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Sample records for acid disodium salt

  1. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. Mechanism of oxidation of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt with oxygen in subcritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbierowicz, Mirosław

    2017-06-01

    The article presents the results of studies on the oxidation mechanism of 3-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid disodium salt (R-salt) with oxygen in subcritical water. To this aim, a series of experiments were carried out which showed that at a temperature of 413 K and pH > 9 the oxidation reaction of a substrate with oxygen was relatively quick and after approximately 40 min the R-salt oxidation yield exceeded 95%. In an acidic medium (pH oxidation is small. In order to identify the mechanism of R-salt oxidation, experiments were carried out at 413-569 K in solutions with pH = 10.0 and at partial oxygen pressure pO2 = 1.73 MPa. As a result of these experiments, a stable oxidation product was isolated from the reaction mixture and subjected to spectroscopic analysis. The analysis of (H)NMR of this product proved that a stable intermediate product of R-salt oxidation was 4-sulfophthalic acid sodium salt. The results of the experiments have shown that destructive oxidation of R-salt can easily be obtained at a temperature of 413 K, but satisfactory reduction of TOC in wastewater containing this substrate requires the use of very high temperature: at 569 K only 60% reduction of TOC was achieved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1121 Boric acid and its... the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical boric acid and...

  4. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  5. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao [State Key Lab Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan, E-mail: gongyd@tsinghua.edu.c, E-mail: aoqiang@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Neurological Disorders, Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2010-06-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-{beta}-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that

  6. Effect of amino acids on the dispersion of disodium cromoglycate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Nora Y K; Shekunov, Boris Y; Tong, Henry H Y; Chow, Albert H L; Savage, Charles; Wu, James; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2005-10-01

    Modified disodium cromoglycate powders were prepared by co-spray drying with different concentrations of leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, asparagine, and arginine. Amorphous spherical particles of the same size and density where obtained which, however, exhibited different surface properties as measured by the inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The surface energy parameters, such as the dispersive component of surface free energy of the sample, gammaSD, and the total solubility parameter, delta, were significantly lower in the presence of nonpolar chain amino acids, particularly with leucine and phenylalanine, than pure DSCG. However no quantitative relationship between these parameters, the additive concentrations, and the fine particle fractions, FPF, determined for different inhalers and air flow rates, was observed. The FPF significantly increased with addition of leucine and this effect was attributed to reduced intermolecular interactions between leucine and disodium cromoglycate molecules, as indicated by the difference in corresponding Hansen solubility parameters. Decrease of interparticle interactions for leucine-containing powders also led to a lesser dependence of FPF on the flow rate and inhaler type.

  7. EMBRYOTOXIC AND TERATOGENIC EFFECT OF DISODIUM GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID HEMIPHTHALATE IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Marzbnn

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Disodium glycyrrhetinic acid hemiphthalaic (GAP was evaluated for developmental toxicity in pregnant NMRI mice. GAP was administered intrapcritoneally on days S, 9, 10, of gestation at doses of 0, 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg/dav. On gestation day of IS, after operational delivery, the fetuses were examined for soft tissue, external and skeletal defects."nIncreased absorptions, dead fetuses, and reduce fetal body weight per litter were observed at doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day. In addition by using different doses of GAP at different critical gestation times, developmental delay was observed as reduction in ossification centers and vertebral number in caudal region. It seems that GAP at doses of (50 and 75 mg/kg/day has a cmbiyotoxic and teratogenic potential in mice.

  8. Gadoxate disodium: gadolinium EOB DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Gadoxate disodium [gadolinium EOB DTPA, Gd-EOB-DTPA, gadoxetic acid, Eovist injection, Primovist] is a hydrophilic paramagnetic contrast agent being developed by Schering AG for hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging. In April 2004, gadoxate disodium (Primovist) was approved in Sweden, the reference member state for the EU registration. Following the Swedish approval, Schering will initiate a mutual recognition procedure for the EU with approvals expected in most countries during 2004. Gadoxate disodium is in phase III clinical trials in the US and has completed phase III studies in Japan. Submissions for approval in Japan and other Asian countries are planned for 2004. Schering AG plans to launch Eovist in Japan in 2005. Schering AG acquired a worldwide, royalty-bearing licence to EPIX Medical's patents covering liver-enhancing agents such as Eovist injection. These included a European patent (222886) and the US patents (4,899,755 and 4,888,008) that EPIX Medical exclusively licensed from the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). The MGH patents, a part of EPIX's extensive intellectual property, also covered albumin-targeted agents such as MS 325 (AngioMARK). Schering AG formally withdrew from the opposition proceedings against EPIX's EU patent 222886 following its acquisition of EPIX's intellectual property. These EU and US patents were also non-exclusively licensed by EPIX Medical to Bracco in September 2001. Apart from covering Eovist (Schering AG), the EU patent also covered gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance Bracco). Following the licensing agreement, Bracco withdrew its opposition to the patents in Europe and Japan, and both EPIX Medical and Bracco settled their European patent dispute. In its 2002 Annual Report, Schering predicted that Eovist has the potential to reach peak sales of euro50 million, three years after launch--at the time, launch in Europe was anticipated in 2004, followed by launch in Japan in 2005. This is down from earlier predictions

  9. Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    11beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 (11beta -OHSD2) in the kidney. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its derivatives block gap junction intracellular communication in a dose-dependent manner in animal and human cells, including epithelial cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, hepatocytes, and astrocytes; at high concentrations, it is cytotoxic. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid protect liver tissue from carbon tetrachloride. Glycyrrhizic Acid has been used to treat chronic hepatitis, inhibiting the penetration of the hepatitis A virus into hepatocytes. Glycyrrhetinic Acid and Glycyrrhizic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects in rats and mice. The acute intraperitoneal LD(50) for Glycyrrhetinic Acid in mice was 308 mg/kg and the oral LD(50) was > 610 mg/kg. The oral LD(50) in rats was reported to be 610 mg/kg. Higher LD(50) values were generally reported for salts. Little short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity was seen in rats given ammonium, dipotassium, or disodium salts of Glycyrrhizic Acid. Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test. Glycyrrhetinic Acid inhibited the mutagenic activity of benzo[a]pyrene and inhibited tumor initiation and promotion by other agents in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited tumor initiation by another agent, but did not prevent tumor promotion in mice. Glycyrrhizic Acid delayed mortality in mice injected with Erlich ascites tumor cells, but did not reduce the mortality rate. Ammonium Glycyrrhizate was not genotoxic in in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics assays, the dominant lethal assay, an Ames assay, and heritable translocation tests, except for possible increase in dominant lethal mutations in rats given 2000 mg/kg day(-1) in their diet. Disodium Glycyrrhizate was not carcinogenic in mice in a drinking water study at exposure levels up to 12.2 mg/kg day(-1) for 96 weeks. Glycyrrhizate salts produced no reproductive or developmental toxicity in rats, mice

  10. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  11. Crystal structure and characterization of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Kazuto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a tricarboxylic acid, has attracted attention as a growth factor, and its application to supplements and cosmetics is underway. The product used for these purposes is a water-soluble salt of PQQ disodium. Although in the past, PQQ disodiumpentahydrates with a high water concentration were used, currently, low hydration crystals of PQQ disodiumpentahydrates are preferred. Results We prepared a crystal of PQQ disodium trihydrate in a solution of ethanol and water, studied its structure, and analyzed its properties. In the prepared crystal, the sodium atom interacted with the oxygen atom of two carboxylic acids as well as two quinones of the PQQ disodium trihydrate. In addition, the hydration water of the prepared crystal was less than that of the conventional PQQ disodium crystal. From the results of this study, it was found that the color and the near-infrared (NIR spectrum of the prepared crystal changed depending on the water content in the dried samples. Conclusions The water content in the dried samples was restored to that in the trihydrate crystal by placing the samples in a humid environment. In addition, the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray diffraction-differential calorimetry (XRD-DSC analyses show that the phase of the trihydrate crystal changed when the crystallization water was eliminated. The dried crystal has two crystalline forms that are restored to the original trihydrate crystals in 20% relative humidity (RH. This crystalline (PQQ disodium trihydrate is stable under normal environment.

  12. Study of apparent molal volume and viscosity of mutual citric acid and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate aqueous systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Man Singh

    2006-05-01

    Fundamental properties, density () and viscosity (), of citric acid (CA) and disodium hydrogen orthophosphate (DSP) at various strengths were obtained at different temperatures. The and values were used to determine apparent molal volumes and viscosity of systems. The , and values were regressed against molality for ρ0, 0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f, the limiting constants at infinite dilution ( → 0) forionic and molecular interactions. The ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$f of aq. acids are higher than those of aq. DSP and the viscosity of DSP is higher than that of aq. CA. Examination of ρ0 and $V^{0}_{\\phi}$ functions indicates that mutual compositions of CA and DSP counterbalance concentration and temperature effects on pH in bioprocesses.

  13. The effect of disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen on the excretion of histamine and N tau-methylimidazole acetic acid in urine of patients with mastocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, A I; Norris, P; Rendell, N B; Wong, E; Greaves, M W

    1989-01-01

    Treatment of four mastocytosis patients with the mast cell stabilising drugs, disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen failed to alter significantly the urinary excretion levels of histamine or N tau-methylimidazole acetic acid. No clinical improvement was noted in any subject after treatment by either drug. PMID:2495814

  14. Characterization of interactions between methoxatin disodium salt and human serum albumin by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis/frontal analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Chen, Dongying

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis (PACE)/frontal analysis (FA) and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the interactions between methoxatin disodium salt (PQQ-2Na) and human serum albumin (HSA). With the PACE/FA method, sodium phosphate buffer solution (67 mm, pH 7.4) was used as the background electrolyte. Hydrodynamic injection at 50 mbar for 50 s and external pressure of 50 mbar were applied. The binding constant and the number of primary binding sites to HSA were obtained under fixed concentration of PQQ-2Na (100 µm) and increasing HSA concentration (0~475 µm). The thermodynamic parameters characterized the main acting forces of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. The displacement experiments using phenylbutazone and flurbiprofen as ligand markers suggested that the binding site was the Sudlow site I of the HSA molecule. Circular dichroism spectroscopy was further employed to evaluate the conformation changes of HSA under the interaction of PQQ-2Na. This work provides comprehensive information for understanding the interactions between PQQ-2Na and HSA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium on the corrosion of cold rolled steel in the presence of benzotriazole in hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qing [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]. E-mail: quqing58@yahoo.com.cn; Jiang, Shuan [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Bai, Wei [Department of Chemistry, Yunnan Nationalities University, Kunming 650092 (China); Li, Lei [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2007-08-01

    The inhibition behavior of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium (EDTA) in the absence and presence of benzotriazole (BTA) was investigated with Tafel polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The polarization curve results show that the single EDTA acts as an anodic type inhibitor while the combination of EDTA and BTA acts as mixed type inhibitor and mainly inhibits anodic reaction. All impedance spectra in EIS tests exhibit one capacitive loop which indicates that the corrosion reaction is controlled by charge transfer process. Inhibition efficiencies obtained from Tafel polarization, charge transfer resistance (R {sub t}) are consistent. The corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.1 M HCl is obviously reduced by EDTA in combination with lower concentrations of BTA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize the corrosion surface of cold rolled steel. Probable mechanisms are present to explain the experimental results.

  16. Influence of Combined Therapeutic Potential of Meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid and Calcium Disodium Edetate on Lead-induced Testicular Alterations in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOVINDER J.S. FLORA; USHA ARORA; ARD PRAHLAD K. SETH

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a combination of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and calcium disodium EDTA in protecting testicular disorders in chronic lead intoxication was investigated. The results indicate that two five-days courses of the combined therapy produced a more effective recovery in the lead induced biochemical and histopathological disorders compared to conventional single 5 days therapy. No adverse effect of the chelators, when administered individually or in combination, was noticed in the testes of control (without lead exposure) animals.

  17. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for...

  18. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  19. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721... Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt (PMN P-94...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9630 - Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. 721.9630... Substances § 721.9630 Polyfluorosulfonic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyfluorosulfonic acid salt (P-90...

  2. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and... Preservatives § 172.135 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-tate... following foods at not to exceed the levels prescribed, calculated as anhydrous calcium disodium EDTA:...

  3. Taurine suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells induced by beta-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiang; Li, Jian-ming; Liao, Xiao-bo; Hu, Ye-rong; Shang, Bao-peng; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Ling-qing; Xie, Hui; Sheng, Zhi-feng; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lu; Zhou, Xin-min

    2012-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.

  4. Combination therapy using fexofenadine, disodium cromoglycate, and a hypoallergenic amino acid-based formula induced remission in a patient with steroid-dependent, chronically active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raithel, M; Winterkamp, S; Weidenhiller, M; Müller, S; Hahn, E G

    2007-07-01

    Corticosteroids and 5-aminosalicylic acid are the primary standard therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Recent immunologic data implicate an involvement of mast cell activation followed by increased histamine secretion and elevated tissue concentrations of histamine in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. In the present case, the clinical course of a 35-year-old man with steroid-dependent chronic active ulcerative colitis, who did not respond to high-dose steroids, antibiotics, or azathioprine during 3 years, is reported. Clinical disease activity and established serological markers were recorded during 6 weeks of unsuccessful therapy and during the next 6 weeks, as a new nonsedative antihistaminergic drug, a mast cell stabilizer, and an hypoallergenic diet were implemented in addition to conventional therapy. Induction of remission was achieved within 2 weeks after treatment with fexofenadine, disodium cromoglycate, and an amino acid-based formula. Clinical disease activity, stool frequency, leukocytes, c-reactive protein, and orosomucoid levels in serum decreased rapidly. Daily steroid administration could be gradually reduced along with 6 weeks of this treatment. This report suggests that histamine and mast cell activity may be important pathophysiological factors responsible for persistent clinical and mucosal inflammatory activity in ulcerative colitis despite the use of steroids. In ulcerative colitis, patients unresponsive to conventional treatment, therapeutic considerations should also include an antiallergic approach when further signs of atopy or intestinal hypersensitivity are present.

  5. Metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acids and oil compositions containing the salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Liston, T.V.

    1988-03-08

    Metal salts of alkyl catechol esters of dithiophosphoric acid suitable as additives in oil compositions are disclosed in this patent. Oil compositions containing the salts of such esters show improved extreme pressure/anti-wear and anit-oxidant properties.

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2270 - Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. 721... Substances § 721.2270 Aliphatic dicarboxylic acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... salt (PMN P-92-1352) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6140 Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt. (a) Chemical... as a dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt (P-90-1839) is subject to reporting under...

  10. Permeation and metabolism of a novel ascorbic acid derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, in human living skin equivalent models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, H; Hisama, M; Matsuda, S; Ohtsuki, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel amphiphilic vitamin C (VC) derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), which possesses a C(18) alkyl chain attached to a stable ascorbate derivative, sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was evaluated as a topical prodrug of VC with transdermal activity in human living skin equivalent (LSE) models. The permeation assay used was EPI-606X in the Franz-type diffusion cell system. VCP-IS-2Na exhibited much better permeability than VC and VCP-Na. The accumulation assays applied were EPI-200X and LSE-high by the dynamic system. The increased skin accumulation of VCP-IS-2Na was superior to that of VCP-Na and VC. VCP-IS-2Na that is susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis by esterase and/or phosphatase released VC in the skin. Measurement of the metabolites that permeated and accumulated from the skin model suggested that VCP-IS-2Na was mainly metabolized via VCP-Na to VC in EPI-606X and EPI-200X, while it was mainly metabolized directly to VC in TESTSKIN LSE-high. Thus, these characteristics indicate that the novel VC derivative, VCP-IS-2Na, may be advantageous as a readily available source of VC for skin care applications.

  11. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 573.360 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA. 573.360 Section 573.360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing § 573.360 Disodium EDTA. The food additive disodium EDTA (disodium ethylenediaminetetraace-...

  13. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  14. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  15. Frovatriptan salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Krishnan; Sridhar, Balasubramanian; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Hariharakrishnan, Venkatasubramanian; Rao, Bandi Venugopal

    2013-04-01

    The interaction of the antimigraine pharmaceutical agent frovatriptan with acetic acid and succinic acid yields the salts (±)-6-carbamoyl-N-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-3-aminium acetate, C14H18N3O(+)·C2H3O2(-), (I), (R)-(+)-6-carbamoyl-N-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-3-aminium 3-carboxypropanoate monohydrate, C14H18N3O(+)·C4H5O4(-)·H2O, (II), and bis[(R)-(+)-6-carbamoyl-N-methyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-3-aminium] succinate trihydrate, 2C14H18N3O(+)·C4H4O4(2-)·3H2O, (III). The methylazaniumyl substitutent is oriented differently in all three structures. Additionally, the amide group in (I) is in a different orientation. All the salts form three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structures. In (I), the cations form head-to-head hydrogen-bonded amide-amide catemers through N-H···O interactions, while in (II) and (III) the cations form head-to-head amide-amide dimers. The cation catemers in (I) are extended into a three-dimensional network through further interactions with acetate anion acceptors. The presence of succinate anions and water molecules in (II) and (III) primarily governs the three-dimensional network through water-bridged cation-anion associations via O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The structures reported here shed some light on the possible mode of noncovalent interactions in the aggregation and interaction patterns of drug molecule adducts.

  16. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  17. NOVEL SALTS OF FUMARIC ACID MONOALKYLESTERS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL USE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to novel strontium salts of fumaric acid monoalkylesters. The salts are suitable for use as active subtances in the treatment of e.g. psoriasis or other hyperproliferative, inflammatory or autoimmune disorders either alone or in combination with another fumaric acid ...

  18. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise: calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, C; Hartvigsen, K; Thomsen, M K; Hansen, L F; Lund, P; Skibsted, L H; Hølmer, G; Adler-Nissen, J; Meyer, A S

    2001-02-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA was attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter the profile of volatiles. The effect of the emulsifier on the physical structure and rheological properties depended on the presence of antioxidants.

  19. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm;

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., phosphoric acid ester salts. 721.6200 Section 721.6200 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ester salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  1. GROWTH-REGULATING ACTIVITY OF SOME SALTS OF 1-NAPHTHALENACETIC ACID AND 2-NAPHTHOXYACETIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laichici

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The salts of 1-naphthalene acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid with ethanolamine have been synthetized. The two salts have been assessed using Tsibulskaya-Vassiliev biological test using agar-agar as the medium. Statistical processing of the data has been carried out. The good results of the bioassay indicate an auxinic growth-regulating activity of the two salts.

  2. A co-crystal of nonahydrated disodium(II with mixed anions from m-chlorobenzoic acid and furosemide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca King London

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Na2(H2O9](C7H4ClO2(C12H10ClN2O5S {systematic name: catena-poly[[[triaquasodium(I]-di-μ-aqua-[triaquasodium(I]-μ-aqua] 3-chlorobenzoate 4-chloro-2-[(furan-2-ylmethylamino]-5-sulfamoylbenzoate]}, both the original m-chlorobenzoic acid and furosemide exist with deprotonated carboxylates, and the sodium cations and water molecules exist in chains with stoichiometry [Na2(OH29]2+ that propagate in the [-110] direction. Each of the two independent Na+ ions is coordinated by three monodentate water molecules, two double-water bridges, and one single-water bridge. There is considerable cross-linking between the [Na2(OH29]2+ chains and to furosemide sulfonamide and carboxylate by intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. All hydrogen-bond donors participate in a complex two-dimensional array parallel to the ab plane. The furosemide NH group donates an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the carboxylate group, and the furosemide NH2 group donates an intramolecular hydrogen bond to the Cl atom and an intermolecular one to the m-chlorobenzoate O atom. The plethora of hydrogen-bond donors on the cation/water chain leads to many large rings, up to graph set R44(24, involving two chains and two furosemide anions. The chlorobenzoate is involved in only one R22(8 ring, with two water molecules cis-coordinated to Na. The furan O atom is not hydrogen bonded.

  3. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  4. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  5. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  6. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Amino Acids-Based Trimethoprim Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal R. Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Trimethoprim (TMP is a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR inhibitor which prevents the conversion of dihydrofolic acid into tetrahydrofolic acid, resulting in the depletion of the latter and leading to bacterial death. Oral bioavailability of TMP is hindered by both its low solubility and low permeability. This study aims to prepare novel salts of TMP using anionic amino acids; aspartic and glutamic acid as counter ions in order to improve solubility and dissolution. TMP salts were prepared by lyophilisation and characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Both the amino acids formed salts with TMP in a 1:1 molar ratio and showed a 280 fold improvement in solubility. Investigation of the microbiological activity of the prepared salts against TMP sensitive Escherichia coli showed that the new salts not only retained antibacterial activity but also exhibited higher zone of inhibition which was attributed to improved physicochemical characters such as higher solubility and dissolution. The results are an important finding that could potentially impact on faster onset of antibacterial activity and reduced therapeutic dose when administered to patients. Studies are underway investigating the effect of ion-pairing TMP with amino acids on the permeability profile of the drug.

  8. Interaction between fatty acid salts and the elastin network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the formation of a

  9. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  10. Metabolism of gold salt in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Tissue distribution of the organic counterpart and their fate in relation to the gold atom after administration of (1,2-dicarboxyethyl thio) gold disodium salt (4-/sup 14/C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigami, M. (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Radioactive aurothiomalate (4-/sup 14/C) was administrated parenteraly to rats or rabbits, and tissue distribution of radioactivity and their fate were studied. Radioactivity which represented the organic counterpart of the gold salt was relatively quickly taken up into the blood and reduced with half life time of an hour. In the blood, it stayed mainly in the serum while only small portion of it was incorporated into corpuscles. Radioactivities were taken into various organs quickly also, particularly into kidney and bone in high concentrations. High absorption of the radioactivity by skin was observed at the early stage but quickly decreased by time passage. The radioactivity incorporated into organs did not accumulate but disappeared rather quickly, with little differences in the patterns of disappearance from organ to organ. Much radioactivity seemed to move into the digestive tract. Significant amount of radioactivity was recovered in the expired CO/sub 2/. Its discharging speed was nearly parallel to that of the blood radioactivity level. The metabolic pattern of the organic counterpart of the gold was greatly different to that of its gold atom. Soon after the administration, the gold salt was separated into the two portions, gold atom and organic moiety, and then would go through different metabolic courses.

  11. Aminopentadiene imines from zincke salts of 3-alkylpyridines. Application to a synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Minh; Sanchez-Salvatori, Maria del Rayo; Wypych, Jean-Charles; Marazano, Christian

    2007-07-20

    The reaction of Zincke salts with primary amines to give pyridinium salts generally requires rather elevated temperature to go to completion (50-100 degrees C). It is shown that the addition of 1 equiv of a secondary amine allows formation, at ambient temperature, of intermediate aminopentadiene imine salts which can be isolated and were found to cyclize in acidic medium to give pyridinium salts at temperatures which do not exceed 50 degrees C. If this process has a tendency to give lower yields of pyridinium salt than the standard Zincke procedure, it can be advantageous in some cases, as illustrated by the synthesis of pyridinium salts from amino acids, a challenging reaction which does not work starting from Zincke salt in the absence of diethylamine. More generally, the reaction can be extended to primary amines featuring polar functions, as exemplified by a pyridinium salt synthesis (75 degrees C) in 55% yield from l-carnosine.

  12. Amino acid salt solutions for carbon dioxide capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta

    2014-01-01

    Reactive absorption is a common process in the chemical industry and is used, among others, in the treatment of CO2 containing industrial gas streams. The current work was a part of a project with the aim to assess new reactive solvents based on amino acid salts for CO2 removal from industrial gas s

  13. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Pyrimethanil Heterocyclic Acid Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Xiao-Hong; LIU,Yuan-Fa; CHEN,Bang; JIA,Ying-Qi; YANG,Jian-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Seven pyrimethanil salts were synthesized by organic base containing nitrogen atom reacting with substituted pyridine acids. They are reported for the first time. Their structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The preliminary toxicity tests indicated that most of them exhibited excellent fungicidal activities.The relationship between the structures and the fungicidal activities of the compounds was discussed.

  14. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... diet of humans, animals, and plants and currently have Food and Drug Administration and EPA approved.../kg/day (6 times the limit dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day) on days 2 to 13 of pregnancy and musculo-skeletal... plants. Ammonium salts of fatty acid are not likely to persist in the environment and are expected to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9790 - Benzenesulfonic acid, 2,2′-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-[[4-[bis(2-hydroxypropyl) amino]- 6-[(3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzenesulfonic acid, 2,2â²-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis - 6- -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-, disodium salt, compd. with 2,2â²,2â³-nitrilo-tris (1:2); Benzenesulfonic acid, 5- -6- -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2- -6- -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-sulfophenyl]ethenyl]-, disodium salt, compd....

  16. Intratracheal dosing with disodium cromoglycate inhibits late asthmatic response by attenuating eicosanoid production in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Maki; Suga, Mikiko; Kohno, Shigekatsu

    2004-08-16

    Disodium cromoglycate is an anti-asthmatic drug that has mast cell-stabilizing effects and other anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are unclear. In this study, we evaluated effects of disodium cromoglycate on eosinophilia, early and late asthmatic responses, and production of arachidonic acid metabolites in guinea pig lungs. Guinea pigs were alternately sensitized and challenged by exposure to mists of ovalbumin+Al(OH)(3) and ovalbumin, respectively. Disodium cromoglycate (0.5-2 mg/0.1 ml/animal) administered intratracheally before the fifth challenge dose-dependently inhibited asthmatic response, but early asthmatic response was not affected. Disodium cromoglycate at 2 mg/animal potently suppressed increases in cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and thromboxane A(2) in the lung during late asthmatic response. Eosinophilia was slightly reduced by disodium cromoglycate. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on late asthmatic response is apparently due to inhibition of the release of arachidonic acid metabolites, some of which may be derived from eosinophils that infiltrate the lung.

  17. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9640 - Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9640 Salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (generic). (a... generically as salt of an acrylic acid - acrylamide terpolymer (PMN P-99-817) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review... pesticides propionic acid and salts, case no. 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213,...

  1. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. 172.725... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.725 Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt. The food additives gibberellic acid and its potassium salt may be used in the malting of barley in...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium ] (4-)-N,N′,O,O′,O N,O N′] cuprate (2-)....

  3. Structural characterization of ambazone salt with niflumic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Kacso, Irina; Rus, Lucia; Pop, Mircea; Borodi, Gheorghe; Ioan BRATU

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation is a good method of increasing solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs [Polymorphism in Pharmaceutical Solids, Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 192, 2nd edn, Informa Healthcare, New York, 2009]. The aim of this study was to obtain and to investigate the structural properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method [Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 20 (2002), 2372–2373] at room temperature sta...

  4. Effects of Fatty Acid Salts against Trichophyton Violaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Era Mariko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichophyton violaceum is an anthropophilic fungus. Dermatophytosis (Tinea is fungal infection that can infect the scalp, glabrous skin, and nails. In general, Tinea can be spread by skin-to-skin contact or bathroom or floor materials. The treatments of Tinea need antifungal medication and good hygiene environment. The effective antifungal medication and infection prevention, and the creation of antifungal medication with high safety are required. In this study was focused on the antifungal effect of fatty acids potassium salts. The antifungal activity of nine fatty acid salts (butyrate, caproate, caprylate, caprate, laurate, myristate, oleate, linoleate, and linolenate was tested on the spores of Trichophyton violaceum NBRC 31064. The results show that C6K, C8K, C10K, C12K, C18:2K, C18:3K was the most inhibit 4-log unit (99.99 % of the fatty acids potassium incubated time for 10 min. It was observed that C12K and C18:3K was most high antifungal activity MIC. Commercially soap was lowest antifungal activity. This is because of the oleic acid is a major component of soap. Although further investigation is necessary to make clear antifungal mechanisms, our results suggest that fatty acid potassium will use to the development of a coating agent such as furniture.

  5. 21 CFR 173.45 - Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polymaleic acid and its sodium salt. 173.45 Section 173.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... sodium salt. Polymaleic acid (CAS Reg. No. 26099-09-2) and its sodium salt (CAS Reg. No. 70247-90-4) may...

  6. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ...: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Methodology The Department has... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid)......

  7. Molecular Aggregation in Disodium Cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gautam; Agra-Kooijman, D.; Collings, P. J.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2012-02-01

    Details of molecular aggregation in the mesophases of the anti-asthmatic drug disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) have been studied using x-ray synchrotron scattering. The results show two reflections, one at wide angles corresponding to π-π stacking (3.32 å) of molecules, and the other at small angles which is perpendicular to the direction of molecular stacking and corresponds to the distance between the molecular aggregates. The latter varies from 35 - 41 å in the nematic (N) phase and 27 -- 32 å in the columnar (M) phase. The temperature evolution of the stack height, positional order correlations in the lateral direction, and orientation order parameter were determined in the N, M, and biphasic regions. The structure of the N and M phases and the nature of the molecular aggregation, together with their dependence on temperature and concentration, will be presented.

  8. 40 CFR 721.5279 - 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 4-amino-3-[[4′2-amino-4-[(3-butoxy-2-hydroxypropyl)amino]phebyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 4-amino-3- phebyl]azo]-3,3â²-dimethyl -4-yl]azo]-5-hydroxy-6-(phenylazo)-, disodium salt. 721.5279 Section 721.5279 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  9. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under...

  12. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing... review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic... (202) 482-1503. Scope of the Order The merchandise subject to the order is citric acid and...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phosphoric acid, tin...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN P-97-553...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN P...

  16. Effect of salt addition on acid resistance response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sun-Young

    2017-08-01

    A combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, such as pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid against E. coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of salt addition on the acid resistance (AR) response of E. coli O157:H7 after treatment with acetic acid. The combined effect of acetic acid and salt showed different results depending on media tested. Organic compounds such as yeast extract and tryptone were required to observe the antagonistic effect of salt and acetic acid in combination. However, use of an rpoS mutant or addition of chloramphenicol resulted in no changes in the antagonistic effect of acetic acid and salt. The addition of glutamate to phosphate buffer significantly increased the survival levels of E. coli O157:H7 after the acetic acid treatment; however, the survival levels were lower than those after the treatment with acetic acid alone. Thus, the addition of salt may increase the AR response of E. coli O157:H7; however, these survival mechanisms were not proven clearly. Therefore, further studies need to be performed to better understand the antagonism of acetic acid salt against E. coli O157:H7. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  18. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid ester, substituted amine salt. 721.7770 Section 721.7770 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ester, substituted amine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester,...

  19. [Interferon inductor activity and interferon production under the action of acridonacetic acid salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A L; Grigorian, S S; Romantsov, M G; Petrov, A Iu; Muzykin, M A; Isaeva, E I

    2014-01-01

    Peculiarities of the kinetics of accumulation and duration of circulation of three types of interferon under the action of acridonacetic acid salts have been studied. Optimum doses of meglumine salt of acridonacetic acid are established, which ensure efficient and consistent induction of three interferon types, ensuring their prolonged circulation in the blood.

  20. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10177 - Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10177 Phosphoric acid, yttrium(3+) salt (1:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic... order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension...

  3. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic... Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  4. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal employing EDTA disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojinova, D.; Velkova, R. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The biological phosphorus removal is a promising alternative to the conventional chemical technologies for processing of phosphate raw materials. The object of this study was the effect of EDTA disodium on the biotreatment of tunisian phosphorite with the strain of Aspergillus niger. The incubation was carried out in two nutritive mediums, with different phosphate content. The experimental results showed that the additives of EDTA disodium in the nutritive medium increased the rate of extraction of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and shortened significantly the time for biological leaching. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Preparation, spectral and thermal studies of pyrazinecarboxylic acids and their hydrazinium salts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Premkumar; S Govindarajan; Wei-Ping Pan

    2003-04-01

    Some new hydrazinium 2-pyrazinecarboxylate and 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate salts of the formulae N2H5pc, N2H5pc.H2O (Hpc = 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid), N2H5Hpdc, (N2H5)2pdc.H2O and N2H5(Hpdc).H2pdc (H2pdc = 2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid) have been prepared by neutralization of aqueous hydrazine hydrate with the respective acids in appropriate molar ratios. The free acids and their hydrazinium salts have been characterized by analytical, IR spectroscopic and thermal studies. IR spectra of all the salts show N-N stretching frequencies of the N2H$_{5}^{+}$ ion in the region 975-960 cm-1. The thermoanalytical behaviour of the free acids and their salts has been investigated by simultaneous TG and DTA. While pyrazinecarboxylic acid shows single-step endothermic (229°C) complete decomposition, pyrazindicarboxylic acid shows exothermic decarboxylation followed by identical endothermic decomposition as that of the former. Similarly, salts of the monocarboxylic acid show endothermic effects during pyrolysis, whereas salts of the dicarboxylic acid show endothermic followed by exothermic decomposition. The acids and their salts both undergo complete decomposition to gaseous products.

  6. [The identification of several saturated fatty acids and their salts by means of infrared spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui

    2007-02-01

    It is considered that saturated fatty acids and their salts may be potential hydrocarbon-generation matters in carbonate rocks. However, there is no effective method to distinguish them from natural sediments, making recognizing their distribution in sediments a challenge. Formic acid, acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium formate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate, and magnesium stearate from some chemical plants were investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Their infrared spectra were obtained and the distinctions of the infrared spectra between saturated fatty acids and their salts were studied in detail. The differences in the group's electron-releasing ability, molecular reduced mass, ion configuration and the length of carbon chain can cause wavelength shifts of infrared absorption peaks of the saturated fatty acids and their salts. The research provides a method for the identification of saturated fatty acids and their salts in samples from nature.

  7. Lysine, disodium guanylate and disodium inosinate as flavor enhancers in low-sodium fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2012-07-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl and with addition of lysine, disodium guanylate, and disodium inosinate. The sausage production was monitored with physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The final products were submitted to a consumer study. The replacement of NaCl with KCl did not cause changes in the technological process. However, defects in the sensory quality were detected. Lysine at a concentration of 1% with disodium inosinate (300 mg/kg) and disodium guanylate (300 mg/kg) reduced the sensory defects caused by the replacement of 50% NaCl with KCl allowing the preparation of sensory acceptable fermented sausages with a 50% decrease in sodium.

  8. Combined Application of Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging (DWI in the Diagnosis of Chronic Liver Disease-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available Gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent to target the liver cells with normal function. In clinical practice, the Gd-EOB-DTPA produces high quality hepatocyte specific image 20 minutes after intravenous injection, so DWI sequence is often performed after the conventional dynamic scanning. However, there are still some disputes about whether DWI sequence will provide more effective diagnostic information in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of combining Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic liver disease.A systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed and Cochrane library database up to March 2015. The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS was used to evaluate the quality of studies. Heterogeneous test on the included literature was performed by using the software Review Manager 5.3. The MetaDiSc 1.4 software was used to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio; meanwhile the summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC curve was drawn to compare the diagnostic performance.A total of 13 literatures were included in this study. In 8 literatures regarding HCC diagnosis based on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, the pooled sensitivity: 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.93; specificity: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.92; positive likelihood ratio: 8.60 (95% CI: 6.20-11.92; negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08-0.14 were obtained. The area under curve (AUC and Q values were 0.96 and 0.90, respectively. In 5 literatures relating to HCC diagnosis by combination of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and DWI sequence, the pooled sensitivity: 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.91, specificity: 0.96 (0.94-0.97, positive likelihood ratio: 19.63 (12.77-30.16, negative likelihood ratio: 0.10 (0.07-0.14 were obtained. The AUC value was 0

  9. Acidity and mineral composition of precipitation in Moscow: Influence of deicing salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, I. D.; Aloyan, A. E.; Arutyunyan, V. O.; Larin, I. K.; Chubarova, N. E.; Yermakov, A. N.

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring data and analysis of the variation in acidity and mineral composition of atmospheric precipitation in Moscow in 2012 are presented. We have found that the chloride anions in the precipitation are largely caused by chlorides of deicing salts. Here, the chloride anions, along with metal chlorides (components of deicing salts), are partly caused by dissolved hydrogen chloride. The appearance of hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere of Moscow has been shown to result from heterophase chemical reactions involving deicing salts. We have obtained preliminary estimates for the scales of the effect of these salts on the mineral composition and acidity of precipitations in Moscow.

  10. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Salicylic Acid Molecular Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar Nagalapalli; Shankar Yaga Bheem

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, ciprofloxacin-salicylic acid molecular salt has been synthesized and preliminarily characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) reveals the proton transfer from carboxylic acid group of salicylic acid to piperazine moiety in ciprofloxacin confirming the formation of new molecular salt. The molecular packing of the molecular salt is mainly supported by N+–H⋯O−, O–H⋯O, C–H⋯F, C–H⋯π, and π-π interactions. The 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and th...

  11. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Salicylic Acid Molecular Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Nagalapalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ciprofloxacin-salicylic acid molecular salt has been synthesized and preliminarily characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD reveals the proton transfer from carboxylic acid group of salicylic acid to piperazine moiety in ciprofloxacin confirming the formation of new molecular salt. The molecular packing of the molecular salt is mainly supported by N+–H⋯O−, O–H⋯O, C–H⋯F, C–H⋯π, and π-π interactions. The 3D Hirshfeld surfaces and the associated 2D fingerprint plots were investigated for intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions.

  12. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  13. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  14. Salicylic Acid Improved In Viro Meristem Regeneration and Salt Tolerance in Two Hibiscus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce abiotic stress, including salt tolerance in plants. The objective of this study was to determine whether application of various exogenous SA concentrations to in vitro grown meristem shoots could induce salt tolerance in two Hibiscus species. The effec...

  15. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovac, S.; Los, L.; Stellaard, F.; Rings, E.H.; Verkade, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice has been associated with increased bile production, which is mainly determined by the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile salts. To establish the mechanism underlying the increased bile production, we characterized in detail the EHC of bile salts in

  16. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Compression Molded Poly (acrylic acid) Salts with Multivalent Metal Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Gotoh, Y.; Ohkoshi, Y; Nagura, M

    1999-01-01

    Films of zinc, calcium and aluminum salts of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared from their powdery salts by compression molding at 190_??_200°C, 600MPa for 0.5hr and their mechanical and thermal properties were investigated. From the results of the dynamic mechanical thermal analysis the storage modulus of each PAA salts exhibited about 20GPa at room temperature because of highly intermolecular crosslinking of PAA by metal ions. Modulus of PAA calcium salt was 7GPa even at 400°C, while m...

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  18. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause....../or amino acid salt concentrations. The formation of solids poses challenges, but it also holds the promise for improving the efficiency of the capture process. This project focuses on phase equilibrium experiments of five systems CO2 + amino acid salt + H2O, at conditions relevant for the CO2 capture...... process. Also, attention is given to the chemical compositions of the precipitations, which forms as a result of CO2 absorption into the five amino acid salt solutions. Phase equilibrium data are needed to develop safe and economically viable capture processes. Two different experimental apparatuses were...

  19. Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Direct Substitution of 2-Ethoxytetrahydrofuran with Trifluoroborate Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. Fisher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free transformations of organotrifluoroborates are advantageous since they avoid the use of frequently expensive and sensitive transition metals. Lewis acid-catalyzed reactions involving potassium trifluoroborate salts have emerged as an alternative to metal-catalyzed protocols. However, the drawbacks to these methods are that they rely on the generation of unstable boron dihalide species, thereby resulting in low functional group tolerance. Recently, we discovered that in the presence of a Brønsted acid, trifluoroborate salts react rapidly with in situ generated oxocarbenium ions. Here, we report Brønsted acid-catalyzed direct substitution of 2-ethoxytetrahydrofuran using potassium trifluoroborate salts. The reaction occurs when tetrafluoroboric acid is used as a catalyst to afford functionalized furans in moderate to excellent yields. A variety of alkenyl- and alkynyltrifluoroborate salts readily participate in this transformation.

  20. 77 FR 6061 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Notice; Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China:...

  1. 78 FR 64914 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May 29, 2009) (Citric Acid Duty Orders). Period of Review...-others rate made effective by the LTFV investigation. See Citric Acid Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703. These... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results...

  2. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood, such as hem......Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  3. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hexadecenoic acid (HA), laminin (LN), hydroxyproline (Hyp), and glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and Masson Trichrome (MT) examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis. PMID:22559721

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hong-Ying

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Matrine salvianolic acid B salt on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. Salvianolic acid B and Matrine has long been used to treat liver fibrosis. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt is a new compound containing Salvianolic acid B and Matrine. Hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4 was studied in animal models using Wistar rats. Organ coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, hexadecenoic acid (HA, laminin (LN, hydroxyproline (Hyp, and glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver tissues were measured, respectively. Histopathological changes in the livers were studied by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E staining and Masson Trichrome (MT examination. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA was observed by immunohistochemical analysis. A significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT, HA, LN and Hyp was observed in the Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treated groups, suggesting that the salt had hepatoprotective effects. The depletion of GSH and SOD, as well as MDA accumulation in liver tissues was suppressed by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt too. The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA measured by immunohistology was significantly reduced by Matrine salvianolic acid B salt in a dose-dependent manner. Matrine salvianolic acid B salt treatment attenuated the necro-inflammation and fibrogenesis induced by CCl4 injection, and thus it is promising as a therapeutic anti-fibrotic agent against hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  6. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit. Among other things, additional time...

  7. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See... of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC within this time limit....

  8. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...... solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  9. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... loading capacity of aqueous solutions of the potassium salts of selected amino-acids (glycine, taurine, lysine proline, and glutamic acid) were examined, and the relation between the initial amino acid salt concentration and precipitation ability of each solution were determined. Experiments were...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  10. Production of Polyamines Is Enhanced by Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Maize Seedlings Subjected to Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun LIU; Ming-Yi JIANG; Yi-Feng ZHOU; You-Liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    It is known that salt stress and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) can enhance the polyamine content in plants and that salt stress itself can lead to an increase in endogenous ABA production.In the present study, the relationships between salt-induced ABA and polyamine accumulation were investigated using ABA-deficient mutant (vp5/vp5) maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and ABA and polyamine :biosynthesis inhibitors. The results show that reduced endogenous ABA levels, as a result of either the mutation or by using a chemical inhibitor (sodium tungstate), also reduced the accumulation of polyamines in salt-stressed leaves of maize seedlings. The polyamine synthesis inhibitors D-arginine and αdifluoromethylornithine also reduced the polyamine content of the leaves of maize seedling under salt stress. Both ABA and polyamine enhanced the dry weight accumulation of salt-stressed seedlings and also increased the activities of the two dominant tonoplast membrane enzymes, H+-ATPase and H+-PPase, when plants were under salt stress. The results suggest that salt stress induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which then enhances polyamine synthesis. Such responses may increase a plant's tolerance to salt.

  11. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  12. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovac, S.; Los, E. L.; Stellaard, F.; Rings, E. H. H. M.; Verkade, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Lukovac S, Los EL, Stellaard F, Rings EH, Verkade HJ. Effects of essential fatty acid deficiency on enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 297: G520-G531, 2009. First published July 16, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00091.2009.-Essential fatty acid (EFA)

  13. Microwave-assisted base-free synthesis of trans-cinnamic acids using hypervalent iodonium salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Zhu; Chao Shentu; Zhong Shi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    A fast and convenient base-free Heck reaction of acrylic acid with hypervalent iodonium salts was achieved under microwave irradiation in water, providing a simple method for the synthesis of trans-cinnamic acids in good yields in short time.

  14. Disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin in the presence of acidic excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus;

    2012-01-01

    . Of the excipients investigated, citric acid and polyacrylic acid were found to induce disproportionation. Moreover, it was also observed that exposure to high relative humidity, elevated temperatures, and milling all promoted disproportionation. The results suggest that disproportionation of drug salts in powders...

  15. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  16. Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlidag,Huseyin; Yildirim,Ertan; Turan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry is considered as a salinity sensitive species and is adversely affected in response to the salt stress in terms of growth and yield. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application on physiology, growth, chlorophyll and mineral content of strawberry grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. Strawberry plants were treated with SA at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were establishe...

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. G. Hébert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE.

  18. 40 CFR 180.1068 - C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1068 C12-C18 fatty acid potassium salts; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. C12-C18 fatty acids (saturated and unsaturated) potassium salts are... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false C12-C18 fatty acid potassium...

  19. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation...

  20. 75 FR 71078 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China...: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review--Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts (August 17, 2010). Partial... Biochemical Co., Ltd. Hunan Dongting Citric Acid Chemicals Co., Ltd. Hunan Yinhai Petrochemicals Group...

  1. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from..., 2011, Huangshi Xinghua Biochemical Co., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric...

  2. IR spectroscopic investigation of the inhibition of the glycation process by acetylsalicylic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero de Joshi, Virginia; Gil, Herminia; Contreras, Silvia; Velasquez, William; Joshi, Narahari V.

    2000-05-01

    An IR spectroscopic study was carried out at room temperature for Human Serum albumin (HSA) glycated with fructose and glucose and inhibited with acetylsalicylic acid. The glycation process was carried out in our laboratory by a conventional method to confirm earlier reported observation of the effect of glycation on the intensity variation of the IR spectra, particularly, in the range 1500 cm-1 to 1700 cm-1 and around 3300 cm-1. IR spectra reveal that the effects of glycation of HSA by fructose are more intense than with glucose, which is the expected. Bovine serum albumin was also glycated using Glucose-6-phosphate disodium salt, and gamma-globulin was glycate with glucose, As expected, the glycation process was more intense with glucose-t-phosphate disodium salt. Acetyl salicylic acid was also used and its inhibitor effects could be observed in both cases, with glucose and with glucose-6-phosphate disodium salt even though, to a smaller extent with the latter. This is consistent with the earlier data and is explained on the basis of the attachment of macromolecules to (epsilon) -NH2 groups of lysines. The experimental results confirm that acetylsalicylic acid, indeed, acts as an inhibitor by acetylation of the (epsilon) -NG2 group where the sugars are supposed to be attached.

  3. The Role of Uric Acid in Hypertension of Adolescents, Prehypertension and Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Hu, Jia-Wen; Lv, Yong-Bo; Chu, Chao; Wang, Ke-Ke; Zheng, Wen-Ling; Cao, Yu-Meng; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism. Metabolic disorders of uric acid are associated with many disease states. Substantial evidence suggests the possible role of uric acid as a mediator of high blood pressure. Elevated uric acid is closely associated with new onset essential hypertension in adolescents and prehypertension; and urate-lowering agents can significantly improve these early stages of hypertension. Uric acid also influences salt sensitivity of blood pressure through two phases. Local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation initiates renal damage, arteriolopathy, and endothelium dysfunction, which is followed by the dysregulation of sodium homeostasis, thereby leading to increased salt sensitivity. In this review we summarize the available evidence to contribute to a better understanding of the casual relationship between uric acid and early or intermediate stages of hypertension. We hope our review can contribute to the prevention of hypertension or provide new insights into a treatment that would slow the progression of hypertension. PMID:28190873

  4. Second-harmonic generation in mixed stilbazium salt/arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liying; Zheng, Jiabiao; Wang, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiming; Tao, Fenggang; Xu, Linxiao; Hu, Jiacong

    1992-10-01

    A stilbazium salt was synthesized and its second-order molecular polarizability was deduced to be 1.2×10 -27 esu. Measurements of second-harmonic generation and small-angle X-ray diffraction on Langmuir-Blodgett films of the stilbazium salt/arachide acid mixtures showed that the mixed compounds with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:5 could form multilayers with large second- order optical nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation study on the alternate multilayers of stilbazium salt/arachide acid and arachidic acid showed that the second-harmonic signals were increasing monotonously up to 80 bilayers, but the increment was lower than the value predicted theoretically by the quadratic law. Possible reasons are discussed.

  5. On the effect of external perturbation on amino acid salt bridge: a DFT study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWA JYOTI DUTTA; NABAJIT SARMAH; PRADIP KR BHATTACHARYYA

    2017-05-01

    Effect of external perturbation (in terms of external electric field and solvents) on the stability of lysine-aspartic acid salt bridge was analyzed by density functional theory. Because of solvation, interaction energy in the aqueous phase is much lower as compared to gas phase. Interaction energy as well as stability (measured in terms of global hardness, HOMO energy and total electronic energy) are observed to be sensitive towards the strength and direction of the applied electric field. Gap between HOMO energy of the acids and salt bridge also points towards the feasibility of hydrogen bonding.

  6. Cesium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid: Comparison of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    the residual protons are more acidic than the homogeneous acid catalysts (e.g. ... area, amount of water of crystallization and thermal stability are sensitive to the ... 100 °C for reuse. The filtrate was ... RESEARCH ARTICLE. E. Rafiee & M.

  7. Solubility of fumaric acid and its monosodium salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Horst, J.H. ter; Pieterse, M.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid applied in food industry and in some polymers. Currently, its fermentative production from renewable resources is receiving much attention, and crystallization is used to recover it. To determine the window of operation for crystallization from multicomponent ferm

  8. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not

  9. Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid and diclofenac acid salts from isotropic and anisotropic nonionic surfactant systems across rat skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabboun, N H; Najib, N M; Ibrahim, H G; Assaf, S

    2001-01-01

    Release of salicylic acid, diclofenac acid, diclofenac diethylamine and diclofenac sodium, from lyotropic structured systems, namely; neat and middle liquid crystalline phases, across mid-dorsal hairless rat skin into aqueous buffer were studied. Release results were compared with those from the isotropic systems. The donor systems composed of the surfactant polyoxyethylene (20) isohexadecyl ether, HCl buffer of pH 1 or distilled water and the specific drug. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were used to monitor the transfer of the drugs across the skin barrier. Results indicated that the rate-determining step in the transport process was the release of the drug from the specified donor system. Further, apparent zero order release was demonstrated with all systems. Except for diclofenac sodium, drug fluxes decreased as the donor medium changed from isotropic to anisotropic. The decrease in fluxes was probably due to the added constrains on the movement of drug molecules. By changing the anisotropic donor medium from neat to middle phase, drug flux decreased in case of salicylic acid and diclofenac sodium. In the mean time, flux increased in case of the diethylamine salt and appeared nearly similar in case of diclofenac acid. Rates of drug transfer across the skin from the anisotropic donors seemed to be largely controlled by the entropy contribution to the transport process. The type and extent of drug-liquid crystal interactions probably influenced the latter.

  10. Altered nucleic acid partitioning during phenol extraction or silica adsorption by guanidinium and potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Lv, Jun; Ling, Liefeng; Wang, Peng; Song, Ping; Su, Ruirui; Zhu, Guoping

    2011-12-15

    Nucleic acids were found to partition into the phenol phase during phenol extraction in the presence of guanidinium at certain concentrations under acidic conditions. The guanidinium-concentration-dependent nucleic acid partitioning patterns were analogous to those of the nucleic acid adsorption/partitioning onto silica mediated by guanidinium, which implied that phenol and silica interact with nucleic acids through similar mechanisms. A competition effect was observed in which the nucleic acids that had partitioned into the phenol phase or onto the silica solid phase could be recovered to the aqueous phases by potassium in a molecular weight-salt concentration-dependent manner (the higher molecular weight nucleic acids needed higher concentrations of potassium to be recovered, and vice versa). Methods were developed based on these findings to isolate total RNA from Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of guanidinium and potassium salts used before phenol extraction or silica adsorption, we can selectively recover total RNA but not the high molecular weight genomic DNA in the aqueous phases. Genomic DNA-free total RNA obtained by our methods is suitable for RT-PCR or other purposes. The methods can also be adapted to isolate small RNAs or RNA in certain molecular weight ranges by changing the salt concentrations used.

  11. Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrepati, Elizabeth A; Wongthahan, Pattanapong; Raha, Sasanka; Fogler, H Scott

    2010-07-06

    This study is the first to show that silica precipitation under very acidic conditions ([HCl] = 2-8 M) proceeds through two distinct steps. First, the monomeric form of silica is quickly depleted from solution as it polymerizes to form primary particles approximately 5 nm in diameter. Second, the primary particles formed then flocculate. A modified Smoluchowski equation that incorporates a geometric population balance accurately describes the exponential growth of silica flocs. Variation of the HCl concentration between 2 and 8 M further showed that polymerization to form primary particles and subsequent particle flocculation become exponentially faster with increasing acid concentration. The effect of salt was also studied by adding 1 M chloride salts to the solutions; it was found that salts accelerated both particle formation and growth rates in the order: AlCl(3) > CaCl(2) > MgCl(2) > NaCl > CsCl > no salt. It was also found that ionic strength, over cation identity, determines silica polymerization and particle flocculation rates. This research reveals that precipitation of silica products from acid dissolution of minerals can be studied apart from the mineral dissolution process. Thus, silica product precipitation from mineral acidization follows a two-step process--formation of 5 nm primary particles followed by particle flocculation--which becomes exponentially faster with increasing HCl concentration and with salts accelerating the process in the above order. This result has implications for any study of acid dissolution of aluminosilicate or silicate material. In particular, the findings are applicable to the process of acidizing oil-containing rock formations, a common practice of the petroleum industry where silica dissolution products encounter a low-pH, salty environment within the oil well.

  12. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  13. Synergy of boric acid and added salts in the catalytic dehydration of hexoses to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.......Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural....

  14. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1... functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch, where the excipient constitutes at least 2 percent,...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3490 Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose...

  16. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... dihydrate and anhydrous forms of sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\1\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium... monosodium salt, respectively. Citric acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and...

  17. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 78 FR 25423 (May 1, 2013). \\2\\ Archer Daniels Midland...

  18. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Countervailing Duty Orders and Amendments of Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric...

  19. Curie-point pyrolysis of sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hartgers, W.A.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Selected sodium salts of functionalized fatty acids were subjected to Curie-point pyrolysis and their pyrolysis products subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in order to study the thermal dissociation mechanisms of lipid moieties in bio- and geomacromolecules. Pyrolysis of t

  20. Reaction of 1-alkylthio-3,3-diarylthiophthalylium salts with CH acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oparin, D.A.; Kondakov, V.I.

    1986-05-01

    It was shown that the reaction of 1-alkylthio-3,3-diarylthiophthalylium salts with Meldrum's acid, methylphenylpyrazolone, N-ethylrhodanine, and ethyl cyanoacetate does not depend on the character of the substituents in the substrate and the nature of the methylene component and leads to the corresponding condensation products with thiophthalylidene structures.

  1. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  2. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  3. The Salts of Fatty Acids as Precursors for Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Glushko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The silver salts of fatty acids were studied as precursors for the preparation of colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles and UHMWPE (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene composite with silver nanoparticles, as well as the composition, the spectra and SEM (scanning electron microscopy results.

  4. An experimental screen for quinoline/fumaric acid salts and co-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beko, S. L.; Schmidt, M. U.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    An experimental screen has been carried out for salts and co-crystals of quinoline (C9H7N) and fumaric acid (C4H4O4), including solution-based co-crystallisation from a variety of solvents, solvent-assisted and solvent-free co-grinding, and direct co-crystallisation of the starting materials...

  5. Observation of microporous cesium salts of 12-tungstosilicic acid using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Norihito; Kamiya, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Heteropolyanions and their arrays in microporous cesium salts of 12-tungstosilicic acid, Cs2.5H1.5[SiW12O40] and Cs4.0[SiW12O40], were observed by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Microstructures that form micropores in the polyoxometalates were visualized.

  6. New co-crystal and salt form of sulfathiazole with carboxylic acid and amide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranita Samanta; Shipra Kanaujia; C Malla Reddy

    2014-09-01

    One co-crystal and one salt of an antibacterial drug sulfathiazole with 4-aminobenzamide and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid have been synthesized. These new forms are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In solid state, sulfathiazole preferentially adopts the imidine tautomeric form.

  7. 75 FR 51055 - Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... AGENCY Propionic Acid and Salts, and Urea Sulfate; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of... urea sulfate and opens a public comment period on the proposed decisions. Registration review is EPA's.... Urea sulfate is used as a desiccant on ] cotton. No food crop uses remain and all tolerances for...

  8. Use of triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid as risk mitigant for aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2017-08-08

    A process and a resulting product by process of an aluminum hydride which is modified with by physically combining in a ball milling process an aluminum hydride with a triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid. The resulting product is an aluminum hydride which is resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while maintaining useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  9. Coupling of Carbon Dioxide with Epoxides Catalyzed by Amino Acid Hydrochloride Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using amino acid hydrochloride salt as a catalyst, the coupling reaction of CO2 with epoxides could proceed smoothly to give cyclic carbonates in very good yields and high selectivity. The reaction conditions such as the pressure of carbon dioxide, reaction temperature, time and catalyst loading were carefully investigated.

  10. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  11. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  12. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  13. Acetylsalicylic acid provides cerebrovascular protection from oxidant damage in salt-loaded stroke-prone rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana; Higashino, Hideaki

    2008-03-26

    Inflammatory processes may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Recent reports revealed that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has anti-oxidative properties and elicits nitric oxide release by a direct activation of the endothelial NO synthase. The present study was designed to determine whether low-dose aspirin might prevent cerebrovascular injury in salt-loaded SHRSP by protecting oxidative damage. Nine-week-old SHRSP were fed a 0.4% NaCl or a 4% NaCl diet with or without treatment by naproxen (20 mg/kg/day), salicylic acid (5 mg/kg/day), or aspirin (5 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure, blood brain barrier impairment, mortality, and the parameters of cerebrovascular inflammation and damage were compared among them. High salt intake in SHRSP significantly increased blood brain barrier impairment and early mortality, which were suppressed by treatment with aspirin independent of changes in blood pressure. Salt loading significantly increased superoxide production in basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly suppressed by treatment with aspirin. Salt loading also significantly decreased NOS activity in the basilar arteries of SHRSP, which were significantly improved by treatment with aspirin. At 5 weeks after salt loading, macrophage accumulation and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity at the stroke-negative area in cerebral cortex of SHRSP were significantly reduced by treatment with aspirin. These results suggest that low-dose aspirin may exert protective effects against cerebrovascular inflammation and damage by salt loading through down-regulation of superoxide production and induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

  14. Resolution of enantiomers of novel C2 -symmetric aminobisphosphinic acids via diastereomeric salt formation with quinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboudin, Babak; Faghihi, Mohammad Reza; Kazemi, Foad; Yokomatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    C2 -symmetric N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amines were prepared by the thermal reaction of aromatic aldehydes with ammonia and hypophosphorus acid as previously described. Both enantiomers of C2 -symmetric N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amine were obtained in a high enantiomeric purity through the diastereomeric salt formation with (-)-quinine, and subsequent fractional crystallization. X-ray crystallographic analysis of one of the diastereomeric salts clearly revealed that (-)-quinine could be an efficient resolving agent for obtaining the single enantiomer (R,R)-N,N-bis(phosphinomethyl)amine.

  15. Chiral gels derived from secondary ammonium salts of (1R,3S-(+-camphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Adalder

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to have access to chiral gels, a series of salts derived from (1R,3S-(+-camphoric acid and various secondary amines were prepared based on supramolecular synthon rationale. Out of seven salts prepared, two showed moderate gelation abilities. The gels were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, table top rheology, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. Structure property correlation based on X-ray diffraction techniques remain inconclusive indicating that some of the integrated part associated with the gelation phenomena requires a better understanding.

  16. Length Scale Dependence of the Dynamic Properties of Hyaluronic Acid Solutions in the Presence of Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik (CNRS-UMR); (NIH); (ILL)

    2010-12-07

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D{sub NSE} measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D{sub DLS}. This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D{sub DLS} approaches D{sub NSE}, which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hueckel length.

  17. Salt Contribution to the Flexibility of Single-stranded Nucleic Acid of Finite Length

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids are negatively charged macromolecules and their structure properties are strongly coupled to metal ions in solutions. In this paper, the salt effects on the flexibility of single stranded (ss) nucleic acid chain ranging from 12 to 120 nucleotides are investigated systematically by the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations where the salt ions are considered explicitly and the ss chain is modeled with the virtual bond structural model. Our calculations show that, the increase of ion concentration causes the structural collapse of ss chain and multivalent ions are much more efficient in causing such collapse, and trivalent and small divalent ions can both induce more compact state than a random relaxation state. We found that monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions can all overcharge ss chain, and the dominating source for such overcharging changes from ion exclusion volume effect to ion Coulomb correlations. In addition, the predicted Na and Mg dependent persistence length lp of ss nucleic acid a...

  18. Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

  19. Bile salt recognition by human liver fatty acid binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Filippo; Santambrogio, Carlo; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Molinari, Henriette; Grandori, Rita; Assfalg, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) act as intracellular carriers of lipid molecules, and play a role in global metabolism regulation. Liver FABP (L-FABP) is prominent among FABPs for its wide ligand repertoire, which includes long-chain fatty acids as well as bile acids (BAs). In this work, we performed a detailed molecular- and atomic-level analysis of the interactions established by human L-FABP with nine BAs to understand the binding specificity for this important class of cholesterol-derived metabolites. Protein-ligand complex formation was monitored using heteronuclear NMR, steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. BAs were found to interact with L-FABP with dissociation constants in the narrow range of 0.6-7 μm; however, the diverse substitution patterns of the sterol nucleus and the presence of side-chain conjugation resulted in complexes endowed with various degrees of conformational heterogeneity. Trihydroxylated BAs formed monomeric complexes in which single ligand molecules occupied similar internal binding sites, based on chemical-shift perturbation data. Analysis of NMR line shapes upon progressive addition of taurocholate indicated that the binding mechanism departed from a simple binary association equilibrium, and instead involved intermediates along the binding path. The co-linear chemical shift behavior observed for L-FABP complexes with cholate derivatives added insight into conformational dynamics in the presence of ligands. The observed spectroscopic features of L-FABP/BA complexes, discussed in relation to ligand chemistry, suggest possible molecular determinants of recognition, with implications regarding intracellular BA transport. Our findings suggest that human L-FABP is a poorly selective, universal BA binder.

  20. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz;

    2015-01-01

    containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller......In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... are employed: microfiltration (MF) (0.2 lm), ultrafiltration (UF) (50, 20, 10 and 1 kDa) and nanofiltration (NF). The most promising stages are 50 kDa UF and NF based on SDS–PAGE analyses and total amino acid concentration. The 50 kDa stage produces a protein concentrate (>17 kDa). NF produces a retentate...

  1. Tropospheric Chemistry of Internally Mixed Sea Salt and Organic Particles: Surprising Reactivity of NaCl with Weak Organic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Alexander; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Marry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Wang, Bingbing; Nigge, P.; Shutthanandan, Janani I.

    2012-08-03

    Chemical imaging analysis of internally mixed sea salt/organic particles collected on board the Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft during the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) was performed using electron microscopy and X-ray spectro-microscopy techniques. Substantial chloride depletion in aged sea salt particles was observed, which could not be explained by the known atmospheric reactivity of sea salt with inorganic nitric and sulfuric acids. We present field evidence that chloride components in sea salt particles may effectively react with organic acids releasing HCl gas to the atmosphere, leaving behind particles depleted in chloride and enriched in the corresponding organic salts. While formation of the organic salts products is not thermodynamically favored for bulk aqueous chemistry, these reactions in aerosol are driven by high volatility and irreversible evaporation of the HCl product from drying particles. These field observations were corroborated in a set of laboratory experiments where NaCl particles mixed with organic acids were found to be depleted in chloride. Combined together, the results indicate substantial chemical reactivity of sea salt particles with secondary organics that has been largely overlooked in the atmospheric aerosol chemistry. Atmospheric aging, and especially hydration-dehydration cycles of mixed sea salt/organic particles may result in formation of organic salts that will modify acidity, hygroscopic and optical properties of aged particles.

  2. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE STABILITY AND SHELF LIFE OF OINTMENT WITH ZINC SALT OF HYALURONIC ACID AND THIOTRIAZOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukaviy Y.A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of physical-chemical andmicrobiological research investigated the stability andshelf life of ointment with zinc salt of hyaluronic acid andthiotriazoline. Ointment which stored in aluminum tubes,during all term of researches met all the indicators ofdrugs QC. Ointment which kept in jars from orange glassdid not meet the indicator "acidic number" in defining ofindicators per 24 months of storage. Was established shelflife of medication with zinc salt of hyaluronic acid andthiotriazoline - 2 years.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical... acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts (PMN P-01-149; CAS No. 84501-49-5) is subject to reporting...

  5. Methanesulfonic acid sodium salt protects retina from acute light damage in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; GU Qing; XU Xun

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanesuffonic acid sodium salt (Dipyrone),an antipyretic and analgesic drug,has been demonstrated to improve cerebral ischemia through the inhibition of mitochondrial cell death cascades.The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential photoprotective activity of methanesulfonic acid sodium salt in a model of light-induced retinopathy.Methods One hundred mice were assigned randomly into vehicle (V),methanesulfonic acid sodium salt (D),light damage model plus vehicle (MV) and light damage model plus methanesulfonic acid sodium salt (MD) groups (n=25 each).In the MD group,methanesulfonic acid sodium salt (100 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection 30 minutes before light exposure.Twenty-four hours after light exposure,hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used for histological evaluation.The thickness of the outer plus inner-segment and outer nuclear layer was measured on sections parallel to the vertical meridian of the eye at a distance of 1000 μm from the optic nerve.Electroretinography (ERG) test was performed to assess the functional change.The morphology of mitochondria was also revealed by TEM.Finally,the expression of cytochrome c (CytC) and the relative apoptotic proteins were detected by Western blotting,and the interaction between mitochondrial proteins was investigated by co-immunoprecipitation.Results The photoreceptor inner and outer segments of the MV group were significantly disorganized than the MD group.The thicknesses of the outer plus inner-segment layers and the outer nuclear layer,and the amplitudes of the a and b waves of the scotopic ERG response markedly decreased in the MV group compared to those in the MD group (P <0.05).TEM examination revealed that the mitochondria of the MV group were distinctly swollen and contained disrupted cristae.In contrast,the morphology of mitochondria in the MD group was unaffected.Western blotting analysis showed that Cyt

  6. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  7. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  8. Haemolytic activity of formyl- and acetyl-derivatives of bile acids and their gramine salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozanecka-Okupnik, Weronika; Jasiewicz, Beata; Pospieszny, Tomasz; Matuszak, Monika; Mrówczyńska, Lucyna

    2017-10-01

    Bile acids (lithocholic: LCA, deoxycholic: DCA and cholic: CA) and their formyl- and acetyl-derivatives can be used as starting material in chemical synthesis of compounds with different biological activity strongly depended on their chemical structures. Our previous studies showed that biological activity of bile acids salts with gramine toward human erythrocytes was significantly different from the activity of bile acids alone. Moreover, gramine effectively modified the membrane perturbing activity of other steroids. As a continuation of our work, the haemolytic activity of formyl- and acetyl-substituet bile acids as well as their gramine salts was studied in vitro. The structures of new compounds were confirmed by spectral (NMR, FT-IR) analysis, mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as well as PM5 semiempirical methods. The results shown that the haemolytic activity of formyl- and acetyl-LCA and DCA was significantly higher in comparison with their native forms at the whole concentration range. At high concentration, formyl derivative of CA was as effective as LCA and DCA derivatives whereas at lower concentration its haemolytic activity was at the level of original acid. The acetyl-CA was not active as membrane perturbing agents. Furthermore, gramine significantly decreased the membrane-perturbing activity of hydrophobic bile acids derivatives. The results obtained with the cellular system are in line with physicochemical calculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Ravinder; Berwal, Raj Singh; Sihag, Sajjan; Patil, Chandrashekhar Santosh; Lalit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control), T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate), T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate), T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate), T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate), T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate) and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate) consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen) and body weight gain (g). Different levels of supplementation significantly (phen-day egg production and egg mass production) as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg) per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05) in T4 and feed intake (kg) per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05) in T5 as comparison to control (T1) group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (play, egg weight, and FCR. From economical point of view, egg production was more profitable at 0.5% level of sodium butyrate and 0.5% level of calcium propionate which reduced the feed cost per dozen eggs and per kg egg mass production without affecting the egg quality. PMID:28096625

  10. [Health aspects of sodium salts of sulfurous and sulfuric acids as environmental pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Iu N; Tkachev, P G

    1990-09-01

    For the first time hygienic characteristics of long-term inhalation exposure effects of sodium salts of sulphurous and sulphuric acids in low concentrations on animals is given. The most sensitive organs and organism systems have been identified. MACs of the substances under study for the ambient air are proposed. The degree of contamination and the distance of spreading of sodium sulfate from the source have been determined in field studies. The size of the sanitary-protective zone has been substantiated.

  11. Bis(imidazolium) salts derived from amino acids as receptors and transport agents for chloride anions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Mendoza, Laura; Altava, Belén; Burguete, M.I.; Escorihuela, Jorge; Hernando, Elsa; Luis, S.V.; Quesada, Roberto; Vicent, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    The binding properties of bis(imidazolium) hosts 1a-c derived from amino acids towards different anions have been studied by 1H NMR titration experiments in 95:05 CD3CN:H2O at 303 K, ESI-MS and theoretical calculations. Among this family, the salt 1c showed a stro

  12. Swelling compositions based polycarboxylic acids and bentonite clays in solutions of salts of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarshesheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to the synthesis of chemical cross-linked composite materials made of natural inorganic polymer bentonite clay of Manrak deposit, and polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids. The swelling ability of the composition in solutions of salts of heavy metals (Ni2+ and Pb2+, influence of solution of concentration, pH and temperature on the swelling ability is investigated.

  13. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution...

  14. Lubricating oil compositions containing overbased calcium sulfonates and metal salts of alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, E.S.; Cerrito, E.; Liston, T.V.

    1987-05-26

    This patent describes a lubricating oil composition containing an overbased calcium hydrocarbyl sulfonate. The improvement wherein the lubricating oil composition additionally comprises an effective amount to reduce wear of a metal salt of an alkyl catechol dithiophosphoric acid ester of the formula: wherein R is alkyl containing 10 to 18 carbon atoms, or mixtures thereof, M is an alkali or alkaline earth metal or transition metal and n corresponds to the valence of the metal M.

  15. Reaction of disodium cromoglycate with hydrated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, A.J.; Arroyo, C.M.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1988-01-01

    A possible mechanism by which disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevents a decrease in regional cerebral blood flow but not hypotension in primates following whole body gamma-irradiation was studied. Several studies have implicated superoxide radicals (O/sub 2//sup -/.) in intestinal and cerebral vascular disorders following ischemia and ionizing radiation, respectively. O/sub 2//sup -/. is formed during radiolysis in the reaction between hydrated electrons (e-aq) and dissolved oxygen. For this reason, the efficiency of DSCG to scavenge e-q and possibly prevent the formation of O/sub 2//sup -/. was studied. Hydrated electrons were produced by photolysis of potassium ferrocyanide solutions. The rate constant, k = 2.92 x 10(10) M-1s-1 for the reaction between e-aq and DSCG was determined in competition experiments using the spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). This spin trap reacts rapidly with e-aq followed by protonation to yield the ESR observable DMPO-H spin adduct. The results show that DSCG is an efficient e-aq scavenger and may effectively compete with oxygen for e-aq preventing the radiolytic formation of O/sub 2//sup -/..

  16. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-,...

  17. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Frosch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate. Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with K

  18. Polyelectrolyte properties of biopolymers: conductivity and secondary structure of polyriboadenylic acid and its salts in solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, I A; Vorontsova, O V; Kozlov, A G

    1991-01-01

    Polyriboadenylates of alkali metals were obtained from (1) K(+)-poly(A) (salts 1) and (2) H(+)-poly(A) (salts II) by the ion-exchange method. The conductivity of these salts as well as of H(+)-poly(A) were studied. Salts I and II of the same counterion were shown to have significantly different conductivity coefficients (f) and polyion conductances (lambda 0p). the charge density parameter (xi) was 1.3 and 2.5, respectively, with lambda 0p equal to 44 and 83 ohm-1 cm2 mole-1 for poly(A)-I and poly(A)-II salts, respectively. This is credited to the difference in the conformations of corresponding polyions. The linear dependence of equivalent conductivity on the square root of polymer concentration (Kohlrausch coordinates), earlier obtained for DNA, is also satisfied for the studied polynucleotides. A comparison of the slopes of straight lines in Kohlrausch coordinates for poly(A), simple electrolytes, and for earlier studied polyribouridylic acid salts lends credence to the concepts, developed by a number of authors, that DNA can act as a "buffer" against the ion-ion interaction in concentrated electrolyte solutions. Using the approximation that the polyion conductance is independent of the counterion nature, parameter f (agreeing in this case with Eisenberg parameter phi) has been shown to decrease as the polynucleotide concentration is increased; the decrease is caused by the relaxation effect. The transference numbers of counterions, which have negative values in poly (A)-II solutions, grow with the increase in polymer concentration; the higher the xi, the more apparent is this increase. This is explained by the increase in the fraction of conductivity along the polyion chains ("surface" conductivity) with the growth of polyelectrolyte concentration.

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of disodium 5?-ribonucleotides, disodium 5?-guanylate, disodium 5?-inosinate for all animal species and categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavours included in this assessment are widely present in nature as the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In the absence of any information on the microbial strains or substrates used for the production of the additives, and with little information on the manufacturing process, the FEEDAP Panel is unable to ascertain whether the manufacturing process introduces any safety concerns. Disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture are considered to be safe for the target animals and the consumer. However, considering the lack of information on the production process, these conclusions apply only to the compounds ‘per se’ and their extrapolation to any feed additive containing these compounds is not possible. In the absence of any data related to hazard to the user, it would be prudent to regard disodium 5′-guanylate and disodium 5′-inosinate and their mixture as potentially hazardous to workers by skin or inhalation exposure. The compounds under assessment are naturally present in feed materials; therefore, no risk to the safety for the environment is foreseen. Since these compounds are used in food as flavourings, and their function in feed is essentially the same as that in food, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  20. Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. Esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Bolin; Tang, Peixin; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2015-11-05

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) reacts with cellulose in two steps with catalysis of alkaline salts such as sodium hypophosphite: anhydride formation and esterification of anhydride with cellulose. The alkali metal ions were found effective in catalyzing formation of BTCA anhydride in a previous report. In this work, catalytic functions of the alkaline salts in the esterification reaction between BTCA anhydride and cellulose were investigated. Results revealed that acid anions play an important role in the esterification reaction by assisting removal of protons on intermediates and completion of the esterification between cellulose and BTCA. Besides, alkaline salts with lower pKa1 values of the corresponding acids are more effective ones for the reaction since addition of these salts could lead to lower pH values and higher acid anion concentrations in finishing baths. The mechanism explains the results of FTIR and wrinkle recovery angles of the fabrics cured under different temperatures and times.

  1. Salt hydrates for in situ water activity control have acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Nuno; Harper, Neil; Halling, Peter J; Barreiros, Susana

    2003-06-30

    Salt hydrates very frequently are utilized as in situ water activity buffers in reaction mixtures of enzymes in nonaqueous media. In addition to buffering water activity, there is evidence that salt hydrates also often affect initial rates in other ways. This has been generally overlooked or thought to be related to water transfer effects. Here we show that salt hydrates can have important acid-base effects on enzymes in nonaqueous media. We performed transesterification reactions in n-hexane and in supercritical ethane catalyzed by cross-linked crystals of subtilisin, differing in the method used to set a(W), and confirmed that the presence of salt hydrate pairs significantly affected the catalytic performance of the enzyme. However, in the presence of a solid-state acid-base buffer, salt hydrates had no effect on enzymatic activity. Direct evidence for the acid-base effects of salt hydrates was obtained by testing their effect on the protonation state of an organo-soluble H(+)/Na(+) indicator. The four salt hydrate pairs tested affected the indicator to very different extents. By promoting the exchange of H(+) for Na(+), salt hydrates will tend to affect the ionization state of acidic residues in the protein and, hence, enzymatic activity. In fact, salt hydrates were able to affect the pH memory of subtilisin lyophilized from different aqueous pHs, bringing about up to 20-fold enhancements and up to 5-fold decreases in catalytic activity. The possibility of such acid-base effects need to be considered in all experiments using salt hydrates to control water activity.

  2. Acetic acid modulates spike rate and spike latency to salt in peripheral gustatory neurons of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Sour and salt taste interactions are not well understood in the peripheral gustatory system. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of acetic acid and NaCl on taste processing by rat chorda tympani neurons. We recorded multi-unit responses from the severed chorda tympani nerve (CT) and single-cell responses from intact narrowly tuned and broadly tuned salt-sensitive neurons in the geniculate ganglion simultaneously with stimulus-evoked summated potentials to signal when the stimulus contacted the lingual epithelium. Artificial saliva served as the rinse and solvent for all stimuli [0.3 M NH4Cl, 0.5 M sucrose, 0.1 M NaCl, 0.01 M citric acid, 0.02 M quinine hydrochloride (QHCl), 0.1 M KCl, 0.003–0.1 M acetic acid, and 0.003–0.1 M acetic acid mixed with 0.1 M NaCl]. We used benzamil to assess NaCl responses mediated by the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The CT nerve responses to acetic acid/NaCl mixtures were less than those predicted by summing the component responses. Single-unit analyses revealed that acetic acid activated acid-generalist neurons exclusively in a concentration-dependent manner: increasing acid concentration increased response frequency and decreased response latency in a parallel fashion. Acetic acid suppressed NaCl responses in ENaC-dependent NaCl-specialist neurons, whereas acetic acid-NaCl mixtures were additive in acid-generalist neurons. These data suggest that acetic acid attenuates sodium responses in ENaC-expressing-taste cells in contact with NaCl-specialist neurons, whereas acetic acid-NaCl mixtures activate distinct receptor/cellular mechanisms on taste cells in contact with acid-generalist neurons. We speculate that NaCl-specialist neurons are in contact with type I cells, whereas acid-generalist neurons are in contact with type III cells in fungiform taste buds. PMID:22896718

  3. Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control group 10%. The dynamic changes of physical and chemical parameters of two groups were detected during the pickle process. The results showed that: pH value of the inoculated groups declined rapidly, the lowest pH value was 3.61; the LAB became the predominant bacteria strains during the pickle and the colony amounts of the inoculated groups could be up to 6.32 log10 cfu/mL; the nitrite content of each group kept rising and the nitrite peaks of the inoculated groups appeared 3 days in advance, but the peak values were nearly half of the control group; amino nitrogen contents were lower but finally higher than control group and the highest value could reach 0.46 g/100 mL finally. Therefore, the inoculated groups with the lower salt could be more safety and better flavor. This study provided important reference to optimize the pickle fermentation process of Chinese Zhacai.

  4. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous methanesulfonic acid with NaCl and sea salt particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG MingJin; ZHU Tong

    2009-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) has been identified as one of the most important intermediate products of DMS reactions in the atmosphere. Although considerable amounts of MSA have been found in the ma-rine boundary layer, little is known about the interaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt particles. To understand the fate of MSA in the atmosphere and its potential importance in atmospheric chemistry, the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous MSA with micron-scale NaCl and sea salt particles were studied using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The CH3SO3Na and CH3SO3-were the major products of the condensed phase of the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCI and with sea salt particles. The steady-state uptake coefficient was determined to be (5.94±2.32)x10-7 (1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCI particles and (2.23±1.25)x10-7 (1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt parti-cles. The heterogeneous reaction of MSA with NaCI particles was found to be first-order for MSA. The reaction mechanisms were discussed.

  5. Heterogeneous reactions of gaseous methanesulfonic acid with NaCl and sea salt particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Methanesulfonic acid(MSA) has been identified as one of the most important intermediate products of DMS reactions in the atmosphere.Although considerable amounts of MSA have been found in the ma-rine boundary layer,little is known about the interaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt particles.To understand the fate of MSA in the atmosphere and its potential importance in atmospheric chemistry,the heterogeneous reactions of gaseous MSA with micron-scale NaCl and sea salt particles were studied using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,and scanning electron microscopy.The CH3SO3Na and CH3SO3-were the major products of the condensed phase of the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl and with sea salt particles.The steady-state uptake coefficient was determined to be(5.94±2.32)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with NaCl particles and(2.23±1.25)×10-7(1 σ) for the reaction of gaseous MSA with sea salt parti-cles.The heterogeneous reaction of MSA with NaCl particles was found to be first-order for MSA.The reaction mechanisms were discussed.

  6. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... International Trade Administration Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate sales from People's Republic of China, covering the period September 19, 2008, through December 31, 2009. See Citric Acid...

  7. Synthesis of disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxypropane-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C. (APD. 2Na)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnien, E.; Shaikh, M.; Suh, J.T.; Jones, H. (Revlon Health Care Group, Tuckahoe, New York (USA))

    1982-10-01

    Disodium-3-amino-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate-1-/sup 14/C (APD 2Na), a powerful calcium binding agent and potential drug for the treatment of Paget's Disease was synthesized. The reaction was carried out by reacting ..beta..-alanine (1-/sup 14/C) with phosphorus acid and phosphorus trichloride in chlorobenzene. Treatment of the resultant APD with two equivalents of sodium hydroxide gave the title compound.

  8. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  9. N-alkanes, fatty acid esters, and fatty acid salts in size fractionated aerosols collected over the Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sicre, M.A.; Marty, J.C.; Saliot, A. (Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France))

    1990-03-20

    The {und n}-alkanes, fatty acid esters, and fatty acid salts have been analyzed in size fractionated aerosols collected over the Mediterranean Sea using a five-stage cascade impactor. Two main sources of {und n}-alkanes have been identified: terrestrially derived {und n}-alkanes evenly distributed over the whole particle size spectrum and anthropogenic {und n}-alkanes predominantly carried by submicron particles. The comparison between the fatty acid ester (FAE) and fatty acid salt (FAS) particle size distributions allowed an important contribution to be ascertained of the marine source in aerosols ranging from 7.2 to 3.0 {mu}m under rough weather conditions that may be due to larger bubble produced particles. In contrast, FAE and FAS were evenly distributed from the first to the fifth stage, when collected during calm sea surface conditions. Higher values of the degree of unsaturation of FAE and FAS were associated with mass concentration maxima observed on stages 2 and 3 in IMP1 aerosol sample whereas lower values were found on the other stages in the same sample, and over the whole particle size spectrum in IMP2 aerosol sample collected during calm weather conditions. The data the authors present here are discussed in terms of jet and film drop ejections and degradation processes.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1284 - Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Ammonium salts of higher fatty acids (C8-C18 saturated; C8-C12 unsaturated); exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Ammonium salts of C8-C18 saturated and C8-C12 unsaturated higher fatty acids are... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium salts of higher fatty...

  11. Influence of Neutral Salts and pH on Exchangeable Acidity of Red Soil and Latosol Colloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, the exchangeable acidity of a red soil colloid and a latosol colloid at different pH during reacting with four neutral salts was measured. The results show that the exchangeable acidity increased with increasing amounts of the neutral salts added, and the relation between them was almost linear. When the amount of the neutral salt added was lower than a certain value, the slope of the line was high, and the slope turned low when the amount exceeded that value, so there was a turning point in each line. The addition amounts of the neutral salts for the turning points were affected by the cation species of the neutral salts, but pH had less effect on them. After the turning points occurred, the exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid still gradually increased with the addition amounts of the neutral salts, but that of the latosol colloid did not increase any more.The exchangeable acidity in NaClO4, KClO4 and NaCl solutions increased at first, and then decreased with increasing pH, that is to say, peak values appeared. The peak positions of the exchangeable acidity in relation to pH changed with neutral salt solutions and were affected by the surface characteristics of the soil colloids, but not affected by the amounts of the neutral salts added. The exchangeable acidity in the Ba(NO3)2 solution increased continuously with increasing pH. The exchangeable acidity of the red soil colloid was obviously larger than that of the latosol colloid.``

  12. Effect of bile salts and bile acids on human gastric mucosal epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinxue Song; Jun Gong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of bile salt and bile acid on cultured eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells.Methods:Cultured eternalized human gastric mucosa epithelium GES-1 cells were treated with media containing 6 different kinds of bile salts and 3 different kinds of bile acids and their mixture with different concentrations: GCDC(glycochenodeoxycholate), GDC (glycodeoxycholate), GC(glycocholate), TCDC(taurochenodeoxycholate), TDC(taurodeoxycholate), TC (taurocholate), LCA (lithocholicacid), CA(cholic acid), DCA(deoxycholic acid)(50 μ mol/L,250 μ mol/L,500 μ mol/L, 1000 μ mol/L), DY(mixture of bile salts) and DS(mixture of bile acids)(250 μ mol/L,500 μ mol/L,1000 μ mol/L,1500 μ mol/L, 2000 μ mol/L), in comparison with thecontrol group(in normal media without bile salts and bile acids).Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT(3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaolyl]-2,5- diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay for 72 hours with different concentrations and the apoptotic cells were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM) with Annex V-FITC conjugated with propidium iodide(PI) staining for 24 hours with different concentrations(1500,2000 μ mol/L).Results:There was no significant difference in morphology and cell proliferation in GC group after 24-72 h.Low concentration(50 μ mol/L) of GCDC, GDC, TCDC, TDC and TC accelerated gastric epithelial cell growth in a dosage-time dependent manner.At middle concentration (250-500 μ mol/L), it showed positive effect after 24-48 h, while negative effect after 72 h.At high concentration(1000 μ tool/L), it accelerated gastric epithelial cell growth after 24h and show consistent inhibition even leading to necrosis after 48-72 h.LCA and CA showed a positive effect on the concentration of 50 μ mol/L after 24-72 h, while 250-1000 It mol/L showed a trend towards apoptosis after 24-72 h.At 50-500 μ mol/L, DCA showed proliferation after 24 h and apoptosis after 48-72 h, but showed necrosis after 24-72 h at 1000 μ moiFL.DY and DS

  13. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated disodium phthalocyanine derivative thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M E Sánchez-Vergara; M Rivera; R A Torres-García; C O Perez-Baeza; E A Loza-Neri

    2014-08-01

    Thin films were grown on quartz substrates and crystalline silicon wafers using disodium phthalocyanine and the organic ligands 2,6-diaminoanthraquinone, 2,6-dihydroxianthraquinone and its potassium derivative salt. The surface morphology of these films was analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). IR spectroscopy was employed in order to investigate possible changes of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical parameters have been investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of absorbance in the wavelength range of 200–1100 nm and the effects of post-deposition heat treatment were analysed. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–Vis region for the deposited samples showed two bands, namely the Q and Soret bands. The absorption coefficient in the absorption region reveals non-direct transitions. In addition, the optical gap dependence upon the thickness of these thin films was evaluated.

  14. Molecular interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids in oils and their effects on reverse micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njauw, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yang; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2013-03-26

    It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.

  15. Crystal structure of the bis(cyclohexylammonium succinate succinic acid salt adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou Sarr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title salt adduct, 2C6H14N+·C4H4O42−·C4H6O4, consists of two cyclohexylammonium cations, one succcinate dianion and one neutral succinic acid molecule. Succinate dianions and succinic acid molecules are self-assembled head-to-tail through O—H...O hydrogen bonds and adopt a syn–syn configuration, leading to a strand-like arrangement along [101]. The cyclohexylammonium cations have a chair conformation and act as multidentate hydrogen-bond donors linking adjacent strands through intermolecular N—H...O interactions to both the succinate and the succinic acid components. This results in two-dimensional supramolecular layered structures lying parallel to (010.

  16. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P lipid oxidation. C18:0, C16:1n7, C19:0, and C22:6n3 showed clear changes in principle component one of a principle components analysis. These fatty acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  17. Freezing points and small-scale deicing tests for salts of levulinic acid made from grain sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjyal, G; Fang, Q; Hanna, M A

    2007-11-01

    Deicers from renewable resources are needed to overcome the disadvantages of using traditional deicers. Salts made from levulinic acid produced using grain sorghum as raw material were tested as road deicing agents. Freezing points of these salts viz., sodium levulinate, magnesium levulinate and calcium levulinate along with rock salt (sodium chloride) were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 1177-94 standard at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % w/w. There were significant differences among the freezing points of the salts. Freezing points for rock salt, sodium levulinate, calcium levulinate and magnesium levulinate, for different concentrations, were in the ranges of -6.6 to -20.5, -2.9 to -15.0, -2.1 to -7.8 and -1.5 to -6.5 degrees C, respectively. Deicing effectiveness of the salts of levulinic acid were investigated by conducting small-scale deicing tests with aqueous solutions of various salt concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) in a laboratory freezer and by spraying the deicer on a graveled surface covered by ice and snow with the average temperature during the testing at -2.7 degrees C. Deicing capabilities of the three salts of levulinic acid differed. At -2.7 degrees C, all three salts caused melting of the ice. Among the different levulinates studied sodium levulinate was the most effective deicing agent. These salts of levulinates could be a viable replacement for traditional deicers and could help in reducing the disadvantages of traditional deicers.

  18. Three salts from the reactions of cysteamine and cystamine with L-(+)-tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benylles, Amina; Cairns, Donald; Cox, Philip J; Kay, Graeme

    2013-06-01

    Reaction between cysteamine (systematic name: 2-aminoethanethiol, C2H7NS) and L-(+)-tartaric acid [systematic name: (2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, C4H6O6] results in a mixture of cysteamine tartrate(1-) monohydrate, C2H8NS(+)·C4H5O6(-)·H2O, (I), and cystamine bis[tartrate(1-)] dihydrate, C4H14N2S2(2+)·2C4H5O6(-)·2H2O, (III). Cystamine [systematic name: 2,2'-dithiobis(ethylamine), C4H12N2S2], reacts with L-(+)-tartaric acid to produce a mixture of cystamine tartrate(2-), C4H14N2S2(2+)·C4H4O6(2-), (II), and (III). In each crystal structure, the anions are linked by O-H···O hydrogen bonds that run parallel to the a axis. In addition, hydrogen bonding involving protonated amino groups in all three salts, and water molecules in (I) and (III), leads to extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks. All three salts crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1).

  19. Gas Antisolvent Approach for the Precipitation of α -Methoxyphenylacetic Acid – ( R -1-Cyclohexylethylamine Diateromeric Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zodge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of diastereomeric salt precipitation based enantioseparation is the time and solvent requirement of crystallization. In the gas antisolvent (GAS approach, supercritical carbon dioxide is applied as an antisolvent, and the precipitation takes place in a couple of minutes. By setting the process parameters diastereomeric excess, yields, and selectivity can be controlled. Applicability of the process is demonstrated on the resolution of racemic 2-methoxyphenylacetic acid with enantiopure (R-(−-1-cyclohexylethylamine. Diastereomeric excess values over 55 % along with 80 % yields were achieved at optimal conditions in a single step.

  20. Intraosseous secondary calcium salt crystal deposition: an artefact of acid decalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, C E; Crocker, P R; Brady, K; Buk, S J; Levison, D A

    1995-08-01

    We previously observed, in decalcificated bone specimens, intraosseous crystal deposits with morphological and analytical similarity to calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate. We have now been able, by a combination of more detailed morphological studies of these and similar cases, and by infrared spectroscopy in three cases, to show that this is, in fact deposition of the secondary calcium salts brushite and monetite, occurring as an artefact during formic acid decalcification. Our earlier postulate of bone as an additional primary crystallization site for calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate is effectively disproved. This artefact deserves wider recognition.

  1. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Assem Barakat; Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid; Saied M. Soliman; Gehad Lotfy; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Hoong-Kun Fun; Abdul Wadood; Ismail Warad; Joseph C. Sloop

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E)-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl)-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular stru...

  2. Growth, Gas Exchange, Abscisic Acid, and Calmodulin Response to Salt Stress in Three Poplars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of increasing salinity on growth, gas exchange, abscisic acid(ABA), calmodulin (CAM), and the relevance to salt tolerance in seedlings of Populus euphratica Oliv. and cuttings of P. "pupularis 35-44" (P. popularis) and P. x euramericana cv. 1-214 (P. cv. Italica). The relative growth rates of shoot height (RGRH) for P. cv. Italica and P. popularis were severely reduced by increasing salt stress,whereas the growth reduction was relatively less in P. euphratica. Similarly, P. euphratica maintained higher net photosynthetic rates (Pn) and unit transpiration rates (TRN) than P. cv. Italica and P. popularis under conditions of higher salinity. Salinity caused a significant increase in leaf ABA and CaM in the three genotypes after the onset of stress, but NaCl-induced ABA and CaM accumulation was more pronounced in P. euphratica,suggesting that P. euphratica plants are more sensitive in sensing soil salinity than the other two poplars.Furthermore, P. euphratica maintained relatively higher ABA and CaM concentrations under conditions of high salinity. The higher capacity to synthesize stress signals, namely ABA and CaM, in P. euphratica and the contribution of this to the salt resistance of P. euphratica are discussed.

  3. Role of Soybean GmbZIP132 under Abscisic Acid and Salt Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Liao; Jin-Song Zhang; Shou-Yi Chen; Wan-Ke Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Plant basic-leucina zipper (bZIP) transcription factors play important roles in many biological processes. In the present study, a bZIP gene, GmbZIP132, was cloned from soybean and its biological function under abiotic stresses was studied. The transcription of GmbZIP132 was Induced by drought and high salt treatments. Among all of the organs analyzed, its expression was the highest in cotyUedon and stems. GmbZIP132 could weakly bind to the GCN4-1ika motif (GLM) (5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') In yeast one-hybrid assay. Compared with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants, transgenic plants overexpressing GmbZIP132 showed reduced abscisic acid sensitivity and increased water loss rate. At the stage of germination, transgenic plants were more tolerant to salt treatment than wild-type plants. The expression of some abiotic stress-related genes, such as rd29B, DREB2A, and PSCS, were upregulatsd in the transgenic plants. These results indicated that GmbZIP132 was an abiotic atress-related gene, and its overexpression could increase the salt tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis plants dudng germination, yet no significant difference of tolerance to abiotic stresses was found between transgenic and wild type plants at the seedling stage.

  4. Safety evaluation of chitosan and chitosan acid salts from Panurilus argus lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, Alicia; Merino, Nelson; Valdes, Odalys; Dominguez, Jesus; Spencer, Evelyn; de la Paz, Nilia; Aparicio, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer with excellent properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity and adsorptive abilities. We obtained chitosan derived from Panurilus argus lobster shell and its lactate and acetate salts to introduce in pharmaceutical industry. We examined the single and repeated dose toxicity of chitosan and its lactate and acetate salts. Single oral doses of 2000 mg/kg were well tolerated for all three materials. In the repeat dose tests, animals treated with chitosan only show a slight erythrocytes increase. Variations in erythrocyte and leukocyte count and some biochemical parameters were observed in animals treated with chitosan acid salts. One g/kg orally was found to be the subacute NOAEL for chitosan due to the hematological findings observed were not considered adverse. Chitosans obtained from Panurilus argus lobster shell have low toxicity and may be safe in rats because it did not cause any lethality or changes in the general behavior in both the single and repeated dose toxicity studies.

  5. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  6. Improvement Of Salt Tolerance In Some Varieties Of Rice By Ascorbic Acid Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Arfiani Barus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salinity stress is one of the serious abiotic stress and lead to reduced productivity and plant growth. The effect of salinity stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid was investigated on some morphological traits. Ascorbate is a strong antioxidant which has remarkable biological effects on plants growth including an improvement in plants tolerance under salinity stress conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid application to improve salt tolerance of rice on saline soil. This research was down as a factorial based on randomized block design with 3 replications. In this research were tested eight varieties of Rice Ciherang V1 IR 64 V2 Lambur V4 Batanghari V5 Banyuasin V6 IR 42 V8 Inpara 10 V9 and Margasari V10 and Ascorbic Acid is applied at concentrations of 0 A0 500 ppm A1 1000 ppm A2 and 1500 ppm A3. Ascorbic acid is applied in 4 times with at the age of 15 35 55 and 75 days after sowing. All concentrations of ascorbic acid generally has a positive effect on morphological characters. However the best response was found at 1500 ppm A3 concentration of ascorbic acid on Banyuasin variety.

  7. Binding of disodium cromoglycate to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Aspuru, Eduardo; Zatón, Ana M. L.

    1998-07-01

    The binding of several benzopiranone derivatives to human serum albumin was determined. The antiallergic drug disodium cromoglycate binds weakly to serum albumin. However, its precursors, chromones of smaller size, were able to bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the protein, and are carried by serum albumin in blood.

  8. Hardening with salicylic acid induces concentration-dependent changes in abscisic acid biosynthesis of tomato under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Edit; Csiszár, Jolán; Gallé, Ágnes; Poór, Péter; Szepesi, Ágnes; Tari, Irma

    2015-07-01

    The role of salicylic acid (SA) in the control of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis is controversial although both plant growth regulators may accumulate in tissues under abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Hardening of tomato plants to salinity stress with 10(-4)M SA ("high SA") resulted in an up-regulation of ABA biosynthesis genes, zeaxanthin epoxidase (SlZEP1), 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SlNCED1) and aldehyde oxidases (SlAO1 and SlAO2) in the roots and led to ABA accumulation both in root and leaf tissues. In plants pre-treated with lower concentration of SA (10(-7)M, "low SA"), the up-regulation of SlNCED1 in the roots promoted ABA accumulation in the root tissues but the hormone concentration remained at control level in the leaves. Salt stress induced by 100mM NaCl reduced the transcript abundance of ABA biosynthetic genes and inhibited SlAO activity in plants hardened with "high SA", but the tissues maintained root ABA level over the untreated control. The combined effect of "high SA" and ABA under salt stress led to partially recovered photosynthetic activity, reduced ethylene production in root apices, and restored root growth, which is one of the main features of salt tolerance. Unlike "high SA", hardening with "low SA" had no influence on ethylene production, and led to reduced elongation of roots in plants exposed to 100mM NaCl. The up-regulation of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases SlCCD1A and SlCCD1B by SA, which produce apocarotenoids, may open new pathways in SA sensing and signalling processes.

  9. Spray Dried Aerosol Particles of Pyrazinoic Acid Salts for Tuberculosis Therapy. [Corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, P G; Zhang, Y; German, N; Mortensen, N; Dhillon, J; Mitchison, D A; Fourie, P B; Hickey, A J

    2015-08-03

    Tuberculosis is the most serious infectious disease caused by a single organism, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The standard of care is a protracted and complex drug treatment regimen made more complicated and of longer duration by the incidence of multiple and extensively drug resistant disease. Pulmonary delivery of aerosols as a supplement to the existing regimen offers the advantage of delivering high local drug doses to the initial site of infection and most prominent organ system involved in disease. Pyrazinamide is used in combination with other drugs to treat tuberculosis. It is postulated that the action of pyrazinoic acid (POA), the active moiety of pyrazinamide, may be enhanced by local pH adjustment, when presented as a salt form. POA was prepared as leucine (POA-leu) and ammonium salts (POA-NH4), spray dried, and characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (melting point, crystallinity, moisture content), aerodynamic performance (aerodynamic particle size distribution, emitted dose), and in vitro inhibitory effect on two mycobacteria (Mtb and Mycobacterium bovis). Particles were prepared in sizes suitable for inhalation (3.3 and 5.4 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter and 61 and 40% of the aerodynamic particle size distribution less than 4.46 μm, as measured by inertial impaction, for POA-leu and POA-NH4, respectively) and with properties (stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of salt to drug, melting points at ∼180 °C, with water content of <1%) that would support further development as an inhaled dosage form. In addition, POA salts demonstrated greater potency in inhibiting mycobacterial growth compared with POA alone, which is promising for therapy.

  10. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  11. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... sodium citrate, otherwise known as citric acid sodium salt, and the monohydrate and monopotassium forms of potassium citrate.\\5\\ Sodium citrate also includes both trisodium citrate and monosodium citrate... acid and sodium citrate are classifiable under 2918.14.0000 and 2918.15.1000 of the Harmonized...

  12. Seasonal changes in the microbial community of a salt marsh, measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda; Bryan, N.D.; Bardgett, R.D.;

    2002-01-01

    to characterise biogeochemical processes occurring at this site. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis of sediment samples collected at monthly intervals was used to measure seasonal changes in microbial biomass and community structure. The PLFA data were analysed using multivariate techniques (Ward's method...... defined, showing differences in the community structure over the course of a year. At all times, the microbial community was dominated by PLFA associated with aerobic bacteria, but this was most pronounced in summer (August). The abundance of branched fatty acids, a measure of the biomass of anaerobes......, started to increase later in the year than did those associated with aerobes and the fungal biomarker 18:2omega6 showed a brief late-summer peak. The salt marsh remained mildly oxic throughout the year despite the increase in microbial respiration, suggested by the large increases in the abundance of PLFA...

  13. Solubility and reactivity of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in dilute aqueous salt solutions and in sulphuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, A.; Kutsuna, S.; Takeuchi, K.; Ibusuki, T.

    The loss rates of PAN in several dilute aqueous salt solutions (NaBr, Na 2SO 3, KI, NaNO 2, FeCl 3, and FeSO 4) and in sulphuric acid were measured at 279 K with a simple bubbler experiment. They are little different from that in pure water. For 5 M sulphuric acid hydrolysis and solubility were determined in the temperature range of 243-293 K. The hydrolysis rate kh=3.2×10 -4 s -1 at 293 K is close to that in water. The observed temperature dependence of the Henry's Law constant H=10- 6.6±0.6exp((4780±420)/T) M atm -1 leads to enthalpy and entropy of solvation Δ Hsolv=-39.7±3.5 kJ mol -1 and Δ Ssolv=-126±11 J mol -1 K -1, respectively.

  14. Bile salt/acid induction of DNA damage in bacterial and mammalian cells: implications for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandell, R L; Bernstein, C

    1991-01-01

    Two bile salts, sodium chenodeoxycholate and sodium deoxycholate, induced a DNA repair response in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Similarly, a bile acid and a bile salt, chenodeoxycholic acid and sodium deoxycholate, induced DNA repair (indicated by unscheduled DNA synthesis) in human foreskin fibroblasts. Also, DNA repair-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were found to be more sensitive than normal cells to killing by bile salts. In particular, mutant UV4 CHO cells, defective in DNA excision repair and DNA cross-link removal, were more sensitive to sodium chenodeoxycholate, and mutant EM9 CHO cells, defective in strand-break rejoining, were more sensitive to sodium deoxycholate than wild-type cells. These results indicate that bile salts/acid damage DNA of both bacterial and mammalian cells in vivo. Previous epidemiological studies have shown that colon cancer incidence correlates with fecal bile acid levels. The findings reported here support the hypothesis that bile salts/acids have an etiologic role in colon cancer by causing DNA damage.

  15. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  16. Adsorption of bile acid by chitosan salts prepared with cinnamic acid and analogue compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshifumi; Nagaki, Kumiko; Kofuji, Kyouko; Sanae, Fujiko; Kontani, Hitoshi; Kawashima, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    A chitosan (CS) powder treated with cinnamic acid and an analogue compound (CN) was prepared as CS-CN. Using it, bile acid adsorption by CS-CN and the release of CN were investigated in vitro. When CS-CN was soaked in a taurocholate solution, it released CN and simultaneously adsorbed the bile acid. For CS-CN prepared with cinnamic acid, the amount of CN released was 0.286 +/- 0.001 mmol/g CS-CN; the amount of taurocholate adsorbed was 0.284 +/- 0.003 mmol/g CS-CN. These two functions were recognized on alginate or pectin gel beads containing CS-CN. The amount of released CN was altered extensively by the species of CN used for gel-bead preparation. Results suggest that CS-CN is a candidate for complementary medicine to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  17. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a

  18. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  19. Graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium dual template-directed synthesis of GO/hydroxyapatite and its application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chengli; Zhu, Jinmiao; Xie, Anjian; Shen, Yuhua; Li, Hongying; Zheng, Bin; Wei, Yanxin

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide and creatine phosphate disodium acted as dual template and was employed to synthesize graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HA) hybrids as drug carriers. In the rapid preparation of GO/HA hybrids, creatine phosphate disodium salt (CPDS) severed as a phosphorus source and graphene oxide acted as a template in aqueous solution. The effects of the reaction temperature, time and pH value of the aqueous solution on the morphology of the product were investigated. The result showed that the hydrolysis of CPDS under hydrothermal condition played an important role in the formation of hierarchical hollow GO/HA hybrids. The GO nanosheets provided reactive sites for the binding of HA nanoparticles and absorbing ibuprofen (IBU) molecules. The GO/HA hybrids had ideal sustained drug-release behavior. It indicated that the prepared GO/HA hybrids may be promising materials for applications in biomedical area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The synthesis and characterization of fatty acid salts of chitosan as novel matrices for prolonged intragastric drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Hamdan, Imad; Alkawareek, Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fatty acid salts of chitosan (CS) and to evaluate the salts as matrices for sustained drug release and prolonged gastric retention. CS-laurate and CS-palmitate were formed by mixing saturated CS solution and aqueous solutions of sodium laurate and sodium palmitate, respectively, and collected by centrifugation. They were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Different matrices as effervescent tablets were prepared using each of these CS-salts, CS and the corresponding physical mixtures of CS and the fatty acids. Sodium bicarbonate as an effervescent agent and ranitidine HCl as a model drug were incorporated into these matrices. In vitro buoyancy and drug dissolution were studied for the matrices in 0.1 M HCl. Tablets with fatty acid salts of CS showed both rapid and prolonged buoyancy (> 8 h). Comparatively, CS tablets exhibited a short floatation period (tablets were completely disintegrated within 1 h of soaking. In addition, slow and prolonged drug release was achieved from tablets of fatty acid salts of CS with average drug release of 80.1 and 71.8% for CS-laurate and CS-palmitate, respectively. Rapid drug release (> 80% at 1 h) was exhibited by tablets with CS or the physical mixtures.

  1. Role of Low-Molecule-Weight Organic Acids and Their Salts in Regulating Soil pH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-An; ZOU Bi; XIA Han-Ping; DING Yong-Zhen; TAN Wan-Neng; FU Sheng-Lei

    2008-01-01

    The process of organic materials increasing soil pH has not yet been fully understood.This study examined the role of cations and organic anions in regulating soil pH using organic compounds.Calcareous soil,acid soil,and paddy soil were incubated with different simple organic compounds,pH was determined periodically and CO2 emission was also measured.Mixing organic acids with the soil caused an instant decrease of soil pH.The magnitude of pH decrease depended on the initial soil acidity and dissociation degree of the acids.Decomposition of organic acids could only recover the soil pH to about its original level.Mixing organic salts with soil caused an instant increase of soil pH.Decomposition of organic salts of sodium resulted in a steady increase of soil pH,with final soil pH being about 2.7-3.2 pH units over the control.Organic salts with the same anions (citrate) but different cations led to different magnitudes of pH increase,while those having the same cations but different anions led to very similar pH increases.Organic salts of sodium and sodium carbonate caused very similar pH increases of soil when they were added to the acid soil at equimolar concentrations of Na+.The results suggested that cations played a central role in regulating soil pH.Decarboxylation might only consume a limited number of protons.Conversion of organic salts into inorganic salts (carbonate) was possibly responsible for pH increase during their decomposition,suggesting that only those plant residues containing high excess base cations could actually increase soil pH.

  2. Acidic bile salts modulate the squamous epithelial barrier function by modulating tight junction proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Oshima, Tadayuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Miwa, Hiroto

    2011-08-01

    Experimental models for esophageal epithelium in vitro either suffer from poor differentiation or complicated culture systems. An air-liquid interface system with normal human bronchial epithelial cells can serve as a model of esophageal-like squamous epithelial cell layers. Here, we explore the influence of bile acids on barrier function and tight junction (TJ) proteins. The cells were treated with taurocholic acid (TCA), glycocholic acid (GCA), or deoxycholic acid (DCA) at different pH values, or with pepsin. Barrier function was measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the diffusion of paracellular tracers (permeability). The expression of TJ proteins, including claudin-1 and claudin-4, was examined by Western blotting of 1% Nonidet P-40-soluble and -insoluble fractions. TCA and GCA dose-dependently decreased TEER and increased paracellular permeability at pH 3 after 1 h. TCA (4 mM) or GCA (4 mM) did not change TEER and permeability at pH 7.4 or pH 4. The combination of TCA and GCA at pH 3 significantly decreased TEER and increased permeability at lower concentrations (2 mM). Pepsin (4 mg/ml, pH 3) did not have any effect on barrier function. DCA significantly decreased the TEER and increased permeability at pH 6, a weakly acidic condition. TCA (4 mM) and GCA (4 mM) significantly decreased the insoluble fractions of claudin-1 and claudin-4 at pH 3. In conclusion, acidic bile salts disrupted the squamous epithelial barrier function partly by modulating the amounts of claudin-1 and claudin-4. These results provide new insights for understanding the role of TJ proteins in esophagitis.

  3. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  4. Salt Tolerance Enhancement of Liquid Chromatography-Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry Using Matrix Additive Methylenediphosphonic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yuki; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Tanimura, Ritsuko; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a highly sensitive analytical technique that is often coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). However, some buffering salts used in LC (e.g., phosphate and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris)) are incompatible with MS since they cause ion-source contamination and signal suppression. In this study, we examined salt tolerance of MALDI and applied a matrix additive methylenediphosphonic acid (MDPNA) to reduce salt-induced signal suppression. MDPNA significantly improved the salt tolerance of MALDI-MS. Using ammonium formate buffer at pH 5.0, the effective range of buffering salt concentration in MALDI-MS using MDPNA was estimated up to 250 mM. MDPNA reduced signal suppression caused by buffering salts at pH 4.0 to 8.0. We observed that MDPNA effectively worked over a wide range of buffer conditions. MDPNA was further applied to hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and chromatofocusing-MALDI-MS. As a result, the analytes in the eluent containing high-concentration salts were detected with high sensitivity. Thus, our study provides simple and fast LC-MALDI-MS analysis technique not having strict limitation of buffering condition in LC by using matrix additive MDPNA. PMID:26819873

  5. Impact of exogenous ascorbic acid on biochemical activities of rice callus treated with salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Isahak, Anizan; Mohamad, Azhar; Ashraf, Mehdi Farshad; Doni, Febri; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    The application of in vitro systems can lead to new methods of crop amelioration. This method has been widely utilized for breeding tenacities, particularly for stress tolerance selection. Salinity causes oxidative stress in callus by enhancing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), resulting in an efficient antioxidant system. The exogenous application of ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important requirement for tolerance. The present study aimed to examine in vitro selection strategy for callus induction in rice mature embryo culture on MS culture medium and to produce salt-tolerant callus under sodium chloride (NaCl) and AsA conditions in callus rice variety, MR269. This study also highlights changes in the activities of proline and antioxidants peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of callus under NaCl stress to understand their possible role in salt tolerance. However, various levels of exogenously applied AsA under saline conditions improved callus, and the antioxidant enzyme activities of AsA are related to resistance to oxidative stress. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that AsA-dependent antioxidant enzymes play a significant role in the salinity tolerance of callus rice.

  6. Composite polyether electrolytes with a poly(styrenesulfonate) lithium salt and Lewis acid type additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo; Banow, Branimir

    2003-06-15

    A poly(styrenesulfonate) lithium salt was tested as a single-ion conductor in a poly(ethylene oxide)/poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether matrix. Impedance spectroscopy and voltage step polarization were used to characterize the composite electrolytes. A specific conductivity of about 7x10{sup -8} S cm{sup -1} was evaluated at 70 deg. C. The very low conductivity was attributed to the poor solubility of Li{sup +} in the polymer matrix. AlCl{sub 3} was added to the polymer electrolyte to increase the salt dissolution. The addition of the Lewis acid strongly increases the conductivity and a specific conductivity of about 4x10{sup -6} S cm{sup -1} was measured at 20 deg. C. For temperature lower than 60 deg. C, the specific conductivity dependence with increasing temperature follows an Arrhenius-type behavior. An activation energy of about 55.6 kJ mol{sup -1} was calculated. A very similar activation energy (60.3 kJ mol{sup -1}) was found for the charge transfer resistance. The transport properties of the polymer electrolyte were tested by applying a d.c. voltage step to a symmetrical lithium cell. The current at the applied voltage decreased with time. The decrease was related to an increase in the cell resistance due to the continuous growth of a passivation layer on the lithium surface.

  7. The study of acetylsalicylic acid effects on wheat seeds germination in salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Tănasa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine whether a treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (ASA would increase the germinative energy of wheat seeds in conditions of salt stress. Wheat seeds were immersed in six solutions of ASA of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mM and then germinated in two solutions of different levels of salinity (one replicating normal conditions of salinity in crop soils, and one reproducing the conditions present in salty soil. The optimum concentration ofASA for alleviating the effects of salt stress proved to be 1 mM. The enzymatic activities of three antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase and poliphenoloxidase were also monitored in all theexperimental variants to determine whether the effects of the ASA on wheat seeds germination were due to its effects on the antioxidant system. The treatment using ASA in 1 mM concentration increased,in high salinity conditions, foremost the catalase activity and less the peroxidase and poliphenoloxidase activity, making catalase the most indicative enzyme in explaining the effects of ASA on saline stress reduction.

  8. Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kombucha Tea Against Low pH and Bile Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha tea is a functional drink fermented by various types of microbes. Kombucha tea is also a source of lactic acid bacteria that can maintain the balance of the microflora of the digestive tract which can improve the health of the human body. Lactic acid bacteria can act as a probiotic if it is able to survive to the human gastrointestinal tract, where in order to reach the digestive tract, lactic acid bacteria has to be resistant to the low pH in the stomach and bile salts. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of resistance of lactic acid bacteria in kombucha tea against low pH and bile salts. This study uses 20 isolates, each of these isolates were tested to the resistance of low pH 2.0 and 0.5 % bile salts with incubation time of 4 hours. The results indicated that from 20 isolates of lactic acid bacteria that were obtained from kombucha tea, 15 isolates were resistant to low pH and 13 isolates were resistant to bile salts. The isolates have a huge potential to be developed as a probiotic candidate that can contribute greatly to the health of the digestive tract.

  9. Aquatic risk assessment of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kazuaki

    2007-01-01

    The aquatic risk of 2-sulfonato fatty acid methyl ester sodium salt (MES) used in household detergents was assessed. The environmental exposure assessment expressed as predicted environmental concentration (PEC) was determined on the basis of monitoring results from the seven sites of four rivers in the urban area in Tokyo and Osaka. The 95 percentile as well as geometric mean of the MES concentration was found to exhibit a good correlation with the geometric mean of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD; the latter's regression was greater than 0.99). The predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) for the aquatic environment was estimated by performing chronic assays of algae and daphnia. The risk characterization ratio (RCR: PEC/PNEC) was less than 1. Therefore, it is concluded that MES will not adversely affect the aquatic environment in Japan.

  10. Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

    1999-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria.

  11. Disodium Cromoglycate, A Mast-Cell Stabilizer, Alters Postradiation Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    ranD RISEARCH INSTITUTI SCIENTIFIC REPORTTC SR86-14 ELECTE JUL0186_ _ ~D DISODIUM CROMOGLYCATE , A MAST-CELL STABILIZER, ALTERS POSTRADIATION...were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCC) or BRL 22321 (Beecham Phar- maceuticals, Research Division) before exposure to 100 Gy...flow could be mitigated by the pre- radiation administration of either disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (Fisons Corporation, ledford, Mass.) or BRL 22321

  12. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Nakayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  13. Asymmetric Aldol Reaction Catalyzed by L-Proline and Achiral Thiourea Fluoroboric Acid Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun; Lee, Haney; Kim, Taek Hyeon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Considering its ready availability and low cost, L-proline would be the first choice catalyst for preparing aldol adducts with high diastereo- and enantioselectivity. However, proline presents some major drawbacks, including poor performance in direct aldol reactions with aromatic aldehydes, limited solubility, and reactivity in nonpolar organic solvents, and side reactions that make using high catalyst loadings necessary to reach satisfactory conversions. Therefore, numerous proline-modified organo catalysts such as prolinamides, proline thioamides, sulfonamides, chiral amines, and organic salts have been designed for direct aldol reactions. An alternative is to add a readily available additive to the reactions containing proline. This last approach is clearly advantageous in avoiding tedious chemical syntheses of organo catalysts and would ultimately allow the construction of libraries of catalyst protocols by simply changing the additive. Acid additives can influence the outcome of enamine mediated reactions; however, only a few screening studies of acid additions to thiourea organo catalysts are available in the literature. The reaction between cyclohexanone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde was selected as a standard model reaction for screening of more effective acid additives to thiourea.

  14. The role of amino acids in improvement in salt tolerance of crop plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Samad H. M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been performed to study the growth and metabolic activities of maize and broad bean plants which are shown to have a degree of sensitivity to salinity and to determine the role of amino acids proline or phenylalanine in increasing the salt tolerance of theses plants. Dry mass, water content, leaf area and photosynthetic pigment of maize and broad bean plants decreased with increasing salinity. These changes were accompanied with a drop in the contents of soluble sugars, soluble proteins and amino acids. This was accompanied by a marked increase in the proline content. When maize and broad bean plants sprayed with proline or phenylalanine the opposite effect was occurred, saccharides as well as proteins progressively increased at all sanitization levels and proline concentration significantly declined. Salinity significantly increased the sodium content in both shoots and roots of maize and broad bean plants, while a decline in the accumulation of K+, Ca++, Mg++ and P was observed. Amino acids treatments markedlyaltered the selectivity of Na+, K+, Ca++ and P in both maize and broad bean plants. Spraying with any of either proline orphenylalanine restricted Na+ uptake and enhanced the uptake of K+, K+/Na+ ratio, Ca++ and P selectivity in maize and broad bean plants.

  15. Acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, as an agent to stop vitiligo progression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, Igor V; Lomonosov, Konstantin M

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo progression is attributed to immune system malfunctioning, thus immunomodulating compounds might be beneficial in stopping vitiligo progression which is a prerequisite for successful repigmentation. The goal of this study was to assess efficacy of acridone acetic acid, sodium salt (Na-AAA), an immunomodulating compound with favorable safety profile, in stabilizing active vitiligo, and to reveal prognostic factors of treatment outcome. Sixty consecutive patients with progressing nonsegmental vitiligo were treated with 10 i.m. injections of Na-AAA every other day. Disease stability was assessed in 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate treatment outcome and available clinical parameters. Of the 60 patients treated, vitiligo stopped progression in 44 patients (73.3%). Older age (p = 0.0219), age of 35 and older (p = 0.0189, odds ratio (OR) = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-20.84) or age of 40 and older (p = 0.0039, OR = 6.48, 95% CI 1.86-22.61), longer disease duration (p = 0.0234), pre-treatment interleukin-6 level over 2 pg/mL (p = 0.0005, OR = 13.7, 95% CI 2.97-63), and over the reference threshold value 5.9 pg/mL (p = 0.0009, OR = 25.8, 95% CI 2.8-239) as well as presence of other autoimmune diseases (p = 0.038, OR = 7.0, 95% CI 1.14-42.97) were negative prognostic factors of treatment success. In conclusion, acridone acetic acid, sodium salt, emerges as an efficient option for stopping vitiligo progression.

  16. Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria strains with ornithine producing capacity from natural sea salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Ju; Oh, Suk-Heung

    2010-08-01

    Two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) having ornithine-producing capacity were isolated from Korean natural sea salt. They were Gram-positive, short rod-type bacteria, and able to grow anaerobically with CO(2) production. The isolates grew well on MRS broth at 30-37 degrees C and a pH of 6.5-8.0. The optimum temperature and pH for growth are 37 degrees C and pH 7.0. The isolates fermented D-ribose, D-galactose, D-lactose, D-maltose, Dcellobiose, D-tagatose, D-trehalose, sucrose, D-melezitose, gentiobiose, D-glucose but not D-melibiose, inositol, and L-sorbose. The 16S rDNA sequences of the two isolates showed 99.5% and 99.6% homology with the Weissella koreensis S5623 16S rDNA (Access no. AY035891). They were accordingly identified and named as Weissella koreensis MS1-3 and Weissella koreensis MS1-14, and produced intracellular ornithine at levels of 72 mg/100 g cell F.W. and 105 mg/100 g cell F.W. and extracellular ornithine at levels of 4.5 mg/100 ml and 4.6 mg/100 ml medium, respectively, by culturing in MRS broth supplemented with 1% arginine. High cell growth was maintained in MRS broth with a NaCl concentration of 0-6%. These results show for the first time that Korean natural sea salts contain lactic acid bacteria Weissella koreensis strains having ornithine producing capacity.

  17. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C B Martins

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina. To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100% without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  18. Usnic acid potassium salt: an alternative for the control of Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mônica C B; Silva, Monique C; Silva, Luanna R S; Lima, Vera L M; Pereira, Eugênia C; Falcão, Emerson P S; Melo, Ana M M A; da Silva, Nicácio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector of schistosomiasis due to its wide geographical distribution, high infection rate and efficient disease transmission. Among the methods of schistosomiasis control, the World Health Organization recommends the use of synthetic molluscicides, such as niclosamide. However, different substances of natural origin have been tested as alternatives for the control or eradication of mollusks. The literature describes the antitumor, antimicrobial and antiviral properties of usnic acid as well as other important activities of common interest between medicine and the environment. However, usnic acid has a low degree of water solubility, which can be a limiting factor for its use, especially in aquatic environments, since the organic solvents commonly used to solubilize this substance can have toxic effects on aquatic biota. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the potassium salt of usnic acid (potassium usnate) with regard to molluscicidal activity and toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina). To obtain potassium usnate, usnic acid was extracted with diethyl ether isolated and purified from the lichen Cladonia substellata. Biological assays were performed with embryos and adult snails of B. glabrata exposed for 24 h to the usnate solution solubilized in dechlorinated water at 2.5; 5 and 10 µg/ml for embryos, 0.5; 0.9; 1;5 and 10 µg/ml for mollusks and 0.5; 1; 5; 10 µg/ml for A. salina. The lowest lethal concentration for the embryos and adult snails was 10 and 1 µg/ml, respectively. No toxicity to A. salina was found. The results show that modified usnic acid has increased solubility (100%) without losing its biological activity and may be a viable alternative for the control of B. glabrata.

  19. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids, a phosphate binder alternative for patients on CAPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, M; Coronel, F; Navarro, J F; Gallego, E; Herrero, J A; Méndez, M L; Chahin, J; García, J

    1997-09-01

    Control of hyperphosphoremia is crucial to the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Calcium salts of keto-amino acids (KAA) were employed as phosphate binders in hemodialysis patients. We wanted to assess the efficacy of these substances as quelating agents in patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Also, as an amino acid supplement, we determined their possible effect on some parameters related to nutritional status. We studied 13 patients (7 M; 6 F) with a mean age of 45.2 +/- 17 years and a mean time on CAPD of 18.4 +/- 11.4 months. None had severe secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or clinically relevant aluminium intoxication. They were not receiving calcitriol and none were using low-calcium peritoneal dialysis fluids. All were under aluminum hydroxide (AlOH3) treatment and 8 patients also received calcium carbonate. These quelating agents were withdrawn and after 21 days (wash-out period) KAA were initiated. We analyzed serum levels of bone metabolism parameters (calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin [OC], intact parathyroid hormone [iPTH], alkaline phosphatase [AP]) and nutritional parameters (total protein, albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin) in four periods: (A) during AlOH3; (B) immediately after the washout period; (C) after 1.5 months; and (D) after 3 months of KAA therapy. In 5 patients serum aluminum level was also measured in periods (A) and (D). The serum phosphate level at period (B) was significantly higher than in other periods. After 3 months of treatment phosphate levels decreased significantly (A = 1.77 +/- 0.3 mmol/l vs D = 1.48 +/- 0.2; p < 0.05). Serum calcium levels increased, while iPTH and OC decreased (p = ns). AP remained stable during the study. All nutritional parameters increased at the end of the study (p = ns). Calcium salts of keto-amino acids showed to be an effective alternative to aluminum-containing phosphate binders. They were well tolerated, without relevant side-effects. These compounds could also

  1. Mutual Amino Acid Catalysis in Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Supports this Mechanism's Role in Prebiotic Peptide Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1999-10-01

    The presence of some amino acids and dipeptides under the conditions of the salt-induced peptide formation reaction (aqueous solution at 85 °C, Cu(II) and NaCl) has been found to catalyze the formation of homopeptides of other amino acids, which are otherwise produced only in traces or not at all by this reaction. The condensation of Val, Leu and Lys to form their homodipeptides can occur to a considerable extent due to catalytic effects of other amino acids and related compounds, among which glycine, histidine, diglycine and diketopiperazine exhibit the most remarkable activity. These findings also lead to a modification of the table of amino acid sequences preferentially formed by the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction, previously used for a comparison with the sequence preferences in membrane proteins of primitive organisms

  2. CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY WILD AND UV - TREATED STRAINS OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER ON TWO DIFFERENT MINERAL SALT MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine Enyinna Anyanwu; Phillip O. Okerentugba

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of citric acid by a novel Aspergillus niger EE-12 and its UV – treated strain (UV-1) were carried out in shake flask cultures using mineral salt media containing sucrose or fructose as the carbon and energy sources. The highest citric acid concentration (36.1g/l) was obtained with the UV – treated strain UV-1 after 144 hours in medium containing sucrose and this was significantly higher (p

  3. rpoS regulation of acid, heat, and salt tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheville, A M; Arnold, K W; Buchrieser, C; Cheng, C M; Kaspar, C W

    1996-01-01

    An rpoS mutant (rpoS::pRR10) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895 was generated. Stationary-phase acid, heat, and salt tolerance was significantly reduced, and starvation-induced acid tolerance did not develop in the mutant. RpoS was also important for survival of E. coli O157:H7 in dry, fermented sausage. PMID:8633882

  4. Protein pattern of canola (Brassica napus L. changes in response to salt and salicylic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavizadeh Roya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salicylic acid (SA on the salt (NaCl tolerance mechanism was studied in canola plants (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. by molecular and physiological experiments in plant tissue culture. Seeds of B. napus ‘Ocapy’ were germinated at 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels (0, 2, and 5 μM of SA for 4 weeks. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid content increased in response to interactive effects of SA and NaCl treatments at some concentrations. Proline content was increased under salt and SA treatments in shoot and root tissues. Salt alone and in combination with SA increased the total soluble protein content of shoots only, while the different concentrations of SA in the culture media affected variously the total soluble protein content. Protein patterns of shoots and roots showed some remarkable differences, based on gel electrophoresis and the consequent analysis of bands by ImageJ program. The relative expression of 15 and 12 protein bands in shoots and roots, respectively, differed under the applied treatments. In addition, the protein profile indicated that salinity and SA regulate the expression of salt-stress-inducible proteins as well as induced de novo synthesis of specific polypeptides. The findings may help to explain the salt tolerance mechanisms and to produce salt-tolerant canola plants.

  5. Identification of robust synthon in the molecular salts of 2-aminothiazole with substituted benzoic acids: A case stu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhavi Oruganti; Raghavaiah Pallepogu; Darshak R Trivedi

    2014-09-01

    Six new salts of an API intermediate 2-aminothiazole with different carboxylic acid coformers were synthesized and characterized by IR (Infrared spectroscopy), 1H-NMR, DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry), XRPD (X-ray powder diffraction) and single crystal XRD. The crystal structure of the salts with benzoic acid, 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6- dihydroxybenzoic acids and 2,4-dinitrobenzoic acid were determined. The thiazole moiety exhibited solvent (polarity) assisted tautomerism in all reported salts and proton transfer was noticed to the ring N of thiazole due to which two point supramolecular synthon N+−H(thiazole)…O−(acid), N−H(amine)…O−(acid) was observed. The crystal structures were studied with respect to the positional effect of the competing functional groups like hydroxyl (−OH) and nitro (−NO2) as well as their donor and acceptor abilities for hydrogen bonding. The presence of the non-conventional hydrogen bond (C−H…O) has been found to play a critical role in the formation of secondary supramolecular architectures.

  6. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts.

  7. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  8. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  9. Accumulation of fatty acids in purslane grown in hydroponic salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastácio, Ana; Carvalho, Isabel S

    2013-03-01

    Purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) is the eighth most common plant distributed throughout the world being a heat- and drought-tolerant plant. In this study, we evaluated the effect of salinity on total amounts of fatty acids (FAs) and ω3/ω6 ratio in leaves of purslane. Plants exposed to four levels of chloride salinity in the root zone (60, 90, 120 and 240 mM NaCl) for 40 days showed no signs of toxicity or death. The main FAs detected were C16:0>C18:3>C18:2. The ratio of ω6 to ω3 was not changed with salt stress. Hierarchic cluster analysis brought together 60 and 90 mM NaCl in control plants, based on their FA content. The results of this study confirm the purslane as a plant rich in FAs whose consumption may contribute to dietary intake of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, with obvious benefits to human health.

  10. Nonequimolar Mixture of Organic Acids and Bases: An Exception to the Rule of Thumb for Salt or Cocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratik, Saied Md; Datta, Ayan

    2016-08-04

    Formation of salt and/or cocrystal from organic acid-base mixtures has significant consequences in the pharmaceutical industry and its related intellectual property rights (IPR). On the basis of calculations using periodic dispersion corrected DFT (DFT-D2) on formic acid-pyridine adduct, we have demonstrated that an equimolar stoichiometric ratio (1:1) exists as a neutral cocrystal. On the other hand, the nonequimolar stoichiometry (4:1) readily forms an ionic salt. While the former result is in agreement with the ΔpKa rule between the base and the acid, the latter is not. Calculations reveal that, within the equimolar manifold (n:n; n = 1-4), the mixture exists as a hydrogen bonded complex in a cocrystal-like environment. However, the nonequimolar mixture in a ratio of 5:1 and above readily forms salt-like structures. Because of the cooperative nature of hydrogen bonding, the strength of the O-H···N hydrogen bond increases and eventually transforms into O(-)···H-N(+) (complete proton transfer) as the ratio of formic acid increases and forms salt as experimentally observed. Clearly, an enhanced polarization of formic acid on aggregation increases its acidity and, hence, facilitates its transfer to pyridine. Motion of the proton from formic acid to pyridine is shown to follow a relay mechanism wherein the proton that is far away from pyridine is ionized and is subsequently transferred to pyridine via hopping across the neutral formic acid molecules (Grotthuss type pathway). The dynamic nature of protons in the condensed phase is also evident for cocrystals as the barrier of intramolecular proton migration in formic acid (leading to tautomerism), ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 17.1 kcal/mol in the presence of pyridine is half of that in free formic acid (cf. ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 34.2 kcal/mol). We show that an acid-base reaction can be altered in the solid state to selectively form a cocrystal or salt depending on the strength and nature of aggregation.

  11. Removal of naphthenic acids using adsorption process and the effect of the addition of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Fakhry Seyedeyn; Abedi, Jalal; Iranmanesh, Sobhan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, various types of adsorbents were examined for the removal of Naphthenic acids (NAs) in the preliminary stage of this study. Among them, activated carbon and nickel (Ni) based alumina (Ni-Al2O3) possess relatively high adsorption capacity of NAs. The removal of NAs was evaluated comparing the total organic carbon (TOC) of the solution before and after the adsorption process. The effect of Ni loading was investigated using Ni-Al2O4 with various nickel loadings. The highest adsorption capacity (20 mg of TOC/1 mg of adsorbent) was belong to Ni-Al2O4 with 10.7% Ni loading. By the addition of salt (1500 ppm NaCl) to NAs solutions having concentrations from of 15 to 38 ppm, it was observed that the adsorption decreased dramatically (up to 80%) depending on the concentration of TOC. The kinetics of the adsorption of TOC on Ni-based alumina was also investigated. The decrease of TOC was more that 40% in the first half hour, indicating that adsorption was very rapid in the beginning. The adsorption increased slightly for up to 5 h and then leveled off when the TOC reached to 50% of initial TOC concentration. However, when sodium chloride (NaCl) was added to the solution, the adsorption decreased to almost 9% within the first half hour, reaching to almost 5% after 3 h. These phenomena suggest that the effectiveness of adsorbents may be improved by decreasing the total dissolved salts in tailings pond wastewater.

  12. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  13. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  14. Spectroscopic studies of solid-state forms of donepezil free base and salt forms with various salicylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G.

    2014-12-01

    The polymorphic forms of donepezil free base have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. None of the free base crystal forms was observed to exhibit detectable fluorescence in the solid state under ambient conditions. Crystalline salt products were obtained by the reaction of donepezil with salicylic and methyl-substituted salicylic acids, with the salicylate and 4-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as non-solvated products, and the 3-methylsalicylate and 5-methylsalicylate salts being obtained as methanol solvated products. The intensity of solid-state fluorescence from donepezil salicylate and donepezil 4-methylsalicylate was found to be reduced relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids, while the solid-state fluorescence intensity of donepezil 3-methylsalicylate methanolate and donepezil 5-methylsalicylate methanolate was greatly increased relative to the fluorescence intensity of the corresponding free acids. Desolvation of the solvated salt products led to formation of glassy solids that exhibited strong green fluorescence.

  15. Synthesis and antitussive evaluation of verticinone-cholic acid salt, a novel and potential cough therapeutic agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-zhou XU; Chang CHEN; Yong-hui ZHANG; Han-li RUAN; Hui-fang PI; Pong ZHANG; Ji-zhou WU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To seek a novel and potent antitussive drug based on Shedan-Chuanbei powder, a complex of traditional Chinese medicine preparation for cough therapy.Methods: Verticinone-cholic acid (Vet-CA) salt, a novel, salifying derivative of verticinone and cholic acid, both of which are the major bioactive components in Shedan-Chuanbei powder, was synthesized. We then evaluated the antitussive activity and the acute toxicity of the salt. Results: The new compound, with good solubility in water, has much more potent antitussive activity in comparison with the same dose of single verticinone and single cholic acid. The administration 3 mg/kg of Ver-CA could result in over 50% reduction of a citric acid-induced cough.Pretreatment with naloxone (0.8 mg/kg, ip) can only partially antagonize its anti-tussive effect. On the other hand, glybenclamide (3 mg/kg, ip), an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, can also significantly reduce the antitussive effect of Ver-CA.A further acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 values of Ver-CA were 3 times that of verticinone. Conclusion: Based on the studies of pharmacology and acutetoxicity, the salt has a synergic and attenuated toxicity compared with single verticinone and cholic acid. Moreover, the present study also suggests that Ver-CA, a potential novel antitussive agent, may exert its antitussive effect via both the peripheral (modulated by ATP-sensitive K+ channels) and central mechanisms(modulated by the opioid receptor).

  16. Fractionation of humic acids according to their hydrophobicity, size, and charge-dependent mobility by the salting-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzina, A. G.; Vanifatova, N. G.; Stepanov, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    Humic acids (HAs) represent heterogeneous and polydisperse mixture of molecules that differ in their chemical structure, composition, and functional properties. Fractionation of HAs is of key importance for understanding their interactions with various organic and inorganic compounds, for studying their physiological activity, and for predicting their behavior in natural environments and agroecosystems. Existing fractionation methods are rather laborious and time consuming, which limits their application in fundamental science and industry. It is shown that fractionation of humic acids with ammonium sulfate ensures their preparative separation with respect to (a) hydrophobicity, (b) molecular size, and (c) charge dependent on the amount of functional groups. Salting out at the lowest and highest degrees of saturation with ammonium sulfate, upon which precipitation of the molecules occurs, makes it possible to separate humic acids into functionally different high-molecular-weight/hydrophobic and low-molecular-weight/hydrophilic fractions. The first fraction is characterized by a lower electrophoretic mobility than the second fraction. The weight percentage of the components coagulated at the lowest degree of salt saturation can be used as a quantitative parameter for comparing hydrophobic properties of humic acids. Salting out is recommended as a fast, simple, and cheap alternative to chromatographic methods for preparative separation of humic acids if large amounts of functionally different fractions need to be obtained.

  17. Gene expression changes associated with Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell lines after acid or bile salt exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbaie Peyman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus represent two major risk factors for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous studies have shown that brief exposure of the Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell line, SEG-1, or primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissues to acid or bile results in changes consistent with cell proliferation. In this study, we determined whether similar exposure to acid or bile salts results in gene expression changes that provide insights into malignant transformation. Methods Using previously published methods, Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines and primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissue were exposed to short pulses of acid or bile salts followed by incubation in culture media at pH 7.4. A genome-wide assessment of gene expression was then determined for the samples using cDNA microarrays. Subsequent analysis evaluated for statistical differences in gene expression with and without treatment. Results The SEG-1 cell line showed changes in gene expression that was dependent on the length of exposure to pH 3.5. Further analysis using the Gene Ontology, however, showed that representation by genes associated with cell proliferation is not enhanced by acid exposure. The changes in gene expression also did not involve genes known to be differentially expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Similar experiments using short-term primary cultures of Barrett's esophagus also did not result in detectable changes in gene expression with either acid or bile salt exposure. Conclusion Short-term exposure of esophageal adenocarcinoma SEG-1 cells or primary cultures of Barrett's esophagus does not result in gene expression changes that are consistent with enhanced cell proliferation. Thus other model systems are needed that may reflect the impact of acid and bile salt exposure on the esophagus in vivo.

  18. Chiral recognition in salts of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane and optically active tartaric acids: crystal structure of 1:2 salt of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)-tartaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychlewska, Urszula

    1999-01-01

    X-ray results for the highly organised superstructure (space group P6 522) of the 1:2 salt of (1 S,2 S)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)-tartaric acid ( 1) are compared with the previously reported [1] crystal structures of two diastereomeric 1:1 salts of ( R, R)-diaminocyclohexane with ( R, R)- and ( S, S)-tartaric acid. The asymmetric unit of the unit cell of 1 consists of one molecule of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane, one molecule of ( R, R)-hydrogentartrate, half a molecule of ( R, R)-tartaric acid, half of an ( R, R)-tartrate anion, and a water molecule. The presence of all three ionisation states of ( R, R)-tartrate in one crystal is most unusual, as is the anti conformation of the carboxyl group in ( R, R)-tartaric acid. Association of ( S, S)-diaminocyclohexane and ( R, R)-hydrogentartrate involves three-centre hydrogen bonds between ammonium groups as donors and α-hydroxycarboxylate and α-hydroxycarboxyl moieties as acceptors. The remaining hydrogen bonds stabilise this motif and expand it to three dimensions. The results provide some insights into the enantioselective association of trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane with optically active tartaric acids, the main driving force being the hydrogen bonding. While in a homochiral 1:1 salt the two ions combine by a scissors-shaped hydrogen bonding motif formed by two ammonium functions as donors and vicinal hydroxyl groups as acceptors, in heterochiral salts the cation and anion species join together via three-centre hydrogen bonds between ammonium functions and planar or nearly planar α-hydroxycarboxylate moieties.

  19. N-methylacridinium salts: carbon Lewis acids in frustrated Lewis pairs for σ-bond activation and catalytic reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ewan R; Ingleson, Michael J

    2014-10-13

    N-methylacridinium salts are Lewis acids with high hydride ion affinity but low oxophilicity. The cation forms a Lewis adduct with 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine but a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) with the weaker base 2,6-lutidine which activates H2, even in the presence of H2O. Anion effects dominate reactivity, with both solubility and rate of H2 cleavage showing marked anion dependency. With the optimal anion, a N-methylacridinium salt catalyzes the reductive transfer hydrogenation and hydrosilylation of aldimines through amine-boranes and silanes, respectively. Furthermore, the same salt is active for the catalytic dehydrosilylation of alcohols (primary, secondary, tertiary, and ArOH) by silanes with no observable over-reduction to the alkanes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction.

  1. Nuclear-localized AtHSPR links abscisic acid-dependent salt tolerance and antioxidant defense in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Liang; Hao, Hongyan; Zhang, Peng; Zhu, Haowei; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Chongying

    2015-12-01

    Salt stress from soil or irrigation water limits plant growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant in C24, named athspr (Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein-related), showed several phenotypes, including reduced organ size and enhanced sensitivity to environmental cues. The athspr mutant is severely impaired under salinity levels at which wild-type (WT) plants grow normally. AtHSPR encodes a nuclear-localized protein with ATPase activity, and its expression was enhanced by high salinity and abscisic acid (ABA). Overexpression (OE) of AtHSPR significantly enhanced tolerance to salt stress by increasing the activities of the antioxidant system and by maintaining K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that OE of AtHSPR increased the expression of ABA/stress-responsive, salt overly sensitive (SOS)-related and antioxidant-related genes. In addition, ABA content was reduced in athspr plants with or without salt stress, and exogenous ABA restored WT-like salt tolerance to athspr plants. athspr exhibited increased leaf stomatal density and stomatal index, slower ABA-induced stomatal closure and reduced drought tolerance relative to the WT. AtHSPR OE enhanced drought tolerance by reducing leaf water loss and stomatal aperture. Transcript profiling in athspr showed a differential salt-stress response for genes involved in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ABA signaling, cell death, stress response and photosynthesis. Taken together, our results suggested that AtHSPR is involved in salt tolerance in Arabidopsis through modulation of ROS levels, ABA-dependent stomatal closure, photosynthesis and K(+) /Na(+) homeostasis.

  2. Roles of Gibberellins and Abscisic Acid in Regulating Germination of Suaeda salsa Dimorphic Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiqiang; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Khan, M. Ajmal; An, Ping; Liu, Xiaojing; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA homeostases by salt

  3. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  4. The role of resistance to bile salts and acid tolerance of exopolysaccharides (EPSS produced by yogurt starter bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boke Hatice

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relation between EPS production and resistance to bile salts and tolerance to low pH. Eight strains which produced the highest and lowest amount of EPS (16- 211mg/l were selected among 54 bacteria isolated from yogurt. Additionally, they were tested for resistance to bile salts (0.15, 0.3 % and tolerance to low pH (2.0-3.0. After treatment with bile salts and acid, viable bacteria (log cfu ml-1 were determined by surface plating. The high EPS producing strains (B3, G12, W22 showed a significant (P<0.05 protective effect against low pH (pH 2.0. All Streptococcus thermophilus strains showed a higher tolerance to bile salts than the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains. The high EPS-producing S. thermophilus (W22, T12 and L. bulgaricus (B3, G2 strains showed a significant (P<0.01 protective effect against bile salts (0.3 %.

  5. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J; Lucchesi, Paula M A; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production.

  6. Effect of the Food Additives Sodium Citrate and Disodium Phosphate on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Production of stx-Phages and Shiga toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Lucas J.; Lucchesi, Paula M. A.; Medico, Lucía; Burgán, Julia; Krüger, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Induction and propagation of bacteriophages along the food production chain can represent a significant risk when bacteriophages carry genes for potent toxins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different compounds used in the food industry on the growth of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and the production of stx-phage particles and Shiga toxin. We tested the in vitro effect of lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, disodium phosphate, and sodium citrate on STEC growth. A bacteriostatic effect was observed in most of treated cultures. The exceptions were those treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate in which similar growth curves to the untreated control were observed, but with reduced OD600 values. Evaluation of phage production by plaque-based assays showed that cultures treated with sodium citrate and disodium phosphate released phages in similar o lower levels than untreated cultures. However, semi-quantification of Stx revealed higher levels of extracellular Stx in STEC cultures treated with 2.5% sodium citrate than in untreated cultures. Our results reinforce the importance to evaluate if additives and other treatments used to decrease bacterial contamination in food induce stx-phage and Stx production. PMID:27446032

  7. Salicylic acid differently impacts ethylene and polyamine synthesis in the glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum and the wild-related halophyte Solanum chilense exposed to mild salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Emna; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Benahmed, Hela; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Lutts, Stanley; Quinet, Muriel

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) on the toxic effects of salt in relation to ethylene and polyamine synthesis, and to correlate these traits with the expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism in two tomato species differing in their sensitivity to salt stress, Solanum lycopersicum cv Ailsa Craig and its wild salt-resistant relative Solanum chilense. In S. chilense, treatment with 125 mM NaCl improved plant growth, increased production of ethylene, endogenous salicylic acid and spermine. The production was related to a modification of expression of genes involved in ethylene and polyamine metabolism. In contrast, salinity decreased plant growth in S. lycopersicum without affecting endogenous ethylene, salicylic or polyamine concentrations. Exogenous application of salicylic acid at 0.01 mM enhanced shoot growth in both species and affected ethylene and polyamine production in S. chilense. Concomitant application of NaCl and salicylic acid improved osmotic adjustment, thus suggesting that salt and SA may act in synergy on osmolyte synthesis. However, the beneficial impact of exogenous application of salicylic acid was mitigated by salt stress since NaCl impaired endogenous SA accumulation in the shoot and salicylic acid did not improve plant growth in salt-treated plants. Our results thus revealed that both species respond differently to salinity and that salicylic acid, ethylene and polyamine metabolisms are involved in salt resistance in S. chilense.

  8. Crystal structures and hydrogen bonding in the morpholinium salts of four phenoxyacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts morpholinium (tetrahydro-2-H-1,4-oxazin-4-ium phenoxyacetate, C4H10NO+·C8H7O3−, (I, morpholinium (4-fluorophenoxyacetate, C4H10NO+·C8H6 FO3−, (II, and isomeric morpholinium (3,5-dichlorophenoxyacetate (3,5-D, (III, and morpholinium (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, C4H10NO+·C8H5Cl2O3−, (IV, have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In the crystals of (I, (III and (IV, one of the the aminium H atoms is involved in a three-centre asymmetric cation–anion N—H...O,O′ R12(4 hydrogen-bonding interaction with the two carboxyl O-atom acceptors of the anion. With the structure of (II, the primary N—H...O interaction is linear. In the structures of (I, (II and (III, the second N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond generates one-dimensional chain structures extending in all cases along [100]. With (IV, the ion pairs are linked though inversion-related N—H...O hydrogen bonds [graph set R42(8], giving a cyclic heterotetrameric structure.

  9. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity value of 0.229.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of magnesium and calcium salts of p-anisic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran T Dhavskar; Pooja H Bhargao; Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure and properties of the magnesium and calcium salts of p-anisic acid viz. [Mg(H2O)6](C8H7O3)2·2H2O (C8H7O3=p-anisate or 4-methoxybenzoate) (1) and [Ca(H2O)(C8H7O3)2] (2) are reported. The p-anisate ion is not coordinated to Mg(II) and functions as a charge balancing counter anion for the centrosymmetric octahedral [Mg(H2O)6]2+ unit in 1. The unique lattice water molecule links pairs of [Mg(H2O)6] 2+ cations and p-anisate anions with the aid of O-H···O interactions. The μ2-bridging bidentate and the μ3-bridging tetradentate binding modes of the crystallographically unique p-anisate ligands in (2) result in a two-dimensional (2-D) coordination polymer.

  11. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  12. Crystal structure of a lithium salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubitosi, Marta; Meijide, Francisco; D'Annibale, Andrea; Vázquez Tato, José; Jover, Aida; Galantini, Luciano; Travaglini, Leana; di Gregorio, Maria Chiara; Pavel, Nicolae V

    2016-09-01

    The crystal structure of a Li(+) salt of a glucosyl derivative of lithocholic acid (lithium 3α-(α-d-glucopyranosyl)-5β-cholan-24-oate) has been solved. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic system, P212121 spatial group, and includes acetone and water in the structure with a 1:1:2 stoichiometry. Monolayers, having a hydrophobic interior and hydrophilic edges, are recognized in the crystal structure. Li(+) is coordinated to three hydroxyl groups of three different glucose residues, with two of them belonging to the same monolayer. A fourth molecule, located in this monolayer, is involved in the coordination of the cation through the carboxylate ion by an electrostatic interaction, thus completing a distorted tetrahedron. All Li(+)-oxygen distances values are very close to the sum of the ionic radius of Li(+) and van der Waals radius of oxygen. Each steroid molecule is linked to other five steroid molecules through hydrogen bonds. Water and acetone are also involved in the hydrogen bond network. A hierarchical organization can be recognized in the crystal, the helical assembly along 21 screw axes being left-handed.

  13. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination.

  14. Polymorphs of acyclovir-maleic acid salt and their reversible phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianyan; Zhao, Yumei; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Wang, Jianming; Wang, Qiang; Zheng, Zhibing; Deng, Zongwu; Zhang, Hailu

    2017-01-01

    Acyclovir is a commonly used antiviral drug while its solubility is far from satisfied. It was reported that 1:1 acyclovir-maleic acid salt (ACV-MAL) possesses much higher maximum apparent solubility. In this contribution, a new crystal structure of ACV-MAL was solved at room temperature. This new crystal structure and previously reported structure at low temperature can transform to each other via a reversible solid phase transformation, which has been confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and cycling differential scanning calorimetry tests. The phase change temperature is ca. 283-293 K (10-20 °C), which is slightly lower than room temperature (298 ± 2 K/25 ± 2 °C), but is in the range of ambient temperature. This kind of near room temperature phase transformation is less concerned and tends to be neglected. This case report reminds that more attention should be paid to the polymorphism of pharmaceuticals at such temperature range due to its fundamental and practical significance.

  15. Syntheses, structure and properties of Alkaline-earth metal salts of 4-Nitrophenylacetic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BIKSHANDARKOIL R SRINIVASAN; KIRAN T DHAVSKAR; CHRISTIAN NÄTHER

    2016-11-01

    The synthesis, crystal structure, spectral characteristics and thermal properties of alkaline-earth metal salts of 4-nitrophenylacetic acid (4-npaH) namely, [Mg(H₂O)₆](4-npa)₂·4H₂O (4-npa = 4-nitrophenylacetate) (1), [Ca(H₂O)₂(4-npa)₂] (2) and [Sr(H₂O)₃(4-npa)₂]·4.5H₂O(3) are reported. In 1, the 4-npa ion functions as a charge balancing counter anion for the octahedral [Mg(H₂O)6]²⁺ unit with the Mg(II) ion situated on a centre of inversion. The two unique lattice water molecules link the [Mg(H₂O)₆]²⁺ cations and 4-npa anions with the aid of O-H· · ·O interactions. Compounds 2 and 3 are one-dimensional (1-D) coordination polymers containing an eight coordinated Ca(II) situated in a general position and a nine coordinated Sr(II) located on a twofold axis. The μ₂-bridging tridentate binding modes of the crystallographically independent 4-npa ligands in 2 and the unique 4-npa ligand in 3 link the bivalent metal ions into an infinite chain with alternating Ca· · · Ca separations of 3.989 and 4.009 Å, respectively, and a single Sr· · · Sr separation of 4.194Å in the 1-D chain.

  16. Degradation of the herbicide 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) dimethylamine salt by gamma radiation from cobalt-60 in aqueous solution containing humic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sandro X.; Vieira, Eny M.; Cordeiro, Paulo J. M.; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson; Murgu, Michael

    2003-12-01

    In this study, gamma radiation from cobalt-60 was used to degrade the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) dimethylamine salt in water in the presence of humic acid. The 2,4-D dimethylamine salt 1.13×10 -4 mol dm -3 solution was irradiated with different doses. HPLC was used as an analytical technique to determine the degradation rate of herbicide studied. The results showed that the herbicide was completely degraded at an absorbed dose of 3 kGy. Degradation decreased when humic acid was added to all the doses. ESI/MS and MS/MS were used to identify the radiolytic degradation products. A fragmentation path for production of 4.6-dichlororesorcinol, is suggested. The radiolytic yields ( G) were calculated.

  17. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstić, Jugoslav [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation conditions influence to self-assembly of nanocrystallites of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. • Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by filtration is microporous, Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by evaporation is non-porous. • Thermal properties of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and its soluble salts are similar. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite′s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  18. Bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids: aqueous solubility and release characteristics from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Jesper; Larsen, Susan W; Parshad, Henrik; Larsen, Claus

    2005-11-01

    In the search for poorly soluble bupivacaine salts potentially enabling prolonged postoperative pain relief after local joint administration in the form of suspensions the solubility of bupivacaine salts of diflunisal and other aromatic hydroxycarboxylic acids were investigated together with the release characteristics of selected 1:1 salts from solutions and suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell model. The poorest soluble bupivacaine salts were obtained from the aromatic ortho-hydroxycarboxylic acids diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and salicylic acid (aqueous solubilities: 0.6-1.9 mM at 37 degrees C). Diffusant appearance rates in the acceptor phase upon instillation of solutions of various salts in the donor cell applied to first-order kinetics. Calculated permeability coefficients for bupivacaine and the counterions diflunisal, 5-iodosalicylic acid, and mandelic acid were found to be correlated with the molecular size of the diffusants. Release experiments at physiological pH involving suspensions of the bupivacaine-diflunisal salt revealed that at each sampling point the diflunisal concentration exceeded that of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase. However, after an initial lag period, a steady state situation was attained resulting in equal and constant fluxes of the two diffusants controlled by the permeability coefficients in combination with the solubility product of the salt. Due to the fact that the saturation solubility of the bupivacaine-salicylic acid salt in water exceeded that of bupivacaine at pH 7.4, suspensions of the latter salt were unable to provide simultaneous release of the cationic and anionic species at pH 7.4. The release profiles were characterised by a rapid release of salicylate accompanied by a much slower appearance of bupivacaine in the acceptor phase caused by precipitation of bupivacaine base from the solution upon dissolution of the salt in the donor cell.

  19. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran at different temperatures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M L Parmar; M K Guleria

    2005-07-01

    Relative viscosities for the solutions of oxalic acid and its salts, viz. ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, at different concentrations have been determined in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) [5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of THF] at 298.15 K, and in water and in 5% (w/w) THF + water at five different temperatures. The data have been evaluated using the Jones-Dole equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have been obtained which depicts the mechanism of viscous flow. The oxalic acid and its salts behave as structure breakers in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of THF.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and swelling behaviors of salt-sensitive maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) superabsorbent hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyue; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Hu, Meijuan; Li, Junfeng

    2014-09-01

    A novel composite hydrogel was prepared via UV irradiation copolymerization of acrylic acid and maize bran (MB) in the presence of composite initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone and ammonium persulfate) and cross-linker (N,N'-methylenebis(acrylamide)). Under the optimized conditions, maize bran-poly(acrylic acid) was obtained (2507 g g(-1) in distilled water and 658 g g(-1) in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution). Effects of granularity, salt concentration, and various cations and anions on water absorbency were investigated. It was found that swelling was extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cation and anion type. Swelling kinetics and water diffusion mechanism in distilled water were also discussed. Moreover, the product showed excellent water retention capability under the condition of high temperature or high pressure. The salt sensitivity, good water absorbency, and excellent water retention capability of the hydrogels give this intelligentized polymer wide potential applications.

  1. Probing the Interaction between a DNA Nucleotide (Adenosine-5'-Monophosphate Disodium) and Surface Active Ionic Liquids by Rotational Relaxation Measurement and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Banerjee, Pavel; Dutta, Rupam; Kundu, Sangita; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-10-02

    This article demonstrates the interaction of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) nucleotide, adenosine-5'-monophosphate disodium (AMP) with a cationic surface active ionic liquid (SAIL) 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazoium chloride (C12mimCl) and an anionic SAIL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium n-octylsulfate ([C4mim][C8SO4]). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) studies indicate that substantial interaction is taking place among the DNA nucleotide, AMP and the SAILs. Moreover, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) suggests that SAILs containing micellar assemblies are transformed into larger micellar assemblies in presence of DNA nucleotide. Additionally, the rotational motion of two oppositely charged molecules, Rhodamine 6G perchlorate (R6G) and Fluorescein sodium salt (Fl-Na) have been monitored in these aggregates. The rotational motion of R6G and Fl-Na differs significantly between SAILs micelles, and SAILs-AMP containing larger micellar aggregates. The effect of negatively charged DNA nucleotide (AMP) addition into the cationic and anionic SAILs is more prominent for the cationic charged molecule R6G than that of anionic probe Fl-Na due to the favourable electrostatic interaction between the AMP and cationic R6G. Moreover, the influence of the anionic DNA nucleotide on the cationic and anionic SAIL micelles is monitored through the variation of the lateral diffusion motion of oppositely charged probe molecules (R6G and Fl-Na) inside these aggregates. This variation in diffusion coefficient values also suggests that interaction pattern of these oppositely charged probes are different within the SAILs-nucleotide containing aggregates. Therefore, both rotational and translational diffusion measurements confirm that the DNA nucleotide (AMP) renders more rigid microenvironment within the micellar solution of SAILs.

  2. Pharmaceutical salts and cocrystals involving amino acids: a brief structural overview of the state-of-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2014-03-03

    Salification of new drug substances in order to improve physico-chemical or solid-state properties (e.g. dissolution rate or solubility, appropriate workup process, storage for further industrial and marketing development) is a well-accepted procedure. Amino acids, like aspartic acid, lysine or arginine take a great part in this process and are implicated in several different formulations of therapeutic agent families, including antibiotics (amoxicillin from beta lactam class or cephalexin from cephalosporin class), NSAIDs (ketoprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen from profen family, acetylsalicylic acid) or antiarrhythmic agents (e.g. ajmaline). Even if more than a half of known pharmaceutical molecules possess a salifiable moiety, what can be done for new potential drug entity that cannot be improved by transformation into a salt? In this context, after a brief review of pharmaceutical salts on the market and the implication of amino acids in these formulations, we focus on the advantage of using amino acids even when the target compound is not salifiable by exploiting their zwitterionic potentialities for cocrystal edification. We summarize here a series of new examples coming from literature to support the advantages of broadening the application of amino acids in formulation for new drug substances improvement research for non-salifiable molecules.

  3. Preparation and characterization of rubbery epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites using amino acid salt assisted dispersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) composites were prepared using sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (SAHA) modified MWCNT and its effect properties of related composites were investigated. The composite prepared using a polar solvent, tetrahydrofuran exhibits better mechanical properties compared to those prepared using less polar solvent and without using solvent. The tensile properties and dynamic storage modulus was found to be increased as a result of modification of MWCNT with SA...

  4. Soybean MAPK, GMK1 Is Dually Regulated by Phosphatidic Acid and Hydrogen Peroxide and Translocated to Nucleus during Salt Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Jong Hee; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Jitae; Kim, Ho Bang; An, Chung Sun

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Salt stress induces two well-characterized MAPK activating signaling molecules, phosphatidic acid (PA) via phospholipase D and phospholipase C, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase. In our previous study, the activity of soybean MAPK, GMK1 was strongly induced within 5 min of 300 mM NaCl treatment and this early activity was regulated by PA....

  5. Relative gene transcription and pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli after long-term adaptation to acid and salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    compared to EDL933 (O157:H7, raw hamburger). Long-term adaptation to salt stress significantly increased the adhesion of all three EHEC strains to Caco-2 compared to the non-stressed controls. The present study shows that long-term adaptation to food related stress factors such as acid and salt is capable...

  6. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked (CAS No. 117675-55-5, FCM Substance No 1022, to be used as liquid absorber in the form of fibres in absorbent pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The Panel considered that migration is not expected when the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded. Therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that none of these starting substances and the cross-linked polymer gives rise to concern for genotoxicity. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance acrylic acid, sodium salt, co-polymer with acrylic acid, methyl ester, methacrylic acid, 2 hydroxypropylester, and acrylic acid cross-linked does not raise a safety concern when used as fibres in absorber pads for the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish, fruits and vegetables under conditions under which the absorption capacity of the pads is not exceeded and mechanical release of the fibres from the pads is excluded.

  8. Phase behavior and properties of salt-free cationic/anionic surfactant mixtures of oleic acid and stearic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO DianYing; LI HongGuang; SONG AiXin; HAO JingCheng

    2009-01-01

    Cationic base surfactant,tetradecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide (TTAOH),can be obtained through anion exchange from tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTABr).Salt-free cationic and anionic (catanionic) surfactant mixtures were studied by mixing TTAOH with oleic acid (OA) or stearic acid (SA) in water.The phase behavior of TTAOH/OA/H_2O is compared with that of TTAOH/SA/H_2O.It was found that the phase behavior of TTAOH/OA/H_2O and TTAOH/SA/H_2O system differs from each other due to the existence of the unsaturated double carbon bond (C=C) in OA.At fixed total surfactant concentration (25 mg/mL) of TTAOHIONH_2O system at 25℃,one can observe an isotropic L_1 phase,and a L_1/L_α two-phase region with increasing OA content.The volume of top turbid L.phase increases while the bottom phase changes gradually from transparently clear to a bit turbid until a single L_α-phase is reached.Finally at high OA concentration,excess OA is separated from the bulk aqueous solutions.TTAOH/SA/H_2O system usually forms white precipitating at 25℃ due to the high chain melting temperature of SA.When heated to 60℃,however,the state of samples changes.At fixed total surfactant concentration of 25 mg/mL,an isotropic L1 phase and a milk-white or bluish La-phase are observed with increasing SA concentration.Transparent thin layers which are strongly birefringent form at the tops of some samples within the L_α-phase region.Finally,at high SA concentration,excess SA is separated from the bulk aqueous solutions.In addition to phase behavior study,we also measured the conductivity of TTAOH/OA/H_2O system at 25℃ and TTAOH/SA/H_2O system at 60℃,respectively.Surface tension and rheological measurements were also performed on typical samples.

  9. Effects of monovalent and divalent salts on the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K J

    1986-09-01

    The phospholipid headgroup and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp. (strain A4a) were examined when cells were grown in the presence of high concentrations of a variety of salts. The fatty acid composition of Planococcus sp. strain A4a was altered primarily as a function of the osmolality of the growth medium. The phospholipid headgroup composition was influenced by both the osmolality of the growth medium and the nature of the cation species present. An increase in the cardiolipin/phosphatidylglycerol molar ratio was detected when cells were grown in the presence of high concentrations of monovalent cations.

  10. Fluorinated Boronic Acid-Appended Bipyridinium Salts for Diol Recognition and Discrimination via (19)F NMR Barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axthelm, Jörg; Görls, Helmar; Schubert, Ulrich S; Schiller, Alexander

    2015-12-16

    Fluorinated boronic acid-appended benzyl bipyridinium salts, derived from 4,4'-, 3,4'-, and 3,3'-bipyridines, were synthesized and used to detect and differentiate diol-containing analytes at physiological conditions via (19)F NMR spectroscopy. An array of three water-soluble boronic acid receptors in combination with (19)F NMR spectroscopy discriminates nine diol-containing bioanalytes--catechol, dopamine, fructose, glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, galactose, lactose, and sucrose--at low mM concentrations. Characteristic (19)F NMR fingerprints are interpreted as two-dimensional barcodes without the need of multivariate analysis techniques.

  11. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Bernard W. [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Bagchi, Manashi [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V. [Laila Impex Research Center, Vijayawada (India); Shara, Michael A. [Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States); Preuss, Harry G. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Bagchi, Debasis [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States) and Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States)]. E-mail: debsis@creighton.edu

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca{sup 2+} (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K{sup +} (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca{sup 2+} ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K{sup +}, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  12. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  13. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  14. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  15. Aqueous solubility study of salts of benzylamine derivatives and p-substituted benzoic acid derivatives using X-ray crystallographic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Liljefors, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    than those reported for the corresponding salts of benzylamine (I). Thermal analysis indicated that the increased solubility was caused by reduced crystal lattice energy, which was most likely due to the reduced number of strong hydrogen bonds of the salt of (II) and (III). X-ray crystallographic...... analysis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid salt of (I), (II) and (III) suggested that the reduced number of hydrogen bonds caused the apparent higher solubility. Further analyses of seven salts of (I) were performed. It was not possible to identify any relationship between the number of hydrogen bonds...

  16. Reductive smelting of spent lead-acid battery colloid sludge in a molten Na2CO3 salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jie Hu; Chao-bo Tang; Mo-tang Tang; Yong-ming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Lead extraction from spent lead–acid battery paste in a molten Na2CO3 salt containing ZnO as a sulfur-fixing agent was studied. Some influencing factors, including smelting temperature, reaction time, ZnO and salt dosages, were investigated in detail using single-factor experiments. The optimum conditions were determined as follows:T = 880°C;t = 60 min; Na2CO3/paste mass ratio = 2.8:1; and the ZnO dosage is equal to the stoichiometric requirement. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of lead reached 98.14%. The re-sults suggested that increases in temperature and salt dosage improved the direct recovery rate of lead. XRD results and thermodynamic cal-culations indicated that the reaction approaches of lead and sulfur were PbSO4→Pb and PbSO4→ZnS, respectively. Sulfur was fixed in the form of ZnS, whereas the molten salt did not react with other components, serving only as a reaction medium.

  17. α-Cyclodextrin/aminobenzoic acid binding in salt solutions at different pH: dependence on guest structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Anastasia; Chibunova, Ekaterina; Kumeev, Roman; Fedorov, Maxim; Terekhova, Irina

    2013-06-01

    Influence of Na(+) and K(+) cations on α-cyclodextrin guest-host complex formation with isomeric aminobenzoic acids was examined at different pH and temperature of 298.15 K by (1)H NMR and calorimetry methods. More pronounced influence of Na(+) on inclusion complex formation of α-CD with aminobenzoic acid anions compare to the effects of Na(+) on α-CD complex formation with zwitterionic aminobenzoic acid molecules was revealed. For the first time, the dependence of salt effects on the structure, ionization and the hydration state of the guest molecule was demonstrated and analysed on the basis of the obtained thermodynamic parameters of complex formation and calculated free energy of hydration of different ionized forms of aminobenzoic acids.

  18. 76 FR 5782 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a functional excipient, such as dextrose or starch... Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Orders, 74 FR 25703 (May...

  19. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food place...

  20. Troubleshooting arterial-phase MR images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Ji Mi; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Benjamin M.; Wang, Z. Jane [Dept. of Radiologyand Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Wu, En Haw [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Zhao, Li Qin [Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chang, Wei Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field.

  1. The role of putrescine in the regulation of proteins and fatty acids of thylakoid membranes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Yuan, Yinghui; Chen, Jie; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Wenhua; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Min; Guo, Shirong

    2015-10-05

    Polyamines can alleviate the inhibitory effects of salinity on plant growth by regulating photosynthetic efficiency. However, little information is available to explain the specific mechanisms underlying the contribution of polyamines to salt tolerance of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here, we investigated the role of putrescine (Put) on the photosynthetic apparatus of cucumber seedlings under salt stress. We found that NaCl stress resulted in severe ion toxicity and oxidative stress in cucumber chloroplasts. In addition, salinity caused a significant increase in the saturated fatty acid contents of thylakoid membranes. Put altered unsaturated fatty acid content, thereby alleviating the disintegration of thylakoid grana lamellae and reducing the number of plastoglobuli in thylakoid membranes. BN-PAGE revealed Put up-regulated the expression of ATP synthase, CP47, D1, Qb, and psbA proteins and down-regulated CP24, D2, and LHCII type III in NaCl-stressed thylakoid membranes. qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation among 10 candidate proteins. For five of these proteins, induced transcript accumulation was consistent with the pattern of induced protein accumulation. Our results suggest that Put regulates protein expression at transcriptional and translational levels by increasing endogenous polyamines levels in thylakoid membranes, which may stabilise photosynthetic apparatus under salt stress.

  2. Proton-transfer supramolecular salts of D-/L-tartaric acid and 1-(2-Pyrimidyl)piperazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xue-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Wang, Shi; Huang, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Ionic supramolecular salts 1 and 2 were prepared by single-proton transfer reactions between 1-(2-pyrimidyl)piperazine and D-/L-tartaric acid. An interesting feature in the tartrate is the head-to-tail arrangement and very wide range of anionic substructures observed through hydrogen-bonding interactions, including ring motifs, infinite double zigzag chain and three-dimensional supramolecular framework. Thermal analysis revealed that salts 1 and 2 undergo an irreversible phase transition at about 158 °C, which is ascribed to the loss of water molecule. The temperature- and frequency-dependent dielectric constants in 2 suggested a low-frequency thermal fluctuation above 100 °C.

  3. Toothbrush disinfection – a myth or reality? – A comparative evaluation of 4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate in the disinfection of toothbrushes: clinicomicrobiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilofer Sultan Sheikh, Nilima Rajhans, Nilkanth Mhaske, Nikesh Moolya, Sudip HM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the bacterial survival rate on toothbrushes and efficacy of their decontamination by4% disodium ethyl diamine acetic acid [EDTA], 10% sodium perborate and compared with control. Methods: Thirty subjects with chronic periodontitis enrolled in this randomized controlled clinical trial were provided with autoclaved toothbrushes which were free from microorganisms. Brushing instructions were given to each participant. Toothbrushes were collected from all study participants after 1 week and were placed with head down position in an autoclaved test tube containing sterile peptone water. Toothbrushes collected were sent for aerobic culture in laboratory for growth of micro-organisms. Incubation was done for 24 hours at 370C.The toothbrushes were then divided into three groups and immersed in disinfectantslike4% disodium EDTA, 10% sodium perborate and their efficacy was evaluated by aerobic culture analysis. Chi – Square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas Aeroginosa, Streptococci and Klebsiella species were recovered from the samples. The results obtained showed that 4% Disodium EDTA showed 100% efficacy, whereas 10% Sodium perborate showed 40% effectiveness in decontaminating the toothbrushes. Distilled water as a control showed least effectiveness in cleaning toothbrushes. Conclusion: After single brushing toothbrushes get contaminated by a wide array of bacteria’s which a major cause of concern is. As contaminated toothbrush can reintroduce microorganisms into the oral cavity, it is therefore recommended for individuals to use solutions like 4% Disodium EDTA, which proved to be an effective disinfecting agent for decontaminating toothbrushes.

  4. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  5. Two dialkylammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoic acid: crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wardell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two ammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoic acid are described, namely dimethylazanium 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoate, C2H8N+·C7H5N2O4−, (I, and dibutylazanium 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoate, C8H20N+·C7H5N2O4−, (II. The asymmetric unit of (I comprises a single cation and a single anion. In the anion, small twists are noted for the carboxylate and nitro groups from the ring to which they are connected, as indicated by the dihedral angles of 11.45 (13 and 3.71 (15°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the substituents is 7.9 (2°. The asymmetric unit of (II comprises two independent pairs of cations and anions. In the cations, different conformations are noted in the side chains in that three chains have an all-trans [(+-antiperiplanar] conformation, while one has a distinctive kink resulting in a (+-synclinal conformation. The anions, again, exhibit twists with the dihedral angles between the carboxylate and nitro groups and the ring being 12.73 (6 and 4.30 (10°, respectively, for the first anion and 8.1 (4 and 12.6 (3°, respectively, for the second. The difference between anions in (I and (II is that in the anions of (II, the terminal groups are conrotatory, forming dihedral angles of 17.02 (8 and 19.0 (5°, respectively. In each independent anion of (I and (II, an intramolecular amino-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bond is formed. In the crystal of (I, anions are linked into a jagged supramolecular chain by charge-assisted amine-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds and these are connected into layers via charge-assisted ammonium-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds. The resulting layers stack along the a axis, being connected by nitro-N—O...π(arene and methyl-C—H...O(nitro interactions. In the crystal of (II, the anions are connected into four-ion aggregates by charge-assisted amino-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonding. The formation of ammonium-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds, involving

  6. Reactions between water-soluble organic acids and nitrates in atmospheric aerosols: Recycling of nitric acid and formation of organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2) occurs when nitrogen oxides and nitric acid (HNO3) react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory-generated particles composed of water-soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e., NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates and release gaseous HNO3 during the dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase because of its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that, in turn, may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling that may further affect concentrations of gas and condensed phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  7. Rheological properties of reversible thermo-setting in situ gelling solutions with the methylcellulose-polyethylene glycol-citric acid ternary system (2): Effects of various water-soluble polymers and salts on the gelling temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Ken-ichi; Saegusa, Katsuhiko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2009-11-01

    The influences of various salts and water-soluble polymers on the phase transition temperature of thermo-setting gels prepared by combining methylcellulose (MC)-sodium citrate (SC)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) at appropriate ratios (the MC-SC-PEG system) were investigated. Concerning cations, comparison of the phase transition temperature between SC and tripotassium citrate (PC) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and an increase in the viscosity of PC between 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C. Concerning the valency of anions, comparisons among SC, disodium tartrate dihydrate (ST), disodium maleate hemihydrates (SM), and sodium sulfate (SS) showed a rapid increase in the viscosity of trivalent SC between 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C and changes in the viscosity of the three bivalent sodium salts (ST, SM, and SS) at > or =30 degrees C. Thus the phase transition temperature decreased with an increase in the valency of anions. Subsequently, the influences of various water-soluble polymers on the gelling temperature were compared. Using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) instead of PEG, the gelling temperature decreased with an increase in the PVP concentration even without the addition of SC. Unlike PVP, the addition of xanthan gum as a viscosity-increasing polysaccharide did not reduce the gelling temperature irrespective of its concentration. Temperature-associated changes in viscosity were observed at a fixed SC concentration with changes in the concentration of PVP or PEG. The gel phase transition temperature increased from 46 degrees C to 50 degrees C in gels not containing PVP or PEG. The viscosity did not differ between the addition of PVP or PEG at a low concentration and its absence. However, the viscosity clearly changed after the addition of each agent at a high concentration.

  8. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C. R.; Macías, F.; Pérez-López, R.

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40 days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  9. [Sb(C₆F₅)₄][B(C₆F₅)₄]: an air stable, Lewis acidic stibonium salt that activates strong element-fluorine bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Baofei; Gabbaï, François P

    2014-07-09

    As part of our ongoing interest in main group Lewis acids for fluoride anion complexation and element-fluorine bond activation, we have synthesized the stibonium borate salt [Sb(C6F5)4][B(C6F5)4] (3). The perfluorinated stibonium cation [Sb(C6F5)4](+) present in this salt is a potent Lewis acid which abstracts a fluoride anion from [SbF6](-) and [BF(C6F5)3](-) indicating that it is a stronger Lewis acid than SbF5 and B(C6F5)3. The unusual Lewis acidic properties of 3 are further reflected by its ability to polymerize THF or to promote the hydrodefluorination of fluoroalkanes in the presence of Et3SiH. While highly reactive in solution, 3 is a perfectly air stable salt, making it a convenient Lewis acidic reagent.

  10. Continuous Preparation of 1:1 Haloperidol-Maleic Acid Salt by a Novel Solvent-Free Method Using a Twin Screw Melt Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Lin; Vasoya, Jaydip M; Cirqueira, Marilia de Lima; Yeh, Kuan Lin; Lee, Tu; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-03-10

    Salts are generally prepared by acid-base reaction in relatively large volumes of organic solvents, followed by crystallization. In this study, the potential for preparing a pharmaceutical salt between haloperidol and maleic acid by a novel solvent-free method using a twin-screw melt extruder was investigated. The pH-solubility relationship between haloperidol and maleic acid in aqueous medium was first determined, which demonstrated that 1:1 salt formation between them was feasible (pHmax 4.8; salt solubility 4.7 mg/mL). Extrusion of a 1:1 mixture of haloperidol and maleic acid at the extruder barrel temperature of 60 °C resulted in the formation of a highly crystalline salt. The effects of operating temperature and screw configuration on salt formation were also investigated, and those two were identified as key processing parameters. Salts were also prepared by solution crystallization from ethyl acetate, liquid-assisted grinding, and heat-assisted grinding and compared with those obtained by melt extrusion by using DSC, PXRD, TGA, and optical microscopy. While similar salts were obtained by all methods, both melt extrusion and solution crystallization yielded highly crystalline materials with identical enthalpies of melting. During the pH-solubility study, a salt hydrate form was also identified, which, upon heating, converted to anhydrate similar to that obtained by other methods. There were previous reports of the formation of cocrystals, but not salts, by melt extrusion. (1)H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed that a salt was indeed formed in the present study. The haloperidol-maleic acid salt obtained was nonhygroscopic in the moisture sorption study and converted to the hydrate form only upon mixing with water. Thus, we are reporting for the first time a relatively simple and solvent-free twin-screw melt extrusion method for the preparation of a pharmaceutical salt that provides material comparable to that obtained by solution

  11. Effect of ascorbic acid on morphological and biochemical parameters in tomato seedling exposure to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa-Małkiewicz Marcelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of both NaCl and KCl alone and in comparison to AsA on the morphological and some biochemical parameters of Oxheart and Vilma cultivars of tomato under laboratory and field conditions. A combination of salt applied in the laboratory experiment caused a significant effect on seed germination and root and shoot length and a significant reduction of Chl a, Chl b and Car contents in 14-day-old tomato seedlings. However, seedlings of cultivar Vilma were characterised by higher tolerance to applied salt stress.

  12. 盐胁迫对水稻幼苗类囊体膜脂肪酸组分的影响%Effects of Salt Stress on Fatty Acid Composition of Thylakoid Membrane of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王仁雷; 华春; 周峰; 周泉澄; 周斌伟

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of the study is to understand the changes of fatty acid composition of rice thylakoid membrane under salt stress. [Method] Under salt stress of different concentrations of NaCl, rice seedlings of Pokkali and Peta with six leaves and one central leaf were used as experimental materials to extract the fatty acid from their thylakoid membranes, and gas chromatograph(1890) was used to analyze fatty acid composition. [Result] Fatty acid component 14∶ 0, 18∶ 0, 16∶ 1(3t), 18∶ 1 in both the two experimental materials showed little variations in the first four days of salt stress, whereafter they increased slightly; while the fatty acid component 16∶ 0 and level of saturation of fatty acid (LSFA) showed the similar variation trend in the first four days of treatment compared to those of the fatty acid components mentioned above, whereafter they rose in Pokkali and presented an opposite variation trend in Peta; fatty acid component 18∶ 3 and level of unsaturation of fatty acid (LUFA) reduced all the time under stress condition, and the reducing amplitude in 100 mmol/L NaCl treatment group was smaller than that of 100 mmol/L NaCl treatment group, and in Pokkali was smaller than that in Peta under specific conditions. Meanwhile, level of saturation of fatty acid in both experimental materials increased, and the rising amplitude in Peta was smaller than that of Pokkali. [Conclusion] With regard to LUFA, Pokkali is endowed with more salt tolerance than Peta.

  13. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, J G; McGuire, M A; Shafii, B; Hanson, T W

    2002-08-01

    Increasing conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk fat from lactating dairy cattle has become a research interest due to the possible health benefits afforded humans consuming CLA. Dietary supplementation of CLA to lactating dairy cows is one potential method by which CLA content of milk and dairy products may be enhanced. Feeding CLA in calcium salt form could potentially deliver CLA to the lower digestive tract through prevention of biohydrogenation by rumen microbes. Milk fat depression (MFD) occurs when cows receive CLA-60, a commercially available CLA source containing numerous CLA isomers, abomasally. Our objectives were to determine the quantity of CLA as calcium salts required to elicit maximal MFD and to evaluate the effects of CLA supplementation on fatty acid composition of milk fat. Five Holstein cows at approximately 93 DIM were utilized in a 5 x 5 balanced Latin square crossover design. Periods were 14-d in length with a 5-d treatment phase and 9-d rest phase. Treatments were 5-d supplementation of 0, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 g of CLA-60 in calcium salt form. Milk samples were collected on d 5 of CLA supplementation and analyzed for composition and fatty acid profile. Regression analysis of milk fat data suggested that MFD was not maximized over the dose levels investigated, despite delivery of 34.5 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the 100-g dose of CLA. Supplementation with 50 and 100 g of CLA per day resulted in a reduction of milk fat percent of 29 and 34%, respectively. Trend analysis indicated a linear decrease in the milk fat content of caprylic, capric, and lauric acids as the dose of CLA increased. Milk fat content of cis-9, trans-11, and trans-10, cis-12 CLA increased at an increasing rate as dose increased.

  14. Reactivity of NaCl with Secondary Organic Acids: An Important Mechanism of the Chloride Depletion in Sea Salt Particles Mixed with Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Laskin, A.; Kelly, S.; Gilles, M. K.; Shilling, J. E.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Tivanski, A.

    2012-12-01

    Sea salt particles, one of the major sources of atmospheric aerosols, undergo complex multi-phase reactions and have profound consequences on their physical and chemical properties, thus on climate. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of sea salt chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids. Some studies have also showed that the chloride deficit cannot be fully compensated for this mechanism. We present an important pathway contributing to this chloride depletion: reactions of weak organic acids with sea salt particles. NaCl particles internally mixed with secondary organic materials generated from the reactions of limonene and alpha-pinene with ozone served as surrogates for sea salt particles mixed with organic materials. Chemical imaging analysis of these particles was conducted using complementary techniques including computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS), and micro-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). Substantial chloride depletion and formation of organic salts were observed along with distinctive changes in particle morphology after hydration/dehydration processes. The results indicate that secondary organic acids can effectively react with NaCl particles resulting in displacement of chloride and release of gaseous HCl. This is consistent with a recent field study showing chloride depletion in sea salt particles mixed with organic materials which cannot be fully compensated by inorganic acid displacement. Although the formation of the organic salts is not thermodynamically favored in bulk aqueous solution, these reactions are driven by the high volatility and evaporation of gaseous HCl in particles, especially during hydration/dehydration processes. The

  15. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azman, S.; Khadem, A.F.; Zeeman, G.; Van Lier, J.B.; Plugge, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the

  16. Amino Acid Salts for Carbon Dioxide Capture: Evaluating l-Prolinate at Desorber Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majchrowicz, Magdalena Elzbieta; Brilman, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) measurements for unloaded and CO2-saturated aqueous potassium salt solutions of l-proline have been performed using a high-pressure equilibrium cell. The solubility of CO2 has been determined at temperatures of 363, 393, and 403 K in 3 and 4 mol dm–3 aqueous solutions.

  17. Ammoxidation of 2-methyl pyrazine on supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalysts: The influence of nature of support

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Katabathini Narasimharao; B Hari Babu; N Lingaiah; P S Sai Prasad; Shaeel A Al-Thabaiti

    2014-03-01

    Influence of the nature of support on the formation of catalytically active species was investigated to clarify the key factor for the synthesis of supported ammonium salt of 12-molybdophosphoric acid (AMPA) catalyst which maintains the activity of ammoxidation during 2-methylpyrazine reaction.With this aim, different loadings of niobia-, silica- and alumina-, supported AMPA catalysts were prepared. The AMPA loading was varied in the range of 5-25 wt%. The synthesized solids were characterized by nitrogen adsorption for BET surface area, XRD and 31P MAS NMR techniques. All the AMPA-supported samples are poorly crystalline even after 25 wt% AMPA loading. Investigations using 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy of samples revealed that Keggin ion existed as at least five different species on the supports. The investigated properties were acidity of the support and amount of AMPA loading on the support. Active sites for the ammoxidation of MP on supported AMPA catalysts seem to be the interacted and/or the lacunary species.Maximum catalytic activity could be obtained at lower loadings with AMPA deposited on acidic supports whereas the less acidic supports require higher loading. It was found that in order to efficiently generate the active interactive species, the support must have an acidity which promotes the formation of support-AMPA interactive species. It is possible to enhance the catalytic activity of the supported AMPA catalyst for ammoxidation of 2-methylpyrazine by controlling the acidity of the support and AMPA loading on the support.

  18. 耐盐乳酸菌添加对高盐稀态酱油风味的影响%The Impact of Adding Salt-tolerant Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Flavor of High-salt Liquid Soy Sauce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚晨晨; 王猛; 沈艾彬

    2016-01-01

    In the fermentation process of high-salt liquid soy sauce,the addition of salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria has a great influence on the final flavor components of soy sauce.Through adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th and 45th day of fermentation,research the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds.The results show that adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 45th day,the content of total acids,saltless solids and flavor compounds is higher than that adding and without adding salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria on the 30th day.The research has laid a foundation for its future application in the industrial production of brewed soy sauce with good flavor.%高盐稀态酱油发酵过程中,耐盐乳酸菌的添加时间对于酱油最终风味成分的影响很大。通过分别在发酵30,45天添加耐盐乳酸菌、未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,研究总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量。研究表明:发酵45天添加耐盐乳酸菌,总酸、无盐固形物、风味物质的含量均高于30天添加和未添加乳酸菌发酵的酱油对照,为其以后应用于工业生产酿造出风味良好的酱油打下基础。

  19. N-Methyl-Benzothiazolium Salts as Carbon Lewis Acids for Si-H σ-Bond Activation and Catalytic (De)hydrosilylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Valerio; Radcliffe, James E; Curless, Liam D; Ingleson, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    N-Me-Benzothiazolium salts are introduced as a new family of Lewis acids able to activate Si-H σ bonds. These carbon-centred Lewis acids were demonstrated to have comparable Lewis acidity towards hydride as found for the triarylboranes widely used in Si-H σ-bond activation. However, they display low Lewis acidity towards hard Lewis bases such as Et3 PO and H2 O in contrast to triarylboranes. The N-Me-benzothiazolium salts are effective catalysts for a range of hydrosilylation and dehydrosilylation reactions. Judicious selection of the C2 aryl substituent in these cations enables tuning of the steric and electronic environment around the electrophilic centre to generate more active catalysts. Finally, related benzoxazolium and benzimidazolium salts were found also to be active for Si-H bond activation and as catalysts for the hydrosilylation of imines. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG) and Antihistamines on Postirradiation Cerebral Blood Flow and Plasma Levels of Histamine and Neurotensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    73 6 SOTI UNCLASIFIE ESCURIIY CLASSIFICATION OF Tm-S siki FUNDAMENTAL AND APPLIED TOXICOLOGY 10, 233-242 (1988) Effect of Disodium Cromoglycate (DSCG...given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before Irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt...occur ment with the mast cell stabilizer, disodium with equal frequency in all species, having cromoglycate (DSCG, cromolyn sodium), in- been reported

  1. Ethylene signaling in salt stress- and salicylic acid-induced programmed cell death in tomato suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Péter; Kovács, Judit; Szopkó, Dóra; Tari, Irma

    2013-02-01

    Salt stress- and salicylic acid (SA)-induced cell death can be activated by various signaling pathways including ethylene (ET) signaling in intact tomato plants. In tomato suspension cultures, a treatment with 250 mM NaCl increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and ET. The 10(-3) M SA-induced cell death was also accompanied by ROS and NO production, but ET emanation, the most characteristic difference between the two cell death programs, did not change. ET synthesis was enhanced by addition of ET precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, which, after 2 h, increased the ROS production in the case of both stressors and accelerated cell death under salt stress. However, it did not change the viability and NO levels in SA-treated samples. The effect of ET induced by salt stress could be blocked with silver thiosulfate (STS), an inhibitor of ET action. STS reduced the death of cells which is in accordance with the decrease in ROS production of cells exposed to high salinity. Unexpectedly, application of STS together with SA resulted in increasing ROS and reduced NO accumulation which led to a faster cell death. NaCl- and SA-induced cell death was blocked by Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and calmodulin inhibitor W-7, or with the inhibitors of ROS. The inhibitor of MAPKs, PD98059, and the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 reduced cell death in both cases. These results show that NaCl induces cell death mainly by ET-induced ROS production, but ROS generated by SA was not controlled by ET in tomato cell suspension.

  2. Catalysis of Heteropoly Acidic Salts for Synthesis of Diethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether with Diethylene Glycol and Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊峰; 易平贵; 戚蕴石

    2001-01-01

    Ag3PW12O4o and Ag4 SiW12O40 showed high activity and stability in the synthesis of diethylene glycol ethyl ether with diethylene glycol and ethanol, on which the conversion is 80.2%and 78.4%, respectively, and the selectivity of diethylene glycol ether is 75.4% and 80.6%, respectively. After the third reaction cycle, Ag3PW12O40 and Ag4SiW12O4o still showed higher activity and selectivity, on which the conversion is 72.6% and 77.5% respectively. But the activity of Ag3PMo12O40is lower, the conversion is only 21.0%. IR, XRD, TG and n-lutylamine titrimetry showed that the catalysis may be conmected with two kinds of acidic centers owned by heteropoly acidic salt.

  3. Impact of salt reduction on biogenic amines, fatty acids, microbiota, texture and sensory profile in traditional blood dry-cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Marta; Gomes, Ana; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Potes, Maria Eduarda; Cabrita, Maria João; Garcia, Raquel; Rocha, João Miguel; Roseiro, Luísa Cristina; Fernandes, Maria José; Fraqueza, Maria João; Elias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Meat industry needs to reduce salt in their products due to health issues. The present study evaluated the effect of salt reduction from 6% to 3% in two Portuguese traditional blood dry-cured sausages. Physicochemical and microbiological parameters, biogenic amines, fatty acids and texture profiles and sensory panel evaluations were considered. Differences due to salt reduction were perceptible in a faint decline of water activity, which slightly favoured microbial growth. Total biogenic amines content ranged from 88.86 to 796.68mgkg(-1) fresh matter, with higher amounts, particularly of cadaverine, histamine and tyramine, in low-salt products. Still, histamine and other vasoactive amines remained at low levels, thus not affecting consumers' health. Regarding fatty acids, no significant differences were observed due to salt. However, texture profile analysis revealed lower resilience and cohesiveness in low-salt products, although no textural changes were observed by the sensory panel. Nevertheless, low-salt sausages were clearly preferred by panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Versatile methods for synthesizing organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids as anti-ulcerative colitis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hai-Jing; Deng, An-Jun; Wu, Lian-Qiu; Li, Zhi-Hong; Song, Hong-Rui; Wang, Wen-Jie; Qin, Hai-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Two versatile methods to synthesize kinds of organic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloids were investigated in order to determine which is more efficient to improve the liposolubility of the target compounds and to explore the efficacy of the target compounds as anti-ulcerative colitis (UC) agents. Overall evaluation according to the reaction results and yields of the final products indicated that the synthetic method using tertiary (±)-8-acylmethyldihydroberberine-type alkaloids as key intermediates is superior to that of using tertiary dihydroberberine-type alkaloids as intermediates. Ten target compounds were synthesized using quaternary berberine chloride and quaternary coptisine chloride as starting materials, respectively, and the anti-UC activity of some target compounds was evaluated in an in vitro x-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) transcriptional activity assay using dual luciferase reporter detection. At 10 μM, the tested compounds were found to activate the transcription of XBP1 target at almost the same level as that of quaternary coptisine chloride. The synthesized target compounds were also found to share higher liposolubility than the inorganic acid salts of quaternary berberine-type alkaloid.

  5. Antilisterial effects of antibacterial formulations containing essential oils, nisin, nitrite and organic acid salts in a sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabraie, Mina; Vu, Khanh Dang; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sixteen antibacterial formulations against Listeria monocytogenes in a sausage model using a standard experimental design with 4 independent factors at 2 levels (2(4)). Four independent factors consisted of nisin (12.5-25 ppm), nitrite (100-200 ppm) and organic acid salts (1.55-3.1 %) and the mixture of Chinese cinnamon and Cinnamon bark Essential Oils (EOs) (0.025-0.05 %). Based on the analysis, utilization of low (0.025 %) or high concentration (0.05 %) of EOs in combination with low concentration of nitrite (100 ppm), organic acid salts (1.55 %), and nisin (12.5 ppm) could reduce respectively 1.5 or 2.6 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes in sausage at day 7 of storage as compared to the control. A predictive equation was created to predict the growth of L. monocytogenes in sausage. The sensory evaluation was then performed on selected optimized formulations in cooked meat (both pork and beef sausages) with a trained jury consisting of 35 individuals, demonstrated the selected antimicrobial formulations were organoleptically acceptable. The results revealed an important role of hurdle technology to control L. monocytogenes in meat product.

  6. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (p5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that this novel method of salting food ensures microbiological safety and reduces the production time.

  7. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  8. Supramolecular Assemblies in Salts of 2,2'-Biimidazole with 5-Sulfosalicylic Acid and 3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-Ping; YANG Pin

    2007-01-01

    Supramolecular assemblies of 2,2'-biimidazole with 5-sulfosalicylic acid and 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, have been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Both the two proton-transfer compounds of 2,2'-biimidazole with 3-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid (5-sulfosalicylic acid, 5-SSA) [namely structures having significant interlayer π-π interactions between the cation and anion species. In Ⅰ, a 5-SSA2- dianionic species results from deprotonation of both the sulfonic and the carboxylic acid groups, all available O-atom acceptors interact with all cation and water molecule donors by hydrogen bonds. In Ⅱ, the formula unit displays a crystallographic inversion symmetry. The structural information about the two complexes between 2,2'-biimidazole compound and benzenecarboxylic acids obtained in this work will be particularly important for the rational design of supramolecular organic functional materials.

  9. Disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, Na2HC6H5O7(H2O1.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of disodium hydrogen citrate sesquihydrate, 2Na2+·C6H6O72−·1.5H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. The asymmetric unit contains two independent hydrogen citrate anions, four sodium cations and three water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the cations (three with a coordination number of six, one with seven share edges to form isolated 8-rings. The un-ionized terminal carboxylic acid groups form very strong hydrogen bonds to non-coordinating O atoms, with O...O distances of 2.46 Å.

  10. Combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate-induced myocardial injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochinai, Ryota; Nagata, Yuriko; Ando, Minoru; Hata, Chie; Suzuki, Tomo; Asakawa, Naoyuki; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiko; Uchida, Kazumi; Kado, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kaneko, Kimiyuki; Kuwahara, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Histopathological and electrocardiographic features of myocardial lesions induced by combretastatin A4 disodium phosphate (CA4DP) were evaluated, and the relation between myocardial lesions and vascular changes and the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes were discussed. We induced myocardial lesions by administration of CA4DP to rats and evaluated myocardial damage by histopathologic examination and electrocardiography. We evaluated blood pressure (BP) of CA4DP-treated rats and effects of CA4DP on cellular impedance-based contractility of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs). The results revealed multifocal myocardial necrosis with a predilection for the interventricular septum and subendocardial regions of the apex of the left ventricular wall, injury of capillaries, morphological change of the ST junction, and QT interval prolongation. The histopathological profile of myocardial lesions suggested that CA4DP induced a lack of myocardial blood flow. CA4DP increased the diastolic BP and showed direct effects on hiPS-CMs. These results suggest that CA4DP induces dysfunction of small arteries and capillaries and has direct toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, it is thought that CA4DP induced capillary and myocardial injury due to collapse of the microcirculation in the myocardium. Moreover, the direct toxic effect of CA4DP on cardiomyocytes induced myocardial lesions in a coordinated manner. PMID:27559241

  11. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dragana J Jovanović; Ivana Lj Validžić; Miodrag Mitrić; Jovan M Nedeljković

    2013-02-01

    The structure of plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate (Na2W2O7) synthesized by newmethod in the process of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using acidified aqueous solutions of tungsten (VI) oxide clusters as a precursor was refined down to the -factor of 8.9%. X-ray diffraction analysis undoubtedly confirmed formation of orthorhombic Na2W2O7 and refinement of the diffraction data showed that Na2W2O7 powder belongs to the base-centred orthorhombic type of structure with 64 space group, . The structure of Na2W2O7 can be described as infinite chains formed from tetrahedral (WO4) and octahedral (WO6) building units joined together. It was found that the basic units of the precursor complexes exist in the structure of Na2W2O7. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed formation of plate/shelf like Na2W2O7 particles with an average thickness of about 1.2 m.

  12. Columnar molecular aggregation in the aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra-Kooijman, Dena M.; Singh, Gautam; Lorenz, Alexander; Collings, Peter J.; Kitzerow, Heinz-S.; Kumar, Satyendra

    2014-06-01

    Stack, chimneylike, and threadlike assemblies have previously been proposed for the structure of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) aggregates in aqueous solutions. The results of the synchrotron x-ray scattering investigations reported here reveal the formation of simple columnar assemblies with π-π stacking at a separation of 3.4 Å between the DSCG molecules. Lateral separation between the assemblies is concentration and temperature dependent, varying from ˜35 to 42 Å in the orientationally ordered nematic (N) phase and from 27 to 32 Å in the columnar or middle (M) phase having long range lateral positional order. The assemblies' length depends on concentration and consists of ˜23 molecules in the N phase, becoming three to ten times larger in the M phase. The scission energy is concentration dependent in the N phase with values ˜7.19 ± 0.14 kBT (15 wt %), 2.73 ± 0.4 kBT (20 wt %), and 3.05 ± 0.2 kBT (25 wt %). Solutions of all concentrations undergo a spinodal decomposition at temperatures above ˜40 °C, resulting in DSCG-rich regions with the M phase and water-rich regions in the N and isotropic phases.

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids Accumulated in Kochia Scoparia Shoots and Roots by Reverse-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Under Salt and Alkali Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Several organic acids accumulated in Kochia Scoparia shoots and roots were studied by means of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a C18 column. Five types of binary organic acids were separated. The organic acid concentrations were determined in K. Scoparia seedlings stressed by saline (NaCl) and alkaline(NaHCO3) at the same Na + concentration. Concentrations of organic acids are stimulated by alkaline because the cells will adjust their pH values through the accumulation of organic acids, when the environment is basic. The concentrations of oxalic acid and succinic acid are higher than those of other organic acids, including tartaric acid and malic acid, and the concentration of citric acid is the lowest. The concentrations of the organic acids in the roots are higher than those in the shoots under salt(NaCl) stress, but the results are opposite while the roots are under alkali (NaHCO3) stress. This indicates that there are different adaptive strategies for K. Scoparia seedlings in organic acid metabolism under salt and alkali stress.

  14. Soybean MAPK, GMK1 is dually regulated by phosphatidic acid and hydrogen peroxide and translocated to nucleus during salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jong Hee; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Jitae; Kim, Ho Bang; An, Chung Sun

    2012-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Salt stress induces two well-characterized MAPK activating signaling molecules, phosphatidic acid (PA) via phospholipase D and phospholipase C, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase. In our previous study, the activity of soybean MAPK, GMK1 was strongly induced within 5 min of 300 mM NaCl treatment and this early activity was regulated by PA. In this study, we focused on the regulation of GMK1 at the later stage of the salt stress, because its activity was strongly persistent for up to 30 min. H(2)O(2) activated GMK1 even in the presence of PA generation inhibitors, but GMK1 activity was greatly decreased in the presence of diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase after 5 min of the treatment. On the contrary, the n-butanol and neomycin reduced GMK1 activity within 5 min of the treatment. Thus, GMK1 activity may be sustained by H(2)O(2) 10 min after the treatment. Further, GMK1 was translocated into the nucleus 60 min after NaCl treatment. In the relationship between GMK1 and ROS generation, ROS generation was reduced by SB202190, a MAPK inhibitor, but was increased in protoplast overexpressing TESD-GMKK1. However, these effects were occurred at prolonged time of NaCl treatment. These data suggest that GMK1 indirectly regulates ROS generation. Taken together, we propose that soybean GMK1 is dually regulated by PA and H(2)O(2) at a time dependant manner and translocated to the nucleus by the salt stress signal.

  15. Supramolecular synthons in designing low molecular mass gelling agents: L-amino acid methyl ester cinnamate salts and their anti-solvent-induced instant gelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pathik; Kumar, D Krishna; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Dastidar, Parthasarathi

    2011-04-04

    Easy access to a class of chiral gelators has been achieved by exploiting primary ammonium monocarboxylate (PAM), a supramolecular synthon. A combinatorial library comprising of 16 salts, derived from 5 L-amino acid methyl esters and 4 cinnamic acid derivatives, has been prepared and scanned for gelation. Remarkably, 14 out of 16 salts prepared (87.5 % of the salts) show moderate to good gelation abilities with various solvents, including commercial fuels, such as petrol. Anti-solvent induced instant gelation at room temperature has been achieved in all the gelator salts, indicating that the gelation process is indeed an aborted crystallization phenomenon. Rheology, optical and scanning electron microscopy, small angle neutron scattering, and X-ray powder diffraction have been used to characterize the gels. A structure-property correlation has been attempted, based on these data, in addition to the single-crystal structures of 5 gelator salts. Analysis of the FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy data reveals that some of these salts can be used as supramolecular containers for the slow release of certain pest sex pheromones. The present study clearly demonstrates the merit of crystal engineering and the supramolecular synthon approach in designing new materials with multiple properties.

  16. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Imparts Partial Protection from Salt Stress Injury to Maize Seedlings by Improving Photosynthesis and Upregulating Osmoprotectants and Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchao; Gu, Wanrong; Meng, Yao; Xie, Tenglong; Li, Lijie; Li, Jing; Wei, Shi

    2017-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has high physiological activity in plant stress physiology. This study showed that the application of exogenous GABA by root drenching to moderately (MS, 150 mM salt concentration) and severely salt-stressed (SS, 300 mM salt concentration) plants significantly increased endogenous GABA concentration and improved maize seedling growth but decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity compared with non-treated ones. Exogenous GABA alleviated damage to membranes, increased in proline and soluble sugar content in leaves, and reduced water loss. After the application of GABA, maize seedling leaves suffered less oxidative damage in terms of superoxide anion (O2·−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content. GABA-treated MS and SS maize seedlings showed increased enzymatic antioxidant activity compared with that of untreated controls, and GABA-treated MS maize seedlings had a greater increase in enzymatic antioxidant activity than SS maize seedlings. Salt stress severely damaged cell function and inhibited photosynthesis, especially in SS maize seedlings. Exogenous GABA application could reduce the accumulation of harmful substances, help maintain cell morphology, and improve the function of cells during salt stress. These effects could reduce the damage to the photosynthetic system from salt stress and improve photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. GABA enhanced the salt tolerance of maize seedlings. PMID:28272438

  17. The effect of a herbicide--sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on guerin carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, M; Matus, A; Musiatowicz, B; Sulkowska, M; Kemona, A; Kisielewski, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Barwijuk-Machała, M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, being an active component of herbicide "PIELIK", upon the development of Guerin carcinoma implanted in male Wistar rats, was studied. 192 animals were divided in to 6 equal groups: I-animals which obtained physiological salt solution; II-rats exposed to the herbicide in postlactational period; III-animals with Guerin carcinoma, non exposed to the herbicide; IV- rats exposed to the herbicide in postlactational period+Guerin carcinoma; V-animals exposed to the herbicide from prenatal period to the end of an experiment, without Guerin carcinoma; VI-the same as in V group, but with Guerin carcinoma. The effect of the herbicide on tumor growth dynamism (diameters and mass), degree of tumour malignancy (metastases to lymph nodes), animals survival time and morfological changes in the primary tumour and in metastases was evaluated. Basing of the results obtained, it was stated that this herbicide accelerates the development of Guerin carcinoma and reduces the survival time in the rats exposed to it in the prenatal and postnatal period. However, it does not significantly influence the growth of the carcinoma in the rats exposed only in the postlactational period.

  18. Effect of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium salt cations on pH, proteolysis, organic acids, and microbial populations during storage of full-fat Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, D J; Oberg, C J; Drake, M A; Farkye, N; Moyes, L V; Arnold, M R; Ganesan, B; Steele, J; Broadbent, J R

    2014-01-01

    Sodium reduction in cheese can assist in reducing overall dietary Na intake, yet saltiness is an important aspect of cheese flavor. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of Na with K on survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nonstarter LAB (NSLAB), pH, organic acid production, and extent of proteolysis as water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and protein profiles using urea-PAGE, in Cheddar cheese during 9mo of storage. Seven Cheddar cheeses with molar salt contents equivalent to 1.7% salt but with different ratios of Na, K, Ca, and Mg cations were manufactured as well as a low-salt cheese with 0.7% salt. The 1.7% salt cheeses had a mean composition of 352g of moisture/kg, 259g of protein/kg and 50% fat-on-dry-basis, and 17.5g of salt/kg (measured as Cl(-)). After salting, a faster initial decrease in cheese pH occurred with low salt or K substitution and it remained lower throughout storage. No difference in intact casein levels or percentage WSN levels between the various cheeses was observed, with the percentage WSN increasing from 5% at d 1 to 25% at 9mo. A greater decrease in intact αs1-casein than β-casein was detected, and the ratio of αs1-casein (f121-199) to αs1-casein could be used as an index of ripening. Typical changes in bacteria microflora occurred during storage, with lactococci decreasing gradually and NSLAB increasing. Lowering the Na content, even with K replacement, extended the crossover time when NSLAB became dominant. The crossover time was 4.5mo for the control cheese and was delayed to 5.2, 6.0, 6.1, and 6.2mo for cheeses with 10, 25, 50, and 75% K substitution. Including 10% Mg or Ca, along with 40% K, further increased crossover time, whereas the longest crossover time (7.3mo) was for low-salt cheese. By 9mo, NSLAB levels in all cheeses had increased from initial levels of ≤10(2) to approximately 10(6)cfu/g. Lactococci remained at 10(6) cfu/g in the low-salt cheese even after 9mo of storage. The propionic acid

  19. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  20. Poison ivy/oak dermatitis. Use of polyamine salts of a linoleic acid dimer for topical prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, S; Fellman, J H; Storrs, F J

    1986-07-01

    Closed patch tests were used to evaluate the ability of 156 different preparations (based on 22 different chemicals) to prevent poison ivy dermatitis. Several polyamine salts of a linoleic acid dimer were identified that were totally able to prevent the usual dermatitis in approximately 70% of subjects. The effectiveness of the preparations improved when the antigen and the protectant were washed off within eight to 12 hours, instead of remaining on the skin for 48 hours. When washed off, and depending on the protectant, concentration, and vehicle used, several of the preparations were totally able to prevent a dermatitis in a range of 56% to 100% of subjects tested. Further work with these compounds may greatly benefit the many people currently plagued by their allergy to poison ivy and poison oak.

  1. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, Patricia A.; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K

    2017-01-01

    -related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance...... tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food...... of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p tolerance relative to those harboring a premature stop...

  2. Antimutagenic activity of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-06-01

    A novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na) possessing an alkyl chain of C(18) to a stable ascorbate derivative sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was synthesized and evaluated as an anti-mutagen with suppressive effect on SOS-inducing activity on mutagen in the Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 umu test. VCP-IS-2Na was assayed with chemical mutagens, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl) acrylamide (furylfuramide) and 4-nitroquinolin 1-oxide (4NQO), which do not require liver metabolizing enzymes. VCP-IS-2Na at a concentration of 0.40 micromol/ml suppressed 66.2%, 54.7% and 60.2% of the SOS-inducing activity on MNNG, furylfuramide, and 4NQO, and the 50% inhibitory dose value (ID(50)) was 0.12 micromol/ml, 0.26 micromol/ml, and 0.17 micromol/ml, respectively. In addition, VCP-IS-2Na was assayed with 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), which require liver metabolizing enzymes. To study the structure-activity relationship, L-ascorbic acid (VC) and VCP-Na were also assayed with all mutagens. VCP-IS-2Na, suppressed the chemical and physical mutagens-induced SOS response greater than VC and VCP-Na in the umu test. Also, the antimutagenic activities of VCP-IS-2Na, VC, and VCP-Na against MNNG and Trp-P-1 were assayed by the Ames test using the S. typhimurium TA100 strain. In summary, this research suggests that VCP-IS-2Na showed potent antimutagenic effects against chemical mutagens and UV irradiation.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic and crystallographic study of the novel guanylurea salts with sulphuric and selenic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulková, I.; Fridrichová, M.; Císařová, I.; Vaněk, P.; Uhlík, F.; Němec, I.

    2017-03-01

    The family of known guanylurea(1+) sulphates was extended for two novel triclinic (space group P-1) members - bis(guanylurea(1+)) sulphate dihydrate and tetrakis(guanylurea(1+)) bis(hydrogen sulphate) sulphate. Additionally, the monoclinic (space group P21/n) guanylurea(1+) hydrogen selenate was also isolated and characterised. Besides of X-ray diffraction study these novel guanylurea chalcogenates were studied by the methods of vibrational spectroscopy. The study of thermal behaviour of the prepared salts revealed reversible λ-shaped anomaly for tetrakis(guanylurea(1+)) bis(hydrogen sulphate) sulphate at 354 K. This effect was studied in detail by the combination of DSC and temperature-dependent IR and Raman spectroscopies.

  4. 2-Amino-2-thiazoline and its 1:1 organic salt with 2-naphthoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Daniel E

    2004-09-01

    The crystal structures of 2-amino-2-thiazoline, C3H6N2S, and 2-amino-2-thiazolinium 2-naphthoxyacetate, C3H7N2S+.C12H9O3-, are reported. The structure of 2-amino-2-thiazoline consists of two unique molecules that construct a convoluted hydrogen-bonded ribbon involving R(2)2(8) graph-set association via both N-H...N and N-H...S interactions. The organic salt structure consists of the two molecules associated via an R(2)2(8) graph-set dimer through N-H...O interactions, with the hydrogen-bonding network propagated via additional N-H...O three-centre interactions from the second 2-amine H atom.

  5. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  6. Actions of salbutamol, disodium cromoglycate, and placebo administered as aerosols in acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasham, F; Kennedy, J D; Jones, R S

    1981-01-01

    The effects on the peak expiratory flow rate of the drug sequences, placebo-salbutamol-disodium cromoglycate and placebo-disodium cromoglycate-salbutamol administered via a nebuliser were examined in 35 children with asthma. Twenty children were each examined once within 4 hours of admission to hospital with an acute attack of asthma, and the remaining 15 children were examined later in the attack on two occasions. The placebo effect of sterile water accounted for about half of the total bronchodilator action both early and late in the attack. It is suggested that this effect is due to the action of water on the surface film of surfactant, causing collapse of bubbles and strands or webs of mucoid material, thus decreasing airways resistance. At this time salbutamol is significantly more potent than disodium cromoglycate as a bronchodilator agent. PMID:6794462

  7. 小檗碱脂肪酸盐的制备及理化性质研究%Synthesis and Physicochemical Properties of Berberine Fatty Acid Salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田非非; 江东波; 刘真君; 翁伟宇

    2011-01-01

    合成了两种脂溶性的小檗碱脂肪酸盐,并考察其在常见溶剂中的溶解度和正辛醇-水中的分配系数.采用硫酸小檗碱与脂肪酸钾反应生成了小檗碱的硬脂酸盐和月桂酸盐,用质谱、氢谱等方法确证结构.结果表明,2种脂肪酸盐在保持小檗碱母核结构的同时,脂溶性较硫酸盐明显增大,其中月桂酸盐在无水乙醇、聚乙二醇400和油酸等溶剂中的溶解性均较好.%Two lipophilic berberine fatty acid salts were synthesized and their solubilities and octanol-water partition coefficients were investigated. Berberine stearate and berberine laurate were synthesized by the reaction between berberine sulfate and corresponding fatty acid potassium salts. MS and 'H NMR were used to confirm the structure of the products. Compared with sulfate salt, the synthesized fatty acid salts greatly increased the lipophilicity, while the structure of berberine remained unchanged. Berberine laurate could be dissolved easily in several solvents, such as anhydrous ethanol, polyethylene glycol 400 and oleic acid.

  8. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically...

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. pH d...

  10. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried co-amorphous drug-amino acid salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth;

    2016-01-01

    scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co...... dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization...... mixtures were physically stable (>10 months) at room temperature and 40°C under dry conditions. Intrinsic dissolution of the co-amorphous mixtures showed an improved dissolution behaviour under intestinal pH conditions for IND-ARG compared with the crystalline and amorphous forms of the drug. On the other...

  11. The salts of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.; Van Hart, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Salt compounds are apparently an important component of the fine-grained regolith on Mars. Salt enrichment may be explained either as a secondary concentration of chemical weathering products or as direct incorporation of planetary released volatiles. Geochemical measurements and chemical relationships constrain the salt species and resultant physicochemical consequences. A likely assemblage is dominated by (Mg,Na)SO4, NaCl, and (Mg,Ca)CO3. Formation of brine in equilibrium with such a salt mixture is unlikely under the temperature and water-vapor restrictions prevalent over most, if not all, of the Martian surface. Acidic conditions, accompanying salt formation, favor the preferential destruction of susceptible igneous minerals.

  12. Systematic study of the structures of potassiated tertiary amino acids: salt bridge structures dominate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayß, M.K.; Blunk, D.; Oomens, J.; Gao, B.; Wyttenbach, T.; Bowers, M.T.; Schäfer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of a series of potassiated tertiary amino acids have been systematically investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and computational modeling. The examine

  13. Systematic Study of the Structures of Potassiated Tertiary Amino Acids: Salt Bridge Structures Dominate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drayss, M. K.; Blunk, D.; Oomens, J.; Gao, B.; Wyttenbach, T.; Bowers, M. T.; Schafer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The gas-phase structures of a series of potassiated tertiary amino acids have been systematically investigated using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy utilizing light generated by a free electron laser, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), and computational modeling. The examine

  14. A new multicomponent salt of imidazole and tetrabromoterepthalic acid: Structural, optical, thermal, electrical transport properties and antibacterial activity along with Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjoy Kumar; Saha, Rajat; Singha, Soumen; Biswas, Susobhan; Layek, Animesh; Middya, Somnath; Ray, Partha Pratim; Bandhyopadhyay, Debasis; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the structural, optical, thermal and electrical transport properties of a new multicomponent salt (TBTA2-)·2(IM+)·(water) [TBTA-IM] of tetrabromoterepthalic acid (TBTA) with imidazole (IM). The crystal structure of TBTA-IM is determined by both the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The structural analysis has revealed that the supramolecular charge assisted O-⋯Hsbnd N+ hydrogen bonding and Br⋯π interactions play the most vital role in formation of this multicomponent supramolecular assembly. The Hirshfeld surface analysis has been carried out to investigate supramolecular interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots reveal the relative contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. According to theoretical analysis the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the salt is 2.92 eV. The salt has been characterized by IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopic studies. It shows direct optical transition with band gaps of 4.1 eV, which indicates that the salt is insulating in nature. The photoluminescence spectrum of the salt is significantly different from that of TBTA. Further, a comparative study on the antibacterial activity of the salt with respect to imidazole, Gatifloxacin and Ciprofloxacin has been performed. Moreover, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of ITO/TBTA-IM/Al sandwich structure exhibits good rectifying property and the electron tunneling process governs the electrical transport mechanism of the device.

  15. Promotion by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid of Germination of Pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var. communis Tsen et Lee) Seeds Under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Ju WANG; Wei-Bing JIANG; Hui LIU; Wei-Qin LIU; Lang KANG; Xi-Lin HOU

    2005-01-01

    The seed germination and seedling growth of pakchoi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis var.communis Tsen et Lee cv. Hanxiao) were not significantly inhibited until the concentration of NaCl was increased to150 mmol/L. Treatment of pakchoi seeds with exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.00 mg/L, promoted seed germination when seeds were stressed by salinity, whereas levulinic acid (LA), an inhibitor of ALA dehydrase, significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth, suggesting that metabolism of ALA into porphyrin compounds was necessary for seed germination and seedling growth. Determination of respiratory rate during seed germination showed that ALA increased seed respiration under both normal conditions and salt stress. Furthermore, salt stress decreased levels of endogenous ALA, as well as heme, in etiolated seedlings. More salt-tolerant cultivars of pakchoi contained higher relative levels of endogenous ALA and heme under conditions of salt stress.These results indicate that salt stress may inhibit the biosynthesis of endogenous ALA and then heme,which is necessary for seed germination, and treatment of seeds with exogenous ALA prior to germination may be associated with the biosynthesis of heme.

  16. Synthesis and structural studies of amino amide salts derived from 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazole and α-amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Montiel, Concepción; Tapia-Benavides, Antonio R.; Falcón-León, Martha; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Tlahuext, Hugo; Tlahuextl, Margarita

    2015-11-01

    2-{[(Ammoniumacetyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 4, 2-{[(2-ammoniumpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 5, and 2-{[(2-ammonium-3-phenylpropanoyl)amino]methyl}-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium dichloride 6 amino amides were synthesized via condensation of 2AMBZ dihydrochloride with the corresponding amino acid. Compounds 7-12 were obtained by replacing chloride ions (in salts 4-6) with nitrate or tetrachlorozincate ions. The results of X-ray diffraction crystallographic studies indicated that the geometries, charges and sizes of the anions are essential for the formation of the strong hydrogen bond interactions of compounds 4, 5, 9-12. Moreover, in most cases, the presence of water and solvent molecules stabilizes the supramolecular structures of these compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy indicated that the presence of chloride or tetrachlorozincate anions increases the acidity of the benzimidazolic and amide groups more significantly than the presence of nitrate anions. However, Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) computations of the crystal structures demonstrate that amino amides interact more strongly with NO3- than with Cl- and ZnCl42- anions; this difference explains the spectroscopic results.

  17. Salts of hexamethylenetetramine with organic acids: Enhanced anomeric interactions with a lowering of molecular symmetry revealed by crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Sosale; Mukherjee, Somnath

    2015-02-01

    The hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) framework displays interesting stereoelectronic interactions of the anomeric type. In the highly symmetrical parent system, the nitrogen centres act as both donors and acceptors. Protonation lowers symmetry and also leads to an enhancement of the anomeric interaction around the protonated centre. X-ray diffraction crystal structures of four derivatives of HMT - with succinic, (DL)-malic, phthalic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids - reveal significant trends. (The first three form well-defined salts, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid forming a co-crystalline compound.) Each molecular structure is essentially characterised by a major anomeric interaction involving the protonated centre as acceptor. In two cases (succinic and 4-hydroxybenzoic), secondary protonation leads to a weaker anomeric interaction site that apparently competes with the dominant one. Bond length changes indicate that the anomeric interaction decreases as malic > phthalic > succinic > 4-hydroxybenzoic, which correlates with the degree of proton transfer to the nitrogen centre. Along with other bond length and angle changes, the results offer insight into the applicability of the antiperiplanar lone pair hypothesis (ALPH) in a rigid system.

  18. 醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯盐的制备与性能研究%Preparation and performance of citrate monoesters salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少勇; 杨秀全; 白亮; 周媛; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Through indirect eaterification,citric acid anhydride was synthesized with citric acid and acetic anhydride as raw materials,the citrate monoesters were prepared with synthetic citric acid anhydride and ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (containing excess ethoxylated fatty alcohols) ,and then neutralization with NaOH,Ca (OH)2 and Mg (OH)2 obtained the citrate monoesters disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG-EC-Na) , citrate monoesters calcium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEC-EC-Ca) and citrate monoesters magnesium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG- EC-Mg). The physicochemical properties of the products were measured. Results showed that the γcmc range of the three products are very small, and the one of citric acid monoester disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside is minimum. The order of foaming ability and foam stability of citric acid monoester salt is MAEG-EC-Mg > MAEG-EC-Ca > MAEG-EC-Na.%采用间接酯化法,以柠檬酸和乙酸酐为原料,先合成柠檬酸酐,后与醇醚糖苷(含有未反应的脂肪醇醚)反应,合成了醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯,再用NaOH溶液、饱和Ca(OH)2水溶液和Mg(OH)2乳浊液中和制得醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯二钠盐(MAEG-EC-Na)、醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯钙盐(MAEG-EC-Ca)和醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯镁盐(MAEGEC-Mg),对产物的物化性能进行了测定.结果表明,上述3种产品的γcmc变化范围均很小,而柠檬酸单酯二钠盐的cmc最小,柠檬酸单酯盐起泡性能、泡沫稳定性的顺序为MAEG-EC-Mg> MAEG-EC-Ca> MAEG-EC-Na.

  19. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 90. Hydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives in Binary, Ternary, and Multicomponent Systems. Part I. Hydroxybenzoic Acids, Hydroxybenzoates, and Hydroxybenzoic Acid Salts in Water and Aqueous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rensuke; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Königsberger, Erich; Königsberger, Lan-Chi

    2011-03-01

    The solubility data for well-defined binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems of solid-liquid type are reviewed. One component, which is 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids, 4-hydroxybenzoate alkyl esters (parabens), or hydroxybenzoic acid salts, is in the solid state at room temperature and another component is liquid water, meaning that all of the systems are aqueous solutions. The ternary or multicomponent systems include organic substances of various classes (hydrocarbons of several structural types, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, ethers, esters, amides, and surfactants) or inorganic substances. Systems reported in the primary literature from 1898 through 2000 are compiled. For seven systems, sufficient binary data for hydroxybenzoic acids or parabens in water are available to allow critical evaluation. Almost all data are expressed as mass and mole fractions as well as the originally reported units, while some data are expressed as molar concentration.

  1. Organic salts formed by 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and selected carboxylic acids via a variety of hydrogen bonds: Synthons cooperation, and crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Peiqi; Li, Qingyun; Li, Yingying; Wang, Kunpeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    By using solvent evaporation method, 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (TAPI) is employed to crystallize with a variety of acids, including 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (HDHBA), 3-nitrophthalic acid (H2NPA), 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (H2ATIPIA), 2,5-dibromoterephthalic acid (H2DBTPA), 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (H2NDSA), sebacic acid (H2SA), 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H3BTA), and biphenyl-2,2‧,5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4BPTA). In all eight complexes, protons are completely exchanged from O atom of acid to nitrogen of TAPI in 1, 3, 4, and, 5, partly transferred in 2, 6, 7, and 8. The crystal structure of all eight complexes exhibit that classical robust hydrogen bonds X-H⋯X (X = O/N) direct the molecular crystals to bind together in a stacking modes. Classical hydrogen bond Nsbnd H⋯O is participated in forming all eight organic salts, while hydrogen bonding Osbnd H⋯O are found in constructing the diversity structures in salts 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7. The analysis shows that some classical supramolecular synthons, such as I R22(8), V R24(12), and VI S(6), are observed again in the construction of hydrogen-bonding networks. In the formation of layered and reticular structure, strong hydrogen bonds between water molecules and ligands having well-refined hydrogen atoms have been considered. Water molecules play an important role in building supramolecular structures of 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8. Moreover, salts 1-8 are further characterized and analyzed by element analysis, infrared radiation, thermogravimetric analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and mass spectra.

  2. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization.

  3. Effects of some organic acids and salts on microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets estimated using an in vitro gas production technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. PARTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro gas production technique was used to screen different organic acids (formic, propionic, lactic, citric, and fumaric acid, organic salts (calcium formate, potassium sorbate, and sodium benzoate, and inorganic phosphoric acid for their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. For the incubation, 40 ml of culture medium (53% buffer, 45% frozen ileal digesta, and 2% fresh faeces was dispensed in vessels containing 5 ml of buffer, 0.5 g of feed, and 20 ìl of liquid or 20 mg of solid acidifiers. Gas production was measured every 15 min during the 24 h incubation at 39°C, and a Gompertz bacterial growth model was applied to the gas production data. Formic acid was the only acid that reduced the maximum rate of gas production (ìm compared to that in the control treatment (P 0.05. When investigating formic-acid-based mixtures that contained 1–5% of potassium sorbate and/or sodium benzoate, the estimated parameters for the Gompertz growth model did not differ from those for treatments with plain formic acid (P > 0.05. However, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid were reduced by all the mixtures (P 0.05. In conclusion, organic acids and salts were found to differ in their ability to modulate microbial fermentation in the digestive tract of piglets. Mixing formic acid with potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate changed fermentation patterns, and the possibility to use them to enhance the antimicrobial effect of formic acid should be investigated further in vivo.;

  4. Sea salt aerosols as a reactive surface for inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Chi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea salt aerosols (SSA are dominant particles in the arctic atmosphere and determine the polar radiative balance. SSA react with acidic pollutants that lead to changes of physical and chemical properties of their surface, which in turn alter their hygroscopic and optical properties. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry was used to analyze morphology, composition, size, and mixing state of individual SSA at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard in summertime. Individual fresh SSA contained cubic NaCl coated by certain amounts of MgCl2 and CaSO4. Individual partially aged SSA contained irregular NaCl coated by a mixture of NaNO3, Na2SO4, Mg(NO32, and MgSO4. The comparison suggests the hydrophilic MgCl2 coating in fresh SSA likely intrigued the heterogeneous reactions at the beginning of SSA and acidic gases. Individual fully aged SSA normally had Na2SO4 cores and an amorphous coating of NaNO3. Elemental mappings of individual SSA particles revealed that as the particles ageing Cl gradually decreased but the C, N, O, and S content increased. 12C14N− mapping from nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry indicates that organic matter increased in the aged SSA compared with the fresh SSA. 12C14N− line scans further show that organic matter was mainly concentrated on the aged SSA surface. These new findings indicate that this mixture of organic matter and NaNO3 on particle surfaces determines their hygroscopic and optical properties. These abundant SSA, whose reactive surfaces absorb inorganic and organic acidic gases in the arctic troposphere, need to be incorporated into atmospheric chemical models.

  5. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    to 3 large-scale "clean rain" experiments, the so-called roof experiments at Risdalsheia, Norway; Gardsjon, Sweden, and Klosterhede, Denmark. Implementation of the Gothenburg protocol will initiate recovery of the soils at all 3 sites by rebuilding base saturation. The rate of recovery is small...... and base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...... following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency...

  6. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, C R; Jones, R M; Lee, D; Brennan, S R

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties. PMID:6439234

  7. Inhaled disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) as maintenance therapy in children with asthma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.A. Tasche (Marjolein); J.H.J.M. Uijen (Hans); R.M.D. Bernsen (Roos); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is included in the BTS guidelines on the treatment of asthma for use in children, but is now used only infrequently. We have identified and interpreted the findings of all published randomised, placebo controlled tria

  8. [Longitudinal study of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia treated with disodium cromoglycate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassur-Siemieńska, Barbara; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumiła; Dmeńska, Hanna; Idzik, Mirosława; Bauer, Anna; Marciński, Paweł; Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Lipka, Bozena

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of life of children born prematurely, who developed chronic lung disease, clinical trials of drugs of different origin are undertaken. The aim of the work was the evaluation of the efficacy of disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in children. We retrospectively studied 15 infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) hospitalised in the Infant Care Department of Children's Health Memorial Institute from 01.01.1997 to 01.02.2000. All babies were premature (25-30 weeks of gestation) with LBW or VLBW A control group of 11 babies with BPD, matched for birth weight and gestational age, who did not have disodium cromoglycate therapy were also studied. Recurrent obturative bronchitis and bronchial hyperresponsiveness were stated in all cases in both groups. Disodium cromoglycate was administered in all babies in the study group. Inhaled corticosteroid (Budesonide mite) was given in 10 cases, for a short period of time, due to severe obturative bronchitis. Babies in the control group were treated with systemic and inhaled corticosteroids. Results of our trial compared with the log-rank and chi2 test show statistically, significant differences in the regression of obturative bronchitis (log-rank = 4.35, p < 0.0001) and normalization of capillary blood-gas examination (log-rank = 3.777, p < 0.0002) in favour of the studied group, treated with disodium cromoglycate.

  9. SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICAL-PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY CA2+- TOLERANT DISODIUM 2-(SULFATOMETHYL)-1-ALKYLSULFATE SURFACTANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOREMAN, PA; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis, critical micelle concentrations (CMC) and Krafft temperatures (T(Krafft)) of a series of disodium 2-(sulfatomethyl)-1-alkylsulfates (2a-d) are presented, with alkyl being n-tetradecyl (C-14), n-hexadecyl (C-16), n-octadecyl (C18) and n-eicosyl(C20). The surfactants exhibit a large Ca2

  10. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements.

  11. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    /63, Tissue (Sandy loam, electrical conductivity (ECe (1 dS m-1, Silt (23.1%, Clay (5.5%, Organic matter (0.5%, Olsen phosphorus (P (5.35 mg kg-1, Ammonium acetate-extractable K (100 mg kg-1 were determined. Nitrogen treatments 3 weeks after planting, dissolved in irrigation water was added to pots. Salinity, after the establishment of the plant (5 weeks after planting, divided into two equal parts and one-week interval dissolved with irrigation water was added to the pot. as well acid gibberellic treatments, as spray after salt treatment was applied at three times and at intervals of one week. Results and discussion: The results showed that the salinity content of carotenoid and Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters significantly reduced but with increasing acid gibberellic and nitrogen application, mentioned parameters were significantly increased, compared to controls. The ability of photosynthesis improved and increased productivity. Mozafari et al studied the pistachio, reported that with increasing salinity from zero to 150 and 300 mM NaCl, carotenoids decreased more than 16% and 22% compared to control respectively. Carotenoids play a most important role in light, protecting plants against stress condition. Salinity application increased leaf proline, but with application of 150 mg nitrogen and 500 mg per liter foliar application of acid gibberellics, this parameter increased by 55 and 26 percent, respectively. Also, combined use of these two treatments increased proline content by 79 percent compared to control. The researchers stated that the increasing gibberellin concentration caused leaf proline increased, so spraying 100 and 200 mg per liter gibberellin significantly increased leaf proline compared with the non-application of gibberellin. The results also showed with increasing salinity increased iron, manganese and zinc concentrations shoots and roots and decreased copper concentrations, but using 150 mg of nitrogen and acid gibberellic consumption concentrations

  12. Respiratory motion artefacts in dynamic liver MRI: a comparison using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Kupczyk, Patrick A.; Doerner, Jonas; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of respiratory motion artefacts in patients undergoing dynamic liver magnetic resonance (MR) either with gadoxetate disodium or gadobutrol. Two hundred and thirty liver MR studies (115 with gadobutrol, 115 with gadoxetate disodium) were analysed. Respiratory motion artefacts on dynamic 3D T1-weighted MR images (pre-contrast, arterial, venous, and late-dynamic phase) were assessed using a five-point rating scale. Severe motion was defined as a score ≥ 4. Mean motion scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney-U-test. The chi-squared-test was used for dichotomous comparisons. Mean motion scores for gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol showed no relevant differences for each phase of the dynamic contrast series (pre-contrast: 1.85 ± 0.70 vs. 1.88 ± 0.57, arterial: 1.85 ± 0.81 vs. 1.87 ± 0.74, venous: 1.82 ± 0.67 vs. 1.74 ± 0.64, late-dynamic: 1.75 ± 0.62 vs. 1.79 ± 0.63; p = 0.469, 0.557, 0.382 and 0.843, respectively). Severe motion artefacts had a similar incidence using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol (11/460 [2.4 %] vs. 7/460 [1.5 %]; p = 0.341). Gadoxetate disodium is associated with equivalent motion scores compared to gadobutrol in dynamic liver MRI. In addition, both contrast agents demonstrated a comparable and acceptable rate of severe respiratory motion artefacts. (orig.)

  13. Molten Salt Catalysts for Sulfuric Acid Production and SO2 Removal From Flue Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1996-01-01

    The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound c...... chemistry of the V2O5 based sulfuric acid catalysts and model systems......The report summarises the results obtained during 3 years of collaboration between ICE/HT,University of Patras,GR and Department of Chemistry,DTU,DK , supported by EU through a BRITE/EURAM project.The project has been concerned with fundamental investigations on the complex , redox and compound...

  14. Chiral mobile phase in ligand-exchange chromatography of amino acids: exploring the copper(II) salt anion effect with a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardella, Roccaldo; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Carotti, Andrea; Ianni, Federica; Rubiño, Maria Eugenia García; Natalini, Benedetto

    2012-12-21

    With the use of a chiral ligand-exchange chromatography (CLEC) system operating with the O-benzyl-(S)-serine [(S)-OBS] [1,2] as the chiral mobile phase (CMP) additive to the eluent, the effect of the copper(II) anion type on retention (k) and separation (α) factors was evaluated, by rationally changing the following experimental conditions: salt concentration and temperature. The CLEC-CMP analysis was carried out on ten amino acidic racemates and with nine different cupric salts. While the group of analytes comprised both aliphatic (leucine, isoleucine, nor-leucine, proline, valine, nor-valine, and α-methyl-valine) and aromatic (1-aminoindan-1,5-dicarboxylic acid, phenylglycine, and tyrosine) species, representative organic (formate, methanesulfonate, and trifluoroacetate) and inorganic (bromide, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, perchlorate, and sulfate) Cu(II) salts were selected as the metal source into the eluent. This route of investigation was pursued with the aim of identifying analogies among the employed Cu(II) salts, by observing the variation profile of the selected chromatographic parameters, upon a change of the above experimental conditions. All the data were collected and analyzed through a statistical approach (PCA and k-means clustering) that revealed the presence of two behavioral classes of cupric salts, sharing the same variation profile for k and α values. Interestingly, this clustering can be explained in terms of ESP (electrostatic surface potential) balance (ESP(bal)) values, obtained by an ab initio calculation operated on the cupric salts. The results of this appraisal could aid the rational choice of the most suitable eluent system, to succeed in the enantioseparation of difficult-to-resolve compounds, along with the eventual scale-up to a semi-preparative level.

  15. Application of organic acid salts and high-pressure treatments to improve the preservation of blood sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ana M; Santos, Eva M; Jaime, Isabel; Rovira, Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Blood sausages are traditional products in many parts of the world. In most cases, a very short shelf-life limits their consumption to the areas in which they are produced. In this work, different mild preservation methods were applied to Morcilla de Burgos, a Spanish blood sausage, consisting of a range of organic acid salts (OAS) and high-pressure processing (HPP), with the aim of increasing its shelf-life. In the first experiment, three batches of morcillas were produced using three different commercial OAS-PL (3% potassium lactate), PL+SL (3% potassium and sodium lactate) and PL+SD (2.5% potassium lactate and sodium diacetate)-together with a control batch and were stored under chill conditions (4 degrees C) for 35 days. In a further experiment, vacuum-packaged morcillas were treated at three different pressure levels-300, 500 and 600MPa-for 10min, and stored under chill conditions for 28 days. In both batches, a sensory difference test was performed on day 1 after treatment and the morcilla samples were subjected to microbiological and sensory analysis after each week in storage. The results suggest that, in both cases, an addition of PL+SL and the application of 600MPa for 10min increases the shelf-life of the morcillas by 15 days. Once again, it is evident that the initial opportunities for contamination play a very important role in improving the shelf-life of food products.

  16. CRYSTALLIZATION AND MULTI-MELTING BEHAVIOR OF POLY (ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) MODIFIED BY SODIUM SALT OF 5-SULPHO-ISOPHTHALIC ACID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hengliang; MU Xiangqi; WU Shizhen

    1987-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of the copolyester, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) modified by sodium salt of 5-sulpho-isophthalic acid(SIPM), was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter. The experimental results and polari-microscopy observation all showed that the introduction of SIPM did not affect the nucleation of crystallization. Within the temperature range between their glass transition temperature Tg and melting point T., the crystallization rate of the copolyester sample decreased with increasing content of SIPM. The relative crystallization rate constant Z of SIPM/DMT (dimethyl terephthalate) 4mol % sample was about 1% pure PET's Z value. For isothermal crystallized copolyester samples, DSC heating curves displayed multi-melting behavior. This was interpreted by molecular weight fractionation during crystallization and premelting-recrystallization mechanism. This interpretation showed why the second melting point Tm2 will change according to Hoffman-Weeks(H-W) equation[1] and the first melting point Tm1 will increase with increasing SIPM. The principal cause of these phenomena is the high temperature crystallization rate decreases rapidly with increasing SIPM.

  17. Estimating industrial and domestic environmental releases of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts in China from 2004 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhai, Zihan; Liu, Jianguo; Hu, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    China has been documented as one of the few remaining producers of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts (PFOA/PFO) and the world's major contamination hotspot. However, limited information has been available for evaluating their environmental releases in China and the contribution to global PFOA/PFO burden. Here we present the first source-specific inventory for environmental releases of PFOA/PFO in China from 2004 to 2012, using a bottom-up approach for industrial sources and an inverse approach for domestic sources. Our results show that China became the current world's largest PFOA/PFO emitter, with cumulative environmental releases reaching 250tonnes (t) over the period of nine years. The eastern region was identified as the hotspot of environmental releases. Most of the national environmental releases were due to the activities of the fluorochemical industry (94.0%) rather than domestic use of PFOA/PFO-related consumer products (6.0%). Fluoropolymer manufacturing and processing, a dominating industrial source, contributed 83.7% of the national environmental releases. In contrast to the general decline trends in annual industrial environmental releases of PFOA/PFO in most industrialized countries, the trend increased in China because of the expansion of production as a result of the global geographical transition in fluorochemical industry. Based on these results, we recommend that the future reduction options are required in industrial sector in China.

  18. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part I: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural sepiolite from Andrici (Serbia was functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt to the Si-OH sepiolite groups. The functionalized material, MSEAS, was characterized by determination of phase composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, analysis of morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential thermal analyses (DTA, determination of specific surface areas and pore size distribution using B.E.T. method and point of zero charge (pHpzc determination. The crystal structure of sepiolite does not change significantly upon surface modification. FT-IR and DTA analysis confirmed that the modified sample maintained the basic structure of sepiolite and also the presence of organic groups in functionalized sepiolite sample. The point of zero charge of MSEAS in KNO3 solutions of different concentrations determination by the batch technique from was at pH 7.0 ± 0.1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, and FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  19. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance studies of electrodeposited polypyrrole nanoparticles doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, Sh. M., E-mail: shebrahim@igsr.alex.edu.e [Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Postal Code 21526, Alexandria (Egypt); Latif, M.M. Abd-El [Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, Institute of Advanced Technology and New Materials, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Gad, A.M.; Soliman, M.M. [Department of Materials Science, Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Alexandria University, Postal Code 21526, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2010-05-31

    Electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole (PPY), doped with 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid sodium salt (AMPSNa), was carried out using chronoamperometric technique. Cyclic voltammetry measurements showed that the electroactivity of PPY films, doped with AMPSNa, increases with the film thickness. Scanning electron microscopy photographs revealed that the PPY particles are in the nano-scale range and that their size depends on the potential at which the PPY has formed. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), in the potential range of + 1.0 and - 1.0 V, revealed in the PPY film charge transfer domination with a semicircle at high frequencies, and anion diffusion dominance at low frequencies. EIS also showed that the charge transfer resistance of PPY film at - 1.0 V is lower than what is expected and that on increasing the thickness of the PPY films, the overall impedance decreases. The proposed equivalent circuit model, based on the double layer capacity and the Warburg impedance, was replaced by two constant-phase elements to fit the experimental work of this study. The values of the fractional exponent of the first constant phase element at approximately 0.5 indicate that the processes have a diffusion-limited nature.

  20. Electro-membrane reactor for separation and in situ ion substitution of glutamic acid from its sodium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Mahendra; Tripathi, Bijay P. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Shahi, Vinod K. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: vkshahi@csmcri.org

    2009-08-30

    An electro-membrane reactor with four compartments (EMR-4) (anolyte, catholyte and comp. 1 and 2) based on in-house-prepared cation- and anion-exchange membrane (CEM and AEM, respectively) was developed to achieve separation and recovery of glutamic acid (GAH) from its sodium salt by in situ ion substitution and acidification. The physicochemical and electrochemical properties of CEM and AEM were characterized and its suitability was assessed in operating environment. The separation of GA{sup -} from the mixture of nonionic organic compounds and further ion substitution was achieved by EMR-4. But the higher energy consumption (5.75 kWh/kg of GAH produced), low current efficiency (50.5%) and recovery of GAH (57.2%) in this process were main obstacles for the industrial exploration of the process. Latter, electro-membrane reactor with three compartments (EMR-3) (anolyte, catholyte and central compartment) was developed based on CEMs for only in situ ion substitution of GANa to achieve GAH, in which GA{sup -} was not allowed for electro-migration from its feed compartment. CE and recovery of GAH were close to 73% and 96% that indicate the suitability of the EMR-3 process for industrial application over the EMR-4. It was concluded that EMR-3 was efficient as compared to EMR-4 for separation and recovery of GAH from fermentation broth by in situ ion substitution in eco-friendly manner.

  1. Effects of Temperature and Humidity History on Brittleness of α-Sulfonated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Salt Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideaki; Morigaki, Atsunori; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Tobori, Norio; Aramaki, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    α-Sulfonated fatty acid methyl ester salts (MES), which were made from vegetable sources, are attractive candidates for eco-friendly washing detergents because they have various special features like excellent detergency, favorable biodegradability, and high stability against enzymes. To overcome some disadvantages of powder-type detergents like caking, sorting, and dusting, we studied how temperature and humidity history, as a model for long-term storage conditions, can affect crystalline structures and reduce the brittleness of MES powder. We characterized the crystalline structure of MES grains using small-angle X-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements and determined the yield values, which measure the brittleness of MES grains, in shear stress using dynamic viscoelasticity measurements. This study confirmed that MES crystals form three pseudo-polymorphs via thermal or humidity conditioning: metastable crystals (αsubcell), anhydrous crystals (β subcell), and dihydrate crystals (β' subcell). Further, we found that the yield value increases upon phase transition from the β subcell to the β' subcell and from the β' subcell to the αsubcell. Therefore, controlling the thermal and humidity conditioning of MES grains is an effective way to decrease the brittleness of MES powders and can be used to overcome the above mentioned disadvantages of powder-type detergents in the absence of co-surfactants.

  2. Extraction of transplutionium and rare-earth elements, molybdenum and iron with zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, B. Ya.; Fedorov, Yu. S.; Shmidt, O. V.; Goletsky, N. D.; Sukhareva, S. Yu.; Puzikov, E. A.; Suglobov, D. N.; Mashirov, L. G.; Choppin, G. R.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid (ZS-HDBP) dissolved in dilute tributyl phosphate (TBP) is proposed as a solvent for separation of transplutonium and rare-earth elements (TPE, RE), including yttrium, from high-level waste in the presence of molybdenum and iron. The optimum HDBP:Zr ratio is 9 for RE and TPE extraction and is 12.5 for Mo. IR spectra indicate formation of Zr(DBP)4(HDBP)4 complex as a base of solvation. HNO3 depresses RE and TPE extraction, while Mo extraction is characterised by a minimum at 2.5 mol/L HNO3. Presence of TBP in the solvent, independently of the used diluent, leads to reduction of the distribution coefficients, but ZS-HDBP extraction capacity for the above elements is increased, as well as solubility of their solvates. Two types of complexes M(DBP)3 and MNO3(DBP)2 are formed at RE and TPE extraction by ZS-HDBP in dilute TBP. Molybdenum extraction is based both on cation exchange and on Mo solvation with HDBP as a neutral ligand. Iron extraction is formally similar to that of Mo, being influenced by the latter if both metals are present in the solution.

  3. Effect of salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, meat quality, and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Amit; Bowers, Jordan W J; Bauermeister, Laura J; Singh, Manpreet; Huang, Tung-Shi; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-listerial efficacy of salts of organic acids, and their impact on the quality of frankfurters. Beef frankfurters were manufactured by incorporating organic acids in 5 different combinations: (1) control (no marinade addition; C); (2) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt; SL); (3) potassium lactate (2% wt/wt; PL); (4) sodium citrate (0.75% wt/wt; SC); and (5) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt)/sodium diacetate (0.25% wt/wt; SL/SD). Cooked frankfurters were inoculated with streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) L. monocytogenes (7 log₁₀ CFU/frank). Inoculated and noninoculated frankfurters were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken weekly up to 10 wk for estimation of L. monocytogenes as well as aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophs (PSY), respectively. Total of 2 independent trials of the entire experiment were conducted. Noninoculated beef frankfurters were evaluated weekly by untrained sensory panelists for 7 wk. SL, PL, and SC treatments did not (P > 0.05) adversely affect consumer acceptability through 8 wk although, SL/SD treatment was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less preferred across all sensory attributes. SL/SD treatment negatively affected product quality, but was able to control APC, PSY, and L. monocytogenes levels. SC performed similar to the control throughout the 8, 9, and 10 wk storage periods, providing no benefit for inhibiting L. monocytogenes (increasing from 7 logs CFU/frank to 10 logs CFU/frank throughout storage) or extending shelf life of the beef frankfurters. In conclusion, 2% SL and PL, and 2% SL/0.25% SD may be effective L. monocytogenes inhibitors (maintaining inoculation levels of 7 logs CFU/frank during storage), but changes in SL/SD treatment formulation should be studied to improve product quality.

  4. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  5. Amino Acids in the Asteroidal Water-Bearing Salt Crystals Hosted in the Zag Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Burton, A. S.; Locke, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Solid evidence of liquid water in primitive meteorites is given by the ordinary chondrites H5 Monahans (1998) and H3-6 Zag. Aqueous fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals were shown to be common in Zag. These striking blue/purple crystals (Figure 1), which gained the coloration from electron-trapping in the Cl-vacancies through exposure to ionizing radiation, were determined to be over 4.0-4.7 billion years old by I-Xe dating. The halite grains are present as discrete grains within an H-chondrite matrix with no evidence for aqueous alteration that indicates a xenogenic source, possibly ancient cryovolcanism. They were proposed to be formed from the cryovolcanic plumes on icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and were transferred and incorporated into the H chondrite parent asteroid following the eruption event(s). A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. The solid inclusions were suggested to be entrained within the fluid erupted from the cryovolcanic event(s), and were shown to be comprised of abundant organics. Spectrofluorometric study and Raman imaging of the halites have identified macromolecular carbon and aliphatic carbon compounds. In order to investigate the type of organics present in Zag and in particular within the fluid-bearing halites, we studied for the first time the amino acid contents of a selected mineral (halite) phase in a meteorite sample.

  6. Formation of Hydrogen-Ion in Isomolar Solution of Hydrochloric and Hydrobromic Acids and Their Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kovaleva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the presence of a large amount of factual material on thermodynamic parameters of complexation of agents in different solvents, including mixed ones, obtained knowledge is specific in nature. In order to identify more general patterns, studies are relevant that would allow to interpret the obtained data taking into account the interaction between chemical forms in solutions. This paper presents a general approach to studying weak ionic interactions in solutions that allows to simultaneously determine the constants of these interactions and the parameters characterizing the influence of changes in the ionic environment on these constants by the example of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals. The obtained constants for hydrosulfate-ion formation and the imperfection parameters can be a reference material for more accurate calculation of the concentration of hydrogen ions in sulfuric acid solutions. The developed approach and patterns identified in the work can be used to study the balanced states for formation of low and medium stable complexes.

  7. Salt dependent stability of stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films exposed to aqueous electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wang, Lei; Siretanu, Igor; Duits, Michel; Mugele, Frieder

    2013-04-30

    We use contact angle goniometry, imaging ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy to study the stability and wettability of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers of stearic acid on silica substrates, upon drying and exposure to aqueous solutions of varying salinity. The influences of Ca(2+) and Na(+) ions are compared by varying their concentrations, both in the subphase before the LB transfer, and in the droplets to which the dried LB layers are exposed. Ca(2+) ions in the subphase are found to enhance the stability, leading to contact angles up to 100°, as compared to less than 5° for Na(+). Consistent with the macroscopic wettability, AFM images show almost intact films with few holes exposing bare substrate when prepared in the presence of Ca(2+), while subphases containing Na(+) result in large areas of bare substrate after exposure to aqueous drops. The observations on varying the composition of the droplets corroborate the stabilizing effect of Ca(2+). We attribute these findings to the cation-bridging ability of Ca(2+) ions, which can bind the negatively charged stearate groups to the negatively charged substrates. We discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Exogenous salicylic acid improves photosynthesis and growth through increase in ascorbate-glutathione metabolism and S assimilation in mustard under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Umar, Shahid; Khan, Nafees A

    2015-01-01

    Ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) cycle metabolism has been regarded as the most important defense mechanism for the resistance of plants under stress. In this study the influence of salicylic acid (SA) was studied on ascorbate-glutathione pathway, S-assimilation, photosynthesis and growth of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants subjected to 100 mM NaCl. Treatment of SA (0.5 mM) alleviated the negative effects of salt stress and improved photosynthesis and growth through increase in enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione pathway which suggest that SA may participate in the redox balance under salt stress. The increase in leaf sulfur content through higher activity of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and serine acetyl transferase (SAT) by SA application was associated with the increased accumulation of glutathione (GSH) and lower levels of oxidative stress. These effects of SA were substantiated by the findings that application of SA-analog, 2,6, dichloro-isonicotinic acid (INA) and 1 mM GSH treatment produced similar results on rubisco, photosynthesis and growth of plants establishing that SA application alleviates the salt-induced decrease in photosynthesis mainly through inducing the enzyme activity of ascorbate-glutathione pathway and increased GSH production. Thus, SA/GSH could be a promising tool for alleviation of salt stress in mustard plants.

  9. Effects of flaxseed, raw soybeans and calcium salts of fatty acids on apparent total tract digestibility, energy balance and milk fatty acid profile of transition cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandra, J R; Mingoti, R D; Barletta, R V; Takiya, C S; Verdurico, L C; Freitas, J E; Paiva, P G; Jesus, E F; Calomeni, G D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Oilseeds offer some protection to the access of ruminal microorganisms and may be an alternative to calcium salts of fatty acids (FA), which are not fully inert in the ruminal environment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different sources of FA supplementation on apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and energy balance (EB) of cows during the transition period and early lactation. We compared diets rich in C18:2 and C18:3 FA. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive one of the four diets: control (n=11); whole flaxseed (WF, n=10), 60 and 80 g/kg (diet dry matter (DM) basis) of WF during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; whole raw soybeans (WS, n=10), 120 and 160 g/kg (diet DM basis) of WS during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively; and calcium salts of unsaturated fatty acids (CSFA, n=11), 24 and 32 g/kg (diet DM basis) of CSFA during the prepartum and postpartum periods, respectively. Dry cows fed WF had higher DM and net energy of lactation (NEL) intake than those fed WS or CSFA. The FA supplementation did not alter DM and NDF apparent total tract digestibility, dry cows fed WF exhibited greater NDF total tract digestion than cows fed WS or CSFA. Feeding WS instead of CSFA did not alter NEL intake and total tract digestion of nutrients, but increased milk fat yield and concentration. Calculated efficiency of milk yield was not altered by diets. FA supplementation increased EB during the postpartum period. Experimental diets increased long-chain FA (saturated and unsaturated FA) in milk. In addition, cows fed WS and CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 FA and C18:2 cis, and lower C18:3 FA in milk than those fed WF. Furthermore, cows fed CSFA had higher C18:1 trans-11 and cis-9, trans-11 FA than cows fed WS. Although supplemental C18:2 and C18:3 FA did not influence the milk yield of cows, they positively affected EB and increased unsaturated long-chain FA in milk fat.

  10. Comparison of enriched palmitic acid and calcium salts of palm fatty acids distillate fat supplements on milk production and metabolic profiles of high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Ying, Y; Harvatine, K J

    2014-09-01

    A variable response to fat supplementation has been reported in dairy cows, which may be due to cow production level, environmental conditions, or diet characteristics. In the present experiment, the effect of a high palmitic acid supplement was investigated relative to a conventional Ca salts of palm fatty acids (Ca-FA) supplement in 16 high-producing Holstein cows (46.6±12.4kg of milk/d) arranged in a crossover design with 14-d periods. The experiment was conducted in a non-heat-stress season with 29.5% neutral detergent fiber diets. Treatments were (1) high palmitic acid (PA) supplement fed as free FA [1.9% of dry matter (DM); 84.8% C16:0] and (2) Ca-FA supplement (2.3% of DM; 47.7% C16:0, 35.9% C18:1, and 8.4% C18:2). The PA supplement tended to increase DM intake, and increased the yields of milk and energy-corrected milk. Additionally, PA increased the yields of milk fat, protein, and lactose, whereas milk concentrations of these components were not affected. The yields of milk de novo and 16-C FA were increased by PA compared with Ca-FA (7 and 20%, respectively), whereas the yield of preformed FA was higher in Ca-FA. A reduction in milk fat concentration of de novo and 16-C FA and a marginal elevation in trans-10 C18:1 in Ca-FA is indicative of altered ruminal biohydrogenation and increased risk of milk fat depression. No effect of treatment on plasma insulin was observed. A treatment by time interaction was detected for plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), which tended to be higher in Ca-FA than in PA before feeding. Overall, the palmitic acid supplement improved production performance in high-producing cows while posing a lower risk for milk fat depression compared with a supplement higher in unsaturated FA.

  11. Mechanism of hydrofluoric acid formation in ethylene carbonate electrolytes with fluorine salt additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Jonathon L.; Fuerst, Thomas F.; Musgrave, Charles B.

    2015-11-01

    We utilized density functional theory to examine HF generation in lithium-ion battery electrolytes from reactions between H2O and the decomposition products of three electrolyte additives: LiPF6, LiPOF4, and LiAsF6. Decomposition of these additives produces PF5, AsF5, and POF3 along with LiF precipitates. We found PF5 and AsF5 react with H2O in two sequential steps to form two HF molecules and POF3 and AsOF3, respectively. PF5 (or AsF5) complexes with H2O and undergoes ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH (AsF4OH) with an activation barrier of 114.2 (30.5) kJ mol-1 and reaction enthalpy of 14.6 (-11.3) kJ mol-1. The ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte forms a Lewis acid-base complex with the PF4OH (AsF4OH) product, reducing the barrier to HF formation. Reactions of POF3 were examined and are not characterized by complexation of POF3 with H2O or EC, while PF5 and AsF5 complex favorably with H2O and EC. HF formation from POF3 occurs with a reaction enthalpy of -3.8 kJ mol-1 and a 157.7 kJ mol-1 barrier, 43.5 kJ mol-1 higher than forming HF from PF5. HF generation in electrolytes employing LiPOF4 should be significantly lower than those using LiPF6 or LiAsF6 and LiPOF4 should be further investigated as an alternative electrolyte additive.

  12. The coordination complex structures and hydrogen bonding in the three-dimensional alkaline earth metal salts (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) of (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

    2017-01-01

    (4-Aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) is used as an antihelminth in veterinary applications and was earlier used in the monosodium salt dihydrate form as the antisyphilitic drug atoxyl. Examples of complexes with this acid are rare. The structures of the alkaline earth metal (Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) complexes with (4-aminophenyl)arsonic acid (p-arsanilic acid) have been determined, viz. hexaaquamagnesium bis[hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonate] tetrahydrate, [Mg(H2O)6](C6H7AsNO3)·4H2O, (I), catena-poly[[[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O']-[diaquacalcium]-bis[μ2-hydrogen (4-aminophenyl)arsonato-κ(2)O:O

  13. 高盐辣椒坯中一株耐盐乳杆菌的分离及鉴定%Isolation and identification of salt-tolerance lactic acid bacterium from high-salt chili

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梓铭; 谢靓; 蒋立文; 李云倩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To isolate some salt-tolerance strains with different colony morphologies from Hunan characteristic fermented chilli samples using selected MRS medium. Methods One isolated strain which could grow on an 18%NaCl salt tolerant bacteria medium was identified base on the physiological and biochemical experiments with 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic tree analyses. Results This strain had a good ability of producing lactic acid and high tolerance to salt. Conclusion This strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum through 16S rDNA sequence analysis.%目的:采用选择性的 MRS培养基,从湖南地区特色的盐坯辣椒中分离筛选出耐盐优势菌。方法得到一株能在18%NaCl培养基中生长的耐盐菌进行了生理生化实验,通过菌落PCR扩增其16S rDNA基因序列并测序,经过序列比对构建系统发育树。结果这株菌有较好的产乳酸、耐盐的能力,经过形态观察和生理生化试验验证,属于乳酸杆菌。结论经过16S rDNA进一步鉴定为植物乳杆菌。

  14. Optical Resolution of DL-Tartaric Acid Mediated by Diastereomeric Salts Crystallization: A Useful Method for Exploring and Optimizing Experimental Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A response surface modeling approach for simultaneous optimization of optical purity and yield wasapplied to the resolution of tartaric acid to study the effects of both the amount of the solvent and the amountof the resolving agent α-methylbenzyl amine on the resolution results. The direction of changing the experimen-tal conditions was determined from the initial response study, and expected high yield of the pure L(+)-tartaricacid-L(-)-α-methylbenzyl amine salt was obtained.

  15. One-step synthesis of α,β-unsaturated arylsulfones by a novel multicomponent reaction of aromatic aldehydes,chloroacetonitrile, benzenesulfinic acid sodium salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhang; Mao Hua Ding; Hong Yun Guo

    2012-01-01

    A new and green method for the synthesis of α,β-unsaturated arylsulfones had been achieved through the condensation of aromatic aldehydes,chloroacetonitrile,benzenesulfinic acid sodium salt in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium hydroxide ([bmim]OH) in EtOH under reflux.The ionic liquid was recovered and recycled for subsequent reactions.The advantages of this protocol were non-toxic,easy work-up and good yields.

  16. Nickel-Catalyzed Cross Couplings of Benzylic Ammonium Salts and Boronic Acids: Stereospecific Formation of Diarylethanes via C–N Bond Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Prantik; Shacklady-McAtee, Danielle M.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Sirianni, Eric R.; Watson, Mary P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a nickel-catalyzed cross coupling of benzylic ammonium triflates with aryl boronic acids to afford diarylmethanes and diarylethanes. This reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions and with exceptional functional group tolerance. Further, it transforms branched benzylic ammonium salts to diarylethanes with excellent chirality transfer, offering a new strategy for the synthesis of highly enantioenriched diarylethanes from readily available chiral benzylic amines. PMID:23268734

  17. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of CEF Panel deals with the risk assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure to the substance from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat, poultry, and fish as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  19. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, is used not in direct contact with food placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinker do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen meat foods poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the liquid absorption capacity is not exceeded and direct contact between the substance and the food is excluded.

  20. Scientific Opinion on safety assessment of the active substance, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt crosslinked, for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, FCM substance No 1015, which is intended to be used as a liquid absorber in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods such as meat, poultry, and seafood as well as fresh fruits and vegetables. Specific migration tests were not performed due to the high absorption of liquids by the substance. The Panel noted that if polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked is used not in direct contact with food and placed in a pad under conditions where its absorption capacity is not exceeded, then no migration is to be expected and therefore no exposure from the consumption of the packed food is expected. The Panel also considered that non-crosslinked polymer and the crosslinkers do not raise a concern for genotoxicity. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substance polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked, does not raise a safety concern when used in absorbent pads in the packaging of fresh or frozen foods. The absorbent pads must be used only under conditions in which the absorption capacity of the active substance is not exceeded and direct contact with food is excluded.

  1. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genes of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN Family Show Different Expression Profiles and Overexpression of ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN 5 Modulates Fatty Acid Composition and Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexue Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs are a group of small acidic proteins functioning as important cofactors in the de novo synthesis of fatty acids. In Arabidopsis, ACPs are encoded by a small gene family comprising five plastid members, AtACP1 to AtACP5, and three mitochondrial members. The biological functions and the transcriptional responses to abiotic stresses of most AtACPs have yet to be elucidated. The present study extends previous findings and provides new knowledge on the function of ACPs by examining the responses of AtACP-encoding genes to several abiotic stresses and, in particular, the role of AtACP5 in the adaptation to salt stress. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AtACP1, AtACP2, AtACP3, and AtACP5 can be classified into one group and separated from a group comprising AtACP4 and ACP homologs from related species. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of AtACP1, AtACP2, and AtACP3 was induced by drought. Both iron deficiency and nitrogen starvation resulted in down-regulation of AtACP4. The most pronounced response was observed for AtACP5, the expression of which was dramatically decreased by salt stress. Knock-out of AtACP5 showed increased sensitivity to NaCl stress, whereas transgenic lines overexpressing AtACP5 displayed increased salt tolerance relative to the wild-type. Overexpression of AtACP5 further led to an altered composition of fatty acids, mainly a decrease of oleic acid (C18:1 and an increase of palmitic acid (C16:0, and to a lower Na+/K+ ratio when compared to the salt stressed wild-type. The comprehensive transcriptional information on the small plastid AtACP gene family in response to various abiotic stresses and the further investigation of the AtACP5 indicate that AtACP5 might be critical for salt tolerance through alterations of the composition of fatty acids and, subsequently, the Na+/K+ ratio.

  3. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid alleviates the adverse effects of salt stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii seedlings by activating photosynthesis and enhancing antioxidant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn, and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. CONCLUSIONS: SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future.

  5. Does Salicylic Acid (SA) Improve Tolerance to Salt Stress in Plants? A Study of SA Effects On Tomato Plant Growth, Water Dynamics, Photosynthesis, and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Hajer; Wasti, Salma; Manaa, Arafet; Gharbi, Emna; Chalh, Abdellah; Vandoorne, Bertrand; Lutts, Stanley; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2016-03-01

    Environmental stresses such as salinity directly impact crop growth, and by extension, world food supply and societal prosperity. It is estimated that over 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are salt-affected. In arid and semi-arid regions, salt concentration can be close to that in the seawater. Hence, there are intensive efforts to improve plant tolerance to salinity and other environmental stressors. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule for modulating plant responses to stress. In the present study, we examined, on multiple plant growth related endpoints, whether SA applied through the rooting medium could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv. Marmande. The latter is a hitherto understudied tomato plant from the above perspective; it is a classic variety that produces the large ribbed tomatoes in the Mediterranean and consumed worldwide. We found salt stress negatively affected the growth of cv. Marmande tomato plants. However, the SA-treated plants had greater shoot and root dry mass, leaf area compared to untreated plants when exposed to salt stress. Application of SA restores photosynthetic rates and photosynthetic pigment levels under salt (NaCl) exposure. Leaf water, osmotic potential, stomatal conductance transpiration rate, and biochemical parameters were also ameliorated in SA-treated plants under saline stress conditions. Overall, these data illustrate that SA increases cv. Marmande tomato growth by improving photosynthesis, regulation and balance of osmotic potential, induction of compatible osmolyte metabolism, and alleviating membrane damage. We suggest salicylic acid might be considered as a potential growth regulator to improve tomato plant salinity stress resistance, in the current era of global climate change.

  6. Changes in bile acids, FGF-19 and sterol absorption in response to bile salt hydrolase active L. reuteri NCIMB 30242

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoni, Christopher J; Labbé, Alain; Ganopolsky, Jorge G; Prakash, Satya; Jones, Mitchell L

    2015-01-01

    The size and composition of the circulating bile acid (BA) pool are important factors in regulating the human gut microbiota. Disrupted regulation of BA metabolism is implicated in several chronic diseases. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242, previously shown to decrease LDL-cholesterol and increase circulating BA, was investigated for its dose response effect on BA profile in a pilot clinical study. Ten otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults, recruited from a clinical trial site in London, ON, were randomized to consume delayed release or standard release capsules containing L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 in escalating dose over 4 weeks. In another aspect, 4 healthy normocholesterolemic subjects with LDL-C below 3.4 mmol/l received delayed release L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 at a constant dose over 4 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in plasma BA profile over the intervention period. Additional outcomes included circulating fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19, plant sterols and LDL-cholesterol as well as fecal microbiota and bsh gene presence. After one week of intervention subjects receiving delayed release L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 increased total BA by 1.13 ± 0.67 μmol/l (P = 0.02), conjugated BA by 0.67 ± 0.39 μmol/l (P = 0.02) and unconjugated BA by 0.46 ± 0.43 μmol/l (P = 0.07), which represented a greater than 2-fold change relative to baseline. Increases in BA were largely maintained post-week 1 and were generally correlated with FGF-19 and inversely correlated with plant sterols. This is the first clinical support showing that a BSH-active probiotic can significantly and rapidly influence BA metabolism and may prove useful in chronic diseases beyond hypercholesterolemia. PMID:25612224

  7. Medicago truncatula improves salt tolerance when nodulated by an indole-3-acetic acid-overproducing Sinorhizobium meliloti strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Carmen; Defez, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The abiotic stress resistance of wild-type Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 was compared with that of RD64, a derivative of the 1021 strain harbouring an additional pathway for the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), expressed in both free-living bacteria and bacteroids. It is shown here that the IAA-overproducing RD64 strain accumulated a higher level of trehalose as its endogenous osmolyte and showed an increased tolerance to several stress conditions (55 degrees C, 4 degrees C, UV-irradiation, 0.5 M NaCl, and pH 3). Medicago truncatula plants nodulated by RD64 (Mt-RD64) showed re-modulation of phytohormones, with a higher IAA content in nodules and roots and a decreased IAA level in shoots as compared with plants nodulated by the wild-type strain 1021 (Mt-1021). The response of nodulated M. truncatula plants to salt stress, when 0.3 M NaCl was applied, was analysed. For Mt-RD64 plants higher internal proline contents, almost unchanged hydrogen peroxide levels, and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, total peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ascorbate peroxidase) were found compared with Mt-1021 plants. These results were positively correlated with reduced symptoms of senescence, lower expression of ethylene signalling genes, lower reduction of shoot dry weight, and better nitrogen-fixing capacity observed for these plants. Upon re-watering, after 0.3 M NaCl treatment, Mt-1021 plants almost die whereas Mt-RD64 plants showed visual signs of recovery. Finally, the shoot dry weight of Mt-RD64 plants treated with 0.15 M NaCl was not statistically different from that of Mt-1021 plants grown under non-stressed conditions.

  8. Mineralisation and degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine salt in a biobed matrix and in topsoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, J Diane; Cessna, Allan J; Ngombe, Dean; Wolfe, Tom M

    2016-10-01

    Biobeds are used for on-farm bioremediation of pesticides in sprayer rinsate and from spills during sprayer filling. Using locally sourced materials from Saskatchewan, Canada, a biobed matrix was evaluated for its effectiveness for mineralising and degrading 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid dimethylamine salt (2,4-D DMA) compared with the topsoil used in the biobed matrix. Applying 2,4-D DMA to the biobed matrix caused a 2-3 day lag in CO2 production not observed when the herbicide was applied to topsoil. Despite the initial lag, less residual 2,4-D was measured in the biobed (0%) matrix than in the topsoil (57%) after a 28 day incubation. When the herbicide was applied 5 times to the biobed matrix, net CO2 increased immediately after each 2,4-D DMA application. Mineralisation of 2,4-D DMA was 61.9% and residual 2,4-D in the biobed matrix was 0.3% after 60 days, compared with corresponding values of 32.9 and 70.9% in topsoil. The biobed matrix enhanced the mineralisation and degradation of 2,4-D DMA, indicating the potential for successful implementation of biobeds under Canadian conditions. The biobed matrix was more effective for mineralising and degrading the herbicide compared with the topsoil used in the biobed matrix. By correcting for biobed matrix and formulation blank, CO2 evolution was a reliable indicator of 2,4-D DMA mineralisation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in addition to screening for the presence of full-length inlA and a plasmid, could help food processors and food agency investigators determine why certain isolates might be persisting in a food processing environment. Additionally, increased sequencing of L. monocytogenes isolates in combination with stress tolerance profiling, will enhance the ability to identify genetic elements

  10. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  11. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    ..., calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food...

  12. Experimental Study on Substitution of Nutrient Salt for Acetic Acid Fermentation in Frings Actator%Frings醋酸发酵营养盐替代试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓辉; 吴广泉; 王静; 董蓉蓉

    2014-01-01

    试验优化获得一可用于Frings醋酸发酵的自制营养盐,其物料及用量分别为:葡萄糖49.3%,酵母粉29.1%,柠檬酸铵14.6%,磷酸二氢钾3.4%,磷酸二氢钠1.7%,硫酸镁2.0%,自制营养盐与Frings营养盐按2∶8混合用于Frings醋酸发酵,可节约成本13.7%,发酵周期与Frings营养盐无明显差异。%This paper showed a homemade nutrient salt by test for acetic acid fermentation in Frings Acta-tor,this salt Includes glucose 49.3%,yeast powder 29.1%,ammonium citrate 14.6%,potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3.4%,sodium dihydrogen phosphate 1.7%,magnesium sulfate 2%.This homemade nutrient salt and the Frings nutrient salt mixed by 2∶8 can save the cost of 13.7%,and there is no significant differ-ence in the fermentation cycle.

  13. Salt Reduction in a Model High-Salt Akawi Cheese: Effects on Bacterial Activity, pH, Moisture, Potential Bioactive Peptides, Amino Acids, and Growth of Human Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution with potassium chloride on Akawi cheese during storage for 30 d at 4 °C. Survival of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum) and starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and concentrations of standard amino acids as affected by storage in different brine solutions (10% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl+KCl [1:1], 5% NaCl, and 5% NaCl+KCl [1:1]) were investigated. Furthermore, viability of human colon cells and human colon cancer cells as affected by the extract showing improved peptide profiles, highest release of amino acids and antioxidant activity (that is, from cheese brined in 7.5% NaCl+KCl) was evaluated. Significant increase was observed in survival of probiotic bacteria in cheeses with low salt after 30 d. Calcium content decreased slightly during storage in all cheeses brined in various solutions. Further, no significant changes were observed in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of cheeses during storage. Interestingly, concentrations of 4 essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and leucine) increased significantly during storage in brine solutions containing 7.5% total salt. Low concentration of cheese extract (100 μg/mL) significantly improved the growth of normal human colon cells, and reduced the growth of human colon cancer cells. Overall, the study revealed that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved the growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides.

  14. Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

    2012-02-03

    A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H₂SO₄ solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L⁻¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The formation and continuous turnover of a fraction of phosphatidic acid on stimulation of NaC1 secretion by acetylcholine in the salt gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokin, M R; Hokin, L E

    1967-03-01

    Acetylcholine, which stimulates NaCl secretion in the avian salt gland, causes the rapid formation of a fraction of phosphatidic acid, as measured by (32)P incorporation, which amounts maximally to about 0.18 micromoles per g of fresh tissue. This does not appear to involve synthesis of the diglyceride moiety of phosphatidic acid, as measured by glycerol-1-(14)C incorporation. It presumably involves formation of phosphatidic acid by the diglyceride kinase pathway from preformed diglyceride and ATP. The specific activity of the AT(32)P of the tissue is not increased in the presence of acetylcholine. At time intervals after addition of acetylcholine during which a full response, measured as increased O(2) uptake, may be observed, phosphatidic acid appears to be the only phosphatide which shows any increase either in total (32)P radioactivity or in net specific acitvity. This responsive fraction of phosphatidic acid undergoes continuous turnover of its phosphate moiety. There is no evidence that this turnover is due to the phosphatidic acid acting as a pool of intermediate for the synthesis of other phospholipids or glycerides. The responsive fraction amounts to not more than 20% of the total phosphatidic acid of the tissue; it does not mix with the other (non-responsive) phosphatidic acid of the tissue. The observations suggest that this phosphatidic acid plays some role in the over-all secretory process.

  16. Pemetrexed disodium in recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Pivot, X; Raymond, E; Laguerre, B.; Degardin, M; Cals, L; Armand, J P; Lefebvre, J L; Gedouin, D; Ripoche, V; Kayitalire, L; Niyikiza, C; Johnson, R.; Latz, J.; Schneider, M.

    2001-01-01

    This phase II study determined response rate of patients with locally advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer treated with pemetrexed disodium, a new multitargeted antifolate that inhibits thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyl transferase. 35 patients with local or metastatic relapse of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (31 male, 4 female; median age 53 years) were treated with pemetrexed 500 mg m2 administered as a 10-minute infusi...

  17. Idiopathic obstructive eosinophilic enteritis with raised IgE: response to oral disodium cromoglycate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilinsky, N. H.; Kottler, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 65-year-old man with a 20-year history of recurrent abdominal pain and vomiting was found to have eosinophilic enteritis affecting the muscularis layer of the distal ileum. Tests for malabsorption were negative. The IgE was raised but there was no evidence of an allergic predisposition. The symptoms, eosinophilia, and radiological abnormality responded to oral disodium cromoglycate. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:6810329

  18. Inhibitory effects of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate on melanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sanae; Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of a novel amphiphilic ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), synthesized from a hydrophilic ascorbic derivative, sodium-2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-Na), on melanogenesis in cultured human melanoma cells, normal human melanocytes, and three-dimensional cultured human skin models. Melanin synthesis in melanoma cells treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 300 muM and melanocytes treated with VCP-IS-2Na at 100 muM decreased to 23% and 52% of that in non-treated cells, respectively, and the cell viability was not affected. VCP-IS-2Na also significantly suppressed the cellular tyrosinase activity of melanoma cells and melanocytes. Melanin synthesis in human skin models was evaluated by macro- and microscopic observations of its pigmentation and quantitative measurements of melanin. Treatment of the human skin models with 1.0% VCP-IS-2Na did not inhibit cell viability, while melanin synthesis was decreased to 21% of that in the control. In contrast, L-ascorbic acid (VC) and VCP-Na did not seem to inhibit melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity. These results indicate that VCP-IS-2Na may be an effective whitening agent for the skin, and we expect the application of VCP-IS-2Na in the cosmetic industry.

  19. Selective detection of carbohydrates and their peptide conjugates by ESI-MS using synthetic quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of phenylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  20. Efficient lactic acid production from high salt containing dairy by-products by Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius with pre-treatment by proteolytic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasala, Antti; Panula, Johanna; Neubauer, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Lactic acid bacteria have an inefficient proteolytic system. Therefore, cultivation media which may have high protein content are usually supplemented with yeast extract or protein lysates (peptones). These additives might be conveniently replaced by in situ treatment of the cultivation medium with proteolytic enzymes or proteolytic microbes. Lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius, a lactic acid bacterium species that can grow at high salt concentration, was used to ferment lactic acid in cheese whey (with 3 gl(-1) whey protein content) and lactose mother liquor (90 gl(-1) lactose, 9 gl(-1) proteins, 30 gl(-1) minerals). The contribution of protease enzymes or proteolytic microbes to acid production by lactobacilli was examined. Efficient conversion of lactose to lactic acid was obtained in the presence of additional proteolytic activity. Fastest acid production was obtained with the addition of protease enzymes. However, almost equally efficient acid production was obtained by treating the medium with Bacillus megaterium. The results show that fast and complete conversion of lactose to lactic acid can be obtained in dairy by-products without expensive additives.

  1. SYNTHESIS AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF 2-(5-(PHENOXYMETHYL-4-R1-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-YLTHIOACETIC ACIDS AND THEIR SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kucheryavyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that drugs based on the 1,2,4-triazole have a wide spectrum of biological activities. They are effective cardioprotectors, hepatoprotectors, anti-oxidants, which are widely used in cardiology practice. So this class of heterocyclic compounds has all the attributes of relevance. We have synthesized new 2-(5-(phenoxymethyl-4-R1-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthio acetate acid and its salts. We have used complex physical and chemical methods of analysis to establish the structure of the synthesized compounds. The chemical properties and diuretic activity of synthesized compounds have been studied. The relation between the structure of obtained salts and their biological effect has been set. Compounds with strong diuretic activity have been found among the newly synthesized compounds. This fact testifies to further study and introduction into medical practice as the original drugs.

  2. Sources, fates, toxicity, and risks of trifluoroacetic acid and its salts: Relevance to substances regulated under the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Velders, Guus J M; Wilson, Stephen R; Madronich, Sasha; Longstreth, Janice; Aucamp, Pieter J; Bornman, Janet F

    2016-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a breakdown product of several hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC), regulated under the Montreal Protocol (MP), and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) used mainly as refrigerants. Trifluoroacetic acid is (1) produced naturally and synthetically, (2) used in the chemical industry, and (3) a potential environmental breakdown product of a large number (>1 million) chemicals, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and polymers. The contribution of these chemicals to global amounts of TFA is uncertain, in contrast to that from HCFC and HFC regulated under the MP. TFA salts are stable in the environment and accumulate in terminal sinks such as playas, salt lakes, and oceans, where the only process for loss of water is evaporation. Total contribution to existing amounts of TFA in the oceans as a result of the continued use of HCFCs, HFCs, and hydrofluoroolefines (HFOs) up to 2050 is estimated to be a small fraction (<7.5%) of the approximately 0.2 μg acid equivalents/L estimated to be present at the start of the millennium. As an acid or as a salt TFA is low to moderately toxic to a range of organisms. Based on current projections of future use of HCFCs and HFCs, the amount of TFA formed in the troposphere from substances regulated under the MP is too small to be a risk to the health of humans and environment. However, the formation of TFA derived from degradation of HCFC and HFC warrants continued attention, in part because of a long environmental lifetime and due many other potential but highly uncertain sources.

  3. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26 was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm, as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2 and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1 were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling.

  4. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin, E-mail: fangfei6073@126.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu2001@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhai, Hong, E-mail: Zhai.h@neigaehrb.ac.cn [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150040 (China); Cai, Hua, E-mail: small-big@sohu.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Ji, Wei, E-mail: iwei_j@hotmail.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Luo, Xiao, E-mail: luoxiao2010@yahoo.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn [Plant Secondary Metabolism Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Bai, Xi, E-mail: baixi@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2-3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.

  5. Evaluation of hyaluronic acid-based combination adjuvant containing monophosphoryl lipid A and aluminum salt for hepatitis B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-hee; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Noh, Young-Woock; Lim, Yong Taik

    2015-09-11

    Here, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) and aluminum salt (Alum) were introduced into a hyaluronic acid (HA)-based combination vaccine adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). Although Alum is a well-known hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant that induces an enhanced humoral immune response, it cannot induce the cellular immune responses. On the other hand, MPLA has been generally reported to promote IFN-γ production via antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells, but it is not water soluble as a result of its long hydrophobic alkyl chains. To this end, water insoluble MPLA could be solubilized in an aqueous solution with the help of HA, which contains many carboxyl and hydroxyl groups that can be used to attach to the hydroxyl head groups of MPLA via hydrogen bonds. Three groups of mice were treated with either hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) alone, HBsAg_Alum complex, or HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex. The group immunized with the HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex exhibited a high increase in cellular immune response as well as in humoral immune response relative to the other two groups. The antibody, cytokine and T cell levels were most elevated in the group of mice immunized with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex, even at a 1μg/mice dose, and the magnitude was still maintained even after 8 weeks. Specifically, the antibody value was 120 times larger in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in mice vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum complex designed similar to commercially available hepatitis B vaccine, Engerix B. The cytokine and T cell proliferation levels were 2 times and 6 times larger in mice adjuvanted with HBsAg_Alum_MPLA/HA complex than in those vaccinated with HBsAg_Alum. The results therefore indicate that incorporating MPLA and Alum with HA can be a potent strategy to increase both the magnitude and the persistence of HBsAg-specific immune responses to protect hosts against hepatitis B virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Brucine salts of L-alpha-hydroxy acids: brucinium hydrogen (S)-malate pentahydrate and anhydrous brucinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate at 130 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D; White, Jonathan M

    2006-06-01

    The structures of two brucinium (2,3-dimethoxy-10-oxostrychnidinium) salts of the alpha-hydroxy acids L-malic acid and L-tartaric acid, namely brucinium hydrogen (S)-malate pentahydrate, C23H27N2O4+.C4H5O5-.5H2O, (I), and anhydrous brucinium hydrogen (2R,3R)-tartrate, C23H27N2O4+.C4H5O6-,(II), have been determined at 130 K. Compound (I) has two brucinium cations, two hydrogen malate anions and ten water molecules of solvation in the asymmetric unit, and forms an extensively hydrogen-bonded three-dimensional framework structure. In compound (II), the brucinium cations form the common undulating brucine sheet substructures, which accommodate parallel chains of head-to-tail hydrogen-bonded tartrate anion species in the interstitial cavities.

  7. Effect of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate on human dermal fibroblasts: increased collagen synthesis and inhibition of MMP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-04-01

    The effects of a novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (disodium 2-(1,3,3-trimethyl-n-butyl)-5,7,7-trimethyl-n-octyl-L-ascorbyl phosphate, VCP-IS-2Na), possessing a C18 alkyl chain attached to a stable sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), on the proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen synthesis, and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in normal human fibroblasts, NHDFs and NB1RGBs, were evaluated. Compared with proliferation of non-treated fibroblasts, VCP-IS-2Na at 50 microM increased proliferation to 123 and 135% of that in NHDFs and NB1RGBs. On the other hand, L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and VCP-Na had little effect on proliferation. At a concentration of 5.0-50 microM, VCP-IS-2Na stimulated collagen synthesis with an effectiveness comparable to that of vitamin C and VCP-Na. The amount of type I collagen in the culture medium was increased by treatment with VCP-IS-2Na for 72 h, in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum increases of 126 and 1067% were seen with VCP-IS-2Na at 50 microM in NHDFs and NB1RGBs, respectively, whereas vitamin C and VCP-Na only had a small effect. VCP-IS-2Na had a small inhibitory effect on MMP-1, but vitamin C did not inhibit MMP-1, and VCP-Na had very little effect. VCP-IS-2Na exerted its collagen synthesis-promoting activity after being converted to vitamin C by phosphatase. This vitamin C promoted proliferation, collagen synthesis and inhibition of MMP-1, which are prolonged through sustained conversion of VCP-IS-2Na.

  8. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI GARAM, PENAMBAH JENIS ASAM TERHADAP MUTU LADA HIJAU DALAM BOTOL SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [The Effect of Salt and the Addition of Several Acid Types on the Quality of Bottled Green Pepper During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Djubaedah1

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of green color (5.30 - 5.92 and pH 4.5 - 4.7 while the other 4.46 - 4.60 of green color degree and pH 3.5 - 3.9. Treatment of 20 % salt was more effective than 10 % of salt in preventing microorganism growth which was indicated by lower TPC value (2 - 5 colony/g. Products treated by citric acid and acetic acid also had lower TPC value, 3 - 5 colony/g and 2 - 3 colony/g respectively. Combinations of salt and acid treatments gave significant effect on it. Piperine content were relatively unchanged during 2 months storage (6.5 - 8 % but it decreased in 3 months storage (5 - 6 %. The best quality was product treated by 20 % of salt and 0.2 % of citric acid. It was also treated by soaking in 2 % of Na2CO3 for 30 minutes, blanching for 5 minutes, addition of 300 ppm SO2 and heating in 100 °C for 15 minutes as constant treatment. The product was also feasible financially on capacity 1,000 bottle per day. Selling Rp. 4,000.00 per bottle will give benefit Rp. 60,000,000.00 per 6 months with 1.11 benefit cost ratio (B/CResearch on the effect of salt and the acid types addition on the quality of bottled green pepper during storage has been conducted. Treatments were used 10 % and 20 % of salt, 0.2 % of citric acid and 4 % of acetic acid. The product were stored for 3 months and were analyzed for green color degree, pH, total plate count (TPC, piperine and total solid content. The results showed that citric acid treatment, better than acetic acid treatment, indicated by higher degree of

  9. Preparation of Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salt (2); Yukisan'en tofu netsubunkai ho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    A method of forming superconductive film by firing substrate coated organ solution consisting of organic metal compound and organic solvent was investigated. After spin coating of octyl acid salt solution on Ag tape, YBCO film was produced by heat treatment at 920 degrees of centigrade for 10-60 minutes. Three kinds of Ag tapes with different of surface roughness was used, but oriented film in film plane of them could not be obtained. However, oriented YBCO film in film plane could be obtained on (100) substrate of LaAlO{sub 3}. (NEDO)

  10. Preparation o Y123 superconducting tape by organic acid salts; Yukisanen tofu netsubunkaiho ni yoru Y123 chodendo senzai no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [Showa Electric Wire and Cable Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Critical current characteristics in the magnetic field is excellent in the Y system oxide superconducting wire rod, and it is expected as next generation wire rod, because the magnetic field dependence is good even in the liquid nitrogen temperature. We have carried out the examination of the Bi system superconductor tape wire rod by the applicator in respect of organic metal raw material on the metal tape state backing since the convention continue. This time, we newly made the octyl acid salt to be a raw material, and we examined the Y system superconductive film manufacture on the polycrystal Ag tape substrate. (NEDO)

  11. On the teaching of acid, alkali and salt of junior middle school chemistry%初中化学酸碱盐教学刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付春香

    2012-01-01

    In the teaching of acid, alkali and salt of junior middle school chemistry, we should guide students to do induction and sum- marization for the sake of a good command of knowledge. Also we should carry out problem - based enquiry activities to foster students "innovative thinking and mine the effective teaching sources.%进行初中化学酸碱盐教学,要引导学生归纳总结、让知识融会贯通、开展问题探究、培养学生的创新思维和挖掘有效教学资源。

  12. [Electric conductivity changes in salt-free solutions in connection with the formation of polyriboadenylic and polyribouridylic acid complexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, S M; Vorontsova, O V; Kuznetsov, I A

    1984-01-01

    Conductometric and spectrophotometric investigations of concentrated salt-free solutions of poly(A) -- poly(U) demonstrated the 1:1 complex formation. It was accomplished by the increase of solution conductivity in contrast to the situation when DNA redenaturation takes place.

  13. Effects of plant food potassium salts (citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) on acid-base status and digestive fermentations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabboh, Houda; Coxam, Véronique; Horcajada, Marie-Noëlle; Rémésy, Christian; Demigné, Christian

    2007-07-01

    Potassium (K) organic anion salts, such as potassium citrate or potassium malate in plant foods, may counteract low-grade metabolic acidosis induced by western diets, but little is known about the effect of other minor plant anions. Effects of K salts (chloride, citrate, galacturonate or tartrate) were thus studied on the mineral balance and digestive fermentations in groups of 6-week-old rats adapted to an acidogenic/5 % inulin diet. In all diet groups, substantial amounts of lactate and succinate were present in the caecum, besides SCFA. SCFA were poorly affected by K salts conditions. The KCl-supplemented diet elicited an accumulation of lactate in the caecum; whereas the lactate caecal pool was low in rats fed the potassium tartrate-supplemented (K TAR) diet. A fraction of tartrate (around 50 %) was recovered in urine of rats fed the K TAR diet. Potassium citrate and potassium galacturonate diets exerted a marked alkalinizing effect on urine pH and promoted a notable citraturia (around 0.5 micro mol/24 h). All the K organic anion salts counteracted Ca and Mg hyperexcretion in urine, especially potassium tartrate as to magnesuria. The present findings indicate that K salts of unabsorbed organic anions exert alkalinizing effects when metabolizable in the large intestine, even if K and finally available anions (likely SCFA) are not simultaneously bioavailable. Whether this observation is also relevant for a fraction of SCFA arising from dietary fibre breakdown (which represents the major organic anions absorbed in the digestive tract in man) deserves further investigation.

  14. 嘧霉胺有机酸盐衍生物的合成研究%Synthesis and Biological Activity of Pyrimethanil Salts of Organic Acid Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐韶康; 于康平; 朱卫华; 罗志会; 张海军

    2016-01-01

    开发了新的杀菌剂,利用有机碱与有机酸易结合成鎓盐的原理,分别以萘乙酸、萘氧乙酸、醋酸与嘧霉胺反应,合成了3个嘧霉胺有机酸盐衍生物。经紫外光谱、红外光谱、核磁共振波谱及元素分析测试等结构鉴定分析,论证了合成产物为目的产物。本方法简捷、环保,易落实工业化。合成分离的母液,循环套用五到六次,产率分别为99%、98.5%和99%,接近理论收率。新化合物研究均未见文献报道。%A new sterilization agent was developed .With the principle that organic alkali and organic acids can easily combined into onium salt , respectively with naphthylacetic acid and naphthalene oxygen ethanoic acid , acetic acid and pyrimethanil reaction , three pyrimethanil organic acid salt derivatives were synthetized , after structure identification and analysis by ultraviolet spectrum , infrared spectrum , nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR) and elemental analysis , the synthetic product was conformed as the purpose product .This method is simple , with environmental protection , easy to implement industrialization .Synthesis and separation of mother liquor recycling applied five to six times respectively , the yield was 99%, 98.5%and 99%, close to the theoretical yield , new compounds were not reported in the literature .

  15. Drought and salt stress tolerance of an Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase U17 knockout mutant are attributed to the combined effect of glutathione and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Hung; Jiang, Han-Wei; Hsieh, En-Jung; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chien, Ching-Te; Hsieh, Hsu-Liang; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2012-01-01

    Although glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are thought to play major roles in oxidative stress metabolism, little is known about the regulatory functions of GSTs. We have reported that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GLUTATHIONE S-TRANSFERASE U17 (AtGSTU17; At1g10370) participates in light signaling and might modulate various aspects of development by affecting glutathione (GSH) pools via a coordinated regulation with phytochrome A. Here, we provide further evidence to support a negative role of AtGSTU17 in drought and salt stress tolerance. When AtGSTU17 was mutated, plants were more tolerant to drought and salt stresses compared with wild-type plants. In addition, atgstu17 accumulated higher levels of GSH and abscisic acid (ABA) and exhibited hyposensitivity to ABA during seed germination, smaller stomatal apertures, a lower transpiration rate, better development of primary and lateral root systems, and longer vegetative growth. To explore how atgstu17 accumulated higher ABA content, we grew wild-type plants in the solution containing GSH and found that they accumulated ABA to a higher extent than plants grown in the absence of GSH, and they also exhibited the atgstu17 phenotypes. Wild-type plants treated with GSH also demonstrated more tolerance to drought and salt stresses. Furthermore, the effect of GSH on root patterning and drought tolerance was confirmed by growing the atgstu17 in solution containing l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis. In conclusion, the atgstu17 phenotype can be explained by the combined effect of GSH and ABA. We propose a role of AtGSTU17 in adaptive responses to drought and salt stresses by functioning as a negative component of stress-mediated signal transduction pathways.

  16. Two di-alkyl-ammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitro-benzoic acid: crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, James L; Jotani, Mukesh M; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2016-12-01

    The crystal structures of two ammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitro-benzoic acid are described, namely di-methyl-aza-nium 2-amino-4-nitro-benzoate, C2H8N(+)·C7H5N2O4(-), (I), and di-butyl-aza-nium 2-amino-4-nitro-benzoate, C8H20N(+)·C7H5N2O4(-), (II). The asymmetric unit of (I) comprises a single cation and a single anion. In the anion, small twists are noted for the carboxyl-ate and nitro groups from the ring to which they are connected, as indicated by the dihedral angles of 11.45 (13) and 3.71 (15)°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the substituents is 7.9 (2)°. The asymmetric unit of (II) comprises two independent pairs of cations and anions. In the cations, different conformations are noted in the side chains in that three chains have an all-trans [(+)-anti-periplanar] conformation, while one has a distinctive kink resulting in a (+)-synclinal conformation. The anions, again, exhibit twists with the dihedral angles between the carboxyl-ate and nitro groups and the ring being 12.73 (6) and 4.30 (10)°, respectively, for the first anion and 8.1 (4) and 12.6 (3)°, respectively, for the second. The difference between anions in (I) and (II) is that in the anions of (II), the terminal groups are conrotatory, forming dihedral angles of 17.02 (8) and 19.0 (5)°, respectively. In each independent anion of (I) and (II), an intra-molecular amino-N-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bond is formed. In the crystal of (I), anions are linked into a jagged supra-molecular chain by charge-assisted amine-N-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds and these are connected into layers via charge-assisted ammonium-N-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonds. The resulting layers stack along the a axis, being connected by nitro-N-O⋯π(arene) and methyl-C-H⋯O(nitro) inter-actions. In the crystal of (II), the anions are connected into four-ion aggregates by charge-assisted amino-N-H⋯O(carboxyl-ate) hydrogen bonding. The formation of ammonium

  17. Milk composition, milk fatty acid profile, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows fed whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, C; da Silva-Kazama, D C; Kazama, R; Gagnon, N; Benchaar, C; Santos, G T D; Zeoula, L M; Petit, H V

    2010-07-01

    Four ruminally lactating Holstein cows averaging 602+/-25 kg of body weight and 64+/-6 d in milk at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of feeding whole flaxseed and calcium salts of flaxseed oil on dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition, and milk fatty acid profile. The treatments were a control with no flaxseed products (CON) or a diet (on a dry matter basis) of 4.2% whole flaxseed (FLA), 1.9% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (SAL), or 2.3% whole flaxseed and 0.8% calcium salts of flaxseed oil (MIX). The 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were fed for ad libitum intake. Experimental periods consisted of 21 d of diet adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling. Dry matter intake, digestibility, milk production, and milk concentrations of protein, lactose, urea N, and total solids did not differ among treatments. Ruminal pH was reduced for cows fed the CON diet compared with those fed the SAL diet. Propionate proportion was higher in ruminal fluid of cows fed CON than in that of those fed SAL, and cows fed the SAL and CON diets had ruminal propionate concentrations similar to those of cows fed the FLA and MIX diets. Butyrate concentration was numerically higher for cows fed the SAL diet compared with those fed the FLA diet. Milk fat concentration was lower for cows fed SAL than for those fed CON, and there was no difference between cows fed CON and those fed FLA and MIX. Milk yields of protein, fat, lactose, and total solids were similar among treatments. Concentrations of cis-9 18:1 and of intermediates of ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids such as trans-9 18:1 were higher in milk fat of cows fed SAL and MIX than for those fed the CON diet. Concentration of rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 18:2) in milk fat was increased by 63% when feeding SAL compared with FLA. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was higher in milk fat of cows

  18. Reporter-free potentiometric sensing of boronic acids and their reactions by using quaternary ammonium salt-functionalized polymeric liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Yue, Dengfeng; Lv, Enguang; Wu, Lei; Qin, Wei

    2014-02-18

    The tremendous applications of boronic acids (BAs) in chemical sensing, medical chemistry, molecular assembly, and organic synthesis lead to an urgent demand for developing effective sensing methods for BAs. This paper reports a facile and sensitive potentiometric sensor scheme for heterogeneous detection of BAs based on their unexpected potential responses on quaternary ammonium salt-doped polymeric liquid membranes. (11)B NMR data reveal that a quaternary ammonium chloride can trigger the hydrolysis of an electrically neutral BA in an aprotic solvent. Using the quaternary ammonium salt as the receptor, the BA molecules can be extracted from the sample solution into the polymeric membrane phase and undergo the concomitant hydrolysis. Such salt-triggered hydrolysis generates H(+) ions, which can be coejected into the aqueous phase with the counterions (e.g., Cl(-)) owing to their high hydrophilicities. The perturbation on the ionic partition at the sample-membrane interface changes the phase boundary potential and thus enables the potentiometric sensing of BAs. In contrast to other transduction methods for BAs, for which labeled or separate reporters are exclusively required, the present heterogeneous sensing scheme allows the direct detection of BAs without using any reporter molecules. This technique shows superior detection limits for BAs (e.g., 1.0 × 10(-6) M for phenylboronic acid) as compared to previously reported methods based on colorimetry, fluorimetry, and mass spectrometry. The proposed sensing strategy has also been successfully applied to potentiometric indication of the BA reactions with hydrogen peroxide and saccharides, which allows indirect and sensitive detection of these important species.

  19. Selective trapping of SNO-BSA and GSNO by benzenesulfinic acid sodium salt: mechanistic study of thiosulphonate formation and feasibility as a protein S-nitrosothiol detection strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Benjamin D.; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Mellmann, Lisa; Hartzheim, Myra; Poffenberger, Kevin; Johnson, Keith; Joshi, Neelambari; Singel, David J.; Grieco, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of S-nitrosothiols to thiosulphonates by reaction with the sodium salt of benzenesulfinic acid (PhSO2Na) has been examined in detail with the exemplary substrates S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitrosylated bovine serum albumin (SNO-BSA). The reaction stoichiometry (2:1, PhSO2Na:RSNO) and the rate law (first order in both PhSO2Na and RSNO) have been determined under mild acidic conditions (pH 4.0). The products have been identified as the corresponding thiosulphonates (GSSO2Ph and BSA-SSO2Ph) along with PhSO2NHOH obtained in a 1:1 ratio. GSH, GSSG, and BSA were unreactive to PhSO2Na. PMID:24187391

  20. Dynamics of the separation of amino acid and mineral salt in the stationary dialysis of solutions with an MK-40 profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'eva, V. I.; Vorob'eva, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    The conjugated diffusion transport of amino acid and mineral salt through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane that simulates the extraction of amino acid from wash waters of microbiological production containing mineral components not used in synthesis is studied. The competitive nature of the conjugation of flows resulting in a decrease in the rate of the mass transfer of components and their separation factor is established from a comparative analysis of experimental data on the diffusion transfer of phenylalanine and sodium chloride in the form of hydrogen from individual and mixed solutions through a profiled sulfo group cation exchange membrane. The range of concentrations and the ratio of components in solution corresponding to the effective separation of phenylalanine and sodium chloride are determined.

  1. [Disodium cromoglycate--mast cell degranulation blocker in the process of tissue remodelation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxová, H; Vasilková, M; Tkaczyk, J; Vízek, M

    2010-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is a compound commonly used in the treatment of allergic diseases. The effect of DSCG is due to its ability to stabilize the mast cell membrane and to prevent release of histamine and inflammatory mediators. Mast cells are also an abundant source of tissue metalloproteinases, serine proteases and growth factors, which play an important role in the processes of the tissue remodeling. In this view the DSCG is a substance which allows us to study the mechanisms of the pulmonary vascular bed remodeling in the experimental animals exposed to chronic hypoxia and in a phase of the recovery from hypoxia.

  2. Periodic structures induced by director reorientation in the lyotropic nematic phase of disodium cromoglycate-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Y. W.; Kuzma, M. R.; San Miguel, M.; Labes, M. M.

    1985-07-01

    A nonequilibrium periodic structure is induced by a magnetic field H applied to an aligned lyotropic uniaxial nematic phase of disodium cromoglycate-water. A series of parallel lines perpendicular to H represents boundaries between 180° out-of-phase regions of director reorientation. The distance between the lines decreases with increasing H. The line spacing is also directly proportional to thickness of the sample (in a limited range of thickness), and a secondary periodicity, consisting of nodes in these lines, is observed in thicker samples. An extension of a theoretical model by Guyon et al. is used to qualitatively interpret the abovementioned dependencies.

  3. Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry Melhora do efeito de estresse salino em morango por adição de ácido salicílico

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Karlidag; Ertan Yildirim; Metin Turan

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry is considered as a salinity sensitive species and is adversely affected in response to the salt stress in terms of growth and yield. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application on physiology, growth, chlorophyll and mineral content of strawberry grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. Strawberry plants were treated with SA at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were establishe...

  4. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Rha, Eui Shik

    2007-02-15

    The study was carried out to assess whether water uptake could be improved in sugar beet seeds and salt tolerance at the germination and early seedling stage by soaking the seeds for 10 h in distilled water (control), 100, 150 and 200 mg L(-1) GA3. Electrical Conductivity (EC) values of the NaCl solution were 0.0 (control), 4.7, 9.4 and 14.1 dS n(-1) NaCl. Priming increased the final germination percentage and the germination rate (1/t 50, where t 50 is the time to 50% of germination) under saline condition. Water uptake of primed seeds also increased significantly with increasing concentration of GA3 as compared to control. Priming also alleviated the adverse effect of salt stress on sugar beet in terms of roots and shoots lengths and fresh weights of plants, roots and shoots.

  5. Effects of supplementing with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow on ewe milk production and twin lamb growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeddu, L A; Ely, D G; Aaron, D K; Deweese, W P; Fink, E

    2004-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted with Polypay ewes nursing twin lambs to evaluate the effects of supplementing fat (calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids or hydrogenated tallow) on ewe lactation. In Exp. 1, ewes were fed a 52% concentrate:48% hay-based diet (as-fed basis) consisting of alfalfa hay (n = 4), endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 4), or fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 4) from d 4 to 56 of lactation. In Exp. 2, ewes were fed similar diets that had endophyte-free fescue hay (n = 6), fescue hay with 3.7% fatty acids (n = 5), or fescue hay with 3.1% tallow (n = 6) from d 14 before lambing until d 57 of lactation. Diet formulations with supplemental fat were more nutrient dense, and treatments were fed to meet ewe nutrient requirements; this caused diets with added fat to be offered at 10 and 17% lower rates than unsupplemented diets in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Lambs were maintained to consume only ewe milk. Ewe milk production and composition were determined using a portable milking machine following a 3-h separation from lambs. In Exp. 1, milk fat content was increased (P tallow (290 vs. 210 g/d). The proportion of synthesized milk fat 14:0 was decreased (P tallow was added. Although ewe weight measures were not changed in Exp. 2, twin lamb gain per ewe organic matter intake was most efficient (P tallow decreased nutrient availability for ewe milk fat production. A complete diet based on endophyte-free fescue hay can replace a traditional alfalfa hay diet, whereas supplementing with the calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids may be more feasible when energy is limiting during ewe lactation.

  6. Adaptive response of Rhodococcus opacus PWD4 to salt and phenolic stress on the level of mycolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Carla C C R; Fischer, Martin A; Kirsten, Sandra; Würz, Birgit; Wick, Lukas Y; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2016-12-01

    Mycolata form a group of Gram-positive bacteria with unique cell envelope structures that are known for their high tolerance against antibiotics and both aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. An important part of the unique surface structure of the mycolata is the presence of long chain α-alkyl-β-hydroxy fatty acids, the mycolic acids. In order to investigate the adaptive changes in the mycolic acid composition, we investigated the composition of mycolic acids during the response both to osmotic stress caused by NaCl and to 4-chlorophenol in Rhodococcus opacus PWD4. This bacterium was chosen as it is known to adapt to different kinds of stresses. In addition, it is a potential biocatalyst in bioremediation as well as for biotechnological applications. In the present study, cells of R. opacus PWD4, grown in liquid cultures, responded to toxic concentrations of NaCl by increasing the ratio between mycolic acids and membrane phospholipid fatty acids (MA/PLFA-ratio). Cells reacted to both NaCl and 4-chlorophenol by decreasing both the average chain length and the unsaturation index of their mycolic acids. These changes in mycolic acid composition correlated with increases in cell surface hydrophobicity and saturation of membrane fatty acids, demonstrating the relation between mycolic acid and phospholipid synthesis and their contribution to cell surface properties of R. opacus PWD4.

  7. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  8. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on the dynamics of nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T; Dong, ZhiHao; Shao, Tao

    2017-07-01

    Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of four chemical compounds with antimicrobial properties on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. Potassium diformate (PD) and formic acid (FA) rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage. The free amino acid N contents in PD and FA treated silages were lower than other silages at all intervals of ensilage. The ammonia N concentrations in FA and PD silages were the lowest, followed by SD and CAP silages. As ensiling progressed, the aminopeptidase activity was completely lost by day 5 for FA and PD silages and inactive by day 7 for SD silage, while it remained active after day 7 for control and CAP silage. The carboxypeptidase activities in FA and PD silages were already reduced below 50% by day 1 of ensiling. Potassium diformate was as effective as formic acid in depressing the proteolysis, while sodium diacetate and calcium propionate were inferior to formic acid in protecting alfalfa proteins from being hydrolysed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG and apolipoprotein B (apo B secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  10. The effects of olive oil emulsified alginate on the physico-chemical, sensory, microbial, and fatty acid profiles of low-salt, inulin-enriched sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Gómez, I; Petri, E; Insausti, K; Sarriés, M V

    2011-05-01

    This paper examines variations in the quality of low-salt, inulin enriched Pamplona-style chorizo, in which some of the pork back fat was replaced with olive oil. Four different sausage formulations were prepared in which 50% of the pork back fat was replaced with olive oil emulsified with alginate and 58% of the sodium chloride was replaced with 20% potassium chloride and 38% calcium chloride. Four lots were prepared, three with 3%, 6% and 10% proportions of added inulin were labeled O-I 3%, O-I 6% and O-I 10%, respectively; while one, lot O, was without inulin. These four formulations were compared with a control manufactured according to the traditional formula using pork back fat. The various lots were tested for proximate analysis, pH, processing loss, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, physico-chemical composition, instrumental colour (CIE L*a*b*), texture profile and fatty acid composition during mixing and at days 3, 10, 17, 24 and 31 of the drying process. A sensory evaluation was also performed by a seven-member trained panel, to obtain a descriptive analysis of the taste, texture and appearance of the product. The addition of olive oil alginate emulsion and inulin, O-I 6%, resulted in a low-salt, reduced-fat product (20% less fat than traditional sausage), richer in monounsaturated fatty acids (10%), while retaining sensory notes similar to those of the traditional chorizo used as a control and achieved a good acceptability rating.

  11. Molecular salts of 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHB) with N-heterocycles: Crystal structures, spectral properties and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, K. Anand; Blacque, Olivier; Venkatnarayan, Ramanathan

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, two molecular complexes of 2,6-DHB with pharmaceutically active nutraceuticals i.e. nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NIC) have been synthesized and preliminarily characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and FT-IR spectroscopy. Finally the crystal structures were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the structures were analyzed in terms of supramolecular interactions. The salt 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cc, with a = 10.1503(1) Å, b = 12.3821(1) Å, c = 9.5291(1) Å, β = 94.343(1)°, V = 1194.20(2) Å3, Z = 4. The salt 2 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n, with a = 7.0098 (1) Å, b = 12.5495 (1) Å, c = 13.4048 (1) Å, β = 92.746 (1)°, V = 1177.86 (2) Å3, Z = 4. The molecular packing of both salts are stabilized by N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O-, N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions. DFT calculations substantiate the features of crystal structures. The Hirshfeld surfaces and the associated 2D fingerprint plots were investigated which revealed that more than two-third of close contacts were associated with relatively weak H⋯H, C⋯H and H⋯C interactions. The use of 3-D Hirshfeld surfaces in combination with 2-D fingerprint plots revealed that these weak interactions play major role in molecular crystal packing.

  12. The effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids and/or L-carnitine on ovarian activity of Rahmani ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, K H; Abo-El maaty, Amal M

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids with or without of l-carnitine on ovarian activity using 24 Rahmani ewes randomly allocated to four treatments. Control animals (n=6) were fed a basal diet of hay (64.2%) and barley grain (35.0%) plus minerals and vitamins (0.8%). Ewes on the three treatments received the same basal diet supplemented with calcium salts of long chain fatty acids (CSFA) at 3% of the basal diet dry matter intake (1.4 kg/ewe/d); 250 ppm l-carnitine (LC); or both these supplements (CSFA+LC). All use exhibited natural estrus on one or two occasions and were weighed at the start and the end of the study as well as body condition score was assessed at the end of study. All ewes were then synchronised for estrus using intravaginal sponges for 12 d prior to the start of the nutritional treatments and three weeks after the nutritional treatments began. The nutritional treatments were imposed for a total of 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of treatments and every two weeks thereafter except after sponge removal of first and second synchronisation where the blood samples were collected daily for progesterone assay. The results revealed that Rahmani ewes received basal diet (control) and l-carnitine had significantly decrease final body weight and body condition score (36.3+/-0.4; 36.8+/-0.3; 2.2+/-0.04; 2.1+/-0.05; pcarnitine (8.7+/-1.5) and CSFA+LC (8.0+/-0.6) treatments. The increased numbers occurred in the medium and large categories of follicles. In addition, the ovulation rates were significantly lower (pcarnitine (1.5+/-0.00) than for CSFA (2.5+/-0.3) and CSFA+LC (2.3+/-0.2). Furthermore, serum progesterone concentrations had risen and were significantly higher (pcarnitine (1.5+/-0.4 ng/ml). It was concluded that supplementation of the basal diet with l-carnitine alone did not improve performance of ewes or the ovarian response. However, the addition of

  13. Inhibitory Activity of Lactid Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tape Waterlily Seed to Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, and E.coli and Its’ Susceptibility to Antibiotic, Bile Salt and Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe inhibitory activity of LAB isolated from tape waterlily seed to enteric pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, E.coli ATCC 25922 and it’s susceptibility to antibiotic, in bile salt and under acidic condition. Microbia in the tape ( a fermented product of waterlily seed to showed were Streptococcus thermophilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (IKH-2 and Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Streptococcus thermophillus showed inhibition against the growth of Shigella disentri with inhibition zones 16,28 mm, but did not against the growth of V. Cholera, S. typhi, E.coli. Pediococcus pentosaceus inhibit Vibrio cholera, dan Salmonella thypi with inhibition zones 18,59 mm dan 7,91 mm. So that, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inhibit Salmonella thypi with zones inhibits average 8,25 mm. Chloramfenicol at 0.05 mg concentrations did not show inhibition against the growth of isolated Streptococcus thermophillus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. These isolates could survive too in bile salt (2% and acidified media (pH 3.   Keyword : The tape of  waterlily seed, LAB, probiotic and enteric pathogenic   KEMAMPUAN PENGHAMBATAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI TAPE BIJI TERATAI TERHADAP PATOGENIK ENTERIK (VIBRIO CHOLERA, SALMONELLA THYPI, SHIGELLA DISENTRI, E. COLI, ANTIBIOTIK, KETAHANANNYA TERHADAP BILE SALT DAN ASAM   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan penghambatan bakteri asam laktat yang diisolasi dari tape biji teratai terhadap patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, E. Coli ATCC 25922, antibiotik, bile salt dan asam. Jenis bakteri yang diketahui tumbuh selama fermentasi tape biji teratai adalah Streptococcus thermopilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus(IKH-2, dan Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Pengamatan terhadap uji penghambatan patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, dan E. Coli ATCC

  14. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  15. Effect of acid and salt concentration in fresh-pack pickles on the growth of Clostridium botulinum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K A; Chen, J K; Lerke, P A; Seeger, M L; Unverferth, J A

    1976-01-01

    The addition of various amounts of acetic acid to pureed cucumbers inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores has shown that outgrowth is inhibited at pH 4.8 but not at pH 5.0. Inoculation experiments with whole cucumbers showed that as little as 0.9% acetic acid in the brine was sufficient to prevent outgrowth from spore inocula as high as 10(6)/cucumber. It was further shown that the rapid rate of acetic acid penetration into fresh-pack pickles prevents the growth of any C. botulinum spores that may be present. PMID:9898

  16. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p......H decreased to 4.5 in 2 days, but omitting garlic resulted in a lack of acidification. LAB were predominant and approximately one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lact. plantarum...... AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  17. In vitro release control of ketoprofen from pH-sensitive gels consisting of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) and saturated fatty acid sodium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, M.; Hiroki, A.; Miyajima, M.; Yoshida, M.; Asano, M.; Katakai, R.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of saturated fatty acid sodium salts (C n), sodium laurate (C 12), sodium myristate (C 14), sodium palmitate (C 16), and sodium stearate (C 18), on the swelling of poly(acryloyl- L-proline methyl ester) (A-ProOMe) gel was investigated in different pH solutions. The C n-loaded gels collapsed in a buffer solution with pH 3.0, while they expanded in a buffer solution with pH 6.5. This effect was strongly influenced by the number of methylene units in C n, as the threshold for causing this sensitivity existed between C 12 and C 14. On the other hand, a pulsatile release of ketoprofen occurred when the gel was cycled in buffer solutions between pH 3.0 and pH 6.5. This behavior may be attributable to the surface-regulated mechanism.

  18. The effect of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid sodium salt on the germination and growth of cereal grains and seedlings and on the development of pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michalczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium salt of S-(ferrocenylmethyl-thiosalicylic acid was studied in the context of its possible use as a systemic fungicide and, concurrently, as a source of physiologically active iron fur crop plants. It was found that this metallocene was taken up by maize seedlings growing in liquid mediums, and used for chlorophyll synthesis, in a concentration range as low as 0.05-0.08 mM dm-3. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.5 mM dm-3, it inhibited germination, seedling growth and Y-amylase activity while it stimulated the activities of proteinases, catalase and peroxidase. When sprayed on cereal leaves at a concentration of 1.0-2.0 mM dm-3, it exhibited fungicidal properties: inhibition of fungus development without harming cereal plant leaves and stimulated chlorophyll synthesis.

  19. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  20. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid/Poly(vinyl alcohol IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiong Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modified poly(aspartic acid/poly(vinyl alcohol interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550 and poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN, and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid, respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery.

  1. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were  0.05). Conclusion We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:  · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 651 - 660. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Differentially Influence Tomato Resistance to Combined Powdery Mildew and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Seifi, Alireza; Yan, Zhe; Islam, A. T. M. Tanjimul; van der Schoot, Hanneke; van de Wiel, Clemens C. M.; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. G.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge on the role of hormones in plants responses to combinations of abiotic and pathogen stress factors. This study focused on the response of tomato near-isogenic lines (NILs) that carry the Ol-1, ol-2, and Ol-4 loci, conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew (PM) caused by Oidium neolycopersici, to combined PM and salt stress. These NILs were crossed with the notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenceless1 (JA-deficient), and epinastic (ET overproducer) tomato mutants to investigate possible roles of hormone signaling in response to combined stresses. In the NILs, marker genes for hormonal pathways showed differential expression patterns upon PM infection. The epinastic mutation resulted in breakdown of resistance in NIL-Ol-1 and NIL-ol-2. This was accompanied by reduced callose deposition, and was more pronounced under combined salt stress. The notabilis mutation resulted in H2O2 overproduction and reduced susceptibility to PM in NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress, but lead to higher plant growth reduction under salinity and combined stress. Resistance in NIL-ol-2 was compromised by the notabilis mutation, which was potentially caused by reduction of callose deposition. Under combined stress the compromised resistance in NIL-ol-2 was restored. PM resistance in NIL-Ol-4 remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. Hormone signaling is critical to the response to combined stress and PM, in terms of resistance and plant fitness. ABA appears to be at the crossroads of disease susceptibility/senescence and plant performance under combined stress These gained insights can aid in narrowing down targets for improving crop performance under stress combinations. PMID:28119708

  3. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... provision of sulfuric acid for less than adequate remuneration (``LTAR'') for both RZBC and Yixing, and... requested. Failure to comply with the regulations and the terms of an APO is a sanctionable violation. We...

  4. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Sundar Panja

    Full Text Available Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications.Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins.Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, p<0.001 and Gly (χ2 = 73.35, p<0.001 are highly and Val moderately (χ2 = 144.43, p<0.001 occurring in the 85% of thermophilic proteins. Phospho-regulated Tyr and redox-sensitive Cys are also moderately distributed (χ2~20.0, p<0.01 in a larger number of thermophilic proteins. A consistent lower distribution of thermophilicity and discretely higher distribution of hydrophobicity is noticed in a large number of thermophilic versus their mesophilic protein homolog. The mean differences of isoelectric points and charges are found to be significantly less (7.11 vs. 6.39, p<0.05 and 1 vs. -0.6, p<0.01, respectively in thermophilic proteins compared to their mesophilic counterpart. The possible sites for Tyr phosphorylation are noticed to be 25% higher (p<0.05 in thermophilic proteins. The 60% thermophiles are found with higher number of salt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0

  5. Salicylic acid improves acclimation to salt stress by stimulating abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity and abscisic acid accumulation, and increases Na+ content in leaves without toxicity symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepesi, Agnes; Csiszár, Jolán; Gémes, Katalin; Horváth, Edit; Horváth, Ferenc; Simon, Mária L; Tari, Irma

    2009-06-01

    Pre-treatment with 10(-4)M salicylic acid (SA) in hydroponic culture medium provided protection against salinity stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Fuego). The effect of 10(-7) or 10(-4)M SA on the water status of plants was examined in relation to the biosynthesis and accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in order to reveal the role of SA in the subsequent response to salt stress. Both pre-treatments inhibited the K+(86Rb+) uptake of plants, reduced the K+ content of leaves, and caused a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(w)). Due to the changes in the cellular water status, SA triggered the accumulation of ABA. Since the decrease in psi(w) proved to be transient, the effect of SA on ABA synthesis may also develop via other mechanisms. In spite of osmotic adaptation, the application of 10(-4)M, but not 10(-7)M SA, led to prolonged ABA accumulation and to enhanced activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO1, EC.1.2.3.1.), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, both in root and leaf tissues. AO2-AO4 isoforms from the root extracts also exhibited increased activities. The fact that the activities of AO are significantly enhanced both in the leaves and roots of plants exposed to 10(-4)M SA, may indicate a positive feedback regulation of ABA synthesis by ABA in this system. Moreover, during a 100mM NaCl treatment, higher levels of free putrescine or spermine were found in these leaves or roots, respectively, than in the salt-stressed controls, suggesting that polyamines may be implicated in the protection response of the cells. As a result, Na+ could be transported to the leaf mesophyll cells without known symptoms of salt toxicity.

  6. Salt Effect on the Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of (Water + Propionic Acid + Cyclohexanol) System at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2) K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram Ghalami-Choobar; Ali Ghanadzadeh and Shahram Kousarimehr

    2011-01-01

    Effects of salt and temperature on the liquid phase equilibrium of the(water + propionic acid + cyclohexanol) system were investigated.The liquid-liquid equilibrium data in the presence of KCl for various salt ionic strength of 0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,and 2.5 mol·dm3 and in absence of the salt at T=(298.2,303.2,and 308.2)K were determined.The experimental results were correlated based on the Othmer-Tobias equation and Pitzer ion-interaction model.Thermodynamic properties such as distribution coefficients and activity coefficients of propionic acid in water + cyclohexanol were determined.In addition,the separation factor,S,of the chosen solvent was obtained for the investigated system.

  7. Growth of the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in microtiter plates : effects of NaCl, pH and temperature on growth and fusel alcohol production from branched-chain amino acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Michael; Veurink, Janine H.; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2003-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, a salt-tolerant yeast isolated from the soy sauce process, produces fusel alcohols (isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and isobutyl alcohol) from branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine, respectively) via the Ehrlich pathway. Using a high-throughput scr

  8. The inhibitory effect of disodium cromoglycate on the growth of Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Tetsuya; Sasaki, Nozomu; Inoue, Miyuki; Sato, Kozue; Kishimoto, Toshio

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is associated with asthma and several other respiratory illnesses. Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is known to inhibit both immediate and late asthmatic responses. In this study, the inhibitory effect of DSCG on the growth of C. pneumoniae was examined by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and pre-inoculation minimal cidal concentration (MCC) assays using HL cells and C. pneumoniae AR-39. DSCG below the clinically relevant concentration inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae in a dose-dependent manner in both the MCC and MIC assays. The inhibitory effect was also time-dependent in the MCC assay at 20 mg/ml of DSCG. These results warrant further clinical study on the connection between C. pneumoniae infections and use of DSCG.

  9. Disodium cromoglycate: exploiting its properties as a NMR weak-aligning medium for small organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche-Pesqueira, Eduardo; Cid, María-Magdalena; Navarro-Vázquez, Armando

    2014-03-28

    Chromonic phases are a family of lyotropic liquid crystals (LC) formed by ionic aromatic mesogens such as disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn), sunset yellow and others. It is well known that chromonic phases are oriented in the presence of external magnetic fields, leading to the observation of anisotropic NMR observables such as quadrupolar splittings or residual dipolar couplings. Despite the fact that the cromolyn nematic LC phase (N) presents important advantages like great homogeneity, small line broadening, and easy sample preparation, it has been scarcely used as a water-compatible NMR orienting medium, in part due to a too strong induced degree of alignment on the guest molecules. However, the use of cromolyn-brine mixtures led to the optimum degree of alignment allowing to record (1)H-(13)C dipolar couplings with good accuracy.

  10. Disodium cromoglycate prevents ileum hyperreactivity to histamine in Toxocara canis-infected guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, A; Corrado, A P; Baruffi, M D; Faccioli, L H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether Toxocara canis infection in guinea pigs provokes changes in ileum responsiveness to histamine. Ileum segments from control and T. canis-infected groups were placed at isometric conditions and submitted to various doses of histamine. No changes were observed between controls and T. canis-infected groups at days 3, 6 and 12 after infection. However, at days 18 and 24 after infection, there was a significant increase in ileum responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected group. Pre-incubation of ileum segments with 1mgml(-1) disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) prevented the increased responsiveness to histamine in T. canis-infected guinea pigs and did not affect ileum contractility in non-infected animals. These results indicate that T. canis-infected guinea pigs develop increased intestinal responsiveness to histamine and that DSCG prevents alterations in smooth-muscle contractility.

  11. Phases and structures of sunset yellow and disodium cromoglycate mixtures in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Smith, Gregory P.; Yi, Youngwoo; Xu, Charles; Biffi, Silvia; Serra, Francesca; Bellini, Tommaso; Zhu, Chenhui; Clark, Noel A.

    2016-01-01

    We study phases and structures of mixtures of two representative chromonic liquid crystal materials, sunset yellow FCF (SSY) and disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), in water. A variety of combinations of isotropic, nematic (N ), and columnar (also called M ) phases are observed depending on their concentrations, and a phase diagram is made. We find a tendency for DSCG-rich regions to show higher-order phases while SSY-rich regions show lower-order ones. We observe uniform mesophases only when one of the materials is sparse in the N phases. Their miscibility in M phases is so low that essentially complete phase separation occurs. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies confirm that SSY and DSCG molecules do not mix when they form chromonic aggregates and neither do their aggregates when they form M phases.

  12. Effect of disodium cromoglycate on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Young; Kim, Jung-Sook; An, Nyeon-Hyoung; Park, Rae-Kil; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-04-23

    We investigated the effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. DSCG inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 dose-dependently. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was inhibited by 71.6% by oral administration of DSCG (1 g/kg). When DSCG was pretreated at concentration rang from 0.01-1000 g/kg, the serum histamine levels were reduced in a dose dependent manner. DSCG also significantly inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cell (RPMC) by compound 48/80. We confirmed that DSCG inhibited compound 48/80-induced degranulation of RPMC by alcian blue/nuclear fast red staining. In addition, DSCG showed a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl IgE-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results indicate that DSCG inhibits mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reaction.

  13. A More Rational Treatment of the Acid-Base Equilibria Applying the Proton Condition, or the Hydroxyl Condition, in Equilibrium. How the Hydroxyls are Additive in Equilibrium: Dissolutions of Bases, Salts and Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Riobó, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The calculus of the acid-base equilibria can be rationalized by applying the proton condition or the hydroxyl condition in every case, on solutions of strong bases, mixtures of bases, mixtures of acids and bases, and different salts. Furthermore, applying the proton condition or the hydroxyl condition in equilibrium, it is clearly pointed out that the hydroxyls in equilibrium are additive in solutions of strong bases as well as in those of weak bases.

  14. Preparation, Characterization of Dawson-type Heteropoly Acid Cerium (Ⅲ) Salt and Its Catalytic Performance on the Synthesis of n-Butyl Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xiaohua; REN Jie; XU Changlong; ZHANG Kanghua; ZHAN Changchao; LAN Jian

    2013-01-01

    A novel cerium (Ⅲ) salt of Dawson type tungstophosphoric acid (Ce2P2W18O62·16H2O) was prepared by doping cerous nitrate in H6P2W18O62.13H2O powder and characterized by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),X-ray powder diffraction (XRD),pyridine infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Its catalytic activity was evaluated by the probe reaction of synthesis of n-butyl acetate with acetic acid and n-butanol.The effects of various parameters such as molar ratio of n-butanol to acetic acid,reaction temperature,reaction time,and catalyst amount have been studied by single factor experiment.The results show that Ce2P2W18O62·16H2O behaved as an excellent heterogeneous catalyst in the synthesis of n-butyl acetate.The optimum synthetic conditions were determined as follows:molar ratio of n-butanol to acetic acid at 2.0 ∶ 1.0,mass of the catalyst being 1.44% of the total reaction mixture,reaction temperature of 120 ℃ and reaction time of 150 min.Under above conditions,the conversion of acetic acid was above 97.8 %.The selectivity of n-butyl acetate based on acetic acid was,in all cases,nearly 100%.The catalysts could be recycled and still exhibited high catalytic activity with 90.4% conversion after five cycles of reaction.It was found by means of TG-DTA and Py-IR that the catalyst deactivation was due to the adsorption of a complex of by-product on the active sites on catalysts surface or the catalyst loss in its separation from the products.Compared with using sulfuric acid as catalyst,the present procedure with Ce2P2W18O62· 16H2O is a green productive technology due to simple process,higher yield,catalyst recycling and no corrosion for the production facilities.

  15. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  16. Microwave synthesis of delaminated acid saponites using quaternary ammonium salt or polymer as template. Study of pH influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebretsadik, Fiseha B.; Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Salagre, Pilar; Cesteros, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous saponites were prepared at pH8 and 13 without and with template (surfactant or polymer) at 453K and autogenic pressure using microwaves or conventional oven during the hydrothermal ageing treatment. Acidity was obtained by calcination of the NH4-form. The effect of dilution (H<

  17. Studies on the acid-base properties of the ZnBr2NaBr molten salt system

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    The acid-base properties of the ZnBr2-NaBr melts at 623 K were investigated on the basis of the electromotive forcemeasurements of a zinc-zinc concentration cell. The following two chemical equilibria were postulated to describe theacid-base character of the melts.

  18. Microwave synthesis of delaminated acid saponites using quaternary ammonium salt or polymer as template. Study of pH influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebretsadik, Fiseha B.; Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Salagre, Pilar; Cesteros, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous saponites were prepared at pH8 and 13 without and with template (surfactant or polymer) at 453K and autogenic pressure using microwaves or conventional oven during the hydrothermal ageing treatment. Acidity was obtained by calcination of the NH4-form. The effect of dilution

  19. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  20. New 1:1 and 2:1 salts in the `DL-norvaline-maleic acid' system as an example of assembling various crystal structures from similar supramolecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Sergey G; Losev, Evgeniy A; Boldyreva, Elena V

    2017-01-01

    Molecular salts and cocrystals of amino acids have potential applications as molecular materials with nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and other various target physical properties. The wide choice of amino acids and coformers makes it possible to design various crystal structures. The amino acid-maleic acid system provides a perfect example of a rich variety of crystal structures with different stoichiometries, symmetries and packing motifs built from the molecular building blocks, which are either exactly the same, or differ merely by protonation or as optical isomers. The present paper reports the crystal structures of two new salts of the DL-norvaline-maleic acid system with 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries, namely DL-norvalinium hydrogen maleate, C5H12NO2(+)·C4H3O4(-), (I), and DL-norvalinium hydrogen maleate-DL-norvaline, C5H12NO2(+)·C4H3O4(-)·C5H11NO2, (II). These are the first examples of molecular salts of DL-norvaline with an organic anion. The crystal structure of (I) has the same C2(2)(12) structure-forming motif which is common for hydrogen maleates of amino acids. The structure of (II) has dimeric cations. Of special interest is that the single crystals of (I) which are originally formed on crystallization from aqueous solution transform into single crystals of (II) if stored in the mother liquor for several hours.

  1. Phosphate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels that are too high, and for preventing kidney stones. They are also taken for treating osteomalacia (often ... But intravenous phosphate salts should not be used. Kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Taking potassium phosphate by mouth might help ...

  2. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  3. Effect of a novel ascorbic derivative, disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate, on normal human dermal fibroblasts against reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Hiroharu; Hisama, Masayoshi; Matsuda, Sanae; Kawase, Atsushi; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Hanada, Katsumi; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2008-04-01

    The novel amphiphilic vitamin C derivative disodium isostearyl 2-O-L-ascorbyl phosphate (VCP-IS-2Na), which has a C(18) alkyl chain attached to the stable ascorbate derivative sodium L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (VCP-Na), was evaluated for reduction of cell damage induced by oxidative stress, ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and H(2)O(2); stimulation of collagen synthesis against UVA irradiation; and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity induced by UVA in human normal dermal fibroblasts. VCP-IS-2Na pretreatment resulted in significant protection against cell damage induced by UVB, UVA, and H(2)O(2). The amount of type I collagen following UVA irradiation was increased by treatment with VCP-IS-2Na in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects of VCP-IS-2Na were superior to those of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C, VC) and VCP-Na. On the other hand, VCP-IS-2Na suppressed 65% of the excess MMP-1 irradiated UVA, and VC and VCP-Na slightly suppressed it.

  4. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification.

  6. A comparison of the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures versus calcium salts of fatty acids on performance and milk fatty acid composition of mid-lactation Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee-Yarandi, H; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Drackley, J K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of soybeans roasted at different temperatures on milk yield and milk fatty acid composition, 8 (4 multiparous and 4 primiparous) mid-lactation Holstein cows (42.9±3 kg/d of milk) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. The control diet (CON) contained lignosulfonate-treated soybean meal (as a source of rumen-undegradable protein) and calcium salts of fatty acids (Ca-FA, as a source of energy). Diets 2, 3, and 4 contained ground soybeans roasted at 115, 130, or 145°C, respectively (as the source of protein and energy). Dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be greater for CON compared with the roasted soybean diets (24.6 vs. 23.3 kg/d). Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein were not different among the treatments. Actual and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Milk fat was higher for soybeans roasted at 130°C than for those roasted at either 115 or 145°C. No differences were observed between the CON and the roasted soybean diets, or among roasting temperatures, on feed efficiency and nitrogen concentrations in rumen, milk, and plasma. Milk from cows fed roasted soybeans had more long-chain fatty acids and fewer medium-chain fatty acids than milk from cows fed Ca-FA. Compared with milk from cows fed the CON diet, total milk fat contents of conjugated linoleic acid, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, cis-C18:2, cis-C18:3, and C22:0 were higher for cows fed the roasted soybean diets. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and total unsaturated fatty acids were greater in milk from cows fed roasted soybean diets than in milk from cows fed CON. Concentrations of C16:0 and saturated fatty acids in milk fat were greater for CON than for the roasted soybean diets. Cows fed roasted soybean diets had lower atherogenic and thrombogenic indices than cows fed CON. Milk fatty acid composition did not differ among different roasting temperatures. In

  7. Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2009-08-01

    Pretreatments with different chemicals at different concentrations to remove Ca compounds were studied to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales. During Ca removal with HCl, citric acid, and EDTA, all 3 chemicals were able to decalcify (>90%) scales; however, protein losses with EDTA were lower than with HCl and citric acid (P < 0.05), and protein losses with citric acid were lower than with HCl (P < 0.05). Ca removal with HCl yielded a solution where 4% to 5% of the protein was Hyp, with estimated gelatin losses from 0.9% to 2.5%. After 0.20 mol/L HCl was used for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was 15.4% of the initial scales weight and gave a gel strength of 128 g. After using 1.2 g/L citric acid for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was only 9% of the scales and the gel strength was 97 g. Using 0.20 mol/L EDTA for Ca removal gave a yield of 22% and a gel strength of 152 g. These data suggest that EDTA at 0.20 mol/L provides the best Ca removal with minimal collagen/gelatin removal (estimated gelatin loss was less than 0.013%) during the Ca removal step, and subsequently gave a high gelatin yield and gel strength. Fish gelatin has generally been extracted from fish skins and occasionally fish bones. This article focuses on removing the Ca compounds in fish scales and then producing fish gelatin with a good gel strength and yield. With further studies, this study may help the fish industry to have a new source of fish gelatin for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  8. Formation Mechanism of NF4(+) Salts and Extraordinary Enhancement of the Oxidizing Power of Fluorine by Strong Lewis Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Karl O; Haiges, Ralf; Vasiliu, Monica; Dixon, David A

    2017-06-26

    Although the existence of the NF4(+) cation has been known for 51 years, and its formation mechanism from NF3  , F2  , and a strong Lewis acid in the presence of an activation energy source had been studied extensively, the mechanism had not been established. Experimental evidence had shown that the first step involves the generation of F atoms from F2  , and also that the NF3(+) cation is a key intermediate. However, it was not possible to establish whether the second step involved the reaction of a F atom with either NF3 or the Lewis acid (LA). To distinguish between these two alternatives, a computational study of the NF4  , SbF6  , AsF6  , and BF4 radicals was carried out. Whereas the heats of reaction are small and similar for the NF4 and LAF radicals, at the reaction temperatures, only the LAF radicals possess sufficient thermal stability to be viable species. Most importantly, the ability of the LAF radicals to oxidize NF3 to NF3(+) demonstrates that they are extraordinary oxidizers. This extraordinary enhancement of the oxidizing power of fluorine with strong Lewis acids had previously not been fully recognized. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cs salt of tungstophosphoric acid-promoted zirconium titanium phosphate solid acid catalyst: An active catalyst for the synthesis of bisphenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niranjan Biswal; Dipti Prakasini Das; Kulamani Parida

    2014-03-01

    A series of novel CsTPA-ZTP ( = 30, 40, 50, 60 and 80 wt%) solid acid composite catalysts were synthesized by ion-exchange process using cesium nitrate, tungstophosphoric acid (TPA), zirconium titanium phosphate (ZTP) with varied surface areas, acidities and microstructures. Detailed characterizations of the composite catalysts were done by Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, N2 adsorption desorption, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD).We have studied the catalytic activities, kinetics and reusability of the catalysts. 60CsTPA-ZTP is found to be an effective and re-usable catalyst for the synthesis of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol F (BPF) using acetonitrile as solvent.

  10. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agro alimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genotypes, their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses especially salinity and drought has the most effect on medicinal plants. The genus Lavandula (lavender of Lamiaceae family consists of about 30 species, many of which are found in Mediterranean, Sahara-Arabian and Iran-Turanian regions. There are only two species of Lavandula growing naturally in Iran, L. stricta Del. and L. sublepidata Rech. K. These species are not mentioned as medicinal plants in references; however L. soechas L., L. vera DC., L. angustifolia Mill. and L. dantata L. occurs naturally in Iran. Lavandula stricta Del. is a native aromatic plant in Iran from Lamiaceae. In traditional medicine, it is used for treatment of rheumatic pain, stomach pain and cough. Germination is one of the critical stages in the cycle of plants growth due to its important role in determining the final density of plant. Under water stress and salinity conditions, plant germination and its final density is important. Salicylic acid (from Latin salix is a monohydroxybenzoic acid which is a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid with C7H6O3 chemical formula. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone which is derived from salicin metabolism. Salicylic acid (SA is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast

  11. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  12. Molecular distribution of gold(I) in human blood plasma after treatment with the antiarthritic disodium aurothiomalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M H; Grootveld, M; Sadler, P J

    1989-01-01

    On-line separation and detection of both high- and low-molecular-weight gold species in human blood plasma treated with disodium aurothiomalate were achieved by a technique incorporating a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 254 nm and eluant gold concentration by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fate of gold (40 microM disodium aurothiomalate) in human blood plasma was monitored over a period of 24 h. Results obtained indicated that more than 50% of the gold is associated with a peak identified as albumin after a 5 min incubation period at 37 degrees C, and by 30 min more than 90% is found to be associated with albumin. This novel analytical combination enables the rapid, selective and sensitive determination of gold(I) and its biotransformation products (both protein--and non-protein-bound) in biological fluids.

  13. Insights from the metagenome of an acid salt lake: the role of biology in an extreme depositional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Chevrette, Marc Gerard; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Benison, Kathleen Counter

    2015-01-01

    The extremely acidic brine lakes of the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia are home to some of the most biologically challenging waters on Earth. In this study, we employed metagenomic shotgun sequencing to generate a microbial profile of the depositional environment associated with the sulfur-rich sediments of one such lake. Of the 1.5 M high-quality reads generated, 0.25 M were mapped to protein features, which in turn provide new insights into the metabolic function of this community. In particular, 45 diverse genes associated with sulfur metabolism were identified, the majority of which were linked to either the conversion of sulfate to adenylylsulfate and the subsequent production of sulfide from sulfite or the oxidation of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate via the sulfur oxidation (Sox) system. This is the first metagenomic study of an acidic, hypersaline depositional environment, and we present evidence for a surprisingly high level of microbial diversity. Our findings also illuminate the possibility that we may be meaningfully underestimating the effects of biology on the chemistry of these sulfur-rich sediments, thereby influencing our understanding of past geobiological conditions that may have been present on Earth as well as early Mars.

  14. Thermolysis characteristics of salts of o-phthalic acid with the formation of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu metal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanova, L. I.; Logvinenko, V. A.; Yudanov, N. F.; Rudina, N. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Korol'kov, I. V.; Semyannikov, P. P.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Alferova, N. I.

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the thermolysis of ortho-[Ni(H2O)2(C8H4O4)](H2O)2, [Cu(H2O)(C8H4O4)], and acid [M(H2O)6](C8H5O4)2 (M(II) = Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II)), [Cu(H2O)2(C8H5O4)2] phthalates reveal that the solid products of their decomposition are composites with nanoparticles embedded in carbon-polymer matrices. Metallic nanoparticles with oxide nanoparticle impurities are detected in iron/cobalt polymer composites, while nickel/copper composites are composed of only metallic particles. It is found that nickel nanoparticles with the diameters of 6-8 nm are covered with disordered graphene layers, while the copperbased composite matrix contains spherical conglomerates (50-200 nm) with numerous spherical Cu particles (5-10 nm).

  15. Nanostructured Fe(III) catalysts for water oxidation assembled with the aid of organic acid salt electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Guofeng; Yuan, Wen; Hao, Genyan; Li, Jinping

    2016-11-01

    We describe the preparation of three partially ordered iron-based catalyst films (Fe-OAc, Fe-Pro, Fe-But) with nanoporous structure by electrodeposition from organate electrolytes containing Fe2+. The anions of the organic acids assisted the partial ordering of the nanostructured Fe(III) catalysts for water oxidation. A model involving an electrical double layer is invoked to explain the role of the organate electrolyte system in their formation. Analytical results have revealed the main component of the iron-based films to be a β-FeOOH structure. The Fe-But catalyst catalyzed water oxidation in 0.1 m potassium carbonate solution with an average activity of 1.48 mA cm-2 and an overpotential of 433 mV.

  16. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Pamidronate Disodium in Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun Di; Jun Ren; Ying Yan; Feng-ling Wan; Guo-gong Song; Jing Yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of pamidronate disodium in patients with bone lesions secondary to advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 62 patients receiving intravenous pamidronate disodium for metastatic breast cancer. The proportion of patients experiencing at least one skeletal related event (SRE) after 12 months of therapy was determined.Results: The proportion of patients who had an SRE was 29.00% (18 individuals) and the median time to first event was greater than 350 days. Radiotherapy(11 individuals)and pathologic fracture(6 individuals)were the most frequent type of SRE, while cord compression(1 individuals) and hypercalcaemia(0 individuals) were rare. A total of 37 individuals had transient hypocalcaemia without any clinical symptom. No significant creatinine abnormalities were encountered. There were no clinically relevant changes of calcium ,phosphate and creatinine before and after therapy.Conclusion: Long-term treatment with pamidronate disodium significantly reduces and delays skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases . Prolonged therapy was well tolerated. This study suggests that the rate of clinically relevant SREs is substantially lower than the event rate observed in phase III clinical trials.

  17. 基于不同方法测定土壤酸性磷酸酶活性的比较%Comparison of soil acid phosphatase activity determined by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莹飞; 耿玉清; 周红娟; 杨英

    2016-01-01

    Method, edited by Songyin Guan, for measurement method of soil acid phosphatase activity based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate. In contrast, researchers outside China mainly cite the book entitled Methods of Soil Enzymology, edited by Dick, that was based on disodium p-Nitrophenyl phosphate tetrahydrate (PNPP) substrate. However, non-conspicuous coloration has existed for the measurement of products based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate. Furthermore, it has been difficult for researchers to select an optimal method for determining acid phosphatase activity since these methods use different substrates. To determine the optimal method for measuring soil acid phosphatase activity, three different methods were used to measure the acid phosphatase activity of 10 soil samples of acid, neutral and alkaline soils, respectively. The three selected methods were 1) based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate and colored using pH 5.0 acetate buffer (DPP 1);2) based on phenyl phosphate disodium salt substrate and colored using pH 9.4 borate buffer (DPP 2) during chromogenic process;or 3) the PNPP method. Furthermore, the study analyzed the effects of different pH buffers and phenol concentrations on product absorbance. The results showed that chromogenic reaction of phenol with 2,6-dibromchinone-chlorimide was colorless within pH≤6 buffer solution with phenyl phosphate disodium salt as the substrate. In contrast, the above chromogenic reaction was observed under alkaline buffer (pH≥ 8) in all the samples. And there were significant differences in the Pearson correlation coefficient (R2) between phenol concentration and product absorbance at 0.01 level. Therefore, pH was a significant factor in determining the coloration between phenol and 2,6-dibromchinone-chlorimide. Furthermore, when acid phosphatase activity was determined using the PNPP method, the coefficient of variation of acid phosphatase activities in the 10 soil samples increased by 70

  18. EVALUASI IN VITRO TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN ISOLAT BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT ASAL AIR SUSU IBU UNTUK MENGASIMILASI KOLESTEROL DAN MENDEKONJUGASI GARAM EMPEDU [In Vitro Evaluation of Cholesterol Assimilation and Bile Salt Deconjugation by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in many countries. Several studies have shown that reduction of excessive levels of cholesterol in the blood decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop ways of reducing serum cholesterol. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, some of lactic acid bacteria (LAB having potential probiotic properties can reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of LAB isolated from breast milk in reducing cholesterol by assimilation and by bile salt deconjugation activity in vitro.Thirteen strains of LABs were evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance and selected to test their ability to assimilate cholesterol and to deconjugate bile salt (natrium taurocholate in vitro. Cholesterol assimilation activity was determined by measuring the difference between the remaining cholesterol in broth medium inoculated with LAB with cholesterol in control after incubation. Bile salt deconjugation activity was determined by measuring free cholic acid released in broth medium after incubation with LAB. The results shows that most of the isolates was susceptible to low pH and all isolates used were able to survive in the presence of 0.5% bile salt. The LAB were also able to assimilate cholesterol at varying levels ranging from 0.86-14.97 µg/ml, with the highest activity showed by Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38, Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-B2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-A16. Taurocholate deconjugation assay showed that the isolates have weak bile salts deconjugation activity as indicated by free cholic acid released ranging from 0.06-0.25 µmol/ml, with the highest release in Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A22. The present study suggest that Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 was potential for the development of probiotic products with

  19. Hydroxyethyl cellulose doped with copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt as an effective dual functional hole-blocking layer for polymer light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Liang; Chen, Yun

    2017-07-01

    We report a doping method to improve the performance of solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). Doping 12 wt% copper(II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonated acid tetrasodium salt (TS-CuPc) into hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a dual functional hole-blocking layer (df-HBL) of multilayer PLED (glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/HY-PPV/TS-CuPc-doped HEC/LiF/Al) significantly enhanced maximum luminance, maximum current and power efficiency over that without the df-HBL (10,319 cd/m2, 2.98 cd/A and 1.24 lm/W) to (29,205 cd/m2, 13.27 cd/A and 9.56 lm/W). CV measurements reveal that HEC possesses a powerful hole-blocking capability. Topography and conductivity AFM images show that doping TS-CuPc increases the interfacial contact area and interfacial conductivity, which can overcome the insulating nature of HEC and thus further facilitate electron injection. Enhancements in device performance are attributed to the improved carrier balance and recombination in the presence of df-HBL, confirmed in electron-only and hole-only devices. Moreover, apparently raised open-circuit voltages provide further evidence that enhanced electron injection is indeed realized by the df-HBL. This study demonstrates an effective approach to develop highly efficient PLEDs.

  20. Abuse of guaifenesin-containing medications generates an excess of a carboxylate salt of beta-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-lactic acid, a guaifenesin metabolite, and results in urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, C L; Milliron, A R; Fussner, A L; Dversdall, B C; Langenstroer, P; Ferguson, S; Fu, X; Schmitz, F J; Poole, E C

    1999-07-01

    Several urinary calculi were submitted to our institution for compositional analysis. The typical techniques of analysis, polarized light microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and infrared spectroscopy proved inadequate for a definitive identification. As a result, a more detailed organic analysis was conducted to determine the exact chemical structure of the material. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis were carried out on the solid material, providing information concerning the functional groups and the molecular mass of the organic constituent and its components. The stone was solubilized in deuterated solvents and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which resulted in a definitive chemical structure. The spectroscopic analysis indicated that the stones were composed of a calcium salt of beta-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-lactic acid, a metabolite of the pharmaceutical guaifenesin, which is used as an expectorant. Guaifenesin, an expectorant common in over-the-counter cold and allergy remedies, can cause urolithiasis if taken in excess. Discussions with physicians and their patients confirmed that most patients admitted to taking large doses of guaifenesin-containing medications.