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Sample records for acid fuel cell

  1. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  2. Stabilizing platinum in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remick, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Platinum sintering on phosphoric acid fuel cell cathodes is discussed. The cathode of the phosphoric acid fuel cell uses a high surface area platinum catalyst dispersed on a conductive carbon support to minimize both cathode polarization and fabrication costs. During operation, however, the active surface area of these electrodes decreases, which in turn leads to decreased cell performance. This loss of active surface area is a major factor in the degradation of fuel cell performance over time.

  3. Solid Acid Based Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haile, Sossina M

    2005-01-01

    ...) without pressurization. In this configuration, the thin-film fuel cell is supported on a porous stainless steel gas diffusion layer and the electrocatalyst and electrolyte layers are spray-deposited...

  4. Corrosion free phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Maynard K.

    1990-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell with an electrolyte fuel system which supplies electrolyte via a wick disposed adjacent a cathode to an absorbent matrix which transports the electrolyte to portions of the cathode and an anode which overlaps the cathode on all sides to prevent corrosion within the cell.

  5. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.; Prokopius, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented both for multimegawatt systems for electric utility applications and for multikilowatt systems for on-site integrated energy system applications. Improving fuel cell performance, reducing cost, and increasing durability are the technology drivers at this time. Electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, and fuel selection are discussed.

  6. World wide IFC phosphoric acid fuel cell implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.M. Jr

    1996-04-01

    International Fuel Cells, a subsidary of United technologies Corporation, is engaged in research and development of all types of fuel cell technologies and currently manufactures alkaline fuel cell power plants for the U.S. manned space flight program and natural gas fueled stationary power plants using phosphoric acid fuel cells. This paper describes the phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants.

  7. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  8. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  9. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells Test and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Unger, Robert J; Kenner, Scott; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H

    2004-01-01

    ...) Fuel Cell Technology Program facilitates the development of Fuel Cell Technology. This work provided testing and evaluations of fuel cells in support of life-cycle-cost reduction and performance improvement goals...

  10. New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickles, R. P.; Breuer, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.

  11. FUEL CELL ELECTRODES FOR ACID MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    fuel cell electrodes for acid media. Activated carbon electrodes were prepared, wetproofed with paraffin or Teflon, and catalyzed with platinum. The wetproofing agent was applied by immersion or electrodeposition and the catalyst applied by chemical decomposition of H2P+Cl6 solutions. Half cell studies with hydrogen anodes and oxygen (air) cathodes showed that electrochemical performance is essentially the same for paraffin and Teflontreated electrodes; however, the life of the Teflon-treated electrodes under equal conditions of load is greater than that for

  12. Micro-electro-mechanical systems phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopchak, David A.; Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Kotovsky, Jack; Graff, Robert T.

    2010-12-21

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell system comprising a porous electrolyte support, a phosphoric acid electrolyte in the porous electrolyte support, a cathode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte, and an anode electrode contacting the phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  13. Phosphoric acid fuel cell platinum use study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, H. L.

    1983-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is promoting the private development of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plants for terrestrial applications. Current PAFC technology utilizes platinum as catalysts in the power electrodes. The possible repercussions that the platinum demand of PAFC power plant commercialization will have on the worldwide supply and price of platinum from the outset of commercialization to the year 2000 are investigated. The platinum demand of PAFC commercialization is estimated by developing forecasts of platinum use per unit of generating capacity and penetration of PAFC power plants into the electric generation market. The ability of the platinum supply market to meet future demands is gauged by assessing the size of platinum reserves and the capability of platinum producers to extract, refine and market sufficient quantities of these reserves. The size and timing of platinum price shifts induced by the added demand of PAFC commercialization are investigated by several analytical methods. Estimates of these price shifts are then used to calculate the subsequent effects on PAFC power plant capital costs.

  14. Corrosion of graphite composites in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L. G.; Dhar, H. P.; Farooque, M.; Kush, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Polymers, polymer-graphite composites and different carbon materials are being considered for many of the fuel cell stack components. Exposure to concentrated phosphoric acid in the fuel cell environment and to high anodic potential results in corrosion. Relative corrosion rates of these materials, failure modes, plausible mechanisms of corrosion and methods for improvement of these materials are investigated.

  15. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The status of technology for the manufacturing and testing of 1200 sq. cm cell materials, components, and stacks for on-site integrated energy systems is assessed. Topics covered include: (1) preparation of thin layers of silicon carbide; (2) definition and control schemes for volume changes in phosphoric acid fuel cells; (3) preparation of low resin content graphite phenolic resin composites; (4) chemical corrosion of graphite-phenolic resin composites in hot phosphoric acid; (5) analysis of electrical resistance of composite materials for fuel cells; and (6) fuel cell performance and testing.

  16. Integral edge seals for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor); Dunyak, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A phosphoric acid fuel cell having integral edge seals formed by an elastomer permeating an outer peripheral band contiguous with the outer peripheral edges of the cathode and anode assemblies and the matrix to form an integral edge seal which is reliable, easy to manufacture and has creep characteristics similar to the anode, cathode and matrix assemblies inboard of the seals to assure good electrical contact throughout the life of the fuel cell.

  17. Full scale phosphoric acid fuel cell stack technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.; Faroque, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.

  18. Molten Carbonate and Phosphoric Acid Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview and Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, R.; Wheeler, D.

    2010-09-01

    This report describes the technical and cost gap analysis performed to identify pathways for reducing the costs of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stationary fuel cell power plants.

  19. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.; Prokopius, P. R.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are important. The barrier to the attainment of these goals has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants are their technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy.

  20. Petroleum Diesel and Biodiesel Fuels Used in a Direct Hydrocarbon Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchen Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a direct hydrocarbon phosphoric acid fuel cell, PAFC, was investigated using petroleum diesel, biodiesel, and n-hexadecane as the fuels. We believe this is the first study of a fuel cell being operated with petroleum diesel as the fuel at the anode. Degradation in fuel cell performance was observed prior to reaching steady state. The degradation was attributed to a carbonaceous material forming on the surface of the anode. Regardless of the initial degradation, a steady-state operation was achieved with each of the diesel fuels. After treating the anode with water the fuel cell performance recovered. However, the fuel cell performance degraded again prior to obtaining another steady-state operation. There were several observations that were consistent with the suggestion that the carbonaceous material formed from the diesel fuels might be a reaction intermediate necessary for steady-state operation. Finally, the experiments indicated that water in the phosphoric acid electrolyte could be used as the water required for the anodic reaction. The water formed at the cathode could provide the replacement water for the electrolyte, thereby eliminating the need to provide a water feed system for the fuel cell.

  1. Materials characterization of phosphoric acid fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Srinivasan

    1986-01-01

    The component materials used in the fabrication of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) must have mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical stability to withstand the moderately high temperature (200 C) and pressure (500 kPa) and highly oxidizing nature of phosphoric acid. This study discusses the chemical and structural stability, performance and corrosion data on certain catalysts, catalyst supports, and electrode support materials used in PAFC applications.

  2. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  3. Commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopius, P. R.; Warshay, M.; Simons, S. N.; King, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    A review of the current commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell system technology development efforts is presented. In both the electric utility and on-site integrated energy system applications, reducing cost and increasing reliability are the technology drivers at this time. The longstanding barrier to the attainment of these goals, which manifests itself in a number of ways, has been materials. The differences in approach among the three major participants (United Technologies Corporation (UTC), Westinghouse Electric Corporation/Energy Research Corporation (ERC), and Engelhard Industries) and their unique technological features, including electrodes, matrices, intercell cooling, bipolar/separator plates, electrolyte management, fuel selection and system design philosophy are discussed.

  4. Cathode catalysts for primary phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Alkylation or carbon Vulcan XC-72, the support carbon, was shown to provide the most stable bond type for linking cobalt dehydrodibenzo tetraazannulene (CoTAA) to the surface of the carbon; this result is based on data obtained by cyclic voltammetry, pulse voltammetry and by release of 14C from bonded CoTAA. Half-cell tests at 100 C in 85% phosphoric acid showed that CoTAA bonded to the surface of carbon (Vulcan XC-72) via an alkylation procedure is a more active catalyst than is platinum based on a factor of two improvement in Tafel slope; dimeric CoTAA had catalytic activity equal to platinum. Half-cell tests also showed that bonded CoTAA catalysts do not suffer a loss in potential when air is used as a fuel rather than oxygen. Commercially available polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) was shown to be unstable in the fuel cell environment with degradation occurring in 2000 hours or less. The PTFE was stressed at 200 C in concentrated phosphoric acid as well as electrochemically stressed in 150 C concentrated phosphoric acid; the surface chemistry of PTFE was observed to change significantly. Radiolabeled PTFE was prepared and used to verify that such chemical changes also occur in the primary fuel cell environment.

  5. Dry compliant seal for phosphoric acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Woodle, Boyd M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A dry compliant overlapping seal for a phosphoric acid fuel cell preformed f non-compliant Teflon to make an anode seal frame that encircles an anode assembly, a cathode seal frame that encircles a cathode assembly and a compliant seal frame made of expanded Teflon, generally encircling a matrix assembly. Each frame has a thickness selected to accommodate various tolerances of the fuel cell elements and are either bonded to one of the other frames or to a bipolar or end plate. One of the non-compliant frames is wider than the other frames forming an overlap of the matrix over the wider seal frame, which cooperates with electrolyte permeating the matrix to form a wet seal within the fuel cell that prevents process gases from intermixing at the periphery of the fuel cell and a dry seal surrounding the cell to keep electrolyte from the periphery thereof. The frames may be made in one piece, in L-shaped portions or in strips and have an outer perimeter which registers with the outer perimeter of bipolar or end plates to form surfaces upon which flanges of pan shaped, gas manifolds can be sealed.

  6. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of materials, cell components, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems is described. Progress includes: (1) heat-treatment of 25 sq cm, 350 sq cm and 1200 sq cm cell test hardware was accomplished. Performance of fuel cells is improved by using this material; (2) electrochemical and chemical corrosion rates of heat-treated and as-molded graphite/phenolic resin composites in phosphoric acid were determined; (3) three cell, 5 in. x 15 in. stacks operated for up to 10,000 hours and 12 in. x 17 in. five cell stacks were tested for 5,000 hours; (4) a three cell 5 in. x 15 in. stack with 0.12 mg Pt/sq cm anodes and 0.25 mg Pt/sq cm cathodes was operated for 4,500 hours; and (5) an ERC proprietary high bubble pressure matrix, MAT-1, was tested for up to 10,000 hours.

  7. Catalyst and electrode research for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; King, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of the development status of phosphoric acid fuel cells' high performance catalyst and electrode materials. Binary alloys have been identified which outperform the baseline platinum catalyst; it has also become apparent that pressurized operation is required to reach the desired efficiencies, calling in turn for the use of graphitized carbon blacks in the role of catalyst supports. Efforts to improve cell performance and reduce catalyst costs have led to the investigation of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts represented by the tetraazaannulenes, and a mixed catalyst which is a mixture of carbons catalyzed with an organometallic and a noble metal.

  8. Organometallic catalysts for primary phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Fraser

    1987-01-01

    A continuing effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to improve the competitiveness of the phosphoric acid fuel cell by improving cell performance and/or reducing cell cost is discussed. Cathode improvement, both in performance and cost, available through the use of a class of organometallic cathode catalysts, the tetraazaannulenes (TAAs), was investigated. A new mixed catalyst was identified which provides improved cathode performance without the need for the use of a noble metal. This mixed catalyst was tested under load for 1000 hr. in full cell at 160 to 200 C in phosphoric acid H3PO4, and was shown to provide stable performance. The mixed catalyst contains an organometallic to catalyze electroreduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide and a metal to catalyze further electroreduction of the hydrogen peroxide to water. Cathodes containing an exemplar mixed catalyst (e.g., Co bisphenyl TAA/Mn) operate at approximately 650 mV vs DHE in 160 C, 85% H3PO4 with oxygen as reactant. In developing this mixed catalyst, a broad spectrum of TAAs were prepared, tested in half-cell and in a rotating ring-disk electrode system. TAAs found to facilitate the production of hydrogen peroxide in electroreduction were shown to be preferred TAAs for use in the mixed catalyst. Manganese (Mn) was identified as a preferred metal because it is capable of catalyzing hydrogen peroxide electroreduction, is lower in cost and is of less strategic importance than platinum, the cathode catalyst normally used in the fuel cell.

  9. Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes: Physiochemical characterization and fuel cell applications [PEM fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Hjuler, Hans Aage; Bjerrum, Niels

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operational at temperatures around 150-200 degrees C is desirable for fast electrode kinetics and high tolerance to fuel impurities. For this purpose polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been prepared and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/-doped in a doping range from 30...

  10. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  11. Interaction of Phosphoric Acid with Cell Components in High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fang

    2014-01-01

    A high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEFC) is an efficient and clean energy convertingdevice. The protonic conductivity of the electrodes and the polybenzimidazole-type membraneis assured by phosphoric acid. The electrochemical reactions in HT-PEFCs of hydrogen andoxygen to water take place in the electrodes of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) whichare partly soaked with phosphoric acid. The performance of a HT-PEFC depends mainly on theinteractions between all cell compo...

  12. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  13. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  14. Assessment of the environmental aspects of the DOE phosphoric acid fuel cell program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, H. L.; Cavagrotti, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The likely facets of a nationwide phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant commercial system are described. The beneficial and adverse environmental impacts produced by the system are assessed. Eleven specific system activities are characterized and evaluated. Also included is a review of fuel cell technology and a description of DOE's National Fuel Cell Program. Based on current and reasonably foreseeable PAFC characteristics, no environmental or energy impact factor was identified that would significantly inhibit the commercialization of PAFC power plant technology.

  15. Novel Blend Membranes Based on Acid-Base Interactions for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhu Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells hold great promise for wide applications in portable, residential, and large-scale power supplies. For low temperature fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs, proton-exchange membranes (PEMs are a key component determining the fuel cells performance. PEMs with high proton conductivity under anhydrous conditions can allow PEMFCs to be operated above 100 °C, enabling use of hydrogen fuels with high-CO contents and improving the electrocatalytic activity. PEMs with high proton conductivity and low methanol crossover are critical for lowering catalyst loadings at the cathode and improving the performance and long-term stability of DMFCs. This review provides a summary of a number of novel acid-base blend membranes consisting of an acidic polymer and a basic compound containing N-heterocycle groups, which are promising for PEMFCs and DMFCs.

  16. Current legal and institutional issues in the commercialization of phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmons, J. T.; Sheehy, K. D.; Singer, J. R.; Gardner, T. C.

    1982-01-01

    Legal and institutional factors affecting the development and commercial diffusion of phosphoric acid fuel cells are assessed. Issues for future research and action are suggested. Perceived barriers and potential opportunities for fuel cells in central and dispersed utility operations and on-site applications are reviewed, as well as the general concept of commercialization as applied to emerging energy technologies.

  17. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped PBI Membrane Based High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela

    2014-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation. Continuous tests with H2 and simulated reformate which was composed...... of H2, water steam and methanol as the fuel were performed on both single cells. 12-h-startup/12-h-shutdown dynamic tests were performed on the first single cell with pure dry H2 as the fuel and on the second single cell with simulated reformate as the fuel. Along with the tests electrochemical...... techniques such as polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were employed to study the degradation mechanisms of the fuel cells. Both single cells showed an increase in the performance in the H2 continuous tests, because of a decrease in the ORR kinetic resistance probably due...

  18. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  19. Electric utility acid fuel cell stack technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, J. V.; Goller, G. J.; Greising, G. J.; Obrien, J. J.; Randall, S. A.; Sandelli, G. J.; Breault, R. D.; Austin, G. W.; Bopse, S.; Coykendall, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal effort under this program was directed at the fuel cell stack technology required to accomplish the initial feasibility demonstrations of increased cell stack operating pressures and temperatures, increased cell active area, incorporation of the ribbed substrate cell configuration at the bove conditions, and the introduction of higher performance electrocatalysts. The program results were successful with the primary accomplishments being: (1) fabrication of 10 sq ft ribbed substrate, cell components including higher performing electrocatalysts; (2) assembly of a 10 sq ft, 30-cell short stack; and (3) initial test of this stack at 120 psia and 405 F. These accomplishments demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating and handling large area cells using materials and processes that are oriented to low cost manufacture. An additional accomplishment under the program was the testing of two 3.7 sq ft short stacks at 12 psia/405 F to 5400 and 4500 hours respectively. These tests demonstrate the durability of the components and the cell stack configuration to a nominal 5000 hours at the higher pressure and temperature condition planned for the next electric utility power plant.

  20. Electrocatalyst advances for hydrogen oxidation in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.

    1984-01-01

    The important considerations that presently exist for achieving commercial acceptance of fuel cells are centered on cost (which translates to efficiency) and lifetime. This paper addresses the questions of electrocatalyst utilization within porous electrode structures and the preparation of low-cost noble metal electrocatalyst combinations with extreme dispersions of the metal. Now that electrocatalyst particles can be prepared with dimensions of 10 A, either singly or in alloy combinations, a very large percentage of the noble metal atoms in a crystallite are available for reaction. The cost savings for such electrocatalysts in the present commercially driven environment are considerable.

  1. Water Uptake and Acid Doping of Polybenzimidazoles as Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; He, R.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2004-01-01

    Acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been demonstrated for fuel cell applications with advanced features such as high operating temperatures, little humidification, excellent CO tolerance, and promising durability. The water uptake and acid doping of PBI membranes have been studied...

  2. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  3. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  4. Environmental, health, and safety issues of fuel cells in transportation. Volume 1: Phosphoric acid fuel-cell buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ring, S

    1994-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) chartered the Phosphoric Acid Fuel-Cell (PAFC) Bus Program to demonstrate the feasibility of fuel cells in heavy-duty transportation systems. As part of this program, PAFC- powered buses are being built to meet transit industry design and performance standards. Test-bed bus-1 (TBB-1) was designed in 1993 and integrated in March 1994. TBB-2 and TBB-3 are under construction and should be integrated in early 1995. In 1987 Phase I of the program began with the development and testing of two conceptual system designs- liquid- and air-cooled systems. The liquid-cooled PAFC system was chosen to continue, through a competitive award, into Phase H, beginning in 1991. Three hybrid buses, which combine fuel-cell and battery technologies, were designed during Phase III. After completing Phase II, DOE plans a comprehensive performance testing program (Phase HI) to verify that the buses meet stringent transit industry requirements. The Phase III study will evaluate the PAFC bus and compare it to a conventional diesel bus. This NREL study assesses the environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues that may affect the commercialization of the PAFC bus. Because safety is a critical factor for consumer acceptance of new transportation-based technologies the study focuses on these issues. The study examines health and safety together because they are integrally related. In addition, this report briefly discusses two environmental issues that are of concern to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The first issue involves a surge battery used by the PAFC bus that contains hazardous constituents. The second issue concerns the regulated air emissions produced during operation of the PAFC bus.

  5. Durability Issues of High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    observed under continuous operation with hydrogen and air at 150-160oC, with a fuel cell performance degradation rate of 5-10 µV/h. Improvement of the membrane performance such as mechanical strength, swelling and oxidative stability has achieved by exploring the polymer chemistry, i.e. covalently......To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane represents an effective approach, which in recent years has motivated extensive research activities with great progress....... As a critical concern, issues of long term durability of PBI based fuel cells are addressed in this talk, including oxidative degradation of the polymer, mechanical failures of the membrane, acid leaching out, corrosion of carbon support and sintering of catalysts particles. Excellent polymer durability has...

  6. Experiences from Swedish demonstration projects with phosphoric acid fuel cells; Erfarenheter fraan svenska demonstrationsprojekt med fosforsyrabraensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarkoezi, Laszlo [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    In Sweden, there are today two phosphoric acid fuel cells installed, one PC25A which have been in operation in more than 4 years, and one PC25C which have been in operation for two years. The aim with this project has been two compare operation characteristics, performance, and operation experiences for these two models.

  7. Survey on aging on electrodes and electrocatalysts in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Hochmuth, J.

    1981-01-01

    The processes which contribute to the decay in performance of electrodes used in phosphoric acid fuel cell systems are discussed. Loss of catalytic surface area, corrosion of the carbon support, electrode structure degradation, electrolyte degradation, and impurities in the reactant streams are identified as the major areas for concern.

  8. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  9. Quantifying phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell components by X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, S H; Marone, F; Stampanoni, M; Büchi, F N; Schmidt, T J

    2014-11-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray tomographic microscopy is investigated for imaging the local distribution and concentration of phosphoric acid in high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Phosphoric acid fills the pores of the macro- and microporous fuel cell components. Its concentration in the fuel cell varies over a wide range (40-100 wt% H3PO4). This renders the quantification and concentration determination challenging. The problem is solved by using propagation-based phase contrast imaging and a referencing method. Fuel cell components with known acid concentrations were used to correlate greyscale values and acid concentrations. Thus calibration curves were established for the gas diffusion layer, catalyst layer and membrane in a non-operating fuel cell. The non-destructive imaging methodology was verified by comparing image-based values for acid content and concentration in the gas diffusion layer with those from chemical analysis.

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. Method of penetrating phosphoric acid in phosphoric acid fuel cell; Rinsangata nenryo denchi no rinsan shinto hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Y. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-11-28

    This invention relates to the laminate type phosphoric acid fuel cell. A certain amount of phosphoric acid is supplied on the surface of electrode substrate to make the phosphoric acid penetrate into the electrode substrate and remain there. Meanwhile, the fuel electrode and oxidizer electrode are heat-treated to make the phosphoric acid kept in the inner part of the electrode substrate penetrate into the catalyst layer and remain there. In this way, the phosphoric acid penetrates homogeneously in the catalyst layer of electrodes to be well kept there. When the quantity of phosphoric acid to be supplied to the electrode substrate to be kept there is 40% or more of total volume of pores in the electrode substrate, the uniform penetration of phosphoric acid into the catalyst layer can be achieved. The heat treatment of electrodes for making the phosphoric acid kept in the inner part of fuel electrode substrate penetrate into the catalyst layer is done by flowing the warm water in the flow line of cooling water in the cooling plate. In this way of heat treatment, all the electrode is homogeneously heated, resulting in promotion of effective penetration of phosphoric acid into the catalyst layer. 5 figs.

  12. Spectrophotometric Analysis of Phosphoric Acid Leakage in High-Temperature Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungyoon Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs utilize a phosphoric acid- (PA- doped polybenzimidazole (PBI membrane as a polymer electrolyte. The PA concentration in the membrane can affect fuel cell performance, as a significant amount of PA can leak from the membrane electrode assembly (MEA by dissolution in discharged water, which is a byproduct of cell operation. Spectrophotometric analysis of PA leakage in PA-doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells is described here. This spectrophotometric analysis is based on measurement of absorption of an ion pair formed by phosphomolybdic anions and the cationoid color reagent. Different color reagents were tested based on PA detection sensitivity, stability of the formed color, and accuracy with respect to the amount of PA measured. This method allows for nondestructive analysis and monitoring of PA leakage during HT-PEMFCs operation.

  13. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack three-dimensional model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed distributed mathematical model of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack have been developed, with the FORTRAN computer program, for analyzing the temperature distribution in the stack and the associated current density distribution on the cell plates. Energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses in the stack were combined to develop the model. Several reasonable assumptions were made to solve this mathematical model by means of the finite differences numerical method.

  14. Acid-doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes as Electrolyte for Fuel Cells Operating Above 100°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qingfeng, Li; Jensen, Jens Oluf; He, Ronhuan

    2003-01-01

    The technical achievement and challenges for the PEMFC technology based on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes (e.g. Nafion®) are briefly discussed. The newest development in the field is alternative polymer electrolytes for operation above 100°C. As one of the successful approaches...... to high operational temperatures, the development and evaluation of acid doped PBI membranes are reviewed, covering polymer synthesis, membrane casting, acid doping, physiochemical characterization and fuel cell tests. A high temperature PEMFC system operational at up to 200°C is demonstrated with no gas...... humidification and high CO-tolerance up to 10 vol%. This high CO tolerance allows for a direct use of reformed hydrogen without further CO removal, which opens the possibility for an integrated reformer-fuel cell system. The content of this review is to a large extent based on research performed by the authors...

  15. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  16. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  17. N-doped carbon nanomaterials are durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Jianglan; Wang, Min; Du, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, efficient, and durable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is a prerequisite for commercialization of the fuel cell technology. Along with intensive research efforts of more than half a century in developing nonprecious metal catalysts (NPMCs) to replace the expensive and scarce platinum-based catalysts, a new class of carbon-based, low-cost, metal-free ORR catalysts was demonstrated to show superior ORR performance to commercial platinum catalysts, particularly in alkaline electrolytes. However, their large-scale practical application in more popular acidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells remained elusive because they are often found to be less effective in acidic electrolytes, and no attempt has been made for a single PEM cell test. We demonstrated that rationally designed, metal-free, nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes and their graphene composites exhibited significantly better long-term operational stabilities and comparable gravimetric power densities with respect to the best NPMC in acidic PEM cells. This work represents a major breakthrough in removing the bottlenecks to translate low-cost, metal-free, carbon-based ORR catalysts to commercial reality, and opens avenues for clean energy generation from affordable and durable fuel cells. PMID:26601132

  18. An Effective Pd–Ni2P/C Anode Catalyst for Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    The direct formic acid fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the state-of-the-art anode catalyst. In this communication, we show that the activity and stability of palladium for formic acid oxidation can be significantly enhanced using nickel phosphide (Ni2P) nanoparticles as a cocatalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals a strong electronic interaction between Ni2P and Pd. A direct formic acid fuel cell incorporating the best Pd-...

  19. Electrolyte for phosphoric acid fuel cell. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no denkaieki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y.; Uede, M.; Yamaken, H. (Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan))

    1991-02-14

    When the phosphoric fuel cell is used in cold districts, the electrolyte used in the cell solidifies and freezes because its freezing point is high, and the cell can not be used any more. The object of this invention is to provide a fuel cell which does not freeze even the cell is shutdown in low temperature environment by adding non-conjugating inorganic salt to strong phosphoric acid to lower the freezing point. The phosphoric acid used in accordance with this invention is desirable generally to be of 80 to 105% if calculated in terms of orthophosphoric acid to maintain the cell performance. As the negative ions constituting the non-conjugating inorganic salt, sulphate ion, carbonate ion, silicate ion, and boric acid ion are desirable. In concrete, ZnSO{sub 4}, NiSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, BeSO{sub 4}, CdSO{sub 4}, CoSO{sub 4}, FeSO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3}, MgCO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, etc. can be quoted. Excessive addition of inorganic salt results rather in the precipitation of the added inorganic salt to cause freezing, and addition of 20wt% or less is desirable. 1 fig.

  20. Air-breathing direct formic acid microfluidic fuel cell with an array of cylinder anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Zhang, Biao; Ye, Ding-Ding; Li, Jun; Liao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    An air-breathing direct formic acid membraneless microfluidic fuel cell using graphite cylinder arrays as the anode is proposed. The three dimensional anode volumetrically extends the reactive surface area and improves fuel utilization. The effects of spacer configuration, fuel and electrolyte concentration as well as reactant flow rate on the species transport and cell performance are investigated. The dynamic behavior of generated CO2 bubbles is visualized and its effect on current generation is discussed. The results show that the absence of two spacers adjacent to the cathode surface improves the cell performance by reducing the proton transfer resistance. The CO2 gas bubbles are constrained within the anode array and expelled by the fluid flow periodically. Proper reactant concentration and flow rate are crucial for cell operation. At optimum conditions, a maximum current density of 118.3 mA cm-3 and a peak power density of 21.5 mW cm-3 are obtained. In addition, benefit from the volumetrically stacked anodes and enhanced fuel transfer, the maximum single pass fuel utilization rate reaches up to 87.6% at the flow rate of 1 mL h-1.

  1. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  2. Ruthenium-catalysed decomposition of formic acid: Fuel cell and catalytic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Piola, Lorenzo

    2017-08-08

    The decomposition of formic acid into H2 and CO2 was successfully performed using a ruthenium hydride catalyst, without any concomitant CO evolution. The reaction mechanism is investigated by means of density functional theory calculations (DFT). The generated H2 was further exploited in a fuel cell to produce electricity. The catalytic hydrogenation of conjugated olefins, using this dihydrogen generation procedure, is also reported.

  3. Biogas biological desulphurisation under extremely acidic conditions for energetic valorisation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    de Arespacochaga, N.; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto; C. Mesa; Bouchy, Lynne; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2014-01-01

    The most harmful biogas contaminant for energy conversion equipment such as fuel cells is hydrogen sulphide (H2S); thus efficient and cost-effective treatment systems for this compound should be designed and developed. A pilot-scale biotrickling filter (BTF) working in acidic media (pH = 1.5-2) was operated for raw sewage biogas desulphurisation. Its operational performance as a function of two key important process parameters (temperature and retention time) was evaluated through short-term ...

  4. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  5. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  6. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  7. Performance increase of microfluidic formic acid fuel cell using Pd/MWCNTs as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Acosta, D.; Rodriguez G., H.; Godinez, Luis A.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C. Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76703 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2010-04-02

    This paper shows that the combination of an O{sub 2} saturated acidic fluid setup (O{sub 2}-setup) and a composite of Pd nanoparticles supported on multiwalled-carbon nanotubes (Pd/MWCNTs) as anode catalyst material, results in the improvement of microfluidic fuel cell performance. Microfluidic fuel cells were constructed and evaluated at low HCOOH concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 M) using Pd/V XC-72 and Pd/MWCNTs as anode and Pt/V XC-72 as cathode electrode materials, respectively. The results show a higher power density (2.9 mW cm{sup -2}) for this cell when compared to the value reported in the literature that considers a commercial Pd/V XC-72 and 3.3 mW cm{sup -2} using a Pd/MWCNTs with a 50% less Pd loading than that commercial Pd/V XC-72. (author)

  8. Preparation and evaluation of advanced catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hockmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1984-01-01

    The platinum electrocatalysts were characterized for their crystallite sizes and the degree of dispersion on the carbon supports. One application of these electrocatalysts was for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in hot phosphoric acid fuel cells, coupled with the influence of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the fuel gas stream. In a similar way, these platinum on carbon electrocatalysts were evaluated for oxygen reduction in hot phosphoric acid. Binary noble metal alloys were prepared for anodic oxidation of hydrogen and noble metal-refractory metal mixtures were prepared for oxygen reduction. An exemplar alloy of platinum and palladium (50/50 atom %) was discovered for anodic oxidation of hydrogen in the presence of carbon monoxide, and patent disclosures were submitted. For the cathode, platinum-vanadium alloys were prepared showing improved performance over pure platinum. Preliminary experiments on electrocatalyst utilization in electrode structures showed low utilization of the noble metal when the electrocatalyst loading exceeded one weight percent on the carbon.

  9. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B.; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M.; Stobinski, L.; Ciecierska, E.; Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M.

    2016-12-01

    One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  10. Fuel cell catalyst layers containing short-side-chain perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peron, Jennifer; Edwards, Dave; Haldane, Mark; Shi, Zhiqing [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council (Canada); Luo, Xiaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Zhang, Yongming [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Holdcroft, Steven [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2011-01-01

    Porous catalyst layers (CLs) containing short-side-chain (SSC) perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers of different ion exchange capacity (IEC: 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 meq g{sup -1}) were deposited onto Nafion 211 to form catalyst-coated membranes. The porosity of SSC-PFSA-based CLs is larger than Nafion-CL analogues. CLs incorporating SSC ionomer extend the current density of fuel cell polarization curves at elevated temperature and lower relative humidity compared to those based on long-side chain PFSA (e.g., Nafion)-based CLs. Fuel cell polarization performance was greatly improved at 110 C and 30% relative humidity (RH) when SSC PFSI was incorporated into the catalyst layer. (author)

  11. Catalyst Degradation in High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Buazar, F.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    contribution of the membrane degradation to the performance losses during the potential cycling tests. As the major mechanism of the fuel cell performance degradation, the electrochemical active area of the cathodic catalysts showed a steady decrease in the cyclic voltammetric measurements, which was also...... and multi‐walled carbon nanotubes were used as supports for electrode catalysts and evaluated in accelerated durability tests under potential cycling at 150 °C. Measurements of open circuit voltage, area specific resistance and hydrogen permeation through the membrane were carried out, indicating little......Degradation of carbon supported platinum catalysts is a major failure mode for the long term durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes. With Vulcan carbon black as a reference, thermally treated carbon black...

  12. Phosphoric acid doped imidazolium polysulfone membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2012-01-01

    A novel acid–base polymer membrane is prepared by doping of imidazolium polysulfone with phosphoric acid for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Polysulfone is first chloromethylated, followed by functionalization of the chloromethylated polysulfone with alkyl imidazoles i...... group is achieved in 85wt% H3PO4 at room temperature. The membranes exhibit a proton conductivity of 0.015–0.022Scm−1 at 130–150°C under 15mol% water vapor in air, and a tensile strength of 5–6MPa at 130°C under ambient humidity. Fuel cell tests show an open circuit voltage as high as 0.96V and a peak...

  13. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  14. Methyl phosphate formation as a major degradation mode of direct methanol fuel cells with phosphoric acid based electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoric acid and phosphoric acid doped polymer membranes are widely used as electrolytes in hydrogen based fuel cells operating at elevated temperatures. Such electrolytes have been explored for direct oxidation of methanol to further increase the versatility of the systems, however......, with demonstrated lifetimes of only a few days to weeks. In this work the methyl phosphate formation from the acid and methanol is identified and proposed to be a major mechanism for the cell degradation. Proton conductivity and fuel cell durability tests validate the mechanism at high methanol contents....

  15. Effects of Nafion loading in anode catalyst inks on the miniature direct formic acid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Robert D.; Haan, John L.; Masel, Richard I.

    Nafion, within the anode and cathode catalyst layers, plays a large role in the performance of fuel cells, especially during the operation of the direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC). Nafion affects the proton transfer in the catalyst layers of the fuel cell, and studies presented here show the effects of three different Nafion loadings, 10 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 50 wt.%. Short term voltage-current measurements using the three different loadings show that 30 wt.% Nafion loading in the anode shows the best performance in the miniature, passive DFAFC. Nafion also serves as a binder to help hold the catalyst nanoparticles onto the proton exchange membrane (PEM). The DFAFC anode temporarily needs to be regenerated by raising the anode potential to around 0.8 V vs. RHE to oxidize CO bound to the surface, but the Pourbaix diagram predicts that Pd will corrode at these potentials. We found that an anode loading of 30 wt.% Nafion showed the best stability, of the three Nafion loadings chosen, for reducing the amount of loss of electrochemically active area due to high regeneration potentials. Only 58% of the area was lost after 600 potential cycles in formic acid compared to 96 and 99% for 10 wt.% and 50 wt.% loadings, respectively. Lastly we present cyclic voltammetry data that suggest that the Nafion adds to the production of CO during oxidation of formic acid for 12 h at 0.3 V vs. RHE. The resulting data showed that an increase in CO coverage was observed with increasing Nafion content in the anode catalyst layer.

  16. Highly active carbon supported Pd cathode catalysts for direct formic acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A., E-mail: amikolajczuk@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Borodzinski, A.; Kedzierzawski, P.; Mierzwa, B. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, M. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warynskiego 1, Warsaw (Poland); Ciecierska, E. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Wołoska 141, 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Zimoch, A.; Opałło, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Palladium catalyst used on the cathode DFAFC is comparable to commercial platinum catalyst. • The treatment of carbon supports in nitric acid(V) increases the electrochemically available metal surface area and the catalytic activity in oxygen reduction reaction of catalysts. - Abstract: One of the drawbacks of low-temperature fuel cells is high price of platinum-based catalysts used for the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of the fuel cell. The aim of this work is to develop the palladium catalyst that will replace commonly used platinum cathode catalysts. A series of palladium catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were prepared and tested on the cathode of Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell (DFAFC). Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on the carbon black (Vulcan) and on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface by reduction of palladium(II) acetate dissolved in ethanol. Hydrazine was used as a reducing agent. The effect of functionalization of the carbon supports on the catalysts physicochemical properties and the ORR catalytic activity on the cathode of DFAFC was studied. The supports were functionalized by treatment in nitric acid for 4 h at 80 °C. The structure of the prepared catalysts has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Hydrophilicity of the catalytic layers was determined by measuring contact angles of water droplets. The performance of the prepared catalysts has been compared with that of the commercial 20 wt.% Pt/C (Premetek) catalyst. The maximum power density obtained for the best palladium catalyst, deposited on the surface of functionalized carbon black, is the same as that for the commercial Pt/C (Premetek). Palladium is cheaper than platinum, therefore the developed cathode catalyst is promising for future applications.

  17. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant optimization model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimized cost and performance model for a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system was derived and developed into a modular FORTRAN computer code. Cost, energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses were combined to develop a mathematical model for optimizing the steam to methane ratio in the reformer, hydrogen utilization in the PAFC plates per stack. The nonlinear programming code, COMPUTE, was used to solve this model, in which the method of mixed penalty function combined with Hooke and Jeeves pattern search was chosen to evaluate this specific optimization problem.

  18. Computer-based phosphoric acid fuel cell analytical tools Descriptions and usages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C.; Presler, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation models have been developed for the prediction of phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) powerplant system performance under both transient and steady operation conditions, as well as for the design of component configurations and for optimal systems synthesis. These models, which are presently computer-implemented, are an engineering and a system model; the former being solved by the finite difference method to determine the balances and properties of different sections, and the latter using thermodynamic balances to set up algebraic equations that yield physical and chemical properties of the stream for one operating condition.

  19. Non-noble catalysts and catalyst supports for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalister, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    Tungsten carbide, which is active for hydrogen oxidation, is CO tolerant and has a hexagonal structure is discussed. Titanium carbide is inactive and has a cubic structure. Four different samples of the cubic alloys W sub x-1Ti sub XC sub 1-y were found to be active and CO tolerant. When the activities of these cubic alloys are weighted by the reciprocal of the square to those of highly forms of WC. They offer important insight into the nature of the active sites on W-C anode catalysts for use in phosphoric acid fuel cells.

  20. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  1. Structural and Morphological Features of Acid-Bearing Polymers for PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yunsong; Siu, Ana; Peckham, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical structure, polymer microstructure, sequence distribution, and morphology of acid-bearing polymers are important factors in the design of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for fuel cells. The roles of ion aggregation and phase separation in vinylic- and aromatic-based polymers in proton...... conductivity and water transport are described. The formation, dimensions, and connectivity of ionic pathways are consistently found to play an important role in determining the physicochemical properties of PEMs. For polymers that possess low water content, phase separation and ionic channel formation...... in the design of the next generation of PEMs....

  2. The electrodynamic performance of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). Het elektrisch-dynamische gedrag van een fosforzure brandstofcel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazelaar, E.; Van Gerwen, R.J.F. (KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1994-06-01

    Compared to conventional electricity generating systems, fuel cells theoretically combine high efficiencies with low emissions. However, the value of these theoretical advantages has to be proved in practice. An underexposed practical aspect of fuel cell systems is the electrodynamic performance of a fuel cell stack. In particular the response of a fuel cell system to fast load changes has not been modeled yet. KEMA, by the order of EnergieNed (Dutch Association of Energy Utilities), developed an electrodynamic model of a phosphoric acid fuel cell stack, using measured data from an actual PAFC stack. It shows that the parameters in this electrodynamic model are a measure for the stack condition. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  3. National fuel cell seminar. Program and abstracts. [Abstracts of 40 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of 40 papers are presented. Topics include fuel cell systems, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid fuel and solid electrolyte fuel cells, low temperature fuel cells, and fuel utilization. (WHK)

  4. Experimental and One-Dimensional Mathematical Modeling of Different Operating Parameters in Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingjiang Jessie Lue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to develop a one-dimensional mathematical model for predicting the cell performance of a direct formic acid fuel cell and compare this with experimental results. The predicted model can be applied to direct formic acid fuel cells operated with different formic acid concentrations, temperatures, and with various electrolytes. Tafel kinetics at the electrodes, thermodynamic equations for formic acid solutions, and the mass-transport parameters of the reactants are used to predict the effective diffusion coefficients of the reactants (oxygen and formic acid in the porous gas diffusion layers and the associated limiting current densities to ensure the accuracy of the model. This model allows us to estimate fuel cell polarization curves for a wide range of operating conditions. Furthermore, the model is validated with experimental results from operating at 1–5 M of formic acid feed at 30–80 °C, and with Nafion-117 and silane-crosslinked sulfonated poly(styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (sSEBS membrane electrolytes reinforced in porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE. The cell potential and power densities of experimental outcomes in direct formic acid fuel cells can be adequately predicted using the developed model.

  5. Evaluation of gas cooling for pressurized phosphoric acid fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Skok, A. J.; Maru, H. C.; Kothmann, R. E.; Harry, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    Gas cooling is a more reliable, less expensive and a more simple alternative to conventional liquid cooling for heat removal from the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC). The feasibility of gas cooling has already been demonstrated in atmospheric pressure stacks. This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigation of gas cooling for pressurized PAFC. Two approaches to gas cooling, Distributed Gas Cooling (DIGAS) and Separated Gas Cooling (SGC) were considered, and a theoretical comparison on the basis of cell performance indicated SGC to be superior to DIGAS. The feasibility of SGC was experimentally demonstrated by operating a 45-cell stack for 700 hours at pressure, and determining thermal response and the effect of other related parameters.

  6. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  7. 1000kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. Outline of the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinobe, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hideo

    1988-02-10

    The outline of the 1000KW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant, developed as part of the Moonlight plan, was described. The plant was composed of 4 stacks of 260KW DC output. They were devided into two train with 680V and 765A. The generation efficiency of the plant was 40% and more. Steam reforming of natural gas was used. As the fuel, fuel cell exhaust gas was used in composition with the natural gas. The DC-AC inverter had an efficiency of 96%. The capacity of hot water generator and demineralized water plant for cell cooling were 2t/h and 1.6t/h, respectively, and air-system was incorporated. In September of 1987, the plant has succeeded in 1000KW power generation, and put in operation now. Under the 100% loaded condition, each cell had a voltage of 0.7V with little variation, and the current was 200mA/cm/sup 2/. No problems were found in cooling conditions and in the control of interpole differential pressure. The reformer has been operated for 1200h scince its commisioning, and had experiences of 100 times on start up-shut down operations, the reformer also indicated good performances in the gas compositions. The starting time of 8h and the load follow-up rate 10%/min remain as the subjects for shortening. DC-AC conversion was good. The concentration of NOx and the noise level satisfied the target values. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  8. New Polymer Electrolyte Membranes Based on Acid Doped PBI For Fuel Cells Operating above 100°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    2003-01-01

    The technical achievement and challenges for the PEMFC technology based on perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer membranes (e.g. Nafion®) are briefly discussed. The newest development for alternative polymer electrolytes for operation above 100°C. As one of the successful approaches to high...... operational temperatures, the development and evaluation of acid doped PBI membranes are reviewed, covering polymer synthesis, membrane casting, acid doping, physiochemical characterization and fuel cell tests....

  9. Structure and dynamics of hydrogen in nanocomposite solid acids for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, F.M.; Chan, W.K.

    The transition to sustainable energy sources is inevitable. A possible future scenario could be the hydrogen economy, where the fuel cell plays an important role in the conversion of hydrogen back to electricity. The technology behind the fuel cell however, still has significant room for

  10. Structure and dynamics of hydrogen in nanocomposite solid acids for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    The transition to sustainable energy sources is inevitable. A possible future scenario could be the hydrogen economy, where the fuel cell plays an important role in the conversion of hydrogen back to electricity. The technology behind the fuel cell however, still has significant room for

  11. Development and characterization of acid-doped polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone blend polymer electrolytes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasiotis, C.; Li, Qingfeng; Deimede, V.

    2001-01-01

    Polymeric membranes from blends of sulfonated polysulfones (SPSF) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) doped with phosphoric acid were developed as potential high-temperature polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and other electrochemical applications. The water uptake and acid doping of these polymeric...... it was found to be higher than 10/sup -2/ S cm/sup -1/. Much improvement in the mechanical strength is observed for the blend polymer membranes, especially at higher temperatures. Preliminary work has demonstrated the feasibility of these polymeric membranes for fuel-cell applications...

  12. Performance Degradation Tests of Phosphoric Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membrane Based High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan; Araya, Samuel Simon; Grigoras, Ionela

    2015-01-01

    Degradation tests of two phosphoric acid (PA) doped PBI membrane based HT-PEM fuel cells were reported in this paper to investigate the effects of start/stop and the presence of methanol in the fuel to the performance degradation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. Continuous tests with pure dry H2...... in the performance during the H2 continuous tests, because of a decrease in the reaction kinetic resistance mainly in the cathode due to the redistribution of PA between the membrane and electrodes. The performance of both single cells decreased in the following tests, with highest performance decay rate...... to the corrosion of carbon support in the catalyst layer and degradation of the PBI membrane. During the continuous test with methanol containing H2 as the fuel the reaction kinetic resistance and mass transfer resistance of both single cells increased, which may be caused by the adsorption of methanol...

  13. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  14. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  15. Effectiveness of piggery waste treatment using microbial fuel cells coupled with elutriated-phased acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, K; Ahn, Young-Ho

    2017-11-01

    The present study evaluates the feasibility of increased power generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) coupled with acid elutriation fermentation. Raw piggery waste (RPW) and acid elutriation effluents (AEE) of piggery waste were used to generate bioelectricity in single-chambered air-cathode MFCs. RPW-fed MFCs exhibited stable performance after 12-days of operation, generating 540mV of open circuit voltage (OCV). RPW fed-MFCs displayed peak potential and maximal power density (PDmax) of 0.364V and 192mW/m2 with 980Ω external resistance (Rext), respectively. AEE-fed MFCs documented 818mV of maximum OCV. Furthermore, the peak potential and PDmax of 0.329V and 1553mW/m2 were generated with 100Ω Rext, respectively. RPW and AEE-fed MFCs exhibited 84% and 93% substrate removal efficiency, respectively. These findings suggest that a two-stage process including acid elutriation reactor asa pre-fermentation and MFCs greatly enhances substrate removal and electricity generation from piggery waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  17. Transient responses of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and computerized study of the steady state and transient response of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was completed. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of the PAFC system's operation were accomplished. Four non-linear dynamic models of the fuel cell stack, reformer, shift converters, and heat exchangers were developed based on nonhomogeneous non-linear partial differential equations, which include the material, component, energy balance, and electrochemical kinetic features. Due to a lack of experimental data for the dynamic response of the components only the steady state results were compared with data from other sources, indicating reasonably good agreement. A steady state simulation of the entire system was developed using, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The finite difference method and trial-and-error procedures were used to obtain a solution. Using the model, a PAFC system, that was developed under NASA Grant, NCC3-17, was improved through the optimization of the heat exchanger network. Three types of cooling configurations for cell plates were evaluated to obtain the best current density and temperature distributions. The steady state solutions were used as the initial conditions in the dynamic model. The transient response of a simplified PAFC system, which included all of the major components, subjected to a load change was obtained. Due to the length of the computation time for the transient response calculations, analysis on a real-time computer was not possible. A simulation of the real-time calculations was developed on a batch type computer. The transient response characteristics are needed for the optimization of the design and control of the whole PAFC system. All of the models, procedures and simulations were programmed in Fortran and run on IBM 370 computers at Cleveland State University and the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  18. Lowering the platinum loading of high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Santiago Martin; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2015-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with ultra-low Pt loading electrodes were prepared for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) based on acid doped polybenzimidazole. With no electrode binders or ionomers, the triple phase boundary of the catalyst layer...

  19. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION USING A PHOSPHORIC ACID FUEL CELL ON A MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL GAS STREAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests to verify the performance of a landfill gas pretreatment unit (GPU) and a phorsphoric acid fuel cell system. The complete system removes contaminants from landfill gas and produces electricity for on-site use or connection to an electric grid. Th...

  20. The effect of porosity on performance of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celik Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A polybenzimidazole (PBI based polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which called high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMS, operate at higher temperatures (120-200°C than conventional PEM fuel cells. Although it is known that HT-PEMS have some of the significant advantages as non-humidification requirements for membrane and the lack of liquid water at high temperature in the fuel cell, the generated water as a result of oxygen reduction reaction causes in the degradation of these systems. The generated water absorbed into membrane side interacts with the hydrophilic PBI matrix and it can cause swelling of membrane, so water transport mechanism in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA needs to be well understood and water balance must be calculated in MEA. Therefore, the water diffusion transport across the electrolyte should be determined. In this study, various porosity values of gas diffusion layers are considered in order to investigate the effects of porosity on the water management for two phase flow in fuel cell. Two-dimensional fuel cell with interdigitated flow-field is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a software. The operating temperature and doping level is selected as 160°C and 6.75mol H3PO4/PBI, respectively.

  1. The effect of porosity on performance of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Muhammet; Genc, Gamze; Elden, Gulsah; Yapici, Huseyin

    2016-03-01

    A polybenzimidazole (PBI) based polymer electrolyte fuel cells, which called high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (HT-PEMS), operate at higher temperatures (120-200°C) than conventional PEM fuel cells. Although it is known that HT-PEMS have some of the significant advantages as non-humidification requirements for membrane and the lack of liquid water at high temperature in the fuel cell, the generated water as a result of oxygen reduction reaction causes in the degradation of these systems. The generated water absorbed into membrane side interacts with the hydrophilic PBI matrix and it can cause swelling of membrane, so water transport mechanism in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) needs to be well understood and water balance must be calculated in MEA. Therefore, the water diffusion transport across the electrolyte should be determined. In this study, various porosity values of gas diffusion layers are considered in order to investigate the effects of porosity on the water management for two phase flow in fuel cell. Two-dimensional fuel cell with interdigitated flow-field is modelled using COMSOL Multiphysics 4.2a software. The operating temperature and doping level is selected as 160°C and 6.75mol H3PO4/PBI, respectively.

  2. Proton Transfer in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Fuel Cell Membranes with Differing Pendant Chains and Equivalent Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz, Joseph E; Lawler, Christian M; Fayer, Michael D

    2017-05-04

    Proton transfer in the nanoscopic water channels of polyelectrolyte fuel cell membranes was studied using a photoacid, 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt (HPTS), in the channels. The local environment of the probe was determined using 8-methoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt (MPTS), which is not a photoacid. Three fully hydrated membranes, Nafion (DuPont) and two 3M membranes, were studied to determine the impact of different pendant chains and equivalent weights on proton transfer. Fluorescence anisotropy and excited state population decay data that characterize the local environment of the fluorescent probes and proton transfer dynamics were measured. The MPTS lifetime and anisotropy results show that most of the fluorescent probes have a bulk-like water environment with a relatively small fraction interacting with the channel wall. Measurements of the HPTS protonated and deprotonated fluorescent bands' population decays provided information on the proton transport dynamics. The decay of the protonated band from ∼0.5 ns to tens of nanoseconds is in part determined by dissociation and recombination with the HPTS, providing information on the ability of protons to move in the channels. The dissociation and recombination is manifested as a power law component in the protonated band fluorescence decay. The results show that equivalent weight differences between two 3M membranes resulted in a small difference in proton transfer. However, differences in pendant chain structure did significantly influence the proton transfer ability, with the 3M membranes displaying more facile transfer than Nafion.

  3. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  4. Carbon supported ruthenium chalcogenide as cathode catalyst in a microfluidic formic acid fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago, A.S.; Alonso-Vante, N. [Laboratory of Electrocatalysis, UMR-CNRS 6503, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, F-86022 Potiers Cedex (France); Morales-Acosta, D.; Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S.C. Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfandila, P.O. Box 064, Pedro Escobedo, 76703, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-02-01

    This work reports the electrochemical measurements of 20 wt.% Ru{sub x}Se{sub y}/C for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in presence of different concentration of HCOOH and its use as cathode catalyst in a microfluidic formic acid fuel cell ({mu}FAFC). The results were compared to those obtained with commercial Pt/C. Half-cell electrochemical measurements showed that the chalcogenide catalyst has a high tolerance and selectivity towards ORR in electrolytes containing up to 0.1 M HCOOH. The depolarization effect was higher on Pt/C than on Ru{sub x}Se{sub y}/C by a factor of ca. 23. Both catalysts were evaluated as cathode of a {mu}FAFC operating with different concentrations of HCOOH. When 0.5 M HCOOH was used, maximum current densities of 11.44 mA cm{sup -2} and 4.44 mA cm{sup -2} were obtained when the cathode was Ru{sub x}Se{sub y}/C and Pt/C, respectively. At 0.5 M HCOOH, the peak power density of the {mu}FAFC was similar for both catalysts, ca. 1.9 mW cm{sup -2}. At 5 M HCOOH the power density of the {mu}FAFC using Ru{sub x}Se{sub y}, was 9.3 times higher than the obtained with Pt/C. (author)

  5. Bimodal electricity generation and aromatic compounds removal from purified terephthalic acid plant wastewater in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, Seyed Kamran Foad; Kariminia, Hamid-Reza; Savizi, Iman Shahidi Pour

    2013-02-01

    Wastewater of purified terephthalic acid (PTA) from a petrochemical plant was examined in a membrane-less single chamber microbial fuel cell for the first time. Time course of voltage during the cell operation cycle had two steady phases, which refers to the fact that metabolism of microorganisms was shifted from highly to less biodegradable carbon sources. The produced power density was 31.8 mW m(-2) (normalized per cathode area) and the calculated coulombic efficiency was 2.05 % for a COD removal of 74 % during 21 days. The total removal rate of different pollutants in the PTA wastewater was observed in the following order: (acetic acid) > (benzoic acid) > (phthalic acid) > (terephthalic acid) > (p-toluic acid). The cyclic voltammetry results revealed that the electron transfer mechanism was dominated by mediators which were produced by bacteria.

  6. An effective Pd-Ni(2)P/C anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinfa; Feng, Ligang; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-03

    The direct formic acid fuel cell is an emerging energy conversion device for which palladium is considered as the state-of-the-art anode catalyst. In this communication, we show that the activity and stability of palladium for formic acid oxidation can be significantly enhanced using nickel phosphide (Ni(2)P) nanoparticles as a cocatalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveals a strong electronic interaction between Ni(2)P and Pd. A direct formic acid fuel cell incorporating the best Pd–Ni(2)P anode catalyst exhibits a power density of 550 mWcm(-2), which is 3.5 times of that of an analogous device using a commercial Pd anode catalyst.

  7. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  8. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  9. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  10. Microfluidic fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bernard; Kjeang, Erik

    2011-06-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a microfabricated device that produces electrical power through electrochemical reactions involving a fuel and an oxidant. Microfluidic fuel cell systems exploit co-laminar flow on the microscale to separate the fuel and oxidant species, in contrast to conventional fuel cells employing an ion exchange membrane for this function. Since 2002 when the first microfluidic fuel cell was invented, many different fuels, oxidants, and architectures have been investigated conceptually and experimentally. In this mini-review article, recent advancements in the field of microfluidic fuel cell systems are documented, with particular emphasis on design, operation, and performance. The present microfluidic fuel cell systems are categorized by the fluidic phases of the fuel and oxidant streams, featuring gaseous/gaseous, liquid/gaseous, and liquid/liquid systems. The typical cell configurations and recent contributions in each category are analyzed. Key research challenges and opportunities are highlighted and recommendations for further work are provided.

  11. Defense applications of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, R. R.

    Applications and developmental efforts by the service branches of the U.S. toward implementation of fuel cells for military purposes are reviewed. The fuel cells are being produced as a petroleum fuel substitute and are foreseen to offer quieter, more efficient power at less expense, with lower logistic problems, and to possess cogeneration potential. Applications are indicated for mobile, remote, facility, and emergency/auxiliary power systems. The systems range from one kilowatt to several MW, and can be interfaced with weapon systems. Research in phosphoric acid fuel cells is noted, as are applications in space, undersea, and in aircraft.

  12. Microbial fuel-cell-based toxicity sensor for fast monitoring of acidic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu J; Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Ng, How Y

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater may contain various potential toxicants. A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device in which bacteria convert the chemical energy into electricity. If a toxic event occurs, microbial activity is inhibited and thus the power output of the MFC decreases. Therefore, an MFC could serve as an early toxicity warning device. A real-time biomonitoring system was developed using MFCs to detect the inflow of toxic substances into wastewater treatment systems. After the MFCs reached steady state, a toxic incident was created by adding HCl into the wastewater to alter its pH. Consequently, a rapid decrease in voltage was observed immediately, followed by a subsequent recovery. The optimal MFC design was a single-chamber air cathode MFC, where the anode and cathode were separated by a Selemion proton exchange membrane. Under an external resistance of 5 Ω, the maximum power averaged 0.23 ± 0.023 mW with domestic wastewater. The optimized MFC showed high sensitivity and fast recovery when exposed to the acidic toxic event. When the hydraulic retention time was decreased from 22 to 3.5 min, sensitivity of the MFC increased substantially. Finally, the extent of inhibition observed was found to be related to the toxicity level, suggesting that a dosage-response relationship exists.

  13. Remediation of acid mine drainage using microbial fuel cell based on sludge anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Tang, Tianle; Zhu, Xiaoqiao; Jia, Gaohui; Ding, Yanran; Chen, Yawen; Yang, Yang; Tang, Wenhao

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to utilize the microbial fuel cell for removing metals and sulfate from acid mine drainage using sewage sludge organics and simultaneous electricity generation. The enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture was used as the cathodic biofilm and the sludge as the substrate. Under anaerobic conditions, 71.2% sulfate, 99.7% heavy metals, and 51.6% total chemical oxygen demand are removed at an electrode spacing of 4 cm and a sludge concentration of 30% (v/v) after 10-day treatment. A maximum power density of 51.3 mW/m2 is obtained. Approximately 79.5% of the dissipated sulfate is converted to element sulfur or polysulfides. The sulfide concentration is kept at below 20 mg-S/L. The concentrations of heavy metals are in the range of 0.02-0.06 mg/L in the effluent, which are far below the levels required by Chinese legislation. Microbial community analysis reveals that sulfate-reducing bacteria in Desulfuromonadales are dominant on the cathodic biofilm at the end of experiments. This study shows the potential of synchronous degradation of residual sludge and treatment of AMD with electricity harvesting.

  14. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  15. Liquid fuel cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety...

  16. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  17. Measurements of the effects of thermal contact resistance on steady state heat transfer in phosphoric-acid fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Alkasab, Kalil A.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the thermal contact resistance on the heat transfer between the electrode plates, and the cooling system plate in a phosphoric-acid fuel-cell stack was experimentally investigated. The investigation was conducted using a set-up that simulates the operating conditions prevailing in a phosphoric acid fuel-cell stack. The fuel-cell cooling system utilized three types of coolants, water, engine oil, and air, to remove excess heat generated in the cell electrode and to maintain a reasonably uniform temperature distribution in the electrode plate. The thermal contact resistance was measured as a function of pressure at the interface between the electrode plate and the cooling system plate. The interface pressure range was from 0 kPa to 3448 kPa, while the Reynolds number for the cooling limits varied from 15 to 79 for oil, 1165 to 6165 for water, and 700 to 6864 for air. Results showed that increasing the interface pressure resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  19. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of methanol and formic acid in fuel cell processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seland, Frode

    2005-07-01

    The main objectives of the thesis work were: (1), to study the oxidation of methanol and formic acid on platinum electrodes by employing conventional and advanced electrochemical methods, and (2), to develop membrane electrode assemblies based on polybenzimidazole membranes that can be used in fuel cells up to 200 C. D.c. voltammetry and a.c. voltammetry studies of methanol and formic acid on polycrystalline platinum in sulphuric acid electrolyte were performed to determine the mechanism and kinetics of the oxidation reactions. A combined potential step and fast cyclic voltammetry experiment was employed to investigate the time dependence primarily of methanol oxidation on platinum. Charge measurements clearly demonstrated the existence of a parallel path at low potentials and short times without formation of adsorbed CO. Furthermore, experimental results showed that only the serial path, via adsorbed CO, exists during continuous cycling, with the first step being diffusion controlled dissociative adsorption of methanol directly from the bulk electrolyte. The saturation charge of adsorbed CO derived from methanol was found to be significantly lower than CO derived from formic acid or dissolved CO. This was attributed to the site requirements of the dehydrogenation steps, and possibly different compositions of linear, bridged or multiply bonded CO. The coverage of adsorbed CO from formic acid decreased significantly at potentials just outside of the hydrogen region (0.35 V vs. RHE), while it did not start to decrease significantly until about 0.6 V vs. RHE for methanol. Adsorbed CO from dissolved CO rapidly oxidized at potentials above about 0.75 V due to formation of platinum oxide. Data from a.c. voltammograms from 0.5 Hz up to 30 kHz were assembled into electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and analyzed using equivalent circuits. The main advantages of collecting EIS spectra from a.c. voltammetry experiments are the ability to directly correlate the impedance

  1. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  2. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  3. Molybdenum Carbide Synthesis Using Plasmas for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Acid Fuel Cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, and Direct and Indirect Methanol Fuel Cell...Mathias, D. P. Miller, C. K. Mittelsteadt, T. Xie, and S. G. Yan, P. T. Yu, “Two Fuel Cell Cars in Every Garage?” The Electrochemical Society Interface...G. Colsman, B. Emonts, B. Hohlein, R. Menzer, and E. Riedel, “Hydrogen from methanol for fuel cells in mobile systems: development of compact

  4. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  5. A new synthesis route for sustainable gold copper utilization in direct formic acid fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oseghale, C.I.; Abdalla, A.H.; Posada, J.O.G.; Hall, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    In the efforts to develop a more sustainable energy mix there is an urgent need to develop new materials for environmentally friendly processes. Developing low metal loading anode catalyst with high electrocatalytic activity for liquid fuel cells remains a great challenge. Polyvinylpyrrolodoneprotected AuCu-C core-shell was fabricated by a facile one-pot modified chemical reduction method. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),...

  6. Fast Degradation for High Activity: Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Functionalised Carbon Nanotubes in Solid-Acid Fuel-Cell Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Olga; Naumov, Sergej; Flyunt, Roman; Abel, Bernd; Varga, Aron

    2016-12-08

    Similar to polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, the widespread application of solid acid fuel cells (SAFCs) has been hindered partly by the necessity of the use of the precious-metal catalyst Pt in the electrodes. Here we investigate multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential catalytic activity by using symmetric cell measurements of solid-acid-based electrochemical cells in a cathodic environment. For all measurements, the carbon nanotubes were Pt free and subject to either nitrogen or oxygen plasma treatment. AC impedance spectroscopy of the electrochemical cells, with and without a DC bias, was performed and showed significantly lower initial impedances for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs compared to those treated with a nitrogen plasma. In symmetric cell measurements with a DC bias, the current declines quickly for oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs and more slowly, over 12 days, for nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs. To elucidate the degradation mechanisms of the oxygen-plasma-treated MWCNTs under SAFC operating conditions, theoretical calculations were performed using DFT. The results indicate that several degradation mechanisms are likely to occur in parallel through the reduction of the surface oxygen groups that were introduced by the plasma treatment. This finally leads to an inert MWCNT surface and a very low electrode performance. Nitrogen-plasma-treated MWCNTs appear to have a higher stability and may be worthwhile for future investigations. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  8. Effect of humic acids on electricity generation integrated with xylose degradation in microbial fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Angelidaki, Irini

    2008-01-01

    Pentose and humic acids (HA) are the main components of hydrolysates, the liquid fraction produced during thermohydrolysis of lignocellulosic material. Electricity generation integrated with xylose (typical pentose) degradation as well as the effect of HA on electricity production in microbial fuel...... degradation and formation of more oxidized products (acetate and formate) as well as less reduced products (lactate and ethanol) compared to the controls. The reduced power generation in the presence of DMW was attributed to the presence of bacterial inhibitors such as phenolic compounds. Therefore, new...

  9. New electrolytes for direct methane fuel cells. Annual report, January 10, 1977-January 9, 1978. [Perhalogenated sulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummer, S.B.; McHardy, J.; Koch, V.; Turner, M.; Toland, D.

    1978-01-01

    The program is aimed at developing a fuel cell electrolyte for the direct oxidation of CH/sub 4/ and/or impure H/sub 2/ fuels. Work in the first year has focused on the di- and tribasic methane sulfonic acids CX/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ and CX(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ where X was H, F, or Cl. Synthesis of the halogenated acids proved to be more difficult than anticipated, and only three acids, viz. CH(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/; CH/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/; CCl/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ were prepared in sufficient quantity for electrochemical testing. However, promising synthetic routes have been identified for the other acids. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the adsorption properties of the acids and half cell tests with gas diffusion electrodes were used to determine their suitability as fuel cell electrolytes. Results are presented and discussed. Also a program has been under way to develop low Pt loading (1 mg cm/sup -2/) fuel cell electrodes. The objective was to achieve control over the mass transfer parameters of an electrode so that optimum structures could be designed for use with the new electrolytes. In the interest of reproducibility, the experimental electrodes incorporated only well characterized materials; all forms of carbon were omitted. Optimum performance with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was achieved with electrodes made as follows. One mg cm/sup -2/ Pt black and 1 mg cm/sup -2/ TFE 30 were mixed and filtered onto porous TFE tape. The tape was pressed into Au plated Ta screen sintered for 10 minutes at 340/sup 0/C. Current vs potential curves for both anodic reactions (CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/ oxidation) and cathodic reactions (O/sub 2/ and air reduction) were superior to the curves obtained with an American Cyanamid electrode containing 25 mg Pt cm/sup -2/. (WHK)

  10. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  11. Oxidative degradation of acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes and fuel cell durability in the presence of ferrous ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Jianhui; Yang, Jingshuai; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    . In this study effects of phosphoric acid and ferrous ions were investigated by measurements of the weight loss, intrinsic viscosity and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of the polymer membranes. Ferrous ions resulted in, as expected, catalytic formation of peroxide radicals and hence the accelerated polymer......Phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes have been explored as proton exchange membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Long-term durability of the membrane is of critical concern and has been evaluated by accelerated degradation tests under Fenton conditions...... degradation in terms of weight loss and molecular weight decrease. The presence of phosphoric acid as an inevitable dopant of the membranes, on the other hand, significantly impeded the membrane degradation by means of metal ion complexing, decreased pH, and acid–base interactions with the amino groups...

  12. Synergistic effect of polyoxometalate solution and TiO2 under UV irradiation to catalyze formic acid degradation and their application in the fuel cell and hydrogen evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congmin Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of H3PMo12O40 or H3PW12O40 polyoxometalate solution (POM and TiO2 to catalyze formic acid oxidation was investigated. Under UV irradiation, hole and electron were photogenerated by TiO2. Formic acid was oxided by the photogenerated hole and photogenerated electron was transferred to reduce polyoxometalate. With this design, formic acid can be converted into electricity in the fuel cell and hydrogen can be generated in the electrolysis cell without noble metal catalyst. Unlike other noble metal catalysts applied in the fuel cells and electrolysis cell, POM and TiO2 are stable and low cost. The maximum output power density of liquid formic acid fuel cell after 12 h UV irradiation is 5.21 mW/cm2 for phosphmolybdic acid and 22.81 mW/cm2 for phosphotungstic acid respectively. The applied potential for the hydrogen evolution is as low as 0.8 V for phosphmolybdic acid and 0.6 V for phosphotungstic acid. Keywords: TiO2, UV, Polyoxometalate solution (POM, Fuel cell, Hydrogen evolution

  13. Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, Muhammed Shah; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Tatara, Ryoichi; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-12-14

    Amphoteric water was mixed with equimolar amounts of a super-strong acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), and a super-strong base, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-7-undecene (DBU). Bulk physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the mixtures were compared with those of the best ever reported protic ionic liquid (PIL), diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), which has excellent physicochemical properties as a fuel cell electrolyte. The acidic mixture ([H3O][TfO]) behaved as a protic ionic liquid, while the basic mixture ([DBU]OH) showed incomplete proton transfer. The Walden plot indicated that [H3O][TfO] behaves as a good PIL, similar to [dema][TfO], whereas [DBU]OH behaves as a poor PIL. [H3O][TfO] showed excellent H2/O2 fuel cell performance at 80 °C; however, the performance deteriorated as the bulk water content increased, because of the retardation of the electrode kinetics due to the oxidation of Pt in the presence of bulk water. On the other hand, [DBU]OH exhibited very poor performance possibly because of the existence of neutral species in the system.

  14. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  15. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  16. Separate Determination of Borohydride, Borate, Hydroxide, and Carbonate in the Borohydride Fuel Cell by Acid-Base and Iodometric Potentiometric Titration

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Churikov; S. L. Shmakov; V. O. Romanova; K. V. Zapsis; A. V. Ushakov; A. V. Ivanishchev; M. A. Churikov

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for quantitative chemical analysis of the complex “borohydride-borate-hydroxide-carbonate-water” mixtures used as fuel in the borohydride fuel cell was developed and optimized. The methodology includes the combined usage of the acid-base and iodometric titration methods. The acid-base titration method, which simultaneously uses the technique of differentiation and computer simulation of titration curves, allows one to determine the contents of hydroxide (alkali), carbonate, and ...

  17. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolini, E.; Gonzalez, E. R.

    The faster kinetics of the alcohol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions in alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells (ADAFCs), opening up the possibility of using less expensive metal catalysts, as silver, nickel and palladium, makes the alkaline direct alcohol fuel cell a potentially low cost technology compared to acid direct alcohol fuel cell technology, which employs platinum catalysts. A boost in the research regarding alkaline fuel cells, fuelled with hydrogen or alcohols, was due to the development of alkaline anion-exchange membranes, which allows the overcoming of the problem of the progressive carbonation of the alkaline electrolyte. This paper presents an overview of catalysts and membranes for ADAFCs, and of testing of ADAFCs, fuelled with methanol, ethanol and ethylene glycol, formed by these materials.

  18. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal...... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....

  19. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  20. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  1. Intermediate temperature proton conductors for PEM fuel cells based on phosphonic acid as protogenic group: a progress report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, H; Schuster, M; Kreuer, K D; Kaltbeitzel, A; Bingöl, B; Meyer, W H; Schauff, S; Brunklaus, G; Maier, J; Spiess, H W

    2007-04-21

    The melting behaviour and transport properties of straight chain alkanes mono- and difunctionalized with phosphonic acid groups have been investigated as a function of their length. The increase of melting temperature and decrease of proton conductivity with increasing chain length is suggested to be the consequence of an increasing ordering of the alkane segments which constrains the free aggregation of the phosphonic acid groups. However, the proton mobility is reduced to a greater extent than the proton diffusion coefficient indicating an increasing cooperativity of proton transport with increasing length of the alkane segment. The results clearly indicate that the "spacer concept", which had been proven successful in the optimization of the proton conductivity of heterocycle based systems, fails in the case of phosphonic acid functionalized polymers. Instead, a very high concentration of phosphonic acid functional groups forming "bulky" hydrogen bonded aggregates is suggested to be essential for obtaining very high proton conductivity. Aggregation is also suggested to reduce condensation reactions generally observed in phosphonic acid containing systems. On the basis of this understanding, the proton conductivities of poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) and poly(meta-phenylene phosphonic acid) are discussed. Though both polymers exhibit a substantial concentration of phosphonic acid groups, aggregation seems to be constrained to such an extent that intrinsic proton conductivity is limited to values below sigma = 10(-3) S cm(-1) at T = 150 degrees C. The results suggest that different immobilization concepts have to be developed in order to minimize the conductivity reduction compared to the very high intrinsic proton conductivity of neat phosphonic acid under quasi dry conditions. In the presence of high water activities, however, (as usually present in PEM fuel cells) the very high ion exchange capacities (IEC) possible for phosphonic acid functionalized ionomers (IEC

  2. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  3. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  4. Liquid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  5. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  6. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  7. In Situ Formed Phosphoric Acid/Phosphosilicate Nanoclusters in the Exceptional Enhancement of Durability of Polybenzimidazole Membrane Fuel Cells at Elevated High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Aili, David; Bradley, John

    2017-01-01

    Most recently, we developed a phosphotungstic acid impregnated mesoporous silica (PWA-meso-silica) and phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PA/PBI) composite membrane for use in high temperature fuel cells and achieved exceptional durability under a constant current load of 200 mA cm−2 at 200...

  8. Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at a ruthenium complex modified titanium dioxide electrode promoted by uric acid and ascorbic acid for photoelectrochemical fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuo-Jian; Ji, Shi-Bo; Liu, Jun-Chen; Li, Hong; Li, Wei-Shan

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) is first found to largely promote the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of glucose (GLU) at an indium-tin oxide (ITO) or TiO2 nanoparticles/ITO electrode modified with [Ru(tatp)3]2+ (tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) possessing good redox activity and nanoparticle size distribution. A well-defined electrocatalytic peak for GLU oxidation is shown at 0.265 V (vs. SCE) under approximate physiological conditions upon incorporation of UA and AA. The [Ru(tatp)3]2+/ITO electrode exhibits attractive amperometric oxidation responses towards GLU, UA and AA, while controlled potentiostatically at 0.3 V, 0.7 V and 1.0 V, respectively, indicating high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. On basis of the photoelectrocatalysis of [Ru(tatp)3]2+/TiO2/ITO anode, a GLU concentration-dependent photoelectrochemical fuel cell vs. SCE is elaborately assembled. The proposed free-enzyme photoelectrochemical fuel cell employing 0.1 M GLU associated with 0.01 M UA and 0.01 M AA as fuel shows open-circuit photovoltage of 0.608 V, short-circuit photocurrent density of 124.5 μA cm-2 and maximum power density of 21.75 μW cm-2 at 0.455 V, fill factor of 0.32 and photoenergy conversion efficiency of 36.65%, respectively.

  9. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  10. Acid-doped polymer nanofiber framework: Three-dimensional proton conductive network for high-performance fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Manabu; Takeda, Yasushi; Wakiya, Takeru; Wakamoto, Yuta; Harigaya, Kaori; Ito, Tatsunori; Tarao, Takashi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2017-02-01

    High-performance polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) with excellent proton conductivity, gas barrier property, and membrane stability are desired for future fuel cells. Here we report the development of PEMs based on our proposed new concept ;Nanofiber Framework (NfF).; The NfF composite membranes composed of phytic acid-doped polybenzimidazole nanofibers (PBINf) and Nafion matrix show higher proton conductivity than the recast-Nafion membrane without nanofibers. A series of analyses reveal the formation of three-dimensional network nanostructures to conduct protons and water effectively through acid-condensed layers at the interface of PBINf and Nafion matrix. In addition, the NfF composite membrane achieves high gas barrier property and distinguished membrane stability. The fuel cell performance by the NfF composite membrane, which enables ultra-thin membranes with their thickness less than 5 μm, is superior to that by the recast-Nafion membrane, especially at low relative humidity. Such NfF-based high-performance PEM will be accomplished not only by the Nafion matrix used in this study but also by other polymer electrolyte matrices for future PEFCs.

  11. Preparation and evaluation of advanced electrocatalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonehart, P.; Baris, J.; Hochmuth, J.; Pagliaro, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two cooperative phenomena are required the development of highly efficient porous electrocatalysts: (1) is an increase in the electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst particle; and (2) is the availability of that electrocatalyst particle for the electromechanical reaction. The two processes interact with each other so that improvements in the electrochemical activity must be coupled with improvements in the availability of the electrocatalyst for reaction. Cost effective and highly reactive electrocatalysts were developed. The utilization of the electrocatalyst particles in the porous electrode structures was analyzed. It is shown that a large percentage of the electrocatalyst in anode structures is not utilized. This low utilization translates directly into a noble metal cost penalty for the fuel cell.

  12. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  13. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  14. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  15. Alkaline-acid Zn-H2O Fuel Cell for Simultaneous Generation of Hydrogen and Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhenhai; Cai, Pingwei; Li, Yan; Wang, Genxiang

    2018-01-08

    An alkaline-acid Zn-H2O fuel cell is proposed for simultaneously generating electricity with an open circuit voltage of about 1.25 V and producing H2 with almost 100% Faradic efficiency. We demonstrate the as-developed hybrids cell, thanks to harvesting energy from both the electrochemical neutralization and electrochemical Zn oxidation, can deliver a power density of up to 80 mW cm-2, an energy density of 934 Wh kg-1, and maintain long-term stability for H2 producing with an output voltage of 1.16 V at a current density of 10 mA cm-2. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  17. Fuel cell electronics packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuang, Ken; Easler, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... more energy independent. Despite the fact that the primary focus of the new initiative revolved around automotive technologies, the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative was crafted into a balanced program that benefited a wide range of technologies and applications, including micro, portable, stationary fuel cells. This massive effort was given an addition...

  18. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  19. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  20. New electrolytes for direct methane fuel cells. Final report, January 10,1977-January 9, 1979. [Methanesulfonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brummer, S.B.; Foos, J.; McHardy, J.; McVeigh, J.; Toland, D.; Turner, M.

    1979-05-01

    The program is aimed at developing a fuel cell electrolyte for the direct oxidation of CH/sub 4/ and/or impure H/sub 2/ fuels. Of interest are di- and tribasic methanesulfonic acids CX/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ and CX(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ where X is H, F, or C1. Synthetic routes to CH/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/, CH(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/, CCl/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/, and CCl(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ have been identified and optimized. The diphenyl ester of CF/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ has been prepared for the first time and various approaches to CF(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ have been investigated. In parallel with the synthetic program, apparatus was designed and fabricated for the testing of the electrolytes under fuel cell conditions. A new PTFE test cell was developed for testing small amounts of electrolyte. Electrodes with low Pt loading were developed for use in electrolyte evaluation. Optimum performance with H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was achieved using 1 mg Pt/cm/sup 2/ and 1 mg TFE 30/cm/sup 2/ deposited on TFE tape, supported on a Au plated Ta screen, and sintered. Preliminary half cell tests using CH/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ and CH(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ indicated that these acids are insufficiently stable for use as fuel cell electrolytes. However, tests using CCl/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H/sub 2/) and CCl(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 3/ were encouraging, yielding H/sub 2/ oxidation rates equal to or better than those using H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Stability tests were conducted by heating a sample of each acid at 130/sup 0/ for 30 days under atmospheres of N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/. At the end of the test, each sample was analyzed for decomposition. In no case did IR analysis indicate significant decomposition and, in the case of the chloroacids, only a trace amount of free Cl/sup -/ was observed. Conductivity measurements showed the aqueous acids to be of the same conductivty as aqueous H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. The dihydrate of CH/sub 2/(SO/sub 3/H)/sub 2/ was found to be more conductive than CF/sub 3/SO

  1. Trioxane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1995-01-01

    Trioxane identified as high-energy, nontoxic, solid substitute for formaldehyde as water-soluble fuel for use in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electrochemical oxidation to water and carbon dioxide at platinum and platinum-alloy electrodes in liquid-feed-type fuel cells that contain acid electrolytes or solid proton-exchange membrane electrolytes. Exhibits less crossover than do such conventional fuels as methanol and formaldehyde. Being solid at ambient temperature, trioxane offers significant advantages in handling and transportation. Synthesized from natural gas with relative ease.

  2. Self assembled 12-tungstophosphoric acid-silica mesoporous nanocomposites as proton exchange membranes for direct alcohol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haolin; Pan, Mu; Jiang, San Ping

    2011-05-21

    A highly ordered inorganic electrolyte based on 12-tungstophosphoric acid (H(3)PW(12)O(40), abbreviated as HPW or PWA)-silica mesoporous nanocomposite was synthesized through a facile one-step self-assembly between the positively charged silica precursor and negatively charged PW(12)O(40)(3-) species. The self-assembled HPW-silica nanocomposites were characterized by small-angle XRD, TEM, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity and solid-state (31)P NMR. The results show that highly ordered and uniform nanoarrays with long-range order are formed when the HPW content in the nanocomposites is equal to or lower than 25 wt%. The mesoporous structures/textures were clearly presented, with nanochannels of 3.2-3.5 nm in diameter. The (31)P NMR results indicates that there are (≡SiOH(2)(+))(H(2)PW(12)O(40)(-)) species in the HPW-silica nanocomposites. A HPW-silica (25/75 w/o) nanocomposite gave an activation energy of 13.0 kJ mol(-1) and proton conductivity of 0.076 S cm(-1) at 100 °C and 100 RH%, and an activation energy of 26.1 kJ mol(-1) and proton conductivity of 0.05 S cm(-1) at 200 °C with no external humidification. A fuel cell based on a 165 μm thick HPW-silica nanocomposite membrane achieved a maximum power output of 128.5 and 112.0 mW cm(-2) for methanol and ethanol fuels, respectively, at 200 °C. The high proton conductivity and good performance demonstrate the excellent water retention capability and great potential of the highly ordered HPW-silica mesoporous nanocomposites as high-temperature proton exchange membranes for direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs).

  3. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; York, Cynthia A [Newington, CT; Waszczuk, Piotr [White Bear Lake, MN; Wieckowski, Andrzej [Champaign, IL

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  4. Composite fuel cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Keith R.; Rehg, Timothy J.; Davis, Larry W.; Carl, William P.; Cisar, Alan J.; Eastland, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  5. Compliant fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott [Albany, NY; Gudlavalleti, Sauri [Albany, NY

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  6. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  7. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  8. CO-tolerant electrodes developed with PhosphoMolybdic Acid for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFCs) application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatto, I.; Sacca, A.; Carbone, A.; Pedicini, R.; Urbani, F.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Advanced Technologies for Energies Institute ' ' N. Giordano' ' Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse, 981265 Messina (Italy)

    2007-09-27

    Several approaches were used to improve the CO-tolerant electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) when using processed H{sub 2} as a fuel. The employment of transition metals oxides (WO{sub x}, MoO{sub x}) promotes CO oxidation and, for this reason, heteropolyacids (like PWA, PMoA, SiWA, etc.) containing these oxides were selected in this work, for the development of CO-tolerant electrodes. Different electrodes were prepared by using a spray technique for both diffusive and catalytic layers. The catalytic layer was obtained using a 30 wt.% Pt/Vulcan as an electro-catalyst mixed with a Nafion solution for the standard electrode (SE). CO-tolerant electrodes were prepared by adding different weight percentages (6-15%) of phosphomolybdic acid (PMoA) to SE and for all the prepared electrodes, the Pt loading was maintained as a constant at 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were obtained with an SE as a cathode and the electrodes containing different amounts of PMoA as anodes. A commercial N115 membrane was used as an electrolyte. MEAs were tested at 80 C in H{sub 2}/air and in H{sub 2}-CO (100 ppm)/air, in order to evaluate the performance loss in these operative conditions. By feeding the fuel cell (FC) with H{sub 2}-CO/air, an improvement in the cell performance proportional to the increase of the percentage of PMoA was observed. The best value was reached by using a percentage of inorganic compounds in the range of 12-15 wt.%. A power density of about 240 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.6 V was obtained independently on the used fuel. A short time-test (160 h) was carried out at 80 C in H{sub 2}-CO/air with an average power density of 220 mW cm{sup -2}, confirming the stability of the system. The right compromise between the Pt catalyst and the heteropolyacid ratio could be a helpful tool in limiting Pt poisoning. (author)

  9. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  10. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  11. Simultaneous pollutant removal and electricity generation in denitrifying microbial fuel cell with boric acid-borate buffer solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shaohui; Li, Meng; Wei, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A double-chamber denitrifying microbial fuel cell (MFC), using boric acid-borate buffer solution as an alternative to phosphate buffer solution, was set up to investigate the influence of buffer solution concentration, temperature and external resistance on electricity generation and pollutant removal efficiency. The result revealed that the denitrifying MFC with boric acid-borate buffer solution was successfully started up in 51 days, with a stable cell voltage of 205.1 ± 1.96 mV at an external resistance of 50 Ω. Higher concentration of buffer solution favored nitrogen removal and electricity generation. The maximum power density of 8.27 W/m(3) net cathodic chamber was obtained at a buffer solution concentration of 100 mmol/L. An increase in temperature benefitted electricity generation and nitrogen removal. A suitable temperature for this denitrifying MFC was suggested to be 25 °C. Decreasing the external resistance favored nitrogen removal and organic matter consumption by exoelectrogens.

  12. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  13. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  14. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  15. Separate Determination of Borohydride, Borate, Hydroxide, and Carbonate in the Borohydride Fuel Cell by Acid-Base and Iodometric Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Churikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for quantitative chemical analysis of the complex “borohydride-borate-hydroxide-carbonate-water” mixtures used as fuel in the borohydride fuel cell was developed and optimized. The methodology includes the combined usage of the acid-base and iodometric titration methods. The acid-base titration method, which simultaneously uses the technique of differentiation and computer simulation of titration curves, allows one to determine the contents of hydroxide (alkali, carbonate, and total “borate + borohydride” content. The iodometric titration method allows one to selectively determine borohydride, so the content of each of OH-, BH4-, BO2-, and CO32- anions in the fuel becomes estimated. The average determination error depends on the number and ratio of compounds in a mixture. Specific details of the analysis of various fuel mixtures are discussed.

  16. Physicochemical properties of phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ronghuan; Li, Qingfeng; Bach, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes have been prepared with different molecular weights. The water and acid swelling, mechanical strength,gas permeability and proton conductivity were studied for the pristine and acid doped PBI membranes. When doped with 5 mol of phosphoric acid per mole repeat unit...

  17. Fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  18. HPW/MCM-41 phosphotungstic acid/mesoporous silica composites as novel proton-exchange membranes for elevated-temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shanfu [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University Singapore (Singapore); School of Chemistry and the Environment, Beihang University Beijing (China); Wang, Deli; Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Jinlin; Zeng, Jie [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University Singapore (Singapore); Xiang, Yan [School of Chemistry and the Environment, Beihang University Beijing (China)

    2010-03-05

    A novel inorganic proton-conducting membrane based on highly ordered MCM-41 mesoporous silica with phosphotungstic acid (HPW) nanoparticles assembled within is successfully fabricated by a vacuum-assisted impregnation method (VIM). The results of HPW impregnation by VIM and a conventional method (CIM) are compared, and the performance of the membranes in fuel cells is reported. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrang, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  20. Organic fuel cell methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Eugene (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor); Olah, George A. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A liquid organic, fuel cell is provided which employs a solid electrolyte membrane. An organic fuel, such as a methanol/water mixture, is circulated past an anode of a cell while oxygen or air is circulated past a cathode of the cell. The cell solid electrolyte membrane is preferably fabricated from Nafion.TM.. Additionally, a method for improving the performance of carbon electrode structures for use in organic fuel cells is provided wherein a high surface-area carbon particle/Teflon.TM.-binder structure is immersed within a Nafion.TM./methanol bath to impregnate the electrode with Nafion.TM.. A method for fabricating an anode for use in a organic fuel cell is described wherein metal alloys are deposited onto the electrode in an electro-deposition solution containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid. A fuel additive containing perfluorooctanesulfonic acid for use with fuel cells employing a sulfuric acid electrolyte is also disclosed. New organic fuels, namely, trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane, and trioxane are also described for use with either conventional or improved fuel cells.

  1. Preparation of polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid composite membranes assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide for direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lijun; Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Tang, Junkun; Zhang, Yongming; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing

    Polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) composite membranes are prepared by using (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS) as a precursor of silicon alkoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO 2) system. In the Sc-CO 2 system with the presence of water, Sc-CO 2 is not only used as a solvent and swelling agent, but also functioned as an acid catalyst for the condensation polymerization of MPMDMS. Characteristics of the modified composite membranes are investigated by using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The modified membrane with 13.9 wt.% poly(MPMDMS) is the best one among all the modified membranes, whose methanol permeability is extremely lower and selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability) is about 5.49 times higher than that of pristine membrane and 5.88 times than that of Nafion ® 117, respectively. This modified PFSA membrane still can maintain its higher selectivity value than that of Nafion ® 117 in the temperature range of 25-65 °C. Therefore, the modified membranes prepared in Sc-CO 2 system may be the suitable candidate electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  2. Preparation of polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid composite membranes assisted by supercritical carbon dioxide for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lijun; Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Tang, Junkun; Zhang, Yongming; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-10-20

    Polysiloxane modified perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) composite membranes are prepared by using (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS) as a precursor of silicon alkoxide in supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) system. In the Sc-CO{sub 2} system with the presence of water, Sc-CO{sub 2} is not only used as a solvent and swelling agent, but also functioned as an acid catalyst for the condensation polymerization of MPMDMS. Characteristics of the modified composite membranes are investigated by using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The modified membrane with 13.9 wt.% poly(MPMDMS) is the best one among all the modified membranes, whose methanol permeability is extremely lower and selectivity (ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability) is about 5.49 times higher than that of pristine membrane and 5.88 times than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117, respectively. This modified PFSA membrane still can maintain its higher selectivity value than that of Nafion {sup registered} 117 in the temperature range of 25-65 C. Therefore, the modified membranes prepared in Sc-CO{sub 2} system may be the suitable candidate electrolytes for direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  3. Amino-Functional Polybenzimidazole Blends with Enhanced Phosphoric Acid Mediated Proton Conductivity as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Han, Junyoung

    2016-01-01

    the phosphoric acid uptake and to obtain mechanically robust membranes, the amino-functional polybenzimidazole derivative is blended with high molecular weight poly [2,2′-(m-phenylene)-5,5′-bisbenzimidazole] at different ratios. Due to the high acid uptake, the homogenous blend membranes show enhanced proton...

  4. Doping phosphoric acid in polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ronghuan; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2007-01-01

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes were doped in phosphoric acid solutions of different concentrations at room temperature. The doping chemistry was studied using the Scatchard method. The energy distribution of the acid complexation in polymer membranes is heterogeneous, that is, there are two...

  5. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  7. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  8. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  9. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  10. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  11. Evaluation of Pd Nanoparticle-Decorated CeO2-MWCNT Nanocomposite as an Electrocatalyst for Formic Acid Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Junaid; Safdar Hossain, SK.; Al-Ahmed, Amir; Rahman, Ateequr; McKay, Gordon; Hossain, Mohammed M.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, CeO2-modified Pd/CeO2-carbon nanotube (CNT) electrocatalyst for the electro-oxidation of formic acid has been investigated. The support CNT was first modified with different amounts (5-30 wt.%) of CeO2 using a precipitation-deposition method. The electrocatalysts were developed by dispersing Pd on the CeO2-CNT supports using the borohydride reduction method. The synthesized electrocatalysts were analyzed for composition, morphology and electronic structure using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The formation of Pd nanoparticles on the CeO2-CNT support was confirmed using TEM. The activity of Pd/CeO2-CNT and of Pd-CNT samples upon oxidation of formic acid was evaluated by using carbon monoxide stripping voltammetry, cyclic voltammetry, and chronoamperometry. The addition of moderate amounts of cerium oxide (up to 10 wt.%) significantly improved the activity of Pd/CeO2-CNT compared to the unmodified Pd-CNT. Pd/10 wt.% CeO2-CNT showed a current density of 2 A mg-1, which is ten times higher than that of the unmodified Pd-CNT (0.2 A mg-1). Similarly, the power density obtained for Pd/10 wt.% CeO2-CNT in an air-breathing formic acid fuel cell was 6.8 mW/cm2 which is two times higher than Pd-CNT (3.2 mW/cm2), thus exhibiting the promotional effects of CeO2 to Pd/CeO2-CNT. A plausible justification for the improved catalytic performance and stability is provided in the light of the physical characterization results.

  12. Limiting Current of Oxygen Reduction on Gas-Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1994-01-01

    on polytetrafluorine-ethyl bonded gas-diffusion electordes in phosphoric acid with and without fluorinated additives. This provides an alternative to estimate the film thickness by combining it with the acid-adsorption measurements and the porosity analysis of the catalyst layer. It was noticed that the limiting...... current density can be accomplished either by gas-phase diffusion or liquid-phase diffusion, and it is the latter that can be used in the film-thickness estimation. It is also important to mention that at such a limiting condition, both the thin-film model and the filmed agglomerate model reach the same......Various models have been devoted to the operation mechanism of porous diffusion electrodes. They are, however, suffering from the lack of accuracy concerning the acid-film thickness on which they are based. In the present paper the limiting current density has been measured for oxygen reduction...

  13. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(vinylphosphonic acid) for proton exchange membranes in fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, Bahar

    2007-07-01

    Vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) was polymerized at 80 C by free radical polymerization to give polymers (PVPA) of different molecular weight depending on the initiator concentration. The highest molecular weight, Mw, achieved was 6.2 x 10{sup 4} g/mol as determined by static light scattering. High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to gain microstructure information about the polymer chain. Information based on tetrad probabilities was utilized to deduce an almost atactic configuration. In addition, {sup 13}CNMR gave evidence for the presence of head-head and tail-tail links. Refined analysis of the {sup 1}H NMR spectra allowed for the quantitative determination of the fraction of these links (23.5 percent of all links). Experimental evidence suggested that the polymerization proceeded via cyclopolymerization of the vinylphosphonic acid anhydride as an intermediate. Titration curves indicated that high molecular weight poly(vinylphosphonic acid) PVPA behaved as a monoprotic acid. Proton conductors with phosphonic acid moieties as protogenic groups are promising due to their high charge carrier concentration, thermal stability, and oxidation resistivity. Blends and copolymers of PVPA have already been reported, but PVPA has not been characterized sufficiently with respect to its polymer properties. Therefore, we also studied the proton conductivity behaviour of a well-characterized PVPA. PVPA is a conductor; however, the conductivity depends strongly on the water content of the material. The phosphonic acid functionality in the resulting polymer, PVPA, undergoes condensation leading to the formation of phosphonic anhydride groups at elevated temperature. Anhydride formation was found to be temperature dependent by solid state NMR. Anhydride formation affects the proton conductivity to a large extent because not only the number of charge carriers but also the mobility of the charge carriers seems to change. (orig.)

  15. Contact Resistance of Tantalum Coatings in Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers using Acidic Electrolytes at Elevated Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Christensen, Erik; Barner, Jens H. Von

    2014-01-01

    Tantalum has so far been found to be the only construction material with sufficient corrosion resistance for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzers using acidic electrolytes above 100◦C. In this work the interfacial contact resistances of tantalum plates and tantalum coated...... stainless steel were found to be far below the US Department of Energy target value of 10mcm2. The good contact resistance of tantalum was demonstrated by simulating high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis conditions by anodization performed in 85% phosphoric acid at 130◦C, followed...

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  17. FUEL CELL BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    References in this bibliography on fuel cells are arranged alphabetically by the authors. References for which no author is cited are arranged alphabetically by title under the general heading, Anon. The numerous references cover the time period of 1895 to 1961.

  18. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  19. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  20. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  1. Use of Pyrolyzed Iron Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Modified Activated Carbon as Air–Cathode Catalyst in Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Xue

    2013-08-28

    Activated carbon (AC) is a cost-effective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). To enhance the catalytic activity of AC cathodes, AC powders were pyrolyzed with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA) at a weight ratio of FeEDTA:AC = 0.2:1. MFCs with FeEDTA modified AC cathodes and a stainless steel mesh current collector produced a maximum power density of 1580 ± 80 mW/m2, which was 10% higher than that of plain AC cathodes (1440 ± 60 mW/m 2) and comparable to Pt cathodes (1550 ± 10 mW/m2). Further increases in the ratio of FeEDTA:AC resulted in a decrease in performance. The durability of AC-based cathodes was much better than Pt-catalyzed cathodes. After 4.5 months of operation, the maximum power density of Pt cathode MFCs was 50% lower than MFCs with the AC cathodes. Pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species likely contributed to the increased activity of FeEDTA modified AC. These results show that pyrolyzing AC with FeEDTA is a cost-effective and durable way to increase the catalytic activity of AC. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Claudia; Vargas, Ignacio T; Bruns, Mary Ann; Regan, John M

    2017-12-01

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (±0.7) mA at about -170mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (±0.9) mA between -500mV to -450mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrochemically active microorganisms from an acid mine drainage-affected site promote cathode oxidation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Claudia

    2017-08-03

    The limited database of acidophilic or acidotolerant electrochemically active microorganisms prevents advancements on microbial fuel cells (MFCs) operated under low pH. In this study, three MFCs were used to enrich cathodic biofilms using acid mine drainage (AMD) sediments as inoculum. Linear sweep voltammetry showed cathodic current plateaus of 5.5 (± 0.7) mA at about − 170 mV vs Ag/AgCl and 8.5 (± 0.9) mA between − 500 mV to − 450 mV vs Ag/AgCl for biofilms developed on small graphite fiber brushes. After gamma irradiation, biocathodes exhibited a decrease in current density approaching that of abiotic controls. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed six-fold lower charge transfer resistance with viable biofilm. Pyrosequencing data showed that Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the biofilms. Acidithiobacillus representatives were enriched in some biocathodes, supporting the potential importance of these known iron and sulfur oxidizers as cathodic biocatalysts. Other acidophilic chemolithoautotrophs identified included Sulfobacillus and Leptospirillum species. The presence of chemoautotrophs was consistent with functional capabilities predicted by PICRUSt related to carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotic microorganisms. Acidophilic or acidotolerant heterotrophs were also abundant; however, their contribution to cathodic performance is unknown. This study directs subsequent research efforts to particular groups of AMD-associated bacteria that are electrochemically active on cathodes.

  4. Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity are two important process variables widely used in operation of SOFC cells, stacks, and generators. To illustrate the technical values, the definitions of these two variables as well as practical examples are particularly given in this paper. It is explicitly shown that the oxygen-leakage has a substantial effect on the actual fuel utilization, fuel sensitivity and V-I characteristics. An underestimation of the leakage flux could potentially results in overly consuming fuel and oxidizing Ni-based anode. A fuel sensitivity model is also proposed to help extract the leakage flux information from a fuel sensitivity curve. Finally, the "bending-over" phenomenon observed in the low-current range of a V-I curve measured at constant fuel-utilization is quantitatively coupled with leakage flux.

  5. Efficient recovery of nano-sized iron oxide particles from synthetic acid-mine drainage (AMD) water using fuel cell technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoan; Jang, Je-Hun; Dempsey, Brian A; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an important contributor to surface water pollution due to the release of acid and metals. Fe(II) in AMD reacts with dissolved oxygen to produce iron oxide precipitates, resulting in further acidification, discoloration of stream beds, and sludge deposits in receiving waters. It has recently been shown that new fuel cell technologies, based on microbial fuel cells, can be used to treat AMD and generate electricity. Here we show that this approach can also be used as a technique to generate spherical nano-particles of iron oxide that, upon drying, are transformed to goethite (α-FeOOH). This approach therefore provides a relatively straightforward way to generate a product that has commercial value. Particle diameters ranged from 120 to 700 nm, with sizes that could be controlled by varying the conditions in the fuel cell, especially current density (0.04-0.12 mA/cm(2)), pH (4-7.5), and initial Fe(II) concentration (50-1000 mg/L). The most efficient production of goethite and power occurred with pH = 6.3 and Fe(II) concentrations above 200 mg/L. These results show that fuel cell technologies can not only be used for simultaneous AMD treatment and power generation, but that they can generate useful products such as iron oxide particles having sizes appropriate for used as pigments and other applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack T.

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer the potential for high efficiency, low cost electric power plants for many applications. The fuel cell generator Itself is an all solid state reactor operating at about 1000°C, which produces direct current electricity from the conversion of the energy in gaseous fuel by an electrochemical reaction with the oxygen in air. System studies have shown 50-60 percent efficiency can be obtained in multi-megawatt all electric power plants in which the high quality exhaust heat is used to produce electricity In a bottoming cycle. Alternatively the exhaust heat can be used in Industrial and commercial co-generation systems for space cooling or raising high pressure steam. Space based and military applications for electric power plants have been proposed with high power per unit weight and volume designs which use hydrogen fuel and pure oxygen. Truly significant accomplishments have been made in the 1980's in the technological development of the special materials and processes for producing them for the various cell designs and in the conception of device designs. These advancements were due to the fundamental work of the several decades earlier. In 1986 through 1988 experimental test units in the several hundred to several thousand watt sizes have been designed, fabricated, shipped, and tested for thousands of hours by user organizations in the United States and Japan. The extent of the commercial market for Solid Oxide fuel cells for various applications, vis-a-vis alternate electrical generation options, will depend on what system capital cost can be achieved.

  7. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  8. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The computer code for the detailed analytical model of the MK-2 stacks is described. An ERC proprietary matrix is incorporated in the stacks. The mechanical behavior of the stack during thermal cycles under compression was determined. A 5 cell stack of the MK-2 design was fabricated and tested. Designs for the next three stacks were selected and component fabrication initiated. A 3 cell stack which verified the use of wet assembly and a new acid fill procedure were fabricated and tested. Components for the 2 kW test facility were received or fabricated and construction of the facility is underway. The definition of fuel and water is used in a study of the fuel conditioning subsystem. Kinetic data on several catalysts, both crushed and pellets, was obtained in the differential reactor. A preliminary definition of the equipment requirements for treating tap and recovered water was developed.

  9. Cell module and fuel conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, D. Q., Jr.

    1980-07-01

    The computer code for the detailed analytical model of the MK-2 stacks is described. An ERC proprietary matrix is incorporated in the stacks. The mechanical behavior of the stack during thermal cycles under compression was determined. A 5 cell stack of the MK-2 design was fabricated and tested. Designs for the next three stacks were selected and component fabrication initiated. A 3 cell stack which verified the use of wet assembly and a new acid fill procedure were fabricated and tested. Components for the 2 kW test facility were received or fabricated and construction of the facility is underway. The definition of fuel and water is used in a study of the fuel conditioning subsystem. Kinetic data on several catalysts, both crushed and pellets, was obtained in the differential reactor. A preliminary definition of the equipment requirements for treating tap and recovered water was developed.

  10. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  11. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  12. Technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cell powerplant (phase 2). [on site integrated energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the development of material, cell components, and reformers for on site integrated energy systems. Internal resistance and contact resistance were improved. Dissolved gases (O2, N2, and CO2) were found to have no effect on the electrochemical corrosion of phenolic composites. Stack performance was increased by 100 mV over the average 1979 level.

  13. The Influence of Acidity on Microbial Fuel Cells Containing Shewanella Oneidensis (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    approximately 500 cm−1 in the 1.2 cm3 chamber). In pecified cases, graphite felt cathodes coatedwith Pt nanoparticles Pt-GF) were used (Supplementary...filter sterilized with a 0.45m PTFE filter to monitor the pH f the acelluar growth media. The electrode potentials versus the g/ AgCl reference electrode...an Ag/ AgCl reference electrode (Bioanalytical Systems) com- leted the electrochemical cell. TheMM culture supernatants were ontinuously sparged with

  14. Electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in acid media on titanium nitride supported fuel cell catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thotiyl, M.M. Ottakam [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012 (India); Sampath, S., E-mail: sampath@ipc.iisc.ernet.i [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, Karnataka 560012 (India)

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, titanium nitride, TiN that possesses good electronic conductivity, high corrosion resistance combined with the ability to support metallic particles, has been used to anchor Pt catalysts and subsequently used for ethanol oxidation. Platinum deposited on TiN (Pt-TiN) surface is contrasted with the conventional support material, Vulcan carbon for the electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in acidic medium. Though the comparison is not straight forward due to different morphology/particle size of the Pt catalyst on the two supports, the present investigations reveal that the TiN support lead to surface Ti-OH type functional groups that help in reducing the accumulation of carbon monoxide on the catalyst surface. The Tafel slopes are similar but the exchange current density on Pt-TiN is approximately twice that of the value observed on Pt-C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data support the long term stability and electrocatalytic activity of Pt-TiN electrocatalyst.

  15. Spontaneous modification of graphite anode by anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid for microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinhua; Li, Haoran; Du, Zhuwei; Ng, How Yong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS), an electron transfer mediator, was immobilized onto graphite felt surface via spontaneous reduction of the in situ generated AQS diazonium cations. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) characterizations of AQS modified graphite demonstrated that AQS was covalently grafted onto the graphite surface. The modified graphite, with a surface AQS concentration of 5.37 ± 1.15 × 10(-9)mol/cm(2), exhibited good electrochemical activity and high stability. The midpoint potential of the modified graphite was about -0.248 V (vs. normal hydrogen electrode, NHE), indicating that electrons could be easily transferred from NADH in bacteria to the electrode. AQS modified anode in MFCs increased the maximum power density from 967 ± 33 mW/m(2) to 1872 ± 42 mW/m(2). These results demonstrated that covalently modified AQS functioned as an electron transfer mediator to facilitate extracellular electron transfer from bacteria to electrode and significantly enhanced the power production in MFCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  17. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  18. Non-noble metal fuel cell catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiujun

    2014-01-01

    Written and edited by a group of top scientists and engineers in the field of fuel cell catalysts from both industry and academia, this book provides a complete overview of this hot topic. It covers the synthesis, characterization, activity validation and modeling of different non-noble metal and metalfree electrocatalysts for the reduction of oxygen, as well as their integration into acid or alkaline polymer exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and their performance validation, while also discussing those factors that will drive fuel cell commercialization. With its well-structured app

  19. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  20. Preparation of polysiloxane/perfluorosulfonic acid nanocomposite membranes in supercritical carbon dioxide system for direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lijun; Pei, Supeng; Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yongming; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing [Department of Polymer, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-08-15

    In this work, polysiloxane-modified perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) membranes were prepared by a directed sol-gel synthesis method with (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS) as the precursor of silicon alkoxide in the supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc-CO{sub 2}) system. Contents of polysiloxane in the modified PFSA membranes were varied according to the added amount of precursor MPMDMS. The chemical and physical properties of these modified PFSA membranes were characterized by using attenuated total reflection-infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, universal testing machine, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope. The measurement results indicated that the polysiloxane particles were not restricted in the ion clusters and well dispersed in the PFSA membrane with ordered size of about 80-100 nm. In the meanwhile, the polysiloxanes have been incorporated into the hydrophobic fluorocarbon backbone regions and interacted with C-F backbones of PFSA polymers. Dimensional stability of the modified PFSA membrane was improved after the impregnation by using Sc-CO{sub 2}. The modified membranes almost can remain the same high tensile strength as the pristine membrane. Performance of these modified membranes was evaluated in terms of proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The highest selectivity value (ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability) of the modified membrane was about 75.6% higher than that of pristine PFSA membrane because of its higher proton conductivity and lower methanol permeability. All the results indicated that this novel synthesis method in Sc-CO{sub 2} system is a promising method to improve the properties of PFSA membrane for direct methanol fuel cell application. (author)

  1. Third International Fuel Cell Conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    The Third International Fuel Cell Conference was held on November 30 to December 3, 1999 in City of Nagoya. A total of 139 papers, including those for plenary, sectional and poster cessions, were presented. In the plenary session, US's DOE presented fuel cell power plant development in the United States, EC fuel cells in perspective and fifth European framework programme, and Japan overview of the New Sunshine Program. In the polymer electrolyte fuel cells sessions, 23 papers were presented, including current status of commercialization and PEMFC systems developed by Toshiba. In the phosphoric acid fuel cells session, 6 papers were presented, including field test results and market developments. In the molten carbonate fuel cells session, 24 papers were presented, including development of 1,000kW MCFC power plant. In the solid oxide fuel cells session, 20 papers were presented, including 100kW SOFC field test results. The other topics include market analysis and fuel processes. (NEDO)

  2. Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn Anode Catalysts for Low-Temperature Acidic Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermete Antolini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of a possible use as anode materials in acidic direct alcohol fuel cells, the electro-catalytic activity of Pt-Ni and Pt-M-Ni (M = Ru, Sn catalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation has been widely investigated. An overview of literature data regarding the effect of the addition of Ni to Pt and Pt-M on the methanol and ethanol oxidation activity in acid environment of the resulting binary and ternary Ni-containing Pt-based catalysts is presented, highlighting the effect of alloyed and non-alloyed nickel on the catalytic activity of these materials.

  3. Hydrogen production from formic acid in pH-stat fed-batch operation for direct supply to fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Tai Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 harvested after cultivation was used as a whole cell biocatalyst, for the production of hydrogen. Formic acid was efficiently converted to hydrogen using the harvested cells with an initial hydrogen production rate and total hydrogen production of 491 ml/l/h and 6668 ml/l, respectively, when 1 g/l of whole cell enzyme was used. Moreover, new pH-stat fed-batch operation was conducted, and total hydrogen production was 1.4 times higher than that of batch operation. For practical application, bio-hydrogen produced from formic acid using harvested cells was directly applied to PEMFC for power generation.

  4. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  5. Fuel cell and method of purging a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, D. S.

    1985-08-27

    A fuel cell may be purged with inert gas and/or preheated and/or maintained at an elevated temperature by combusting the hydrogen fuel with air and passing the combustion product gases either through the cell or through a heat exchanger for imparting heat either to the electrolyte or to the fuel gases. Preferably the combustor includes a catalyst. The hydrogen can either be taken directly from the fuel supply or the ''waste'' hydrogen periodically bled from the cell can be used. If the product gases are to be passed into the cell, the stoichiometry of the combustion should be controlled so that hydrogen is absent.

  6. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  7. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  8. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  9. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  10. Microfluidic fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeang, Erik; Djilali, Ned; Sinton, David

    A microfluidic fuel cell is defined as a fuel cell with fluid delivery and removal, reaction sites and electrode structures all confined to a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic fuel cells typically operate in a co-laminar flow configuration without a physical barrier, such as a membrane, to separate the anode and the cathode. This review article summarizes the development of microfluidic fuel cell technology, from the invention in 2002 until present, with emphasis on theory, fabrication, unit cell development, performance achievements, design considerations, and scale-up options. The main challenges associated with the current status of the technology are provided along with suggested directions for further research and development. Moreover, microfluidic fuel cell architectures show great potential for integration with biofuel cell technology. This review therefore includes microfluidic biofuel cell developments to date and presents opportunities for future work in this multi-disciplinary field.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  12. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  13. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    , whilst batteries will handle all the load dynamics, such as acceleration, lifting, climbing and so on. The electrical part of the whole propulsion system for forklift has been investigated in details. The energy management strategy is explained and verified through simulation. Finally, experimental......A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  14. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  15. Operando μ-Raman study of the actual water content of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes in the fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhe; Badets, Vasilica; Huguet, Patrice; Morin, Arnaud; Schott, Pascal; Tran, Thi Bich Hue; Porozhnyy, Mikhaël; Nikonenko, Victor; Deabate, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Operando μ-Raman spectroscopy is used to probe the water distribution across Nafion® and Aquivion™ membranes in the operating fuel cell. The through-plane water concentration profile is obtained with μm resolution at the middle of the active surface, both at the gas distribution channel and at the under-lands areas. Depth-resolved measurements carried out at room temperature show that the water content of both membranes increases with the increase of the feed gas relative humidity and decreases with the increase of stoichiometry. At given relative humidity and stoichiometry conditions, the water content first increases at the fuel cell start-up and, then, decreases progressively with the increase of the current density delivered by the cell. The water loss is due to the concomitant rise of pressure drops and of the cell inner temperature, the latter giving the larger contribution. Pressure drops are related to the increase of the feed gases fluxes while temperature rise is due to increasing ohmic losses and heat from the electrochemical reaction. Compared to Nafion, Aquivion exhibits larger water content, but similar dehydration rate as a function of ohmic losses, and larger water accumulation at the under-lands area compared to channel.

  16. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  17. Materials for high-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, San Ping; Lu, Max

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in High-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in high-temperature fuel cells with emphasis on the most important solid oxide fuel cells. A related book will cover key mater

  18. Materials for low-temperature fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ladewig, Bradley; Yan, Yushan; Lu, Max

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of books available on fuel cells; however, the majority are on specific types of fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, or on specific technical aspects of fuel cells, e.g., the system or stack engineering. Thus, there is a need for a book focused on materials requirements in fuel cells. Key Materials in Low-Temperature Fuel Cells is a concise source of the most important and key materials and catalysts in low-temperature fuel cells. A related book will cover key materials in high-temperature fuel cells. The two books form part

  19. A direct ascorbate fuel cell with an anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneeb, Omar; Do, Emily; Tran, Timothy; Boyd, Desiree; Huynh, Michelle; Ghosn, Gregory; Haan, John L.

    2017-05-01

    Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) is investigated as a renewable alternative fuel for alkaline direct liquid fuel cells (DLFCs). The environmentally- and biologically-friendly compound, L-ascorbic acid (AA) has been modeled and studied experimentally under acidic fuel cell conditions. In this work, we demonstrate that ascorbic acid is a more efficient fuel in alkaline media than in acidic media. An operating direct ascorbate fuel cell is constructed with the combination of L-ascorbic acid and KOH as the anode fuel, air or oxygen as the oxidant, a polymer anion exchange membrane, metal or carbon black anode materials and metal cathode catalyst. Operation of the fuel cell at 60 °C using 1 M AA and 1 M KOH as the anode fuel and electrolyte, respectively, and oxygen gas at the cathode, produces a maximum power density of 73 mW cm-2, maximum current density of 497 mA cm-2 and an open circuit voltage of 0.90 V. This performance is significantly greater than that of an ascorbic acid fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane, and it is competitive with alkaline DLFCs fueled by alcohols.

  20. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  1. PEM fuel cell degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  2. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-02-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  3. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  4. A Development of Ethanol/Percarbonate Membraneless Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Priya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell using platinum electrodes in alkaline-acidic media is investigated. In this cell, ethanol is used as the fuel and sodium percarbonate is used as an oxidant for the first time in an alkaline-acidic media. Sodium percarbonate generates hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. At room temperature, the laminar-flow-based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 18.96 mW cm−2 with a fuel mixture flow rate of 0.3 mL min−2. The developed fuel cell features no proton exchange membrane. The simple planar structured membraneless ethanol fuel cell presents with high design flexibility and enables easy integration of the microscale fuel cell into actual microfluidic systems and portable power applications.

  5. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2010-06-08

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  6. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P.; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  7. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  8. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  9. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  10. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  11. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  12. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  13. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  14. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  15. Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels for Fuel Cell Apus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    ppmw S). The effective utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds...utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds) to below 0.1 ppm. Low

  16. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Meng, W.J.; Swathirajan, S.; Harris, S.J.; Doll, G.L.

    1997-04-29

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell`s operating environment. Stainless steels rich in Cr, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers. 6 figs.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  18. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  19. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  20. Fuel Cell Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University

    2014-03-30

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. They should be scientifically exciting and sound. They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  1. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rong eLan; Shanwen eTao

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  2. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  3. PEM/SPE fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    A PEM/SPE fuel cell including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates.

  4. Fuel cell energy service Enron`s commerical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M.W.

    1996-04-01

    Enron, the premier provider of clean fuels worldwide, has launched a unique energy service based on fuel cell technology. The goal of this program is to bring the benefits of fuel cell power to the broad commercial marketplace. Enron`s Energy Service is currently based on a 200 kilowatt phosphoric acid power plant manufactured by ONSI Corporation. This plant is fueled by natural gas or propane, and exhibits superior performance. Enron offers a `no hassle` package that provides customers with immediate benefits with no upfront capital or technical risks. This paper describes Enron`s fuel cell commercial program.

  5. Method of operating a direct dme fuel cell system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of operating a fuel cell system comprising one or more fuel cells with a proton exchange membrane, wherein the membrane is composed of a polymeric material comprising acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI). The method comprises adjusting the operating...... temperature of the fuel cell to between 120 and 250 degrees C, supplying an oxidant stream to the cathode, and supplying a humidified fuel stream to the anode, said fuel stream comprising dimethyl ether, wherein dimethyl ether is directly oxidised at the anode....

  6. Investigation of electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membrane-based high temperature fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yeon Hun; Oh, Kyeongmin; Ahn, Sungha; Kim, Na Young; Byeon, Ayeong; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, So Young; Park, Hyun S.; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Ju, Hyunchul; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-09-01

    Precise monitoring of electrolyte leaching in high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) devices during lifetime tests is helpful in making a diagnosis of their quality changes and analyzing their electrochemical performance degradation. Here, we investigate electrolyte leaching in the performance degradation of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane-based HT-PEMFCs. We first perform quantitative analyses to measure PA leakage during cell operation by spectrophotometric means, and a higher PA leakage rate is detected when the current density is elevated in the cell. Second, long-term degradation tests under various current densities of the cells and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis are performed to examine the influence of PA loss on the membrane and electrodes during cell performance degradation. The combined results indicate that PA leakage affect cell performance durability, mostly due to an increase in charge transfer resistance and a decrease in the electrochemical surface area (ECSA) of the electrodes. Additionally, a three-dimensional (3-D) HT-PEMFC model is applied to a real-scale experimental cell, and is successfully validated against the polarization curves measured during various long-term experiments. The simulation results highlight that the PA loss from the cathode catalyst layer (CL) is a significant contributor to overall performance degradation.

  7. Cell module and fuel conditioner development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feret, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The efforts performed to develop a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) stack design having a 10 kW power rating for operation at higher than atmospheric pressure based on the existing Mark II design configuration are described. The work involves: (1) Performance of pertinent functional analysis, trade studies and thermodynamic cycle analysis for requirements definition and system operating parameter selection purposes, (2) characterization of fuel cell materials and components, and performance testing and evaluation of the repeating electrode components, (3) establishment of the state-of-the-art manufacturing technology for all fuel cell components at Westinghouse and the fabrication of short stacks of various sites, and (4) development of a 10 kW PAFC stack design for higher pressure operation utilizing the top down systems engineering approach.

  8. Hybrid membranes for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkareva, S. S.; Shashkina, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Fuel cells are a very efficient, reliable, durable, and environmentally friendly energy source. Membranes for fuel cells were developed based on nitrogen-containing high-molecular compounds and organic–inorganic composites. Their electrical conductivities were measured. The influence of a silicon block of composites on the proton exchange properties of membranes was proved.The comparative characterization of the studied materials was performed.

  9. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  10. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  11. Effect of the Pd/MWCNTs anode catalysts preparation methods on their morphology and activity in a direct formic acid fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesiak, B., E-mail: blesiak-orlowska@ichf.edu.pl [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Mazurkiewicz, M.; Malolepszy, A. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Stobinski, L. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Waryńskiego 1, 00-645 Warszawa (Poland); Mierzwa, B.; Mikolajczuk-Zychora, A.; Juchniewicz, K.; Borodzinski, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warszawa (Poland); Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162-53 Prague 6, Cukrovarnicka 10 (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Catalysts properties studied by XRD, STEM, XPS methods. • Differences in Pd particle size, content of Pd, functional groups, PdC{sub x.}. • Catalytic activity studied in a Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cell. • Highest activity–catalyst prepared using a strong reducing agent (NaBH{sub 4}). - Abstract: Impact of Pd/MWCNTs catalysts preparation method on the catalysts morphology and activity in a formic acid electrooxidation reaction was investigated. Three reduction methods of Pd precursor involving reduction in a high pressure microwave reactor (Pd1), reduction with NaBH{sub 4} (Pd2) and microwave-assisted polyol method (Pd3) were used in this paper. Crystallites size and morphology were studied using the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), whereas elemental composition, Pd chemical state and functional groups content by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared catalysts were tested in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) as an anode material. The catalytic activity was correlated with a mean fraction of the total Pd atoms exposed at the surface (FE). The value of FE was calculated from the crystallites size distribution determined by the STEM measurements. Non-linear dependence of a current density versus FE, approaching the maximum at FE≈0.25 suggests that the catalytic process proceeded at Pd nanocrystallites faces, with inactive edges and corners. Pd2 catalyst exhibited highest activity due to its smallest Pd crystallites (3.2 nm), however the absence of Pd crystallites aggregation and low content of carbon in PdC{sub x} phase, i.e. x = 4 at.% may also affect the observed.

  12. Novel proton exchange membranes based on cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid moieties for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jifu; He, Qingyi; Gao, Nian; Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Suobo; Yang, Hui

    2014-09-01

    A new series of cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s FSPES-x with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups have been successfully prepared by the perfluorosulfonic acid lactone ring-opening reaction without using any metal or base catalysts. These materials have been characterized by IR, NMR and TGA. The results indicate that this simple and metal-free method of preparation is highly efficient for controlling both the degree of perfluorosulfonation and the position of the sulfonate group and no side reactions such as crosslinking is observed. The FSPES-x membranes (IEC = 1.17-1.64 m equiv g-1) show the desired characteristics such as good film-forming ability, excellent thermal and mechanical properties, low methanol permeability, high conductivity (up to 0.083 S cm-1 at room temperature), as well as appropriate cell performance compared to Nafion®117. With these properties, such fluorinated sulfonic acid side-chain-type polymers are promising PEM materials for application in fuel cells.

  13. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  14. Fe2P as a novel efficient catalyst promoter in Pd/C system for formic acid electro-oxidation in fuel cells reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fulong; Xue, Huaiguo; Tian, Zhiqun; Xing, Wei; Feng, Ligang

    2018-01-01

    Developing catalyst promoter for Pd/C catalyst is significant for the catalytic ability improvement in energy transfer related electrochemical reactions. Herein, we demonstrate Fe2P as an efficient catalyst promoter in Pd/C catalyst system for formic acid electro-oxidation in fuel cells reactions. Adding Fe2P in the Pd/C catalyst system greatly increases the performances for formic acid oxidation by 3-4 times; the CO stripping technique displays two kinds of active sites formation in the Pd-Fe2P/C catalyst system coming from the interaction of Pd, Fe2P and Pd oxide species and both are more efficient for formic acid and CO-species electrooxidation. The smaller charge transfer resistance and Tafel slope for formic acid oxidation indicate the improvements in kinetics by Fe2P in the Pd-Fe2P/C system. The nanostructured hybrid units of Pd, Fe2P and carbon are evidently visible in the high resolution microscopy images and XPS technique confirmes the electronic effect in the catalyst system. The promotion effect of Fe2P in the catalyst system arising from the structure, composition and electronic effect changes is discussed with the help from multiple physical and electrochemical techniques. It is concluded that Fe2P as a significant catalyst promoter will have potential application in energy transfer related electrochemical reactions.

  15. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  16. Fuel cell efficiency in a combined electrochemical-thermochemical process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balko, E. N.; Avery, W.

    The thermodynamics of an H2/Cl2 fuel cell combined with a thermochemical hydrogen chloride oxidation stage are considered. Such a cycle is superior to the phosphoric acid H2/O2 systems but does not better the efficiency demonstrated in more advanced H2/O2 fuel cell systems.

  17. Fuel cells: A utilities perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenius, Chris A.; Ang, Amos; Hamilton, Stephanie

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is actively assessing how to maximize the benefits from fuel cell power systems and other distributed generation (DG) technologies deployed along existing distribution level circuits. From a utility perspective, the viability of DG fuel cell systems increase as the technology matures and more "value-added" features are incorporated. As the number of DG projects grows in SCE's service territory and optimism increases about the potential uses, so does the need to better understand the impact wide-scale deployment may have on the performance of California's energy system. Understanding how DG technologies affect distribution level circuits and devising effective deployment strategies is essential for the technology to gain widespread acceptance and become an integral part of SCE's Transmission and Distribution (T&D) system planning. Simulation results are presented in this paper that indicate fuel cell systems combined with electronically switched power inverters capable or providing reactive power (a.k.a. VAR) support are more advantageous than fuel cell systems without such inverter features. In fact, for the SCE circuit analyzed, a strategically placed 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support capabilities has a greater affect on circuit performance than a 3 MW fuel cell system without VAR support. Even though the 2.5 MW fuel cell system with VAR support inverter possesses 16.7% less power rating than the 3 MW system without VAR support, it was more effective in reducing circuit current flows, reducing distribution line losses, and maintaining circuit voltage within ±5% of 12.47 kilovolts (kV).

  18. F-cell: The Aspen fuel cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenhardt, P. A.

    1985-03-01

    This report documents the fuel cell model created at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for systems simulations that use the Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulator. The report includes: (1) an explanation of the thermodynamics involved, (2) an explanation of the efficiencies used to describe and compare a fuel cell, (3) the FORTRAN code and ASPEN system definition file entries required to install the model into the ASPEN system, (4) three sample ASPEN input files demonstrating how the model could be used for phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cells, (5) a detailed ASPEN input file that simulates a commercial 40-kW phosphoric acid fuel cell system, and (6) the technical and the user entries for the ASPEN manuals. F-CELL is designed to use the results of either a mechanistic model or experimental data to model a fuel cell in a system study. A double set of efficiencies is produced; the first is calculated from the user's input, and the second is based on ASPEN's results. The second set of efficiencies serves as a check on the input data and is not used in any internal calculations. The model also checks for carbon deposition.

  19. An assessment and comparison of fuel cells for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpelt, M.; Christianson, C. C.

    1989-09-01

    Fuel cells offer the potential of a clean, efficient power source for buses, cars, and other transportation applications. When the fuel cell is run on methanol, refueling would be as rapid as with gasoline-powered internal combustion engines, providing a virtually unlimited range while still maintaining the smooth and quiet acceleration that is typical for electric vehicles. The advantages and disadvantages of five types of fuel cells are reviewed and analyzed for a transportation application: alkaline, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane, molten carbonate, and solid oxide. The status of each technology is discussed, system designs are reviewed, and preliminary comparisons of power densities, start-up times, and dynamic response capabilities are made. To test the concept, a fuel cell/battery powered urban bus appears to be a good first step that can be realized today with phosphoric acid cells. In the longer term, the proton exchange membrane and solid oxide fuel cells appear to be superior.

  20. Ballard: leading the fuel cell charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines the role of Ballard Power Systems in the development of fuel cells, and their strategy in concentrating on fuel cells for cars, buses, trucks, and stationary and portable power plants. Market drivers; costs; the concept of a fuel cell as a component of a power plant, and customers and competition are discussed. California's fuel cell partnership for testing fuel cell vehicles, the shrinking of fuel cell sizes and weights, aspects of piracy and copyright, and fuel types and sources are examined. (UK)

  1. Preparation and physical properties of (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membrane for phosphoric acidFuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solid acid membranes based on poly (vinyl alcohol (PVA, sodium bromide (NaBr and phosphoric acid (H3PO4 were prepared by a solution casting method. The morphological, IR, electrical and optical properties of the (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membranes where x = 0.00, 0.85, 1.7, 3.4, 5.1 M were investigated. The variation of film morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to characterize the structure of polymer and confirms the complexation of phosphoric acid with host polymeric matrix. The temperature dependent nature of ionic conductivity and the impedance of the polymer electrolytes were determined along with the associated activation energy. The ionic conductivity at room temperature was found to be strongly depends on the H3PO4 concentration which it has been achieved to be of the order 4.3 × 10−3 S/cm at ambient temperature. Optical measurements showed a decrease in optical band gap and an increase in band tail width with the increase of phosphoric acid. The data shows that the (PVA0.7(NaBr0.3(H3PO4xM solid acid membrane is promising for intermediate temperature phosphoric acid fuel cell applications.

  2. Intrinsic kinetic equation for oxygen reduction reaction in acidic media: the double Tafel slope and fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia X; Uribe, Francisco A; Springer, Thomas E; Zhang, Junliang; Adzic, Radoslav R

    2008-01-01

    According to Sergio Trasatti, "A true theory of electrocatalysis will not be available until activity can be calculated a priori from some known properties of the materials." Toward this goal, we developed intrinsic kinetic equations for the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) using as the kinetic parameters the free energies of adsorption and activation for elementary reactions. Rigorous derivation retained the intrinsic connection between the intermediates' adsorption isotherms and the kinetic equations, affording us an integrated approach for establishing the reaction mechanisms based upon various experimental and theoretical results. Using experimentally deduced free energy diagrams and activity-and-barriers plot for the ORR on Pt(111), we explained why the Tafel slope in the large overpotential region is double that in the small overpotential region. For carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C), the polarization curves measured with thin-film rotating disk electrodes also exhibit the double Tafel slope, albeit Pt(111) is several times more active than the Pt nanoparticles when the current is normalized by real surface area. An analytic method was presented for the polarization curves measured with H2 in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The fit to a typical iR-free polarization curve at 80 degrees C revealed that the change of the Tafel slope occurs at about 0.77 V that is the reversible potential for the transition between adsorbed O and OH on Pt/C. This is significant because it predicts that the Butler-Volmer equation can only fit the data above this potential, regardless the current density. We also predicted a decrease of the Tafel slope from 70 to 65 mV dec(-1) at 80 degrees C with increasing oxygen partial pressure, which is consistent with the observation reported in literature.

  3. Maritime Fuel Cell Generator Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Fuel costs and emissions in maritime ports are an opportunity for transportation energy efficiency improvement and emissions reduction efforts. Ocean-going vessels, harbor craft, and cargo handling equipment are still major contributors to air pollution in and around ports. Diesel engine costs continually increase as tighter criteria pollutant regulations come into effect and will continue to do so with expected introduction of carbon emission regulations. Diesel fuel costs will also continue to rise as requirements for cleaner fuels are imposed. Both aspects will increase the cost of diesel-based power generation on the vessel and on shore. Although fuel cells have been used in many successful applications, they have not been technically or commercially validated in the port environment. One opportunity to do so was identified in Honolulu Harbor at the Young Brothers Ltd. wharf. At this facility, barges sail regularly to and from neighbor islands and containerized diesel generators provide power for the reefers while on the dock and on the barge during transport, nearly always at part load. Due to inherent efficiency characteristics of fuel cells and diesel generators, switching to a hydrogen fuel cell power generator was found to have potential emissions and cost savings.

  4. Testing of a 1kW De Nora solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell in combination with a lead acid battery. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluiters, E.E.; Veen, W.R. ter; Schmal, D.

    1998-09-01

    The development of fuel cells for traction accelerated the last years because of severe emission demands for road vehicles. Because of these rapid developments a commercial application in 5 to 10 years is feasible which means that the fuel cell can be used for the generation of electric energy on board naval ships currently being developed. In the application of fuel cells and the integration in a ship`s system, the combination with a battery is important. To get insight into the possible problems involved, TNO has carried out orientating tests with a fuel cell/battery combination. The report describes the results. The tests carried out are related to charging of the battery with the fuel cell (at various initial states of charge of the battery) and taking a continuously increasing power out of the fuel cell/battery combination. No tests with a DC/DC converter have been carried out so far, because battery and fuel cell voltage were adapted to each other and because of the orientating character of the study. The tests show that this is possible without any problems. However, in practice, DC/DC converters will generally be required for various reasons. Therefore further development and testing of this combination, including DC/DC converters, control equipment etc. is advised.

  5. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  6. 14 CFR 31.45 - Fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel cells. 31.45 Section 31.45 Aeronautics... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.45 Fuel cells. If fuel cells are used, the fuel... subjected, including the drop tests prescribed in § 31.27(c). In the tests, the fuel cells must be loaded to...

  7. Deoxyribonucleic acid directed metallization of platinum nanoparticles on graphite nanofibers as a durable oxygen reduction catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peera, S. Gouse; Sahu, A. K.; Arunchander, A.; Nath, Krishna; Bhat, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    Effective surface functionalization to the hydrophobic graphite nanofibers (GNF) is performed with the biomolecule, namely deoxy-ribo-nucleic-acid (DNA) via π-π interactions. Pt nanoparticles are impregnated on GNF-DNA composite by ethylene glycol reduction method (Pt/GNF-DNA) and its effect on electro catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is systemically studied. Excellent dispersion of Pt nanoparticles over GNF-DNA surfaces with no evidence on particle aggregation is a remarkable achievement in this study. This result in higher electro chemical surface area of the catalyst, enhanced ORR behavior with significant enhancement in mass activity. The catalyst is validated in H2-O2 polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and a peak power density of 675 mW cm-2 is achieved at a load current density of 1320 mA cm-2 with a minimal catalyst loading of 0.1 mg cm-2 at a cell temperature of 70 °C and 2 bar absolute pressure. Repeated potential cycling up to 10000 cycles in acidic media is also performed for this catalyst and found excellent stability with only 60 mV drop in the ORR half wave potential. The superior behavior of Pt/GNF-DNA catalyst is credited to the robust fibrous structure of GNF and its effective surface functionalization process via π-π interaction.

  8. Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

  9. Proceedings of the third annual fuel cells contractors review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.J. (ed.)

    1991-06-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop the essential technology for private sector characterization of the various fuel cell electrical generation systems. These systems promise high fuel to electricity efficiencies (40 to 60 percent), distinct possibilities for cogeneration applications, modularity of design, possibilities of urban siting, and environmentally benign emissions. The purpose of this meeting was to provide the research and development (R D) participants in the DOE/Fossil Energy-sponsored Fuel Cells Program with the opportunity to present key results of their research and to establish closer business contacts. Major emphasis was on phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide technology efforts. Research results of the coal gasification and gas stream cleanup R D activities pertinent to the Fuel Cells Program were also highlighted. Two hundred seventeen attendees from industry, utilities, academia, and Government participated in this 2-day meeting. Twenty-three papers were given in three formal sessions: molten carbonate fuel cells R D (9 papers), solid oxide fuel cells (8 papers), phosphoric acid fuel cells R D (6 papers). In addition to the papers and presentations, these proceedings also include comments on the Fuel Cells Program from the viewpoint of DOE/METC Fuel Cell Overview by Rita A. Bajura, DOE/METC Perspective by Manville J. Mayfield, Electric Power Research Institute by Daniel M. Rastler, Natural Gas by Hugh D. Guthrie, and Transportation Applications by Pandit G. Patil.

  10. Preparation of anode-electrolyte structures using graphite, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid as pore forming agents for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Cermets based on Ni supported on YSZ or GDC were prepared for use as anode in direct reform SOFCs. NaHCO3 (Na-Ni-YSZ and Na-Ni-GDC) or citric acid (Ac-Ni-YSZ and Ac-Ni-GDC) were used as pore forming agents (PFAs). The SOFC anode was also prepared using graphite (G-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-GDC) as PFA for the purposes of comparison. The testing unitary SOFC, planar type, was made by pressing the anode-electrolyte assembly, followed by sintering at 1500 C. After this, LSM (lanthanum and strontium manganite) paint was used for the cathode deposition. The powdered cermets were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C. The ethanol conversion was 84% and 32% for cermets Na-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-YSZ, respectively and the selectivity to H{sub 2} was 32 and 20% for the two cermets, respectively. The Na-Ni-YSZ cermet was ten times more resistant to carbon deposition than the G-Ni-YSZ cermet. SEM micrographs of the anode-electrolyte assembly showed that the use of NaHCO{sub 3} as PFA created a well formed interface between layers with homogeneously distributed pores. In contrast, graphite as PFA formed a loose interface between anode and electrolyte. The performance of the unitary SOFC was evaluated using ethanol, hydrogen or methane as fuel. The cell operated well using any of these fuels; however, they exhibited different electrochemical behavior. (orig.)

  11. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  12. Carbon-based Fuel Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S. C. Chuang

    2005-08-31

    The direct use of coal in the solid oxide fuel cell to generate electricity is an innovative concept for power generation. The C-fuel cell (carbon-based fuel cell) could offer significant advantages: (1) minimization of NOx emissions due to its operating temperature range of 700-1000 C, (2) high overall efficiency because of the direct conversion of coal to CO{sub 2}, and (3) the production of a nearly pure CO{sub 2} exhaust stream for the direct CO{sub 2} sequestration. The objective of this project is to determine the technical feasibility of using a highly active anode catalyst in a solid oxide fuel for the direct electrochemical oxidation of coal to produce electricity. Results of this study showed that the electric power generation from Ohio No 5 coal (Lower Kittanning) Seam, Mahoning County, is higher than those of coal gas and pure methane on a solid oxide fuel cell assembly with a promoted metal anode catalyst at 950 C. Further study is needed to test the long term activity, selectivity, and stability of anode catalysts.

  13. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  14. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  15. Cell, cell, cell: fuel cell applications moving ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2001-11-01

    Developments in fuel cell technology within the last decade, such as the targeting by major automakers of non-polluting fuel cells as an alternative to the internal combustion engine, are reviewed. For example, Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver is the exclusive supplier to both DaimlerCrysler and the Ford Motor Company of the fuel cell stacks that produce the power in fuel cell systems. Ballard plans the commercial launch of transit bus engines in 2002 and automotive products between 2003 and 2005. The company also sees huge opportunities for fuel cells in stationary and portable power applications. At the same time, the Calgary-based fuel cell division of Energy Ventures Inc. is developing a direct methanol fuel cell that eliminates the intermediate step of 'reforming' methanol into hydrogen that is required in the Ballard process. Energy Ventures targets small niche markets such as small utility vehicles for its direct methanol fuel cell. A completely self-contained fuel cell of this type is expected to be ready in 2002. Solid oxide fuel cells for off-grid remote power units as well as for home heat and power is yet another field of development that will be particularly attractive to operations in remote areas where reliable grid electricity is expensive and hard to obtain. A prototype 2.3 kW residential power system using natural gas was made available by Global Thermoelectric Inc in June 2001; field testing is planned for 2002, with commercial production in late 2003 or 2004. The Calgary-based Snow Leopard Resources Inc plans to use pure hydrogen sulphide obtained from sour natural gas as a hydrogen source. The prime focus of Snow Leopard is on gas plants looking for ways to increase their efficiency, obtain carbon dioxide credits and generate electricity on site. This type of fuel cell also could be of interest to companies with shut-in sour gas since these companies could use the stationary fuel cell system to generate electricity.

  16. Fuel Cell Seminar, 1992: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This year`s theme, ``Fuel Cells: Realizing the Potential,`` focuses on progress being made toward commercial manufacture and use of fuel cell products. Fuel cell power plants are competing for market share in some applications and demonstrations of market entry power plants are proceeding for additional applications. Development activity on fuel cells for transportation is also increasing; fuel cell products have potential in energy and transportation industries, with very favorable environmental impacts. This Seminar has the purpose of fostering communication by providing a forum for the international community interested in development, application, and business opportunities related fuel cells. Over 190 technical papers are included, the majority being processed for the data base.

  17. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  18. Development of nano-composite membranes to improve alkaline fuel cell performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available types of fuel cells comprising a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) owing to their low weight, high energy density, simple system design, low emission and safety of fuel handling... fuel cells, the OH anions are produced at the cathode and then transported through the membrane to the anode where they are consumed (opposite to the movement of protons in acidic membranes). The pathway of the OH anions opposes the direction...

  19. Fuel cell development for transportation: Catalyst development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddapaneni, N. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are being considered as alternate power sources for transportation and stationary applications. With proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells the fuel crossover to cathodes causes severe thermal management and cell voltage drop due to oxidation of fuel at the platinized cathodes. The main goal of this project was to design, synthesize, and evaluate stable and inexpensive transition metal macrocyclic catalysts for the reduction of oxygen and be electrochemically inert towards anode fuels such as hydrogen and methanol.

  20. Hydrogen storage and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di-Jia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming and future energy supply are two major challenges facing American public today. To overcome such challenges, it is imperative to maximize the existing fuel utilization with new conversion technologies while exploring alternative energy sources with minimal environmental impact. Hydrogen fuel cell represents a next-generation energy-efficient technology in transportation and stationary power productions. In this presentation, a brief overview of the current technology status of on-board hydrogen storage and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in transportation will be provided. The directions of the future researches in these technological fields, including a recent "big idea" of "H2@Scale" currently developed at the U. S. Department of Energy, will also be discussed.

  1. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1996-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  2. Self-assembly of mixed Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-functionalized graphene as effective electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Wang, Xin; Jiang, San Ping

    2011-04-21

    Pt and Au nanoparticles with controlled Pt : Au molar ratios and PtAu nanoparticle loadings were successfully self-assembled onto poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-functionalized graphene (PDDA-G) as highly effective electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation in direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). The simultaneously assembled Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-G showed superb electrocatalytic activity for HCOOH oxidation, and the current density associated with the preferred dehydrogenation pathway for the direct formation of CO(2) through HCOOH oxidation on a Pt(1)Au(8)/PDDA-G (i.e., a Pt : Au ratio of 1 : 8) is 32 times higher than on monometallic Pt/PDDA-G. The main function of the Au in the mixed Pt and Au nanoparticles on PDDA-G is to facilitate the first electron transfer from HCOOH to HCOO(ads) and the effective spillover of HCOO(ads) from Au to Pt nanoparticles, where HCOO(ads) is further oxidized to CO(2). The Pt : Au molar ratio and PtAu nanoparticle loading on PDDA-G supports are the two critical factors to achieve excellent electrocatalytic activity of PtAu/PDDA-G catalysts for the HCOOH oxidation reactions.

  3. Improved performance of membrane free single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells with nitric acid and ethylenediamine surface modified activated carbon fiber felt anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Pingxiao; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Surface modifications of anode materials are important for enhancing power generation of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Membrane free single-chamber air-cathode MFCs, MFC-A and MFC-N, were constructed using activated carbon fiber felt (ACF) anodes treated by nitric acid and ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively. Experimental results showed that the start-up time to achieve the maximum voltages for the MFC-A and MFC-N was shortened by 45% and 51%, respectively as compared to that for MFC-AT equipped with an unmodified anode. Moreover, the power output of MFCs with modified anodes was significantly improved. In comparison with MFC-AT which had a maximum power density of 1304 mW/m(2), the MFC-N achieved a maximum power density of 1641 mW/m(2). The nitric acid-treated anode in MFC-A increased the power density by 58% reaching 2066 mW/m(2). XPS analysis of the treated and untreated anode materials indicated that the power enhancement was attributable to the changes of surface functional groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanomaterials for fuel cell catalysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ozoemena, KI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global experts provide an authoritative source of information on the use of electrochemical fuel cells, and in particular discuss the use of nanomaterials to enhance the performance of existing energy systems. The book covers the state of the art...

  5. HDS for fuel cell applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsolami, B.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to investigate the feasibility of developing a catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process operating under low pressure and high temperature conditions to produce a near-zero sulfur content diesel suitable for fuel cell applications. As expected, it was found that

  6. HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Qingfeng, Li; He, Ronghuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report recent results from our group on polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) based on the temperature resistant polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI), which allow working temperatures up to 200°C. The membrane has a water drag number near zero and need no water management at all. The high working...

  7. The birth of the fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Don

    2001-12-01

    Everyone knows that Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb, Alexander Graham Bell the telephone and that the Otto and Diesel engines were invented by two Germans bearing those names. But who invented the fuel cell? Fuel cells generate electricity with virtually zero pollution by combining gaseous fuels and air. There are different types generally described as high temperature or low temperature fuel cells. Here, Don Prohaska delves into a recently published book: The Birth of the Fuel Cell, by a descendant of one of the fathers of the fuel cell, and sheds new light on the early days of this technology. (Author)

  8. Engineering porous materials for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, N P; Brett, D J

    2006-01-15

    Porous materials play an important role in fuel cell engineering. For example, they are used to support delicate electrolyte membranes, where mechanical integrity and effective diffusivity to fuel gases is critical; they are used as gas diffusion layers, where electronic conductivity and permeability to both gas and water is critical; and they are used to construct fuel cell electrodes, where an optimum combination of ionic conductivity, electronic conductivity, porosity and catalyst distribution is critical. The paper will discuss these characteristics, and introduce the materials and processing methods used to engineer porous materials within two of the leading fuel cell variants, the solid oxide fuel cell and the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  9. Environmental benefits of transport and stationary fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Hörmandinger, Günter

    The potential environmental benefits of using fuel cells in cars, buses and stationary combined heat and power (CHP) plants of different sizes have not been well-researched. This environmental analysis was conducted for the UK on a `full fuel cycle' basis, encompassing all greenhouse gas and regulated pollutant emissions for the supply chain and end-use technology under consideration. Solid polymer fuel cells (SPFCs) with methanol or natural gas reformers were analysed for cars, SPFCs and phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) with on-board hydrogen for buses. CHP plants were PAFCs or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Each option was compared with one or more conventional technologies. In all cases fuel cell technologies have substantially reduced emissions in comparison with conventional technologies. Regulated emissions are lowest, by up to two orders of magnitude, and those that do occur are primarily in the fuel supply chain. The fuel cell technologies are more efficient in all cases, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reduced broadly in line with energy savings. Methane emissions increase due to fuel switching, e.g. from petrol to natural gas powered buses, but from a very low base. The study pinpoints some areas in which alternative approaches could be made - the methods for generating and transporting hydrogen have a significant bearing on energy consumption and emissions. However, it is clear that from an overall emissions perspective the use of fuel cells in transport and power generation is highly beneficial.

  10. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    supply system of the truck which was powered by a lead-acid battery package. The FCSPP includes fuel storage, a fuel cell system, an energy storage device, power electronics, an electric machine, and the necessary control. The FCSPP therefore converts the energy of the fuel to a shaft torque and speed...... of the electric machine. In the thesis the High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HTPEMFC) is used as it has promising properties for being supplied by reformed methanol, instead of pure hydrogen, which is more practical feasible. It takes approximately 6 minutes before the fuel cell is ready...... to produce power. In this period an energy storage device is necessary in order to provide power for the electric machines, and to heat-up the fuel cell stack. The energy storage device also takes care of the peak loads, the high load dynamics, and it utilizes the braking energy in order to increase...

  11. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  12. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  13. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  14. Innovative Fuel Cell Health Monitoring IC Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energy storage devices, including fuel cells, are needed to enable future robotic and human exploration missions. Historically, the reliability of the fuel cells has...

  15. Fuel cells for chemicals and energy cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide, Francisco; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Brillas, Enric [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials (LCTEM), Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-01-23

    Fuel cells (FCs) are mainly applied for electricity generation. This paper presents a review of specific FCs with ability to produce useful chemicals at the same time. The chemical cogeneration processes have been classified according to the different types of fuel cells. Thus, it is shown that a flow alkaline FC (AFC) is able to produce hydrogen peroxide. In aqueous acid or neutral FCs, hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, halogenations and oxidations, together with pollution abatement solutions, are reported. Hydrogen peroxide and valuable organic chemicals can also be obtained from polymer electrolyte FCs (PEFCs). A phosphoric acid FC (PAFC) allows the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, and the production of industrial compounds such as cresols. Molten salt FCs (similar to molten carbonate or MCFCs) can be applied to obtain acetaldehyde with high product selectivity from ethanol oxidation at the anode. Solid oxide FCs (SOFCs) are able of chemical cogeneration of valuable industrial inorganic compounds such as nitric oxide with high yields. Although the number of related papers in the literature is small, the potential economic interest of this emergent field, related to the recent commercial development of fuel cells, is demonstrated in some cases, and the corresponding results encourage the development of FCs with electrocogeneration of useful chemicals with high added value and electricity. (author)

  16. High temperature PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Xie, Zhong; Zhang, Jiujun; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Navessin, Titichai; Shi, Zhiqing; Song, Datong; Wang, Haijiang; Wilkinson, David P.; Liu, Zhong-Sheng; Holdcroft, Steven

    There are several compelling technological and commercial reasons for operating H 2/air PEM fuel cells at temperatures above 100 °C. Rates of electrochemical kinetics are enhanced, water management and cooling is simplified, useful waste heat can be recovered, and lower quality reformed hydrogen may be used as the fuel. This review paper provides a concise review of high temperature PEM fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs) from the perspective of HT-specific materials, designs, and testing/diagnostics. The review describes the motivation for HT-PEMFC development, the technology gaps, and recent advances. HT-membrane development accounts for ∼90% of the published research in the field of HT-PEMFCs. Despite this, the status of membrane development for high temperature/low humidity operation is less than satisfactory. A weakness in the development of HT-PEMFC technology is the deficiency in HT-specific fuel cell architectures, test station designs, and testing protocols, and an understanding of the underlying fundamental principles behind these areas. The development of HT-specific PEMFC designs is of key importance that may help mitigate issues of membrane dehydration and MEA degradation.

  17. 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium was devoted to all aspects of research, development, and engineering of...polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), as well as low-temperature direct-fuel cells using either anion or cation exchange membranes. The symposium...29-11-2016 1-Sep-2016 28-Feb-2017 Final Report: 16th Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Symposium The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this

  18. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in theory fuel cell systems can be far more efficient than thermal power systems. This advantage is only partly utilized in present fuel cell pilot plants and additional optimization is needed. The comp...

  19. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  20. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  1. Fuel cells for electrochemical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hayre, Ryan P.

    2017-07-01

    This short article provides an overview of fuel cell science and technology. This article is intended to act as a "primer" on fuel cells that one can use to begin a deeper investigation into this fascinating and promising technology. You will learn what fuel cell are, how they work, and what significant advantages and disadvantages they present.

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of triflic acid and triflate ion/water mixtures: a proton conducting electrolytic component in fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, Anurag Prakash; Venkatnathan, Arun

    2011-11-30

    Triflic acid is a functional group of perflourosulfonated polymer electrolyte membranes where the sulfonate group is responsible for proton conduction. However, even at extremely low hydration, triflic acid exists as a triflate ion. In this work, we have developed a force-field for triflic acid and triflate ion by deriving force-field parameters using ab initio calculations and incorporated these parameters with the Optimized Potentials for Liquid Simulations - All Atom (OPLS-AA) force-field. We have employed classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the developed force field to characterize structural and dynamical properties of triflic acid (270-450 K) and triflate ion/water mixtures (300 K). The radial distribution functions (RDFs) show the hydrophobic nature of CF(3) group and presence of strong hydrogen bonding in triflic acid and temperature has an insignificant effect. Results from our MD simulations show that the diffusion of triflic acid increases with temperature. The RDFs from triflate ion/water mixtures shows that increasing hydration causes water molecules to orient around the SO(3)(-) group of triflate ions, solvate the hydronium ions, and other water molecules. The diffusion of triflate ions, hydronium ion, and water molecules shows an increase with hydration. At λ = 1, the diffusion of triflate ion is 30 times lower than the diffusion of triflic acid due to the formation of stable triflate ion-hydronium ion complex. With increasing hydration, water molecules break the stability of triflate ion-hydronium ion complex leading to enhanced diffusion. The RDFs and diffusion coefficients of triflate ions, hydronium ions and water molecules resemble qualitatively the previous findings using per-fluorosulfonated membranes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The TMI regenerable solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L.

    1995-04-01

    Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC

  4. Fuel Starvation: irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, C. M.; Travassos, Maria Antónia; Fernandes, Vitor R.; SILVA, R. A.; Paiva, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods use...

  5. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  6. Proton conducting membranes prepared by incorporation of organophosphorus acids into alcohol barrier polymers for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Xiaohong; Wu, Hong; Pan, Fusheng

    A novel type of DMFC membrane was developed via incorporation of organophosphorus acids (OPAs) into alcohol barrier materials (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan, PVA/CS) to simultaneously acquire high proton conductivity and low methanol permeability. Three kinds of OPAs including amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP), ethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (EDTMP) and hexamethylene diamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) (HDTMP), with different molecular structure and phosphonic acid groups content were added into PVA/CS blends and served the dual functions as proton conductor as well as crosslinker. The as-prepared OPA-doped PVA/CS membranes exhibited remarkably enhanced proton conducting ability, 2-4 times higher than that of the pristine PVA/CS membrane, comparable with that for Nafion ®117 membrane (5.04 × 10 -2 S cm -1). The highest proton conductivities 3.58 × 10 -2, 3.51 × 10 -2 and 2.61 × 10 -2 S cm -1 for ATMP-, EDTMP- and HDTMP-doped membranes, respectively were all achieved at highest initial OPA doping content (23.1 wt.%) at room temperature. The EDTMP-doped PVA/CS membrane with an acid content of 13.9 wt.% showed the lowest methanol permeability of 2.32 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1 which was 16 times lower than that of Nafion ®117 membrane. In addition, the thermal stability and oxidative durability were both significantly improved by the incorporation of OPAs in comparison with pristine PVA/CS membranes.

  7. Thin-film solid-oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, A.F.

    1997-05-01

    Fuel cells are energy conversion devices that would save billions of dollars in fuel costs alone each year in the United States if they could be implemented today for stationary and transportation applications (1-5). There are a wide variety of fuel cells available, e.g. molten carbonate, phosphoric acid, proton exchange membrane and solid-oxide. However, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCS) are potentially more efficient and less expensive per kilowatt of power in comparison to other fuel cells. For transportation applications, the energy efficiency of a conventional internal combustion engine would be increased two-fold as replaced with a zero-emission SOFC. The basic unit of a SOFC consists of an anode and cathode separated by an oxygen-ion conducting, electrolyte layer. Manifolded stacks of fuel cells, with electrical interconnects, enable the transport and combination of a fuel and oxidant at elevated temperature to generate electrical current. Fuel cell development has proceeded along different paths based on the configuration of the anode-electrolyte-cathode. Various configurations include the tubular, monolithic and planar geometries. A planar geometry for the anode-electrolyte-cathode accompanied by a reduction in layer thickness offers the potential for high power density. Maximum power densities will require yet additional innovations in the assembly of fuel cell stacks with all of the manifolding stipulations for gas flow and electrical interconnects.

  8. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  9. Strong, Tough Glass Composites Developed for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2005-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy. It consists of an electrolyte, an anode, and a cathode. Various types of fuel cells are available, such as direct methanol fuel cells, alkaline fuel cells, proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The salient features of an SOFC are all solid construction and high-temperature electrochemical-reaction-based operation, resulting in clean, efficient power generation from a variety of fuels. SOFCs are being developed for a broad range of applications, such as portable electronic devices, automobiles, power generation, and aeronautics.

  10. Photo-switchable Microbial Fuel-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Dandela, Rambabu; Bhagat, Ashok; Meijler, Michael M; Xia, Lin; Alfonta, Lital

    2018-02-07

    Regulation of Biosystems in a clean, simple and efficient way is important for the design of smart bio-interfaces and bioelecronic devices. Light as a non-invasive mean to control the activity of a protein enables spatial and temporal control far superior to other chemical and physical methods. The ability to regulate the activity of a catalytic enzyme in a biofuel-cell reduces the waste of resources and energy and turns the fuel-cell into a smart and more efficient device for power generation. Here we present a microbial-fuel-cell based on a surface displayed, photo-switchable alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme was modified near the active site using non-canonical amino acids and a small photo-reactive molecule, which enables reversible control over enzymatic activity. Depending on the modification site, the enzyme exhibits reversible behaviour upon irradiation with UV and visible light, in both biochemical and electrochemical assays. The change observed in power output in a microbial fuel cell utilizing the modified enzyme was almost 5-fold, between inactive and active states. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  12. Metallic interconnects for proton ceramic fuel cells : oxidation behavior under simulated fuel cell conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Skilbred, Anders Werner Bredvei

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to serve as a contribution to meet the demand for clean energy. High temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and proton ceramic fuel cells (PCFC) are developed for use as environment friendly energy conversion devices. However, the successful implementation of such devices in practical applications relies on series connections of multiple cells by so-called interconnects. During operation at high temperatures (600 – 850 °C) facing both air and fuel...

  13. Review of Fuel Cell Technologies for Military Land Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fuel into hydrogen and some other by-product gas, typically carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide . Whether this fuel ...into carbon dioxide before the fuel can enter the cell [2, 8]. For these two reasons, many fuel cells use external fuel reformation. This... fuel cell technologies for APUs are Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), direct methanol fuel cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC).

  14. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  15. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  16. General Motors automotive fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fronk, M.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of the second phase of the GM/DOE fuel cell program is to develop and test a 30 kW fuel cell powerplant. This powerplant will be based on a methanol fuel processor and a proton exchange membrane PM fuel cell stack. In addition, the 10 kW system developed during phase I will be used as a {open_quotes}mule{close_quotes} to test automotive components and other ancillaries, needed for transient operation.

  17. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  18. Fuel cell with ionization membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A fuel cell is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas passing therethrough, and a cathode for receiving the ions generated by the ionization membrane. The ionization membrane may include one or more openings in the membrane with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of molecules within the gas to be ionized. Methods of manufacture are also provided.

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Wolfgang M.; Smith, Stanley W.

    1985-04-16

    A molten carbonate fuel cell including a cathode electrode of electrically conducting or semiconducting lanthanum containing material and an electrolyte containing matrix of an electrically insulating lanthanum perovskite. In addition, in an embodiment where the cathode electrode is LaMnO.sub.3, the matrix may include LaAlO.sub.3 or a lithium containing material such as LiAlO.sub.2 or Li.sub.2 TiO.sub.3.

  20. Pulse electrodeposition to prepare core-shell structured AuPt@Pd/C catalyst for formic acid fuel cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xueyi; Luo, Fan; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun; Li, Hualing

    2014-01-01

    A novel core-shell structured AuPt@Pd/C catalyst for the electrooxidation of formic acid is synthesized by a pulse electrodeposition process, and the AuPt core nanoparticles are obtained by a NaBH4 reduction method. The catalyst is characterized with X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, cyclic voltammetry, CO stripping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The core-shell structure of the catalyst is revealed by the increase in particle size resulting from a Pd layer covering the AuPt core, and by a negative shift in the CO stripping peaks. The addition of a small amount of Pt improves the dispersion of Au and results in smaller core particles. The catalyst's activity is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry in formic acid solution. The catalyst shows excellent activity towards the anodic oxidation of formic acid, the mass activity reaches 4.4 A mg-1Pd and 0.83 A mg-1metal, which are 8.5 and 1.6 times that of commercial Pd/C. This enhanced electrocatalytic activity could be ascribed to the good dispersion of Au core particles resulting from the addition of Pt, as well as to the interaction between the Pd shell layer and the Au and Pt in the core nanoparticles.

  1. Phosphotungstic acid supported on a nanopowdered ZrO{sub 2} as a filler in Nafion-based membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, A.; Pedicini, R.; Passalacqua, E. [Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies ' Nicola Giordano' (CNR-ITAE), Messina (Italy); Marrony, M. [Institute for Energy Research (EifER), Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R. [Edison S.p.A, R and D Centre, Trofarello (Italy); Elomaa, M. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sacca, A.

    2008-07-15

    An inorganic filler prepared by impregnation of phosphotungstic heteropolyacid on zirconia (HPW/Zr) was developed to be inserted into a perfluorosulphonic polymer matrix for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) operating at a medium temperature (80-120 C) and low relative humidity (RH). Two different phosphotungstic acid (PWA) loadings (30 and 45% w/w) were anchored on a nanopowdered ZrO{sub 2}. Such compounds were characterised by different techniques: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and porosity and surface area by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), to verify the introduction and anchorage of PWA on ZrO{sub 2}. Two composite Nafion membranes were prepared and characterised in terms of chemical-physical characteristics and electrochemical tests. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided evidence that HPW/Zr had been incorporated into composite membranes and it was not eluted. A good proton conductivity of about 6 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at 120 C and 25% RH was recorded. Accelerated in situ ageing tests highlighted a good electrochemical stability (more than 150 cycles at 90 C with dry gases) of the composite membranes with a slow decay and a reasonable integrity of the analysed membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA). Finally, a post-mortem SEM-EDX analysis on MEAs confirmed the presence of HPW/Zr in the membrane after the in situ testing. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. Self-assembled platinum nanoparticles on sulfonic acid-grafted graphene as effective electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinlin; Li, Yanhong; Li, Shengli; Jiang, San Ping

    2016-02-15

    In this article, sulfonic acid-grafted reduced graphene oxide (S-rGO) were synthesized using a one-pot method under mild conditions, and used as Pt catalyst supports to prepare Pt/S-rGO electrocatalysts through a self-assembly route. The structure, morphologies and physicochemical properties of S-rGO were examined in detail by techniques such as atomic force microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The S-rGO nanosheets show excellent solubility and stability in water and the average particle size of Pt nanoparticles supported on S-rGO is ~3.8 nm with symmetrical and uniform distribution. The electrocatalytic properties of Pt/S-rGO were investigated for methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). In comparison to Pt supported on high surface area Vulcan XC-72 carbon (Pt/VC) and Pt/rGO, the Pt/S-rGO electrocatalyst exhibits a much higher electrocatalytic activity, faster reaction kinetics and a better stability. The results indicate that Pt/S-rGO is a promising and effective electrocatalyst for MOR of DMFCs.

  3. A highly efficient single chambered up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell for treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Wei-Eng; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Ridwan, Fahmi; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Lehl, Harvinder Kaur

    2015-12-01

    Single chambered up-flow membrane-less microbial fuel cell (UFML MFC) was developed to study the feasibility of the bioreactor for decolorization of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and electricity generation simultaneously. The performance of UFML MFC was evaluated in terms of voltage output, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency by varying the concentration of AO7 in synthetic wastewater. The results shown the voltage generation and COD removal efficiency decreased as the initial AO7 concentration increased; this indicates there is electron competition between anode and azo dye. Furthermore, there was a phenomenon of further decolorization at cathode region which indicates the oxygen and azo dye are both compete as electron acceptor. Based on the UV-visible spectra analysis, the breakdown of the azo bond and naphthalene compound in AO7 were confirmed. These findings show the capability of integrated UFML MFC in azo dye wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimethoxymethane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Dimethoxymethane (DMM) identified as one of several high-energy fuels for direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electro-oxidation to carbon dioxide and water, with methanol as possible intermediate product. Fuel electro-oxidized at sustained high rates without poisoning electrodes. Performance superior to that of methanol at same temperature. Synthesized from natural gas (methane) and is thus viable alternative to methanol in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Better performance expected at higher temperature and by use of Pt/Sn catalyst. Alternatively, low boiling temperature of DMM also makes it candidate for gas-feed operation.

  5. Fuel Cells for Space Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cell technology has been receiving more attention recently as a possible alternative to the internal combustion engine for our automobile. Improvements in fuel cell designs as well as improvements in lightweight high-pressure gas storage tank technology make fuel cell technology worth a look to see if fuel cells can play a more expanded role in space missions. This study looks at the specific weight density and specific volume density of potential fuel cell systems as an alternative to primary and secondary batteries that have traditionally been used for space missions. This preliminary study indicates that fuel cell systems have the potential for energy densities of greater than 500 W-hr/kg, greater than 500W/kg and greater than 400 W-hr/liter, greater than 200 W/liter. This level of performance makes fuel cells attractive as high-power density, high-energy density sources for space science probes, planetary rovers and other payloads. The power requirements for these space missions are, in general, much lower than the power levels where fuel cells have been used in the past. Adaptation of fuel cells for space science missions will require down-sizing the fuel cell stack and making the fuel cell operate without significant amounts of ancillary equipment.

  6. Modelling and simulation of two-chamber microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yingzhi; Wu, Ping [Institute of High Performance Computing, 1 Fusionopolis Way, 16-16 Connexis, Singapore 138632 (Singapore); Choo, Yeng Fung [Environment and Process Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); Kim, Byung-Hong [Environment and Process Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hawolgok-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea); School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea)

    2010-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer great promise for simultaneous treatment of wastewater and energy recovery. While past research has been based extensively on experimental studies, modelling and simulation remains scarce. A typical MFC shares many similarities with chemical fuel cells such as direct ascorbic acid fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells. Therefore, an attempt is made to develop a MFC model similar to that for chemical fuel cells. By integrating biochemical reactions, Butler-Volmer expressions and mass/charge balances, a MFC model based on a two-chamber configuration is developed that simulates both steady and dynamic behaviour of a MFC, including voltage, power density, fuel concentration, and the influence of various parameters on power generation. Results show that the cathodic reaction is the most significant limiting factor of MFC performance. Periodic changes in the flow rate of fuel result in a boost of power output; this offers further insight into MFC behaviour. In addition to a MFC fuelled by acetate, the present method is also successfully extended to using artificial wastewater (solution of glucose and glutamic acid) as fuel. Since the proposed modelling method is easy to implement, it can serve as a framework for modelling other types of MFC and thereby will facilitate the development and scale-up of more efficient MFCs. (author)

  7. Fuel Cells for Electric Utility and Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This review encompasses the following topics: (1) historical, (2) types of fuel cells, (3) thermodynamic and electrode kinetic aspects of fuel cells, (4) overview of present status of fuel cell research and development, (5) electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions, (6) fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicles, and (7) regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cells for energy storage. (WHK)

  8. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  9. QM/MM Dynamics of Proton Transport in Chitosan/Phosphotungstic Acid Composite Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Sundarti, Linda Windia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study proton transport in DMFC using chitosan/phosphotungstic acid (CS/PWA) composite membrane as Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). Model of proton transport mechanism was proposed in order to investigate the proton transport rationality in CSPWA composite membrane, which is indicated by energy models. QM/MM dynamics method on the basis of CP2K code was used to calculate energy of the models. Results showed that the model of proton transport mechanism produced ene...

  10. Fuel cell efficiency in a combined electrochemical-thermochemical process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, E.N.; Avery, W.

    1981-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a H/sub 2//Cl/sub 2/ fuel cell combined with a thermochemical hydrogen chloride oxidation stage are considered. Such a cycle is superior to the phosphoric acid H/sub 2//O/sub 2/ systems but does not better the efficiency demonstrated in more advanced H/sub 2//O/sub 2/ fuel cell systems. 8 refs.

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  12. Solid alkaline membrane fuel cell : what are they advantages and drawbacks compared to proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutanceau, C.; Baranton, S.; Simoes, M. [Univ. de Poitiers, Poitiers (France). Laboratoire de Catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR CNRS

    2010-07-01

    Low temperature fuel cells such as proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) are promising power sources for portable electronics and transportation applications. However, these fuel cells require high amounts of platinum at the anodes to achieve high cell performance. Although alkaline membrane fuel cells (AFCs) may be an alternative to PEMFCs, the technology of low temperature fuel cells is less developed than that of fuel cells working with a solid acid electrolyte. Interest in solid alkaline membrane fuel cells (SAMFCs) has increased in recent years because it is easier to activate the oxidation and reduction reactions in alkaline medium than in acidic medium. Fewer platinum based catalysts are needed due to higher electrode kinetics. The development of hydroxyl conductive membrane makes this technology available, but the fuel to be used in the system must be considered. Pure hydrogen or hydrogen-rich gases offer high electric efficiency, but their production, storage, and distribution are not sufficient for a large-scale development. This paper discussed the relatively good electroreactivity of polyols such as glycerol and ethylene glycol in a SAMFC, as well as sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) as an alternative. The working principle of SAMFCs was also presented along with considerations regarding the electrochemical reactions occurring at the electrodes, and requirements concerning the catalysts, the triple phase boundary in the electrode and the anionic membrane. Palladium based catalysts were found to be an interesting alternative to platinum in SAMFCs. In situ FTIR measurements and oxidation products analysis was used to determine the electrooxidation pathways of alcohol and NaBH{sub 4}in alkaline medium. The study also included a comparison with oxidation mechanisms in acid medium. 8 refs.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell generator with removable modular fuel cell stack configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, J.E.; Dederer, J.T.; Zafred, P.R.; Collie, J.C.

    1998-04-21

    A high temperature solid oxide fuel cell generator produces electrical power from oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel gases such as natural gas, or conditioned fuel gases, such as carbon monoxide or hydrogen, with oxidant gases, such as air or oxygen. This electrochemical reaction occurs in a plurality of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells bundled and arrayed in a unitary modular fuel cell stack disposed in a compartment in the generator container. The use of a unitary modular fuel cell stack in a generator is similar in concept to that of a removable battery. The fuel cell stack is provided in a pre-assembled self-supporting configuration where the fuel cells are mounted to a common structural base having surrounding side walls defining a chamber. Associated generator equipment may also be mounted to the fuel cell stack configuration to be integral therewith, such as a fuel and oxidant supply and distribution systems, fuel reformation systems, fuel cell support systems, combustion, exhaust and spent fuel recirculation systems, and the like. The pre-assembled self-supporting fuel cell stack arrangement allows for easier assembly, installation, maintenance, better structural support and longer life of the fuel cells contained in the fuel cell stack. 8 figs.

  14. Fuel Production from Seawater and Fuel Cells Using Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Lee, Yong-Min; Nam, Wonwoo

    2017-11-23

    Seawater is the most abundant resource on our planet and fuel production from seawater has the notable advantage that it would not compete with growing demands for pure water. This Review focuses on the production of fuels from seawater and their direct use in fuel cells. Electrolysis of seawater under appropriate conditions affords hydrogen and dioxygen with 100 % faradaic efficiency without oxidation of chloride. Photoelectrocatalytic production of hydrogen from seawater provides a promising way to produce hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Microbial solar cells (MSCs) that use biofilms produced in seawater can generate electricity from sunlight without additional fuel because the products of photosynthesis can be utilized as electrode reactants, whereas the electrode products can be utilized as photosynthetic reactants. Another important source for hydrogen is hydrogen sulfide, which is abundantly found in Black Sea deep water. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of Black Sea deep water can also be used in hydrogen fuel cells. Production of a fuel and its direct use in a fuel cell has been made possible for the first time by a combination of photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from seawater and dioxygen in the air and its direct use in one-compartment hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to obtain electric power. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    The large scale integration of renewable energy sources requires suitable energy storage systems to balance energy production and demand in the electrical grid. Bidirectional fuel cells are an attractive technology for energy storage systems due to the high energy density of fuel. Compared...... to traditional unidirectional fuel cell, bidirectional fuel cells have increased operating voltage and current ranges. These characteristics increase the stresses on dc-dc and dc-ac converters in the electrical system, which require proper design and advanced optimization. This work is part of the PhD project...... entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...

  16. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  17. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, B. [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general business strategy and market focus, as well as, financial information for select publicly-traded companies.

  18. Investigation into the Implications of Fuel Cell Shipboard Integration into the T-AGOS 19 Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    with each defined by its fundamental electrolyte: i. Alkali Fuel Cells (AFC) ii. Polymer Exchange Membrane ( PEM ) iii. Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells ...of the PEM family (High Temperature – HTPEM and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells – DMFC) were assessed against a range of basic ship requirements...of Stationary PEM Fuel Cell Systems”, DOE hydrogen program 2010 annual report. [11] US Energy Information Administration, “EIA - Weekly Retail

  19. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  20. Solar to Liquid Fuels Production: Light-Driven Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-29

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0088 SOLAR TO LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION: LIGHT-DRIVEN REDUCTION OF CARBON DIOXIDE TO FO John Golbeck PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY... Carbon Dioxide to Formic Acid Project FA9550-09-1-0671 was funded to generate formic acid from CO2 using sunlight as the source of energy. The... fuel cell technology have made formic acid an attractive alternative to methanol (which requires a more complicated 6- electron reduction of CO2) or

  1. The direct methanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpert, G.; Narayanan, S.R.; Frank, H. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This presentation describes the approach and progress in the ARPA-sponsored effort to develop a Direct Methanol, Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell (DMLFFC) with a solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) for battery replacement in small portable applications. Using Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) developed by JPL and Giner, significant voltage was demonstrated at relatively high current densities. The DMLFFC utilizes a 3 percent aqueous solution of methanol that is oxidized directly in the anode (fuel) chamber and oxygen (air) in the cathode chamber to produce water and significant power. The only products are water and CO{sub 2}. The ARPA effort is aimed at replacing the battery in the BA 5590 military radio.

  2. Fuel cell power supply with oxidant and fuel gas switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, J.F.; Chludzinski, P.J.; Dantowitz, P.

    1987-04-14

    This invention relates to a fuel cell vehicular power plant. Fuel for the fuel stack is supplied by a hydrocarbon (methanol) catalytic cracking reactor and CO shift reactor. A water electrolysis subsystem is associated with the stack. During low power operation part of the fuel cell power is used to electrolyze water with hydrogen and oxygen electrolysis products being stored in pressure vessels. During peak power intervals, viz, during acceleration or start-up, pure oxygen and pure hydrogen from the pressure vessel are supplied as the reaction gases to the cathodes and anodes in place of air and methanol reformate. This allows the fuel cell stack to be sized for normal low power/air operation but with a peak power capacity several times greater than that for normal operation. 2 figs.

  3. Jet Fuel Based High Pressure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika (Inventor); Yamanis, Jean (Inventor); Olsommer, Benoit (Inventor); Dardas, Zissis (Inventor); Bayt, Robert (Inventor); Srinivasan, Hari (Inventor); Dasgupta, Arindam (Inventor); Hardin, Larry (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A power system for an aircraft includes a solid oxide fuel cell system which generates electric power for the aircraft and an exhaust stream; and a heat exchanger for transferring heat from the exhaust stream of the solid oxide fuel cell to a heat requiring system or component of the aircraft. The heat can be transferred to fuel for the primary engine of the aircraft. Further, the same fuel can be used to power both the primary engine and the SOFC. A heat exchanger is positioned to cool reformate before feeding to the fuel cell. SOFC exhaust is treated and used as inerting gas. Finally, oxidant to the SOFC can be obtained from the aircraft cabin, or exterior, or both.

  4. DIRECT AMMONIA-AIR FUEL CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new type of direct oxidation ammonia fuel cell was investigated. This cell is based on the use of a non-aqueous fused hydroxide electrolyte matrix...EMF’s of 0.5 to 0.6 volts. At practical levels of current density the direct ammonia fuel cell has an overall efficiency of about 60% compared to 30-35% for the indirect-type fuel cell . (Author)

  5. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off-fuel...... recirculation depends strongly on type of the fuel used in the system. Anode recycling combined with fuel cell utilization factors have an important impact on plant efficiency, which will be analysed here. The current study may provide an in-depth understanding of reasons for using anode off-fuel recycling...... and its effect on plant efficiency. For example, it is founded that anode recirculation is not needed when the plant is fed by ammonia. Further, it is founded that when the system is fed by pure hydrogen then anode recirculation should be about 20% of the off-fuel if fuel cell utilization factor is 80...

  6. Response of a direct methanol fuel cell to fuel change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leo, T.J. [Dpto de Sistemas Oceanicos y Navales- ETSI Navales, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Arco de la Victoria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Raso, M.A.; de la Blanca, E. Sanchez [Dpto de Quimica Fisica I- Fac. CC. Quimicas, Univ. Complutense de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Navarro, E.; Villanueva, M. [Dpto de Motopropulsion y Termofluidodinamica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Pza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Moreno, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Kelsen 5, Campus de la UAM, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Methanol and ethanol have recently received much attention as liquid fuels particularly as alternative 'energy-vectors' for the future. In this sense, to find a direct alcohol fuel cell that able to interchange the fuel without losing performances in an appreciable way would represent an evident advantage in the field of portable applications. In this work, the response of a in-house direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) to the change of fuel from methanol to ethanol and its behaviour at different ambient temperature values have been investigated. A corrosion study on materials suitable to fabricate the bipolar plates has been carried out and either 316- or 2205-duplex stainless steels have proved to be adequate for using in direct alcohol fuel cells. Polarization curves have been measured at different ambient temperature values, controlled by an experimental setup devised for this purpose. Data have been fitted to a model taking into account the temperature effect. For both fuels, methanol and ethanol, a linear dependence of adjustable parameters with temperature is obtained. Fuel cell performance comparison in terms of open circuit voltage, kinetic and resistance is established. (author)

  7. Portable power applications of fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, M.; Matcham, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the state-of-the-art of fuel cell technology for portable power applications. The study involved a comprehensive literature review. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have attracted much more interest than either direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) or solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, issues relating to fuel choice and catalyst design remain with PEMFCs; DMFCs have excellent potential provided issues relating to the conducting membrane can be resolved but the current high temperature of operation and low power density currently makes SOFCs less applicable to portable applications. Available products are listed and the obstacles to market penetration are discussed. The main barriers are cost and the size/weight of fuel cells compared with batteries. Another key problem is the lack of a suitable fuel infrastructure.

  8. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  9. Annular feed air breathing fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Neutzler, Jay K.

    1997-01-01

    A stack of polymer electrolyte fuel cells is formed from a plurality of unit cells where each unit cell includes fuel cell components defining a periphery and distributed along a common axis, where the fuel cell components include a polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode and a cathode contacting opposite sides of the membrane, and fuel and oxygen flow fields contacting the anode and the cathode, respectively, wherein the components define an annular region therethrough along the axis. A fuel distribution manifold within the annular region is connected to deliver fuel to the fuel flow field in each of the unit cells. The fuel distribution manifold is formed from a hydrophilic-like material to redistribute water produced by fuel and oxygen reacting at the cathode. In a particular embodiment, a single bolt through the annular region clamps the unit cells together. In another embodiment, separator plates between individual unit cells have an extended radial dimension to function as cooling fins for maintaining the operating temperature of the fuel cell stack.

  10. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D'Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-11-24

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion(®) were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate-PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion(®) 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm(-2) vs. 64 mW·cm(-2)). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm(-2) equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm(-2) for Nafion(®) 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm² for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm² for Nafion(®) 115).

  11. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  12. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D’Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115). PMID:26610582

  13. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  14. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells). An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Stavroula Sfaelou; Panagiotis Lianos

    2016-01-01

    This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell op...

  15. Photoactivated Fuel Cells (PhotoFuelCells. An alternative source of renewable energy with environmental benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroula Sfaelou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is a short review of Photoactivated Fuel Cells, that is, photoelectrochemical cells which consume an organic or inorganic fuel to produce renewable electricity or hydrogen. The work presents the basic features of photoactivated fuel cells, their modes of operation, the materials, which are frequently used for their construction and some ideas of cell design both for electricity and solar hydrogen production. Water splitting is treated as a special case of photoactivated fuel cell operation.

  16. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the international standardization R and D. R and D of the standardization of a method to test acceleration life of phosphorous acid fuel cells; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Rinsangata nenryo denchi no kasoku jumyo shiken hoho no hyojunka ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As for fuel cells, which are expected as a new clean energy, the R and D are being proceeded with in various fields of the world, but the standardization has not been made both in Japan and abroad. In Japan, the situation is that the information on technical terms, indication method, performance test method, and environment/safety test methods of the phosphorous acid fuel cell power generation is publicly spread. In relation to the international promotion of fuel cells to be predicted, it is necessary to internationally standardize cells themselves which are a key component of fuel cell power generation facilities. Phosphorous acid fuel cells are expected of the earliest commercialization of all, but the common test method to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack has not been established yet. In the R and D, for the purpose of internationally standardizing test methods to evaluate life characteristics of the cell stack, a study on the acceleration life test method of phosphoric acid fuel cells was conducted in terms of the technical trend, data, standard, etc. A plan was prepared on general rules of the method to test acceleration life at the cell reaction part of the small cell, and activities also were started for setting up a technical committee for the fuel cell power system in President`s Advisory Committee on Future Technology. 29 figs., 20 tabs.

  17. High Temperature PEM Fuel Cells and Organic Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton

    inside the cells and to determine the lifetime. Additionally, comparison was made with methanol as fuel, which is the main competitor to DME in direct oxidation of organic fuels in fuel cells. For the reference, measurements have also been done with conventional hydrogen/air operation. All...... of the electrolyte membrane having a much more pronounced effect on the final performance than the catalyst composition. The increased operating temperature showed improved performances for all 3 investigated fuels, hydrogen, DME and methanol, with the additional energy supplied in terms of heat helping to overcome...... of the latter. Gas chromatography study of the anode exhaust gas at open circuit voltage revealed a small degree of internal fuel reforming with different products when operated on dimethyl ether or methanol. While methanol seemed to reform to syngas, the DME yielded methane rather than CO as one...

  18. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, D.; Adams, J.A.; Kinnelly, A.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    In partial fulfillment of the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-ACO2-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this conceptual vehicle design report addresses the design and packaging of battery augmented fuel cell powertrain vehicles. This report supplements the {open_quotes}Conceptual Vehicle Design Report - Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes} and includes a cost study of the fuel cell power system. The three classes of vehicles considered in this design and packaging exercise are the same vehicle classes that were studied in the previous report: the Aspire, representing the small vehicle class; the AIV (Aluminum Intensive Vehicle) Sable, representing the mid-size vehicle; and the E-150 Econoline, representing the van-size class. A preliminary PEM fuel cell power system manufacturing cost study is also presented. As in the case of the previous report concerning the {open_quotes}Pure Fuel Cell Powertrain Vehicle{close_quotes}, the same assumptions are made for the fuel cell power system. These assumptions are fuel cell system power densities of 0.33 kW/ka and 0.33 kW/l, platinum catalyst loading of less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total, and hydrogen tanks containing compressed gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The batteries considered for power augmentation of the fuel cell vehicle are based on the Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program. These are state-of-the-art high power lead acid batteries with power densities ranging from 0.8 kW/kg to 2 kW/kg. The results reported here show that battery augmentation provides the fuel cell vehicle with a power source to meet instant high power demand for acceleration and start-up. Based on the assumptions made in this report, the packaging of the battery augmented fuel cell vehicle appears to be as feasible as the packaging of the pure fuel cell powered vehicle.

  19. Materials Challenges for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Hubert

    2004-03-01

    Over the past few years, significant R efforts aimed at meeting the challenging cost and performance targets required for the use of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in automotive applications. Besides engineering advances in bipolar plate materials and design, the optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was an important enabler in reducing the cost and performance gaps towards commercial viability for the automotive market. On the one hand, platinum loadings were reduced from several mgPt/cm2MEA [1] to values of 0.5-0.6 mgPt/cm2MEA in current applications and loadings as low as 0.25 mgPt/cm2MEA have been demonstrated on the research level [2]. On the other hand, implementation of thin membranes (20-30 micrometer) [3, 4] as well as improvements in diffusion medium materials, essentially doubled the achievable power density of MEAs to ca. 0.9 W/cm2MEA (at 0.65 V) [5], thereby not only reducing the size of a PEMFC fuel cell system, but also reducing its overall materials cost (controlled to a large extent by membrane and Pt-catalyst cost). While this demonstrated a clear path towards automotive applications, a renewed focus of R efforts is now required to develop materials and fundamental materials understanding to assure long-term durability of PEM fuel cells. This presentation therefore will discuss the state-of-the-art knowledge of catalyst, catalyst-support, and membrane degradation mechanisms. In the area of Pt-catalysts, experience with phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) has shown that platinum sintering leads to long-term performance losses [6]. While this is less critical at the lower PEMFC operating temperatures (200C), very little is known about the dependence of Pt-sintering on temperature, cell voltage, and catalyst type (i.e., Pt versus Pt-alloys) and will be discussed here. Similarly, carbon-support corrosion can contribute significantly to voltage degradation in PAFCs [7], and even in the PEMFC environment more corrosion

  20. Commercialization of fuel cells: myth or reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junye

    2014-01-01

    Despite huge investment and efforts in the last decades, fuel cells are still known as a fledgling industry after 170 years of the first fuel cell. It becomes clear that these investment and efforts did not address the critical questions. Why upscaling of fuel cells failed often when many researchers stated their successes in small scale? Why the fuel cells with simpler structure still lag far from the internal combustion (IC) engines and gas turbines? Could the current investment of the hydrogen infrastructure reduce substantially the fuel cell cost and make a breakthrough to the key issues of durability, reliability and robustness? In this paper, we study these fundamental questions and point out a must-way possible to reduce cost of fuel cells and to substantially improve durability and reliability.

  1. Fuel Cell Hydroge Manifold for Lift Trucks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosseinzadeh, Elham

    . The most common type of fuel cell used for automotive applications is PEM fuel cell. They are known for their high efficiency, low emissions and high reliability. However, lack of a hydrogen infrastructure, cost and durability of the stack is considered the biggest obstacles to the introduction of fuel...... cell vehicles. The overall aim of this research is studying different fuel cell systems and find out the system with the highest efficiency and less complexity. This will be achieved by modelling and optimization of the fuel cell system followed by some experimental tests. Efficiency of the stack...... a virtual forklift system. This investigation examines important performance metrics such as hydrogen consumption and battery SOC as a function of fuel cell and battery size, control strategy, drive cycle, and load variation for a forklift truck system. This study can be used as a benchmark for choosing...

  2. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  3. Zinc-air battery/fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Qu, W. [National Research Council Canada, Vancouver, BC (United States). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2010-07-01

    The zinc-air battery/fuel cell is an old technology invented one hundred years ago. However, there is renewed interest in this technology in response to the growing need for clean energy technology. The zinc-air battery/fuel cell is more attractive than similar technologies because its characteristics include high power density, safe operation and storage, and low cost. Zinc-air battery/fuel cells can be made in milliwatts to mega watts to accommodate different applications. The zinc-air battery/fuel cell has four major designs, namely primary, mechanically rechargeable, continuous feed and electrically rechargeable zinc-air battery/fuel cells. Among the different designs, the most common is the air cathode. There are 3 generations of catalysts used in the air cathodes. This paper discussed the different designs of the zinc-air battery/fuel cell, and more specifically, the air cathode structure and performance.

  4. Decolourisation of Acid orange 7 in a microbial fuel cell with a laccase-based biocathode: Influence of mitigating pH changes in the cathode chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Priyadharshini; Keshavarz, Taj; Chandra, T S; Kyazze, Godfrey

    2017-01-01

    Biocathodes may be a suitable replacement of platinum in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) if the cost of MFCs is to be reduced. However, the use of enzymes as bio-cathodes is fraught with loss of activity as time progresses. A possible cause of this loss in activity might be pH increase in the cathode as pH gradients in MFCs are well known. This pH increase is however, accompanied by simultaneous increase in salinity; therefore salinity may be a confounding variable. This study investigated various ways of mitigating pH changes in the cathode of MFCs and their effect on laccase activity and decolourisation of a model azo dye Acid orange 7 in the anode chamber. Experiments were run with catholyte pH automatically controlled via feedback control or by using acetate buffers (pH 4.5) of various strength (100mM and 200mM), with CMI7000 as the cation exchange membrane. A comparison was also made between use of CMI7000 and Nafion 117 as the transport properties of cations for both membranes (hence their potential effects on pH changes in the cathode) are different. Results show that using Nafion 117 membrane limits salinity and pH changes in the cathode (100mM acetate buffer as catholyte) leading to prolonged laccase activity and faster AO7 decolourisation compared to using CMI7000 as a membrane; similarly automatic pH control in the cathode chamber was found to be better than using 200mM acetate buffer. It is suggested that while pH control in the cathode chamber is important, it does not guarantee sustained laccase activity; as salinity increases affect the activity and it could be mitigated using a cation selective membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Practical operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell - EC project successfully completed; Praxisbetrieb einer Phosphorsaeure-Brennstoffzelle - EU-Projekt erfolgreich abgeschlossen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany); Kail, H.J. [Stadtwerke Bochum GmbH (Germany); Mallon, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    A 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) manufactured by ONSI was tested with a view to its use under European field conditions. The project subsidised by the EU was successfully completed in collaboration between Ruhrgas, the Bochum municipal utility and the Dutch company Gasunie. The results showed that heat-controlled operation is perfectly possible with a new development of Ruhrgas, a computer-controlled control system. Studies into the influence of different gas qualities showed that the PAFC components used for gas treatment are still underdimensioned. Therefore the manufacturers must make adjustments to the plant if it is to be run on peak-shaving gas (propane/air). Furthermore, it has become evident that dynamic changes in the electrical output, such as generally occur in practice have no major influence on pollutant emissions. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine 200-kW-Phosphorsaeurebrennstoffzelle (PAFC) der Fa. ONSI wurde im Hinblick auf ihren Einsatz unter europaeischen Praxisbedingungen erprobt. Das von der EU gefoerderte Projekt konnte in Zusammenarbeit zwischen Ruhrgas, den Stadtwerken Bochum und der niederlaendischen Gasunie erfolgreich abgeschlossen werden. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass ein waermegefuehrter Betrieb mit einem neu entwickelten, computergesteuerten Regelsystem problemlos moeglich ist. Untersuchungen des Einflusses unterschiedlicher Gasbeschaffenheiten ergaben, dass jene Komponenten der PAFC, die der Gasaufbereitung dienen, noch zu klein dimensioniert sind. Fuer einen Betrieb der Anlage mit Spitzengas (Fluessiggas/Luft) sind daher vom Hersteller noch Anpassungsmassnahmen erforderlich. Ausserdem wurde deutlich, dass dynamische Aenderungen der elektrischen Ausgangsleistung, wie sie in der Praxis i.d.R. vorkommen, keinen gravierenden Einfluss auf die Schadstoffemissionen haben. (orig.)

  6. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  7. Gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    He, Weidong; Dickerson, James

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and emerging measurement technologies associated with gas transport in solid oxide fuel cells. Within these pages, an introduction to the concept of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells is presented. This book also discusses the history and underlying fundamental mechanisms of gas diffusion in solid oxide fuel cells, general theoretical mathematical models for gas diffusion, and traditional and advanced techniques for gas diffusivity measurement.

  8. Method of making straight fuel cell tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglum, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A method and an apparatus for making straight fuel cell tubes are disclosed. Extruded tubes comprising powders of fuel cell material and a solvent are dried by rotating the extruded tubes. The rotation process provides uniform circumferential drying which results in uniform linear shrinkage of the tubes. The resultant dried tubes are very straight, thereby eliminating subsequent straightening steps required with conventional processes. The method is particularly useful for forming inner air electrode tubes of solid oxide fuel cells.

  9. Fuel cell research: Towards efficient energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rohwer, MB

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available cells, i.e. membranes, catalysts, gas diffusion layers and electrodes. This paper highlights the results achieved to date in the fields of hydrogen fuel cells, direct alcohol fuel cells and anionic membranes. Furthermore, the paper describes how a test...

  10. PLATINUM, FUEL CELLS, AND FUTURE ROAD TRANSPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A vehicle powered by a fuel cell will emit virtually no air polution and, depending on fuel choice, can substantially improve fuel economy above that of current technology. Those attributes are complementary to issues of increasing national importance including the effects of tra...

  11. Fuel cell vehicle technologies, infrastructure and requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) use hydrogen as fuel and exhaust only water and heat. They : provide driving ranges and fueling times comparable to gasoline vehicles. Despite the advantages, : FCEVs have been in and out of the spot light of the a...

  12. Fuel cells selected entries from the encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    The expected end of the "oil age" will lead to increasing focus and reliance on alternative energy conversion devices, among which fuel cells have the potential to play an important role.  Not only can phosphoric acid and solid oxide fuel cells already efficiently convert today's fossil fuels, including methane, into electricity, but other types of fuel cells, such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, have the potential to become the cornerstones of a possible future hydrogen economy. Featuring 21 peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Fuel

  13. Platinum Porous Electrodes for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma

    Fuel cell energy bears the merits of renewability, cleanness and high efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising candidates as the power source in the near future. A fine management of different transports and electrochemical reactions in PEM fuel cells...... to a genuine picture of a working PEM fuel cell catalyst layer. These, in turn, enrich the knowledge of Three-Phase-Boundary, provide efficient tool for the electrode selection and eventually will contribute the advancement of PEMFC technology....

  14. Fuel Cell Stations Automate Processes, Catalyst Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center looks for ways to improve fuel cells, which are an important source of power for space missions, as well as the equipment used to test fuel cells. With Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) awards from Glenn, Lynntech Inc., of College Station, Texas, addressed a major limitation of fuel cell testing equipment. Five years later, the company obtained a patent and provided the equipment to the commercial world. Now offered through TesSol Inc., of Battle Ground, Washington, the technology is used for fuel cell work, catalyst testing, sensor testing, gas blending, and other applications. It can be found at universities, national laboratories, and businesses around the world.

  15. PEM fuel cell testing and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jifeng; Zhang, Jiujun

    2013-01-01

    PEM Fuel Cell Testing and Diagnosis covers the recent advances in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell systems, focusing on instruments and techniques for testing and diagnosis, and the application of diagnostic techniques in practical tests and operation. This book is a unique source of electrochemical techniques for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of fuel cells. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are currently considered the most promising clean energy-converting devices for stationary, transportation, and micro-power applications due to their

  16. General report on the results of the development of fuel cell technology such as urban energy center. Evaluation study of life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (fiscal 1995 and 1996); Toshi energy center nado nenryo denchi gijutsu kaihatsu kenkyu seika sogo hokokusho. Rinsangata nenryo denchi jumyo hyoka kenkyu (1995 kara 1996 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Receiving subsidies from MITI, NEDO carried out this project in fiscal 1995 and 1996 as a joint research with Technology Research Association for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Power Generation System and others. The project aimed at developing the accelerated test method which can evaluate in a short time the cell life of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC) and the lowering of characteristics. The accelerated test method of PAFC life is thought to be a tool indispensable for the promotion of commercialization, but the accelerated test method like the usual material evaluation has not yet been established. To solve this problem, procedures were developed to rationally plan the accelerated test on short stacks of full scale based on the small cell test data. Here, to rationally estimate the operational state under actual conditions based on the data on the accelerated test, it is necessary to fully understand the mechanism of deterioration of PAFC. By conducting in parallel the element study for the basic elucidation of cell deterioration phenomena, obtained was the useful information/knowledge which back up the results of the accelerated test scientifically. 168 figs., 33 tabs.

  17. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  18. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  19. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  20. Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 2 - Market Availability of Agricultural Crops for Fuel Cell Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, John W; Cassarino, Craig; Spangler, Lee; Johnson, Duane; Lindstrom, Joel; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H; Lux, Scott M

    2006-01-01

    .... The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks...

  1. National fuel cell bus program : proterra fuel cell hybrid bus report, Columbia demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from a fuel cell bus demonstration funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by the Center for Transportation and the Environment an...

  2. Results of 200 KW fuel cell evaluation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, J.M.; Merten, G.P. [SAIC, San Diego, CA (United States); Binder, M.J. [Army Construction Engineering Research Labs., Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) has installed six monitoring systems on ONSI Corporation 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells. Three of the systems were installed for the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) which is coordinating the Department of Defense (DoD) fuel cell Demonstration Program and three were installed under a contract with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Monitoring of the three NYSERDA sites has been completed. Monitoring systems for the DoD fuel cells were installed in August, 1996 and thus no operating data was available at the time of this writing, but will be presented at the Fuel Cell Seminar. This paper will present the monitoring configuration and research approach for each program. Additionally, summary performance data is presented for the completed NYSERDA program.

  3. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  4. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  5. Mathematical modeling of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ruy; Gonzalez, Ernesto R.

    Fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane have been receiving more and more attention. Modeling plays an important role in the development of fuel cells. In this paper, the state-of-the-art regarding modeling of fuel cells with a polymer electrolyte membrane is reviewed. Modeling has allowed detailed studies concerning the development of these cells, e.g. in discussing the electrocatalysis of the reactions and the design of water-management schemes to cope with membrane dehydration. Two-dimensional models have been used to represent reality, but three-dimensional models can cope with some important additional aspects. Consideration of two-phase transport in the air cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell seems to be very appropriate. Most fuel cells use hydrogen as a fuel. Besides safety concerns, there are problems associated with production, storage and distribution of this fuel. Methanol, as a liquid fuel, can be the solution to these problems and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are attractive for several applications. Mass transport is a factor that may limit the performance of the cell. Adsorption steps may be coupled to Tafel kinetics to describe methanol oxidation and methanol crossover must also be taken into account. Extending the two-phase approach to the DMFC modeling is a recent, important point.

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines and Related Technologies report documents the first training course ever developed and made available to the transportation community and general public on the use hydrogen fuel cells in transportation. The course is designed to train a new generation of technicians in gaining a more complete understanding of the concepts, procedures, and technologies involved with hydrogen fuel cell use in transportation purposes. The manual contains 11 modules (chapters). The first eight modules cover (1) hydrogen properties, use and safety; and (2) fuel cell technology and its systems, fuel cell engine design and safety, and design and maintenance of a heavy duty fuel cell bus engine. The different types of fuel cells and hybrid electric vehicles are presented, however, the system descriptions and maintenance procedures focus on proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells with respect to heavy duty transit applications. Modules 9 and 10 are intended to provide a better understanding of the acts, codes, regulations and guidelines concerning the use of hydrogen, as well as the safety guidelines for both hydrogen maintenance and fueling facilities. Module 11 presents a glossary and conversions.

  7. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  8. Hydroxyl pyridine containing polybenzimidazole membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jingshuai; Xu, Yixin; Zhou, Lu

    2013-01-01

    at 180°C without humidifying. In addition, an improved tensile modulus at elevated temperatures was observed for acid doped OHPyPBI membranes. Fuel cell tests demonstrated the technical feasibility of acid doped OHPyPBI membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  9. The market for utility-scale fuel cell plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Masaru; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    This paper is devoted to a survey of the current technology and future market for utility-scale fuel cell plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is entering into the stage where it is practically available for use with natural gas. Large capacity plants such as 11, 5 and 1 MW have been installed and operated in Italy and Japan. Their efficiency ranges from 36 to 42%. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in the demonstrating stage, both the fuel cell and the balance-of-plant (BOP) for natural gas. Demonstration plants of 2 and 1 MW have been under construction in the USA and Japan. Their efficiency will range from 40 to 50%. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is in the experimental stage around 100 kW for co-generation. Its conceptual system design has been conducted for both centralized and dispersed power plant in a cooperation with Westinghouse and NEDO. A market survey is now considered on the basis that future fuel cells will run for around 40 000 h in a stable manner with competitive performance. The market for fuel cells will be roughly at 2000 MW in Japan by the year 2010. Half of them will be installed for electric companies on the utility scale. The market will be shared between PAFC and MCFC by 10 and 90%, respectively. Current technologies have not reached the stage to precisely forecast when fuel cells will be entering into the market on a utility scale. At the present time, it is worthwhile to consider how the technological and economic requirements will be definitely achieved. After achieving these requirements, fuel cells will be positively introduced and socially accepted as the best energy converting option to save energy and environmental impact. Further efforts will be devoted to meeting the market from the technological and economic aspects.

  10. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  11. Internet public information for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhoff, F.A. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provide the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to provide a service where current fuel cell descriptions and information are available to customers, manufactures, academia, and the general public. METC has developed a Fuel Cell Forum where members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies using the Internet. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and Government. Because of the public nature of the Internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. Government or METC. METC, has endeavored to develop a World Wide Web (WWW) location committed to the description and development of the fuel cell. Netscape or compatible software provides access to the METC Homepage. The user then selects Advanced Power Systems, then Fuel Cells. Fuel cell overview and description is followed by a presentation of the fuel cell system characteristics and advantages. Descriptions of major fuel cell projects are provided in the FACTS section. Finally, as a service to METC customers, the homepage provides a calendar and points of contact. Updates to the WWW location are occasionally made revealing current technical advances in fuel cells. In the continuing effort to further improve public knowledge and perception of fuel cell power generation, METC has created two new modes of communication using the Internet.

  12. FUEL TRANSFORMER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Bessette; Douglas S. Schmidt; Jolyon Rawson; Lars Allfather; Anthony Litka

    2005-03-24

    The following report documents the technical approach and conclusions made by Acumentrics Corporation during latest budget period toward the development of a low cost 10kW tubular SOFC power system. The present program, guided under direction from the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the US DOE, is a nine-year cost shared Cooperative Agreement totaling close to $74M funded both by the US DOE as well as Acumentrics Corporation and its partners. The latest budget period ran from July of 2004 through January 2004. Work was focused on cell technology enhancements as well as BOP and power electronics improvements and overall system design. Significant progress was made in increasing cell power enhancements as well as decreasing material cost in a drive to meet the SECA cost targets. The following report documents these accomplishments in detail as well as the lay out plans for further progress in next budget period.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  14. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  15. Novel inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte and alkaline fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu

    2012-06-01

    Inorganic materials with high ionic conductivity must have big advantages for the thermal and long term stability when the materials are used as the electrolyte of fuel cells. In the present paper, novel ionic conductive inorganic materials for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) and all solid state alkaline fuel cells (AFCs) that have been developed by our group have been reviewed. PEFCs which can operate in temperature range from 100 to 200 °C are intensively studied because of some advantages such as reduction of CO poisoning of Pt catalyst and acceleration of electrode reactions. We showed that the fuel cells using the composite membranes prepared from phosphosilicate gel powder and polyimide precursor can operate in the temperature range from 30 to 180 °C. We also found that the inorganic-organic hybrid membranes with acid-base pairs from 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane and H2SO4 or H3PO4 show high proton conductivity under dry atmosphere, and the membranes are thermally stable at intermediate temperatures. On the other hand, because the use of noble platinum is the serious problem for the commercialization of PEFCs and because oxidation reactions are usually faster than those of acid-type fuel cells, alkaline type fuel cells, in which a nonplatinum catalyst can be used, are attractive. Recently, we have proposed an alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO32- (Mg-Al CO32- LDH), has been proved to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkalinetype DEFC using Mg-Al CO32- LDH as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibited excellent electrochemical performance.

  16. Lightweight Stacks of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Valdez, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    An improved design concept for direct methanol fuel cells makes it possible to construct fuel-cell stacks that can weigh as little as one-third as much as do conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks of equal power. The structural-support components of the improved cells and stacks can be made of relatively inexpensive plastics. Moreover, in comparison with conventional bipolar fuel-cell stacks, the improved fuel-cell stacks can be assembled, disassembled, and diagnosed for malfunctions more easily. These improvements are expected to bring portable direct methanol fuel cells and stacks closer to commercialization. In a conventional bipolar fuel-cell stack, the cells are interspersed with bipolar plates (also called biplates), which are structural components that serve to interconnect the cells and distribute the reactants (methanol and air). The cells and biplates are sandwiched between metal end plates. Usually, the stack is held together under pressure by tie rods that clamp the end plates. The bipolar stack configuration offers the advantage of very low internal electrical resistance. However, when the power output of a stack is only a few watts, the very low internal resistance of a bipolar stack is not absolutely necessary for keeping the internal power loss acceptably low.

  17. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  18. Development of Membraneless Sodium Perborate Fuel Cell for Media Flexible Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ponmani; Durga, S.; Arun, A.; S. Kiruthika; B. Muthukumaran

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the media flexibility of membraneless sodium perborate fuel cell (MLSPBFC) using acid/alkaline bipolar electrolyte in which the anode is in acidic media while the cathode is in alkaline media, or vice versa. Investigation of the cell operation is conducted by using formic acid as a fuel and sodium perborate as an oxidant for the first time under “acid-alkaline media” configurations. The MLSPBFC architecture enables interchangeable operation with different media combinations...

  19. High temperature PEM fuel cell. Final report. Public part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf (DTU (DK)); Yde Andersen, S.; Rycke, T. de (IRD Fuel Cells A/S (DK)); Nilsson, M. (Danish Power Systems ApS (DK)); Christensen, Torkild, (DONG Energy (DK))

    2006-07-01

    The main outcome of the project is the development of stacking technology for high temperature PEMFC stacks based on phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI-membranes) and a study of the potential of a possible accommodation of HT-PEMFC in the national energy system. Stacks of different lengths (up to 40 cells) have been built using two different approaches in terms of plate materials and sealing. The stacks still need maturing and further testing to prove satisfactory reliability, and a steady reduction of production cost is also desired (as in general for fuel cells). However, during the project the process has come a long way. The survey of HT-PEM fuel cells and their regulatory power in the utility system concludes that fuel cells will most likely not be the dominating technique for regulation, but as no other technique has that potential alone, fuel cells are well suited to play a role in the system provided that the establishment of a communication system is not too complicated. In order to maintain an efficient power system with high reliability in a distributed generation scenario, it is important that communication between TSO (Transmission System Operator) and fuel cells is included in the fuel cell system design at an early stage. (au)

  20. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  1. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, J.H.W.; Kouffeld, R.W.J.; Hemmes, K.; Au, Siu Fai

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  2. The fuel cell; La pile a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boursin, P.

    2005-07-01

    This document is an exhaustive review of the history of fuel cells from 1802 to 2004. It focusses mainly on the automotive applications and supplies many technical details about each prototype of fuel cell and/or vehicle. (J.S.)

  3. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  4. Fuel cell hybrid drive train test facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bruinsma; Edwin Tazelaar; Bram Veenhuizen; I. Zafina; H. Bosma

    2009-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in the near future as prime energy source on board of road-going vehicles. In order to be able to test all important functional aspects of a fuel cell hybrid drive train, the Automotive Institute of the HAN University has decided to realize a

  5. Increasing the lifetime of fuel cell catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latsuzbaia, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I discuss a novel idea of fuel cell catalyst regeneration to increase lifetime of the PEM fuel cell electrode/catalyst operation and, therefore, reduce the catalyst costs. As many of the catalyst degradation mechanisms are difficult to avoid, the regeneration is alternative option to

  6. FCTESTNET - Testing fuel cells for transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, R.G.; Foster, D.L.; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    FCTESTNET (Fuel Cell Testing and Standardization Network) is an ongoing European network project within Framework Program 5. It is a three-year project that commenced January 2003, with 55 partners from European research centers, universities, and industry, working in the field of fuel cell R and D.

  7. A Method of Operating a Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of determining the net water drag coefficient (rd) in a fuel cell. By measuring the velocity of the fluid stream at the outlet of the anode, rd can be determined. Real time monitoring and adjustments of the water balance of a fuel cell may be therefore ac...

  8. Microbial fuel cells: Running on gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2017-06-01

    Methane is an abundant energy source that is used for power generation in thermal power plants via combustion, but direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells remains challenging. Now, a microbial fuel cell is demonstrated to efficiently convert methane directly to current by careful selection of a consortium of microorganisms.

  9. DOE perspective on fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, R.

    1996-04-01

    Fuel cells are one of the most promising technologies for meeting the rapidly growing demand for transportation services while minimizing adverse energy and environmental impacts. This paper reviews the benefits of introducing fuel cells into the transportation sector; in addition to dramatically reduced vehicle emissions, fuel cells offer the flexibility than use petroleum-based or alternative fuels, have significantly greater energy efficiency than internal combustion engines, and greatly reduce noise levels during operation. The rationale leading to the emphasis on proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells for transportation applications is reviewed as are the development issues requiring resolution to achieve adequate performance, packaging, and cost for use in automobiles. Technical targets for power density, specific power, platinum loading on the electrodes, cost, and other factors that become increasingly more demanding over time have been established. Fuel choice issues and pathways to reduced costs and to a renewable energy future are explored. One such path initially introduces fuel cell vehicles using reformed gasoline while-on-board hydrogen storage technology is developed to the point of allowing adequate range (350 miles) and refueling convenience. This scenario also allows time for renewable hydrogen production technologies and the required supply infrastructure to develop. Finally, the DOE Fuel Cells in Transportation program is described. The program, whose goal is to establish the technology for fuel cell vehicles as rapidly as possible, is being implemented by means of the United States Fuel Cell Alliance, a Government-industry alliance that includes Detroit`s Big Three automakers, fuel cell and other component suppliers, the national laboratories, and universities.

  10. Durability Issues and Status of PBI-Based Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews durability and stability issues with key materials and components for HT-PEMFCs, including the polymer membrane, the doping acid, the electrocatalyst, the catalyst support and bipolar plates. Degradation mechanisms and their dependence on fuel cell operating conditions...... are summarized as well. To date, lifetimes of this type of fuel cells of up to 18,000 h with degradation rates of around 5 μV/h at temperatures of 150–160 °C have been demonstrated using hydrogen and air under constant moderate load. However, the degradation rate increases by a factor 10 when the cell is exposed...

  11. New catalysts for miniaturized methanol fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov

    The methanol fuel cell is an interesting energy technology, capable of converting the chemical energy of methanol directly into electricity. The technology is specifically attractive for small mobile applications such as laptops, smartphones, tablets etc. since it offers almost instantaneously...... demonstrated by the Danish Technological Institute; however, for the technology to become more widely adapted, the power density of the fuel cell must be increased. It is well known that a considerable part of the energy from the methanol is lost in the fuel cell during the conversion due to poor kinetics....... The kinetics can however be improved by using a superior catalyst. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify new catalyst material for methanol fuel cells. By analysing the performance of the standard catalysts (PtRu and Pt) currently being applied in methanol fuel cells as anode and cathode...

  12. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  13. American fuel cell bus project : first analysis report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the experience and early results from the American Fuel Cell Bus Project, a fuel cell electric bus demonstration : funded by the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) under the National Fuel Cell Bus Program. A team led by CALST...

  14. Micro-cogeneration with fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Čierny, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    The article is aimed at perspective and fast developing field of micro-cogeneration with small performance. Fuel cell application which uses natural gas as a fuel is high sophisticated technology of combined produce of heat and electric power. The aim of article is analysis of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which as a fuel uses natural gas. The device is installed in University of Zilina laboratory. Measured parameters were electric input and output, thermal energy and electric, thermal and overall efficiency.

  15. US Air Force fuel cell application analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouchot, W. D.; Summers, W. A.; Hofbauer, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Fuel Cell Power Unit conceptual designs and cost/benefit analyses were accomplished for six U.S. Air Force applications. The applications included two attended remote sites, two unattended remote sites and two tactical/mobile requirements. The electrical power ratings of these designs ranged from 23 kW to 100 kW. Fuels considered included diesel, Jet Fuel (JP-4) and methanol. Life cycle cost and benefit analyses showed that significant savings and operational improvements could be realized with the introduction of fuel cells into the USAF power generation inventory.

  16. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  17. New polymer electrolytes for low temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundholm, F.; Elomaa, M.; Ennari, J.; Hietala, S.; Paronen, M. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Lab. of Polymer Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Proton conducting polymer membranes for demanding applications, such as low temperature fuel cells, have been synthesised and characterised. Pre-irradiation methods are used to introduce sulfonic acid groups, directly or using polystyrene grafting, in stable, preformed polymer films. The membranes produced in this work show promise for the development of cost-effective, highly conducting membranes. (orig.)

  18. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  19. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi; Maloney, Thomas M.

    1988-01-01

    Development of predictive techniques, with regard to cell behavior, under various operating conditions is needed to improve cell performance, increase energy density, reduce manufacturing cost, and to broaden utilization of various fuels. Such technology would be especially beneficial for the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) at it early demonstration stage. The development of computer models to calculate the temperature, CD, reactant distributions in the tubular and monolithic SOFCs. Results indicate that problems of nonuniform heat generation and fuel gas depletion in the tubular cell module, and of size limitions in the monolithic (MOD 0) design may be encountered during FC operation.

  20. Chrysler Pentastar direct hydrogen fuel cell program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimble, M.; Deloney, D.

    1995-08-01

    The Chrysler Pentastar Electronics, Inc. Direct Hydrogen Fueled PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Program (DPHV) was initiated 1 July, 1994 with the following mission, {open_quotes}Design, fabricate, and test a Direct Hydrogen Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System including onboard hydrogen storage, an efficient lightweight fuel cell, a gas management system, peak power augmentation and a complete system controls that can be economically mass produced and comply with all safety environmental and consumer requirements for vehicle applications for the 21st century.{close_quotes} The Conceptual Design for the entire system based upon the selection of an applicable vehicle and performance requirements that are consistent with the PNGV goals will be discussed. A Hydrogen Storage system that has been selected, packaged, and partially tested in accordance with perceived Hydrogen Safety and Infrastructure requirements will be discussed in addition to our Fuel Cell approach along with design of the {open_quotes}real{close_quotes} module. The Gas Management System and the Load Leveling System have been designed and the software programs have been developed and will be discussed along with a complete fuel cell test station that has the capability to test up to a 60 kW fuel cell system.

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbæk, Rasmus Rode; Barfod, Rasmus Gottrup

    . An operating stack is subject to compositional gradients in the gaseous reactant streams, and temperature gradients across each cell and across the stack, which complicates detailed analysis. Several experimental stacks from Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S were characterized using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy...... and discussed in the following. Parallel acquisition using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to detect possible minor differences in the supply of gas to the individual cells, which is important when going to high fuel utilizations. The fuel flow distribution was determined and provides...... carried out on an experimental 14-cell SOFC stack at varying frequencies and fuel utilizations. The results illustrated that THD can be used to detect increasing non-linearities in the current-voltage characteristics of the stack when the stack suffers from fuel starvation by monitoring the stack sum...

  2. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Pleasant Hill, CA

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  3. Microbial fuel cells for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijia; Zhou, Minghua; Liu, Mengmeng; Yang, Weilu; Gu, Tingyue

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) face major hurdles for real-world applications as power generators with the exception of powering small sensor devices. Despite tremendous improvements made in the last two decades, MFCs are still too expensive to build and operate and their power output is still too small. In view of this, in recently years, intensive researches have been carried out to expand the applications into other areas such as acid and alkali production, bioremediation of aquatic sediments, desalination and biosensors. Unlike power applications, MFC sensors have the immediate prospect to be practical. This review covers the latest developments in various proposed biosensor applications using MFCs including monitoring microbial activity, testing biochemical oxygen demand, detection of toxicants and detection of microbial biofilms that cause biocorrosion.

  4. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic

  5. Enhanced Performance of Membraneless Sodium Percarbonate Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gowdhamamoorthi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the continuous flow operation of membraneless sodium percarbonate fuel cell (MLSPCFC using acid/alkaline bipolar electrolyte. In the acid/alkaline bipolar electrolyte, percarbonate works both as an oxidant as well as reductant. Sodium percarbonate affords hydrogen peroxide in aqueous medium. The cell converts the energy released by H2O2 decomposition with H+ and OH− ions into electricity and produces water and oxygen. At room temperature, the laminar flow based microfluidic membraneless fuel cell can reach a maximum power density of 28 mW/cm2 with the molar ratio of [Percarbonate]/[NaOH] = 1 as fuel and [Percarbonate]/[H2SO4] = 2 as oxidant. The paper reports for the first time the use of sodium percarbonate as the oxidant and reductant. The developed fuel cell emits no CO2 and features no proton exchange membrane, inexpensive catalysts, and simple planar structure, which enables high design flexibility and easy integration of the microscale fuel cell into actual microfluidic systems and portable power applications.

  6. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  7. Nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials for solid fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Kyle S

    2015-05-05

    Disclosed are solid fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells and PEM fuel cells that include nanocrystalline cerium oxide materials as a component of the fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can include nanocrystalline cerium oxide as a cathode component and microcrystalline cerium oxide as an electrolyte component, which can prevent mechanical failure and interdiffusion common in other fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell can also include nanocrystalline cerium oxide in the anode. A PEM fuel cell can include cerium oxide as a catalyst support in the cathode and optionally also in the anode.

  8. The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Dušan D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.

  9. Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen-Wright, D. R.; McMullan, J. T.; Guiney, D. J.

    The positive attributes of fuel cells for high efficiency power generation at any scale and of biomass as a renewable energy source which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store, suggest that a combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with a wood gasifier (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems, fuelled by natural gas, have already been used in a range of CHP applications in urban settings. Some of these applications are examined here using integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell systems in CHP configurations. Five building systems, which have different energy demand profiles, are assessed. These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residential community and a university hall of residence. Heat and electricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildings were obtained and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired PAFC system was found to have low electrical efficiency (13-16%), but much of the heat could be recovered, so that the overall efficiency was 64-67%, suitable where high heat/electricity values are required. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient for electricity generation (24-27%), with an overall energy efficiency of 60-63%. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features

  10. Method for Making a Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Thomas L. (Inventor); Setlock, John A. (Inventor); Farmer, Serene C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a novel solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack comprising individual bi-electrode supported fuel cells in which an electrolyte layer is supported between porous electrodes. The porous electrodes may be made from graded pore ceramic tape that has been created by the freeze cast method followed by freeze-drying. Each piece of graded pore tape later becomes a graded pore electrode scaffold that, subsequent to sintering, is made into either an anode or a cathode. The electrode scaffold comprising the anode includes a layer of liquid metal. The pores of the electrode scaffolds gradually increase in diameter as the layer extends away from the electrolyte layer. As a result of this diameter increase, any forces that would tend to pull the liquid metal away from the electrolyte are reduced while maintaining a diffusion path for the fuel. Advantageously, the fuel cell of the invention may utilize a hydrocarbon fuel without pre-processing to remove sulfur.

  11. Business Case for Fuel Cells 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, Washington, DC (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The report provides an overview of recent private sector fuel cell installations at U.S. businesses as of December 31, 2016. This list is by no means exhaustive. Over the past few decades, hundreds of thousands of fuel cells have been installed around the world, for primary or backup power, as well as in various other applications including portable and emergency backup power. Fuel cells have also been deployed in other applications such as heat and electricity for homes and apartments, material handling, passenger vehicles, buses, and remote, off-grid sites.

  12. Micro & nano-engineering of fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Dennis YC

    2015-01-01

    Fuel cells are clean and efficient energy conversion devices expected to be the next generation power source. During more than 17 decades of research and development, various types of fuel cells have been developed with a view to meet the different energy demands and application requirements. Scientists have devoted a great deal of time and effort to the development and commercialization of fuel cells important for our daily lives. However, abundant issues, ranging from mechanistic study to system integration, still need to be figured out before massive applications can be used. Miniaturizatio

  13. Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Ramsey, John C.

    2005-03-08

    A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

  14. Fuel cell drives for road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnah, R. M.

    For fuel-cell driven vehicles, including buses, the fuel cell may be the main, determining factor in the system but must be integrated into the complete design process. A Low-Floor Bus design is used to illustrate this point. The influence of advances in drive-train electronics is illustrated as are novel designs for motors and mechanical transmission of power to the wheels allowing the use of novel hub assemblies. A hybrid electric power system is being deployed in which Fuel Cells produce the energy needs but are coupled with batteries especially for acceleration phases and for recuperative braking.

  15. Sealant materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this work is to complete the development of soft glass-ceramic sealants for the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Among other requirements, the materials must soften at the operation temperature of the fuel cell (600-1000{degrees}C) to relieve stresses between stack components, and their thermal expansions must be tailored to match those of the stack materials. Specific objectives included addressing the needs of industrial fuel cell developers, based on their evaluation of samples we supply, as well as working with commercial glass producers to achieve scaled-up production of the materials without changing their properties.

  16. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  17. Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

  18. Progress in carbonate fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.; Roche, M.F.

    1995-08-01

    Our objective is to increase both the life and power of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) by developing improved components and designs. Current activities are as follows: (1) Development of lithium ferrate (LiFeO{sub 2}) and lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathodes for extended MCFC life, particularly in pressurized operation, where the present cathode, NiO, provides insufficient life; (2) Development of distributed-manifold MCFC designs for increased volumetric power density and decreased temperature gradients (and, therefore, increased life); (3) Development of components and designs appropriate for high-power-density operation (>2 kW/m{sup 2} and >100 kW/m{sup 3} in an integrated MCFC system); and (4) Studies of pitting corrosion of the stainless-steel interconnects and aluminized seals now being employed in the MCFC (alternative components will also be studied). Each of these activities has the potential to reduce the MCFC system cost significantly. Progress in each activity will be presented during the poster session.

  19. Innovative membrane development for fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vaivars, G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available will take time, and the first alternative commercial car will be hybrid. The critical issue is the power source for an electrical engine. The fuel cell (FC)-battery hybrid is a promising solution to replace the combustion engine. Liquid fuel (e.g. methanol...

  20. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  1. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of battery-powere...

  2. Shortcut model for water-balanced operation in fuel processor fuel cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Kramer, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a fuel processor, a hydrocarbon or oxygenate fuel is catalytically converted into a mixture rich in hydrogen which can be fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. In these fuel processor fuel cell systems (FPFCs), water is recovered from the exhaust gases and recycled back into the system. We

  3. What happens inside a fuel cell? Developing an experimental functional map of fuel cell performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Kucernak, Anthony R; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C; Brandon, Nigel P; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-09-10

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an 'experimental functional map' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models.

  4. CO tolerance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubler, L.; Scherer, G.G.; Wokaun, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Reformed methanol can be used as a fuel for polymer electrolyte fuel cells instead of pure hydrogen. The reformate gas contains mainly H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} in the order of 20% and low levels of CO in the order of 100 ppm. CO causes severe voltage losses due to poisoning of the anode catalyst. The effect of CO on cell performance was investigated at different CO levels up to 100 ppm. Various options to improve the CO tolerance of the fuel cell were assessed thereafter, of which the injection of a few percents of oxygen into the fuel feed stream proved to be most effective. By mixing 1% of oxygen with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO, complete recovery of the cell performance could be attained. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs.

  5. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Cynthia; Ren, Xiaoming; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2005-11-08

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  6. Hydrogen storage and integrated fuel cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karl J.

    2010-08-24

    Hydrogen is stored in materials that absorb and desorb hydrogen with temperature dependent rates. A housing is provided that allows for the storage of one or more types of hydrogen-storage materials in close thermal proximity to a fuel cell stack. This arrangement, which includes alternating fuel cell stack and hydrogen-storage units, allows for close thermal matching of the hydrogen storage material and the fuel cell stack. Also, the present invention allows for tailoring of the hydrogen delivery by mixing different materials in one unit. Thermal insulation alternatively allows for a highly efficient unit. Individual power modules including one fuel cell stack surrounded by a pair of hydrogen-storage units allows for distribution of power throughout a vehicle or other electric power consuming devices.

  7. Direct formate fuel cells: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, L.; Chen, R.

    2016-07-01

    Direct formate fuel cells (DFFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in formate directly into electricity, are recently attracting more attention, primarily because of the use of the carbon-neutral fuel and the low-cost electrocatalytic and membrane materials. As an emerging energy technology, the DFFC has made a rapid progress in recent years (currently, the state-of-the-art power density is 591 mW cm-2 at 60 °C). This article provides a review of past research on the development of this type of fuel cell, including the working principle, mechanisms and materials of the electrocatalytic oxidation of formate, singe-cell designs and performance, as well as innovative system designs. In addition, future perspectives with regard to the development of this fuel cell system are also highlighted.

  8. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  9. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisca Segura; Jose Manuel Andújar

    2015-01-01

      The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator) system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system...

  10. Technology status: Batteries and fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of research and development programs on batteries and fuel cells and the technology goals being pursued are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon those technologies relevant to earth orbital electric energy storage applications.

  11. Advances in direct oxidation methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Vamos, E.; Frank, H.; Halpert, G.; Laconti, Anthony B.; Kosek, J.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Olah, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells that can operate directly on fuels such as methanol are attractive for low to medium power applications in view of their low weight and volume relative to other power sources. A liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell has been developed based on a proton exchange membrane electrolyte and Pt/Ru and Pt catalyzed fuel and air/O2 electrodes, respectively. The cell has been shown to deliver significant power outputs at temperatures of 60 to 90 C. The cell voltage is near 0.5 V at 300 mA/cm(exp 2) current density and an operating temperature of 90 C. A deterrent to performance appears to be methanol crossover through the membrane to the oxygen electrode. Further improvements in performance appear possible by minimizing the methanol crossover rate.

  12. Modular fuel-cell stack assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Pinakin

    2010-07-13

    A fuel cell assembly having a plurality of fuel cells arranged in a stack. An end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at an end of said stack. The end plate assembly has an inlet area adapted to receive an exhaust gas from the stack, an outlet area and a passage connecting the inlet area and outlet area and adapted to carry the exhaust gas received at the inlet area from the inlet area to the outlet area. A further end plate assembly abuts the fuel cell at a further opposing end of the stack. The further end plate assembly has a further inlet area adapted to receive a further exhaust gas from the stack, a further outlet area and a further passage connecting the further inlet area and further outlet area and adapted to carry the further exhaust gas received at the further inlet area from the further inlet area to the further outlet area.

  13. Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belieres, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research

  14. Carbonate fuel cells: Milliwatts to megawatts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, M.; Maru, H. C.

    The carbonate fuel cell power plant is an emerging high efficiency, ultra-clean power generator utilizing a variety of gaseous, liquid, and solid carbonaceous fuels for commercial and industrial applications. The primary mover of this generator is a carbonate fuel cell. The fuel cell uses alkali metal carbonate mixtures as electrolyte and operates at ∼650 °C. Corrosion of the cell hardware and stability of the ceramic components have been important design considerations in the early stages of development. The material and electrolyte choices are founded on extensive fundamental research carried out around the world in the 60s and early 70s. The cell components were developed in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The present day carbonate fuel cell construction employs commonly available stainless steels. The electrodes are based on nickel and well-established manufacturing processes. Manufacturing process development, scale-up, stack tests, and pilot system tests dominated throughout the 1990s. Commercial product development efforts began in late 1990s leading to prototype field tests beginning in the current decade leading to commercial customer applications. Cost reduction has been an integral part of the product effort. Cost-competitive product designs have evolved as a result. Approximately half a dozen teams around the world are pursuing carbonate fuel cell product development. The power plant development efforts to date have mainly focused on several hundred kW (submegawatt) to megawatt-class plants. Almost 40 submegawatt units have been operating at customer sites in the US, Europe, and Asia. Several of these units are operating on renewable bio-fuels. A 1 MW unit is operating on the digester gas from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Seattle, Washington (US). Presently, there are a total of approximately 10 MW capacity carbonate fuel cell power plants installed around the world. Carbonate fuel cell products are also being developed to operate on

  15. Durable Catalysts for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the selectivity for platinum loading. Fuel cell durability tests in term of performance degradation were performed with acid doped polybenzimidazole membrane fuel cells at temperatures of up to 160°C. The tests were focused on catalyst degradation by means of a potential cycling protocol. The electrochemical......Durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is recognized as one of the most important issues to be addressed before the commercialization. The failure mechanisms are not well understood, however, degradation of carbon supported noble metal catalysts is identified as a major failure...... mode of PEMFCs. Under idle, load-cycling or start-up/shutdown modes of operation, which are prerequisite for automobile applications, the cathode will experience significantly higher potentials and therefore suffer from serious carbon corrosion, especially at the presence of platinum. The carbon...

  16. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  17. Near-ambient solid polymer fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleck, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel cells are extremely attractive for extraterrestrial and terrestrial applications because of their high energy conversion efficiency without noise or environmental pollution. Among the various fuel cell systems the advanced polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells based on sulfonated fluoropolymers (e.g., Nafion) are particularly attractive because they are fairly rugged, solid state, quite conductive, of good chemical and thermal stability and show good oxygen reduction kinetics due to the low specific adsorption of the electrolyte on the platinum catalyst. The objective of this program is to develop a solid polymer fuel cell which can efficiently operate at near ambient temperatures without ancillary components for humidification and/or pressurization of the fuel or oxidant gases. During the Phase 1 effort we fabricated novel integral electrode-membrane structures where the dispersed platinum catalyst is precipitated within the Nafion ionomer. This resulted in electrode-membrane units without interfacial barriers permitting unhindered water diffusion from cathode to anode. The integral electrode-membrane structures were tested as fuel cells operating on H2 and O2 or air at 1 to 2 atm and 10 to 50 C without gas humidification. We demonstrated that cells with completely dry membranes could be self started at room temperature and subsequently operated on dry gas for extended time. Typical room temperature low pressure operation with unoptimized electrodes yielded 100 mA/cm(exp 2) at 0.5V and maximum currents over 300 mA/cm(exp 2) with low platinum loadings. Our results clearly demonstrate that operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells at ambient conditions is feasible. Optimization of the electrode-membrane structure is necessary to assess the full performance potential but we expect significant gains in weight and volume power density for the system. The reduced complexity will make fuel cells also attractive for smaller and portable power supplies and as

  18. Fuel Cells in the Coal Energy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolat Peter

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In march 1998 at the conference „Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems“ in Clearwater, USA representatives of U.S. Department of Energy presented the vision 21 focused on the electricity generation from coal for 21st century. The goal is a powerplant with the ability to produce the electricity from coal with the efficiency approaching 60% (higher heating value and emission levels of one-tenth of today´s technologies, The CO2 capture and permanent sequestration at the cost of $15/ton of CO2, and a cost of electricity of 3 cents per kilowatt-hour. The goal is believed to be achievable by the first quarter of the next century. The vision 21 is presented with several possible concepts. One of them is based on coal gasification with following hydrogen separation. The obtained hydrogen is used as a fuel for the cogeneration unit with fuel cells. The remaining gas can be liquefied and utilised as a fuel in the automotive industry or further chemically processed. The concept has several important features. Firstly, a very clean low cost electricity production. Secondly, it is comprised of fuel processing section and power processing section. The two sections need not to be co-located. In the world of the deregulated electricity generation this offers a major advantage. The technologies of fuel processing section – coal gasification and hydrogen separation have been successfully developed in the last two decades. A specificity of the fuel processing section of this concept is to obtain hydrogen rich gas with very low concentrations of substances, as CO, which cause a poisoning of electrodes of fuel cells leading to the decreasing fuel cells efficiency. Fuel cells, specially highly efficient coal-gas SOFC and MCFC, are expected to be commercially available by 2020. The natural-gas MCFC and SOFC plants should enter the commercial marketplace by the year 2002.

  19. A novel organic/inorganic polymer membrane based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid/3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Chen; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie; Shih, Jeng-Ywan

    2011-05-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (PAMPS)/3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS) organic/inorganic proton-conducting polymer membranes are prepared by a solution casting method. PAMPS is a polymeric acid commonly used as a primary proton donor, while 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) is an inorganic precursor forming a semi-interpenetrating network (SIPN). Varying amounts of sulfosuccinic acid (SSA) are used as the cross-linker and secondary proton source. The characteristic properties of PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membranes are investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy and the AC impedance method. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) made of PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membranes are assembled and examined. Experimental results indicate that DMFCs employing an inexpensive, non-perfluorinated, organic/inorganic SIPN membrane achieve good electrochemical performance. The highest peak power density of a DMFC using PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS composite membrane with 2 M CH3OH solution fuel at ambient temperature is 23.63 mW cm-2. The proposed organic/inorganic proton-conducting membrane based on PVA/PAMPS/GPTMS appears to be a viable candidate for future DMFC applications.

  20. Polybenzimidazoles based on high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares Leon, Jose Joaquin; Camargo, Ana Paula M.; Ashino, Natalia M.; Morgado, Daniella L.; Frollini, Elisabeth; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bajo, Justo Lobato [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an interesting approach in order to enhance the performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) by means of an increase in the operational temperature. For this, two polymeric materials, Poly(2,5-bibenzimidazole) (ABPBI) and Poly[2,2'-(m-phenyl en)-5,5' bib enzimidazol] (PBI), impregnated with phosphoric acid have been utilized. These have shown excellent properties, such as thermal stability above 500 deg C, reasonably high conductivity when impregnated with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and a low permeability to alcohols compared to Nafion. Preliminary fuel cells measurements on hydrogen based Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) displayed an interestingly reasonable good fuel cell performance, a quite reduced loss when the hydrogen stream was polluted with carbon monoxide, and finally, when the system was tested with an ethanol/water (E/W) fuel, it displayed quite promising results that allows placing this system as an attractive option in order to increase the cell performance and deal with the typical limitations of low temperature Nafion-based PEMFC. (author)

  1. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Polymer–electrolyte fuel cells; fuel cell-based automobiles; fuel cell vehicles; internal-combustion engine vehicles; direct methanol fuel cells. 1. Introduction. In the late 1890s, at the dawn of the automobile era, steam, gasoline and electric vehicles all competed to become the dominant automobile technology. By the.

  2. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan (September 2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    The Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan outlines the strategy, activities, and plans of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, which includes hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program and the DOE offices of Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Science.

  3. Proceedings of the fuel cells `95 review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This document contains papers presented at the Fuel Cells `95` Review Meeting. Topics included solid oxide fuel cells; DOE`s transportation program; ARPA advanced fuel cell development; molten carbonate fuel cells; and papers presented at a poster session. Individual papers have been processed separately for the U.S. DOE databases.

  4. Modelling of a High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Stack using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the development of an equivalent circuit model of a 65 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The HTPEM fuel cell membranes used are PBI-based and uses phosphoric acid as proton conductor. The operating temperature ...... of the MEA's is 160-180oC, depending on the purity of the hydrogen used, the load pattern and the desired lifetime. The advantages of the HTPEM fuel cell technology include fast response to load changes and high tolerance to CO (1-3%)......This work presents the development of an equivalent circuit model of a 65 cell high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cell stack using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The HTPEM fuel cell membranes used are PBI-based and uses phosphoric acid as proton conductor. The operating temperature...

  5. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianowski, L. G.; Osullivan, J. B.

    A molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. The high temperature heat available from the fuel cell may be used in a bottoming cycle and/or industrial cogeneration applications; however, for the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, continued developmental work is required which must take account of the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life and in producing inexpensive cell components is discussed. The status, direction, and priority of future research and engineering efforts is also discussed.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  7. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  8. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2

  9. PEM Fuel Cells from Single Cell to Stack - Fundamental, Modeling, Analysis, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Part III: Analysis Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell analysis. Chapter 8: PEM fuel cell stack desig...

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Matthew Ellis [Morgantown, WV; Bayless, David J [Athens, OH; Trembly, Jason P [Durham, NC

    2011-11-15

    Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cells fueled with reducible oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Steven S.; Fan, Liang Shih

    2018-01-09

    A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.

  12. State of the States: Fuel Cells in America, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Sandra; Delmont, Elizabeth; Gangi, Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    This report, written by Fuel Cells 2000 and partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, provides a snapshot of fuel cell and hydrogen activity in the 50 states and District of Columbia. It features the top five fuel cell states (in alphabetical order): California, Connecticut, New York, Ohio, and South Carolina. State activities reported include supportive fuel cell and hydrogen policies, installations and demonstrations, road maps, and level of activism.

  13. Porous silicon-based direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhafarov, T D; Yuksel, S Aydin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, the use of Au/porous silicon/Silicon Schottky type structure, as a direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell is demonstrated. The porous silicon filled with hydrochlorid acid was developed as a proton conduction membrane. The Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon cells were fabricated by first creating the porous silicon layer in single-crystalline Si using the anodic etching under illumination and then deposition Au catalyst layer onto the porous silicon. Using 80 mM H2S solution as fuel the open circuit voltage of 0.4 V was obtained and maximum power density of 30 W/m2 at room temperature was achieved. These results demonstrate that the Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell which uses H2S:dH2O solution as fuel and operates at room temperature can be considered as the most promising type of low cost fuel cell for small power-supply units.

  14. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  15. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  16. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.

  17. Large stationary fuel cell systems: Status and dynamic requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Manfred

    Molten carbonate fuel cell demonstrations to-date, have been able to show the highest fuel-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (>50%) of any stand-alone fuel cell type. The primary developer of this type of fuel cell in United States is Fuel Cell Energy Corporation (FCE), the developer and manufacturer of the Direct FuelCell ™ concept. FCE and MTU CFC Solutions in Germany, a licensee of FCE have demonstrated carbonate fuel cells from 10 kW to 2 MW of electrical output on a variety of fuels. IHI in Japan are also developing carbonate fuel cells for stationary power and have recently successfully demonstrated the technology in Kawagoe, Japan. In Italy, Ansaldo fuel cell have demonstrated a 100 kW carbonate fuel cell in Milan. In Korea, the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy has committed to install 300 fuel cell units, sized 250 kW to 1 MW, for distributed power generation by 2012. Carbonate fuel cell technology is more fuel flexible than lower temperature fuel cell technologies and is well suited for on-site stationary CHP applications as well as to marine, military, and traction applications. The present paper gives an overview about the commercialisation efforts for the molten carbonate fuel cell technology.

  18. Inorganic salt mixtures as electrolyte media in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen (Inventor); Belieres, Jean-Philippe (Inventor); Francis-Gervasio, Dominic (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell designs and techniques for converting chemical energy into electrical energy uses a fuel cell are disclosed. The designs and techniques include an anode to receive fuel, a cathode to receive oxygen, and an electrolyte chamber in the fuel cell, including an electrolyte medium, where the electrolyte medium includes an inorganic salt mixture in the fuel cell. The salt mixture includes pre-determined quantities of at least two salts chosen from a group consisting of ammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate, ammonium trifluoroacetate, and ammonium nitrate, to conduct charge from the anode to the cathode. The fuel cell includes an electrical circuit operatively coupled to the fuel cell to transport electrons from the cathode.

  19. Durability of solid oxide fuel cells using sulfur containing fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Rasmussen, Jens Foldager Bregnballe; Thydén, Karl Tor Sune

    2011-01-01

    The usability of hydrogen and also carbon containing fuels is one of the important advantages of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which opens the possibility to use fuels derived from conventional sources such as natural gas and from renewable sources such as biogas. Impurities like sulfur compounds...... are critical in this respect. State-of-the-art Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes suffer from being rather sensitive towards sulfur impurities. In the current study, anode supported SOFCs with Ni/YSZ or Ni/ScYSZ anodes were exposed to H2S in the ppm range both for short periods of 24h and for a few hundred hours. In a fuel...... to a loss of percolation of Ni particles in the Ni/YSZ anode layers closest to the electrolyte. Using SOFCs with Ni/ScYSZ anodes improved the H2S tolerance considerably, even at larger H2S concentrations of 10 and 20ppm over a few hundred hours....

  20. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).