg/L. No increase in expression of PPARalpha messenger ribonucleic acid was observed. Egg production was apparently decreased after 21 d of exposure to 108.91 mg/L clofibric acid. The present study demonstrates that bezafibrate has very little or no effect on PPARalpha expression and FAO activity, but clofibric acid affects FAO activity.

  15. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  16. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of 125 I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid

  17. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vitamin E supplementation in elderly lowers the oxidation rate of linoleic acid in LDL.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Moser, U.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    .Oxidation of LDL–linoleic acid (LDL–LA), a major substrate for lipid peroxidation, may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 83 apparently healthy Dutch elderly, aged 67–85 years, the direct protective effect of 100 IU vitamin

  19. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue lowers blood pressure through vasodilation and sodium channel inhibition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khan, M. A. H.; Pavlov, T. S.; Christain, S. V.; Neckář, Jan; Staruschenko, A.; Gauthier, K. M.; Capdevila, J. H.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, W. B.; Imig, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 7 (2014), s. 463-474 ISSN 0143-5221 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : angiotensin II * epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) * epoxyeicosatrienoic acid analogue * hypertension Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 5.598, year: 2014

  20. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  1. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. Objective: The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Results: Choline decreased in the placebo group (−6.6%; 95% CI: −10.2%, −2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: −0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: −2.5%, 5.5%; P DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: −26.7%; 95% CI: −30.9%, −22.2%; FA800: −27.8%; 95% CI: −31.8%, −23.4%) than in the placebo group (−12.3%; 95% CI: −18.1%, −6.2%; P DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Conclusion: Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. PMID:27052531

  2. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Brady, C S

    2011-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a parameter regime motivated by tokamak fusion plasma conditions, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes excited by energetic ions, whose ring-beam distribution is motivated by population inversions related to ion cyclotron emission, in a background plasma with a temperature similar to that of the core of a large tokamak plasma. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the initial antiparallel travelling ring-beam distribution of 3 MeV protons in a background 10 keV Maxwellian deuterium plasma with realistic ion-electron mass ratio. These simulations provide a proof-of-principle for a key plasma physics process that may be exploited in future alpha channelling scenarios for magnetically confined burning plasmas.

  5. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: the EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, John J. P.; Maki, Kevin C.; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Machielse, Ben N.; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms. The aim was to evaluate the safety and lipid-altering efficacy in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia of an investigational pharmaceutical

  6. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort 'Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study'. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001-2007. One hundred and ten (age 3-10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content and cod liver/fish oil supplements.

  7. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  8. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  9. A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, V; Assi, N; Biessy, C; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Lenoir, G M; Baglietto, L; His, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Katsoulis, M; Kaaks, R; Kühn, T; Panico, S; Pala, V; Masala, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; van Gils, C; Hjartåker, A; Standahl Olsen, K; Borgund Barnung, R; Barricarte, A; Redondo-Sanchez, D; Menéndez, V; Amiano, P; Wennberg, M; Key, T; Khaw, K T; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I

    2017-11-01

    Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n-7/16:0) [OR (Q4-Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07-1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3-T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor. These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer

  10. Major depression is associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid levels in patients with recent acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Lespérance, François; Julien, Pierre

    2004-05-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are intrinsic cell membrane components and closely involved in neurotransmission and receptor function. Lower omega-3 levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), increases in cardiac events in CAD patients, and depression. We sought to examine relationships between depression and serum levels of omega-3 and omega-6 PUFAs in patients recovering from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We carried out a case-control study of serum PUFA levels and current major depression in 54 age- and sex-matched pairs approximately 2 months following ACS. Depressed patients had significantly lower concentrations of total omega-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and higher ratios of arachidonic acid (AA) to DHA, AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and n-3 to n-6 than controls. There were no baseline differences in any potential risk or protective factors for depression. Results are consistent with previous reports in depressed patients without CAD, and with literature concerning omega-3 levels and risk of CAD events. Dietary, genetic, and hormonal factors may all play a role in both depression and CAD. Both prospective studies and randomized trials are needed to help clarify the interrelationships.

  11. Plasma surface tantalum alloying on titanium and its corrosion behavior in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, D. B.; Chen, X. H.; Zhang, P. Z.; Ding, F.; Li, F. K.; Yao, Z. J.

    2018-05-01

    An anti-corrosion Ti-Ta alloy coating was prepared on pure titanium surface by double glow plasma surface alloying technology. Electrochemical corrosion test was applied to test the anti-corrosion property of Ti-Ta alloy layer. The microstructure and the phase composition of Ti-Ta alloy coating were detected before and after corrosion process by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the Ta-Ti alloy layer has a thickness of about 13-15 μm, which is very dense without obvious defects such as pores or cracks. The alloy layer is composed mainly of β-Ta and α-Ti. The Ta alloy layer improves the anti-corrosion property of pure titanium. A denser and more durable TiO2 formed on the surface Ta-Ti alloy layer after immersing in strong corrosive media may account for the excellent corrosion resistant.

  12. Argon Shrouded Plasma Spraying of Tantalum over Titanium for Corrosion Protection in Fluorinated Nitric Acid Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrivendan, E.; Jayaraj, J.; Ningshen, S.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.

    2018-02-01

    Argon shrouded plasma spraying (ASPS) was used to deposit a Ta coating on commercially pure Ti (CP-Ti) under inert argon, for dissolver vessel application in the aqueous spent fuels reprocessing plant with high plutonium content. Oxidation during plasma spraying was minimized by shrouding argon system. Porosity and oxide content were controlled by optimizing the spraying parameters, to obtain a uniform and dense Ta coating. The Ta particle temperature and velocity were optimized by judiciously controlling the spray parameters, using a spray diagnostic charge-coupled device camera. The corrosion resistance of the Ta coatings developed by ASPS was investigated by electrochemical studies in 11.5 M HNO3 and 11.5 M HNO3 + 0.05 M NaF. Similarly, the durability of the ASPS Ta coating/substrate was evaluated as per ASTM A262 Practice-C test in boiling nitric acid and fluorinated nitric acid for 240 h. The ASPS Ta coating exhibited higher corrosion resistance than the CP-Ti substrate, as evident from electrochemical studies, and low corrosion rate with excellent coating stability in boiling nitric, and fluorinated nitric acid. The results of the present study revealed that tantalum coating by ASPS is a promising strategy for improving the corrosion resistance in the highly corrosive reprocessing environment.

  13. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareka, Tomas; Vecka, Marek; Jirak, Roman; Tvrzicka, Eva; Macasek, Jaroslav; Zak, Ales; Zeman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance (IR), connected with altered fatty acid (FA) composition, namely with decreased proportion of polyunsaturated FA could participate in these associations. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of FA in plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as indices of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the patients with depressive disorder. Parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis, concentrations of FA in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and conjugated dienes in LDL were investigated in a group of 47 patients (9M/38F) with depression and compared with 47 control persons (16M/31F). Delta-9 desaturase (D9D) and D6D desaturase were estimated as product to precursor fatty acid ratios. In depressive patients increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid and total monounsaturated FA with decreased proportion of total polyunsaturated FA n-6 (PUFA n-6) (all pinsulin resistance. Dysregulation of FA could participate in the pathogenesis of depression and be associated with an increased risk of CVD and DM2.

  14. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  15. Characterization of bioactive RGD peptide immobilized onto poly(acrylic acid) thin films by plasma polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyun Suk; Ko, Yeong Mu; Shim, Jae Won [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yun Kyong; Kook, Joong-Ki [Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dong-Lyun [School of Applied Chemical Engineering and Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Hoon, E-mail: kim5055@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, School of Dentistry, MRC Center, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    Plasma surface modification can be used to improve the surface properties of commercial pure Ti by creating functional groups to produce bioactive materials with different surface topography. In this study, a titanium surface was modified with acrylic acid (AA) using a plasma treatment and immobilized with bioactive arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide, which may accelerate the tissue integration of bone implants. Both terminals containing the -NH{sub 2} of RGD peptide sequence and -COOH of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) thin film were combined with a covalent bond in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC). The chemical structure and morphology of AA film and RGD immobilized surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All chemical analysis showed full coverage of the Ti substrate with the PAA thin film containing COOH groups and the RGD peptide. The MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on each specimen, and the cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were examined. The surface-immobilized RGD peptide has a significantly increased the ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells. These results suggest that the RGD peptide immobilization on the titanium surface has an effect on osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and potential use in osteo-conductive bone implants.

  16. Comparison of plasma and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid compositions in patients with end-stage renal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoglu, Erdim; Kurt, Ismail; Tapan, Serkan; Uyanik, Metin; Serdar, Muhittin A; Kayadibi, Huseyin; El-Fawaeir, Saad

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the serum lipid profile and fatty acid (FA) compositions of erythrocyte membrane (EM) and plasma in three different patient groups (group 1: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)+end-stage renal disease (ESRD), group 2: ESRD, group 4: T2DM) and healthy controls (group 3) simultaneously. 40 ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) in Gulhane School of Medicine (20 with T2DM) and 32 controls (17 with T2DM, 15 healthy controls) were included in the study. Plasma and EM FA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Plasma and EM palmitic acid (PA) and stearic acid (SA) levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients compared to controls (p=0.040 and p=0.002 for plasma, p=0.001 and p=0.010 for EM, respectively). EM docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were also significantly lower in patients with ESRD+T2DM and ESRD compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.037, respectively). Patients with insulin resistance display a pattern of high long chain saturated FAs (PA, SA and arachidic acids). However, while there are no recognized standards for normal EM DHA content, decreased levels of EM DHA in ESRD patient groups (groups 1 and 2) suggest that there may be reduced endogenous synthesis of DHA in HD subjects, due to the decreased functionality of desaturase and elongase enzymes. Because membrane PUFA content affects membrane fluidity and cell signaling, these findings are worthy of further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Contaminants, diet, plasma fatty acids and smoking in Greenland 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Arctic countries, the predominant source of these contaminants is the local diet. However, other factors such as smoking may influence the metabolism and thereby the accumulation of toxic substances. STUDY DESIGN: This project is part of the human health program of the ongoing circumpolar "Artic......, in particular all the plasma n-3 fatty acids, were significantly correlated with organic contaminant concentrations, (betaHCH, chlordanes, DDTs, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs, and toxaphenes) psmoking was significantly...... correlated with high levels of all the above mentioned POPs. CONCLUSION: The main predictors of high contaminant levels in Greenland were age, district, male gender, smoking and high plasma n-3/n-6 ratio as a marker of high dietary intake of local marine mammals. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-1...

  18. INHIBITION OF MYCOLIC ACID TRANSPORT ACROSS THE MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS PLASMA MEMBRANE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewicz, Anna E.; Pham, Ha; Gundi, Vijay A. K. B.; Scherman, Michael S.; North, Elton J.; Hess, Tamara; Jones, Victoria; Gruppo, Veronica; Born, Sarah E. M.; Korduláková, Jana; Chavadi, Sivagami Sundaram; Morisseau, Christophe; Lenaerts, Anne J.; Lee, Richard E.; McNeil, Michael R.; Jackson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    New chemotherapeutics active against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) are urgently needed. We report on the identification of an adamantyl urea compound displaying potent bactericidal activity against M. tb and a unique mode of action, namely the abolition of the translocation of mycolic acids from the cytoplasm where they are synthesized to the periplasmic side of the plasma membrane where they are transferred onto cell wall arabinogalactan or used in the formation of virulence-associated outer membrane trehalose-containing glycolipids. Whole genome sequencing of spontaneous resistant mutants of M. tb selected in vitro followed by genetic validation experiments revealed that our prototype inhibitor targets the inner membrane transporter, MmpL3. Conditional gene expression of mmpL3 in mycobacteria and analysis of inhibitor-treated cells validate MmpL3 as essential for mycobacterial growth and support the involvement of this transporter in the translocation of trehalose monomycolate across the plasma membrane. PMID:22344175

  19. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  20. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  1. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  2. Plasma prolactin and homovanillic acid as markers for psychopathology and abnormal movements after neuroleptic dose decrease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, J W; Riney, S J; Vinogradov, S; Csernansky, J G

    1992-01-01

    Plasma prolactin concentration (pPRL), plasma homovanillic acid concentration (pHVA), and symptomatology were measured in 24 male subjects with schizophrenia during maintenance haloperidol treatment. Fourteen subjects subsequently underwent 50 percent dose decreases under placebo-controlled, double-blind conditions. At baseline, a significant inverse correlation was found between pPRL and both tardive dyskinesia (TD) and "thinking disorder"; pPRL was directly correlated with negative symptoms. No such relationship was found with pHVA. In the patients who underwent a dose decrease, no relationship was found between baseline pPRL or pHVA and any clinical variable after the decrease. These data do not support the use of baseline pPRL or pHVA as markers of central dopamine function subsequent to a neuroleptic dose decrease.

  3. Assessment of central dopaminergic function using plasma-free homovanillic acid after debrisoquin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Leckman, J F; Cohen, D J; Anderson, M; Ort, S I; Caruso, K A; Shaywitz, B A

    1986-01-01

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children and adults was assessed by monitoring plasma-free levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) before and after a single oral dose and chronic oral administration of debrisoquin. Debrisoquin inhibits peripheral metabolism of dopamine to HVA and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. By reducing peripheral formation of HVA through the use of debrisoquin, the remaining HVA in plasma more accurately reflects central DA activity. Debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions of pHVA in each of 12 patients studied. Eleven of the 12 subjects tolerated debrisoquin without physical or behavioral side effects. The debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe and potentially valid technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children and adults.

  4. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999-2000 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Caudill, Samuel P; Kuiper, Heather C; Yang, Quanhe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Lacher, David A; Pirkle, James L

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Design: Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999-2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009-2010 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms. Results: These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009-2010 than in NHANES 1999-2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys. Conclusion: The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Modelling of the protonophoric uncoupling by phenoxyacetic acid of the plasma membrane of Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Claus Maxel; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1998-01-01

    negligible influence on the growth energetics due to protonophoric uncoupling of membrane potentials by passive diffusive uptake. On the other hand, when the extracellular pH is lowered to 5.00, a severe maintenance-related uncoupling effect of phenoxyacetic acid is calculated. These findings were confirmed...

  6. Changes in sodium and uric acid concentrations in plasma during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, M; Stewart, P M; Gebski, V; Llewellyn-Jones, D; Abraham, S F

    1984-03-01

    Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle are well documented, but many other biochemical variables have not been studied. We find that in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle the concentrations of sodium and uric acid are significantly lower. The changes may be of significance for the determination of the normal reference interval.

  7. Plasma Levels of the Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist Are Lower in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Are Particularly Associated with Postpartum Development of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Katra

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Women who develops hyperglycemia for the first time during pregnancy receive the diagnosis gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Presently, there is no consensus about the diagnostic criteria for GDM. A majority of these women subsequently develop postpartum overt diabetes making it important to identify these patients as early as possible. In this study we investigated if plasma levels of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra, an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1 signaling, can be used as a complementary biomarker for diagnosing GDM and predicting postpartum development of overt diabetes mellitus. Patients participating in this study (n = 227 were diagnosed with their first GDM 2004-2013 at Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Healthy pregnant volunteers (n = 156 were recruited from women's welfare centers in the same region 2014-2015. Levels of IL-1Ra and C-peptide were analyzed in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA-plasma or serum using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. GDM patients had significantly lower levels of IL-1Ra than the control group (p = 0.012. In addition, GDM patients that had developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT or type 2 diabetes mellitus postpartum had significantly lower levels of IL-1Ra, and significantly higher levels of C-peptide than GDM patients that had not developed diabetes mellitus postpartum (p = 0.023 and (p = 0.0011 respectively. An inverse correlation was found between IL-1Ra and serum C-peptide levels in the control group (rs = -0.31 p = 0.0001. Our results show that IL-1Ra might be included in a future panel of biomarkers, both for diagnosing GDM to complement blood glucose, and also identifying GDM patients that are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus postpartum. However, the ROC curve analysis provided a sensitivity of 52.2% and specificity of 67.1%, which nonetheless may not be sufficient enough

  8. Plasma Levels of the Interleukin-1-Receptor Antagonist Are Lower in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Are Particularly Associated with Postpartum Development of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Pernilla; Dereke, Jonatan; Nilsson, Charlotta; Hillman, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Women who develops hyperglycemia for the first time during pregnancy receive the diagnosis gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Presently, there is no consensus about the diagnostic criteria for GDM. A majority of these women subsequently develop postpartum overt diabetes making it important to identify these patients as early as possible. In this study we investigated if plasma levels of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), an endogenous inhibitor of IL-1 signaling, can be used as a complementary biomarker for diagnosing GDM and predicting postpartum development of overt diabetes mellitus. Patients participating in this study (n = 227) were diagnosed with their first GDM 2004-2013 at Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Healthy pregnant volunteers (n = 156) were recruited from women's welfare centers in the same region 2014-2015. Levels of IL-1Ra and C-peptide were analyzed in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma or serum using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). GDM patients had significantly lower levels of IL-1Ra than the control group (p = 0.012). In addition, GDM patients that had developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes mellitus postpartum had significantly lower levels of IL-1Ra, and significantly higher levels of C-peptide than GDM patients that had not developed diabetes mellitus postpartum (p = 0.023) and (p = 0.0011) respectively. An inverse correlation was found between IL-1Ra and serum C-peptide levels in the control group (rs = -0.31 p = 0.0001). Our results show that IL-1Ra might be included in a future panel of biomarkers, both for diagnosing GDM to complement blood glucose, and also identifying GDM patients that are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus postpartum. However, the ROC curve analysis provided a sensitivity of 52.2% and specificity of 67.1%, which nonetheless may not be sufficient enough to use IL

  9. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  10. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia: the EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey; Ezhov, Marat; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Machielse, Ben N; Kling, Douglas; Davidson, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms. The aim was to evaluate the safety and lipid-altering efficacy in subjects with severe hypertriglyceridemia of an investigational pharmaceutical omega-3 free fatty acid (OM3-FFA) containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. This was a multinational, double-blind, randomized, out-patient study. Men and women with triglycerides (TGs) ≥ 500 mg/dL, but severe hypertriglyceridemia. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01242527. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogenation impairs the hypolipidemic effect of corn oil in humans. Hydrogenation, trans fatty acids, and plasma lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, A H; Ausman, L M; Carrasco, W; Jenner, J L; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1993-02-01

    The effects of plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins of replacing corn oil with corn-oil margarine in stick form as two thirds of the fat in the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Step 2 diet were assessed in 14 middle-aged and elderly women and men (age range, 44-78 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia (low density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] range, 133-219 mg/dl [3.45-5.67 mmol/l] at screening). During each 32-day study phase, subjects received all their food and drink from a metabolic kitchen. Subjects were first studied while being fed a diet approximating the composition of the current US diet (baseline), which contained 35% of calories as fat (13% saturated fatty acids [SFAs], 12% monounsaturated fatty acids [MUFAs; 0.8% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]) and 128 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. This baseline phase was followed by a corn oil-enriched diet containing 30% fat (6% SFA, 11% MUFA [0.4% 18:1n-9 trans], and 10% PUFA) and 83 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal, and then a corn-oil margarine-enriched diet containing 30% fat (8% SFA, 12% MUFA [4.2% 18:1n-9 trans], and 8% PUFA) and 77 mg cholesterol/1,000 kcal. All diets were isocaloric. Mean fasting LDL-C and apolipoprotein (apo) B levels were 153 mg/dl (3.96 mmol/l) and 101 mg/dl on the baseline diet, 17% and 20% lower (both p oil-enriched diet, and 10% and 10% lower (both p < 0.01) on the margarine-enriched diet.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  13. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  14. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. • The surface nanofibers were modified by gaseous (air, nitrogen, CO_2 and argon) dielectric barrier discharge. • Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase immobilization. • Chemical analysis showed that after modification of nanofibers by air plasma, the carboxyl group increased. • After air plasma treatment, reusability and storage stability of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanofibers improved. - Abstract: Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO_2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  15. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshari, Esmail, E-mail: e.afshari@mail.sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid [Protein Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghomi, Hamid [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We fabricated polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. • The surface nanofibers were modified by gaseous (air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2} and argon) dielectric barrier discharge. • Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase immobilization. • Chemical analysis showed that after modification of nanofibers by air plasma, the carboxyl group increased. • After air plasma treatment, reusability and storage stability of glucose oxidase immobilized on nanofibers improved. - Abstract: Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO{sub 2}, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  16. Surface modification of polyvinyl alcohol/malonic acid nanofibers by gaseous dielectric barrier discharge plasma for glucose oxidase immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, Esmail; Mazinani, Saeedeh; Ranaei-Siadat, Seyed-Omid; Ghomi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    Polymeric nanofiber prepares a suitable situation for enzyme immobilization for variety of applications. In this research, we have fabricated polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/malonic acid nanofibers using electrospinning. After fabrication of nanofibers, the effect of air, nitrogen, CO2, and argon DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) plasmas on PVA/malonic acid nanofibers were analysed. Among them, air plasma had the most significant effect on glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilization. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrum analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results revealed that in case of air plasma modified nanofibers, the carboxyl groups on the surface are increased. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that, after GOx immobilization, the modified nanofibers with plasma has retained its nanofiber structure. Finally, we analysed reusability and storage stability of GOx immobilized on plasma modified and unmodified nanofibers. The results were more satisfactory for modified nanofibers with respect to unmodified ones.

  17. Study of the fast electron distribution function in lower hybrid and electron cyclotron current driven plasmas in the WT-3 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, K.; Tanaka, H.; Ide, S.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution function f(p-vector) of fast electrons produced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) is investigated in the WT-3 tokamak, using a combination of measurements of the hard X-ray (HXR) angular distribution with respect to the toroidal magnetic field and observations of the HXR radial profile. The data obtained indicate the formation of a plateau-like region in f(p-vector) which corresponds to a region of resonant interaction between the lower hybrid (LH) wave and the electrons. The energy of the fast electrons in the peripheral plasma region is observed to be higher than that in the central plasma region under operational conditions with a high plasma current (I p ≥ 80 kA). At low current (I p < or approx. 50 kA), however, the energy of fast electrons is constant along the plasma radius. In the current ramp-up phase, fast electrons are generated in the directions normal to and opposite to the LH wave propagation. The latter case is ascribed to a negatively biased toroidal electric field induced by the current ramp-up. To study the characteristic change of f(p-vector) for various current drive mechanisms, HXR measurements are performed in electron cyclotron current driven (ECCD) plasma and in Ohmic heating (OH) plasma. In ECCD plasma, the perpendicular energy of fast electrons increases, which indicates that fast electrons are accelerated perpendicularly by electron cyclotron heating. In both LHCD and ECCD plasmas, fast electrons flow in the direction opposite to the wave propagation, while no such fast electrons are formed in OH plasma. (author). 33 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  18. The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the hepatic fatty acid content and plasma lipid profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Komprda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate in a model organism the effect of different dietary lipids on plasma concentration of total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerols (TAG. One hundred adult male rats (Wistar Albino were divided into 10 groups with 10 animals each and fed for 7 weeks either basic feed mixture (control diet, C or basic feed mixture with 5% of palm oil (P, safflower oil (SF, salmon oil (S, fish oil (F, Schizochytrium microalga oil (A, and 20% of beef tallow (T; four groups, respectively. The T-groups were fed for another 7 weeks T-, SF-, F- and A-diet, respectively. At the end of both the first and the second 7-week fattening period, plasma lipid concentration and hepatic fatty acid content was determined. Both A and F diets fed for 7 weeks decreased (P -1 compared to control (1.19 mmol∙l-1. The highest (P -1. A-diet had the most positive (decreasing effect on TAG concentrations (0.68–0.86 mmol∙l-1 compared to 1.22 and 2.88 mmol∙l-1 found in the C and T diets, respectively; P P Schizochytrium microalga oil (with high DHA content may have the potential for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Effects of omeprazole or anti-reflux surgery on lower oesophageal sphincter characteristics and oesophageal acid exposure over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Birgitte-Elise G; Lundell, Lars R; Wallin, Lene; Myrvold, Helge E; Engström, Cecilia; Montgomery, Madeleine; Malm, Anders R; Lind, Tore; Hatlebakk, Jan G

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effect of anti-reflux surgery (ARS) versus proton pump inhibitor therapy on lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) function and oesophageal acid exposure in patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) over a decade of follow-up. In this randomised, prospective, multicentre study we compared LOS pressure profiles, as well as oesophageal exposure to acid, at baseline and at 1 and 10 years after randomisation to either open ARS (n = 137) or long-term treatment with omeprazole (OME) 20-60 mg daily (n = 108). Median LOS resting pressure and abdominal length increased significantly and remained elevated in patients operated on with ARS, as opposed to those on OME. The proportion of total time (%) with oesophageal pH acid exposure was normalised in both groups, with no significant differences, and bilirubin exposure was within normal limits. After 10 years, patients with or without Barrett's oesophagus did not differ in acid reflux control between the two treatment options. Open ARS and OME were both effective in normalising acid reflux into the oesophagus even when studied over a period of 10 years. Anatomically and functionally the LOS was repaired durably by surgery, with increased resting pressure and abdominal length.

  20. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  1. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  2. Evolution of plasma homovanillic acid (HVA) levels during treatment in schizo-affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinowski, A; Castelnau, C; Spreux-Varoquaux, O; Bourdel, M C; Olie, J P; Loo, H; Poirier, M F

    2000-11-01

    1. Plasma Homovanillic Acid (p HVA) levels were measured by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) in 5 schizo-affective depressed patients receiving a standardized treatment. (lithium, chlorpromazine and clomipramine) during 4 weeks. 2. Four patients were pretreated, without a washout period. 3. No significant difference was observed between patients and normal controls at baseline. Under treatment, pHVA levels increased (ppHVA levels that increase with clinical improvement, unlike schizophrenic patients whose increased pHVA concentrations decline with neuroleptic treatment.

  3. Uric acid levels in plasma and urine in rats chronically exposed to inorganic As (III) and As(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauge, P; Del-Razo, L M

    1985-07-01

    The effect of inorganic arsenic (III) and arsenic (V) on renal excretion and plasma levels of uric acid was examined in rats. Oral administration of 1200 micrograms As/kg/day for 6 weeks diminished uric acid levels in plasma by 67.1% and 26.5% of control after the administration of As(III) and As(V), respectively. Renal excretion of uric acid was significantly reduced during the first 3 weeks following As (III) administration, with a subsequent increase to approach control values at the end of the treatment. When As(V) was administered, the diminution in renal excretion was significant at 6 weeks.

  4. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, to prevent the adverse effects observed by MCT (pure medium-chain fatty acids) regarding gastrointestinal distress. Seven well-trained subjects cycled 3 h at 55......% of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...... of plasma triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and phospholipids was determined. Performance was similar after administration of CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerol [medium-, long-, and medium-chain fatty acid (MLM)] compared with CHO (50.0 +/- 1.8 and 50.8 +/- 3.6 min, respectively). No plasma 8...

  5. Plasma Free Amino Acid Profiling of Five Types of Cancer Patients and Its Application for Early Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Yohei; Higashiyama, Masahiko; Gochi, Akira; Akaike, Makoto; Ishikawa, Takashi; Miura, Takeshi; Saruki, Nobuhiro; Bando, Etsuro; Kimura, Hideki; Imamura, Fumio; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Ichiro; Chiba, Akihiko; Oshita, Fumihiro; Imaizumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Horimoto, Katsuhisa; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mitsushima, Toru; Yamakado, Minoru; Okamoto, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. Methods and Findings Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)–mass spectrometry (MS). Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer), regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. Conclusions These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a relatively simple

  6. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  7. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  8. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in an Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma-Solution System (Gliding Discharge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NI Mingjiang; YANG Huan; CHEN Tong; ZHANG Hao; WU Angjian; DU Changming; LI Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a plasma-solution system was applied to the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The effects of initial concentration and type of feed gases (air, oxygen, nitrogen or argon) were studied. As the initial concentration increased from 100 mg/L to 160 mg/L, the discolouration rate of AO7 decreased from 99.3% to 95.9%, whereas the COD removal rate decreased from 37.9% to 22.6%. Air provided the best discolouration and COD removal rates (99.3% and 37.9%, respectively). In the presence of a zero-valent iron (ZVI) catalyst, the AO7 COD removal rate increased to 76.4%. The degradation products were analysed by a GC-MS, revealing that the degradation of the dye molecule was initiated through the cleavage of the -N=N- bond before finally being converted to organic acids. (paper)

  9. In Vitro Effect of Fatty Acids Identified in the Plasma of Obese Adolescents on the Function of Pancreatic ?-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, Claudia; Vasquez, Juan Sebastian; Balcazar, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels is a major factor that induces malfunction in pancreatic ?-cells. We evaluated the effect of FFAs reconstituted according to the profile of circulating fatty acids found in obese adolescents on the viability and function of the murine insulinoma cell line (mouse insulinoma [MIN6]). Methods From fatty acids obtained commercially, plasma-FFA profiles of three different youth populations were reconstituted: obese with metabolic ...

  10. [Measurement of sialic acid from lipoproteins and human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shoudong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Kan, Yujie; Li, Fuyu; Li, Yu; Li, Fangyuan; Qin, Shucun

    2014-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to quantify sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) from lipoproteins and human plasma. The method was used to investigate the different contents of NANA from lipoproteins between diabetic with an average age of 51.6 years and healthy participants with an average age of 50.7 years. The NANA from lipoprotein samples was hydrolyzed by acetic acid (pH = 2) at 80 °C for 2 h and analyzed by the optimized LC-MS/MS method after high speed centrifugation and filtration. The limits of detection and quantification of NANA were 7.4 and 24.5 pg, respectively. The linear range was 2.5-80 ng/mL for NANA and the correlation coefficient (R2) was more than 0.998. The levels of NANA in the plasma of type II diabetics and healthy participants were (548.3 ± 88.9) and (415.3 ± 55.5) mg/L, respectively; and the levels of NANA from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of the type II diabetics and the healthy participants were (4.91 ± 0.19), (6.95 ± 0.28), (3.61 ± 0.22) μg/mg and (2.90 ± 0.27), (7.03 ± 0.04), (2.40 ± 0.09) μg/mg, respectively. The sialic acid levels of VLDL and HDL from the type II diabetics were markedly higher than those of the corresponding healthy participants with the similar ages (P lipoproteins, and is reproducible and time saving.

  11. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  12. Development and validation of bioanalytical UHPLC-UV method for simultaneous analysis of unchanged fenofibrate and its metabolite fenofibric acid in rat plasma: Application to pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan G. Alamri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise, selective and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-UV method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a lipid regulating agent fenofibrate and its metabolite fenofibric acid in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed-phase Acquity® BEH C18 column using methanol–water (65:35, v/v as the mobile phase. The isocratic flow was 0.3 ml/min with rapid run time of 2.5 min and UV detection was at 284 nm. The method was validated over a concentration range of 100–10000 ng/ml (r2 ⩾ 0.9993. The selectivity, specificity, recovery, accuracy and precision were validated for determination of fenofibrate/fenofibric acid in rat plasma. The lower limits of detection and quantitation of the method were 30 and 90 ng/ml for fenofibrate and 40 and 100 ng/ml for fenofibric acid, respectively. The within and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 5%. The validated method has been successfully applied to measure the plasma concentrations in pharmacokinetics study of fenofibrate in an animal model to illustrate the scope and application of the method.

  13. Improved plasma amino acids pattern following 12 months of supplemented low-protein diet in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Na; Qian, Jiaqi; Lin, Aiwu; Fang, Wei; Cao, Liou; Wang, Qin; Ni, Zhaohui; Lindholm, Bengt; Axelsson, Jonas; Yao, Qiang

    2010-07-01

    Decreased plasma essential amino acid (EAA) levels, increased nonessential amino acid (NEAA) levels, and low EAA to NEAA ratio (E/NEAA) are common in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and may impact uremic complications. In the present study, we investigate the impact of keto acids-supplemented low-protein (sLP) diet on plasma amino acids (AAs) patterns in stable PD patients. This is a supplemental analysis of a previously published prospective and randomized trial. Thirty-nine PD patients selected from the original population were divided to receive either low (LP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg ideal body weight [IBW]/d, n = 13), keto acids-supplemented low- (sLP: 0.6-0.8 g/kg IBW/d + 0.12 g/kg IBW/d of keto acids, n = 12), or high- (HP: 1.0-1.2 g/kg IBW/d, n = 14) protein diets and followed for 1 year. Plasma AA patterns were assessed at baseline and 12 months using high-performance liquid chromatography. Whereas there were no significant differences between the three groups at baseline, following 12 months, the E/NEAA had increased significantly in group sLP (0.58 +/- 0.16 to 0.83 +/- 0.20, p diet supplemented with keto acids significantly improved the pattern of plasma AA in prevalent PD patients.

  14. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Anderson, P H; Kruger, W D; Phillipson, B E; Gluckman, R A; Block, P C; Upson, B M

    1998-04-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease. Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg of folic acid daily, approximating the increased daily intake that may result from the FDA's enrichment policy, increased plasma folic acid by 31 percent (P=0.045) but decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine by only 3.7 percent (P= 0.24). However, cereals providing 499 and 665 microg of folic acid daily increased plasma folic acid by 64.8 percent (Pine by 11.0 percent (Pine levels. Further clinical trials are required to determine whether folic acid fortification may prevent vascular disease. Until then, our results suggest that folic acid fortification at levels higher than that recommended by the FDA may be warranted.

  15. The 8 MW lower hybrid electron mode system for the additional heating of the plasma of the FTU Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; De Marco, F.; Ferro, C.; Mirizzi, F.; Papitto, P.; Santini, F.; Segre, S.E.; Sassi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The ''Electron Mode'' regime of LH Heating, based on the same physics as the current drive, has been extensively studied and experimentally tested especially with respect to the relation between frequency and density limit. These results have largely contributed to the decision to build a CD system on TORE SUPRA. Based on the same motivations, the Lower Hybrid 'Electron Mode' Heating (frequency: 8 ''Electron Mode'' Heating (frequency: 8 GHz), has been chosen to heat the plasma of the FTU Tokamak. The RF power required (8 MW at 8 GHz) will be produced by 16 gyrotron oscillators (500 KW unit power) feeding 16 grill couplers installed on 8 equatorial ports of FTU. The dc power supplies will be ,odularly built to be compatible even with completely different sort of tubes (e.g. for IRCH). The transmission lines between the generators and the grills will be circular oversized waveguides to reduce the losses to less than 1 dB. Each grill will consist of an 8x8 matrix of rectangular waveguides pressurized and terminated by thik (one wavelength) alumina windows facing the grill mouth. Gyrotron availability has been verified through studies conducted by the two major manufacturers presently on the market. Preliminary quotations and delivery times have been obtained. The design of the grill couplers has been supplemented by a study contract with an industrial research laboratory which is producing a prototype structure and ceramic windows with very promising results. Microwave mode converters and power dividers for the transmission system have been designed and prototypes are being built and will be tested shortly. An 8 GHz, 25 KW cw test bench has been already commissioned and will be used to test all the microwave components. The power level is more than adequate also to process single channels of the coupling structures

  16. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  17. Effect of Uric Acid-Lowering Agents on Endothelial Function: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Lea; McMullan, Ciaran; Wohlhueter, Ann; Curhan, Gary C; Fisher, Naomi D; Forman, John P

    2017-02-01

    Higher levels of serum uric acid are independently associated with endothelial dysfunction, a mechanism for incident hypertension. Overweight/obese individuals are more prone to endothelial dysfunction than their lean counterparts. However, the effect of lowering serum uric acid on endothelial dysfunction in these individuals has not been examined thoroughly. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nonhypertensive, overweight, or obese individuals with higher serum uric acid (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 and serum uric acid ≥5.0 mg/dL), we assigned subjects to probenecid (500-1000 mg/d), allopurinol (300-600 mg/d), or matching placebo. The primary outcome was endothelium-dependent vasodilation measured by brachial artery ultrasound at baseline and 8 weeks. By the end of the trial, 47, 49, and 53 participants had been allocated to receive probenecid, allopurinol, and placebo, respectively. Mean serum uric acid levels significantly decreased in the probenecid (from 6.1 to 3.5 mg/dL) and allopurinol groups (from 6.1 to 2.9 mg/dL) but not in the placebo group (6.1 to 5.6 mg/dL). None of the interventions produced any significant change in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (probenecid, 7.4±5.1% at baseline and 8.3±5.1% at 8 weeks; allopurinol, 7.6±6.0% at baseline and 6.2±4.8% at 8 weeks; and placebo, 6.5±3.8% at baseline and 7.1±4.9% at 8 weeks). In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, uric acid lowering did not affect endothelial function in overweight or obese nonhypertensive individuals. These data do not support the hypothesis that uric acid is causally related to endothelial dysfunction, a potential mechanism for development of hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Effects of dietary substitution of mixed amino acids for glucose on the splanchnic metabolism of plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, carbohydrates, and amino acids in conscious fed baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, B M; Redinger, R N; Marliss, E B; Grace, D M

    1983-04-01

    Splanchnic metabolism was studied in the fed state during prolonged constant intravenous administration of tracer amounts of [9,10]-3H palmitic acid and the calculated isocaloric intraduodenal administration (13 mg/min X kg body wt0.75) of either (1) glucose, (2) 15% mixed amino acids and 85% glucose or (3) 45% mixed amino acids and 55% glucose to conscious, restrained female baboons that had been maintained on a similar diet (supplemented in essential nutrients) for the previous 9 days. Secretion of plasma triglycerides from the splanchnic region was quantified from splanchnic flow and radiochemical measurements of transsplanchnic gradients of 3H-labeled free fatty acids and triglycerides. Mean splanchnic secretion of plasma triglycerides increased significantly as the proportion of dietary calories derived from amino acids was varied from 0 to 15 to 45% (mean values 1.1 +/- 0.1, 2.6 +/- 0.2 and 4.2 +/- 0.3 mumol/min kg body wt0.75, respectively, p less than 0.05). Increased triglyceride secretion was attributable to both significantly higher rates of esterification of free fatty acids taken up in the splanchnic region to triglycerides released into hepatic venous blood plasma (mean values 10 +/- 1, 16 +/- 2 and 34 +/- 5%, respectively) and to significantly higher rates of secretion of triglycerides derived from precursors other than free fatty acids. Higher intake of amino acids was also associated with both higher plasma concentrations of cholesterol and higher values for hepatic oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Studies on surface graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto PTFE film by remote argon plasma initiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Chen Jierong

    2007-01-01

    The graft polymerization of acrylic acid (AAc) was carried out onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films that had been pretreated with remote argon plasma and subsequently exposed to oxygen to create peroxides. Peroxides are known to be the species responsible for initiating the graft polymerization when PTFE reacts with AAc. We chose different parameters of remote plasma treatment to get the optimum condition for introducing maximum peroxides (2.87 x 10 -11 mol/cm 2 ) on the surface. The influence of grafted reaction conditions on the grafting degree was investigated. The maximum grafting degree was 25.2 μg/cm 2 . The surface microstructures and compositions of the AAc grafted PTFE film were characterized with the water contact angle meter, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Contact angle measurements revealed that the water contact angle decreased from 108 o to 41 o and the surface free energy increased from 22.1 x 10 -5 to 62.1 x 10 -5 N cm -1 by the grafting of the AAc chains. The hydrophilicity of the PTFE film surface was greatly enhanced. The time-dependent activity of the grafted surface was better than that of the plasma treated film

  20. Plasma Amino Acids Stimulate Uncoupled Respiration of Muscle Subsarcolemmal Mitochondria in Lean but Not Obese Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kras, Katon A; Hoffman, Nyssa; Roust, Lori R; Patel, Shivam H; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Increasing the plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations stimulates mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in lean individuals. To determine whether acute elevation in plasma AAs enhances muscle mitochondrial respiration and ATP production in subsarcolemmal (SS) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria in obese adults. Assessment of SS and IMF mitochondrial function during saline (i.e., control) and AA infusions. Eligible participants were healthy lean (body mass index, mass index >30 kg/m2; age 35 ± 3 years; n = 11) subjects. Single trial of saline infusion followed by AA infusion. SS and IMF mitochondria were isolated from muscle biopsies collected at the end of the saline and AA infusions. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. AA infusion increased adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated respiration and ATP production rates of SS mitochondria in the lean (P lean subjects only (P lean or obese subjects (P > 0.05). Increasing the plasma AA concentrations enhances the capacity for respiration and ATP production of muscle SS, but not IMF, mitochondria in lean individuals, in parallel with increases in uncoupled respiration. However, neither of these parameters increases in muscle SS or IMF mitochondria in obese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  1. Plasma Jet Printing and in Situ Reduction of Highly Acidic Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Bowen, James; Nordlund, Dennis; Meyyappan, M; Gandhiraman, Ram P

    2018-05-23

    Miniaturization of electronic devices and the advancement of Internet of Things pose exciting challenges to develop technologies for patterned deposition of functional nanomaterials. Printed and flexible electronic devices and energy storage devices can be embedded onto clothing or other flexible surfaces. Graphene oxide (GO) has gained much attention in printed electronics due its solution processability, robustness, and high electrical conductivity in the reduced state. Here, we introduce an approach to print GO films from highly acidic suspensions with in situ reduction using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Low-temperature plasma of a He and H 2 mixture was used successfully to reduce a highly acidic GO suspension (pH < 2) in situ during deposition. This technique overcomes the multiple intermediate steps required to increase the conductivity of deposited GO. X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed that the reaction intermediates and the concentration of oxygen functionalities bonded to GO have been reduced significantly by this approach without any additional steps. Moreover, the reduced GO films showed enhanced conductivity. Hence, this technique has a strong potential for printing conducting patterns of GO for a range of large-scale applications.

  2. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  3. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the levels of plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Anguiano, Juan B; Zabalo, María José; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrúe, Aurora; Zamalloa, María Isabel; Guimón, José

    2007-04-13

    Changes in the levels of homovanillic acid in blood plasma (pHVA) may reflect changes which occur in the brain. In healthy individuals, this concentration of pHVA is stable over time. Over the course of one month, we studied 98 acute schizophrenic patients who had not been taking any medication but were administered neuroleptics upon hospital admission, together with 23 chronic schizophrenic patients on long-term treatment from whom medication was withdrawn. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals from each individual and the concentration of plasma homovanillic acid was measured. We found relative stable values of pHVA with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.363 in acute patients and 0.638 (ppHVA and the presence of pharmacological stimuli, we found a certain reproducibility in the levels of this dopamine metabolite. These findings are consistent with the idea that the dopaminergic activity is characterized by a constitutive value which would be under genetic control. The higher stability observed in chronic patients may reflect a weaker, age-related dopaminergic plasticity; conversely, it may indicate that a lack of plasticity in response to a pharmacological stimulus may be an indicator of poorer prognosis.

  4. Self-reported dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and association with bone and lower extremity function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, James H; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenny, Anne M

    2009-10-01

    To assess the relationship between self-reported omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and lower extremity function in older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information from three separate ongoing studies of older adults, pooled for this analysis. Academic health center. Two hundred forty-seven men (n=118) and women (n=129) residing in the community or an assisted living facility. Self-reported dietary intake (O3FA, omega-6 fatty acids (O6FA), protein, and total calorie); BMD of the hip or heel; and lower extremity function including leg strength, chair rise time, walking speed, Timed Up and Go, and frailty. The mean reported intake of O3FA was 1.27 g/day. Correlation coefficients (r) between O3FA and T-scores from total femur (n=167) were 0.210 and 0.147 for combined femur and heel T scores. Similar correlations were found for leg strength (r=0.205) and chair rise time (r=-0.178), but the significance was lost when corrected for protein intake. Subjects with lower reported O3FA intake (<1.27 g/day) had lower BMD than those with higher reported O3FA intake. In a multiple regression analysis with femoral neck BMD as the dependent variable and reported intake of O3FA, O6FA, protein, and vitamin D as independent variables, reported O3FA intake was the only significant variable, accounting for 6% of the variance in BMD. Older adults had low reported intakes of O3FA. There was an association between greater reported O3FA intake and higher BMD. There was no independent association between reported O3FA intake and lower extremity function. Results from this preliminary report are promising and suggest further investigation.

  5. Lower pressure heating steam is practical for the distributed dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Weiliang; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Bao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Most studies paid more attention to the pretreatment temperature and the resulted pretreatment efficiency, while ignored the heating media and their scalability to an industry scale. This study aimed to use a relative low pressure heating steam easily provided by steam boiler to meet the requirement of distributed dry dilute acid pretreatment. The results showed that the physical properties of the pretreated corn stover were maintained stable using the steam pressure varying from 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 to 2.1MPa. Enzymatic hydrolysis and high solids loading simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results were also satisfying. CFD simulation indicated that the high injection velocity of the low pressure steam resulted in a high steam holdup and made the mixing time of steam and solid corn stover during pretreatment much shorter in comparison with the higher pressure steam. This study provides a design basis for the boiler requirement in distributed pretreatment concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of changes in memory performance by plasma homovanillic acid levels in clozapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Roy, A; Kim, C-H; Jayathilake, K; Lee, M A; Sumiyoshi, C; Meltzer, H Y

    2004-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia has been demonstrated to be dependent, in part, on dopaminergic activity. Clozapine has been found to improve some domains of cognition, including verbal memory, in patients with schizophrenia. This study tested the hypothesis that plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, a peripheral measure of central dopaminergic activity, would predict the change in memory performance in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. Twenty-seven male patients with schizophrenia received clozapine treatment for 6 weeks. Verbal list learning (VLL)-Delayed Recall (VLL-DR), a test of secondary verbal memory, was administered before and after clozapine treatment. Blood samples to measure pHVA levels were collected at baseline. Baseline pHVA levels were negatively correlated with change in performance on VLL-DR; the lower baseline pHVA level was associated with greater improvement in performance on VLL-DR during treatment with clozapine. Baseline pHVA levels in subjects who showed improvement in verbal memory during clozapine treatment ( n=13) were significantly lower than those in subjects whose memory performance did not improve ( n=14). The results of this study indicate that baseline pHVA levels predict the ability of clozapine to improve memory performance in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Improving plasma resistance and lowering roughness in an ArF photoresist by adding a chemical reaction inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Uesugi, Takuji; Koyama, Koji; Samukawa, Seiji; Kato, Keisuke; Yasuda, Atsushi; Maeda, Shinichi; Momose, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    Major challenges associated with 193 nm lithography using an ArF photoresist are low plasma resistance and roughness formation in the ArF photoresist during plasma processes. We have previously found decisive factors affecting the plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist: plasma resistance is determined by UV/VUV radiation, and roughness formation is dominated by chemical reactions. In this study, based on our findings on the interaction between plasma radiation species and ArF photoresist polymers, we proposed an ArF photoresist with a chemical reaction inhibitor, which can trap reactive species from the plasma, and characterized the performances of the resultant ArF photoresist through neutral beam experiments. Hindered amine light stabilizers, i.e. 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (HO-TEMPO), were used as the chemical reaction inhibitor. Etching rates of the ArF photoresist films were not dependent on the HO-TEMPO content in the irradiations without chemical reactions or under UV/VUV radiation. However, in the irradiation with chemical reactions, the etching rates of the ArF photoresist films decreased as the HO-TEMPO content increased. In addition, the surface roughness decreased with the increase in the additive amount of chemical reaction inhibitor. According to FTIR analysis, a chemical reaction inhibitor can inhibit the chemical reactions in ArF photoresist films through plasma radicals. These results indicate that a chemical reaction inhibitor is effective against chemical reactions, resulting in improved plasma resistance and less roughness in an ArF photoresist. These results also support our suggested mechanism of plasma resistance and roughness formation in an ArF photoresist.

  8. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  9. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. [The profile of plasma non-esterified fatty acids in children with different terms of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmurzina, V A; Petryairina, E E; Saveliev, S V; Selishcheva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Composition and quantitative content of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were investigated in plasma samples of healthy children (12) and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (31) by gas chromatography (GC) after preliminary NEFA solid-phase extraction from plasma lipids. There was a significant (p<0.001) 1.6-fold increase in the total level of NEFA regardless of the disease duration. In the group of DM1 children with the disease period less than 1 year there was an increase in the arachidonic acid (20:4) content (30%) and the oleic acid trans-isomer (18:1) content (82%), and also a decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3) content (26% ) and the docosapentaenoic acids (22:5 n-6) content (60%). In the group of DM1 children with prolonged course of this disease the altered NEFA levels returned to the normal level.

  11. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma Hcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B{sub 12} levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension complicated with nephr opathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxia, Zhou; Xiaoli, Pan; Fangwen, Xie; Jifeng, Fan [Shuyang County People' s Hospital, Jiangsu, Shuyang (China)

    2007-10-15

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), serum folic acid and vitamin B{sub 12} levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) complicated with nephropathy. Methods: Plasma Hcy levels was measured with immuno chemistry and serum folic acid and vitamin B{sub 12} levels were detected with RIA in 32 pregnant women with PIH complicated with nephrophy and 70 pregnant women with PIH but without nephrophy and 35 pregnant women without PIH (as controls). Results; The plasma Hcy levels in patients with PIH were significantly higher than those without (i.e. controls) (P<0.01), while the serum folic acid, vitaminB{sub 12} levels decreased markedly (P<0.01). Among the pregnant women with PIH, plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher and serum folic acid, B{sub 12} levels were significantly lower in the patients complicated with nepropathy than those in patients without nephropathy (P<0.01). conclusion: Determination of plasma Hcy and serum folic acid and vitaminB{sub 12} levels is clinically useful in the management in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension complicated with nephropthy. (authors)

  12. The remarkable stability of chimeric, sialic acid-derived alpha/delta-peptides in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Jonel P; Natarajan, Arutselvan; DeNardo, Sally J; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2010-05-01

    Peptides are labile toward proteolytic enzymes, and structural modifications are often required to prolong their metabolic half-life and increase resistance. One modification is the incorporation of non-alpha-amino acids into the peptide to deter recognition by hydrolytic enzymes. We previously reported the synthesis of chimeric alpha/delta-peptides from glutamic acids (Glu) and the sialic acid derivative Neu2en. Conformational analyses revealed these constructs adopt secondary structures in water and may serve as conformational surrogates of polysialic acid. Polysialic acid is a tumor-associated polysaccharide and is correlated with cancer metastasis. Soluble polysialic acid is rapidly cleared from the blood limiting its potential for vaccine development. One motivation in developing structural surrogates of polysialic acid was to create constructs with increased bioavailability. Here, we report plasma stability profiles of Glu/Neu2en alpha/delta-peptides. DOTA was conjugated at the peptide N-termini by solid phase peptide synthesis, radiolabeled with (111)In, incubated in human blood plasma at 37 degrees C, and their degradation patterns monitored by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and radioactivity counting. Results indicate that these peptides exhibit a long half-life that is two- to three-orders of magnitude higher than natural alpha-peptides. These findings provide a viable platform for the synthesis of plasma stable, sialic acid-derived peptides that may find pharmaceutical application.

  13. Effect of intragastric acid stability of fat emulsions on gastric emptying, plasma lipid profile and postprandial satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Faulks, Richard; Wickham, Martin S J; Bush, Debbie; Pick, Barbara; Wright, Jeff; Cox, Eleanor F; Fillery-Travis, Annette; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2009-03-01

    Fat is often included in common foods as an emulsion of dispersed oil droplets to enhance the organoleptic quality and stability. The intragastric acid stability of emulsified fat may impact on gastric emptying, satiety and plasma lipid absorption. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether, compared with an acid-unstable emulsion, an acid-stable fat emulsion would empty from the stomach more slowly, cause more rapid plasma lipid absorption and cause greater satiety. Eleven healthy male volunteers received on two separate occasions 500 ml of 15 % (w/w) [13C]palmitate-enriched olive oil-in-water emulsion meals which were either stable or unstable in the acid gastric environment. MRI was used to measure gastric emptying and the intragastric oil fraction of the meals. Blood sampling was used to measure plasma lipids and visual analogue scales were used to assess satiety. The acid-unstable fat emulsion broke and rapidly layered in the stomach. Gastric emptying of meal volume was slower for the acid-stable fat emulsion (P rate of energy delivery of fat from the stomach to the duodenum was not different up to t = 110 min. The acid-stable emulsion induced increased fullness (P distribution of fat emulsions against the gastric acid environment. This could have implications for the design of novel foods.

  14. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  15. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  16. Uric acid turnover in man by chromatographic measurement of the specific activity of 14C-uric acid in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, R.; Vitali, C.; Clerico, A.; Pilo, A.; Fusani, L.; Mariani, G.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the determination of uric acid turnover, based on the measurement of 14C-uric specific radioactivity in plasma and urine after its chromatographic purification through P2 Biogel columns. This gel specifically adsorbs uric acid, so that possible radioactivity due to allantoin and/or other metabolites is not included in the measurement. A group of 4 normal control subjects and 8 patients with non-tophaceous gout were submitted to the investigation. After measuring the plasma disappearance curve of 14C-uric acid over 72 hours, the non-compartmental approach was employed to compute the total removal rate of uric acid, its distribution volumes and the size of its total body pool. By measuring urine radioactivity over the same period, the removal rate of uric acid through kidneys was determined, by the urine/plasma ratio. The extrarenal excretion of uric acid was then determined as the difference between the total removal rate and the renal removal rate. The total removal rate of uric acid resulted to be 382.8 mg/day/m 2 bs in the control group, decreased by 11% in 4 hypoexcretory gouty patients, and increased by 34% in 4 hyperproducing gouty patients. The total pool of uric acid (567 mg/m 2 bs in normals) was markedly increased in the gouty patients, by about 65%, irrespective of hypoexcretion of hyperproduction. The extrarenal fraction of uric acid removal resulted to be about 38% of the total removal, both in the control subjects and in the gouty patients, irrespective of hypoexcretion or hyperproduction of uric acid. (author)

  17. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  18. Effect of DHA on plasma fatty acid availability and oxidative stress during training season and football exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Joan M; Llompart, Isabel; Argelich, Emma; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with 1.14 g per day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for eight weeks on the plasma oxidative balance and anti-inflammatory markers after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male football players were randomly assigned to placebo or experimental and supplemented groups. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and after eight weeks of training under resting and post-exercise conditions. The experimental beverage increased the plasma DHA availability in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFAs) and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction of NEFAs but had no effects on the biomarkers for oxidative balance in plasma. During training, plasma protein markers of oxidative damage, the haemolysis degree and the antioxidant enzyme activities increased, but did not affect lipid oxidative damage. Training season and DHA influenced the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Acute exercise did not alter the basal levels of plasma markers for oxidative and nitrosative damage of proteins and lipids, and the antioxidant enzyme activities, although DHA-diet supplementation significantly increased the PGE2 in plasma after acute exercise. In conclusion, the training season and acute exercise, but not the DHA diet supplementation, altered the pattern of plasma oxidative damage, as the antioxidant system proved sufficient to prevent the oxidative damage induced by the acute exercise in well-trained footballers. The DHA-diet supplementation increased the prostaglandin PGE2 plasma evidencing anti-inflammatory effects of DHA to control inflammation after acute exercise.

  19. Lower expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: contribution of altered regulation by Zif268.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Sohei; Bazmi, H Holly; Lewis, David A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive deficits of schizophrenia may be due at least in part to lower expression of the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), a key enzyme for GABA synthesis, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the molecular regulation of lower cortical GAD67 levels in schizophrenia. The GAD67 promoter region contains a conserved Zif268 binding site, and Zif268 activation is accompanied by increased GAD67 expression. Thus, altered expression of the immediate early gene Zif268 may contribute to lower levels of GAD67 mRNA in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The authors used polymerase chain reaction to quantify GAD67 and Zif268 mRNA levels in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex area 9 from 62 matched pairs of schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects, and in situ hybridization to assess Zif268 expression at laminar and cellular levels of resolution. The effects of potentially confounding variables were assessed in human subjects, and the effects of antipsychotic treatments were tested in antipsychotic-exposed monkeys. The specificity of the Zif268 findings was assessed by quantifying mRNA levels for other immediate early genes. GAD67 and Zif268 mRNA levels were significantly lower and were positively correlated in the schizophrenia subjects. Both Zif268 mRNA-positive neuron density and Zif268 mRNA levels per neuron were significantly lower in the schizophrenia subjects. These findings were robust to the effects of the confounding variables examined and differed from other immediate early genes. Deficient Zif268 mRNA expression may contribute to lower cortical GAD67 levels in schizophrenia, suggesting a potential mechanistic basis for altered cortical GABA synthesis and impaired cognition in schizophrenia.

  20. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  1. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of the furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid, an inhibitor of plasma protein binding in uraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, M G; Gilchrist, T L; Lindup, W E

    1996-06-01

    The furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (5-propyl FPA) accumulates in the plasma of patients with chronic renal failure and is a major contributor to the drug binding defect of uraemic plasma. This acid has also been implicated in several other aspects of the uraemic syndrome: anaemia, irregularities of thyroid function, neurological symptoms and inhibition of active tubular secretion. The acid is not commercially available and its synthesis, starting with Meldrum's acid and methyl succinyl chloride, is described. The pKa values were measured by titration and values of 3.2 and 3.6 respectively were assigned to the carboxylic acid groups attached directly to the ring at position 3 and at position 2 (on the side-chain). The partition coefficient (log P) between hydrochloric acid and octanol was 1.2 and the distribution coefficient (log D; octanol-phosphate buffer pH 7.4) was -0.59. The pKa values and the degree of hydrophobic character of 5-propyl FPA are consistent with those of other protein-bound acids which undergo active tubular secretion by the kidney and this substance may serve as an endogenous marker for the effects of drugs and disease on this process.

  2. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  3. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  4. LC-MS/MS determination of tranexamic acid in human plasma after phospholipid clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Fall, Fanta; Etting, Isabelle; Devillier, Philippe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas

    2017-07-15

    Tranexamic acid is a widely used antifibrinolytic drug but its pharmacology and pharmacokinetics remains poorly understood. Owing to the recent knowledge on phospholipid-induced matrix effects during human plasma analysis, our aim was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of tranexamic acid after efficient sample clean-up. Sample preparation consisted in phospholipid removal and protein precipitation. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was used and the detection was achieved with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated according to the European Medicine Agency guideline in the range 1.0-1000.0μg/mL. The performance of the method was excellent with a precision in the range 1.2-3.0%, an accuracy between 88.4 and 96.6% and a coefficient of variation of the internal standard-normalized matrix factor below 6.7%. This method is suitable for the quantification of tranexamic acid in the wide range of concentrations observed during clinical studies, with all the advantages related to phospholipid removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancement of Schizochytrium DHA synthesis by plasma mutagenesis aided with malonic acid and zeocin screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ben; Li, Yafei; Li, Changling; Yang, Hailin; Wang, Wu

    2018-03-01

    Schizochytrium sp. accumulates valuable polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). In order to increase DHA synthesis in this microorganism, physical or chemical mutagenesis aided with powerful screening methods are still preferable, as its DHA synthetic pathway has not yet been clearly defined for gene manipulation. To breed this agglomerate microorganism of thick cell wall and rather large genome for increasing lipid content and DHA percentage, a novel strategy of atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutagenesis coupled with stepped malonic acid (MA) and zeocin resistance screening was developed. The final resulted mutant strain mz-17 was selected with 1.8-fold increased DHA production. Accompanied with supplementation of Fe 2+ in shake flask cultivation, DHA production of 14.0 g/L on average was achieved. This work suggests that ARTP mutation combined with stepped MA and zeocin resistance screening is an efficient method of breeding Schizochytrium sp. of high DHA production, and might be applied on other microorganisms for obtaining higher desired PUFA products.

  6. Plasma surface modification of poly (L-lactic acid) and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) films for improvement of nerve cells adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorasani, M.T.; Mirzadeh, H.; Irani, S.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) plasma treatment in O 2 was applied to modify the surface of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (D,L-lactic acid-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) as biodegradable polymers. The surface structure, morphology, wettability and surface chemistry of treated films were characterized by water drop contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical invert microscope, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ATIR-FTIR spectroscopy. The cell affinity of the oxygen plasma treated film was evaluated by nervous tissue B65 cell culture in stationary conditions. The results showed that the hydrophilicity increased greatly after O 2 plasma treatment. The results showed that improved cell adhesion was attributed to the combination of surface chemistry and surface wettability during plasma treatment. Cell culture results showed that B65 nervous cell attachment and growth on the plasma treated PLLA was much higher than an unmodified sample and PLGA. Surface hydrophilicity and chemical functional groups with high polar component play an important role in enhancing cell attachment and growth

  7. Bioflocculation production from lower-molecular fatty acids as a novel strategy for utilization of sludge digestion liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Ike, M; Jang, J H; Kim, S M; Hirao, T

    2001-01-01

    We propose the bioproduction of a bioflocculant from lower-molecular fatty acids as an innovative strategy for utilizing waste sludge digestion liquor. Fundamental studies on the production, characterization and application of a novel bioflocculant were performed. Citrobactersp. TKF04 was screened out of 1,564 natural isolates as a bacterial strain capable of a bioflocculant from acetic and propionic acids. TKF04 produced the bioflocculant during the logarithmic growth in the batch cultivation, and it could be recovered from the culture supernatant by ethanol precipitation. The fed-batch cultivation with feeding of acetic acid: ammonium 10;1 (mole) to maintain pH 8.5 led to the hyper-production of the bioflocculant. The bioflocculant was found to be effective for flocculating a kaolin suspension, when added at a final concentration of 1-10 mg/l, over a wide range of pHs (2-8) and temperatures (3-95 degrees C), while the addition of cations was not required. It could flocculate a variety of inorganic and organic suspended particles including kaolin, diatomite, bentonite, activated carbon, soil and activated sludge. These indicated that the bioflocculant possesses flocculating activity comparable or superior to that of synthetic flocculants. The bioflocculation was identified as a chitosan-like biopolymer.

  8. Degradation of Acid Orange 7 Dye in Two Hybrid Plasma Discharge Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongjun; Ding Jiandong; Lei Lecheng; Zhang Xingwang

    2014-01-01

    To get an optimized pulsed electrical plasma discharge reactor and to increase the energy utilization efficiency in the removal of pollutants, two hybrid plasma discharge reactors were designed and optimized. The reactors were compared via the discharge characteristics, energy transfer efficiency, the yields of the active species and the energy utilization in dye wastewater degradation. The results showed that under the same AC input power, the characteristics of the discharge waveform of the point-to-plate reactor were better. Under the same AC input power, the two reactors both had almost the same peak voltage of 22 kV. The peak current of the point-to-plate reactor was 146 A, while that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor was only 48.8 A. The peak powers of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.38 MW and 1.01 MW, respectively. The energy per pulse of the point-to-plate reactor was 0.2221 J, which was about 29.4% higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (0.1716 J). To remove 50% Acid Orange 7 (AO7), the energy utilizations of the point-to-plate reactor and the wire-to-cylinder reactor were 1.02 × 10 −9 mol/L and 0.61 × 10 −9 mol/L, respectively. In the point-to-plate reactor, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in pure water was 3.6 mmol/L after 40 min of discharge, which was higher than that of the wire-to-cylinder reactor (2.5 mmol/L). The concentration of liquid phase ozone in the point-to-plate reactor (5.7 × 10 −2 mmol/L) was about 26.7% higher than that in the wire-to-cylinder reactor (4.5 × 10 −2 mmol/L). The analysis results of the variance showed that the type of reactor and reaction time had significant impacts on the yields of the hydrogen peroxide and ozone. The main degradation intermediates of AO7 identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GCMS) were acetic acid, maleic anhydride, p-benzoquinone, phenol, benzoic acid, phthalic anhydride, coumarin and 2-naphthol. Proposed degradation

  9. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  11. Simultaneous determination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma by high performance liquid chromatography: Mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Quantitative analysis of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in biological matrices requires sensitive and specific methods which allow determination of therapeutic concentration in μg/mL range. Analytical methods for determination of their concentrations in body fluids described in literature include high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV detector (HPLC-UV and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS. The aim of this study was to develop sensitive and specific ultra performance liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS method which could be used for the spectral identification and quantification of the low concentrations of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in the human plasma. Method. A sensitive and specific UPLC/MS method for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid determination was developed in this study. The samples were taken from the adult healthy volunteers receiving per os one tablet of amoxicillin (875 mg in combination with clavulanic acid (125 mg. Results. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct deproteinization with perchloric acid. Quantification limit of 0.01 μg/ml for both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was achieved. The method was reproducible day by day (RSD < 7 %. Analytical recoveries for amoxicillin ranged from 98.82% to 100.9% (for concentrations of 1, 5 and 20 μg/mL, and recoveries for clavulanic acid were 99,89% to 100.1% (for concentrations of 1, 2 and 5 μg/mL. This assay was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers after a single-oral administration of amoxicillin/ clavulanic combination. The determined plasma concentrations of both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were in the range of the expected values upon the literature data for HPLC-UV and LC-MS methods. Conclusion. The described method provided a few advantages comparing with LC/MS-MS method. The method is faster using running time of 5 minute, has lower limit of quantification (LOQ and it

  12. Minipool Caprylic Acid Fractionation of Plasma Using Disposable Equipment: A Practical Method to Enhance Immunoglobulin Supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ekiaby, Magdy; Vargas, Mariángela; Sayed, Makram; Gorgy, George; Goubran, Hadi; Radosevic, Mirjana; Burnouf, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need. Methodology/Principal Findings IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment. Conclusions/Significance 90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode. PMID:25719558

  13. Minipool caprylic acid fractionation of plasma using disposable equipment: a practical method to enhance immunoglobulin supply in developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy El-Ekiaby

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immunoglobulin G (IgG is an essential plasma-derived medicine that is lacking in developing countries. IgG shortages leave immunodeficient patients without treatment, exposing them to devastating recurrent infections from local pathogens. A simple and practical method for producing IgG from normal or convalescent plasma collected in developing countries is needed to provide better, faster access to IgG for patients in need.IgG was purified from 10 consecutive minipools of 20 plasma donations collected in Egypt using single-use equipment. Plasma donations in their collection bags were subjected to 5%-pH5.5 caprylic acid treatment for 90 min at 31°C, and centrifuged to remove the precipitate. Supernatants were pooled, then dialyzed and concentrated using a commercial disposable hemodialyzer. The final preparation was filtered online by gravity, aseptically dispensed into storage transfusion bags, and frozen at 5 logs reduction of HIV, BVDV, and PRV infectivity in less than 15 min of caprylic acid treatment.90% pure, virally-inactivated immunoglobulins can be prepared from plasma minipools using simple disposable equipment and bag systems. This easy-to-implement process could be used to produce immunoglobulins from local plasma in developing countries to treat immunodeficient patients. It is also relevant for preparing hyperimmune IgG from convalescent plasma during infectious outbreaks such as the current Ebola virus episode.

  14. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma free fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global disease which its prevalence is about 10-35%. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma free fatty acids in patients with NAFLD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the month of Ramadan in June-July, 2014 (Islamic year: 1435 with 50 patients who were living in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were recruited from 18-65 years old patients. The inclusion criteria were 1 patients with NAFLD that diagnosed fatty liver by ultrasonography and 2 being at least 10 hours fasting. Levels of plasma free fatty acids (Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acid were analyzed in blood sample of all patients by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID.Result: results indicated that there was no significant changes were observed in plasma levels of Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acids in overweight patients (BMI 25-30 , but plasma levels of Elaidic acid significantly increased in obese patients (P

  16. Association of plasma fetuin-a levels with peripheral arterial disease and lower extremity arterial calcification in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Ioanna; Grigoropoulou, Pinelopi; Kokkinos, Alexander; Mourouzis, Iordanis; Perrea, Despoina; Katsilambros, Nicholas; Sfikakis, Petros P; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2017-03-01

    Fetuin-A is a hepatic glycoprotein that is involved in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Herein we examined the association of plasma fetuin-A levels with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 71 patients with T2DM and 57 non-diabetic individuals were recruited. Diagnosis of PAD was based on the absence of triphasic waveform at pedal arteries, while ankle-brachial index (ABI) was calculated. Radiographs of both feet and ankles were taken for the assessment of lower extremity arterial calcification (LEAC). Plasma fetuin-A levels were measured using ELISA. Patients with T2DM had higher fetuin-A levels than non-diabetic participants. Participants with diabetes and PAD had lower fetuin-A levels than non-PAD diabetic patients. In subjects with T2DM fetuin-A levels were associated with ABI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that in patients with T2DM the odds of PAD increased with long diabetes duration, smoking, presence of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, as well as with lower fetuin-A levels. A trend towards higher fetuin-A levels in subjects with less severe LEAC was found. Plasma fetuin-A levels are lower in patients with T2DM and PAD and are associated with PAD, irrespective of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, fetuin-A may be involved in arterial calcification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and other biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat of cows fed raw or extruded linseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akraim, F; Nicot, M C; Juaneda, P; Enjalbert, F

    2007-07-01

    Thirty lactating dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design to investigate the effects of a raw or extruded blend of linseed and wheat bran (70:30) on plasma and milk fatty-acids (FA). Linseed diets, containing 16.6% linseed blend on a dry-matter basis, decreased milk yield and protein percentage. They decreased the proportions of FA with less than 18 carbons in plasma and milk and resulted in cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3 proportions that were more than three and four times higher in plasma and milk, respectively, whereas cis-9, cis-12 18:2 proportions were decreased by 10-15%. The cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 18:3 isomer of conjugated linolenic acid was not detected in the milk of control cows, but was over 0.15% of total FA in the milk fat of linseed-supplemented cows. Similarly, linseed increased plasma and milk proportions of all biohydrogenation (BH) intermediates in plasma and milk, including the main isomer of conjugated linoleic acid cis-9, trans-11 18:2, except trans-4 18:1 and cis-11, trans-15 18:2 in plasma lipids. In milk fat, compared with raw linseed, extruded linseed further reduced 6:0-16:0 even-chain FA, did not significantly affect the proportions of 18:0, cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, cis-12 18:2, tended to increase cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 18:3, and resulted in an additional increase in the proportions of most BH intermediates. It was concluded that linseed addition can improve the proportion of conjugated linoleic and linolenic acids, and that extrusion further increases the proportions of intermediates of ruminal BH in milk fat.

  18. Homocysteinemia is Associated with a Lower Degree of PBMC LINE-1 Methylation and a Higher Risk of CIN 2C in the U.S. Post-Folic Acid Fortification Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiga, Suguna; Siddiqui, Nuzhat R; Macaluso, Maurizio; Johanning, Gary L; Piyathilake, Chandrika J

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to determine whether plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), a functional indicator of methyl donor nutrients, are associated with altered risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+) and the degree of methylation in long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1s) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, a potential biomarker of CIN 2+ in a population of women exposed to the United States folic acid fortification program. The secondary aim was to assess the determinants of plasma Hcy in the same population. The study included 457 women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases, n = 132) or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases, n = 325). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors of cervical cancer. Women with higher Hcy concentrations were at a greater risk of being diagnosed with CIN 2+ [odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, P = 0.005]. Higher plasma folate concentrations were a significant determinant of lower Hcy (OR = 0.40, P = 0.0002). Women with higher Hcy concentrations were more likely to have a lower degree of LINE-1 methylation (OR = 2.30, P = 0.0007). These results suggested that further improvement in folate status in this population may be beneficial for lowering Hcy and improving the degree of LINE-1 methylation.

  19. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  20. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-11-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P=0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA.Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increments in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations after neuroleptic discontinuation are associated with worsening of schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R S; Amin, F; Powchik, P; Knott, P; Goldstein, M; Apter, S; Kerman, B; Jaff, S; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Thirty-two male schizophrenic patients participated in this study. 2. Plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA) were assessed once on neuroleptic medication and twice a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation. 3. Psychiatric symptomatology was assessed once on neuroleptic medication and once a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). 4. pHVA and total BPRS score increased significantly after discontinuation of neuroleptic as compared to baseline. 5. The magnitude of pHVA and BPRS increments after discontinuation of neuroleptic correlated significantly. 6. Results of this study suggest that worsening of schizophrenic symptoms after discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment is associated with increased pHVA concentrations.

  2. Association of plasma homovanillic acid with behavioral symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, R A; Pollock, B G; Mulsant, B H; Rosen, J; Lo, K H; Yao, J K; Henteleff, R A; Mazumdar, S

    1997-12-01

    Neuroleptic treatment of psychotic symptoms or agitated behavior in elderly patients diagnosed with dementia is associated with reduced efficacy and increased rates of neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism in comparison to younger patients with schizophrenia. We report the first study to examine the relationship between an in vivo measure of dopaminergic function, plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA), and ratings of psychosis, agitation, and parkinsonism before and after neuroleptic treatment in dementia patients. Pretreatment pHVA was significantly correlated with parkinsonian rigidity, with a trend observed with agitation and hostility. Though mean pHVA did not change during perphenazine treatment, intraindividual change in pHVA at day 15 was correlated with improvement in hostility, with a similar trend for improvement in agitation. These preliminary findings are consistent with reports associating dopaminergic function with agitated, but not psychotic, symptoms in patients diagnosed with dementia, and with a reduced responsivity of dopaminergic systems to neuroleptic treatment in these patients.

  3. Plasma homovanillic acid and treatment response in a large group of schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W H; Hwu, H G; Chen, T Y; Lin, S K; Lung, F W; Chen, H; Lin, W L; Hu, W H; Lin, H N; Chien, C P

    1993-10-01

    Plasma levels of homovanillic acid (pHVA), a metabolite of dopamine, were measured in ninety-five Chinese schizophrenic patients free of neuroleptics for at least four weeks. These patients were treated with classical antipsychotics for six weeks. Pretreatment pHVA was positively correlated with the subsequent clinical response (r = 0.408, p or = 50%, n = 47) had higher pretreatment pHVA levels than poor responders (BPRS improvement pHVA level was associated with a more consistent clinical response to the subsequent treatment. Using a pHVA level of 12 ng/ml as a demarcation point, 72% of patients (34 of 47) who had pHVA > or = 12 responded whereas 65% (31 of 48) who had pHVA levels may predict a better clinical response to antipsychotics. Based upon the pHVA findings, two hypothetical subtypes of schizophrenia are proposed.

  4. Influence of gas puff location on the coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET ELMy H-mode plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ekedahl, A.; Petržílka, Václav; Baranov, Y.; Biewer, T.M.; Brix, M.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, P.; Kirov, K.K.; Klepper, C.C.; Mailloux, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nave, M.F.F.; Ongena, J.; Rachlew, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 7 (2012), 074004-074004 ISSN 0741-3335. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2010/23./. Daejeon, 11.10.2010-16.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044; GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH wave * plasma * current drive * tokamak * LHCD Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.369, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/54/7/074004/pdf/0741-3335_54_7_074004.pdf

  5. Current-drive and plasma formation experiments on the Versator-II tokamak using lower-hybrid and electron-cyclotron waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colborn, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    During lower-hybrid current-driven (LHCD) tokamak discharges with thermal electron temperature T e ∼ 150 eV, a two-parallel-temperature tail is observed in the electron distribution function. The cold tail extends to parallel energy E parallel ∼ 4.5 keV with temperature T cold tail ∼ 1.5 keV, and the hot tail extends to E parallel > 150 keV with T hot tail > 40 keV. Fokker-Planck computer simulations suggest the cold tail is created by low power, high-N parallel sidelobes in the lower-hybrid antenna spectrum, and that these sidelobes bridge the spectral gap, enabling current drive on small tokamaks such as Versator. During plasma-formation experiments using 28 GHz electroncyclotron (EC) waves, the plasma is born near the EC layer, then moves toward the upper-hybrid (UH) layer within 100-200μs. Wave power is detected in the plasma with frequency f = 300 MHz. Measured turbulent plasma fluctuations are correlated with decay-wave amplitude. Electron-cyclotron current-drive (ECCD) is observed with loop voltage V loop ≤ 0 and fully sustained plasma current I p approx-lt 15 kA at densities up to [n e ] = 2 x 10 12 cm -3 . The efficiency falls rapidly to zero as the density is raised, suggesting the ECCD depends on low collisonality. The EC waves enhance magnetic turbulence in the frequency range 50 kHz approx-lt f approx-lt 400 kHz by up to an order of magnitude. The time-of-arrival of the turbulence to probes at the plasma boundary is longer when the EC layer is farther from the probes

  6. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  7. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  8. Platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid - an efficient biostimulation method for face rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusal, Betul Gozel

    2017-03-01

    Cosmetic applications of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are new, and reports are scarce and dispersed in the literature. There are a variety of commercially available kits and injection techniques, and the number and intervals of injections vary. New investigations should focus on developing a standardized procedure for PRP preparation and application methods to augment its efficacy and potency. In this report, we aim to provide data and commentary to assist and add to current guidelines. A series of 94 female patients with varying degrees of facial aging signs were treated with PRP and hyaluronic acid (HA). Mean age was 53.0 ± 5.6. The mean injection number was 3.6 ± 2.0. Platelet-poor and platelet- rich plasma parts were mixed with 0.5 cc %3.5 hyaluronic acid and 0.5 cc procaine and injected with a 30G, 13-mm needle into deep dermis and hypodermis. Patients were asked to rate their personal satisfaction with their skin texture, pigmentation, and sagging. In addition, the overall results were rated by three independent physicians and the patients themselves. The outcomes were peer-reviewed, and correlations between the degree of the aesthetic scores and the number of injections were explored. There was a statistically significant difference in general appearance, skin firmness-sagging and skin texture according to the patients' before and after applications of PRP. A statistically significant correlation was found between the number of injections and overall satisfaction. Compared to the baseline, the PRP and HA injections provided clinically visible and statistically significant improvement on facial skin. The improvements were more remarkable as the injection numbers increased. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. "Determination of mycophenolic acid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mehdi Ahadi Barzoki

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method is presented for determination of mycophenolic acid(MPA in human plasma. Samples were prepared after precipitation of the plasma protein by addition of acetonitrile and naproxen was used as internal standard (I.S.. Separation was performed by reversedphase HPLC, using a Hamilton PRP-C18 Column, 51% acetonitrile and 49% potassium phosphate buffer (20 mM at pH 3.0 as mobile phase, flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, and UV detection at 215 nm. MPA and I.S. had retention times of 7.5 and 11.35 min, respectively. The method showed an acceptable linearity in the range of 0.1µg/ml-40µg/ml with r2 of .9992. The concentration of 0.1µg/ml was determined as quantification limit. Mean absolute recovery was 94.8%. The mean intra- and inter-day reproducibility of method was 4.6 and 11.4% respectively.

  10. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Light activates proton (H+)-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO2 to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO2 levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H+-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO2 and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H+-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure. PMID:17557075

  11. Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Saitoh, O; Yotsutsuji, T; Itoh, H; Kurokawa, K; Kurachi, M

    1999-04-01

    We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.

  12. Sex differences in plasma homovanillic acid levels in schizophrenia and normal controls: relation to neuroleptic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, T; Hasegawa, M; Jayathilake, K; Meltzer, H Y

    1997-03-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels were compared in a large number of neuroleptic-resistant and -responsive schizophrenic patients (male/female = 161/46) and normal controls (67/27), and correlated with various measures of psychopathology. Psychopathology was evaluated with the brief psychiatric rating scale, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Change version (SADS-C) and SADS-C Global Assessment Scale, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and the Quality of Life Scale. No significant differences in pHVA levels between neuroleptic-resistant (n = 104) or -responsive (n = 103) schizophrenic patients, and normal controls, were found; however, there was a main effect for sex, due to higher pHVA levels in women than men. There were no diagnosis x gender or age effects on pHVA levels. No significant correlations were observed between psychopathology ratings and baseline pHVA levels, except with the Hallucinations subscale of SAPS in neuroleptic-responsive patients. Neither duration of neuroleptic washout nor plasma prolactin levels correlated with pHVA levels. Further studies on the origin and significance of the gender difference in pHVA are indicated.

  13. Lowering rumen-degradable and rumen-undegradable protein improved amino acid metabolism and energy utilization in lactating dairy cows exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J D; Pohler, K G; Mulliniks, J T; Ríus, A G

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing dietary rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) on protein and energy metabolism in heat-stressed dairy cows. Eighteen primiparous and 30 multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a completely randomized design arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial (n = 12/treatment). Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments that included 2 levels of RDP (10 and 8%; D) and 2 levels of RUP (8 and 6%; U) of dry matter for 21 d as (1) 10D:8U, (2) 8D:8U, (3) 10D:6U, and (4) 8D:6U. Diets were isoenergetic and contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate (dry matter basis). Cows were housed in a freestall barn. Three weeks before start of treatments, all animals were fed the 10D:8U diet and received supplemental cooling to prevent heat stress. During the treatment period, cows experienced a daily increment in temperature-humidity index from 74 to 82 for 1000 to 2000 h. Blood samples were collected on d -1 and 21 of the treatment period to determine plasma concentrations of AA, glucose, insulin, fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. For primiparous cows, reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations. For multiparous cows, we found significant RDP by RUP interactions for insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, fatty acids, total essential AA, and 3-methylhistidine concentrations. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased insulin concentrations at 6% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 8% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP decreased β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 10 to 8% RDP increased nonesterified fatty acid and total essential AA concentrations at 8% RUP, but concentrations did not change when reducing RDP at 6% RUP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP decreased 3-methylhistidine concentration at 8% RDP, but not at 10% RDP. Reducing from 8 to 6% RUP increased milk protein yield

  14. X-ray measurements during plasma current start-up experiments using the lower hybrid wave on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatsuki, Takuma; Ejiri, Akira; Kakuda, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Non-inductive plasma current start-up experiments using RF power in the lower hybrid frequency range is being conducted on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. Plasma currents of up to 15 kA have been achieved. The effect of direct current drive can be seen by comparing the cases with co-drive and counter-drive. X-rays in various energy ranges were measured to investigate the interaction between the wave and the electrons. Soft X-ray (SX) measurements revealed that the perpendicular SX emission increased significantly as the plasma current increased, and that the tangential SX emission in the direction of RF drive was enhanced more strongly in the co-drive case compared to the counter-drive case. These observations imply that the fast electrons accelerated by the lower hybrid wave contribute to the plasma current. However, RF amplitude modulation experiments showed that the confinement time of these fast electrons are very short (less than 0.05 ms), much shorter than the collisional slowing down time. Hard X-ray spectral measurements showed that the radiation temperature of fast electrons in the co-direction for current drive was higher than that in the counter-direction. These observations are consistent with the existence of RF-driven fast electrons. (author)

  15. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  16. Acetyl salicyclic acid (aspirin) improves synthesis of maspin and lowers incidence of metastasis in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.; Girish, G.V.; Ghosh, R.; Chakraborty, S.; Sinha, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Maspin, a 42 kDa protein produced in normal breast cells, has been shown to inhibit the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer in an animal model. Ingestion of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) by breast cancer patients has been reported to restore the systemic synthesis of maspin through the stimulation of systemic nitric oxide production. Studies were carried out to determine the effect of aspirin on the incidence of breast cancer metastasis, which is reported to occur in 50% of patients who have previously received chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery. Thirty-five female patients (aged 41-65 years) with breast cancer who had previously received these therapies took one 75 mg/70 kg body weight enteric-coated aspirin tablet every 24 h, after an adequate meal, for 3 years. Their plasma nitric oxide and maspin levels were measured. The occurrence of metastasis was ascertained monthly by a qualified oncologist, and confirmed, if necessary, by biopsy. Daily ingestion of aspirin by participants resulted in an increase in maspin levels from 0.95±0.04 to 4.63±0.05 nM after 24 h. These levels were maintained for 3 years. These studies suggest that daily ingestion of aspirin might significantly reduce the incidence of breast cancer metastasis in patients who have previously received anticancer therapies. (author)

  17. Relationship Between the Plasma Methionine {sup 14}C Activity and the Level of Some Other Essential Amino Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldizsar, H.; Pethes, G.; Kemeny, A. [Radioisotope Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Veterinary Science, Budapest (Hungary)

    1968-07-01

    At present