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Sample records for acid disodium salt

  1. 40 CFR 180.1121 - Boric acid and its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid and its salts, borax... salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric anhydride... its salts, borax (sodium borate decahydrate), disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, boric oxide (boric...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3820 - L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3820 L-Glutamic acid, N-(1-oxododecyl)-, disodium salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as L-Glutamic...

  3. Quenching characteristics of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt in aqueous solution and copper sulfate plating solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Toshiaki; Hirakawa, Chieko; Takeshita, Michinori; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    Bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt (BCS) is generally used to detect Cu(I) through a color reaction. We newly found BCS fluorescence in the visible blue region in an aqueous solution. However, the fluorescence mechanism of BCS is not well known, so we should investigate its fundamental information. We confirmed that the characteristics of fluorescence are highly dependent on the molecular concentration and solvent properties. In particular, owing to the presence of the copper compound, the fluorescence intensity extremely decreases. By fluorescence quenching, we observed that a copper compound concentration of 10-6 mol/L or less could easily be measured in an aqueous solution. We also observed BCS fluorescence in copper sulfate plating solution and the possibility of detecting monovalent copper by fluorescence reabsorption.

  4. Antimicrobial activity optimization of nisin, ascorbic acid and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA against Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076 using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongpanga Sangcharoen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a commercial bacteriocin produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and widely used as a natural preservative in the food industry. However, while nisin alone cannot inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, it can in combination with a chelating agent or organic acid. This study combined nisin with some chelating agents, weak organic acids and their salts to inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076. The combinations of nisin (2000 parts per million; ppm and ascorbic acid (2000 ppm or ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA; 7400 ppm showed significant inhibitory effects on the target strain. Due to regulatory limits, the second part of the study reduced the concentrations of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA to 500 ppm, 2000 ppm and 250 ppm, respectively. The mixture of nisin, ascorbic acid and EDTA showed the highest inhibitory effect with a reduction number of 3.41 log colony forming units (p < 0.05. To minimize the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076, central composite design and response surface methodology were applied to investigate the combined effect of nisin (0–500 ppm, ascorbic acid (0–2000 ppm, and EDTA (0–250 ppm on the target strain growth. Among the three factors, nisin had a higher antimicrobial effect than ascorbic acid or EDTA, while an increase in nisin resulted in a decrease in S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 growth. The optimum concentration was 500 ppm nisin with 1515 ppm ascorbic acid and 250 ppm EDTA. Under these conditions, the growth of S. Enteritidis ATCC 13076 predicted by the model was 24.99%. Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Ascorbic acid, Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA, Nisin, Salmonella enteritidis

  5. Creatine phosphate disodium salt protects against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity by increasing calumenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Ying; Guo, Xin; Fu, Yao; Long, Jie; Wei, Cheng-Xi; Zhao, Ming

    2018-06-01

    Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-induced apoptosis may be a new therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. Creatine phosphate disodium salt (CP) has been reported to have cardiovascular protective effect, but its effects on ERS are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism by which CP exerts its cardioprotection in doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiomyocytes injury. In our study, neonatal rats cardiomyocytes (NRC) was randomly divided into control group, model group, and treatment group. The cell viability and apoptosis were detected. grp78, grp94, and calumenin of the each group were monitored. To investigate the role of calumenin, Dox-induced ERS was compared in control and down-regulated calumenin cardiomyocytes. Our results showed that CP decreased Dox-induced apoptosis and relieved ERS. We found calumenin increased in Dox-induced apoptosis with CP. ERS effector C/EBP homologous protein was down-regulated by CP and it was influenced by calumenin. CP could protect NRC by inhibiting ERS, this mechanisms may be associated with its increasing of calumenin.

  6. Evaluation of the chitosan/glycerol-β-phosphate disodium salt hydrogel application in peripheral nerve regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Lu; Zhang Xiufang; Gong Yandao; Ao Qiang; Han Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    Research efforts have been devoted to evaluating the application of the chitosan (CS)/glycerol-β-phosphate (GP) disodium salt hydrogel in peripheral nerve regeneration. The gelation time was determined to be 770 s using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A standard 10 mm long rat sciatic nerve defect model was employed, followed by bridging the proximal and distal stumps with chitosan conduits injected with the Schwann cell-containing hydrogel. Injections of the blank hydrogel, Schwann cell suspension and culture medium were used as controls. Two months later, electrophysiological assessment and fluorogold retrograde tracing showed that compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and fluorogold-labeled neurons were only detected in the Schwann cell suspension group and culture medium group. The rats were then killed, and implanted conduits were removed for examination. There were no regenerated nerves found in groups injected with the blank hydrogel or Schwann cell-containing hydrogel, while the other two groups clearly displayed regenerated nerves across the gaps. In the subsequent histological assessment, immunohistochemistry, toluidine blue staining and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate the regenerated nerves. The relative wet weight ratio, Masson trichrome staining and acetylcholinesterase staining were employed for the examination of gastrocnemius muscles in all four groups. The Schwann cell suspension group showed the best results for all these indexes; the culture medium group ranked second and the two hydrogel-injected groups showed the least optimal results. In conclusion, our data revealed that the implanted CS/GP hydrogel actually impeded nerve regeneration, which is inconsistent with former in vitro reports and general supposition. We believe that the application of the CS/GP hydrogel in nerve regeneration requires a further study before a satisfactory result is obtained. In addition, the present study also confirmed that Schwann

  7. Determination of pKa constants of hypericin in aqueous solution of the anti-allergic hydrotropic drug Cromolyn disodium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keša, Peter; Antalík, Marián

    2017-05-01

    In this work we established three from altogether six proton dissociation constants (pKa) of hydroxyl groups of hypericin in its monomeric form. The monomeric state of hypericin (5.0 × 10-6 mol·L-1) in aqueous solution was stabilised by the presence of hydrotropic drug Cromolyn disodium salt (6.0 × 10-2 mol·L-1). Data show that one acid-base transition occurs with the pKa of 7.8 and the other two are characterised by the apparent single pKa of 11.5. The spectral changes of hypericin above pH 13 indicate that the last two hydroxyls are deporotonized at this high pH values.

  8. Safety of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt (PQQ), trade name BioPQQTM, as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. PQQ is produced...... by fermentation using Hyphomicrobium denitrificans CK-275 and purification process. PQQ has a minimum purity of 99.0%. The information provided on the composition, specifications, batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of PQQ is sufficient and does not raise safety concerns. The applicant...... intends to market PQQ for use in food supplements for healthy adults, except pregnant and lactating women, at a maximum proposed level of consumption of 20 mg/day (corresponding to 0.29 mg/kg bw per day for a 70-kg person). The proposed level of consumption is at least 250 times higher than the estimated...

  9. Investigation on molecular interaction of amino acids in aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions with reference to volumetric and compressibility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harsh; Singla, Meenu; Jindal, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities and speeds of sound of amino acids in aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate. • Partial molar volumes and compressibility of transfer. • Positive values of transfer volume indicates interactions between ions of amino acids and TSC. • Ion–hydrophilic and hydrophilic–hydrophilic interactions are present. • Pair-wise interactions are dominant in the mixtures. -- Abstract: The interactions of amino acids glycine (Gly), L-alanine (Ala), and L-valine (Val) with disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) as a function of temperature have been investigated by combination of volumetric and acoustic measurements. Densities (ρ) and speeds of sound (u) of amino acids in aqueous solutions of disodium hydrogen phosphate have been measured at T = (288.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The apparent molar volume (V ϕ ), the partial molar volume (V ϕ 0 ) and standard partial molar volumes of transfer (ΔV ϕ 0 ) for amino acids from water to aqueous disodium hydrogen phosphate solutions have been calculated from density data. Partial molar adiabatic compressibility (κ ϕ,s ) and partial molar adiabatic compressibility of transfer (Δκ ϕ,S 0 ) have been calculated from speed of sound data. The pair (V AB , κ AB ) and triplet (V ABB , κ ABB ) interaction coefficient have been calculated from both the properties. The results have been explained based on competing patterns of interactions of co-solvents and the solute

  10. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L.

  11. Protective effect of ketotifen and disodium cromoglycate against bronchoconstriction induced by aspirin, benzoic acid or tartrazine in intolerant asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, B

    1979-01-01

    Oral challenge tests with acetylsalicylic acid, tartrazine or benzoic acid were performed in 7 intolerant asthmatic patients after a 3-day treatment with either orally taken ketotifen (1 mg twice daily) or inhaled disodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily) at random. Protection was noted with ketotifen in 5, with DSCG in 3 patients. On the evaluation of the mean percentage of the maximum decline in the forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) only ketotifen afforded significant protection statistically (p less than 0.05). All the intolerant asthmatics studies showed, as an immunological abnormity, a slight, but significant decrease of the C1-inhibitor levels. Moreover, in three out of these the alpha 1-antitrypsin serum values were under the lower normal range.

  12. O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxythiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane catalyzed by ionic type phase transfer catalyst and potassium iodide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Huasheng; Yin, Hengbo; Wang, Aili; Shen, Jun; Yan, Xiaobo; Liu, Yumin; Zhang, Changhua [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)

    2014-01-15

    Diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate was efficiently synthesized via the O-alkylation of disodium salt of diethyl 3,4-dihydroxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate with 1,2-dichloroethane over ionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride. The ionic type phase transfer catalysts showed higher catalytic activities than the nonionic type phase transfer catalysts, such as triethylamine, pyridine, 18-crown-6, and polyethylene glycol 400/600, in the O-alkylation reaction. The conversion of the disodium salt of more than 97% and the selectivity of diethyl 3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate of more than 98% were achieved when the O-alkylation reaction was synergistically catalyzed by tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and potassium iodide.

  13. Yolk-Shell Porous Microspheres of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Using Calcium L-Lactate and Adenosine 5'-Triphosphate Disodium Salt: Application in Protein/Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guan-Jun; Zhu, Ying-Jie; Qi, Chao; Sun, Tuan-Wei; Wu, Jin; Chen, Feng

    2015-06-26

    A facile and environmentally friendly approach has been developed to prepare yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate by using calcium L-lactate pentahydrate (CL) as the calcium source and adenosine 5'-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP) as the phosphate source through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the concentration of CL, the microwave hydrothermal temperature, and the time on the morphology and crystal phase of the product are investigated. The possible formation mechanism of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate is proposed. Hemoglobin from bovine red cells (Hb) and ibuprofen (IBU) are used to explore the application potential of yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate in protein/drug loading and delivery. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have relatively high protein/drug loading capacity, sustained protein/drug release, favorable pH-responsive release behavior, and a high biocompatibility in the cytotoxicity test. Therefore, the yolk-shell porous microspheres of calcium phosphate have promising applications in various biomedical fields such as protein/drug delivery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy)ethanediamine: synthesis, performance, and mechanism of action toward trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Ye, Maoyou; Yan, Pingfang; Qiu, Yiqin; Sun, Shuiyu; Ren, Jie; Dai, Yongkang; Han, Dajian

    2016-10-01

    A new effective multi-dithiocarbamate heavy metal precipitant, disodium N,N-bis-(dithiocarboxy) ethanediamine (BDE), was synthesized by mixing ethanediamine with carbon disulfide under alkaline conditions, and it was utilized for removing trace ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid copper (II) (EDTA-Cu) from wastewater. Its structure was confirmed by ultraviolet spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The removal performance of EDTA-Cu by BDE was evaluated according to BDE dosage, initial concentration, pH, and reaction time through single-factor experiments. With the optimized conditions of a pH range of 3-9, dosage ratio of BDE/Cu of 1:1, PAM dosage of 1 mg/L, and reaction time of 4 min, the removal efficiency of Cu(2+) was more than 98 % from simulated wastewater containing EDTA-Cu with initial concentrations of 5-100 mg/L. Treatment of actual EDTA-Cu wastewater showed that BDE performed superior effectiveness, and the average residential concentration of Cu(2+) was 0.115 mg/L. Besides, the stability of chelated precipitate and the reaction mechanism of BDE and EDTA-Cu were also introduced. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and semi-dynamic leaching test (SDLT) indicated that the chelated precipitate was non-hazardous and stable in weak acid and alkaline conditions. The BDE reacts with EDTA-Cu at a stoichiometric ratio, and the removal of Cu(2+) was predominantly achieved through the replacement reaction of BDE and EDTA-Cu.

  15. Gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced MR imaging of cholangiolocellular carcinoma of the liver. Imaging characteristics and histopathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haradome, Hiroki; Toda, Yusuke [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Unno, Toshiyuki [Showa General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koganei (Japan); Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Tomoaki [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Kwee, Thomas C. [UMC Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Kondo, Hiroshi [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Sano, Keiji [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Fukuo [Teikyo University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Sugitani, Masahiko [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Takayama, Tadatoshi [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Digestive Surgery, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    To review the gadoxetic acid disodium (EOB)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) of the liver and compare them with those of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). EOB-enhanced MR images of 19 patients with CoCC, 23 with ICC, and 51 with HCC were retrospectively evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the characteristic MR features of CoCC with histopathological-imaging correlation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that dot-/band-shaped internal enhancement during the arterial and portal phases (P < 0.001), and larger arterial ring enhancement ratio (CoCC, 0.13 ± 0.04; ICC, 0.074 ± 0.04; P = 0.013) were significantly independently associated with CoCC in contrast to ICC, whereas several MR features including progressive enhancement during the portal and late phases (P < 0.001), target appearance in the hepatocyte phase (P = 0.004), and vessel penetration (P = 0.013) were significantly more frequently associated with CoCC than HCC. The dot-/band-like internal enhancement (78.9% of CoCCs) histopathologically corresponded to the tumour cell nest with vascular proliferations and retained Glisson's sheath structure. EOB-enhanced MR features of CoCC largely differ from those of HCC but are similar to those of ICC. However, the finding of thicker arterial ring enhancement with dot-/band-like internal enhancement could help differentiate CoCC from ICC. (orig.)

  16. Comparative in vitro studies on disodium EDTA effect with and without Proteus mirabilis on the crystallization of carbonate apatite and struvite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Olszynski, Marcin; Torzewska, Agnieszka; Mielniczek-Brzóska, Ewa

    2014-06-01

    Effect of disodium EDTA (salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the crystallization of struvite and carbonate apatite was studied. To evaluate such an effect we performed an experiment of struvite and carbonate apatite growth from artificial urine. The crystallization process was induced by Proteus mirabilis to mimic the real urinary tract infection, which usually leads to urinary stone formation. The results demonstrate that disodium EDTA exhibits the effect against P. mirabilis retarding the activity of urease - an enzyme produced by these microorganisms. The spectrophotometric results demonstrate that, with and without P. mirabilis, the addition of disodium EDTA increases the induction time and decreases the growth efficiency compared to the baseline (without disodium EDTA). These results are discussed from the standpoint of speciation of complexes formed in the solution of artificial urine in the presence of disodium EDTA. The size of struvite crystals was found to decrease in the presence of disodium EDTA. However, struvite crystals are larger in the presence of bacteria while the crystal morphology and habit remain unchanged.

  17. The Ability of PAS, Acetylsalicylic Acid and Calcium Disodium EDTA to Protect Against the Toxic Effects of Manganese on Mitochondrial Respiration in Gill of Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sherine; Davis, Kiyya; Saddler, Claudette; Joseph, Jevaun; Catapane, Edward J; Carroll, Margaret A

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that at excessive levels in brain causes Manganism, a condition similar to Parkinson's disease. Previously we showed that Mn had a neurotoxic effect on the dopaminergic, but not serotonergic, innervation of the lateral ciliated cells in the gill of the Eastern Oyster, Crassostrea virginica. While the mechanism of action of Mn toxicity is not completely understood, studies suggest that Mn toxicity may involve mitochondrial damage and resulting neural dysfunction in the brain's dopaminergic system. In this study we utilized micro-batch chambers and oxygen probes to measure oyster gill mitochondrial respiration in the presence of Mn and potential Mn blockers. The addition of Mn to respiring mitochondria caused a dose dependent decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption. Pretreating mitochondria with calcium disodium EDTA (caEDTA), p aminosalicylic acid (PAS) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) before Mn additions, provided full protection against the toxic effects of Mn. While mitochondrial pretreatment with any of the 3 drugs effectively blocked Mn toxicity, none of the drugs tested was able to reverse the decrease in mitochondrial O(2) consumption seen in Mn treated mitochondria. The study found that high levels of Mn had a toxic effect on gill mitochondrial O(2) consumption and that this effect could be blocked by the drugs caEDTA, PAS and ASA. C. virginica continues to be a good model with which to investigate the mechanism that underlies manganese neurotoxcity and in the pharmacological study of drugs to treat or prevent Manganism.

  18. In vivo percutaneous absorption of boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in humans compared to in vitro absorption in human skin from infinite and finite doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, R C; Hui, X; Hartway, T; Maibach, H I; Bell, K; Schell, M J; Northington, D J; Strong, P; Culver, B D

    1998-09-01

    Literature from the first half of this century report concern for toxicity from topical use of boric acid, but assessment of percutaneous absorption has been impaired by lack of analytical sensitivity. Analytical methods in this study included inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry which now allows quantitation of percutaneous absorption of 10B in 10B-enriched boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) in biological matrices. This made it possible, in the presence of comparatively large natural dietary boron intakes for the in vivo segment of this study, to quantify the boron passing through skin. Human volunteers were dosed with 10B-enriched boric acid, 5.0%, borax, 5.0%, or disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, 10%, in aqueous solutions. Urinalysis, for boron and changes in boron isotope ratios, was used to measure absorption. Boric acid in vivo percutaneous absorption was 0.226 (SD = 0.125) mean percentage dose, with flux and permeability constant (Kp) calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.9 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Borax absorption was 0.210 (SD = 0.194) mean percentage of dose, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.009 microgram/cm2/h and 1.8 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. DOT absorption was 0.122 (SD = 0.108) mean percentage, with flux and Kp calculated at 0.01 microgram/cm2/h and 1.0 x 10(-7) cm/h, respectively. Pretreatment with the potential skin irritant 2% sodium lauryl sulfate had no effect on boron skin absorption. In vitro human skin percentage of doses of boric acid absorbed were 1.2 for a 0.05% solution, 0.28 for a 0.5% solution, and 0.70 for a 5.0% solution. These absorption amounts translated into flux values of, respectively, 0.25, 0.58, and 14.58 micrograms/cm2/h and permeability constants (Kp) of 5.0 x 10(-4), 1.2 x 10(-4), and 2.9 x 10(-4) cm/h for the 0.05, 0.5, and 5.0% solutions. The above in vitro doses were at infinite, 1000 microliters/cm2 volume. At 2 microliters/cm2 (the in vivo dosing volume), flux decreased some

  19. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic acid...

  20. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the following...

  2. Production of carboxylic acid and salt co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchar, Robert J.; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2014-09-09

    This invention provide processes for producing carboxylic acid product, along with useful salts. The carboxylic acid product that is produced according to this invention is preferably a C.sub.2-C.sub.12 carboxylic acid. Among the salts produced in the process of the invention are ammonium salts.

  3. Triboelectrification of active pharmaceutical ingredients: week acids and their salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinuma, Kenta; Ishii, Yuji; Yashihashi, Yasuo; Yonemochi, Estuo; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Tarada, Katsuhide

    2015-09-30

    The effect of salt formulation on the electrostatic property of active pharmaceutical ingredients was investigated. The electrostatic property of weak acids (carboxylic acids and amide-enole type acid) and their sodium salts was evaluated by a suction-type Faraday cage meter. Free carboxylic acids showed negative chargeability, whereas their sodium salts showed more positive chargeability than the free acids. However, no such trend was observed for amide-enole type acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  5. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm

    2001-01-01

    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of fatty...

  7. Cesium Salts of Phosphotungstic Acid: Comparison of Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    acidity and lowest solubility in reaction media in comparison with the other cesium content salts. KEYWORDS. Polyoxometalates, cesium ... insoluble salt of HPA is cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid,. CsxH3-xPW12O40 (CsxPW), a ... of Cs2CO3, very fine particles (precipitates) were formed to make the solution milky.

  8. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Estimation of free acid content in lanthanide salt solution used for pH-potentiometric determination of their stability constants with organic ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltvaj, I.I.; Tishchenko, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    To improve the pH-potentiometric method for determining complex stability constants the possibility of alkalimetric titration of a free acid in the lanthanide perchlorate solution after binding metal ions by disodium salt of ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid is studied. The stability constants were determined from the difference between the total acid content after complexon addition and doubled metal cation content in the solution which has been preliminarily determined by the complexonometric method. It is shown that the alkaline (NaOH) equivalent quantities spent for free acid titration either in the absence or presence of the complexon is different. With increase of free acid content in the solution the difference in determinations with complexon and without it is somewhat reduced. Thus, the use of complexon contributes to a higher accuracy in determining the free acid, and in the first place in case of minor contents

  10. 21 CFR 172.350 - Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. 172.350... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.350 Fumaric acid and salts of fumaric acid. Fumaric acid and its calcium, ferrous, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts may be safely used...

  11. Salt and cocrystals of sildenafil with dicarboxylic acids: solubility and pharmacokinetic advantage of the glutarate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanphui, Palash; Tothadi, Srinu; Ganguly, Somnath; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2013-12-02

    Sildenafil is a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Because of poor aqueous solubility of the drug, the citrate salt, with improved solubility and pharmacokinetics, has been marketed. However, the citrate salt requires an hour to reach its peak plasma concentration. Thus, to improve solubility and bioavailability characteristics, cocrystals and salts of the drug have been prepared by treating aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with sildenafil; the N-methylated piperazine of the drug molecule interacts with the carboxyl group of the acid to form a heterosynthon. Salts are formed with oxalic and fumaric acid; salt monoanions are formed with succinic and glutaric acid. Sildenafil forms cocrystals with longer chain dicarboxylic acids such as adipic, pimelic, suberic, and sebacic acids. Auxiliary stabilization via C-H···O interactions is also present in these cocrystals and salts. Solubility experiments of sildenafil cocrystal/salts were carried out in 0.1N HCl aqueous medium and compared with the solubility of the citrate salt. The glutarate salt and pimelic acid cocrystal dissolve faster than the citrate salt in a two hour dissolution experiment. The glutarate salt exhibits improved solubility (3.2-fold) compared to the citrate salt in water. Solubilities of the binary salts follow an inverse correlation with their melting points, while the solubilities of the cocrystals follow solubilities of the coformer. Pharmacokinetic studies on rats showed that the glutarate salt exhibits doubled plasma AUC values in a single dose within an hour compared to the citrate salt. The high solubility of glutaric acid, in part originating from the strained conformation of the molecule and its high permeability, may be the reason for higher plasma levels of the drug.

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid amine condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3620 Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a... a fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject to reporting...

  13. Crystalline insoluble acid salts of tetravalent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, G.; Bernasconi, M.G.; Casciola, M.; Costantino, U.

    1980-01-01

    Several titration curves of crystalline acid salts of tetravalent metals show an evident decrease in the pH of the supernatant solution with an increasing addition of metal hydroxide. This phenomenon, very unusual for common organic ion-exchangers, seems to be quite general for inorganic ion-exchangers with layered structure of α-type. In order to throw light on this phenomenon, a detailed investigation was carried out on the titration curves of α-Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 .H 2 O with various metal hydroxides, particularly KOH. To obtain the presence of a distinct minimum in the titration curve, three conditions seem to be necessary: (1) high activation energy for H + /Msup(Z+) exchange (which, in turn, depends on the relative size of Msup(Z+) and size of the windows connecting the cavities), (2) formation of solid solution having high M-content and (3) formation of a phase, with a large inter-layer distance, in the external parts of the crystals. This last point is particularly important since the enlargement of the external part of the crystals lowers the activation energy for the exchange of large cations. Thus, once started, the exchange can take place at lower pH' values. (author)

  14. Exogenous ascorbic acid increases resistance to salt of Silybum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, irrigation with salt water enhanced carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities. The detrimental effects of salt water were ameliorated by application of 100 ppm ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The inductive role of vitamin was associated with the improvement of seed germination, growth, plant water status, ...

  15. On the Existence of Hydrogen Salts of Monoprotic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovska, Marina I.; Petrusevski, Vladimir M.; Soptrajanov, Bojan T.

    2012-01-01

    The notion that acid salts exist only for diprotic and polyprotic acids is found in many high school and university textbooks, although the "only" condition is not always stated explicitly. A fairly simple experiment shows that there is a pronounced exothermic effect when pure acetic acid is added to potassium acetate. Experiments with similar…

  16. Inert Reassessment Document for Gluconic Acid and Sodium Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluconic acid and D-gluconic acid are classified as List 3 inert ingredients, sodium gluconate is classified as a List 4B inert ingredient, and D-gluconic acid, sodium salt has not been categorized as to inert ingredient list classification status.

  17. Density, viscosity, and N2O solubility of aqueous amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronu, Ugochukwu E.; Hartono, Ardi; Svendsen, Hallvard F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Density of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Viscosity of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Henry’s law constant/N 2 O solubility of amino acid salt and amine amino acid salt. ► Schumpe model. Correlations for density, viscosity, and N 2 O solubility. - Abstract: Physicochemical properties of aqueous amino acid salt (AAS), potassium salt of sarcosine (KSAR) and aqueous amine amino acid salt (AAAS), 3-(methylamino)propylamine/sarcosine (SARMAPA) have been studied. Densities of KSAR were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.25 for temperature range 298.15 K to 353.15 K, the viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.10 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 363.15 K). Densities of SARMAPA were measured for sarcosine mole fraction 0.02 to 0.23 for temperature range (298.15 K to 353.15 K), viscosities were measured for 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine (293.15 K to 343.15 K) while the N 2 O solubilities were measured from 0.02 to 0.16 mole fraction sarcosine solutions (298.15 K to 343.15 K). Experimental results were correlated well with empirical correlations and N 2 O solubility results for KSAR were predicted adequately by a Schumpe model. The solubilities of N 2 O in AAS and AAAS are significantly lower than values for amines. The solubilities vary as: amine > AAAS > AAS.

  18. Sorption and pertechnetate by salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. Distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 ml/g were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts. A saturation capacity of proportional 0,19 mmol/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was found from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase is supposed. (orig.)

  19. 40 CFR 721.1930 - Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butanoic acid, antimony (3=) salt. 721.1930 Section 721.1930 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1930 Butanoic acid,...

  20. Imidazolinium and amidinium salts as Lewis acid organocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Sereda

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of imidazolinium and amidinium salts as soft Lewis acid organocatalysts is described. These salts were suitable catalysts for the activation of unsaturated thioesters in a Diels–Alder reaction and in the ring opening of thiiranes and epoxides. The products were isolated in good yields. The mild catalysts did not cause desulfurization of the products containing a thiol or thiocarbonyl group.

  1. Pemetrexed disodium (Eli Lilly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, P

    2001-11-01

    Pemetrexed, a thymidylate synthase (TS) and transferase inhibitor, is in phase III trials with Eli Lilly as a potential treatment for several common solid tumors, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mesothelioma [321789], [410731]. Studies on pemetrexed have concluded that not only is the compound a TS inhibitor but also a potent inhibitor of human dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results suggest that pemetrexed acts upon multiple intracellular targets and that the antitumor effect may be derived from its simultaneous inhibition of multiple folate-requiring enzymes [203662]: this compound has been designated as a multitargeted antifolate (MTA) [386680]. The drug also causes concentration- and time-dependent apoptosis [284380]. Other studies in which the 4-oxo group of the pyrimidine ring portion of pemetrexed was replaced with a hydrogen atom, demonstrated that the resulting analogs were potent DHFR inhibitors with very little activity against the enzymes glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT) and TS [310674]. In phase II European studies in 64 patients with advanced breast cancer, encouraging responses were seen in anthracycline-failure (23%) and anthracycline-refractory (19%) patients. Responses were observed in 28% of patients who had been previously treated with a taxane [326097]. Data from a phase II trial of pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 once every 21 days as a 10 min i.v. infusion) as a salvage therapy in advanced breast cancer showed that supplementation of the treatment regime with folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 reduced its already manageable and tolerable toxicities [408821], [409650]. At doses of 500 mg/m2, the drug was also safely administered to 35 patients with impaired renal function [409953]. Phase I and II trials have shown that the main side effects include neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, nausea and vomiting [203666], [272241]. Princeton University holds the patent rights to this drug under EP-00432677. In June

  2. Ambazone-lipoic acid salt: Structural and thermal characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacso, Irina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Racz, Csaba-Pal; Santa, Szabolcs [Babes-Bolyai' University, Faculty of Chemistry, 11 Arany Janos street, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rus, Lucia [' Iuliu Hatieganu' University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, 6 Louis Pasteur street, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dadarlat, Dorin; Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bratu, Ioan, E-mail: ibratu@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath street, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2012-12-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt of Ambazone with lipoic acid obtained by solvent-drop grinding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ambazone lipoate salt crystallizes in monoclinic system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FTIR data suggest the deprotonation of the lipoic acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal behaviour different of ambazone salt as compared to the starting compounds. - Abstract: A suitable method for increasing the solubility, dissolution rate and consequently the bioavailability of poor soluble acidic or basic drugs is their salt formation. The aim of this study is to investigate the structural and thermal properties of the compound obtained by solvent drop grinding (SDG) method at room temperature, starting from the 1:1 molar ratios of ambazone (AMB) and {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA). The structural characterization was performed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The thermal behaviour of the obtained compound (AMB{center_dot}LA) was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photopyroelectric calorimetry, in front detection configuration (FPPE), was applied to measure and compare the room temperature values of one dynamic thermal parameter (thermal effusivity) for starting and resulting compounds. Both structural and supporting calorimetric techniques pointed out a salt structure for AMB{center_dot}LA compound as compared to those of the starting materials.

  3. 21 CFR 73.2120 - Disodium EDTA-copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium EDTA-copper. 73.2120 Section 73.2120 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2120 Disodium EDTA-copper. (a) Identity. The color additive disodium EDTA-copper is disodium [[N,N′- 1,2- ethanediylbis[N - (carboxymethyl) glycinato...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and P-90-1985...

  5. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  6. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  7. 76 FR 34044 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The... order on citric acid from Canada. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary...

  8. Microencapsulated acids associated with essential oils and acid salts for piglets in the nursery phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Callegari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of commercial blends of organic and inorganic acids combined with essential oils for piglets in the nursery phase. The formulations were administered as microcapsules or as acid salts. Ninety-six, Pen Ar Lan, barrow and female piglets, weaned at a body weight of 600 kg ± 12 kg and age of 23 days were subjected to four treatments. The animals were distributed in randomized blocks of three animals per pen and 8 replicates per treatment. The treatments consisted of four different diets: control (free of organic acids; acid and essential oil blends (fumaric acid 10,5%, malic acid 8.0%, essential oils; in microencapsulated form; microencapsulated acid blend (phosphoric acid 10%, citric acid 10%, malic acid 10%, fumaric acid 20%; in microencapsulated form; and acid salt blend (formic acid 40.5%, phosphoric acid 13.6%, propionic acid 4.9% and salts (23.2% calcium and 4.4% phosphorus available. The performance parameters, digestive transit time, weights of organs of the digestive tract, bacterial count of feces (Lactobacillus, E coli and Salmonella ssp and Clostridium, pH of the stomach and duodenal content did not differ between treatment groups (P > 005. All treatments containing organic acids exhibited positive effects on diarrhea control (P < 005. The cecal contents of volatile fatty acids (VFA were higher in piglets fed diets containing acids than in animals that received the control diet (P < 005, and blends containing essential oils improved the jejunum villus height compared with the control group. The use of diets containing acids improved diarrhea control and VFA production in the cecum, and specifically the diets containing microencapsulated acid blends required the lowest doses to be effective.

  9. Effects of Spray Drying on Physicochemical Properties of Chitosan Acid Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Cervera, Mirna Fernández; Heinämäki, Jyrki; de la Paz, Nilia; López, Orestes; Maunu, Sirkka Liisa; Virtanen, Tommi; Hatanpää, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Nogueira, Antonio; Fundora, Jorge; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2011-01-01

    The effects of spray-drying process and acidic solvent system on physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated. Chitosan used in spray dryings was obtained by deacetylation of chitin from lobster (Panulirus argus) origin. The chitosan acid salts were prepared in a laboratory-scale spray drier, and organic acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid were used as solvents in the process. The physicochemical properties of chitosan salts were investigated by means of solid-state CP...

  10. The use of approximation formulae in calculations of acid-base equilibria-II: salts of mono- and diprotic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasaki, H

    1980-02-01

    The pH of solutions of salts of mono- and diprotic acids is calculated by use of approximation formulae and the theoretically exact equations. The regions for useful application of the approximation formulae (error monoprotic acids, areas are symmetrically equal to those of the acids. For salts of diprotic acids the ranges generally depend on K(2)/K(1).

  11. Conductometric investigation of salt-free solutions of polyriboguanylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.G.; Davydova, O.V.; Kargov, S.I.

    1993-01-01

    Salt-free solutions of various ionic forms of polyriboguanylic acid (poly(G)) were studied by the methods of conductometry and spectroscopy of annular dichroism. The Manning approach was employed to calculate transport characteristics and structural parameters of poly(G) on the basis of spectra permit putting poly(G) salts in two groups: the first one comprising NH 4 + -, Rb + -, K + -, Na + -, the second one - Cs + -, and Li + -poly(G). The assumption is made that Li + and Cs + ions, bound with concrete groups of polyanion in a specific way, can promote formation of a stable structure different from the one observed in the presence of the first group counterions. 25 refs., 3 figs

  12. 78 FR 34338 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-122-853] Citric Acid and Certain... on citric acid and certain citrate salts (citric acid) from Canada. The period of review (POR) is May... INFORMATION: Scope of the Order The merchandise covered by this order is citric acid and certain citrate salts...

  13. Effect of inorganic salts on the volatility of organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Silja A K; McNeill, V Faye; Riipinen, Ilona

    2014-12-02

    Particulate phase reactions between organic and inorganic compounds may significantly alter aerosol chemical properties, for example, by suppressing particle volatility. Here, chemical processing upon drying of aerosols comprised of organic (acetic, oxalic, succinic, or citric) acid/monovalent inorganic salt mixtures was assessed by measuring the evaporation of the organic acid molecules from the mixture using a novel approach combining a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled with a heated flow tube inlet (TPD-CIMS) with kinetic model calculations. For reference, the volatility, i.e. saturation vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy, of the pure succinic and oxalic acids was also determined and found to be in agreement with previous literature. Comparison between the kinetic model and experimental data suggests significant particle phase processing forming low-volatility material such as organic salts. The results were similar for both ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride mixtures, and relatively more processing was observed with low initial aerosol organic molar fractions. The magnitude of low-volatility organic material formation at an atmospherically relevant pH range indicates that the observed phenomenon is not only significant in laboratory conditions but is also of direct atmospheric relevance.

  14. 21 CFR 172.135 - Disodium EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., other than black-eyed peas) 165 Promote color retention. Mayonnaise 75 Preservative. Ready-to-eat cereal... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium EDTA. 172.135 Section 172.135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  15. Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

    2012-07-01

    Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions.

  16. 40 CFR 721.2098 - Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2098 Aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (generic). (a) Chemical... as an aliphatic polycarboxylic acid metal salt (PMN P-01-7) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4663 - Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4663 Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts. (a) Chemical... fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali metal salts (PMNs P-95-979/980/981) are subject to reporting under this... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fluorinated carboxylic acid alkali...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10098 - Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10098 Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt... identified generically as disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P-03-643) is subject to... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzoic acid, alkali...

  19. 40 CFR 721.720 - Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkoxylated fatty acid amide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.720 Alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt. (a) Chemical... as an alkoxylated fatty acid amide, alkylsulfate salt (PMN P-97-136) is subject to reporting under...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3032 - Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. 721... Substances § 721.3032 Boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO2), zinc salt (PMN P-97-553...

  1. Preparation of High-purity Indium Oxalate Salt from Indium Scrap by Organic Acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Su-Jin; Ju, Chang-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Effect of organic acid on the preparation of indium-oxalate salt from indium scraps generated from ITO glass manufacturing process was studied. Effects of parameters, such as type and concentration of organic acids, pH of reactant, temperature, reaction time on indium-oxalate salt preparation were examined. The impurity removal efficiency was similar for both oxalic acid and citric acid, but citric acid did not make organic acid salt with indium. The optimum conditions were 1.5 M oxalic acid, pH 7, 80 .deg. C, and 6 hours. On the other hand, the recoveries increased with pH, but the purity decreased. The indium-oxalate salt purity prepared by two cycles was 99.995% (4N5). The indium-oxalate salt could be converted to indium oxide and indium metal by substitution reaction and calcination

  2. Iron intake by rats using peroral administration of /sup 55/Fe-salts of phosphatidic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Kas, J. (Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Tykva, R. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Organicke Chemie a Biochemie)

    1984-03-15

    The utilization of /sup 55/Fe and its incorporation into rat organs was investigated after peroral administration of various salts of phosphatidic acids (PA). Iron of PA salts is utilized up to 58-94% comparing to /sup 55/Fe/sup 2 +/. The degree of iron utilization depends on the type of PA salts administered. 16 refs.

  3. Catalytic Conversion of Dihydroxyacetone to Lactic Acid Using Metal Salts in Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Fachri, Boy A.; Makertihartha, I. Gusti B. N.; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified

  4. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases

    OpenAIRE

    PAWAR, Vijay; NAIK, Prashant; GIRIDHAR, Rajani; YADAV, Mange Ram

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanol-amine, and diethylamine) had lowered ...

  5. Emprego do sal di-sódico de edta como padrão no preparo de soluções Use of EDTA disodium salt as standard for preparation of solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Pereira da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrated sodium salt of EDTA, Na2H2Y·2H2O, cannot be used as a primary standard for titrations due to uncertainties in the water content. An alkalimetric titration of the homogenized solid in the presence of a small excess of BaCl2·2H2O allows one to titrate quantitatively the released two hydrogen cations with end-point indication by phenolphthalein or potentiometry. This leads one to calculate the average molar mass of the reagent and its water content, allowing to use it to prepare EDTA standard solutions. One titrated sample led to the formula Na2H2Y·1.876 H2O, and 370.01 g.mol-1 for the average molar mass.

  6. 75 FR 78243 - Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea Sulfate, Methidathion, and Methyl Parathion; Registration Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0650; FRL-8855-5] Propionic Acid and Salts, Urea.... 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion, case no. 0034, and methyl parathion, case no. 0153... pesticides in the table below--propionic acid and salts, case 4078, urea sulfate, case no. 7213, methidathion...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10097 - Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical substance identified generically as disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (PMN P... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzenesulfonic acid, alkali metal salt (generic). 721.10097 Section 721.10097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  8. CO2 Capture from Flue Gas using Amino Acid Salt Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    difficult. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions. A number of advantages make amino acid salt solutions attractive solvents for CO2 capture from flue gas. In the present study CO2 absorption in aqueous solutions of 0.5 M potassium glycinate and 0.5 M...

  9. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Viscosities; oxalic acid and its salts; water + THF mixtures; structure-breakers. 1. Introduction ... has found its application in the organic syntheses as manifested from ... water. In other words, these results indicate that oxalic acid and its salts mix ...

  10. Enhancing Skin Permeation of Biphenylacetic Acid (BPA) Using Salt Formation with Organic and Alkali Metal Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vijay; Naik, Prashant; Giridhar, Rajani; Yadav, Mange Ram

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a series of organic and alkali metal salts of biphenylacetic acid (BPA) have been prepared and evaluated in vitro for percutaneous drug delivery. The physicochemical properties of BPA salts were determined using solubility measurements, DSC, and IR. The DSC thermogram and FTIR spectra confirmed the salt formation with organic and alkali metal bases. Among the series, salts with organic amines (ethanolamine, diethanolamine, triethanolamine, and diethylamine) had lowered melting points while the alkali metal salt (sodium) had a higher melting point than BPA. The in vitro study showed that salt formation improves the physicochemical properties of BPA, leading to improved permeability through the skin. Amongst all the prepared salts, ethanolamine salt (1b) showed 7.2- and 5.4-fold higher skin permeation than the parent drug at pH 7.4 and 5.0, respectively, using rat skin.

  11. Impact of the counterion on the solubility and physicochemical properties of salts of carboxylic acid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S E; Timmins, P; Conway, B R

    2012-01-01

    Salt formation is a widely used approach to improve the physicochemical and solid state properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In order to better understand the relationships between the active drug, the selected counterion and the resultant salt form, crystalline salts were formed using four different carboxylic acid drugs and a closely related series of amine counterions. Thirty-six related crystalline salts were prepared, characterized and the relationship between solubility and dissolution behaviour and other properties of the salt and the counterion studied. Salts of four model acid drugs, gemfibrozil, flurbiprofen, ibuprofen and etodolac were prepared using the counterions butylamine, hexylamine, octylamine, benzylamine, cyclohexylamine, tert-butylamine, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1-ol, 2-amino-2-methylpropan-1,3-diol and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane. Salt formation was confirmed, the salts were characterized and their corresponding solubilities determined and rationalized with respect to the counterions' properties. The properties of the salt highly dependent on the nature of the counterion and, although there is considerable variation, some general conclusion can be drawn. For the alkyl amines series, increasing chain length leads to a reduction in solubility across all the acidic drugs studied and a reduction in melting point, thus contradicting simplistic relationships between solubility and melting point. Small, compact counterions consistently produce crystalline salts with high melting point accompanied with a modest improvement in solubility and the nature of hydrogen bonding between the ions has a major impact on the solubility.

  12. Deracemization of Axially Chiral Nicotinamides by Dynamic Salt Formation with Enantiopure Dibenzoyltartaric Acid (DBTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Yagishita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic atroposelective resolution of chiral salts derived from oily racemic nicotinamides and enantiopure dibenzoyltartaric acid (DBTA was achieved by crystallization. The absolute structures of the axial chiral nicotinamides were determined by X-ray structural analysis. The chirality could be controlled by the selection of enantiopure DBTA as a chiral auxiliary. The axial chirality generated by dynamic salt formation was retained for a long period after dissolving the chiral salt in solution even after removal of the chiral acid. The rate of racemization of nicotinamides could be controlled based on the temperature and solvent properties, and that of the salts was prolonged compared to free nicotinamides, as the molecular structure of the pyridinium ion in the salts was different from that of acid-free nicotinamides.

  13. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  14. Effects of salicylic acid on wheat salt sensitivity | Erdal | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, investigations on the effects of foliar-applied SA on salt sensitivity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and activities of antioxidant enzymes like peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) in plant tissues under salt stress was performed. SA treatment significantly increased the fresh and dry weights in both root ...

  15. 76 FR 47146 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... of citric acid from the PRC. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of...

  16. 78 FR 34648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... citric acid and citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2011, through... and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Countervailing Duty Order, 74... subsidy, i.e., a government-provided financial contribution that gives rise to a benefit to the recipient...

  17. The effects of ascorbic acid on salt induced alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. J. T. Ekanem

    contribute to the high electrical conductivity of salt-affected lands3. ... the cellular mechanisms of the stress and its application at the .... Fig 2: Effect of salt and ascorbic acid on a) stem length, b) root length, c) root number, d) dry weight of ...

  18. Bile Salt and Acid Tolerant of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Proventriculus of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to obtain the lactic acid bacteria (LAB as probiotic candidates which have resistance to bile salt and acid condition. LAB was obtained using isolation method from proventriculus of broiler chicken. Selective MRS media with 0.2% CaCO3 addition were used for LAB isolation using pour plate sampling method under anaerobic condition. The result showed that four selected isolates had morphological and biochemical characteristics as LAB. The selected LAB was characterized as follow: antibacterial activities, antibiotic sensitivity, resistance on bile salt, gastric juice and acid condition, and biochemical identification. Antibacterial activities assay of cell free supernatant was confirmed using disc paper diffusion method which was arranged on factorial design and each treatment consisted of three replications. The cell free supernatant of LAB isolates had antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, and Salmonella pullorum. Molecular identification procedure using 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that R01 and R02 as Pediococcus acidilactici. The viability of the two isolates were tested by acid pH (pH 1, 2, and 3, gastric juice pH 2, and bile salt condition for digestives tract simulation. The result showed that R01 and R02 had a high viability percentages at pH 1, 2, and 3 (95.45%, 99.49%, 104.01%, and 67.17%, 120.74%, 103.4%, respectively and at bile salt simulation for 1-2 hours (100.35%-102.71% and 100.02%-102.65%, respectively, but at gastric juice simulation for 1-2 hours, the P. acidilactici R01 had higher viability than P. acidilactici R02 (59.69%-76.53% versus 43.57%-40.69%, respectively. In the antibiotic sensitivity test for three antibiotics (i.e. erythromicin 15 µg, penicillin G 10 µg, and streptomycin 10 µg, the P. acidilactici R02 showed resistance to Streptomycin and Penicillin. It is concluded that P. acidilactici R01 and P. acidilactici R02 isolated from proventriculus

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Fatty Acid Salts Against Microbial in Koji-Muro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Aya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae are used as koji fungi in the spot of the brewing. Since koji-muro (room for making koji was a low level of airtightness, microbial contamination has long been a concern to the alcoholic beverage production. Therefore, we focused on the fatty acid salt which is the main component of soap. Fatty acid salts have been reported to show some antibacterial and antifungal activity. This study aimed to find the effectiveness of the fatty acid salt in koji-muro. Nine fatty acid salts were tested. The result, C12K was antibacterial effect against B. subtilis. C10K and C12K was antifungal effect against R. oryzae. These results suggest C12K has potential in the field of koji-muro.

  20. Transcriptomic and Physiological Evidence for the Relationship between Unsaturated Fatty Acid and Salt Stress in Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Na; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Fang; Wan, Shubo

    2018-01-01

    Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the five major oilseed crops cultivated worldwide. Salt stress is a common adverse condition for the growth of this crop in many countries and regions. In this study, physiological parameters and transcriptome profiles of peanut seedlings exposed to salt stress (250 mM NaCl for 4 days, S4) and recovery for 3 days (when transferred to standard conditions for 3 days, R3) were analyzed to detect genes associated with salt stress and recovery in peanut. We observed that the quantum yield of PSII electron transport (ΦPSII) and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII ( F v / F m ) decreased in S4 compared with the control, and increased in R3 compared with those in S4. Seedling fresh weight, dry weight and PSI oxidoreductive activity (Δ I / I o ) were inhibited in S4 and did not recover in R3. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities decreased in S4 and increased in R3, whereas superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) contents increased in S4 and decreased in R3. Transcriptome analysis revealed 1,742 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress and 390 DEGs under recovery. Among these DEGs, two DEGs encoding ω-3 fatty acid desaturase that synthesized linolenic acid (18:3) from linoleic acid (18:2) were down-regulated in S4 and up-regulated in R3. Furthermore, ω-3 fatty acid desaturase activity decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery. Consistent with this result, 18:3 content decreased under salt stress and increased under recovery compared with that under salt treatment. In conclusion, salt stress markedly changed the activity of ω-3 fatty acid desaturase and fatty acid composition. The findings provide novel insights for the improvement of salt tolerance in peanut.

  1. Structure of eight molecular salts assembled from noncovalent bonding between carboxylic acids, imidazole, and benzimidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Hui; Wen, Xianhong; Li, Minghui; Wang, Daqi

    2015-09-01

    Eight organic salts of imidazole/benzimidazole have been prepared with carboxylic acids as 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, isophthalic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. The eight crystalline forms reported are proton-transfer compounds of which the crystals and compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted hetero supramolecular synthons, with the most common R22(7) motif observed at salts 2, 3, 5, 6 and 8. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are extensive strong Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and imidazolyl components in all of the salts. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. This variety, coupled with the varying geometries and number of acidic groups of the acids utilized, has led to the creation of eight supramolecular arrays with 1D-3D structure. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is analyzed. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the Nsbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds between acids and imidazole/benzimidazole are sufficient to bring about the formation of organic salts.

  2. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  3. Pre-sowing application of ascorbic acid and salicylic acid to seed of pumpkin and seedling response to salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, N.; Raza, S.H.; Qasim, M.; Iqbal, N.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of seed soaking with salicylic acid or ascorbic acid on pumpkin seedlings growth under saline (10 dS m/sup -1/) conditions were investigated. Seedlings fresh weight, protein contents, protease and nitrate reductase activities were significantly affected by 15 and 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid and 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid priming treatments, under both normal and saline conditions. Priming reduced the severity of the salt stress, the amelioration was better due to 30 mg L/sup -1/ ascorbic acid or 30 mg L/sup -1/ salicylic acid treatments as these treatments showed best results on seedling growth, fresh and dry matter production under non-saline and saline environments. Application of seed priming with ascorbic acid and salicylic acid in pumpkin ameliorate the adverse effects of salt stress. (author)

  4. Dynamic flow method to study the CO2 loading capacity of amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Thomsen, Kaj

    Due to a number of advantages amino acid salt solutions have emerged as alternatives to the alkanolamine solvents for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. The use of amino acids in CO2 capture is a bio-mimetic process, as it is similar to CO2 binding by proteins in the blood......, such as hemoglobin. Amino acid salt solutions have the same amine functionality as alkanolamines, and are thus expected to behave similar towards CO2 in flue gas. Despite rising interest, few studies have been performed so far on amino acids as CO2 absorbents....

  5. Amino acid salt solutions as solvents in CO2 capture from flue gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    New solvents based on the salts of amino acids have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamine solutions, for the chemical absorption of CO2 from flue gas. But only few studies on amino acids as CO2 capturing agents have been performed so far. One of the interesting features of amino acid salt...... solutions is their ability to form solid precipitates upon the absorption of CO2. The occurrence of crystallization offers the possibility of increasing the CO2 loading capacity of the solvent. However, precipitation can also have negative effect on the CO2 capture process. The chemical nature of the solid...... of glycine, taurine, and lysine, while in the case of proline, and glutamic acid, the precipitate was found to be bicarbonate. These results give an important contribution to further understanding the potential of amino acid salt solutions in CO2 capture from flue gas....

  6. Synthesis, structural, solubility and anticancer activity studies of salts using nucleobases and sulfonic acids coformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Singh, Udai P.; Nikhil, Kumar; Roy, Partha; Singh, Hariji

    2017-10-01

    The reactions of natural and unnatural nucleobases (cytosine (Cyt), adenine (Ade), 5-aminouracil (AU) and caffeine (Caff)) with sulfonic acids coformer (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid, NDSA; 5-sulfosalicylic acid, SSA) resulted in the formation of salts viz. [NDSA.Cyt] (1), [NDSA.Ade] (2), [NDSA.AU] (3), [NDSA.Caff] (4), [SSA.Cyt] (5), [SSA.Ade] (6), [SSA.AU] (7), and [SSA.Caff] (8). The structural analysis revealed that salts 1, 4, 6 and 7 have intermolecular interactions between adjacent nucleobases which form two different homodimer shown in R22 (8) motif and assembled via complementary Nsbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯N interactions. However, in all other salts an intermediate supramolecular synthon pattern was observed between nucleobases and sulfonic acids. The lattice energy was also calculated by DFT to investigate whether salts were thermodynamically more stable than its coformer. The same was further confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry-thermogravimetric (DSC-TG) analysis. The anticancer activity study of individual nucleobases and their NDSA salts were also performed on human breast (MCF-7) and lung (A 549) cancer cell. The salts formation of nucleobases with sulfonic acids improved their solubility, thereby demonstrating up to 8-fold increase in solubility of nucleobases.

  7. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  8. Synthesis of a metabolically stable modified long-chain fatty acid salt and its photolabile derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, G.H.; Voges, R.; Gerok, W.; Kurz, G. (Institut fuer Organische Chemie and Biochemie, Universitaet Freiburg (Germany))

    1991-05-01

    An analogue of the long-chain fatty acid salt, sodium stearate, was synthesized in which the hydrogen atoms at carbons 2, 3, and 18 were replaced by fluorine. The key step in the synthesis was the addition of 3-iodo-2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanoic acid amide to 15,15,15-trifluoro-1-pentadecene. Radioactivity was introduced by catalytic reduction of 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid amide with carrier-free tritium gas yielding a product with the specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. The resulting 2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro-4-octadecenoic acid has a pKa of about 0.5 and is completely dissociated under normal physiological conditions. The fluorinated fatty acid salt analogue is readily taken up into hepatocytes and proved to be metabolically inert. In an approach to the identification of proteins involved in long-chain fatty acid salt transport across membranes and intracellular compartments, the photolabile derivative 11,11-azo-2,2,3,3,18,18,18-heptafluoro(G-3H)octadecanoic acid sodium salt was synthesized with a specific radioactivity of 2.63 TBq/mmol. Photolysis of the photolabile derivative, using a light source with a maximum emission at 350 nm, occurred with a half-life of 1.5 min. The generated carbene reacted with 14C-labeled methanol and acetonitrile with covalent bond formation of 6-13%. Its efficacy for photoaffinity labeling was demonstrated by incorporation into serum albumin, the extracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein, as well as into the intracellular fatty acid salt-binding protein (FABP) of rat liver with the molecular weight of 14,000.

  9. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... component of the mammalian diet and the body is able to metabolize these soap salts and use them as an energy source. Due to the self-limiting nature of these chemicals (e.g. unpleasant taste and odor... study showed no adverse effect of treatment on clinical signs, body weights, weight gain, or food/water...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1650 - Alkylbenzenesulfonic acid and sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information on methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90... salts. 721.1650 Section 721.1650 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... substance is any manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6140 - Dialkyldithiophosphoric acid, aliphatic amine salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... methods for protecting against such risk, into an MSDS as described in § 721.72(c) within 90 days from the..., aliphatic amine salt. 721.6140 Section 721.6140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... manner or method of manufacture, import, or processing associated with any use of this substance without...

  12. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  13. Investigations of the sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, M.; Pfrepper, G.

    1983-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the sorption of pertechnetate on neutral and acid salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Particular, distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K + , NH 4 + , Rb + and Cs + salts, by the addition of non-electrolytes the distribution coefficients decrease. A saturation capacity of about 0.19 mmol Tc/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was determined from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase can be supposed. (author)

  14. In vitro salt stress induced production of gymnemic acid in callus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is presented in this investigation. The highest efficiency of callus formation was observed in the medium containing different concentrations of 2,4-D. The gymnemic acid content increased with increasing concentration of 2,4-D along with NaCl. Key words: In vitro, Gymnema sylvestre, callus culture, gymnemic acid, salt ...

  15. Crystal structures of seven molecular salts derived from benzylamine and organic acidic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xianhong; Jin, Xiunan; Lv, Chengcai; Jin, Shouwen; Zheng, Xiuqing; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi; Guo, Ming; Xu, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, benzylamine, with a series of organic acids gave a total of seven molecular salts with the compositions: (benzylamine): (p-toluenesulfonic acid) (1) [(HL)+ · (tsa-)], (benzylamine): (o-nitrobenzoic acid) (2) [(HL+) · (onba)-], (benzylamine): (3,4-methylenedioxybenzoic acid) (3) [(HL+) · (mdba-)], (benzylamine): (mandelic acid) (4) [(HL+) · (mda-)], (benzylamine): (5-bromosalicylic acid)2(5) [(HL+) · (bsac-) · (Hbsac)], (benzylamine): (m-phthalic acid) (6) [(HL+) · (Hmpta-)], and (benzylamine)2: (trimesic acid) (7) [(HL+)2 · (Htma2-)]. The seven salts have been characterised by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the salts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. The result reveals that among the seven investigated crystals the NH2 groups in the benzylamine moieties are protonated when the organic acids are deprotonated, and the crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong charge-assisted Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond formation between the ammonium and the deprotonated acidic groups. Except the Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond, the Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) were also found at the salts 4-7. Further analysis of the crystal packing of the salts indicated that a different family of additional CHsbnd O/CH2sbnd O, CHsbnd π/CH2sbnd π, Osbnd O, and Osbnd Cπ associations contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) framework structures. For the coexistence of the various weak nonbonding interactions these structures adopted homo or hetero supramolecular synthons or both. Some classical supramolecular synthons, such as R42(8), R43(10) and R44(12), usually observed in organic solids of organic acids with amine, were again shown to be involved in constructing most of these hydrogen bonding networks.

  16. 77 FR 72323 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China for... results of this review.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of...

  17. 76 FR 82275 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain...) published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts... Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determinations: Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts, 74 FR 25705 (May 29...

  18. 77 FR 74171 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic..., regarding ``Second Antidumping Administrative Review of Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the...

  19. 77 FR 56188 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On [[Page...\\ See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent to Rescind...

  20. The effect of postirradiation application of aspartic acid salts on hemopoietic recovery in sublethally X-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Vasku, J.; Urbanek, E.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of aspartic acid salts, especially of K and Mg aspartates, on certain hematological changes in the peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs of sublethally X-irratiated male mice of the strain C57Bl/10 was investigated. Salts of aspartic acid were administered in tap water after irradiation. A favorable effect of aspartic acid salts on erythropoietic recovery and on regeneration of thymus weight was found during the first two weeks after irradiation. (orig.) [de

  1. Membrane fractionation of herring marinade for separation and recovery of fats, proteins, amino acids, salt, acetic acid and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Lizarazu, Juncal Martin; Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz

    2015-01-01

    In the production of marinated herring, nearly one ton of acidic saline marinade is produced per 1.5 tons herring fillet. This spent marinade contains highly valuable compounds such as proteins and amino acids. Membranes are suited to recover these substances. In this work, six membrane stages...... containing sugars, amino acids and smaller peptides and a NF permeate containing salt and acetic acid ready for reuse. 42% of the spent marinade is recovered to substitute fresh water and chemicals. The Waste water amount is reduced 62.5%. Proteins are concentrated 30 times, while amino acids and smaller...

  2. Bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis is enhanced by expression of bile salt hydrolase thereby producing less bile acid in the cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jie; Liu, Song; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-04-01

    Changes of bile salt tolerance, morphology and amount of bile acid within cells were studied to evaluate the exact effects of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) on bile salt tolerance of microorganism. The effect of BSHs on the bile salt tolerance of Lactococcus lactis was examined by expressing two BSHs (BSH1 and BSH2). Growth of L. lactis expressing BSH1 or BSH2 was better under bile salt stress compared to wild-type L. lactis. As indicated by transmission electron microscopy, bile acids released by the action of BSH induced the formation of micelles around the membrane surface of cells subject to conjugated bile salt stress. A similar micelle containing bile acid was observed in the cytoplasm by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. BSH1 produced fewer bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm and achieved better cell growth of L. lactis compared to BSH2. Expression of BSH improved bile salt tolerance of L. lactis but excessive production by BSH of bile acid micelles in the cytoplasm inhibited cell growth.

  3. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of salicylic acid as a spray to Na CI-treated corn (Zea mays L,) significantly increased the growth of shoots and roots as measured after seven days of treatment. Spraying of salicylic acid caused significant increases in the activity of both ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco) enzyme and photosynthetic pigments. Moreover, salicylic acid treatment induced high values of soluble carbohydrate fractions in salt stressed plants as compared with salicylic acid treated samples. These data suggest that salicylic acid might improve the growth pattern of NaCl-treated maize plants via increasing the rate of photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

  4. Physiological Mechanism of Salicylic Acid for Alleviation of Salt Stress in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems of crop production in estuarine and coastal zones. Improvement in salt tolerance of major food crops is an important way for the economic utilization of coastal zones. This study proved that the application of salicylic acid (SA improved the growth and yield under salt stress conditions and investigated its physiological mechanisms for salt tolerance. The investigation on the effect of SA for salt tolerance during germination showed that the decreased rates of germination and growth (in terms of shoot and root lengths by the salt stress were significantly increased by the SA application (SA + NaCl. The treatment of SA to the high and low saline soils enhanced the growth, yield and nutrient values of rice. The effects of SA on Na+, K+ and Cl– ionic accumulation were traced under salt stress condition by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. It was revealed that the increased accumulation of Na+ and Clˉ ions by the salt stress were reduced by SA application. An increased concentration of endogenous SA level was detected from the SA-treated rice varieties (ASD16 and BR26 by liquid chromatography electrospray Ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase were increased by salt stress whereas decreased by the SA application. The study proved that the application of SA could alleviate the adverse effects of salt stress by the regulation of physiological mechanism in rice plants. In spite of salt stress, it can be applied to the coastal and estuarine regions to increase the rice production.

  5. CO2 Capture from Flue gas using Amino acid salt solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    to storage. Typical solvents for the process are based on aqueous solutions of alkanolamines, such as mono-ethanolamine (MEA), but their use implies economic disadvantages and environmental complications. Amino acid salt solutions have emerged as an alternative to the alkanolamines, partlybecause...... for measuring of CO2 solubility based on the semi-flow method. A validation study of CO2 solubility in aqueous solutions of MEA is presented. Chapter 5 focuses on the determination of the chemical compositions of the precipitations, which arise in the five amino acid salt solutions upon CO2 absorption...

  6. Survival of Four Probiotic Strains in Acid, Bile Salt and After Spray Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Rawichar Chaipojjana; Suttipong Phosuksirikul; Arunsri Leejeerajumnean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to select the survival of probiotic strains when exposed to acidic and bile salts condition. Four probiotic strains Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus TISTR 047, Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500, Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1338 and Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 1465 were cultured in MRS broth and incubated at 35ºC for 15 hours before being inoculated into acidic condition 5 M HCl, pH 2 for 2 hours and bile salt 0.3%, pH 5.8 for 8 hour. ...

  7. Solubility of fumaric acid and its monosodium salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Horst, J.H. ter; Pieterse, M.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid applied in food industry and in some polymers. Currently, its fermentative production from renewable resources is receiving much attention, and crystallization is used to recover it. To determine the window of operation for crystallization from multicomponent

  8. Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous amino acid salt solution containing serine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Shanille S.; Leron, Rhoda B.; Soriano, Allan N.; Li, Meng-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions of serine were studied. • Density, viscosity, refractive index and electrolytic conductivity of the solution were measured. • The concentrations of amino acid salt ranges from x 1 = 0.009 to 0.07. • The temperature range studied was (298.15 to 343.15) K. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by using the applied correlations. - Abstract: Thermophysical property characterization of aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions containing serine was conducted in this study; specifically the system’s density, refractive index, electrical conductivity, and viscosity. Measurements were obtained over a temperature range of (298.15 to 343.15) K and at normal atmospheric pressure. Composition range from x 1 = 0.009 to 0.07 for aqueous potassium and sodium salt solutions containing serine was used. The sensitivity of the system’s thermophysical properties on temperature and composition variation were discussed and correlated based on the equations proposed for room temperature ionic liquids. The density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements of the aqueous systems were found to decrease as the temperature increases at fixed concentration and the values increase as the salt concentration increases (water composition decreases) at fixed temperature. Whereas, a different trend was observed for the electrical conductivity data; at fixed concentration, the conductivity values increase as the temperature increases and at fixed temperature, its value generally increases as the salt concentration increases but only to a certain level (specific concentration) wherein the conductivity of the solution starts to decrease when the concentration of the salt is further increased. Calculation results show that the applied models were satisfactory in representing the measured properties in the aqueous amino acid salt solution containing serine

  9. Molecular interactions between selected sodium salts of bile acids and morphine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poša, Mihalj; Csanádi, János; Kövér, Katalin E; Guzsvány, Valéria; Batta, Gyula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the prolonged analgesic action of morphine hydrochloride observed in the presence of sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate. Based on literature, this phenomenon may be due to the formation of aggregates in the cell between the molecules of bile acids and morphine. In addition to the sodium 12-oxochenodeoxycholanate, the present investigation also included salts of cholic and 7-oxodeoxycholic acids. Saturation transfer difference NMR experiments showed that morphine binds to the bile acid molecule close to the aromatic protons H1 and H2 provided that the concentration of the bile acid salt approaches the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The spin-lattice relaxation times (T(1)) of the affected protons decrease significantly in the presence of micellar solutions of the bile acid salts, and the most pronounced change in T(1) was observed for sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate. Diffusion-ordered NMR experiments suggested that morphine hydrochloride can interact only with sodium 7-oxochenodeoxycholate. It can be supposed that the molecular ratio of sodium 7-oxodeoxycholate and morphine hydrochloride in the mixed micelle is 2:1. The CMC values of mixed micelles do not differ from the CMC values of the micelle constituents, which suggests that the binding of morphine hydrochloride does not perturb the hydrophobic domain of the bile acid molecule. In the presence of bile acids, the transfer rate constant (k(12)) of morphine hydrochloride from the buffered aqueous solution to chloroform (model of the cell membrane) shows a decrease. A significant decrease of the k(12) was also observed in the presence of micellar solutions. Kinetic measurements indicated that, in addition to micellar interaction between morphine hydrochloride and sodium salts of bile acids, a complex may also be formed in chloroform via hydrogen bonds formed between the drug and bile acid molecules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalytic activity of supported silver and potassium salts of tungstophosphoric acid in dehydration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, J.; Matachowski, L.; Pamin, K.; Napruszewska, B.

    2002-01-01

    Potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid (HPW) have been supported on silica. Two series of potassium and silver salts of tungstophosphoric acid K x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 and Ag x H 3-x PW 12 O 40 where x = 1;2;3 supported on silica were prepared using incipient wetness method. In a typical synthesis, the heteropolyacid which after deposition on silica was washed with water to remove the part of heteropolyacid not bound to the support was reacted with silver or potassium salt. The vapor-phase dehydration of ethanol was employed as a test reaction. All the catalytic tests were carried out in a conventional flow type reactor, under atmospheric pressure, in the temperature range 125-500 o C. The results of these studies were used to explain the differences between the catalytic activities of heteropolysalts of potassium and silver supported on silica. (author)

  11. Investigation of cerium salt/sulfuric acid anodizing technology for 1420 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Li; Yue Peng Deng; Bao Lan Guo; Guo Qiang Li [Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (China). Dept. of Mater. Sci. and Eng.

    2000-07-01

    In this paper, the effect of cerium addition agent on the property of anodized coating of 1420 Al alloy has been studied by corrosion experiment (immersion test and neutral salt spray test), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and measurement of polarization curves. The result show that only pitting could be observed in all corrosion tests while intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion did not appear on 1420 Al-Li alloys. When organic carboxylic acid S or the cerium (IV) salt was added into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte separately, there was no significant improvement in corrosion resistance of anodized film. However, in the case of adding them into sulfuric acid anodizing electrolyte together, the corrosion resistance of anodized film increased greatly owing to synergistic effect. The synergistic effect may relate to the formation of cerium-organic carboxylic acid S complex compound and its effects on film growth and film structure. (orig.)

  12. 78 FR 54625 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of Countervailing Duty... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's...

  13. 76 FR 2648 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary Results of the... duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

  14. Synergy of boric acid and added salts in the catalytic dehydration of hexoses to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Riisager, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.......Boric acid and salts showed a synergistic effect on the dehydration of concentrated aqueous sugar solutions to yield 5-hydroxymethylfurfural....

  15. Influence of salicylic acid on in vitro propagation and salt tolerance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to improve in vitro regeneration as well as induce abiotic stress tolerance in plants. The effects of varying SA concentrations (0, 0.5, and 1 mM) on in vitro shoot apices of two Hibiscus species, Hibiscus moscheutos (cv 'Luna Red') and Hibiscus acetosella, grown under various salt ...

  16. New co-crystal and salt form of sulfathiazole with carboxylic acid and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    e-mail: cmallareddy@gmail.com. MS received 14 May 2014; revised 8 July 2014; accepted 8 July 2014. Abstract. One co-crystal and one salt of an antibacterial drug sulfathiazole with 4-aminobenzamide and 2,4- dinitrobenzoic acid have been synthesized. These new forms are characterized by single crystal X-ray diffrac-.

  17. 77 FR 24461 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From Canada: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... that satisfies the standards set forth in the United States Pharmacopeia and has been mixed with a... meaning of 19 CFR 351.106(c)(1), in which case the cash deposit rate will be zero; (2) for previously.... See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from Canada and the People's Republic of China: Antidumping...

  18. Disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin in the presence of acidic excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Peter Aae; Rantanen, Jukka; Cornett, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to combine vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for investigating excipient-induced disproportionation of the calcium salt of atorvastatin into the corresponding free acid form in environments relevant to manufacturing and storage of solid dosage formulations...

  19. Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of mixed volatile fatty acid sodium salt on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in plasma and rumen tissue, and rumen epithelium development in lambs.

  20. Use of triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid as risk mitigant for aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2017-08-08

    A process and a resulting product by process of an aluminum hydride which is modified with by physically combining in a ball milling process an aluminum hydride with a triammonium salt of aurin tricarboxylic acid. The resulting product is an aluminum hydride which is resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while maintaining useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  1. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). 721.3031 Section 721.3031 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  3. Salicylic acid promotes plant growth and salt-related gene expression in Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) grown under different salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Ma, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2018-03-01

    Salt stress is a critical factor that affects the growth and development of plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the negative effects of salt stress on plants. To elucidate salt tolerance in large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) and the regulatory mechanism of exogenous SA on D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to evaluate leaf biomass, leaf anatomy, soluble protein and sugar content, and the relative expression of salt-induced genes in D. superbus under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions with and without 0.5 mM SA. The result showed that exposure of D. superbus to salt stress lead to a decrease in leaf growth, soluble protein and sugar content, and mesophyll thickness, together with an increase in the expression of MYB and P5CS genes. Foliar application of SA effectively increased leaf biomass, soluble protein and sugar content, and upregulated the expression of MYB and P5CS in the D. superbus , which facilitated in the acclimation of D. superbus to moderate salt stress. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl), no significant difference in plant physiological responses and relevant gene expression between plants with and without SA was observed. The findings of this study suggest that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effects of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  4. Optimization of Fluorescent Silicon Nano material Production Using Peroxide/ Acid/ Salt Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuhassan, L.H.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon nano material was prepared using the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique in which an aqueous silicon-based salt solution was added to H 2 O 2 / HF etchants. In order to optimize the experimental conditions for silicon nano material production, the amount of nano material produced was studied as a function of the volume of the silicon salt solution used in the synthesis. A set of samples was prepared using: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml of an aqueous 1 mg/ L metasilicate solution. The area under the corresponding peaks in the infrared (ir) absorption spectra was used as a qualitative indicator to the amount of the nano material present. The results indicated that using 10 ml of the metasilicate solution produced the highest amount of nano material. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the peroxide/ acid/ salt technique results in the enhancement of the production yield of silicon nano material at a reduced power demand and with a higher material to void ratio. A model in which the silicon salt forms a secondary source of silicon nano material is proposed. The auxiliary nano material is deposited into the porous network causing an increase in the amount of nano material produced and a reduction in the voids present. Thus a reduction in the resistance of the porous layer, and consequently reduction in the power required, are expected. (author)

  5. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türk, Hülya, E-mail: hulyaa.turk@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); East Anatolian High Technology Research and Application Center, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Genişel, Mucip, E-mail: m.genisel@hotmail.com [Department of Crop and Animal Production, Vocational High School, Agri (Turkey); Erdal, Serkan, E-mail: serkanerdal25@hotmail.com [Biology Department, Science Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K{sup +}/Na{sup +} ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K{sup +}. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  6. Efficacious Intestinal Permeation Enhancement Induced by the Sodium Salt of 10-undecylenic Acid, A Medium Chain Fatty Acid Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Brayden, David J.; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to t...

  7. Length scale dependence of the dynamic properties of hyaluronic acid solutions in the presence of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc; Falus, Peter; Hecht, Anne-Marie; Geissler, Erik

    2010-12-02

    In solutions of the charged semirigid biopolymer hyaluronic acid in salt-free conditions, the diffusion coefficient D(NSE) measured at high transfer momentum q by neutron spin echo is more than an order of magnitude smaller than that determined by dynamic light scattering, D(DLS). This behavior contrasts with neutral polymer solutions. With increasing salt content, D(DLS) approaches D(NSE), which is independent of ionic strength. Contrary to theoretical expectation, the ion-polymer coupling, which dominates the low q dynamics of polyelectrolyte solutions, already breaks down at distance scales greater than the Debye-Hückel length.

  8. Chiral gels derived from secondary ammonium salts of (1R,3S-(+-camphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Kumar Adalder

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to have access to chiral gels, a series of salts derived from (1R,3S-(+-camphoric acid and various secondary amines were prepared based on supramolecular synthon rationale. Out of seven salts prepared, two showed moderate gelation abilities. The gels were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, table top rheology, scanning electron microscopy, single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction. Structure property correlation based on X-ray diffraction techniques remain inconclusive indicating that some of the integrated part associated with the gelation phenomena requires a better understanding.

  9. Mixed insoluble acidic salts of tetravalent metals Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakshooki, S.K.; Dehair, A.; Elmismary, Y.; Haraga, S.; Benfaid, N.; Benhamed, A.; Maiof, A.; Szirtes, L.

    1988-01-01

    Solid ZrOCl 2 x8H 2 O was added in a slow stream to a solution of phosphoric acid or to a solution of TiCl 4 in phosphoric acid to obtain granules of amorphous Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 xnH 2 O or Zr x Ti (1-x) (HPO 4 ) 2 xnH-2O (where x=0.95-0.80). It was found that the particle size of the resulting materials is very similar to that of ZrOCl 2 x8H 2 O, in such a way that it may be controlled indirectly. These materials are suitable for ion-exchange column operations. The relatively high gamma radiation doses of 60 Co source did not alter its exchange properties. pH-titrations were performed by an automatic titrimeter and the exchange capacities of alkali metal ions were determined by isotopic tracer technique. Other characterizations were made by usual chemical analysis and thermography. (author) 20 refs.; 4 figs

  10. 77 FR 1455 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... practicable to complete the preliminary results of the administrative review of citric acid from the PRC...

  11. 77 FR 22560 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the... Request for Revocation in Part, 76 FR 37781, 37785 (June 28, 2011). \\2\\ See Citric Acid and Certain...

  12. 76 FR 49735 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...., Ltd. (``Xinghua''), a producer and exporter of citric acid, timely requested that the Department...

  13. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  14. Microarray Analysis of Transcriptional Responses to Abscisic Acid and Salt Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucheng Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA plays a crucial role in plant responses to abiotic stress. To investigate differences in plant responses to salt and ABA stimulus, differences in gene expression in Arabidopsis in response to salt and ABA were compared using an Agilent oligo microarray. A total of 144 and 139 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under NaCl stress, while 406 and 381 genes were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, under ABA stress conditions. In addition, 31 genes were upregulated by both NaCl and ABA stresses, and 23 genes were downregulated by these stressors, suggesting that these genes may play similar roles in plant responses to salt and ABA stress. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed four subgroups of genes, including genes in the GO categories “Molecular transducer activity”, “Growth”, “Biological adhesion” and “Pigmentation”, which were expressed in response to ABA stress but not NaCl stress. In addition, genes that play specific roles during salt or ABA stress were identified. Our results may help elucidate differences in the response of plants to salt and ABA stress.

  15. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Bowu; Yang, Xuanxuan; Li, Linfan; Yu, Ming; Li, Jingye

    2011-02-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  16. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Bo [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19, Yuquan Road, Shijingshan Dist., 100049 Beijing (China); Li Linfan; Yu Ming [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China); Li Jingye, E-mail: jingyeli@sinap.ac.c [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2019, Jialuo Road, Jiading Dist., 201800 Shanghai (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  17. Graft polymerization of acrylic acid and methacrylic acid onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) powder in presence of metallic salt and sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Yu Yang; Zhang Bowu; Yang Xuanxuan; Li Linfan; Yu Ming; Li Jingye

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) powder was grafted with acrylic acid (AAc) or methacrylic acid (MAA) by the pre-irradiation induced graft polymerization technique. The presence of graft chains was proven by FT-IR spectroscopy. The degree of grafting (DG) was calculated by the acid-base back titration method. The synergistic effect of acid and Mohr's salt on the grafting kinetics was examined. The results indicated that adding sulfuric acid and Mohr's salt simultaneously in AAc or MAA solutions led to a strong enhancement in the degree of grafting. The grafted PVDF powder was cast into microfiltration (MF) membranes using the phase inversion method and some properties of the obtained MF membranes were characterized.

  18. Lecithin inhibits fatty acid and bile salt absorption from rat small intestine in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D R; Sillery, J

    1976-12-01

    During digestion of a fatty meal, long chain free fatty acids (FFA) and lecithin are among the lipids solubilized in intestinal contents as mixed micelles with bile salts. We hypothesized that if lecithin were not hydrolyzed, the mixed micelles would be abnormal, and absorption of FFA and bile salts would be depressed. To test this hypothesis, isolated segments of rat small intestine were infused in vivo with micellar solutions of 2 mMolar linoleic acid and 10 mMolar taurocholate to which was added 3 mMolar 1-palmitoyl, 2-oleoyl lecithin (a common lecithin in bile and food), or 1-palmitoyl lysolecithin (the hydrolytic product of lecithin). Absorption of FFA and bile salt was measured under steady state conditions using a single-pass technique. Lecithin depressed the rate of FFA absorption by 40% (p less than 0.025) in jejunal and ileal segments whereas lysolecithin was associated with normal rates of FFA absorption. Lecithin also reduced taurocholate absorption from the ileum by 30% (p less than 0.05). These data support the idea that lecithin may depress FFA and bile salt absorption from the small intestine in pancreatic insufficiency.

  19. Amplification of acid formation from diphenyliodonium salt in γ-irradiated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Iino, K.; Koizumi, H.; Ichikawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    The G values of acid formation from diphenyliodonium salt in γ-irradiated polymers have been measured for developing chemically amplified radiation resists that have abilities of not only amplifying chemical reactions of polymers by the acid as a catalyst but also amplifying the formation of acid itself by a radiation-induced radical chain reaction. Addition of secondary alcohols as amplifiers for acid formation, to poly(alkyl methacrylates) results in the increase of the G value, though the increase is not so significant as that expected from a liquid-phase amplification reaction. The diffusion of free radicals and added molecules is difficult in the polymers due to cage effects by polymer molecules, which causes increases of the radical combination reaction and therefore decrease of the turnover number of the chain reaction. The G values of acid formation for poly(vinyl acetals) are much higher than those for poly(alkyl methacrylates) even the amplifiers are not added in the former polymers. Poly(vinyl acetals) are synthesized by acetalyzation of poly(vinyl alcohol), a polymer composed of secondary alcohol monomer unit, so that the secondary alcohol remaining in the polymer skeleton acts as an efficient amplifier for acid formation. The secondary alcohol acts as stepping-stones for the diffusion of free radical, so that the free radical can encounter a new iodonium salt molecule to continue the radical chain reaction. (authors)

  20. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the

  1. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-01-01

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution...

  2. Non-gaseous radiolysis products of 6-aminopenicillanic acid and potassium salt of benzylepenicillin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziegielewski, J.; Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.; Siemion, I.Z.

    1974-01-01

    The radiolysis products of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and potassium salt of benzylpenicillin G, irradiated with γ-rays were separated by the extraction methods and chromatographically by the thin-layer method. On the basis of the IR and UV spectroscopic investigations as well as by the NMR and mass spectrometry methods of the radiolysis products, the paths of the radiation decomposition of 6-APA and of penicillin G were determined. (author)

  3. Detection of irradiation history for health foods. Calcium salt of organic acid and its basic ingredient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Seiko; Yunoki, Shunji; Ohyabu, Yoshimi

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbonate and calcium salt of organic acid are well-known food additives used for the improvement of the shelf life and eating quality of health food. Calcium carbonate is a precursor in the synthesis of calcium salts of organic acid. Certain calcium carbonates made of natural limestone mined from very old stratum have silicate minerals exposed to a low level of natural radiation over a long period of time and food additives derived from calcium carbonates contained of such silicate minerals are possible to classify as irradiated foods by PSL and TL analysis in spite of non-irradiation. The study of calcium carbonates and calcium salts of organic acid obtained from different producers were allow to provided appropriate decisions by using the information of both the TL response (Glow1 peak temperature and TL ratio) and PSL ratio. ESR measurements of radicals in such food additives caused by gamma- irradiation were effective tool for correctly determining for irradiation history of those because the measurements were not affected by silicate minerals contained in those. (author)

  4. Differential effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the neutral and acidic pathways of bile salt synthesis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Post, SM; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis, For this purpose, bile salt pool composition,

  5. 40 CFR 721.5252 - 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. 721.5252 Section 721.5252 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-Naphthalenecarboxylic acid, 4,4′-methylenebis [3-hydroxy-, zinc...

  6. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  7. Lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) during processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiuxing; Wu, Yanyan; Li, Laihao; Wang, Yueqi; Yang, Xianqing; Zhao, Yongqiang

    2017-10-01

    Lipid oxidation in salt-dried yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) was evaluated during processing with commonly used analytical indices, such as the peroxide value (POV), the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, and oxidative-relative lipoxygenase (LOX) activity. Additionally, fatty acids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both POV and TBARS increased significantly ( P acids were identified. Combined eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n3) content varied between (19.20 ± 0.37) mg g-1 and (23.45 ± 1.05) mg g-1. The polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SFA) ratio in yellow croaker was 0.73-1.10, and the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was approximately 0.13-0.20. The contents of most fatty acids varied significantly ( P acids are potential markers for evaluating lipid oxidation in fish muscle because there was a significant correlation between these markers and TBARS and LOX activity ( P 0.931.

  8. 76 FR 4288 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain...'') published the initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation of...

  9. 77 FR 9891 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... the final results of the first administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of...

  10. 76 FR 17835 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on citric acid and certain citrate salts (``citric acid'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Initiation of Antidumping and...

  11. 77 FR 47370 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts from the People's Republic of China: Intent To Rescind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... citric acid and certain citrate salts from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ On May 31, 2012, we... order includes all grades and granulation sizes of citric acid, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate in...

  12. Salicylic acid confers salt tolerance in potato plants by improving water relations, gaseous exchange, antioxidant activities and osmoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faried, Hafiz Nazar; Ayyub, Chaudhary Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rashid; Wattoo, Fahad Masoud; Butt, Madiha; Bashir, Mohsin; Shaheen, Muhammad Rashid; Waqas, Muhammad Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Potato is an important vegetable; however, salt stress drastically affects its growth and yield. A pot experiment was therefore conducted to assess salicylic acid efficacy in improving performance of potato cultivars, grown under salt stress (50 mmol L -1 ). Salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 was sprayed on to potato plants after 1 week of salinity application. Salt stress effects were ameliorated by salicylic acid effectively in both the studied cultivars. N-Y LARA proved more responsive to salicylic acid application than 720-110 NARC, which confirmed genetic variation between cultivars. Salicylic acid scavenged reactive oxygen species by improving antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidases) and regulating osmotic adjustment (proline, phenolic contents), which led to enhanced water relation and gaseous exchange attributes, and thereby increased potassium availability and reduced sodium content in potato leaves. Moreover, potato tuber yield showed a positive correlation with potassium content, photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. Salt tolerance efficacy of salicylic acid is authenticated in improving potato crop performance under salt stress. Salicylic acid effect was more pronounced in N-Y LARA, reflecting greater tolerance than 720-110 NARC, which was confirmed as a susceptible cultivar. Hence salicylic acid at 0.5 mmol L -1 and cultivation of N-Y LARA may be recommended in saline soil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Linoleic acid and its potassium and sodium salts: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocen, Tuğba; Haman Bayarı, Sevgi; Haluk Guven, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Linoleic acid (cis, cis-9,12-octodecadienoic acid) is the main polyunsaturated -omega 6- essential fatty acid. The conformational behaviour of linoleic acid (LA) in the gas phase was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT). The structures of conformers of LA were fully optimized by using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The theory showed that the tttttts‧CssCs‧tt conformation of LA (conformer I) is the more stable than the other conformations. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectra of pure LA in liquid form were recorded in the region 4000-450 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The DFT calculations on the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of the dimer form of most stable conformer of LA were also performed using the same method. The assignment of the vibrational modes was made based on calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). The simulated spectra of dimer form of LA are in reasonably good agreement with the experimental spectra. The sodium and potassium salts of LA were synthesized and characterized by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. Several molecular and electronic properties of LA and its salts such as HOMO-LUMO energies, chemical hardness and electronegativity were also calculated and interpreted.

  14. Synthesis of zwitterionic salts of pyridinium-Meldrum acid and barbiturate through unique four-component reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Fang; Hui, Li; Hou, Hong; Yan, Chao-Guo

    2010-03-08

    An efficient synthetic procedure for the preparation of the unusual charge-separated pyridinium-Meldrum acid and N,N-dimethylbarbiturate acid zwitterionic salts was developed though a unique one-pot four-component reaction involving pyridine, aromatic aldehyde, Meldrum acid or N,N-dimethylbarbituric acid, and p-nitrobenzyl bromide in acetonitrile. By varying combinations of four components involving nitrogen-containing heterocycles, we conveniently established reactive alpha-halomethylene compounds, aldehydes and beta-dicarbonyl compounds a library of zwitterionic salts.

  15. Supra-molecular Association and Polymorphic Behaviour In Systems Containing Bile Acid Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo La Mesa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A wide number of supra-molecular association modes are observed in mixtures containing water and bile salts, BS, (with, eventually, other components. Molecular or micellar solutions transform into hydrated solids, fibres, lyotropic liquid crystals and/or gels by raising the concentration, the temperature, adding electrolytes, surfactants, lipids and proteins. Amorphous or ordered phases may be formed accordingly. The forces responsible for this very rich polymorphism presumably arise from the unusual combination of electrostatic, hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond contributions to the system stability, with subsequent control of the supra-molecular organisation modes. The stabilising effect due to hydrogen bonds does not occur in almost all surfactants or lipids and is peculiar to bile acids and salts. Some supra-molecular organisation modes, supposed to be related to malfunctions and dis-metabolic diseases in vivo, are briefly reported and discussed.

  16. The Results of HLW Processing Using Zirconium Salt of Dibutyl phosphoric Acid in Hot Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, Yu.S.; Zilberman, B.Ya.; Shmidt, O.V. [Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinsky Ave., 28, Saint-Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Zirconium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid (ZS HDBP), is an effective solvent for liquid HLW and ILW (high and intermediate level wastes) processing with radionuclide partitioning into different groups for further immobilization according to radiotoxicity. The rig trials in mixer-settles in hot cells were carried out using 30 L of real HLW containing transplutonium (TPE), rare earths (RE), Sr and Cs in 2 mol/L HNO{sub 3}, characterized by total specific activity 520 MBk/L. The recovery factor for TPE and RE was as high as 10{sup 4}, but only 10 for Sr. Purification factor of TPE and RE from Cs and Sr was 10{sup 4}, and that of Sr from TPE and Cs was 10{sup 3}. Almost all Cs was localized in the second cycle raffinate. So Zr salt of HDBP can be used in HLW processing with radionuclide partitioning with respect to the categories of radiotoxicity. (authors)

  17. Molecular studies on di-sodium tartrate molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divya, P.; Jayakumar, S.; George, Preethamary; Shubashree, N. S.; Ahmed. M, Anees

    2015-06-01

    Structural characterization is important for the development of new material. The acoustical parameters such as Free Length, Internal Pressure have been measured from ultrasonic velocity, density for di sodium tartrate an optically active molecule at different temperatures using ultrasonic interferometer of frequency (2MHZ). The ultrasonic velocity increases with increase in concentration there is an increase in solute-solvent interaction. The stability constant had been calculated. SEM with EDAX studies has been done for Di-sodium tartrate an optically active molecule.

  18. Crystal structure studies on plate/shelf like disodium ditungstate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Inorganic materials; disodium ditungstate; crystal structure; scanning electron microscopy; X-ray ... generation, and horizontal electric furnace with quartz tube ... Unit cell dimensions: a = 7·22192(11) Е, b = 11·91559(17) Е, c = 14·74755(23) Е. Cell content: 8 Na2W2O7). Atom. Position. X(σ(X)). Y(σ(Y)). Z(σ(Z)). B(σ(B)). W (1).

  19. Molecular interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids in oils and their effects on reverse micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njauw, Ching-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Yang; Ivanov, Viktor A; Khokhlov, Alexei R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2013-03-26

    It has been known that the addition of bile salts to lecithin organosols induces the formation of reverse wormlike micelles and that the worms are similar to long polymer chains that entangle each other to form viscoelastic solutions. In this study, we further investigated the effects of different bile salts and bile acids on the growth of lecithin reverse worms in cyclohexane and n-decane. We utilized rheological and small-angle scattering techniques to analyze the properties and structures of the reverse micelles. All of the bile salts can transform the originally spherical lecithin reverse micelles into wormlike micelles and their rheological behaviors can be described by the single-relaxation-time Maxwell model. However, their efficiencies to induce the worms are different. In contrast, before phase separation, bile acids can induce only short cylindrical micelles that are not long enough to impart viscoelasticity. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between lecithin and bile salts/acids and found that different bile salts/acids employ different functional groups to form hydrogen bonds with lecithin. Such effects determine the relative positions of the bile salts/acids in the headgroups of lecithin, thus resulting in varying efficiencies to alter the effective critical packing parameter for the formation of wormlike micelles. This work highlights the importance of intermolecular interactions in molecular self-assembly.

  20. The effect of dietary supplementation of salts of organic acid on production performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Dahiya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing different levels of salts of organic acid in the laying hen’s diet on their production performance and egg quality parameters during a period of 16-week. Materials and Methods: A total of 140 white leghorn laying hens at 24 weeks of age were randomly distributed to seven dietary treatment groups, i.e. T1 (control, T2 (0.5% sodium-butyrate, T3 (1.0% sodium-butyrate, T4 (1.5% sodium-butyrate, T5 (0.5% calcium-propionate, T6 (1.0% calcium-propionate and T7 (1.5% calcium-propionate consisting of 5 replications of 4 birds each in each treatment and housed in individual cages from 24 to 40 weeks of age. Feed intake, percent hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass production, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and economics of supplementation of salts of organic acids in layers’ ration were evaluated. Results: The dietary supplementation of salts of organic acids did not significantly affect the feed intake (g/day/hen and body weight gain (g. Different levels of supplementation significantly (p<0.05 improved production performance (percent hen-day egg production and egg mass production as compared to control group. FCR in terms of feed intake (kg per dozen eggs was lowest (1.83±0.05 in T4 and feed intake (kg per kg egg mass was lowest (2.87±0.05 in T5 as comparison to control (T1 group. Salts of organic acids supplementation resulted in significant (p<0.05 improvement in FCR. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased at 0.5% level of salts of organic acids in the diet. The cumulative mean values of feed cost per dozen egg production were Rs. 44.14, 42.40, 42.85, 43.26, 42.57, 43.29 and 43.56 in treatment groups T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6 and T7, respectively, and reduction in feed cost per kg egg mass production for Rs. 0.52 and 0.99 in groups T2 and T5, respectively, in comparison to T1 group. Conclusions: It can be concluded that supplementation of salts of organic acids

  1. An experimental screen for quinoline/fumaric acid salts and co-crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beko, S. L.; Schmidt, M. U.; Bond, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    . Characterised products include the previously published 1 : 1 salt, C9H8N+center dot C4H3O4-, and a new 2 : 1 quinoline/fumaric acid co-crystal, (C9H7N)(2)center dot C4H4O4. Attempts to influence the crystallisation outcome by addition of 6-methylquinoline yielded a second co-crystal, also with an inherent 2......An experimental screen has been carried out for salts and co-crystals of quinoline (C9H7N) and fumaric acid (C4H4O4), including solution-based co-crystallisation from a variety of solvents, solvent-assisted and solvent-free co-grinding, and direct co-crystallisation of the starting materials...... : 1 quinoline/fumaric acid ratio, as a solid solution containing ca. 75% 6-methylquinoline and 25% quinoline. The corresponding co-crystal with pure 6-methylquinoline, (C10H9N)(2)center dot C4H4O4, was prepared, but the analogous structure with pure quinoline could not be obtained. Energy minimisation...

  2. Abscisic Acid as a Dominant Signal in Tomato During Salt Stress Predisposition to Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F. Pye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA-dependent manner. We used the tomato–Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots. This suggests that ABA action during predisposing stress enhances disease through effects on plant responses occurring after initial contact and during ingress by the pathogen. The expression of NCED1 (ABA synthesis and TAS14 (ABA response in roots generally corresponded to previously reported changes in root ABA levels during salt stress onset and recovery in a pattern that was not altered by infection by P. capsici. The PR genes, P4 and PI-2, hallmarks in tomato for SA and JA action, respectively, were induced in non-stressed roots during infection and strongly suppressed in infected roots exposed to salt-stress prior to inoculation. However, there was a similar proportional increase in pathogen colonization observed in salt-stressed plants relative to non-stressed plants in both wild-type and a SA-deficient nahG line. Unlike the other tomato cultivars used in this study that showed a strong predisposition phenotype, the processing tomato cv. ‘Castlemart’ and its JA mutants were not predisposed by salt. Salt stress predisposition to crown and root rot caused by P. capsici appears to be strongly conditioned by ABA-driven mechanisms in tomato, with the stress compromising SA-and JA-mediated defense-related gene expression during P. capsici infection.

  3. Cryoprotection properties of salts of organic acids: a case study for a tetragonal crystal of HEW lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Grzegorz; Wrzesniewska, Blanka; Bujacz, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the great majority of the data that are used for solving macromolecular structures by X-ray crystallography are collected at cryogenic temperatures. Selection of a suitable cryoprotectant, which ensures crystal stability at low temperatures, is critical for the success of a particular diffraction experiment. The effectiveness of salts of organic acids as potential cryoprotective agents is presented in the following work. Sodium formate, acetate, malonate and citrate were tested, as were sodium potassium tartrate and acetate in the form of potassium and ammonium salts. For each salt investigated, the minimal concentration that was required for successful cryoprotection was determined over the pH range 4.5-9.5. The cryoprotective ability of these organic salts depends upon the number of carboxylic groups; the lowest concentration required for cryoprotection was observed at neutral pH. Case-study experiments conducted using the tetragonal form of hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) confirmed that salts of organic acids can successfully act as cryoprotective agents of protein crystals grown from high concentrations of inorganic salts. When crystals are grown from solutions containing a sufficient concentration of organic acid salts no additional cryoprotection is needed as the crystals can safely be frozen directly from the crystallizing buffers.

  4. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  5. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalinska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    1987-01-01

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60 Co radiation. (author)

  6. Gas Antisolvent Approach for the Precipitation of α -Methoxyphenylacetic Acid – ( R -1-Cyclohexylethylamine Diateromeric Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zodge

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major drawbacks of diastereomeric salt precipitation based enantioseparation is the time and solvent requirement of crystallization. In the gas antisolvent (GAS approach, supercritical carbon dioxide is applied as an antisolvent, and the precipitation takes place in a couple of minutes. By setting the process parameters diastereomeric excess, yields, and selectivity can be controlled. Applicability of the process is demonstrated on the resolution of racemic 2-methoxyphenylacetic acid with enantiopure (R-(−-1-cyclohexylethylamine. Diastereomeric excess values over 55 % along with 80 % yields were achieved at optimal conditions in a single step.

  7. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  8. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  9. The treatment of dermatophytoses of the glabrous skin: a comparison of undecylenic acid and its salt versus tolnaftate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistini, F; Cordero, C; Urcuyo, F G; Rojas, R F; Ollague, W; Zaias, N

    1983-01-01

    In a double-blind study, the efficacy of 1% tolnaftate cream, 3% undecylenic acid and its zinc salt, and a placebo cream were tested in dermatophytosis of the glaborous skin and groin. Ninety-seven subjects completed the study: 33 received tolnaftate, 23 of these subjects were cured clinically and mycologically. Thirty-two subjects received 3% undecylenic acid and 20% zinc undecylenate as a cream. Of these, 21 were cured clinically and mycologically. Only three of the 32 subjects receiving placebo were cured clinically and mycologically. Both tolnaftate and undecylenic acid and its zinc salt are effective in this condition.

  10. Inorganic salts interact with oxalic acid in submicron particles to form material with low hygroscopicity and volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, G.; Woo, J.; Häkkinen, S. A. K.; Nenes, A.; McNeill, V. F.

    2014-05-01

    Volatility and hygroscopicity are two key properties of organic aerosol components, and both are strongly related to chemical identity. While the hygroscopicities of pure salts, di-carboxylic acids (DCA), and DCA salts are known, the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of these components, as they are typically found in the atmosphere, has not been fully characterized. Here we show that inorganic-organic component interactions typically not considered in atmospheric models can lead to very strongly bound metal-organic complexes and greatly affect aerosol volatility and hygroscopicity; in particular, the bi-dentate binding of DCA to soluble inorganic ions. We have studied the volatility of pure, dry organic salt particles and the hygroscopicity of internal mixtures of oxalic acid (OxA, the dominant DCA in the atmosphere) and a number of salts, both mono- and di-valent. The formation of very low volatility organic salts was confirmed, with minimal evaporation of oxalate salt particles below 75 °C. Dramatic increases in the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation diameter for particles with di-valent salts (e.g., CaCl2) and relatively small particle volume fractions of OxA indicate that standard volume additivity rules for hygroscopicity do not apply. Thus small organic compounds with high O : C ratios are capable of forming low-volatility and very low hygroscopicity particles. Given current knowledge of the formation mechanisms of OxA and M-Ox salts, surface enrichment of insoluble M-Ox salts is expected. The resulting formation of an insoluble coating of metal-oxalate salts can explain low-particle hygroscopicities. The formation of particles with a hard coating could offer an alternative explanation for observations of glass-like particles without the need for a phase transition.

  11. A Locked Nucleic Acid Probe Based on Selective Salt-Induced Effect Detects Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of single based genetic mutation by using oligonucleotide probes is one of the common methods of detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms at known loci. In this paper, we demonstrated a hybridization system which included a buffer solution that produced selective salt-induced effect and a locked nucleic acid modified 12 nt oligonucleotide probe. The hybridization system is suitable for hybridization under room temperature. By using magnetic nanoparticles as carriers for PCR products, the SNPs (MDR1 C3435T/A from 45 volunteers were analyzed, and the results were consistent with the results from pyrophosphoric acid sequencing. The method presented in this paper differs from the traditional method of using molecular beacons to detect SNPs in that it is suitable for research institutions lacking real-time quantitative PCR detecting systems, to detect PCR products at room temperature.

  12. Pseudomacrocyclic effect in extraction processes of metal salts by polyethers from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Vilkova, O.M.; Kotlyar, S.A.; Kamalov, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of macrocyclic (ME) and pseudmacrocyclic effects (PME), originating by conduct of the metal salt extraction processes (Cs, Sr, In, Zr, Cd, etc) from nitric acid solutions through linear and cyclic polyethers, containing 5 or 6 atoms of ether oxygen and having close molecular masses (290-360), is carried out. It is shown that ordinary ethers practically do not extract the studied metals from nitric acid solutions. By transfer from linear polyethers to their macrocyclic analogs the ME impact is expressed clearly enough: the separation coefficient value grows by tens and hundred times. At the some time the PME role in the extraction processes of metal nitrates through crown-ethers with alkyl and groups is expressed less clearly

  13. The degree of doubly charged cation binding in solutions of (co)polymers of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurenkov, V.F.; Kolesnikova, I.Yu.; Antonovich, O.A.

    2002-01-01

    The degree of binding the ions of the alkaline-earth metals (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) by the polysulfate anions in the aqueous solutions of the polymers of the 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (N-AMS) salts and their binary copolymers with the acrylamide (AA) and N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) is quantitatively evaluated through the Terayama and Wall viscosimetric method. It is established, that the degree of binding decreases in the Sr>Ca>Mg sequence for the N-AMS polymer salts and in the reverse sequence (Mg>Ca>Sr(Ba)) for the binary copolymers of the N-AMS salts with AA and VP [ru

  14. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a

  15. [Treatment of Paget's disease with diphosphonate (disodium ethydronate)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniggia, A; Gennari, C; Guideri, R; Vattimo, A; Nardi, P

    1976-01-07

    16 patients suffering from Paget's disease were studied before, during and after 3 or 6 month treatment with disodium ethydronate (EHDP) per os. An appreciable improvement in pain symptomatology was noted and at times an evident improvement in audiometry; from the metabolic viewpoint there was a fall in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary excretion of calcium and hydroxyproline. A study of radiocalcium kinetics demonstrated a reduction in the exchangeable calcium pool and the fractional turnover rate. Histological examination following needle biopsy of the iliac crest showed evident diminution in the active bone cell population (osteoclasts, osteoblasts) and, in certain cases, appearance of osteoid borders.

  16. Spectroscopic and structural studies on some divalent metal salt of p-aminobenzoic acid (ABA(MG)) tetracyanonickelate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared spectra of MLNi (CN) 4 [ M=Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn or Cd and LDivalent metal salt of p- Aminobenzoic Acid or ABA (Mg) ] are reported. Their structure consists of polymeric layers of [M-Ni(CN) 4 ] α with the divalent metal salt of p-aminobenzoic acid [ABA(Mg)] molecules bound directly to the metal (M). These spectra were comparewith powder the Xray diffraction pattern of complexes. It is show that proposed structures for these complexes derived from Mattson 1000 FTIR spectra are consistent with the X-ray powder diffraction measurements and elemental analysis result

  17. Localized corrosion of high performance metal alloys in an acid/salt environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Ontiveros, C.

    1991-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Space Shuttle launch site at Kennedy Space Center use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the thin walled 304L stainless steel flex hoses. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. The study focussed on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, and long term exposure at a beach corrosion testing site. Based on the results of these tests, several nickel based alloys were found to have very high resistance to this corrosive environment. Also, there was excellent agreement between the electrochemical tests and the actual beach exposure tests. This suggests that electrochemical testing may be useful for narrowing the field of potential candidate alloys before subjecting samples to long term beach exposure.

  18. Viability of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Kombucha Tea Against Low pH and Bile Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Puspawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha tea is a functional drink fermented by various types of microbes. Kombucha tea is also a source of lactic acid bacteria that can maintain the balance of the microflora of the digestive tract which can improve the health of the human body. Lactic acid bacteria can act as a probiotic if it is able to survive to the human gastrointestinal tract, where in order to reach the digestive tract, lactic acid bacteria has to be resistant to the low pH in the stomach and bile salts. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of resistance of lactic acid bacteria in kombucha tea against low pH and bile salts. This study uses 20 isolates, each of these isolates were tested to the resistance of low pH 2.0 and 0.5 % bile salts with incubation time of 4 hours. The results indicated that from 20 isolates of lactic acid bacteria that were obtained from kombucha tea, 15 isolates were resistant to low pH and 13 isolates were resistant to bile salts. The isolates have a huge potential to be developed as a probiotic candidate that can contribute greatly to the health of the digestive tract.

  19. Kinetics and mechanism of reduction of diazonium salts with hypophosphorous acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, A.F.; Kiprianova, L.A.; Gragerov, I.P.

    1975-01-01

    A kinetic study has been made of reduction of a series of diazonium salts n-XC 6 H 4 N 2 + BF 4 - (X=OCH 3 , CH 3 , H, Cl, Br, NO 2 ) by subphosphorus acid using the NMR technique. The intensity of NMR signals has been used to measure the rate of formation of the reaction products-benzene or substituted benzenes. The reaction with phenyldiazonium has been studied in the most detailed way. Under conditions when propagation stages are suppressed (in the presence of benzoquinone) chemical polarization of nuclei is observed in benzene which is formed at the initiation stage. The polarization indicates the formation of C 6 H 5 radicals in this stage. It is interesting as the first observation of the chemical polarization of nuclei in the initiation stage of chain reactions

  20. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs

  1. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  2. Investigation of the metabolism of 125I orthohippuric acid (sodium salt) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegl, W.; Stockhausen, K.; Censori, M.; Jahn, M.; Sander, B.

    1977-07-01

    100 μCi Iodine-125-labeled Orthoiodohippurate (sodium salt) were applied i.v. to two Wistar rats. Urine and faeces were collected during several days over periods of 24 hours in a metabolic cage. The urine was analysed both directly and after separation of the radioactive substances with an adsorbtive resin by means of TLC and HPLC. The faeces were extracted and then separated like the urine. The two main metabolites of I-125 Orthoiodohippurate (Hipp) were I-125 Orthoiodobenzoic acid (Benz) and J-125 Iodide (I). The mixture of metabolites in the first 24 hours urine urine was composed of: approximately 20% Benz, appeoximately 70% Hipp, approximately 10% I. During the following days, this composition showed a few changes. The most appropriate method for analyzing proved to be the direct HPLC of the metabolic urine and faeces extract. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirokazu; Hayashi, Aki

    2014-07-30

    The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  4. Mixing Acid Salts and Layered Double Hydroxides in Nanoscale under Solid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Nakayama

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The immobilization of potassium sorbate, potassium aspartate and sorbic acid in layered double hydroxide under solid condition was examined. By simply mixing two solids, immobilization of sorbate and aspartate in the interlayer space of nitrate-type layered double hydroxide, so called intercalation reaction, was achieved, and the uptakes, that is, the amount of immobilized salts and the interlayer distances of intercalation compounds were almost the same as those obtained in aqueous solution. However, no intercalation was achieved for sorbic acid. Although intercalation of sorbate and aspartate into chloride-type layered double hydroxide was possible, the uptakes for these intercalation compounds were lower than those obtained using nitrate-type layered double hydroxide. The intercalation under solid condition could be achieved to the same extent as for ion-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, and the reactivity was similar to that observed in aqueous solution. This method will enable the encapsulation of acidic drug in layered double hydroxide as nano level simply by mixing both solids.

  5. Synthesis of disodium [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-(4-chlorophenylthio)methylenediphosphonate, [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-tiludronate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Alain; Ellames, G.J. [Alnwick Research Centre (United Kingdom). Dept. of Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics

    1995-12-31

    Disodium [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-(4-chlorophenylithio)methylenediphosphonate, [benzene-{sup 14}C]-Tiludronate, 2, has been prepared in six steps from [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-acetanilide in an overall radiochemical yield of 41%. A key step in this transformation was the efficient conversion of [U-{sup 14}C]-4-chloroaniline to [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-4-chlorophenylthiocyanate, 5, in 83% yield by treatment of the corresponding diazonium salt, 9 with iron(111) thiocyanate. It should be noted that formation of the isomeric [benzene-U-{sup 14}C]-4-chlorophenylisothiocyanate, 11, as a byproduct, was observed in only {approx} 1% yield. (author).

  6. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Process for treating the dialyzed spent liquor from sulphonic acid containing sulfur minerals or tar oils or ammonium salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernicke, E A

    1936-08-09

    Process for working up the dialyzate from sulfonic acid, sulfur-containing mineral or tar oils, or their ammonium salts, characterized by the combination of known steps, in the dialyzate being reacted with alkaline-earth oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate, and the resulting slightly soluble sulfate being filtered off and evaporated if necessary.

  8. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. 721.3130 Section 721.3130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer activities. Requirements as specified in...

  9. Effects of ascorbic acid, salt, lemon juice, and honey on drying kinetics and sensory characteristic of dried mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Abano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ascorbic acid, salt solution, lemon juice, and honey pretreatment on the drying kinetics and sensory characteristics were studied. Pretreatments used affected the effective moisture diffusivity and rehydration properties of the dried mangoes. The effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.22 × 10-10 m2/s for ascorbic acid, 1.80 × 10-10 m2/s for salt solution, 2.01 × 10-10 m2/s for lemon juice, 1.93 × 10-10 m2/s for honey pretreated mangoes, and 2.31 × 10-10 m2/s for the control slices. Pretreatments enhanced the drying rate potential of mangoes. Among the thin-layer drying models fitted to the experimental data, the Middil model gave the best fit. The ascorbic acid pretreated samples were the best while the salt solution ones were the poorest with respect to reconstitution capacity. Consumer studies for overall preference for taste, colour, texture, flavour and chewiness of the dried products revealed that there was a higher preference for honey pretreated dried samples followed by the ascorbic acid, control, lemon juice, and salt solution pretreated samples. The results demonstrate that these pretreatments can be applied to enhance the moisture transport during drying and the quality of the dried products.

  10. Study of wine tartaric acid salt stabilization by addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC: comparison with the « protective colloids » effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gerbaud

    2010-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: The OIV-OENO 366-2009 and OIV-OENO 02/2008 resolutions recently authorized the use of CMC to prevent tartaric acid salt precipitation. With no impact on health, and stable under heating and in acid solution, CMC is an efficient candidate for tartaric stabilization. The optimal concentration of 20 mg.L-1 (2 g.hL-1 should however be adapted to local wine storage conditions and KHT crystallization risk.

  11. Modulation of salt (NaCl)-induced effects on oil composition and fatty acid profile of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by exogenous application of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Sibgha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a potential endogenous plant hormone that plays an important role in plant growth and development. Since sunflower yield and its seed oil yield are adversely affected by salinity, in this study the role of SA in modulating salt (NaCl)-induced effects on various yield and oil characteristics of sunflower was investigated. For this purpose a greenhouse experiment comprising two sunflower hybrid lines (Hysun-33 and SF-187), two NaCl levels (0 and 120 mmol L(-1)) and four SA levels (0, 100, 200 and 300 mg L(-1)) was conducted. Salt stress markedly reduced yield, oil content, linoleic acid and δ-tocopherol in both sunflower lines, while it increased linolenic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols. However, increasing levels of foliar-applied SA resulted in improved achene yield and hundred-achene weight in both lines. Foliar-applied SA caused a significant decrease in oil stearic acid and α- and γ-tocopherols in both lines under non-saline and saline conditions. Salt-induced harmful effects on achene yield and oil characteristics of sunflower could be alleviated by exogenous application of SA. High doses of SA caused a marked increase in sunflower achene oil content as well as some key fatty acids. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts by single pump cycling-column-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Zhuyi; Pan, Zaifa; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The application of ion chromatography with the single pump cycling-column-switching technique was described for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts within a single run. Due to the hydrogen ions provided by an anion suppressor electrolyzing water, weak acid anions could be transformed into weak acids, existing as molecules, after passing through the suppressor. Therefore, an anion suppressor and ion-exclusion column were adopted to achieve on-line matrix elimination of weak acid anions with high concentration for the analysis of trace inorganic anions in weak acid salts. A series of standard solutions consisting of target anions of various concentrations from 0.005 to 10 mg/L were analyzed, with correlation coefficients r ≥ 0.9990. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.67 to 1.51 μg/L, based on the signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and a 25 μL injection volume. Relative standard deviations for retention time, peak area, and peak height were all less than 2.01%. A spiking study was performed with satisfactory recoveries between 90.3 and 104.4% for all anions. The chromatographic system was successfully applied to the analysis of trace inorganic anions in five weak acid salts. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Feasibility of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography in chronic cholestatic biliary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn, J.-P.; Spoerl, M.; Nassif, A.; Mester, M.; Weitschies, W.; Siegmund, W.; Hosten, N.; Mensel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the feasibility of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography in chronic obstructive cholestatic biliary disease in the clinical setting. Materials and methods: Twenty-three patients with dilated bile duct trees and ten volunteers underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR cholangiography and were enrolled in the present retrospective study. Gadoxetate disodium was given in a standardized manner as a bolus injection at a dose of 0.25 mmol/kg of body weight (0.1 ml/kg). Region of interest-based measurement of mean enhancement of the dilated bile ducts was performed in series before gadoxetate disodium administration and during hepatobiliary phases. Results: Direct comparison of mean bile duct enhancement during hepatobiliary phases in the clinical imaging window between healthy volunteers [4.7 ± 2.2 arbitrary units (au)] and patients with dilated bile ducts (0.1 ± 0.3 au) revealed significantly lower or absent enhancement in dilated bile ducts (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Standard clinical gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography is not a reliable technique for the evaluation of the biliary trees, because of altered biliary gadoxetate disodium elimination in patients with chronic obstructive biliary diseases. - Highlights: • Biliary excretion of gadoxetic disodium is impaired in subjects with chronic central or segmental bile duct obstruction. • MR cholangiography using gadoxetic disodium is not feasible in patients with chronic cholestatic bile duct disease. • Gadoxetic disodium enhanced MRI is a potential biomarker to measure hepatobiliary transporter function

  14. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials.

  15. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  16. Synthesis of methyl acetate from dimethyl ether using group VIII metal salts of phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.; Tartamella, T.

    2002-04-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be produced much more efficiently in a single-stage, liquid-phase process from natural gas-based syngas as compared to the conventional process via dehydration of methanol. This process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, alleviates the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improves per-pass syngas conversion and reactor productivity. The potential, therefore, for production of methyl acetate via dimethyl ether carbonylation is of industrial importance. In the present study, conversion of dimethyl ether and carbon monoxide to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of group VIII metal-substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Experimental results of this catalytic reaction using rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, and palladium catalysts are evaluated and compared in terms of selectivity toward methyl acetate. The effects of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions on carbonylation activity of DME are examined. Iridium metal substituted phosphotungstic acid supported on Davisil type 643 (pore size 150 A, surface area 279 m{sup 2}/g, mesh size 230-425) silica gel shows the highest activity for DME carbonylation. (author)

  17. Identification of didecyldimethylammonium salts and salicylic acid as antimicrobial compounds in commercial fermented radish kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Chaytor, Jennifer L; Findlay, Brandon; McMullen, Lynn M; Smith, David C; Vederas, John C

    2015-03-25

    Daikon radish (Raphanus sativus) fermented with lactic acid bacteria, especially Leuconostoc or Lactobacillus spp., can be used to make kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented vegetable. Commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates are claimed to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. Leuconostoc kimchii fermentation products are patented as preservatives for cosmetics, and certain strains of this organism are reported to produce antimicrobial peptides (bacteriocins). We examined the antimicrobial agents in commercial Leuconostoc/radish root ferment filtrates. Both activity-guided fractionation with Amberlite XAD-16 and direct extraction with ethyl acetate gave salicylic acid as the primary agent with activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Further analysis of the ethyl acetate extract revealed that a didecyldimethylammonium salt was responsible for the Gram-positive activity. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by a combination of (1)H- and (13)C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry analyses. Radiocarbon dating indicates that neither compound is a fermentation product. No antimicrobial peptides were detected.

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela E Crisan

    Full Text Available p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA. The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM. This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth.

  19. Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on Free Amino Acids Composition of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara Cheese during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed O. E. Altahir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of heat treatment and salt concentrations (0, 5, and 10% on the free amino acids (FAA composition of Sudanese braided cheese (BC ripened for up to 3 months at 5±2°C. Heat and salt concentration significantly affected the FAA of braided cheese. The free amino acids concentrations of BC ripened in 0%, 5%, and 10% salted whey (SW were significantly fluctuated. Under ripening conditions tested (salt level + time, braided cheese made from pasteurized milk (BCPM had consistently lower values of FAA than braided cheese made from raw milk (BCRM. In fresh cheese, the major FAA in BCRM were Glu (36.12 nmol/ml, Leu (26.77nmol/ml and Lys (14.51 nmol/ml while the major ones in BCPM were Lys (2.94 nmol/ml and Ala (2.45 nmol/ml. BCPM stored in 10% SW had shorter quality life compared to that stored in 5% salted whey.

  20. Nonequimolar Mixture of Organic Acids and Bases: An Exception to the Rule of Thumb for Salt or Cocrystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratik, Saied Md; Datta, Ayan

    2016-08-04

    Formation of salt and/or cocrystal from organic acid-base mixtures has significant consequences in the pharmaceutical industry and its related intellectual property rights (IPR). On the basis of calculations using periodic dispersion corrected DFT (DFT-D2) on formic acid-pyridine adduct, we have demonstrated that an equimolar stoichiometric ratio (1:1) exists as a neutral cocrystal. On the other hand, the nonequimolar stoichiometry (4:1) readily forms an ionic salt. While the former result is in agreement with the ΔpKa rule between the base and the acid, the latter is not. Calculations reveal that, within the equimolar manifold (n:n; n = 1-4), the mixture exists as a hydrogen bonded complex in a cocrystal-like environment. However, the nonequimolar mixture in a ratio of 5:1 and above readily forms salt-like structures. Because of the cooperative nature of hydrogen bonding, the strength of the O-H···N hydrogen bond increases and eventually transforms into O(-)···H-N(+) (complete proton transfer) as the ratio of formic acid increases and forms salt as experimentally observed. Clearly, an enhanced polarization of formic acid on aggregation increases its acidity and, hence, facilitates its transfer to pyridine. Motion of the proton from formic acid to pyridine is shown to follow a relay mechanism wherein the proton that is far away from pyridine is ionized and is subsequently transferred to pyridine via hopping across the neutral formic acid molecules (Grotthuss type pathway). The dynamic nature of protons in the condensed phase is also evident for cocrystals as the barrier of intramolecular proton migration in formic acid (leading to tautomerism), ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 17.1 kcal/mol in the presence of pyridine is half of that in free formic acid (cf. ΔH(⧧)tautomer = 34.2 kcal/mol). We show that an acid-base reaction can be altered in the solid state to selectively form a cocrystal or salt depending on the strength and nature of aggregation.

  1. Troubleshooting arterial-phase MR images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Ji Mi; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeh, Benjamin M.; Wang, Z. Jane [Dept. of Radiologyand Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco (United States); Wu, En Haw [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan (China); Zhao, Li Qin [Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Chang, Wei Chou [Tri-Service General Hospital and National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (China)

    2015-12-15

    Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field.

  2. Troubleshooting arterial-phase MR images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Ji Mi; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Yeh, Benjamin M.; Wang, Z. Jane; Wu, En Haw; Zhao, Li Qin; Chang, Wei Chou

    2015-01-01

    Gadoxetate disodium is a widely used magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent for liver MR imaging, and it provides both dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images. However, acquiring optimal arterial phase images at liver MR using gadoxetate disodium is more challenging than using conventional extracellular MR contrast agent because of the small volume administered, the gadolinium content of the agent, and the common occurrence of transient severe motion. In this article, we identify the challenges in obtaining high-quality arterial-phase images of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MR imaging and present strategies for optimizing arterial-phase imaging based on the thorough review of recent research in this field

  3. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  4. Gene expression changes associated with Barrett's esophagus and Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell lines after acid or bile salt exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahbaie Peyman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus represent two major risk factors for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previous studies have shown that brief exposure of the Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma cell line, SEG-1, or primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissues to acid or bile results in changes consistent with cell proliferation. In this study, we determined whether similar exposure to acid or bile salts results in gene expression changes that provide insights into malignant transformation. Methods Using previously published methods, Barrett's-associated esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines and primary cultures of Barrett's esophageal tissue were exposed to short pulses of acid or bile salts followed by incubation in culture media at pH 7.4. A genome-wide assessment of gene expression was then determined for the samples using cDNA microarrays. Subsequent analysis evaluated for statistical differences in gene expression with and without treatment. Results The SEG-1 cell line showed changes in gene expression that was dependent on the length of exposure to pH 3.5. Further analysis using the Gene Ontology, however, showed that representation by genes associated with cell proliferation is not enhanced by acid exposure. The changes in gene expression also did not involve genes known to be differentially expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. Similar experiments using short-term primary cultures of Barrett's esophagus also did not result in detectable changes in gene expression with either acid or bile salt exposure. Conclusion Short-term exposure of esophageal adenocarcinoma SEG-1 cells or primary cultures of Barrett's esophagus does not result in gene expression changes that are consistent with enhanced cell proliferation. Thus other model systems are needed that may reflect the impact of acid and bile salt exposure on the esophagus in vivo.

  5. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salabat, Alireza, E-mail: a-salabat@araku.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Rahmat [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani [Chemistry Department, Arak University, P.O. Box 38156-879, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamehbozorg, Bahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Kurdistan 66135 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. > Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. > Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H{sub 2}O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters ({Delta}H{sup o}, {Delta}S{sup o} and {Delta}G{sup o}) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  6. Partitioning of L-methionine in aqueous two-phase systems containing poly(propylene glycol) and sodium phosphate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Sadeghi, Rahmat; Moghadam, Somayeh Tiani; Jamehbozorg, Bahman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermodynamics parameters for partitioning of L-methionine in ATPS. → Investigation of different effects on partition coefficient of the amino acid. → Propose the best condition for L-methionine partitioning. - Abstract: The partitioning behavior of L-methionine has been studied in aqueous two-phase systems of (poly(propylene glycol) + sodium phosphate salts + H 2 O) at different temperatures. The salts used were sodium di-hydrogen phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ), di-sodium hydrogen phosphate (Na 2 HPO 4 ) and tri-sodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ). The effects of tie line length, salt type, and temperature on the partition coefficient of this amino acid have been studied. In addition, thermodynamic parameters (ΔH o , ΔS o and ΔG o ) as a function of temperature were calculated. The results showed that increasing tie line length led to decreasing of the partition coefficient. We also showed that the partition coefficients of the amino acid in the systems containing Na 3 PO 4 are greater than the other two salts. Moreover, it is verified that increasing temperature led to decreasing the partition coefficient. The experimental partition coefficient data are correlated using a modified virial-type model.

  7. Roles of gibberellins and abscisic acid in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic seeds under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiqiang eLi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed heteromorphism observed in many halophytes is an adaptive phenomenon toward high salinity. However, the relationship between heteromorphic seed germination and germination-related hormones under salt stress remains elusive. To gain an insight into this relationship, the roles of gibberellins (GAs and abscisic acid (ABA in regulating germination of Suaeda salsa dimorphic brown and black seeds under salinity were elucidated by studying the kinetics of the two hormones during germination of the two seed types with or without salinity treatment. Morphological analysis suggested that brown and black are in different development stage. The content of ABA was higher in dry brown than in black seeds, which gradually decreased after imbibition in water and salt solutions. Salt stress induced ABA accumulation in both germinating seed types, with higher induction effect on black than brown seeds. Black seeds showed lower germination percentage than brown seeds under both water and salt stress, which might be attributed to their higher ABA sensitivity rather than the difference in ABA content between black and brown seeds. Bioactive GA4 and its biosynthetic precursors showed higher levels in brown than in black seeds, whereas deactivated GAs showed higher content in black than brown seeds in dry or in germinating water or salt solutions. High salinity inhibited seed germination through decreasing the levels of GA4 in both seeds, and the inhibited effect of salt stress on GA4 level of black seeds was more profound than that of brown seeds. Taken together higher GA4 content, and lower ABA sensitivity contributed to the higher germination percentage of brown seeds than black seeds in water and salinity; increased ABA content and sensitivity, and decreased GA4 content by salinity were more profound in black than brown seeds, which contributed to lower germination of black seeds than brown seeds in salinity. The differential regulation of ABA and GA

  8. New Diethyl Ammonium Salt of Thiobarbituric Acid Derivative: Synthesis, Molecular Structure Investigations and Docking Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem Barakat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the new diethyl ammonium salt of diethylammonium(E-5-(1,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl-3-oxopent-4-en-1-yl-1,3-diethyl-4,6-dioxo-2-thioxohexaydropyrimidin-5-ide 3 via a regioselective Michael addition of N,N-diethylthiobarbituric acid 1 to dienone 2 is described. In 3, the carboanion of the thiobarbituric moiety is stabilized by the strong intramolecular electron delocalization with the adjacent carbonyl groups and so the reaction proceeds without any cyclization. The molecular structure investigations of 3 were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as DFT computations. The theoretically calculated (DFT/B3LYP geometry agrees well with the crystallographic data. The effect of fluorine replacement by chlorine atoms on the molecular structure aspects were investigated using DFT methods. Calculated electronic spectra showed a bathochromic shift of the π-π* transition when fluorine is replaced by chlorine. Charge decomposition analyses were performed to study possible interaction between the different fragments in the studied systems. Molecular docking simulations examining the inhibitory nature of the compound show an anti-diabetic activity with Pa (probability of activity value of 0.229.

  9. Palmitic Acid on Salt Subphases and in Mixed Monolayers of Cerebrosides: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Palmitic acid (PA has been found to be a major constituent in marine aerosols, and is commonly used to investigate organic containing atmospheric aerosols, and is therefore used here as a proxy system. Surface pressure-area isotherms (π-A, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM, and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG were used to observe a PA monolayer during film compression on subphases of ultrapure water, CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, and artificial seawater (ASW. π-A isotherms indicate that salt subphases alter the phase behavior of PA, and BAM further reveals that a condensation of the monolayer occurs when compared to pure water. VSFG spectra and BAM images show that Mg2+ and Ca2+ induce ordering of the PA acyl chains, and it was determined that the interaction of Mg2+ with the monolayer is weaker than Ca2+. π-A isotherms and BAM were also used to monitor mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside, a simple glycolipid. Results reveal that PA also has a condensing effect on the cerebroside monolayer. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that attractive interactions between the two components exist; this may be due to hydrogen bonding of the galactose and carbonyl headgroups. BAM images of the collapse structures show that mixed monolayers of PA and cerebroside are miscible at all surface pressures. These results suggest that the surface morphology of organic-coated aerosols is influenced by the chemical composition of the aqueous core and the organic film itself.

  10. Micro-Arc oxidation of Ti in a solution of sulfuric acid and Ti+3 salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragalevicius, Rimas; Stalnionis, Giedrius; Niaura, Gediminas; Jagminas, Arunas

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study was performed on the behavior of titanium electrode in a sulfuric acid solution with and without Ti +3 during micro-arc oxidation under the constant current density control regime. The composition and microstructure of the obtained micro-arc films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, glancing-angle X-ray diffractometry, Raman and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies. We have shown that addition of a Ti +3 salt extends the region of current densities (j a ) can be used for micro-arc oxidation of Ti and results in an obvious change of sparking behavior from extensive, large and long-played sparks to numerous, small and short sparks. As a consequence, the titania films formed in the Ti +3 -containing solutions are relatively thick, more uniform, composed of almost pure crystalline anatase and rutile phases of TiO 2 , and contain a network of evenly distributed small pores. It has also been shown that these films are promising for applications in catalysis, sensors and optoelectronics. The Raman spectra indicate that an increase in the electrolysis time of titanium in the Ti +3 -containing solution leads to the increase in rutile content, as expected

  11. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik; Choi, Hong Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability

  12. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  13. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of 1-pyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steblecka, Malgorzata, E-mail: gosia@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Wolszczak, Marian, E-mail: marianwo@mitr.p.lodz.pl; Szajdzinska-Pietek, Ewa, E-mail: espietek@mitr.p.lodz.pl

    2016-04-15

    Steady state and time-resolved techniques of optical spectroscopy were applied to examine the interaction between 1-pyrene sulfonic acid (PSA) sodium salt and human serum albumin (HSA). This work is directed towards finding a convenient fluorescent marker (or blocker) of hydrophobic binding sites within the protein, to be used in the in vitro studies of HSA−drug systems. The observed variation of PSA absorbance with HSA concentration was interpreted in terms of two possible probe/protein binding modes with the binding constants K{sub b,1}=(6.5±0.6)∙10{sup 6} M{sup −1} (a specific receptor site), and K{sub b,2}=(3.8±0.8)∙10{sup 5} M{sup −1} (non-specific binding of up to three probe molecules). The PSA fluorescence is quenched by the albumin (via both static and dynamic mechanisms), and also the HSA–Trp214 fluorescence is quenched by PSA (via resonance energy transfer). These results indicate that the probe is bound in the domain IIA of the secondary HSA structure. At lower [PSA]/[HSA] ratios the PSA fluorescence lifetime is longer than that in homogeneous buffer solutions (not containing HSA). Therefore, we conclude that lower affinity binding sites are distant from the tryptophan residue. This is confirmed by complementary studies on the transient T–T absorbance and on luminescence of the photosensitized singlet oxygen.

  15. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holclajtner-Antunović, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanović, Danica [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Popa, Alexandru [Institute of Chemistry Timişoara, Bl. Mihail Viteazul 24, 300223 Timişoara (Romania); Nedić Vasiljević, Bojana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstić, Jugoslav [Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Njegoševa 12, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mentus, Slavko [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Uskoković-Marković, Snežana, E-mail: snezaum@pharmacy.bg.ac.rs [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 450, 11221 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Preparation conditions influence to self-assembly of nanocrystallites of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}. • Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by filtration is microporous, Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} obtained by evaporation is non-porous. • Thermal properties of Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and its soluble salts are similar. - Abstract: The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at −196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite′s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 μm. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  16. Preparation of porous monolayer film by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S. [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Y.L.; Zhao, H.L.; Liang, H. [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Liu, B., E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Photo-Biophysics, School of Physics and Electronic, Henan University, Jinming, Kaifeng 475004, Henan (China); Pan, S., E-mail: span@dlut.edu.cn [Institute of Near-Field Optics and Nano Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Street No. 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous film has been prepared by immersing the stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer on mica in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism relies on the electrostatic screening effect of the cations in salt solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The factors influencing the size and area of the pores were investigated. - Abstract: Porous materials have drawn attention from scientists in many fields such as life sciences, catalysis and photonics since they can be used to induce some materials growth as expected. Especially, porous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film is an ideal material with controlled thickness and flat surface. In this paper, stearic acid (SA), which has been extensively explored in LB film technique, is chosen as the template material with known parameters to prepare the LB film, and then the porous SA monolayer film is obtained by means of etching in salt solution. The main etching mechanism is suggested that the cations in the solution block the electrostatic interaction between the polar carboxyl group of SA and the electronegative mica surface. The influencing factors (such as concentration of salt solution, valence of cation and surface pressure) of the porous SA film are systematically studied in this work. The novel method proposed in this paper makes it convenient to prepare porous monolayer film for designed material growth or cell culture.

  17. Role of abscisic acid in strigolactone-induced salt stress tolerance in arbuscular mycorrhizal Sesbania cannabina seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Kong, Cun-Cui; Xie, Zhi-Hong

    2018-05-03

    Strigolactones (SLs) are considered to be a novel class of phytohormone involved in plant defense responses. Currently, their relationships with other plant hormones, such as abscisic acid (ABA), during responses to salinity stress are largely unknown. In this study, the relationship between SL and ABA during the induction of H 2 O 2 - mediated tolerance to salt stress were studied in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) Sesbania cannabina seedlings. The SL levels increased after ABA treatments and decreased when ABA biosynthesis was inhibited in AM plants. Additionally, the expression levels of SL-biosynthesis genes in AM plants increased following treatments with exogenous ABA and H 2 O 2 . Furthermore, ABA-induced SL production was blocked by a pre-treatment with dimethylthiourea, which scavenges H 2 O 2 . In contrast, ABA production was unaffected by dimethylthiourea. Abscisic acid induced only partial and transient increases in the salt tolerance of TIS108 (a SL synthesis inhibitor) treated AM plants, whereas SL induced considerable and prolonged increases in salt tolerance after a pre-treatment with tungstate. These results strongly suggest that ABA is regulating the induction of salt tolerance by SL in AM S. cannabina seedlings.

  18. Pharmaceutical salts and cocrystals involving amino acids: a brief structural overview of the state-of-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilborg, Anaëlle; Norberg, Bernadette; Wouters, Johan

    2014-03-03

    Salification of new drug substances in order to improve physico-chemical or solid-state properties (e.g. dissolution rate or solubility, appropriate workup process, storage for further industrial and marketing development) is a well-accepted procedure. Amino acids, like aspartic acid, lysine or arginine take a great part in this process and are implicated in several different formulations of therapeutic agent families, including antibiotics (amoxicillin from beta lactam class or cephalexin from cephalosporin class), NSAIDs (ketoprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen from profen family, acetylsalicylic acid) or antiarrhythmic agents (e.g. ajmaline). Even if more than a half of known pharmaceutical molecules possess a salifiable moiety, what can be done for new potential drug entity that cannot be improved by transformation into a salt? In this context, after a brief review of pharmaceutical salts on the market and the implication of amino acids in these formulations, we focus on the advantage of using amino acids even when the target compound is not salifiable by exploiting their zwitterionic potentialities for cocrystal edification. We summarize here a series of new examples coming from literature to support the advantages of broadening the application of amino acids in formulation for new drug substances improvement research for non-salifiable molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polymers in the crystal structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid and (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the ammonium salts of phenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H6O3−, (I, (4-fluorophenoxyacetic acid, NH4+·C8H5FO3−, (II, and the herbicidally active (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA, NH4+·C9H8ClO3−·0.5H2O, (III have been determined. All have two-dimensional layered structures based on inter-species ammonium N—H...O hydrogen-bonding associations, which give core substructures consisting primarily of conjoined cyclic motifs. The crystals of (I and (II are isomorphous with the core comprising R12(5, R12(4 and centrosymmetric R42(8 ring motifs, giving two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. In (III, the water molecule of solvation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis and bridges two carboxyl O atoms in an R44(12 hydrogen-bonded motif, creating two R43(10 rings, which together with a conjoined centrosymmetric R42(8 ring incorporating both ammonium cations, generate two-dimensional layers lying parallel to (100. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  20. Characterization of reactive intermediates in laser photolysis of nucleoside using of sodium salt anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid as photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianhua; Lin Weizhen; Wang Wenfeng; Han Zhenhui; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of triplet state of sodium salt of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS) with nucleosides has been investigated in CH 3 CN using KrF(248 nm) laser flash photolysis. The transient absorption spectra and kinetics obtained from the interaction of triplet AQS and nucleoside demonstrated that the primary ionic radical pair, radical cation of nucleosides and radical anion of AQS has been detected simultaneously for the first time

  1. Multivariate characterization of salt and fat content, and the fatty acid profile of pastry and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Tânia Gonçalves; Santos, Joana; Silva, Mafalda Alexandra; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Costa, Helena S

    2017-11-15

    Bakery and pastry products are highly appreciated worldwide. Due to consumer demand, a wide diversity of this type of food is available all over the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of salt, fat and fatty acids in the composition of 91 bakery and pastry products commercialised in Portugal. Moreover, a detailed comparison between commercial and supermarket brands of similar foods, as well as between foods with or without gluten was performed. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that most of the analysed foods have a high percentage of saturated fatty acids. Also, considerable amounts of salt were determined, while the trans fatty acid content in the analysed foods was in general low (<0.5%). Moreover, differences in the salt content higher than 6-fold between brands of the same type of foodstuff were observed, which should be considered at the moment of choice. This fact proves that it is possible to produce similar foods which are healthier with better nutritional quality. Since this type of food is highly appreciated by people of all ages, but mostly by children and young people, it is of utmost importance to implement strategies and establish goals, to improve their nutritional quality.

  2. Volumetric, acoustic and viscometric behaviour of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate and disodium hydrogen phosphate in aqueous solution of N-acetyl glycine at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Harsh; Singla, Meenu; Mittal, Heena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Densities, speeds of sound, viscosities of phosphate salts in aqueous N-acetyl glycine. • Large values of partial molar volume for dipotassium hydrogen phosphate. • Partial molar volume of transfer are positive for phosphate salts. • Positive B-coefficient values indicate ion–solvent interactions. - Abstract: Densities, speeds of sound and viscosities of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (DPHP) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSHP) in aqueous solutions of N-acetyl glycine (AcGly) are reported at different temperatures. Densities and speeds of sound have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, apparent molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume, partial molar isentropic compression, partial molar volume of transfer, partial molar isentropic compression of transfer and partial molar expansivity. Pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. Experimental viscosities have been used to determine B-coefficients. Further pair and triplet interaction coefficients have also been calculated. The results are discussed in terms of solute–solvent interactions.

  3. Novel Halomonas sp. B15 isolated from Larnaca Salt Lake in Cyprus that generates vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyrides, Ioannis; Agathangelou, Maria; Dimitriou, Rodothea; Souroullas, Konstantinos; Salamex, Anastasia; Ioannou, Aristostodimos; Koutinas, Michalis

    2015-08-01

    Vanillin is a high value added product with many applications in the food, fragrance and pharmaceutical industries. A natural and low-cost method to produce vanillin is by microbial bioconversions through ferulic acid. Until now, limited microorganisms have been found capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillin at high yield. This study aimed to screen halotolerant strains of bacteria from Larnaca Salt Lake which generate vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. From a total of 50 halotolenant/halophilic strains 8 grew in 1 g/L ferulic acid and only 1 Halomonas sp. B15 and 3 Halomonas elognata strains were capable of bioconverting ferulic acid to vanillic acid at 100 g NaCl/L. The highest vanillic acid (365 mg/L) at these conditions generated by Halomonas sp. B15 which corresponds to ferulic acid bioconversion yield of 36.5%. Using the resting cell technique with an initial ferulic acid concentration of 0.5 g/L at low salinity, the highest production of vanillin (245 mg/L) took place after 48 h, corresponding to a bioconversion yield of 49%. This is the first reported Halomonas sp. with high yield of vanillin production from ferulic acid at low salinity.

  4. The 'Salting Out' Effect: Investigating the Influence of Both the Nature and Concentration of Salt on the Partition Coefficient of Butan-1,4-Dioic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, John

    2018-01-01

    This sixth-form chemistry activity describes how students can use acid-base titrimetry to investigate how adding salt to the aqueous phase may change the value of the partition coefficient of an organic acid between water and 2-methylpropan-1-ol. While the presence of lithium chloride and sodium chloride increases the value of the partition…

  5. Carbonic acid salts at 25 or 45 degrees C to control loquat decay under shelf life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; D'Hallewin, G; Dore, A; Serusi, A; Venditti, T; Agabbio, M

    2005-01-01

    Generally recognised as save compounds (G.R.A.S) are attractive substitutes to synthetic chemicals in postharvest control diseases. They meet safety requirements, are cheap and able to be integrated with other disease control technologies. Among G.R.A.S compounds, carbonic acid salts have been investigated on carrots, bell pepper, melons, sweet cherries and their efficacy was also evaluated when combined with biological control agents. Moreover, the possibility to use sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate to prevent P. digitatum an P. italicum spread on Citrus fruit was studied since the begin of the 20th century. We explored the possibility to extend the use of carbonate-bicarbonate salts on loquat fruit in order to control the pathogens and to extend postharvest life. Loquat is a very perishable fruit, susceptible to decay, mechanical damage, moisture and nutritional losses during its postharvest life. We tested the combined effect of temperature and sodium or potassium carbonate-bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate. The fruit was dipped in the salt solutions at variable concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/v) at 25 or 45 degrees C for two minutes and than stored under shelf life conditions (25 degrees C and 70% RH). Decay, weight loss, pH, titrable acidity and sugar content were detected after twelve days. Preliminary data show that the combined treatments were effective in decay control depending on salts. Best results were obtained with 2% potassium and sodium carbonate solution at 25 degrees C. Weight losses were related to treatment temperature and salts concentrations whereas, no differences were detected in the chemical parameters compared to the control.

  6. The Two Fundamental H-Bond Types in Acid Salts Displayed in the Dimorphs of Potassium Hydrogen Tartronate

    OpenAIRE

    Kroon, Jan; Kanters, Jan A.

    1982-01-01

    At ambient temperature the acid potassium salt of tartronic acid crystallizes in two forms. The a. form is monoclinic, space group P21/n with a= 7.356, b = 8.116, c = 9.197 A, fJ = 94.81° and Z = 4. The fJ form is also monclinic, space group P21/c with. a= 6.532, b = 9.248, c = 9.505, fJ = 99.74° and Z = 4. The a. and ~ structures were solved by Patterson and Fourier methods and refined to R = 0.047 with 1129 and 1204 observed diffractometer data respectively. The fundame...

  7. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Bernard W. [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Bagchi, Manashi [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States); Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V. [Laila Impex Research Center, Vijayawada (India); Shara, Michael A. [Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States); Preuss, Harry G. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Bagchi, Debasis [InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA (United States) and Department of Pharmacy Sciences, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, 68178 NE (United States)]. E-mail: debsis@creighton.edu

    2005-11-11

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca{sup 2+}/K{sup +} bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca{sup 2+} (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K{sup +} (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca{sup 2+} ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K{sup +}, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

  8. Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, Bernard W.; Bagchi, Manashi; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V.; Shara, Michael A.; Preuss, Harry G.; Bagchi, Debasis

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble ( 2+ /K + bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca 2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K + (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca 2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K + , on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions

  9. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately

  10. Fospropofol Disodium for Sedation in Elderly Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Vincent, Brad D; Wahidi, Momen M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fospropofol disodium is a water-soluble prodrug of propofol. A subset analysis was undertaken of elderly patients (≥65 y) undergoing flexible bronchoscopy, who were part of a larger multicenter, randomized, double-blind study. METHODS: Patients received fentanyl citrate (50 mcg) followed by fospropofol at initial (4.88mg/kg) and supplemental (1.63mg/kg) doses. The primary end point was sedation success (3 consecutive Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scores of ≤4 and procedure completion without alternative sedative or assisted ventilation). Treatment success, time to fully alert, patient and physician satisfaction, and safety/tolerability were also evaluated. RESULTS: In the elderly patients subset (n=61), sedation success was 92%, the mean time to fully alert was 8.0±10.9 min, and memory retention was 72% during recovery, and these were comparable with the younger patients subgroup (age, Sedation-related adverse events occurred in 23% of the elderly and 18% of the younger patients (age, sedation, rapid time to fully alert, and high satisfaction in this elderly subset undergoing flexible bronchoscopy, which was comparable with outcomes in younger patients.

  11. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO 3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10 -2 M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO 3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  12. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  13. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1969-01-01

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H + + B ↔ HB + in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pK A value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO - + H + ↔ H 2 O has been investigated and a relation been found between pK i values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors) [fr

  14. Conductometric investigation of salt-free solutions of polyriboguanylic acid. Issledovanie bessolevykh rastvorov poliriboguanilovoj kisloty metodom konduktometrii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A G; Davydova, O V; Kargov, S I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Khimicheskij Fakul' tet

    1993-08-01

    Salt-free solutions of various ionic forms of polyriboguanylic acid (poly(G)) were studied by the methods of conductometry and spectroscopy of annular dichroism. The Manning approach was employed to calculate transport characteristics and structural parameters of poly(G) on the basis of spectra permit putting poly(G) salts in two groups: the first one comprising NH[sub 4][sup +]-, Rb[sup +]-, K[sup +]-, Na[sup +]-, the second one - Cs[sup +]-, and Li[sup +]-poly(G). The assumption is made that Li[sup +] and Cs[sup +] ions, bound with concrete groups of polyanion in a specific way, can promote formation of a stable structure different from the one observed in the presence of the first group counterions. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Transient severe respiratory motion artifacts after application of gadoxetate disodium. What we currently know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well, Lennart; Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Gadoxetate disodium is an intracellular contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver. Recent publications revealed that injection of gadoxetate disodium can lead to imaging artifacts due to transient severe motion (TSM) in the arterial phase of contrast-enhanced liver MRI. In this review we present and discuss published frequencies of TSM, contrast injection and image acquisition protocols, potential risk factors, and proposed strategies to avoid or minimize the effects of TSM. Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed search engine for ''transient severe motion artifact'' and related terms. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. The two reviewers selected in consensus nine studies that reported both frequencies of TSM and potential risk factors. Study data were extracted by both reviewers, and disagreement was resolved by consensus. TSM is caused by impaired breath-hold ability after gadoxetate disodium injection and occurs in 5 -22% of patients. The dose of applied contrast agent, repeated exposure to gadoxetate disodium, high BMI and pulmonary disease have been described as potential risk factors for TSM. However, there are only few concordant results on this topic and the pathophysiology of TSM has not been identified. Proposed strategies for the prevention of TSM are slow injection rates and low doses of diluted gadoxetate disodium. Accelerated and free-breathing MRI sequence protocols and breath-hold training may minimize the effects of TSM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these strategies and to identify the underlying mechanism of TSM.

  16. Transient severe respiratory motion artifacts after application of gadoxetate disodium. What we currently know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Weinrich, Julius Matthias; Adam, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicince

    2018-01-15

    Gadoxetate disodium is an intracellular contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver. Recent publications revealed that injection of gadoxetate disodium can lead to imaging artifacts due to transient severe motion (TSM) in the arterial phase of contrast-enhanced liver MRI. In this review we present and discuss published frequencies of TSM, contrast injection and image acquisition protocols, potential risk factors, and proposed strategies to avoid or minimize the effects of TSM. Two reviewers independently searched the PubMed search engine for ''transient severe motion artifact'' and related terms. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also searched. The two reviewers selected in consensus nine studies that reported both frequencies of TSM and potential risk factors. Study data were extracted by both reviewers, and disagreement was resolved by consensus. TSM is caused by impaired breath-hold ability after gadoxetate disodium injection and occurs in 5 -22% of patients. The dose of applied contrast agent, repeated exposure to gadoxetate disodium, high BMI and pulmonary disease have been described as potential risk factors for TSM. However, there are only few concordant results on this topic and the pathophysiology of TSM has not been identified. Proposed strategies for the prevention of TSM are slow injection rates and low doses of diluted gadoxetate disodium. Accelerated and free-breathing MRI sequence protocols and breath-hold training may minimize the effects of TSM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these strategies and to identify the underlying mechanism of TSM.

  17. Two dialkylammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoic acid: crystal structures and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wardell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of two ammonium salts of 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoic acid are described, namely dimethylazanium 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoate, C2H8N+·C7H5N2O4−, (I, and dibutylazanium 2-amino-4-nitrobenzoate, C8H20N+·C7H5N2O4−, (II. The asymmetric unit of (I comprises a single cation and a single anion. In the anion, small twists are noted for the carboxylate and nitro groups from the ring to which they are connected, as indicated by the dihedral angles of 11.45 (13 and 3.71 (15°, respectively; the dihedral angle between the substituents is 7.9 (2°. The asymmetric unit of (II comprises two independent pairs of cations and anions. In the cations, different conformations are noted in the side chains in that three chains have an all-trans [(+-antiperiplanar] conformation, while one has a distinctive kink resulting in a (+-synclinal conformation. The anions, again, exhibit twists with the dihedral angles between the carboxylate and nitro groups and the ring being 12.73 (6 and 4.30 (10°, respectively, for the first anion and 8.1 (4 and 12.6 (3°, respectively, for the second. The difference between anions in (I and (II is that in the anions of (II, the terminal groups are conrotatory, forming dihedral angles of 17.02 (8 and 19.0 (5°, respectively. In each independent anion of (I and (II, an intramolecular amino-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bond is formed. In the crystal of (I, anions are linked into a jagged supramolecular chain by charge-assisted amine-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds and these are connected into layers via charge-assisted ammonium-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds. The resulting layers stack along the a axis, being connected by nitro-N—O...π(arene and methyl-C—H...O(nitro interactions. In the crystal of (II, the anions are connected into four-ion aggregates by charge-assisted amino-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonding. The formation of ammonium-N—H...O(carboxylate hydrogen bonds, involving

  18. Metal and acidity fluxes controlled by precipitation/dissolution cycles of sulfate salts in an anthropogenic mine aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, C R; Macías, F; Pérez-López, R

    2016-05-01

    Underground mine drainages are extremely difficult to study due to the lack of information about the flow path and source proximity in relation to the outflow adit. Geochemical processes controlling metals and acidity fluxes in a complex anthropogenic mine aquifer in SW Spain during the dry and rainy season were investigated by geochemical and statistical tools. High concentrations of acidity, sulfate, metals and metalloids (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ni, Co) were observed due to intense sulfide oxidation processes. The high residence time inside the anthropogenic aquifer, around 40days, caused the release of significant quantities of metals linked to host rocks (e.g. Al, Ca, Ge, Li, Mg, REE). The most outstanding characteristic of the acid mine drainage (AMD) outflows is the existence of higher Fe/SO4 molar ratios than those theoretical of pyrite (0.50) during most of the monitored period, due to a fire which occurred in 1949 and remained active for decades. Permanent and temporal retention mechanisms of acidity and metals were observed in the galleries. Once released from sulfide oxidation, Pb and As are sorbed on Fe oxyhydroxysulfate or precipitated as low solubility minerals (i.e. anglesite) inside the galleries. The precipitation of evaporitic sulfate salts during the dry season and the subsequent re-dissolution after rainfall control the fluxes of acidity and main metals (i.e. Fe, Mg, Al) from this anthropogenic aquifer. Some elements, such as Cd, Cu, Ni, REE and Zn, are retained in highly soluble sulfate salts while other elements, such as Ge, Pb and Sc, have a lower response to washout processes due to its incorporation in less soluble sulfate salts. In this way, metal concentration during the washout processes would be controlled by the proportion and solubility of each type of evaporitic sulfate salt stored during the dry season. The recovery of metals of economic interest contained in the AMD could help to self-finance the remediation of these waters in

  19. New Polymorphic Forms of Pemetrexed Diacid and Their Use for the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Pure Amorphous and Hemipentahydrate Forms of Pemetrexed Disodium

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Olga; Łaszcz, Marta; Jatczak, Kamil; Witkowska, Anna; Bujak, Iwona; Groman, Aleksandra; Cybulski, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of stable amorphous pemetrexed disodium of pharmaceutical purity as well as the process optimization for the preparation of the hemipentahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium are described. Analytical methods for the polymorphic and chemical purity studies of pemetrexed disodium and pemetrexed diacid forms were developed. The physicochemical properties of the amorphous and hydrate forms of pemetrexed disodium, as well as new forms of pemetrexed diacid (a key synthetic intermedia...

  20. Continuous Preparation of 1:1 Haloperidol-Maleic Acid Salt by a Novel Solvent-Free Method Using a Twin Screw Melt Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hung Lin; Vasoya, Jaydip M; Cirqueira, Marilia de Lima; Yeh, Kuan Lin; Lee, Tu; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2017-04-03

    Salts are generally prepared by acid-base reaction in relatively large volumes of organic solvents, followed by crystallization. In this study, the potential for preparing a pharmaceutical salt between haloperidol and maleic acid by a novel solvent-free method using a twin-screw melt extruder was investigated. The pH-solubility relationship between haloperidol and maleic acid in aqueous medium was first determined, which demonstrated that 1:1 salt formation between them was feasible (pH max 4.8; salt solubility 4.7 mg/mL). Extrusion of a 1:1 mixture of haloperidol and maleic acid at the extruder barrel temperature of 60 °C resulted in the formation of a highly crystalline salt. The effects of operating temperature and screw configuration on salt formation were also investigated, and those two were identified as key processing parameters. Salts were also prepared by solution crystallization from ethyl acetate, liquid-assisted grinding, and heat-assisted grinding and compared with those obtained by melt extrusion by using DSC, PXRD, TGA, and optical microscopy. While similar salts were obtained by all methods, both melt extrusion and solution crystallization yielded highly crystalline materials with identical enthalpies of melting. During the pH-solubility study, a salt hydrate form was also identified, which, upon heating, converted to anhydrate similar to that obtained by other methods. There were previous reports of the formation of cocrystals, but not salts, by melt extrusion. 1 H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction confirmed that a salt was indeed formed in the present study. The haloperidol-maleic acid salt obtained was nonhygroscopic in the moisture sorption study and converted to the hydrate form only upon mixing with water. Thus, we are reporting for the first time a relatively simple and solvent-free twin-screw melt extrusion method for the preparation of a pharmaceutical salt that provides material comparable to that obtained by solution

  1. Effect of ascorbic acid on morphological and biochemical parameters in tomato seedling exposure to salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa-Małkiewicz Marcelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of both NaCl and KCl alone and in comparison to AsA on the morphological and some biochemical parameters of Oxheart and Vilma cultivars of tomato under laboratory and field conditions. A combination of salt applied in the laboratory experiment caused a significant effect on seed germination and root and shoot length and a significant reduction of Chl a, Chl b and Car contents in 14-day-old tomato seedlings. However, seedlings of cultivar Vilma were characterised by higher tolerance to applied salt stress.

  2. Acidity Constants Determination of Triazine Dye Derivative in the presence of some Surfactants by Multiwavelength Spectrophotometric and Spectrofluorimetric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yeganeh Faal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, acidity constants protonated form of 4.4'-bis astilbene-2,2'-disulfonic-disodium salts (TRIAZ have been determined spectrophotometrically and spectrofluorimetrically at 25◦C and ionic strength of 0.1M KNO3. A program based on MCR-ALS applied for determination of acidity constants. The results show that the peak values of dye are influenced by the presence of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, Triton X-100 (TX-100 and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as a surface-active agent on the acidic and basic forms, and the spectral properties of dye were studied. Also, we determined the critical micelle concentration (CMC for these surfactants by spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric triazine dye probes. In addition, by using of evolving factor analysis (EFA and multivariate curve resolution alternative least squares (MCR-ALS methods, acidity constants were acquired.

  3. Porous media investigation before and after hydrochloric acid injection on a pre-salt carbonate coquinas sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, A C; Teles, A P; Pepin, A; Bize-Forest, N; Lima, I; Lopes, R T

    2016-04-01

    Porous space characterization of carbonate rocks is an important aid in petroleum exploration from carbonate reservoir. In this study, X-ray microtomography technique was applied to evaluate total porosity of a coquina sample extracted from pre-salt reservoir, in Brazil, before and after acid injection. Two image processing program were used in order to assess performance. The results showed that microtomography has potential to compute porosity of coquina samples and provides information about rock porous network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of endogenic abscisic acids and cytokinin content in soybean crops of variable salt sensitivity as well as the effect of exogenically applied abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ translocation. [in German

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeb, G.

    1981-05-01

    A study of the phytohormones abscisic acid and cytokinin with respect to plant salt stress and its relationship to genetic control over endogen content. An analysis is made of the acid cytokinin content, and an investigation is made of the influence exerted by exogenic applied synthetic abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ uptake and accumulation. 275 references, 14 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Hydrophobic Materials Based on Salts of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizim, N. F.; Golubina, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    Interfacial formations of material based on metals di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphates of various metals exhibit hydrophobic properties. The contact angle of the surface, modified by the interfacial formations materials, could reach up to 140° depending on the nature of the solvent, the metal salt, the number of applications.

  6. Apparent and standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes of aqueous tartaric acid and its sodium salts at elevated temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Wei; Trevani, Liliana; Tremaine, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    Apparent molar heat capacities and volumes have been determined for aqueous solutions of tartaric acid (H 2 Tar, Tar=C 4 H 4 O 6 ), two buffer solutions of (H 2 Tar/NaHTar) and (NaHTar/Na 2 Tar), and solutions of disodium tartrate (Na 2 Tar) at four temperatures in the range 283.15≤T/K≤328.15 at p=1 MPa. Apparent molar volumes for H 2 Tar(aq) and Na 2 Tar(aq) have been measured at temperatures 377.15≤T/K≤529.15 and p=10.4 MPa. The experimental results have been represented with a model to describe the molality and temperature dependence. Extrapolations to infinite dilution yielded standard partial molar heat capacities C p 0 and volumes V 0 for the species H 2 Tar(aq), HTar - (aq) and Tar 2- (aq) over the range of experimental measurements. The temperature dependence of V 0 for Na 2 Tar(aq) is consistent with other aqueous electrolytes, while that of H 2 Tar(aq) may be anomalous, in that it does not show divergence towards increasingly positive values with increasing temperature

  7. Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-04-01

    An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and a (pH 2 ) -1/2 dependence on hydrogen partial pressure. The cathodic reduction of water to produce hydrogen is the rate-controlling step in the corrosion process. An expression for the corrosion rate incorporating these two dependencies was used to estimate the corrosion life of several proposed waste package configurations. 42 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Analysis of corrosion data for carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.; Hull, A.B.; Kassner, T.F.

    1988-03-01

    Carbon steel is currently the leading candidate material for fabrication of a container for isolation of high level nuclear waste in a salt repository. Since brine entrapped in the bedded salt can migrate to the container by several transport processes, corrosion is an important consideration in the long-term performance of the waste package. A detailed literature search was performed to compile relevant corrosion data for carbon steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions, and simulated salt repository brines at temperatures between ∼ 20 and 400 0 C. The hydrolysis of Mg 2+ ions in simulated repository brines containing high magnesium concentrations causes acidification at temperatures above 25 0 C, which, in turn, influences the protective nature of the magnetite corrosion product layer on carbon steel. The corrosion data for the steels were analyzed, and an analytical model for general corrosion was developed to calculate the amount of penetration (i.e., wall thinning) as a function of time, temperature, and the pressure of corrosion product hydrogen than can build up during exposure in a closed system (e.g., a sealed capsule). Both the temperature and pressure dependence of the corrosion rate of steels in anoxic acid chloride solutions indicate that the rate-controlling partial reaction is the cathodic reduction of water to form hydrogen. Variations in the composition and microstructure of the steels or the concentration of the ionic species in the chloride solutions (provided that they do not change the pH significantly) do not appear to strongly influence the corrosion rate

  9. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  10. Effects of a mixture of vegetable and essential oils and fatty acid potassium salts on Tetranychus urticae and Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolakis, H; Ragusa, S

    2008-06-01

    Laboratory trials were carried out to evaluate the toxicity and the influence of a commercial mixture of vegetal, essential oils, and potassium salts of fatty acids (Acaridoil 13SL) on the population growth rate (r(i)--instantaneous rate of increase) of two mite species, the phytophagous Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predator Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot. A residue of 1.3 mg/cm(2) of pesticide solution was harmless for Ph. persimilis eggs, while a moderate mortality of eggs and of larvae from treated eggs of T. urticae, was observed (53.8%). The pesticide also caused a delay in the postembryonic development of the tetranychid. Moreover, 83.4% mortality was reported for treated females tetranychids and only 24.0% for Ph. persimilis females. The pesticide influenced negatively the population growth of T. urticae which showed a very low rate of increase (r(i)=0.07), compared to that obtained in the control (r(i)=0.68). The pesticide did not affect negatively the reproductive potential of Ph. persimilis (r(i)=0.54 and r(i)=0.57 for test and control, respectively). These results suggest a considerable acaricidal activity of potassium salts of fatty acids and caraway oil on T. urticae and a good selectivity on Ph. persimilis.

  11. 21 CFR 172.725 - Gibberellic acid and its potassium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The gibberellic acid is produced by deep-culture fermentation of a suitable nutrient medium by a strain of Fusarium moniliforme or a selection of this culture. (2) The gibberellic acid produced is of 80...) “Contains not more than 2 parts per million ___”, the blank being filled in with the words “gibberellic acid...

  12. Different β-alanine dimeric forms in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid salts. XRD and vibrational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Łukasz; Ilczyszyn, Maria M.

    2018-03-01

    Two new crystalline salts: β-alaninium trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-AlaOTf) and bis(β-alanine) trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-2AlaOTf) were obtained. The former one contains diprotonated β-alanine dimer, the latter one monoprotonated β-alanine dimer. Both compounds were studied by single crystal XRD, vibrational (IR and Raman) spectroscopy and calorimetric method. The quantum-mechanical calculations (DFT/B3LYP/6-311 ++G(2d,2p)) for the diprotonated dimer were carried out. The β-AlaOTf salt crystallizes in the P 1 bar space group of triclinic system (Z = 2), the β-2AlaOTf in the P21/m space group of monoclinic system (Z = 2). The vibrational data for the studied compounds are discussed in relation to their crystal structure, and provide insight into the character of hydrogen bonds and β-alanine protonation. The studied crystals do not exhibit phase transitions in the solid state.

  13. Antioxidant activity of salts of 2-(5-R-4-amino-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Pruglo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are chemical structures that prevent the oxidation of other chemicals. They protect key cell components by neutralizing the harmful effect of free radicals which are natural products of cell metabolism. Oxidative stress leads to serious cell damage which results in various human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders etc. The deficiency of antioxidants in food also leads to oxidative stress, which indicates a lack of antioxidant substances consumed by humans. Therefore, the search of substances that could not only prevent but also increase the resistance of the human body to active forms of oxygen or nitrogen and interfere with the processes of oxidative stress is an important task of medicine and pharmacy. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant activity (AOA of salts of 2-(5-R-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with non-enzymatic initiation of free radical oxidation and to establish laws concerning chemical structure and biological effects of the studied substances. Materials and methods. Original derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole were used in the series of screening studies. The antioxidant activity of the compounds in vitro was determined according to the methodical recommendations of the State Pharmacological Center MoH Ukraine using the method of non-enzymatic initiation of lipid peroxide oxidation. Results. Dimethylammonium salt of 2-(4-amino-5-(2-bromophenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid (3c possessed with a high AOA which reduced the content of TBK-AP by 54,95% ( р˂0,001. Derivatives of 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole had the most distinct AOA containing С5 carbon atoms 2-bromophenyl substituent. Thus, methylammonium salt 3b reduced the TBK-AP content by 80,31 (p˂0,001 which exceeds the reference ascorbic acid by 45,05% and the prototype thiotriazoline by 36,64%. Considering the data of experimental studies it was found

  14. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae) by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohua; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Xule; Hu, Qingdi; Qian, Renjuan

    2017-01-01

    Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA) is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae) usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), increased relative electric conductivity (REC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition), there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development. PMID:28484476

  15. Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Dianthus superbus (Caryophyllaceae by Activating Photosynthesis, Protecting Morphological Structure, and Enhancing the Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress critically affects the physiological processes and morphological structure of plants, resulting in reduced plant growth. Salicylic acid (SA is an important signal molecule that mitigates the adverse effects of salt stress on plants. Large pink Dianthus superbus L. (Caryophyllaceae usually exhibit salt-tolerant traits under natural conditions. To further clarify the salt-tolerance level of D. superbus and the regulating mechanism of exogenous SA on the growth of D. superbus under different salt stresses, we conducted a pot experiment to examine the biomass, photosynthetic parameters, stomatal structure, chloroplast ultrastructure, reactive oxygen species (ROS concentrations, and antioxidant activities of D. superbus young shoots under 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% NaCl conditions, with and without 0.5 mM SA. D. superbus exhibited reduced growth rate, decreased net photosynthetic rate (Pn, increased relative electric conductivity (REC and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, and poorly developed stomata and chloroplasts under 0.6 and 0.9% salt stress. However, exogenously SA effectively improved the growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, and stoma and chloroplast development of D. superbus. However, when the plants were grown under severe salt stress (0.9% NaCl condition, there was no significant difference in the plant growth and physiological responses between SA-treated and non-SA-treated plants. Therefore, our research suggests that exogenous SA can effectively counteract the adverse effect of moderate salt stress on D. superbus growth and development.

  16. Interactions between the Tetrasodium Salts of EDTA and 1-Hydroxyethane 1,1-Diphosphonic Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Philippe; Mohn, Dirk; Attin, Thomas; Zehnder, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    A clinically useful all-in-one endodontic irrigant with combined proteolytic and decalcifying properties is still elusive. In this study, the chemical effects of dissolving the tetrasodium salts of 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid (Na 4 HEDP) or Na 4 EDTA directly in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigants in polypropylene syringes were assessed during the course of 1 hour. The solubility of the salts in water was determined. Their compatibility with 1% and 5% NaOCl was measured by iodometric titration and in a calcium complexation experiment by using a Ca 2+ -selective electrode. The salts dissolved within 1 minute. The dissolution maximum of Na 4 HEDP in water (wt/total wt) was 44.6% ± 1.6%. The corresponding dissolution maximum of Na 4 EDTA was 38.2% ± 0.8%. Na 4 HEDP at 18% in 5% NaOCl caused a mere loss of 16% of the initially available chlorine during 1 hour. In contrast, a corresponding mixture between NaOCl and the Na 4 EDTA salt caused 95% reduction in available chlorine after 1 minute. Mixtures of 3% Na 4 EDTA with 1% NaOCl were more stable, but only for 30 minutes. Na 4 HEDP lost 24% of its calcium complexation capacity after 60 minutes. The corresponding loss for Na 4 EDTA was 34%. The compatibility and solubility of particulate Na 4 HEDP with/in NaOCl solutions are such that these components can be mixed and used for up to 1 hour. In contrast, short-term compatibility of the Na 4 EDTA salt with NaOCl solutions was considerably lower, decreasing at higher concentrations of either compound. Especially for Na 4 HEDP but also for Na 4 EDTA, the NaOCl had little effect on calcium complexation. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatoblastoma imaging with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI - typical, atypical, pre- and post-treatment evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Towbin, Alexander J.; Podberesky, Daniel J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Geller, James I. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is a hepatobiliary MRI contrast agent widely used in adults for characterization of liver tumors and increasingly used in children. Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary hepatic malignancy of childhood. In this review, we describe our experience with this agent both before and after initiating therapy in children with hepatoblastoma. (orig.)

  18. Organic Acid Salt from Complete Feed Silage Corn Based by Product as an Alternative to Substitute Antibiotic Function as a Growth Promotor for Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Negara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of organic acid salt Zn from complete feed silage based on corn by product as an alternative to subtitute antibiotic function as a growth promotor for broiler. Ninety day old commercial Cobb broiler chickens were randomly distributed into six groups having three replicates of five birds in each group. Negative control (R0 birds were offered standard basal diet and no challenged, positive control (R1 birds were offered standard basal diet and challenged with 107 Salmonella typhimurium. Treatment R2, R3, R4 and R5 were challenged by 107 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium which added in feed with 0.1% flouroquinolone, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3% of organic acid salts. The result showed that dietary of organic acid salts affect consumption, weight gain, and final body weight (P<0.05. Meanwhile, feed conversion (FCR was not affected by antibiotics nor organic acids. Our conclusion, Dietary organic acid salt from complete feed silage corn based by product until dose 0.2% can improve the performance of broiler chickens infected Salmonella typhimurium. (Animal Production 11(3: 170-175 (2009 Key Words: broiler, organic acid, Salmonella typhimurium

  19. Thermodynamic study on salt effects on complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibunova, E.S.; Kumeev, R.S.; Terekhova, I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic study on salt effects in CD/pABA complex formation was performed. • Effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant and nonspecific. • Specific influence of KBr is caused by the ability of Br − to penetrate into CD cavity. • Coexistence of two complexation equilibria is accompanied by solvent reorganization. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to gain a deeper understanding of salt effects in the inclusion complex formation of cyclodextrins. For this purpose, thermodynamic study of complex formation of α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out in water and solutions of KCl, KBr, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 (0.2 mol/kg). Stability constants were calculated from the binding isotherms obtained on the basis of 1 H NMR measurements. Enthalpy and entropy of complex formation were estimated from the van’t Hoff plots. It was found that effects of KCl, KH 2 PO 4 and K 2 SO 4 are insignificant, while the influence of KBr on complex formation of cyclodextrins with p-aminobenzoic acid is more pronounced and results in a decrease of the stability constants. Specific action of Br − is caused by the ability of these anions to penetrate into macrocyclic cavity. Coexistence of two complexation equilibria in KBr solution is accompanied by significant solvent reorganization originated from more intensive dehydration of the interacting species. This results in an increase of the enthalpy and entropy of complex formation. Manifestation of Br − effect was found to be the same in the binding of p-aminobenzoic acid with α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrins.

  20. Respiratory motion artefacts in dynamic liver MRI: a comparison using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetkens, Julian A.; Kupczyk, Patrick A.; Doerner, Jonas; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Fimmers, Rolf [University of Bonn, Department of Medical Biometry, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the occurrence of respiratory motion artefacts in patients undergoing dynamic liver magnetic resonance (MR) either with gadoxetate disodium or gadobutrol. Two hundred and thirty liver MR studies (115 with gadobutrol, 115 with gadoxetate disodium) were analysed. Respiratory motion artefacts on dynamic 3D T1-weighted MR images (pre-contrast, arterial, venous, and late-dynamic phase) were assessed using a five-point rating scale. Severe motion was defined as a score ≥ 4. Mean motion scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney-U-test. The chi-squared-test was used for dichotomous comparisons. Mean motion scores for gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol showed no relevant differences for each phase of the dynamic contrast series (pre-contrast: 1.85 ± 0.70 vs. 1.88 ± 0.57, arterial: 1.85 ± 0.81 vs. 1.87 ± 0.74, venous: 1.82 ± 0.67 vs. 1.74 ± 0.64, late-dynamic: 1.75 ± 0.62 vs. 1.79 ± 0.63; p = 0.469, 0.557, 0.382 and 0.843, respectively). Severe motion artefacts had a similar incidence using gadoxetate disodium and gadobutrol (11/460 [2.4 %] vs. 7/460 [1.5 %]; p = 0.341). Gadoxetate disodium is associated with equivalent motion scores compared to gadobutrol in dynamic liver MRI. In addition, both contrast agents demonstrated a comparable and acceptable rate of severe respiratory motion artefacts. (orig.)

  1. Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment

  2. Acidity of sphagnum and its relation to chalk and mineral salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skene, M

    1915-01-01

    In addition to the criticism and elucidation of various other points, the chief conclusions which may be drawn from the preceding pages are: (1) There is a variation in acidity and in sensitiveness to chalk between the different species of sphagnum. (2) There is a correlation between degree of acidity and degree of sensitiveness. (3) The connection between the two is indirect, not direct. (4) The sphagna thrive in acid solutions: the injurious effect of chalk, and of alkalies in general, is due to the substitution of an alkaline for an acid reaction. (5) Mineral solutions are generally physiologically harmless, but may be ecologically harmful. (6) The sphagna do actually utilize in growth bases held absorbed by the acid compounds of the cell-walls.

  3. Use of phytic acid and hyper-salting to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 from napa cabbage for kimchi production in a commercial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Seong Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Younghoon; Ryu, Jee Hoon; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a new salting method using natural phytic acid (PA) to ensure the microbiological safety and quality of salted napa cabbage used for kimchi production. The production of salted napa cabbage involves several stages: trimming, hyper-salting (20% NaCl) for up to 1h, salting (10% NaCl for 10-18 h), three sequential washes in water (30s for each), and draining (2 h). Two separate experiments were performed: one to determine the appropriate treatment conditions and a second to validate applicability under commercial conditions. In Experiment I, the effects of hyper-salting with PA on Escherichia coli O157:H7 numbers were tested in the laboratory. The following variables were monitored: 1) PA concentration (1, 2, 3%, w/w); 2) the ratio of the sample weight to the total volume of the solution (1:1.5, 1:3, or 1:6); 3) the hyper-salting time (30 or 60 min); and 4) the salting time (2, 5, or 8 h). A procedure that achieved a >5-log reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population was then tested in an actual kimchi processing plant (Experiment II). The results from Experiment I showed that bactericidal efficacy increased as all the measured variables increased (psalting with 2% PA at a sample-to-water ratio (w/v) of 1:3 and 1:6 for 60 min resulted in a >5-log CFU/g reduction in the E. coli O157:H7 population. Further salting for 5h completely eliminated (salting with PA 2% at a sample-to-water ratio of 1:3 for 60 min, followed by salting for 5h, was tested under large-scale production conditions. The results revealed that the initial aerobic plate counts (APC), total coliform counts (TC), and fecal coliform counts (FC) were 6.6, 3.4, and 2.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The selected protocol reduced these values by 3.7-, >2.4-, and >1.8-log CFU/g, respectively. The 5h salting step maintained the TC and FC at salted napa cabbages were within the ranges required for kimchi production (pH 5.1-5.3 and 1.5-2.0%, respectively). These results suggest that

  4. Different β-alanine dimeric forms in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid salts. XRD and vibrational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Łukasz; Ilczyszyn, Maria M

    2018-03-15

    Two new crystalline salts: β-alaninium trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-AlaOTf) and bis(β-alanine) trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-2AlaOTf) were obtained. The former one contains diprotonated β-alanine dimer, the latter one monoprotonated β-alanine dimer. Both compounds were studied by single crystal XRD, vibrational (IR and Raman) spectroscopy and calorimetric method. The quantum-mechanical calculations (DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) for the diprotonated dimer were carried out. The β-AlaOTf salt crystallizes in the P1¯ space group of triclinic system (Z=2), the β-2AlaOTf in the P2 1 /m space group of monoclinic system (Z=2). The vibrational data for the studied compounds are discussed in relation to their crystal structure, and provide insight into the character of hydrogen bonds and β-alanine protonation. The studied crystals do not exhibit phase transitions in the solid state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased expression of clp genes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 exposed to acid stress and bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A B; De Oliveira, M N V; Freitas, F S; Alfenas-Zerbini, P; Da Silva, D F; De Queiroz, M V; Borges, A C; De Moraes, C A

    2013-12-01

    The ability to survive in harsh environments is an important criterion to select potential probiotics strains. The objective of this study was to identify and carry out phylogenetic and expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR of the clpP, clpE, clpL and clpX genes in the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 exposed to the conditions prevailing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Phylogenetic trees reconstructed by Bayesian inference showed that the L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 clpP, clpL and clpE genes and the ones from L. delbrueckii ATCC 11842 were grouped. The exposure of cells to MRS broth of pH 3.5 for 30 and 60 min resulted in an increased expression of the four genes. Exposure of the L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 cells for 30 and 60 min to MRS broth containing 0.1% bile salts increased the expression of the clpP and clpE genes, while the expression level of the clpL and clpX genes increased only after 30 min of exposure. The involvement of the studied genes in the responses to acid stress and bile salts suggests a possible central role of these genes in the survival of L. delbrueckii UFV H2b20 during the passage through the GIT, a characteristic necessary for probiotic strains.

  6. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  7. Response Surface Optimization of Lyoprotectant from Amino Acids and Salts for Bifidobacterium Bifidum During Vacuum Freeze-Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Kangru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High quality probiotic powder can lay the foundation for the commercial production of functional dairy products. The freeze-drying method was used for the preservation of microorganisms, having a deleterious effect on the microorganisms viability. In order to reduce the damage to probiotics and to improve the survival rate of probiotics during freeze-drying, the Response Surface Methodology (RSM was adopted in this research to optimize lyoprotectant composed of amino acids (glycine, arginine and salts (NaHCO3 and ascorbic acid. Probiotic used was Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01. The regression model (p<0.05 was obtained by Box–Behnken experiment design, indicating this model can evaluate the freeze-drying survival rate of B. bifidum BB01 under different lyoprotectants. The results indicated these concentrations as optimal (in W/V: glycine 4.5%, arginine 5.5%, NaHCO3 0.8% and ascorbic acid 2.3%, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, the survival rate of lyophilized powder of B. bifidum BB01 was significantly increased by 80.9% compared to the control group (6.9±0.62%, the results were agreement with the model prediction value (88.7%.

  8. Acidic bile salts induces mucosal barrier dysfunction through let-7a reduction during gastric carcinogenesis after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yasushi; Uno, Kaname; Iijima, Katsunori; Abe, Yasuhiko; Koike, Tomoyuki; Asano, Naoki; Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) after eradication for Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) increases, but its carcinogenesis is not elucidated. It is mainly found in acid non-secretion areas (ANA), as mucosal regeneration in acid secretory areas (AA) after eradication changes the acidity and bile toxicity of gastric juice. We aimed to clarify the role of barrier dysfunction of ANA by the stimulation of pH3 bile acid cocktail (ABC) during carcinogenesis. We collected 18 patients after curative endoscopic resection for GC, identified later than 24 months after eradication, and took biopsies by Congo-red chromoendoscopy to distinguish AA and ANA (UMIN00018967). The mucosal barrier function was investigated using a mini-Ussing chamber system and molecular biological methods. The reduction in mucosal impedance in ANA after stimulation was significantly larger than that in AA, 79.6% vs. 87.9%, respectively. The decrease of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and let-7a and the increase of snail in ANA were significant compared to those in AA. In an in vitro study, the restoration of ZO-1 and let-7a as well as the induction of snail were observed after stimulation. High mobility group A2 (HMGA2)-snail activation, MTT proliferation, and cellular infiltration capacity were significantly increased in AGS transfected with let-7a inhibitor, and vice versa. Accordingly, using a mini-Ussing chamber system for human biopsy specimens followed by an in vitro study, we demonstrated for the first time that the exposure of acidic bile salts to ANA might cause serious barrier dysfunction through the let-7a reduction, promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition during inflammation-associated carcinogenesis even after eradication. PMID:29719591

  9. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  10. Crystal and molecular structures of sixteen charge-assisted hydrogen bond-mediated diisopropylammonium salts from different carboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhihao; Hu, Kaikai; Jin, Shouwen; Ding, Aihua; Wang, Yining; Dong, Lingfeng; Gao, Xingjun; Wang, Daqi

    2017-10-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic amine, diisopropylamine, with a series of carboxylic acids gave a total of sixteen molecular salts with the compositions: diisopropylaminium 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanate [(Hdpa)+ · (mpa-), mpa- = 2-methyl-2-phenoxypropanoate] (1), diisopropylaminium 2-methyl-2-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)-propionate [(Hdpa)+ · (npa-), npa- = 2-methyl-2-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)-propionate] (2), diisopropylaminium indole-3-acetate [(Hdpa)+ · (iaa-), iaa- = indole-3-acetate] (3), diisopropylaminium 4-chlorophenoxyacetate [(Hdpa)+ · (cpa-), cpa- = 4-chlorophenoxyacetate] (4), diisopropylaminium 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate [(Hdpa)+ · (dcpa-), dcpa- = 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate] (5), diisopropylaminium 4-hydroxybenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (hba-), hba- = 4-hydroxybenzoate] (6), diisopropylaminium 4-aminobenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (aba-), aba- = 4-aminobenzoate] (7), tetra(diisopropylaminium) tetra(1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate) trihydrate [(Hdpa)44+ · (2-hnpa)44- · 3H2O, 2-hnpa = 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate] (8), diisopropylaminium 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate [(Hdpa)+ · (3-hnpa-), 3-hnpa- = 2-hydroxy-3-naphthoate] (9), diisopropylaminium 5-bromosalicylate [(Hdpa)+ · (bsa-), bsa- = 5-bromosalicylate] (10), diisopropylaminium 3,5-dinitrobenzoate [(Hdpa)+ · (dna-), dna- = 3,5-dinitrobenzoate] (11), diisopropylaminium 3,5-dinitrosalicylate [(Hdpa)+ · (3,5-dns-), 3,5-dns- = 3,5-dinitrosalicylate] (12), tetra(diisopropylaminium) bis(m-phthalate) monohydrate [(Hdpa+)4 · (mpta2-)2 · H2O, mpta2- = m-phthalate] (13), bis(diisopropylaminium) dihydrogen 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylate [(Hdpa+)2 · (H2Bta2-), H2Bta2- = dihydrogen 1,2,3,4-butane tetracarboxylate] (14), bis(diisopropylaminium) mucate [(Hdpa+)2 · (muc2-), muc2- = mucate] (15), and diisopropylaminium hydrogen 1,2-phenylenediacetate [(Hdpa) · (Hpda-), Hpda- = hydrogen 1,2-phenylenediacetate] (16). The sixteen salts have been characterised by XRD technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all the

  11. Relative gene transcription and pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli after long-term adaptation to acid and salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Relative gene transcription and virulence potential, as measured by a Caco-2 adhesion assay, were investigated for three enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains after long-term adaptation for 24 h to acid (BHI pH 5.5) and salt (BHI 4.5% (w/v) NaCl) stress. Five virulence genes (eae, lpf...... compared to EDL933 (O157:H7, raw hamburger). Long-term adaptation to salt stress significantly increased the adhesion of all three EHEC strains to Caco-2 compared to the non-stressed controls. The present study shows that long-term adaptation to food related stress factors such as acid and salt is capable...... of changing the relative transcription of important virulence and stress response genes and increasing the virulence potential as measured by adhesion to the human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2....

  12. Effects of Pretreatment with Salicylic Acid on Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Sesame Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Safari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Salinity stress is regarded as one of the most important abiotic factors limiting plant growth and agricultural products, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. is an important oilseed crop rated moderately salt tolerant and capable of producing profitable crops in saline conditions. Germination and seedling establishment are critical stages in the life cycle of plants especially under stress conditions. Different methodologies have been adopted by plant physiologists in different crops to alleviate salt stress. Seed priming has proven beneficial in this regard in many important agricultural crops. Salicylic acid is one of the physiological processes regulators that it increases resistant of plants to environmental stresses such as salinity stress. Materials and Methods To evaluate the effect of different levels of salinity and seed pretreatment with salicylic acid (SA, on some growth indices and nutrient uptake of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedling, a factorial experiment with completely randomized design and four replicates was conducted in Department of Agronomy, Rafsanjan University of Vali-e- Asr. Factors were seed pretreatment with three levels including, distilled water, 1 mM salicylic acid and 2.5 Mm salicylic acid and salinity at three levels: control (Hoagland standard solution, 2.5 dS.m-1, 6 and 9 dS.m-1. A dry seed treatment (no pretreatment was also added and considered as control. Results and Discussion Results showed that at 9 dS/m-1both SA concentrations caused significant increase in emergence percentage compared to dry seed and distilled water. Plant leaf area and SPAD values decreased along with salinity in dry seed and distilled water, nevertheless, at 2.5 mM SA, values were not significantly different between 6 and 9 dS.m-1. On the other hand, SA seed pretreatment decreased shoot Na and increased K content, although shoot Mg and P contents were the highest at 1 and 2.5 mM SA

  13. Reducing the potential for migration of radioactive waste: Aqueous thermal degradation of the chelating agent disodium EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boles, J.S.; Ritchie, K.; Crerar, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), a common component of cleaning solutions used for decontamination of radioactive equipment, has been associated with increased migration of radionuclides into local groundwaters at some radwaste disposal sites. It has been proposed that predisposal thermal degradation of EDTA-containing aqueous solutions may reduce the potential for chelate-enhanced mobilization of radionuclides at these sites. Aqueous thermal degradation experiments with disodium EDTA have shown that the compound degrades rapidly at 200 0 C with an activation energy of 114.3 +- 7.87 kJ/mol, and forms the decomposition product methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA). A comparison of the values for stability constants of transition metal and actinide complexes with EDTA, MIDA, and two other reported degradation products, indicates that the chelating efficiency of the degradation products is 6 to 22 orders of magnitude lower than that of EDTA at 25 0 C. It is concluded that aqueous thermal degradation should significantly reduce the overall chelating efficiency of EDTA-containing solutions

  14. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried co-amorphous drug-amino acid salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katrine Birgitte Tarp; Blaabjerg, Lasse Ingerslev; Lenz, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    scale. In this study, spray-drying was investigated as a scale up preparation method for co-amorphous indomethacin (IND)-amino acid mixtures. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of the different co-amorphous systems were investigated with respect to the amino acids' ability towards co...... dissolution behaviour, and physical stability at various storage conditions, were examined. KEY FINDINGS: Results showed that IND could be converted into an amorphous form in combination with the amino acids arginine (ARG), histidine (HIS) and lysine (LYS) by spray-drying. Solid state characterization...... mixtures were physically stable (>10 months) at room temperature and 40°C under dry conditions. Intrinsic dissolution of the co-amorphous mixtures showed an improved dissolution behaviour under intestinal pH conditions for IND-ARG compared with the crystalline and amorphous forms of the drug. On the other...

  15. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  16. Effect of pH and salts on microstructure and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber suspensions upon high pressure homogenization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Katleen L.D.D.; Panozzo, Agnese; Moelants, Katlijn; Cardinaels, Ruth; Wallecan, Joël; Moldenaers, Paula; Hendrickx, Marc

    2018-01-01

    In the present paper the effect of pH and salts on microstructural and viscoelastic properties of lemon peel acid insoluble fiber residue (AR) suspensions upon mild and intense shearing was investigated. To this aim, AR suspensions were adjusted to a pH of 2.5 (as is), 4.5, 5.5, 7 or 10 prior to or

  17. Emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba-salts of some aromatic acids in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balek, V; Prachar, M [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu, Rez (Czechoslovakia); Kroupa, J [Vyzkumny Ustav Syntetickych Pryskyric a Laku, Pardubice (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the emanation-thermal characteristics of Ba salts of some monocarboxylic acids (phtalic, isophtalic and terephtalic) and dicarboxylic acids (benzoic, salicylic, 1,4-aminobenzoic, 1,2-Cl-benzoic and 1,2-I-benzoic). It is shown that the emanation thermal characteristics measured in the temperature range between 298 and 373 K are suitable for estimating diffusion properties of studied organic solids. An apparatus for determining emanation-thermal characteristics is proposed.

  18. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl 3 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO 3 , Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbS, and Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO 3 , disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na 2 -EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO 4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl 3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl 2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl 2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 and PbCO 3 , we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Salt dependent stability of stearic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films exposed to aqueous electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Naveen; Wang, Lei; Sîretanu, Igor; Duits, Michael H.G.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2013-01-01

    We use contact angle goniometry, imaging ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy to study the stability and wettability of Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers of stearic acid on silica substrates, upon drying and exposure to aqueous solutions of varying salinity. The influences of Ca2+ and Na+ ions

  20. Gas-phase salt bridge interactions between glutamic acid and arginine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeqx, S.; Oomens, J.; Rijs, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The gas-phase side chain-side chain (SC-SC) interaction and possible proton transfer between glutamic acid (Glu) and arginine (Arg) residues are studied under low-temperature conditions in an overall neutral peptide. Conformation-specific IR spectra, obtained with the free electron laser FELIX, in

  1. Resistance of polyvinyl alcohol blends stabilized by sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids against γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbora Bakajova; Jiri Kucerik; Michal Ilcin; Oga Hola

    2011-01-01

    The dried blends containing sodium and ammonium salts of lignite humic acids (humates, 0.5-10% w/w) in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were exposed to high dosage of γ-irradiation in the range of doses 127-806 kGy. Resulted products were then tested for their stability using thermogravimetrical analysis. As a reference the non-treated blends were used since the pure PVA exposed to γ-irradiation very quickly lost its stability and resulting consistence did not allow the stability tests. Stabilities showed a strong concentration and counterion dependency. While sodium counterion caused mostly destabilization with increasing dose, the ammonium counterion acted in an opposite way. The tests carried out in a moisturizing container revealed the changes in water absorbing capacity of irradiated samples and allowed partial explanation of humate stabilizing effect. Generally, at lower concentration of a humate the increase was observed with an increase in the γ-irradiation dose and vice versa. The results confirmed the antioxidant and stabilizing effect of humic acids added to some synthetic polymers and their applicability in materials exposed to γ-irradiation. (author)

  2. Edetate Disodium-Based Treatment for Secondary Prevention in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Issa, Omar M

    2016-02-01

    An abundance of data, known for decades, is available linking metals, such as lead and cadmium, with cardiovascular disease. However, the idea that these toxic metals could be a modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis did not become apparent clinically until the completion of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy in 2012. This pivotal study was the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of its kind to demonstrate a clear improvement in cardiovascular outcomes with edetate disodium therapy in a secondary prevention, post-myocardial infarction population. This effect size was most striking in diabetic patients, where the efficacy of edetate disodium was comparable, if not superior, to that of current guideline-based therapies. Given the economic burden of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, the potential impact of this therapy could be enormous if the results of this study are replicated.

  3. Comparison of hydrogen isotope exchange reactions between HTO vapor and the sodium salts of o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Itoh, Tomoko

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange reaction between HTO vapor and one of the sodium salts of o-, m-, and p-aminobenzoic acid (solid) was observed at 50 ∼ 80 degC. The acidity (acidity based on kinetic logic) for the materials at each temperature has been obtained with the A''-McKay plots based on the respective data obtained. The followings have been clarified by comparing these acidities (and the acidities obtained previously). 1) The acidity of aromatic amines can be expressed in terms of the acidity based on kinetic logic. 2) The reactivity of aromatic amine is strongly affected by both I-effect and R-effect. 3) It can be deduced that aromatic amines are more reactive than aliphatic amines. (author)

  4. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during

  5. Crystallographic aspects of hydrated salts of 4,6-diaminopyrimidine with the first five dicarboxylic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, I.; Andreoni, R.; Císařová, I.; Němec, I.; Fábry, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 6 (2017), s. 471-484 ISSN 2194-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05506S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure analysis * 4,6-diaminopyrimidine * dicarboxylic acids * hydrogen-bonding * vibrational spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2016

  6. Polyamine/salt-assembled microspheres coated with hyaluronic acid for targeting and pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yang, Hui; Wang, Guojun; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-06-01

    The poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/trisodium citrate aggregates were fabricated and further covalently crosslinked via the coupling reaction of carboxylic sites on trisodium citrate with the amine groups on polyamine, onto which poly-L-lysine and hyaluronic acid were sequentially assembled, forming stable microspheres. The pH sensitive dye and pH insensitive dye were further labeled to enable the microspheres with pH sensing property. Moreover, these microspheres could be specifically targeted to HeLa tumor cells, since hyaluronic acid can specifically recognize and bind to CD44, a receptor overexpressed on many tumor cells. Quantitative pH measurement by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the microspheres were internalized into HeLa cells, and accumulated in acidic compartments. By contrast, only a few microspheres were adhered on the NIH 3T3 cells surface. The microspheres with combined pH sensing property and targeting ability can enhance the insight understanding of the targeted drug vehicles trafficking after cellular internalization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas: detection with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and multiphasic multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Hiromitsu; Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Nakaya, Yasuhiro; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Imai, Yasuharu [Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Nagano, Hiroaki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kumano, Seishi; Okada, Masahiro; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osakasayama, Osaka (Japan); Takamura, Manabu [Ikeda Municipal Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ikeda, Osaka (Japan); Wakasa, Kenichi [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-04-15

    To retrospectively compare the accuracy of detection of hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by multiphasic multidetector CT and by gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. After ethical approval, we analysed a total of 73 hypervascular HCC lesions from 31 patients suspected of having HCC, who underwent both gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and multiphasic multidetector CT. Five blinded observers independently reviewed CT images, as well as dynamic MR images alone and combined with hepatobiliary phase MR images. Diagnostic accuracy (Az values), sensitivities and positive predictive values were compared by using the Scheffe post hoc test. The mean Az value for dynamic and hepatobiliary phase MR combined (0.81) or dynamic MR images alone (0.78) was significantly higher than that for CT images (0.67, P < 0.001, 0.005, respectively). The mean sensitivity of the combined MR images (0.67) was significantly higher than that of dynamic MR alone (0.52, P < 0.05) or CT images (0.44, P < 0.05). The mean positive predictive values were 0.96, 0.95 and 0.94, for CT, dynamic MR alone and combined MR images, respectively. Compared with multiphasic multidetector CT, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging combining dynamic and hepatobiliary phase images results in significantly improved sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for detection of hypervascular HCC. (orig.)

  9. Acid-promoted Bicyclization of Diaryl Alkynes: Synthesis of 2H-Indazoles with in situ Generated Diazonium Salt as Nitrogen Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Chang, Sailan; Dong, Shanliang; Qiu, Lihua; Xu, Xinfang

    2018-06-08

    An unprecedented transition-metal-free tandem bicyclization of diaryl alkynes has been disclosed, which provides a streamlined access to a range of polycyclic 2H-indazoles in high to excellent yields. The salient features of this reaction include readily available starting materials, good functional group compatibility, mild reaction conditions, no column chromatography, high bond-formation efficiency, and ease in further transformations. Notably, this is the first example for the synthesis of 2H-indazoles with in situ generated diazonium salt as the nitrogen source, and a mechanistic rationale involving an acid-promoted tandem diazonium salt formation/bicyclization process is discussed.

  10. Survival strategy of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophilus, to counteract koji mold, Aspergillus oryzae, in soy sauce brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Ikuko; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Oguma, Tetsuya; Koyama, Yasuji

    2018-04-08

    In soy sauce brewing, the results of the fermentation of lactic acid greatly affect the quality of soy sauce. The soy sauce moromi produced with Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 allows the growth of Tetragenococcus halophilus NBRC 12172 but not T. halophilus D10. We isolated and identified heptelidic acid (HA), an inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), produced by A. oryzae RIB40 as the growth inhibitor of the salt-tolerant lactic acid bacteria. The growth inhibition of T. halophilus D10 by HA was suggested to be associated with the direct inhibition of GAPDH activity under high salt environment. The difference in the susceptibility to HA among various strains of T. halophilus was caused by the mutations in the gene encoding GAPDH.

  11. Dgroup: DG01600 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG01600 DGroup Bisphosphonate -dronic acid, -dronate ... DG00780 ... Etidronic acid ... D02373 ... Etidron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D00314 ... Etidronate disodium (JP17/USP) ... DG00781 ... Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodron...ic acid (USAN/INN) ... D03544 ... Clodronate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) ... D07720 ... Clodron...ic acid disodium salt DG00782 ... Pamidronic acid ... D07281 ... Pamidronic acid (INN) ... D00941 ... Pamidron...ate disodium (USAN); Pamidronate disodium hydrate (JAN) ... DG00783 ... Alendronic acid ... D07119 ... Alendron

  12. [Gas chromatography in quantitative analysis of hydrocyanic acid and its salts in cadaveric blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iablochkin, V D

    2003-01-01

    A direct gas chromatography method was designed for the quantitative determination of cyanides (prussic acid) in cadaveric blood. Its sensitivity is 0.05 mg/ml. The routine volatile products, including substances, which emerge due to putrefaction of organic matters, do not affect the accuracy and reproducibility of the method; the exception is H-propanol that was used as the internal standard. The method was used in legal chemical expertise related with acute cyanide poisoning (suicide) as well as with poisoning of products of combustion of nonmetals (foam-rubber). The absolute error does not exceed 10% with a mean quadratic deviation of 0.0029-0.0033 mg.

  13. The study of antimicrobial activity of 2-((4-R-3-(morpholinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Shcherbyna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to study the antimicrobial activity of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts by "hanging drop" and “serial dilution” methods in broth (limiting concentration option and establish some patterns of "structure – action" depending. Materials and methods. The objects of research were 9 new compounds of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts. These compounds are the crystal substances which are odorless, soluble in water and organic solvents. To achieve a more objective picture of the research we applied two methods: "hanging drop" and “serial dilution” in broth (limiting concentration option. To study the effectiveness of substances we used the test cultures of E. coli, Salmonella typhymurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, P. aeruginosa. Results and discussion. In the study we have found that 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts can differently inhibit the growth of test cultures. The results show that the data obtained by two methods correlated with each other. Thus, the 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts are active against most strains of E. Coli. and Salmonella typhymurium. Analyzing the impact of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylene-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthio acetic acid salts we have noted that the replacement of the phenyl radical (PKR-135, 139 on the free amino group at N4 nitrogen of 1,2,4- triazole cycle (PKR-173, 177 leads to the disappearance of antimicrobial activity against the studied strains. It was established that the transition from morfolin cation (PKR-133 to the piperydyn cation (PKR-134 in the molecules of 2-((4-phenyl-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-yl thio acetic acid is accompanied by a significant increase in antimicrobial effect. It was interesting that among all the cations in the molecules of 2-((4-amino-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1

  14. Nutrient acquisition across a dietary shift: fruit feeding butterflies crave amino acids, nectivores seek salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscraft, Alison; Boggs, Carol L

    2016-05-01

    Evolutionary dietary shifts have major ecological consequences. One likely consequence is a change in nutrient limitation-some nutrients become more abundant in the diet, others become more scarce. Individuals' behavior should change accordingly to match this new limitation regime: they should seek out nutrients that are deficient in the new diet. We investigated the relationship between diet and responses to nutrients using adult Costa Rican butterflies with contrasting feeding habits, testing the hypothesis that animals will respond more positively to nutrients that are scarcer in their diets. Via literature searches and our own data, we showed that nitrogen and sodium are both at lower concentration in nectar than in fruit. We therefore assessed butterflies' acceptance of sodium and four nitrogenous compounds that ranged in complexity from inorganic nitrogen (ammonium chloride) to protein (albumin). We captured wild butterflies, offered them aqueous solutions of each substance, and recorded whether they accepted (drank) or rejected each substance. Support for our hypothesis was mixed. Across the sexes, frugivores were four times more likely to accept amino acids (hydrolyzed casein) than nectivores, in opposition to expectation. In males, nectivores accepted sodium almost three times more frequently than frugivores, supporting expectations. Together, these results suggest that in butterflies, becoming frugivorous is associated with an increased receptivity to amino acids and decreased receptivity to sodium. Nectivory and frugivory are widespread feeding strategies in organisms as diverse as insects, birds, and bats; our results suggest that these feeding strategies may put different pressures on how animals fulfill their nutritional requirements.

  15. The phases formed by the dehydration of disodium zirconium (IV) bis(orthophosphate) trihydrate and their ion-exchange behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yamada, Yoshimune

    1982-01-01

    The phase transformation of Na 2 Zr(PO 4 ) 2 .3H 2 O which had been obtained from zirconium (IV) bis(hydrogenphosphate) monohydrate(α-zirconium phosphate), prepared by the direct precipitation method, was studied by means of gravimetry, X-ray analysis, and acid-base titration. When the material was heated for 2d, it was transformed to a monohydrate at 80 0 C and then successively to three anhydrous phases, depending on the temperature. The monohydrate was also formed by letting the trihydrate stand over P 2 O 5 at room temperature for longer than two weeks. The processes were confirmed to be irreversible by an examination of the rehydration behavior, from which the conditions of the storage of five modifications of disodium zirconium (IV) bis(orthophosphate) were established. It is of special interest that the second anhydrous phase reverted to the first one when it was allowed to stand at room temperature in air or in a desiccator. The rate of the reversion decreased with the temperature of heat-treatment and with a decrease in the relative humidity of the surroundings. The difference between the present results and Clearfield's was clarified and attributed mainly to the difference in the crystallinity of the starting α-zirconium phosphate. (author)

  16. Effects of Gibberellic Acid and Nitrogen on Some Physiology Parameters and Micronutrients Concentration in Pistachio under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid mozafari

    2017-02-01

    /63, Tissue (Sandy loam, electrical conductivity (ECe (1 dS m-1, Silt (23.1%, Clay (5.5%, Organic matter (0.5%, Olsen phosphorus (P (5.35 mg kg-1, Ammonium acetate-extractable K (100 mg kg-1 were determined. Nitrogen treatments 3 weeks after planting, dissolved in irrigation water was added to pots. Salinity, after the establishment of the plant (5 weeks after planting, divided into two equal parts and one-week interval dissolved with irrigation water was added to the pot. as well acid gibberellic treatments, as spray after salt treatment was applied at three times and at intervals of one week. Results and discussion: The results showed that the salinity content of carotenoid and Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters significantly reduced but with increasing acid gibberellic and nitrogen application, mentioned parameters were significantly increased, compared to controls. The ability of photosynthesis improved and increased productivity. Mozafari et al studied the pistachio, reported that with increasing salinity from zero to 150 and 300 mM NaCl, carotenoids decreased more than 16% and 22% compared to control respectively. Carotenoids play a most important role in light, protecting plants against stress condition. Salinity application increased leaf proline, but with application of 150 mg nitrogen and 500 mg per liter foliar application of acid gibberellics, this parameter increased by 55 and 26 percent, respectively. Also, combined use of these two treatments increased proline content by 79 percent compared to control. The researchers stated that the increasing gibberellin concentration caused leaf proline increased, so spraying 100 and 200 mg per liter gibberellin significantly increased leaf proline compared with the non-application of gibberellin. The results also showed with increasing salinity increased iron, manganese and zinc concentrations shoots and roots and decreased copper concentrations, but using 150 mg of nitrogen and acid gibberellic consumption concentrations

  17. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids and its salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Rud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s a creation of new domestic medicines is very important problem for pharmacy and medicine. Therefore, it is relevant to synthesize new domestic biologically active compounds. It is known that a large number of new 3-thio and 4-amino derivatives on the basis of 1,2,4-triazole have recently been synthesized, among which compounds with high pharmacological activity have been found. Based on the experience of previous studies and with the aim of creating new original drugs, our goal was to synthesize 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids series and to obtain salts on its basis, which have high indicators of pharmacological activity based on the literature data. The goal of the work is a targeted synthesis of potential low-toxic and highly effective compounds with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity among 5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione derivatives, confirmation of their individuality and structure, as well as the study of physical-chemical properties, for the further pharmacological screening. Materials and methods. 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were prepared by heating 5- (hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiones with chloroacetic acid. Subsequently, the synthesized thioacetic acids were subject for modification. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids were obtained by reacting thioacetic acids with equivalents of sodium or potassium hydroxides. To obtain Iron(II, Copper(II or Zinc(II salts, half-molar amounts of the appropriate sulfates were added to the obtained solutions. Salts of 2-((5-(hydroxy(phenylmethyl-4-R-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acids with organic bases were obtained by the reaction of acids with piperidine or morpholine in ethanol medium. Results. During the synthetic studies, 13 previously undescribed new compounds were obtained. The individuality of 2-((5-(hydroxy

  18. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xin; Zhu, Yanming; Zhai, Hong; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Luo, Xiao; Li, Jing; Bai, Xi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. ► AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. ► AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2–3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter–GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.

  19. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.А. Safonov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid development of science, humanity has achieved remarkable success in various fields. This also applies to the synthesis of biological compounds. Over the centuries, scientists have invented many methods and drugs that are being actively used to date. Derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole can be the foundation for the manufacture of new native drugs that will compete with foreign ones. The aim of work was synthesis and confirmation the structure of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetate acids salts. Materials and methods. As starting substances we used 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids, which were synthesized by previously described methods. The structure of synthesized compounds was confirmed by the complex use of modern physical-chemical methods of analysis: elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, HPLC-MS. Results. Salts of 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids were synthesized by the interaction of the appropriate acids with organic (morpholin, methanamin, 2-hydroxyethanamin, inorganic basics (aqueous ammonia solution, sodium hydroxide and salts (zinc sulfate, ferrum (III chloride, magnesium sulfate, copper (II sulfate in alcoholic or aqueous media. Conclusions. A series of novel 2-((4-(R-amino-5-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylthioacetic acids salts were synthesized. The structure of synthesized compounds is established using modern physical-chemical methods of analysis.

  20. An Alfin-like gene from Atriplex hortensis enhances salt and drought tolerance and abscisic acid response in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jian-Jun; Wei, Wei; Pan, Wen-Jia; Lu, Long; Li, Qing-Tian; Ma, Jin-Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Ma, Biao; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2018-02-09

    Alfin-like (AL) is a small plant-specific gene family with prominent roles in root growth and abiotic stress response. Here, we aimed to identify novel stress tolerance AL genes from the stress-tolerant species Atriplex hortensis. Totally, we isolated four AhAL genes, all encoding nuclear-localized proteins with cis-element-binding and transrepression activities. Constitutive expression of AhAL1 in Arabidopsis facilitated plants to survive under saline condition, while expressing anyone of the other three AhAL genes led to salt-hypersensitive response, indicating functional divergence of AhAL family. AhAL1 also conferred enhanced drought tolerance, as judged from enhanced survival, improved growth, decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) content and reduced water loss in AhAL1-expressing plants compared to WT. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated stomatal closure and inhibition of seed germination and primary root elongation were enhanced in AhAL1-transgenic plants. Further analysis demonstrated that AhAL1 could bind to promoter regions of GRF7, DREB1C and several group-A PP2C genes and repress their expression. Correspondingly, the expression levels of positive stress regulator genes DREB1A, DREB2A and three ABFs were all increased in AhAL1-expressing plants. Based on these results, AhAL1 was identified as a novel candidate gene for improving abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants.

  1. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part I: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural sepiolite from Andrici (Serbia was functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt to the Si-OH sepiolite groups. The functionalized material, MSEAS, was characterized by determination of phase composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, analysis of morphological characteristics by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, differential thermal analyses (DTA, determination of specific surface areas and pore size distribution using B.E.T. method and point of zero charge (pHpzc determination. The crystal structure of sepiolite does not change significantly upon surface modification. FT-IR and DTA analysis confirmed that the modified sample maintained the basic structure of sepiolite and also the presence of organic groups in functionalized sepiolite sample. The point of zero charge of MSEAS in KNO3 solutions of different concentrations determination by the batch technique from was at pH 7.0 ± 0.1. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019, and FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  2. Preparation and characterization of rubbery epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes composites using amino acid salt assisted dispersion technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Jagtap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT composites were prepared using sodium salt of 6-aminohexanoic acid (SAHA modified MWCNT and its effect properties of related composites were investigated. The composite prepared using a polar solvent, tetrahydrofuran exhibits better mechanical properties compared to those prepared using less polar solvent and without using solvent. The tensile properties and dynamic storage modulus was found to be increased as a result of modification of MWCNT with SAHA. This improvement in the tensile properties and dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy/MWCNT composite is a combined effect of cation-π interaction and chemical bonding. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to explain cation-π interaction between SAHA with MWCNT and chemical bonding of SAHA with epoxy resin. The effect of modification of MWCNT on morphology of a nanocomposite was confirmed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The present approach does not disturb the ! electron clouds of MWCNT as opposed to chemical functionalization strategy.

  3. The contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanshun; Li, Lin; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Gao, Pei; Zang, Jinhong; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids (FFA) release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish, three groups of processed fish, including bacteriostatic-acidification group (BAG), bacteriostatic group (BG), and spontaneous fermented fish (CG) were established. Results showed that addition of NaN 3 reduced microbial load in BAG and BG below 3.5 log CFU/g after 3 weeks of incubation. Activities of lipases and lipoxygenase declined markedly with increasing time, where BG had the highest activities, followed by CG and BAG. There is a 36.3% higher in the total FFA content in CG than that in BAG, indicating both microbial and endogenous lipases contributed to the FFA liberation in fermented fish while endogenous lipases play a major role. However, compared to BAG and BG, largely higher levels of volatile compounds were observed in CG, suggesting that autochthonous microflora dominated the generation of volatile flavor compounds in fermented fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  5. One-azabicyclic compounds. 22. Stereochemistry and /sup 13/C NMR spectra of salts of pyrrolizidine and its homologs with protonic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subbotin, O.A.; Skvortsov, I.M.

    1986-06-01

    /sup 13/C NMR spectra were obtained for pyrrolizidinium salts and their homologs and their signals were assigned. With the exception of highly strained cis-3,8-H-cis-5,8-H-3,5-dimethylpyrrolizidine (VI), all the bases studied upon their direct mixing with CF/sub 3/CO/sub 2/H form salts only with cis-fused rings in the cation. Mixtures of salts with cis- and trans-fused pyrrolizidinium fragments are formed upon the reaction of cis-3,8-H-methyl- (III) and cis-3,8-H-cis-5,8-H-3,5-dimethylpyrrolizidine (VI) under conditions close to those for kinetically-controlled amine protonation. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra of the isomeric pyrrolizidinium salts obtained as a result of the absorption of base VI by sulfuric acid were used to evaluate the conformational equilibrium in the starting compound VI. The /sup 13/C NMR chemical shifts of unsubstituted trans-fused pyrrolizidinium salts were predicted.

  6. Amino Acids in the Asteroidal Water-Bearing Salt Crystals Hosted in the Zag Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Burton, A. S.; Locke, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    Solid evidence of liquid water in primitive meteorites is given by the ordinary chondrites H5 Monahans (1998) and H3-6 Zag. Aqueous fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals were shown to be common in Zag. These striking blue/purple crystals (Figure 1), which gained the coloration from electron-trapping in the Cl-vacancies through exposure to ionizing radiation, were determined to be over 4.0-4.7 billion years old by I-Xe dating. The halite grains are present as discrete grains within an H-chondrite matrix with no evidence for aqueous alteration that indicates a xenogenic source, possibly ancient cryovolcanism. They were proposed to be formed from the cryovolcanic plumes on icy C-type asteroids (possibly Ceres), and were transferred and incorporated into the H chondrite parent asteroid following the eruption event(s). A unique aspect of these halites is that they contain abundant solid inclusions hosted within the halites alongside the water inclusions. The solid inclusions were suggested to be entrained within the fluid erupted from the cryovolcanic event(s), and were shown to be comprised of abundant organics. Spectrofluorometric study and Raman imaging of the halites have identified macromolecular carbon and aliphatic carbon compounds. In order to investigate the type of organics present in Zag and in particular within the fluid-bearing halites, we studied for the first time the amino acid contents of a selected mineral (halite) phase in a meteorite sample.

  7. Effect of Microenvironmental pH Modulation on the Dissolution Rate and Oral Absorption of the Salt of a Weak Acid - Case Study of GDC-0810.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hao Helen; Jia, Wei; Liu, Lichuan; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Li, Jane; Nauka, Ewa; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of microenvironmental pH modulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and oral absorption of GDC-0810, an oral anti-cancer drug, in human. The pH-solubility profile of GDC-0810 free acid and pH max of its N-Methyl-D-glucamine (NMG) salt were determined. Precipitation studies were conducted for GDC-0810 NMG salt at different pH values. GDC-0810 200-mg dose NMG salt tablet formulations containing different levels of sodium bicarbonate as the pH modifier were tested for dissolution under the dual pH-dilution scheme. Three tablet formulations were evaluated in human as a part of a relative bioavailability study. A 200-mg dose of GDC-0810 was administered QD with low fat food. Intrinsic solubility of GDC-0810 free acid was found to be extremely low. The pH max of the NMG salt suggested a strong tendency for form conversion to the free acid under GI conditions. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that the dissolution rate and extent of GDC-0810 increased with increasing the level of sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The human PK data showed a similar trend for the geometric mean of C max and AUC 0-t for formulations containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate, but the difference is not statistically significant. Incorporation of a basic pH modifier, sodium bicarbonate, in GDC-0810 NMG salt tablet formulations enhanced in vitro dissolution rate of GDC-0810 via microenvironmental pH modulation. The human PK data showed no statistically significant difference in drug exposure from tablets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel salt-inducible gene encoding an acidic isoform of PR-5 protein in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, M; Tachi, H; Kojima, T; Shiraiwa, M; Takahara, H

    2006-10-01

    We identified a novel salt-inducible soybean gene encoding an acidic-isoform of pathogenesis-related protein group 5 (PR-5 protein). The soybean PR-5-homologous gene, designated as Glycine max osmotin-like protein, acidic isoform (GmOLPa)), encodes a putative polypeptide having an N-terminal signal peptide. The mature GmOLPa protein without the signal peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 21.5 kDa and a pI value of 4.4, and was distinguishable from a known PR-5-homologous gene of soybean (namely P21 protein) through examination of the structural features. A comparison with two intracellular salt-inducible PR-5 proteins, tobacco osmotin and tomato NP24, revealed that GmOLPa did not have a C-terminal extension sequence functioning as a vacuole-targeting motif. The GmOLPa gene was transcribed constitutively in the soybean root and was induced almost exclusively in the root during 24 h of high-salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Interestingly, GmOLPa gene expression in the stem and leaf, not observed until 24 h, was markedly induced at 48 and 72 h after commencement of the high-salt stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration also induced expression of the GmOLPa gene in the root; additionally, dehydration slightly induced expression in the stem and leaf. In fact, the 5'-upstream sequence of the GmOLPa gene contained several putative cis-elements known to be involved in responsiveness to ABA and dehydration, e.g. ABA-responsive element (ABRE), MYB/MYC, and low temperature-responsive element (LTRE). These results suggested that GmOLPa may function as a protective PR-5 protein in the extracellular space of the soybean root in response to high-salt stress and dehydration.

  9. SlbZIP38, a Tomato bZIP Family Gene Downregulated by Abscisic Acid, Is a Negative Regulator of Drought and Salt Stress Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanglu; Hu, Xin; Li, Chunyan; Xu, Xing; Su, Chenggang; Li, Jinhua; Song, Hongyuan; Zhang, Xingguo; Pan, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors have crucial roles in plant stress responses. In this study, the bZIP family gene SlbZIP38 (GenBank accession No: XM004239373) was isolated from a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) mature leaf cDNA library. The DNA sequence of SlbZIP38 encodes a protein of 484 amino acids, including a highly conserved bZIP DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal region. We found that SlbZIP38 was differentially expressed in various organs of the tomato plant and was downregulated by drought, salt stress, and abscisic acid (ABA). However, overexpression of SlbZIP38 significantly decreased drought and salt stress tolerance in tomatoes (Ailsa Craig). The findings that SlbZIP38 overexpression reduced the chlorophyll and free proline content in leaves but increased the malondialdehyde content may explain the reduced drought and salt tolerance observed in these lines. These results suggest that SlbZIP38 is a negative regulator of drought and salt resistance that acts by modulating ABA signaling. PMID:29261143

  10. Application of response surface methodology in optimization of lactic acid fermentation of radish: effect of addition of salt, additives and growth stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V K; Chauhan, Arjun; Devi, Sarita; Kumar, Vikas

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid fermentation of radish was conducted using various additive and growth stimulators such as salt (2 %-3 %), lactose, MgSO4 + MnSO4 and Mustard (1 %, 1.5 % and 2 %) to optimize the process. Response surface methodology (Design expert, Trial version 8.0.5.2) was applied to the experimental data for the optimization of process variables in lactic acid fermentation of radish. Out of various treatments studied, only the treatments having ground mustard had an appreciable effect on lactic acid fermentation. Both linear and quadratic terms of the variables studied had a significant effect on the responses studied. The interactions between the variables were found to contribute to the response at a significant level. The best results were obtained in the treatment with 2.5 % salt, 1.5 % lactose, 1.5 % (MgSO4 + MnSO4) and 1.5 % mustard. These optimized concentrations increased titrable acidity and LAB count, but lowered pH. The second-order polynomial regression model determined that the highest titrable acidity (1.69), lowest pH (2.49) and maximum LAB count (10 × 10(8) cfu/ml) would be obtained at these concentrations of additives. Among 30 runs conducted, run 2 has got the optimum concentration of salt- 2.5 %, lactose- 1.5 %, MgSO4 + MnSO4- 1.5 % and mustard- 1.5 % for lactic acid fermentation of radish. The values for different additives and growth stimulators optimized in this study could successfully be employed for the lactic acid fermentation of radish as a postharvest reduction tool and for product development.

  11. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeb, G.

    1981-05-01

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl - sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl - retention mechanism. The addition of 10 -5 and 10 -6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl - concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14 C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl - values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl - translocation. (MG) [de

  12. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    OpenAIRE

    Tolomeev, A.; Sushchik, N.N.; Gulati, R.D.; Makhutova, O.N.; Kalacheva, G.S.; Zotina, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately differed, whereas levels of diatom FA markers were higher in Lake Shunet and of Cyanobacteria and green algae markers in Lake Shira. In general, markers in storage lipids—triacylglycerols (TAG) of A. sali...

  13. Salicylic acid improves salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis by restoring membrane potential and preventing salt-induced K+ loss via a GORK channel

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakannan, Maheswari; Bose, Jayakumar; Babourina, Olga; Rengel, Zed; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating salicylic acid (SA) in plant salinity responses, the specific ionic mechanisms of SA-mediated adaptation to salt stress remain elusive. To address this issue, a non-invasive microelectrode ion flux estimation technique was used to study kinetics of NaCl-induced net ion fluxes in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to various SA concentrations and incubation times. NaCl-induced K+ efflux and H+ influx from the mature root zone were both significantly decreased...

  14. Accuracy of near infrared spectroscopy for prediction of chemical composition, salt content and free amino acids in dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevolnik, Maja; Škrlep, Martin; Janeš, Lucija; Velikonja-Bolta, Spela; Škorjanc, Dejan; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta

    2011-06-01

    The capability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was examined for the purposes of quality control of the traditional Slovenian dry-cured ham "Kraški pršut." Predictive models were developed for moisture, salt, protein, non-protein nitrogen, intramuscular fat and free amino acids in biceps femoris muscle (n = 135). The models' quality was assessed using statistical parameters: coefficient of determination (R(2)) and standard error (se) of cross-validation (CV) and external validation (EV). Residual predictive deviation (RPD) was also assessed. Best results were obtained for salt content and salt percentage in moisture/dry matter (R(CV)(2)>0.90, RPD>3.0), it was satisfactory for moisture, non-protein nitrogen, intramuscular fat and total free amino acids (R(CV)(2) = 0.75-0.90, RPD = 2.0-3.0), while not so for protein content and proteolysis index (R(CV)(2) = 0.65-0.75, RPD<2.0). Calibrations for individual free amino acids yielded R(CV)(2) from 0.40 to 0.90 and RPD from 1.3 to 2.9. Additional external validation of models on independent samples yielded comparable results. Based on the results, NIR spectroscopy can replace chemical methods in quality control of dry-cured ham. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance and protein expression of kefir-isolated probiotic Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Ju; Tang, Hsin-Yu; Chiang, Ming-Lun

    2017-09-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens M1 is a probiotic strain isolated from Taiwanese kefir grains. The present study evaluated the effects of heat, cold, acid and bile salt adaptations on the stress tolerance of L. kefiranofaciens M1. The regulation of protein expression of L. kefiranofaciens M1 under these adaptation conditions was also investigated. The results showed that adaptation of L. kefiranofaciens M1 to heat, cold, acid and bile salts induced homologous tolerance and cross-protection against heterologous challenge. The extent of induced tolerance varied depending on the type and condition of stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that 27 proteins exhibited differences in expression between non-adapted and stress-adapted L. kefiranofaciens M1 cells. Among these proteins, three proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism (triosephosphate isomerase, enolase and NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), two proteins involved in pH homeostasis (ATP synthase subunits AtpA and AtpB), two stress response proteins (chaperones DnaK and GroEL) and one translation-related protein (30S ribosomal protein S2) were up-regulated by three of the four adaptation treatments examined. The increased synthesis of these stress proteins might play a critical protective role in the cellular defense against heat, cold, acid and bile salt stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Process for separating the ortho- and para- isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof, the isomers thus obtained, the use of the ortho-isomer for the preparation of eddha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, A.J.; Van Bekkum, H.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9414746 (A1) The invention relates to a method for separating the ortho- and para-isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof. For that purpose the starting material is a solid mixture of these ortho- and para-isomers in the alkali metal salt form. This mixture is extracted with

  17. Salicylic acid alleviates the adverse effects of salt stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii seedlings by activating photosynthesis and enhancing antioxidant systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn, gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC, malondialdehyde (MDA content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn, and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. CONCLUSIONS: SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future.

  18. Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Ágnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

    2014-05-01

    A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sodium and potassium salts of dichloroisocyanuric acid and their hydrates as antimicrobials agents studied by 35Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, A.; Brycki, B.; Kaczmarek, M.; Poleshchuk, O.Kh.; Ostafin, M.; Nogaj, B.

    2006-01-01

    The electronic structure of dichloroisocyanuric acid derivatives was analysed by 35 Cl-NQR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Here we concentrate our attention on three different factors: type of metallic substituent (sodium and potassium), temperature of the sample (liquid nitrogen and room) and degree of hydration (an amount of water molecules attached to analysed compounds). In particular, all the variations in 35 Cl-NQR frequencies upon hydration of salts containing sodium and potassium ions are explained as a consequence of H-bonds formation and accompanied effects of charge redistribution. Our studies can be useful in searching for the derivatives of dichloroisocyanuric acid revealing higher antimicrobial activity

  20. New Polymorphic Forms of Pemetrexed Diacid and Their Use for the Preparation of Pharmaceutically Pure Amorphous and Hemipentahydrate Forms of Pemetrexed Disodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Michalak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of stable amorphous pemetrexed disodium of pharmaceutical purity as well as the process optimization for the preparation of the hemipentahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium are described. Analytical methods for the polymorphic and chemical purity studies of pemetrexed disodium and pemetrexed diacid forms were developed. The physicochemical properties of the amorphous and hydrate forms of pemetrexed disodium, as well as new forms of pemetrexed diacid (a key synthetic intermediate were studied by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography methods were used for the chemical purity and residual solvents determination. In order to study the polymorphic and chemical stability of the amorphous and hemipentahydrate forms, a hygroscopicity test (25 °C, 80% RH was performed. Powder diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that the amorphous character and high chemical purity were preserved after the hygroscopicity test. The hemipentahydrate form transformed completely to the heptahydrate form of pemetrexed disodium. Both pemetrexed disodium forms were produced with high efficiency and pharmaceutical purity in a small commercial scale. Amorphous pemetrexed disodium was selected for further pharmaceutical development. Two new polymorphs (forms 1 and 2 of pemetrexed diacid were used for the preparation of high purity amorphous pemetrexed disodium.

  1. Modulating the nanorods protrusion from poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene microcapsules by 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Erjia; Wang, Tianxiang; Wang, Zhipeng; Gao, Changyou

    2013-09-01

    It was found previously that the Schiff base bonds in poly(allylamine hydrochloride)-g-pyrene (PAH-Py) microcapsules (MCs) are hydrolyzed at pH 2 within 1 h, leading to disassembly of the MCs and protrusion of pyrene aldehyde (Py) nanorods (NRs) on the capsule surface. Herein, we found a new way to modulate the protrusion of NRs by addition of 1-pyrenesulfonic acid sodium salt (PySO3Na). Along with the increase in PySO3Na to Py molar ratio in the MCs solution, the protrusion of NRs was progressively blocked and even inhibited at a ratio of 2.3, and at this condition, the microcapsules were stable under pH 2 for 24 h. After the composite microcapsules with excess PySO3Na were washed with a pH 10 solution and then incubated in a pH 2 solution, the NRs could be protruded from the MCs again. The fluorescence peak position of the PAH-Py/PySO3Na MCs gradually red-shifted with a decrease in pH value, and a sharp transition occurred at p H3.6, demonstrating the formation of pyrene excimers between the PySO3Na small molecules and the pendant Py groups on the PAH chain. The formed excimers take the role of blocking the self-assembly of cleaved Py molecules instead of inhibiting the hydrolysis of the Schiff base, whereas the MCs were stabilized by the charge interaction between PySO3Na and PAH backbone and the hydrophobic interaction between the pyrene rings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Overexpression of an alfalfa GDP-mannose 3, 5-epimerase gene enhances acid, drought and salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichao; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Wenxian; Liu, Zhipeng

    2014-11-01

    GDP-mannose 3', 5'-epimerase (GME) catalyses the conversion of GDP-D-mannose to GDP-L-galactose, an important step in the ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid) biosynthetic pathway in higher plants. In this study, a novel cDNA fragment (MsGME) encoding a GME protein was isolated and characterised from alfalfa (Medicago sativa). An expression analysis confirmed that MsGME expression was induced by salinity, PEG and acidity stresses. MsGME overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance of the transgenic plants to salt, drought and acid. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the transcript levels of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP), L-galactose-phosphate 1-P phosphatase (GP) and GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP) were increased in transgenic Arabidopsis (T3 generation). Moreover, the ascorbate content was increased in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that MsGME can effectively enhance tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to acid, drought and salt by increasing ascorbate accumulation.

  3. Evaluation of calcium di-sodium EDTA intramuscular injection using gamma scintigraphy against heavy metal poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Soni, S.; Mehra, L.; Mittal, G.; Nishad, D.K.; Bhatnagar, A.; Singh, T.; Ahmad, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in soft tissues. These metals may enter the body through food, water, air or absorption through skin when an individual is exposed to areas with high heavy metal content such as agriculture, pharmaceutical manufacturing, paint and heavy metal industries or residential settings. Majority of population commonly get affected by heavy metal poisoning. Heavy metal poisoning is more likely to result through inhalation or ingestion route. Aim of the present study is to provide an easy, effective and controlled chelating therapy against heavy metal using Ca-disodium EDTA intramuscular injection. Ca-disodium-EDTA and Sesame oil were procured from Merck, India and Sigma Aldrich, USA respectively. Ca-Na 2 EDTA radiolabeling with 99m Tc-pertechnetate was standardized using stannous ions as reducing agent. The hypothesis of present work is to maintain effective concentration of chelating agent in blood for prolong time period. To test this hypothesis, we studied 1% Ca-Na 2 EDTA blood bioavailability after intramuscular depot administration in new zealand white rabbit. The optimized radiolabeled intramuscular formulation was evaluated for its dissolution and permeation studies in isotonic buffer solution were envisaged through radiometry. Sub-acute toxicity studies were performed after a single dose intramuscular administration of 1% Ca-Na 2 EDTA in Sprague Dawley rats. Radiolabeled Ca-disodium-EDTA (>95% labeled) was found to be fairly stable up to 24 h in physiological solution (Serum) as well as in normal saline with negligible degradation of 2.5% and 5.0% respectively, thereby indicating high stability of radiolabeled product. In-vitro data indicates that control release pattern (Cmax 24 hrs) with effective concentration up to seven days. 99m Tc-CaNa 2 EDTA retention at depot site was estimated up to 3 days by scintigraphy. Subacute toxicity studies done by histopathological

  4. γ-Aminobutyric acid transaminase deficiency impairs central carbon metabolism and leads to cell wall defects during salt stress in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Hugues; El Amrani, Abdelhak; Berger, Adeline; Mouille, Grégory; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bouchereau, Alain; Deleu, Carole

    2013-05-01

    Environmental constraints challenge cell homeostasis and thus require a tight regulation of metabolic activity. We have previously reported that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism is crucial for Arabidopsis salt tolerance as revealed by the NaCl hypersensitivity of the GABA transaminase (GABA-T, At3g22200) gaba-t/pop2-1 mutant. In this study, we demonstrate that GABA-T deficiency during salt stress causes root and hypocotyl developmental defects and alterations of cell wall composition. A comparative genome-wide transcriptional analysis revealed that expression levels of genes involved in carbon metabolism, particularly sucrose and starch catabolism, were found to increase upon the loss of GABA-T function under salt stress conditions. Consistent with the altered mutant cell wall composition, a number of cell wall-related genes were also found differentially expressed. A targeted quantitative analysis of primary metabolites revealed that glutamate (GABA precursor) accumulated while succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) significantly decreased in mutant roots after 1 d of NaCl treatment. Furthermore, sugar concentration was twofold reduced in gaba-t/pop2-1 mutant roots compared with wild type. Together, our results provide strong evidence that GABA metabolism is a major route for succinate production in roots and identify GABA as a major player of central carbon adjustment during salt stress. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Effect of different dietary energy and protein sources on antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and microstructure of salted yolks in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, D; Hu, Y J; Fouad, A M; Lin, C X; Xu, Z P; Chen, W; Fan, Q L; Xia, W G; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Zheng, C T

    2018-01-08

    The study investigated whether different dietary energy and protein sources affect laying performance, antioxidant status, fresh yolk fatty acid profile and quality of salted yolks in laying ducks. In all, 360 19-week-old Longyan ducks were randomly assigned to four diets in a factorial arrangement (2×2). The four diets consisted of two energy sources, corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and two protein sources, soybean meal (SM) and rapeseed meal with corn distillers dried grains with solubles (RMD), and each treatment contained six replicates of 15 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 10.84 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 17%). The results showed that egg production, average egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio were not affected by diets (P>0.05). Plasma contents of reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH/oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were lower (P<0.05) in ducks fed the RMD diets compared with those fed SM diets with a substantial increase (P=0.006) in plasma content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Egg yolks from ducks fed SO diets had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and lower saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids compared with CO diets (P<0.001). Similarly, ducks fed RMD diets had a higher content of PUFA and n-6/n-3 ratio in fresh yolks (P<0.001), and increased salted yolk MDA, carbonylated proteins content and incidence of hard salted yolks (P<0.05) compared with SM diets. Scanning electron microscopy showed that salted yolks contained rougher polyhedral granules and fewer fat droplets, and were surrounded with a layer of bunchy fibers in ducks fed SO+RMD than those fed CO+SM diet. In conclusion, the current study showed that feeding laying ducks with diets containing SO or RMD reduced antioxidant capacity and increased egg yolk concentrations of PUFA. It appeared that egg yolks from ducks fed these diets were more sensitive to lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation during salting, and

  6. PROPERTIES OF NEW SALTS OF 2-(5-(ADAMANTANE-1-YL-4-R-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE-3-YLTIOACETIC ACIDS IN THE GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Odyntsova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of glucose in the blood is one of the integral indicators of the internal environment that reflects the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the body. Glucose is a key component of human metabolism. The level of blood sugar is one of the most important controlled constants of body that defines homeostasis and displays the status of carbohydrate metabolism. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia is a dangerous condition when blood glucose is critically low. The aim of research. The aim of our study was pharmacological screening of the effects of the newly synthesized salts of 2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids on glucose blood level in experimental animals. Materials and methods. The compounds have been synthesized at the Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Toxicology of Zaporozhye State Medical University (the Head of the chair, Professor Panasenko O.I.. Blood glucose levels of saults of2-(5-adamantane-1-yl-4-R-1,2,4-tirazol-3-yltioacetic acids in rats have been evaluated by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IGTT. IGTT was reproduced by glucose load on animals in a dose of 2 g / kg of rat’s body weight. White nonlinear rats weighing 160-230 g were involved in experiments. Animals were divided into 13 groups of 7 animals in each group: the 1st is intact one; the 2nd is control one with glycemia (untreated, the 3rd group of the animals received glibenclamide in the dose of 1 mg / kg; the groups 3-13 received 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. The compounds were dissolved in purified water at the rate of 1 ml per 100 g of animals’ weight and were injected intraperitoneally. Glucose content in blood has been measured by glucosidase method using glucometer «Accu Chek Active» in 30 minutes from the load moment. The research results have been processed by modern statistical methods of analysis on a personal computer using a standard software package Microsoft Office 2010 (Microsoft Excel and

  7. Use of D(acid)-, D(bile)-, z(acid)-, and z(bile)-values in evaluating Bifidobacteria with regard to stomach pH and bile salt sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li; Shigwedha, Nditange; Mwandemele, Osmund D

    2010-01-01

    The survival of bifidobacteria in simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract was studied based on the D- and z-value concept. Some Bifidobacterium spp. are probiotics that improve microbial balance in the human GI tract. Because they are sensitive to low pH and bile salt concentrations, their viability in the GI tract is limited. The D- and z-value approach was therefore adopted as a result of observing constant log-cell reduction (90%) when Bifidobacterium spp. were exposed to these 2 different stressing factors. Survivals of one strain each or 4 species of Bifidobacterium was studied at pH between 3.0 and 4.5 and in ox-bile between 0.15% and 0.60% for times up to 41 h. From the D(acid)- and D(bile)-values, the order of resistance to acid and bile was B. bifidum > B. infantis > B. longum > B. adolescentis. While the former 3 strains retained high cell viability at pH 3.5 (>5.5 log CFU/mL after 5 h) and at elevated bile salt concentration of 0.6% (>4.5 log CFU/mL after 3 h), B. adolescentis was less resistant (pH units and 0.40% to 0.49%, respectively. The results suggest that the D(acid)-, D(bile)-, z(acid)-, and z(bile)-value approach could be more appropriate than the screening and selection method in evaluating survival of probiotic bacteria, and in measuring their tolerance or resistance to gastric acidity and the associated bile salt concentration in the small intestine. The evaluation of the tolerance of bifidobacteria to bile salts and low pH has been made possible by use of D- and z-value concept. The calculated z(acid)- and z(bile)-values were all fairly similar for the strains used and suggest the effect of increasing the bile salt concentration or decreasing the pH on the D(acid)- and D(bile)-values. This approach would be useful for predicting the suitability of bifidobacteria and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics for use in real-life situations.

  8. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications. Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue) proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, psalt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (psalt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins.

  9. Synthesis and research of the physical-chemical properties of 5-((2-bromphenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. S. Pruglo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available At this stage of the development of modern science the scientists get a lot of questions in the field of medicine and pharmacy, and one of the most important among them is the study and search of new ways of synthesis of high-performance and low-toxic substances. Special attention is paid to 1,2,4-triazole and xanthine. On their basis some medical drugs were made, which are widely used in medicine. The aim of this work was the synthesis and study of properties of salts of 5-(2-bromophenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid. Methods and results. As starting material theophylline was selected. Through a number of stages 5-(2-bromphenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thion was obtained. By the reaction of neutralization the salts with organic and inorganic bases were obtained. The physical-chemical properties of the compounds were determined. The structure of the substances was confirmed by elemental analysis on an Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS instrument; IR spectra (4000–400 cm-1 were taken on the ALPHA-T modules of the Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer. The 1H NMR spectra of the compounds were recorded using a Varian Mercury VX 200 spectrometer (solvent – DMSO-d6, internal standard: tetramethylsilane. The formation of salts was confirmed by the signals of the corresponding protonated amines. Chromato-mass spectral studies were carried out on the LC MS: Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC System , ionization method – chemical ionization at atmospheric pressure (APCI. Conclusions. The interaction of the resulting thiol with monochloracetic acid in aqueous solution with double quantity of alkali and subsequent neutralization leads to corresponding carboxylic acid obtaining. It was confirmed that the greatest outputs of salts as the reaction products were observed when using water as the solvent with the subsequent replacement of acetone. the optimum conditions of obtaining salts of 5-(2-bromophenyl-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid

  10. Selective detection of carbohydrates and their peptide conjugates by ESI-MS using synthetic quaternary ammonium salt derivatives of phenylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijewska, Monika; Kuc, Adam; Kluczyk, Alicja; Waliczek, Mateusz; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Szewczuk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    We present new tags based on the derivatives of phenylboronic acid and apply them for the selective detection of sugars and peptide-sugar conjugates in mass spectrometry. We investigated the binding of phenylboronic acid and its quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) derivatives to carbohydrates and peptide-derived Amadori products by HR-MS and MS/MS experiments. The formation of complexes between sugar or sugar-peptide conjugates and synthetic tags was confirmed on the basis of the unique isotopic distribution resulting from the presence of boron atom. Moreover, incorporation of a quaternary ammonium salt dramatically improved the efficiency of ionization in mass spectrometry. It was found that the formation of a complex with phenylboronic acid stabilizes the sugar moiety in glycated peptides, resulting in simplification of the fragmentation pattern of peptide-derived Amadori products. The obtained results suggest that derivatization of phenylboronic acid as QAS is a promising method for sensitive ESI-MS detection of carbohydrates and their conjugates formed by non-enzymatic glycation or glycosylation.

  11. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  12. Determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate using prulifloxacin-terbium(III) as a fluorescence probe by spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fengshan; Li Lin; Chen Fang

    2008-01-01

    A new spectrofluorimetric method is developed for determination of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). The interactions between prulifloxacin (PUFX)-Tb 3+ complex and adenosine disodium triphosphate has been studied by using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. Using prulifloxacin-Tb 3+ as a fluorescence probe, under the optimum conditions, ATP can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the prulifloxacin-Tb 3+ complex at λ = 545 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity is in proportion to the concentration of ATP. Optimum conditions for the determination of ATP were also investigated. The dynamic range for the determination of ATP is 4.0 x 10 -7 to 2.0 x 10 -5 mol L -1 , and the detection limit (3 σ/k) is 1.7 x 10 -8 mol L -1 . This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances and can be successfully applied to determination of ATP in real pharmaceutical samples. The mechanism of fluorescence enhancement of prulifloxacin-Tb 3+ complex by ATP was also discussed

  13. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bohyun; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  14. The impact of reduced gastric acid secretion on dissolution of salts of weak bases in the fasted upper gastrointestinal lumen: Data in biorelevant media and in human aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litou, Chara; Vertzoni, Maria; Xu, Wei; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Reppas, Christos

    2017-06-01

    To propose media for simulating the intragastric environment under reduced gastric acid secretion in the fasted state at three levels of simulation of the gastric environment and evaluate their usefulness in evaluating the intragastric dissolution of salts of weak bases. To evaluate the importance of bicarbonate buffer in biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing when using Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in the fasted upper small intestine, regardless of gastric acid secretions. Media for simulating the hypochlorhydric and achlorhydric conditions in stomach were proposed using phosphates, maleates and bicarbonates buffers. The impact of bicarbonates in Level II biorelevant media simulating the environment in upper small intestine was evaluated so that pH and bulk buffer capacity were maintained. Dissolution data were collected using two model compounds, pioglitazone hydrochloride and semifumarate cocrystal of Compound B, and the mini-paddle dissolution apparatus in biorelevant media and in human aspirates. Simulated gastric fluids proposed in this study were in line with pH, buffer capacity, pepsin content, total bile salt/lecithin content and osmolality of the fasted stomach under partial and under complete inhibition of gastric acid secretion. Fluids simulating the conditions under partial inhibition of acid secretion were useful in simulating concentrations of both model compounds in gastric aspirates. Bicarbonates in Level III biorelevant gastric media and in Level II biorelevant media simulating the composition in the upper intestinal lumen did not improve simulation of concentrations in human aspirates. Level III biorelevant media for simulating the intragastric environment under hypochlorhydric conditions were proposed and their usefulness in the evaluation of concentrations of two model salts of weak bases in gastric aspirates was shown. Level II biorelevant media for simulating the environment in upper intestinal lumen led to

  15. Stopped-flow studies of changes in fluorescence of 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid caused by magnesium and salt binding to yeast enolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M

    1976-12-11

    Stopped-flow studies of magnesium and salt (potassium chloride and acetate) effects on yeast enolase were carried out by following 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence changes. The fluorescence changes appear to be largely caused by subunit association and dissociation, though there is evidence in some reactions for large changes in fluorescence occurring within the dead time of the stopped-flow measurements. These data are combined with measurements of initial enzyme activity after incubation in various solvents with or without magnesium to obtain subunit association and dissociation rates. From these, it is concluded that magnesium and the salts act by directly changing the affinities of the subunits for each other, apparently by producing a rapid change in protein conformation.

  16. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  17. Genotypes Associated with Listeria monocytogenes Isolates Displaying Impaired or Enhanced Tolerances to Cold, Salt, Acid, or Desiccation Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Dhillon, Bhavjinder K.; Laing, Chad; Bertelli, Claire; Gannon, Victor; Tasara, Taurai; Allen, Kevin; Brinkman, Fiona S. L.; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth; Wang, Siyun

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is a large concern in the food industry where its continuous detection in food products has caused a string of recalls in North America and Europe. Most recognized for its ability to grow in foods during refrigerated storage, L. monocytogenes can also tolerate several other food-related stresses with some strains possessing higher levels of tolerances than others. The objective of this study was to use a combination of phenotypic analyses and whole genome sequencing to elucidate potential relationships between L. monocytogenes genotypes and food-related stress tolerance phenotypes. To accomplish this, 166 L. monocytogenes isolates were sequenced and evaluated for their ability to grow in cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), and acid (pH 5, 25°C) stress conditions as well as survive desiccation (33% RH, 20°C). The results revealed that the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes is associated with serotype, clonal complex (CC), full length inlA profiles, and the presence of a plasmid which was identified in 55% of isolates. Isolates with full length inlA exhibited significantly (p monocytogenes sequence types, a new inlA PMSC, and several connections between CCs and the presence/absence or variations of specific genetic elements. A whole genome single-nucleotide-variants phylogeny revealed sporadic distribution of tolerant isolates and closely related sensitive and tolerant isolates, highlighting that minor genetic differences can influence the stress tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Specifically, a number of cold and desiccation sensitive isolates contained PMSCs in σB regulator genes (rsbS, rsbU, rsbV). Collectively, the results suggest that knowing the sequence type of an isolate in addition to screening for the presence of full-length inlA and a plasmid, could help food processors and food agency investigators determine why certain isolates might be persisting in a food processing environment. Additionally, increased

  18. AtPP2CG1, a protein phosphatase 2C, positively regulates salt tolerance of Arabidopsis in abscisic acid-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin, E-mail: fangfei6073@126.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu2001@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhai, Hong, E-mail: Zhai.h@neigaehrb.ac.cn [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Harbin 150040 (China); Cai, Hua, E-mail: small-big@sohu.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Ji, Wei, E-mail: iwei_j@hotmail.com [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Luo, Xiao, E-mail: luoxiao2010@yahoo.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: lijing@neau.edu.cn [Plant Secondary Metabolism Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Bai, Xi, E-mail: baixi@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt tolerance in ABA-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 up-regulates the expression of marker genes in different pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AtPP2CG1 expresses in the vascular system and trichomes of Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: AtPP2CG1 (Arabidopsis thaliana protein phosphatase 2C G Group 1) was predicted as an abiotic stress candidate gene by bioinformatic analysis in our previous study. The gene encodes a putative protein phosphatase 2C that belongs to Group G of PP2C. There is no report of Group G genes involved in abiotic stress so far. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AtPP2CG1 expression was induced by salt, drought, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. The expression levels of AtPP2CG1 in the ABA synthesis-deficient mutant abi2-3 were much lower than that in WT plants under salt stress suggesting that the expression of AtPP2CG1 acts in an ABA-dependent manner. Over-expression of AtPP2CG1 led to enhanced salt tolerance, whereas its loss of function caused decreased salt tolerance. These results indicate that AtPP2CG1 positively regulates salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Under salt treatment, AtPP2CG1 up-regulated the expression levels of stress-responsive genes, including RD29A, RD29B, DREB2A and KIN1. GUS activity was detected in roots, leaves, stems, flower, and trichomes of AtPP2CG1 promoter-GUS transgenic plants. AtPP2CG1 protein was localized in nucleus and cytoplasm via AtPP2CG1:eGFP and YFP:AtPP2CG1 fusion approaches.

  19. ANALYSIS OF BETAMETHASONE DISODIUM PHOSPHATE INJECTION AND OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY HPLC, KINETIC INTERPRETATION AND DETERMINATION OF SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghanbarpour

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are widely used in therapeutics in different formulations. Betamethasone disodium phosphate is one of the most soluble of the adrenocorticosteroidal agents. It is therefore very suitable for intravenous use and particularly for ophthalmic formulations."nAcceleration method is used to determine expiration date of aqueous formulations manufactured in Iran.

  20. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Risk After Liver Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Gadoxetate Disodium in Patients With Moderate to Severe Renal Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Thomas; Ramirez-Garrido, Francisco; Kim, Young Hoon; Rha, Sung Eun; Ricke, Jens; Phongkitkarun, Sith; Boettcher, Joachim; Gupta, Rajan T.; Korpraphong, Pornpim; Tanomkiat, Wiwatana; Furtner, Julia; Liu, Peter S.; Henry, Maren; Endrikat, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the risk of gadoxetate disodium in liver imaging for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment. Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label phase 4 study in 35 centers from May 2009 to July 2013. The study population consisted of patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for liver imaging with gadoxetate disodium. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of 0.025-mmol/kg body weight of liver-specific gadoxetate disodium. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 357 patients were included, with 85 patients with severe and 193 patients with moderate renal impairment, which were the clinically most relevant groups. The mean time period from diagnosis of renal disease to liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was 1.53 and 5.46 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 101 patients (28%) underwent additional contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents within 12 months before the start of the study or in the follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF within the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions Gadoxetate disodium in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment did not raise any clinically significant safety concern. No NSF cases were observed. PMID:25756684

  1. The synthesis of di(aminoguanidine) 5-nitroiminotetrazolate: some diprotic or monoprotic acids as precursors of energetic salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haixiang; Huang, Yangen; Ye, Chengfeng; Twamley, Brendan; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2008-01-01

    Syntheses of salts with 4,6-bis(nitroimino)-1,3,5-triazinan-2-one (DNAM), 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-cyclopentanetrione (DDCP), 3-nitroiminotriazolate, and 5-nitroiminotetrazolate as anions yielded moderately dense nitro-containing energetic salts that are thermally stable to >200 degrees C (measured by thermogravimetric analysis). Di(aminoguanidine) 5-nitroiminotetrazolate (8) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with an essentially planar 5-nitroiminotetrazolate dianion. Based on experimental and calculated densities, and theoretical calculations carried out by using the Gaussian 03 suite of programs, all of the salts have calculated detonation pressures and velocities that exceed those of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and a few have values that approach those of triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB).

  2. Comparison of transient severe motion in gadoxetate disodium and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. Effect of modified breath-holding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Park, Eun Hae; Lee, Ju-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    To compare the occurrence of transient severe motion (TSM) between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and between gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI scans obtained with and without the application of a modified breath-holding technique. We reviewed 80 patients who underwent two magnetic resonance examinations (gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI) with the application of a modified breath-holding technique (dual group). This group was compared with 100 patients who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI without the application of the modified breath-holding technique (single group). Patient risk factors and motion scores (1 [none] to 5 [non-diagnostic]) for each dynamic-phase imaging were analysed. In the dual group, mean motion scores did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p=0.096-0.807) in any phase. However, in all phases except the late dynamic phase, mean motion scores of the dual group were significantly lower than those in the single group. TSM incidence did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the dual group (3.8% vs. 1.3%, p=0.620). With proper application of the modified breath-holding technique, TSM occurrence with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was comparable to that associated with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of transient severe motion in gadoxetate disodium and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. Effect of modified breath-holding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji Soo; Choi, Eun Jung; Park, Eun Hae [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Department of Radiology, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Hyung [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Department of Preventive Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    To compare the occurrence of transient severe motion (TSM) between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and between gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI scans obtained with and without the application of a modified breath-holding technique. We reviewed 80 patients who underwent two magnetic resonance examinations (gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI) with the application of a modified breath-holding technique (dual group). This group was compared with 100 patients who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI without the application of the modified breath-holding technique (single group). Patient risk factors and motion scores (1 [none] to 5 [non-diagnostic]) for each dynamic-phase imaging were analysed. In the dual group, mean motion scores did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI (p=0.096-0.807) in any phase. However, in all phases except the late dynamic phase, mean motion scores of the dual group were significantly lower than those in the single group. TSM incidence did not differ significantly between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI in the dual group (3.8% vs. 1.3%, p=0.620). With proper application of the modified breath-holding technique, TSM occurrence with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI was comparable to that associated with gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  4. Synthesis, physical and chemical properties of 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinomethylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. О. Shcherbyna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s medicine and pharmacy undoubtedly need new and effective drugs. The 1,2,4-triazole derivatives occupy a special place among the wide variety of active organic compounds. This interest is caused primarily by high biological activity of these derivatives, low toxicity and high accessibility in terms of synthesis. Thus, drugs from 1,2,4-triazoles are known and are used extensively in medicine. It is important that a sufficiently large number of scientists-synthetics are paying attention on the heterocyclic system. Although a huge amount of information in the scientific literature is devoted to the 1,2,4-triazole derivatives, the 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts are virtually unexplored. The purpose of the work. Synthesis and establishing of the physical and chemical parameters of new 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acid salts. Materials and methods. The study of physical and chemical properties of the obtained compounds was conducted by the methods that are listed in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine 2.0. The melting point was defined on the device which determines the melting point MPA100. The elemental composition of the compounds was found on the analyzer Elementar Vario ЕL cube (CHNS . 1H NMR specters of obtained compounds were recorded by using a spectrometer Varian Mercury VX-200 (1H, 200 MHz and decrypted by a computer program SpinWorks 3.1.8. Chromatography-mass spectral studies were conducted on the gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120 (ionization in electrospray (ESI. Results and discussion. As the source (starting compounds 2-((4-R-3-(morfolinometylen-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylthioacetic acids (where, R = H, CH3, C2H5, C6H5, NH2 were taken. Further, by the action of ammonia hydroxide, sodium and potassium hidrogen carbonates, piperidine, morpholine, methylamine, monoethanolamine and tributylamine in

  5. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  6. Assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of contrast-enhanced US and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Taira, Junichi; Imai, Yasuharu; Shiraishi, Junji; Saito, Kazuhiro; Saguchi, Toru

    2012-01-01

    To compare contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodule (DN), with CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) as the reference standard. This study included 54 consecutively diagnosed patients, with 57 histologically confirmed HCCs and 3 DNs (high-grade). All patients underwent CE ultrasound, gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging and CTHA. Two trained diagnostic radiologists interpreted the CTHA images and rated the degree of intratumoral arterial vascularity by consensus using a five-point confidence scale as the reference standard. In the observer study, the degrees of vascularity on CE ultrasound and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR images were qualitatively analysed by four independent readers using a five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic accuracy was analysed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracies of the average area under the ROC curve (AUC) were significantly greater with CE ultrasound (average AUC: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-1.00) than with gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging (average AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.93, P = 0.0014). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound yields a significantly higher AUC value than gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging in the assessment of arterial hypervascularity of HCC and DN. Key Points circle Arterial hypervascularity is an important feature determining treatment options in hepatocellular carcinoma. circle It can be assessed by contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. circle CE ultrasound was more accurate than Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI in assessing intratumoral vascularity. circle Hypovascular hepatic nodules should be further investigated using CE ultrasound. (orig.)

  7. The Study of Anti-/Pro-Oxidant, Lipophilic, Microbial and Spectroscopic Properties of New Alkali Metal Salts of 5-O-Caffeoylquinic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kalinowska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium salts of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 5-CQA were synthesized and described by FT-IR (infrared spectroscopy, FT-Raman (Raman spectroscopy, UV (UV absorption spectroscopy, 1H (400.15 MHz, 13C (100.63 MHz NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The quantum–chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level were done in order to obtain the optimal structures, IR spectra, NBO (natural bond orbital atomic charges, HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital orbitals and chemical reactivity parameters for 5-CQA and Li, Na and K 5-CQAs (chlorogenates. The DPPH (α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power assays were used for the preliminary estimation of the antioxidant properties of alkali metal chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid. In the DPPH assay the EC50 parameter were equal to 7.39 μM for 5-CQA and was in the range of 4.50–5.89 μM for salts. The FRAP values for two different concentrations (5 and 2.5 μM of the studied compounds were respectively 114.22 and 72.53 μM Fe2+ for 5-CQA, whereas for salts they were 106.92–141.13 and 78.93–132.00 μM Fe2+. The 5-CQA and its alkali metal salts possess higher antioxidant properties than commonly applied antioxidants (BHA, BHT, l-ascorbic acid. The pro-oxidant action of these compounds on trolox oxidation was studied in the range of their concentration 0.05–0.35 μM. The lipophilicity (logkw of chlorogenates and chlorogenic acid was determined by RP-HPLC (reverse phase—high performance liquid chromatography using five different columns (C8, PHE (phenyl, CN (cyano, C18, IAM (immobilized artificial membrane. The compounds were screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against E. coli, Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes and antifungal activity against Candida sp. The 5-CQA possessed lower antibacterial (minimal inhibitory

  8. Acid-generating salts and their relationship to the chemistry of groundwater and storm runoff at an abandoned mine site in southwestern Indiana, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, E.R.; Olyphant, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Cation distributions in twenty samples of acid-generating salts were compared to those in groundwater and storm runoff from a coal-refuse deposit in an effort to identify source-product relationships. Two mineral suites, one primarily composed of melanterite, rozenite and szomolnokite, and the other composed almost entirely of copiapite, were found to be most abundant at the study site. Comparisons of cation distributions in salts with those in water samples led to an hypothesis that a copiapite-rich suite precipitated from vadose-zone groundwater that was brought to the surface by evaporative forcing. The copiapite-rich suite, which contained larger concentrations of aluminum, calcium and zinc than the melanterite-rozenite-szomolnokite mineral suite, was the primary source of solutes in captured storm runoff. An analysis of samples collected during a summer thunderstorm indicated that the chemistry of surface runoff varied little with time or with distance downstream. The cation distributions in samples of groundwater indicated that iron-rich pore waters observed near the surface in late autumn may have influenced water chemistry in the deeper portions of the unsaturated zone during the 1989 recharge season. The results of this study show that the solutes produced by the two observed salt suites can be distinguished by their mole percent iron and that the source-product relationships can explain observed variability in mine drainage chemistry at the study site

  9. Study of water nature in some crystallohydrates of pentasubstituted alkali metal salts of borotungstic acid using thermochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmodem'yanskaya, G.V.; Sadykova, M.M.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Kinetics of the dehydration process has been studied and heat of dehydration has been determined for salts 2.5Li 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x 28.5H 2 O; 2.5Na 2 Ox0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x 17.5H 2 O; 2.5K 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x12.0WO 3 x 16.5H 2 O; 2.5Cs 2 O x 0.5B 2 O 3 x 12.0WO 3 x6.7H 2 O. Dehydration has been conducted in vacuum at 25-50 deg C. The study of the dehydration process has been performed thermochemically in a differential calorimeter. It has been shown that heat of dehydration depends on the nature of the cation. Lithium salt with a cation of a small radius has the highest heat of dehydration (6.4+-0.2 kcal/mol H 2 O). Cesium salt is dehydrated almost completely. A considerable part of water in crystallohydrates has a salting character. Kinetics of the dehydration process is described by the equation of the monomolecular reaction

  10. The enhancement of tolerance to salt and cold stresses by modifying the redox state and salicylic acid content via the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene in transgenic apple plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Jie; Sun, Hong; Dong, Qing-Long; Sun, Tian-Yu; Jin, Zhong-Xin; Hao, Yu-Jin; Yao, Yu-Xin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we characterized the role of an apple cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene (MdcyMDH) in the tolerance to salt and cold stresses and investigated its regulation mechanism in stress tolerance. The MdcyMDH transcript was induced by mild cold and salt treatments, and MdcyMDH-overexpressing apple plants possessed improved cold and salt tolerance compared to wild-type (WT) plants. A digital gene expression tag profiling analysis revealed that MdcyMDH overexpression largely altered some biological processes, including hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, citrate cycle and oxidation-reduction. Further experiments verified that MdcyMDH overexpression modified the mitochondrial and chloroplast metabolisms and elevated the level of reducing power, primarily caused by increased ascorbate and glutathione, as well as the increased ratios of ascorbate/dehydroascorbate and glutathione/glutathione disulphide, under normal and especially stress conditions. Concurrently, the transgenic plants produced a high H2 O2 content, but a low O2·- production rate was observed compared to the WT plants. On the other hand, the transgenic plants accumulated more free and total salicylic acid (SA) than the WT plants under normal and stress conditions. Taken together, MdcyMDH conferred the transgenic apple plants a higher stress tolerance by producing more reductive redox states and increasing the SA level; MdcyMDH could serve as a target gene to genetically engineer salt- and cold-tolerant trees. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Effects of pamidronate disodium (Bonin) combined with chemotherapy on bone pain in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yun; Chen, Shi-lun; Shi, Hong-zhi

    2002-10-01

    Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of Disodium Pamidronate (Bonin) on bone pain in multiple myeloma. Method. 18 patients received only chemotherapy and 16 patients with addition of Bonin were compared. Result. The bone pain was significantly relieved both in chemotherapy alone group and in the combination group of Bonin with chemotherapy after treatment (P<0.01, as compared with before therapy). However, the effects of combination group were more dramatical than that of the other group (P<0.05). No obvious side-effects were observed except mild fever in one patient in the combination group. Conclusion. Bonin, as a safe and effective Bisphosphonates preparation, could relieve bone pain in multiple myeloma more effectively when combined with chemotherapy.

  12. Heavy Metals, Cardiovascular Disease, and the Unexpected Benefits of Edetate Disodium Chelation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes evidence from 2 lines of research previously thought unrelated: the unexpectedly positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT), and a body of epidemiological data showing that accumulation of biologically active metals, such as lead and cadmium, is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Considering these 2 areas of work together may lead to the identification of new, modifiable risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We examine the history of chelation up through the report of TACT. We then describe work connecting higher metal levels in the body with the future risk of cardiovascular disease. We conclude by presenting a brief overview of a newly planned National Institutes of Health trial, TACT2, in which we will attempt to replicate the findings of TACT and to establish that removal of toxic metal stores from the body is a plausible mechanistic explanation for the benefits of edetate disodium treatment. PMID:27199065

  13. Reporter-free potentiometric sensing of boronic acids and their reactions by using quaternary ammonium salt-functionalized polymeric liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewei; Yue, Dengfeng; Lv, Enguang; Wu, Lei; Qin, Wei

    2014-02-18

    The tremendous applications of boronic acids (BAs) in chemical sensing, medical chemistry, molecular assembly, and organic synthesis lead to an urgent demand for developing effective sensing methods for BAs. This paper reports a facile and sensitive potentiometric sensor scheme for heterogeneous detection of BAs based on their unexpected potential responses on quaternary ammonium salt-doped polymeric liquid membranes. (11)B NMR data reveal that a quaternary ammonium chloride can trigger the hydrolysis of an electrically neutral BA in an aprotic solvent. Using the quaternary ammonium salt as the receptor, the BA molecules can be extracted from the sample solution into the polymeric membrane phase and undergo the concomitant hydrolysis. Such salt-triggered hydrolysis generates H(+) ions, which can be coejected into the aqueous phase with the counterions (e.g., Cl(-)) owing to their high hydrophilicities. The perturbation on the ionic partition at the sample-membrane interface changes the phase boundary potential and thus enables the potentiometric sensing of BAs. In contrast to other transduction methods for BAs, for which labeled or separate reporters are exclusively required, the present heterogeneous sensing scheme allows the direct detection of BAs without using any reporter molecules. This technique shows superior detection limits for BAs (e.g., 1.0 × 10(-6) M for phenylboronic acid) as compared to previously reported methods based on colorimetry, fluorimetry, and mass spectrometry. The proposed sensing strategy has also been successfully applied to potentiometric indication of the BA reactions with hydrogen peroxide and saccharides, which allows indirect and sensitive detection of these important species.

  14. Antimicrobial Effects of Sodium Fluoride, Xylitol and Metals Salts on in Vitro Growth Inhibition, Acid Production and Ultrastructure of Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mongy, T.M.; Abd EI-Aziz, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sodium fluoride (NaF), dietary sugars, sugar alcohols (xylitol and sorbitol) and different metals salts either separately or in combination, by different concentrations at different ph, on the growth inhibition, acid production and ultra structure of Streptococcus mutans. NaF was more effective at low ph, when NaF was added to actively growing Streptococcus mutans broth culture, the growth rate was unaffected by 75 ppm F-, slowed by 150 ppm F-, and immediately arrested by 300 or 600 ppm F-. On the other hand, the best effect of xylitol was at high ph. The effect of xylitol was more marked in the presence of NaF as the acid production was inhibited and the ph did not fall to 5.0. The response of Streptococcus mutans to metals salts was typical of this organism's response to a number of trace metals above optimum concentrations of which may be inhibitory. Synergistic effect observed by addition of metals salts by concentration ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 mML-1, 300 ppm NaF and 5% xylitol. This formula can work at any ph value and causes no drop of the broth culture ph to below 5.0 which is the optimal ph for growth and multiplication of Streptococcus mutans, so this formula worked as ph buffer regulation and growth inhibition for S. mutans. Low concentration of this combined formula after 5 min only at 5.0 and 7.0 ph values caused effective complete destruction of the bacterial viable cells and this effect was observed clearly by Electron Microscope photo graph

  15. Uric acid does not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta from normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Watts, Stephanie W

    2010-06-01

    Uric acid (UA) results from xanthine oxidase (XO) catabolism of xanthine and is the final product of purine catabolism in humans. In this species, hyperuricemia is associated with gout, nephropathy, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of hyperuricemia in vascular biology are overall controversial, UA has been described as an antioxidant and as potentially improving endothelial function. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that UA improves the endothelial function of aorta from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. UA (100 microM) in the presence of the uricase inhibitor oxonic acid (10 microM) did not modify relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (1 nM-10 microM) in the aorta from nontreated, sham normotensive, and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats [response to 10 microM ACh for UA versus vehicle, respectively: nontreated = 37 +/- 7 versus 48 +/- 7%, sham = 53 +/- 15 versus 57 +/- 20%, DOCA = 81 +/- 4 versus 85 +/- 2% from 20 microM prostaglandin 2alpha (PGF(2alpha))-induced contraction]. Allopurinol (100 microM), a XO inhibitor, did not significantly alter the ACh-induced relaxation of sham and DOCA aortic rings (response to 10 microM ACh for allopurinol versus vehicle, respectively: sham = 61 +/- 5 versus 68 +/- 9%, DOCA = 87 +/- 6 versus 88 +/- 3% from 20 microM PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction). Uricemia, ranging from unmeasurable to 547 microM in sham and to 506 microM in DOCA rats, was not significantly different between these two groups. The expression and activity of XO, as well as the expression of uricase, were not different between sham and DOCA rat aorta. We conclude that, at least in vitro, UA does not affect the ACh-induced relaxation of normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  16. The solid-state structures of organic salts formed by calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with nucleic bases cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium

    KAUST Repository

    Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2018-02-19

    Calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid has been demonstrated to possess an interesting range of biological properties, including atypical anti-cancer activity. The robustness of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid and its ubiquitous dimeric motif offers perspectives for pre-defined solid state complexation with small molecules. In the current article we describe co-crystals (organic salts) of calix[4]arene dihydroxyphosphonic acid with four nucleic base cations: adeninium, cytosinium, guaninium and uracilium. A number of characteristic interactions between the components in the four co-crystals are pointed out also using the Hirshfeld surface analysis. All the four co-crystals are based on layers of calix[4]arene dimers, alternating with layers of nucleic acid molecules. Two of the reported crystal structures (cytosinium and guaninium) are 1D channel-type structures, while the two others (adeninium and uracilium) represent 2D channel-type structures. In three out of four reported structures, interactions between the cations of nucleic bases are present generating 1D chains of cations. A constant motif is that the nucleic base is present in a type of cavity formed by one aromatic ring and a phosphonic acid moiety.

  17. [Impact of a simultaneous application of anionic salts and rumen buffer on acid-base-balance and mineral metabolism in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Carl-Christian; Hauser, Simone; Löptien, Antje; Montag, Nicole; Passmann, Mareike; Baumgartner, Walter; Staufenbiel, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the influence of simultaneous application of anionic salts (AS) and rumen buffer (RB) on the metabolism of dairy cows was examined. Eleven rumen fistulated, non-pregnant and non-lactating dairy cows received equal amounts of one AS (CaCl2 or CaSO4) and one RB (NaHCO3 or KHCO3) via rumen cannula during feeding time over a period of eight days. Before the first application of AS and RB and on day eight of the treatment period, blood, urine and rumen fluid samples were taken. The following parameters were measured: whole blood: pH, base excess, bicarbonate; serum: sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; urine: pH, net acid base excretion, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium; rumen fluid: pH. The changes of each parameter were compared via ANOVA. The changes in acid-base balance on day eight were very small, although significant. But p-values showed that the statistical evidence was low. The most changes occurred when NaHCO3 was fed in combination with one of the AS used. In this case a small acidogenic load was seen in blood (p buffer must not be fed, if anionic salts are given for prevention of parturient paresis.

  18. 76 FR 56158 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-938] Citric Acid and Certain... preliminary results of the administrative review of the countervailing duty order on citric acid and certain..., 2009. See Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Sales from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  19. Effects of lodoxamide (LOD), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate sodium salt (NAAGA) on ocular active anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, P; Luyckx, J

    1996-04-01

    LOD, DSCG and NAAGA eye-drops were evaluated on experimentally-induced ocular active anaphylaxis in guinea pigs. Twelve animals per group were sensitized with egg albumin i.p. and challenged on the surface of the eye 14 days later. Two days before challenge, animals were treated with LOD, DSCG or NAAGA 4 times a day. Permeability indexes were calculated after intracardiac injection of Evans Blue. No effect on ocular active anaphylaxis was found with LOD nor with DSCG. NAAGA was able to significantly reduce blood-eye permeability indexes.

  20. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose  Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods  Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results  For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion  We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:   · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a

  1. A Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Method for the Determination of Disodium EDTA in Meropenem Drug Substance with UV-Detection using Precolumn Derivatization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavil Narola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of disodium EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in Meropenem active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. EDTA was derivatized with Ferric chloride solution by heating at 70 ° C in water bath for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 100 μL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a Phenomenex Luna C18(2 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μ, The mobile phase consisting of 5% methanol and 95% of 0.7 g/L solution of Tetra butyl ammonium bromide and 4.6 g/L solution of sodium acetate trihydrate in water (pH adjusted to 4.0 with the help of acetic acid glacial and a flow rate of 1 milliliter/minute. EDTA eluted at approximately 6 minutes. The method was suitably validated with respect to specificity, linearity of response, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, stability in analytical solution, limit of quantitation and detection and robustness for its intended use.

  2. Cholesterol-Lowering Potentials of Lactic Acid Bacteria Based on Bile-Salt Hydrolase Activity and Effect of Potent Strains on Cholesterol Metabolism In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study collected different probiotic isolates from animal and plant sources to evaluate the bile-salt hydrolase activity of probiotics in vitro. The deconjugation potential of bile acid was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. HepG2 cells were cultured with probiotic strains with high BSH activity. The triglyceride (TG and apolipoprotein B (apo B secretion by HepG2 cells were evaluated. Our results show that the BSH activity and bile-acid deconjugation abilities of Pediococcus acidilactici NBHK002, Bifidobacterium adolescentis NBHK006, Lactobacillus rhamnosus NBHK007, and Lactobacillus acidophilus NBHK008 were higher than those of the other probiotic strains. The cholesterol concentration in cholesterol micelles was reduced within 24 h. NBHK007 reduced the TG secretion by 100% after 48 h of incubation. NBHK002, NBHK006, and NBHK007 could reduce apo B secretion by 33%, 38%, and 39%, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. The product PROBIO S-23 produced a greater decrease in the total concentration of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, TG, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in the serum or livers of hamsters with hypercholesterolemia compared with that of hamsters fed with a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet. These results show that the three probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria are better candidates for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Free acid gel form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) improves HMB clearance from plasma in human subjects compared with the calcium HMB salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, John C; Sharp, Rick L; Angus, Hector F; Baier, Shawn M; Rathmacher, John A

    2011-02-01

    The leucine metabolite, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), is a nutritional supplement that increases lean muscle and strength with exercise and in disease states. HMB is presently available as the Ca salt (CaHMB). The present study was designed to examine whether HMB in free acid gel form will improve HMB availability to tissues. Two studies were conducted and in each study four males and four females were given three treatments in a randomised, cross-over design. Treatments were CaHMB (gelatin capsule, 1 g), equivalent HMB free acid gel swallowed (FASW) and free acid gel held sublingual for 15 s then swallowed (FASL). Plasma HMB was measured for 3 h following treatment in study 1 and 24 h with urine collection in study 2. In both the studies, the times to peak plasma HMB were 128 (sem 11), 38 (sem 4) and 38 (sem 1) min (P HMB excretion was not significantly increased resulting in more HMB retained (P HMB from plasma. In conclusion, HMB free acid gel could improve HMB availability and efficacy to tissues in health and disease.

  4. Stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid polymer microgels under various conditions of temperature, pH and salt concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor H. Farooqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the colloidal stability of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid [P(NIPAM-co-AAc] polymer microgels with different acrylic acid contents in aqueous medium under various conditions of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentrations. Three samples of multi-responsive P(NIPAM-co-AAc polymer microgels were synthesized using different amounts of acrylic acid by free radical emulsion polymerization. Dynamic laser light scattering was used to investigate the responsive behavior and stability of the prepared microgels under various conditions of pH, temperature and ionic strength. The microgels were found to be stable at all pH values above the pKa value of acrylic acid moiety in the temperature range from 15 to 60 °C in the presence and absence of sodium chloride. Increase in temperature, salt concentration and decrease in pH causes aggregation and decreases the stability of microgels due to the decrease in hydrophilicity.

  5. Effects of supplementation of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on serum concentrations of progesterone and insulin of pregnant dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe Moriel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five non-lactating, pregnant Holstein animals (18 heifers and 27 multiparous cows; BW = 561±114 kg; BCS = 2.9±0.3; days pregnant = 110±56 d were stratified by initial BW and BCS, and randomly assigned to receive daily (as-fed basis 0.50 kg of ground corn plus 0.22 kg of kaolin (CON, calcium salts of saturated fatty acids (SFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PF for 14 d. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7 and 14, immediately prior to (0 h and 3, 6, 9 and 12 h after feeding, to determine the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of P4 (5.52, 6.13 and 5.63±0.41 ng/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. No treatment effects were detected for serum concentrations of insulin (11.5, 10.5 and 10.1±1.43 µIU/mL for CON, SFA and PF, respectively. Heifers had greater serum concentrations of P4 than multiparous cows (6.35 vs. 5.16±0.42 ng/mL, but lower serum concentrations of insulin (7.0 vs. 14.4±1.49 µIU/mL. Feeding 0.22 kg of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids is not sufficient to increase the serum concentrations of P4 and insulin of non-lactating, pregnant dairy cows.

  6. Effect of K and Mg salts of aspartic acid on haemopoiesis and recovery from radiation damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Pipalova, I.; Mikeska, J.

    1980-01-01

    Male mice of non-inbred strain ''H'' were used to test the effect of a 10-day peroral administration of K and Mg aspartates on haemopoietic functions. The salts were proved to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation processes in the thymus, bone marrow and spleen tissues. Mice exposed to a single whole-body X-irradiation after pretreatment with K, Mg aspartate exhibited a more conspicuous postirradiation regeneration of haemopoietic organs and an increased postirradiation survival. The results suggest the possibility of using K, Mg aspartate for radioprotective purposes. (author)

  7. Study of isobutyric acid reactivity by electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopy of the sodium salt and of 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphoric acid; Etude de la reactivite de l`acide isobutyrique par spectroscopie infrarouge et resonance paramagnetique electronique du sel de sodium et de l`acide de l`ion 1-vanado-11-molybdophosphorique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabia, C.; Bettahar, M.M. [Universite des sciences et de technologies, Houari-Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria); Fournier, M. [Universite des Sciences et technologies de Lille, 59 - Villeneuve d`Ascq (France)

    1997-11-01

    The alkaline salt 1-vanado-11-molybdo-phosphore acid as been investigated in isobutyric absorption-desorption-re-oxidation cycles by IR and ESR spectroscopies in comparison to the bulk acid compound. The stability of the active phase in catalysis seems to be related to the formation of a cubic phase depending strongly on the presence of water vapor in the gas stream. This phase can be generated from an alkali precursor subject to a moderate thermal treatment leading to a dispersion of di-oxovanadium cation into the alkali-12-molybdophosphate lattice. (authors) 14 refs.

  8. Inhibitory Activity of Lactid Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tape Waterlily Seed to Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, and E.coli and Its’ Susceptibility to Antibiotic, Bile Salt and Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Khusnul Khotimah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe inhibitory activity of LAB isolated from tape waterlily seed to enteric pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Shigella disentri, E.coli ATCC 25922 and it’s susceptibility to antibiotic, in bile salt and under acidic condition. Microbia in the tape ( a fermented product of waterlily seed to showed were Streptococcus thermophilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus (IKH-2 and Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Streptococcus thermophillus showed inhibition against the growth of Shigella disentri with inhibition zones 16,28 mm, but did not against the growth of V. Cholera, S. typhi, E.coli. Pediococcus pentosaceus inhibit Vibrio cholera, dan Salmonella thypi with inhibition zones 18,59 mm dan 7,91 mm. So that, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inhibit Salmonella thypi with zones inhibits average 8,25 mm. Chloramfenicol at 0.05 mg concentrations did not show inhibition against the growth of isolated Streptococcus thermophillus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. These isolates could survive too in bile salt (2% and acidified media (pH 3.   Keyword : The tape of  waterlily seed, LAB, probiotic and enteric pathogenic   KEMAMPUAN PENGHAMBATAN BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DARI TAPE BIJI TERATAI TERHADAP PATOGENIK ENTERIK (VIBRIO CHOLERA, SALMONELLA THYPI, SHIGELLA DISENTRI, E. COLI, ANTIBIOTIK, KETAHANANNYA TERHADAP BILE SALT DAN ASAM   ABSTRAK   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kemampuan penghambatan bakteri asam laktat yang diisolasi dari tape biji teratai terhadap patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, E. Coli ATCC 25922, antibiotik, bile salt dan asam. Jenis bakteri yang diketahui tumbuh selama fermentasi tape biji teratai adalah Streptococcus thermopilus (IKH-1, Pediococcus pentosaceus(IKH-2, dan Leuconostoc mesentroides (IKH-8. Pengamatan terhadap uji penghambatan patogenik enterik (Vibrio cholera, Salmonella thypi, Shigella disentri, dan E. Coli ATCC

  9. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of garlic-fermenting lactic acid bacteria isolated from som-fak, a Thai low-salt fermented fish product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Valyasevi, R.; Huss, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the importance of garlic for fermentation of a Thai fish product, and to differentiate among garlic-/inulin-fermenting lactic acid bacteria (LAB) at strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Som-fak was prepared by fermentation of a mixture of fish, salt, rice, sucrose and garlic. p......H decreased to 4.5 in 2 days, but omitting garlic resulted in a lack of acidification. LAB were predominant and approximately one third of 234 isolated strains fermented garlic and inulin (the carbohydrate reserve in garlic). These strains were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus and Lact. plantarum...... AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present study indicates the role of fructans (garlic/inulin) as carbohydrate sources for LAB. Fructan fermenters may have several biotechnological applications, for example, as probiotics....

  10. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a Thai low-salt fermented fish product and the role of garlic as substrate for fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan-Müller, Christine; Huss, Hans Henrik; Gram, Lone

    1999-01-01

    associated with fish fillet and minced fish, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei with boiled rice and Weisella confusa with garlic mix and banana leaves. In addition, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus were isolated from raw materials. A succession of aciduric......Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from raw materials (fish, rice, garlic and banana leaves) and processed som-fak (a Thai low-salt fermented fish product) were characterized by API 50- CH and other phenotypic criteria. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Leuconostoc citreum were specifically....... paracasei, or garlic fermenting Lb. plantarum and Pd. pentosaceus, or a combination of these strains were inoculated into laboratory prepared som-fak with or without garlic. In som-fak without garlic, pH was above 4.8 after three days, irrespective of addition of mixed LAB cultures. The starch fermenting...

  11. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  12. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  13. Extraction of uranium from anomaly ores no 1,6,8 in salt domes of Bandar Abbas region using column leaching by seawater in sulfuric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Column leaching is one of the experimental methods which is used for identifying the specifications of uranium ores. From the efficiency point of view, the process has some complications and usually it is applied in parallel with the conventional leaching process in order to facilitate of finding an appropriate design and operational method, to be applicable in an large practical scale. In this research work, at the first stage, the existed free chlorine in the samples was washed out using seawater. Then, in a process of acid leaching with seawater and sulfuric acid by the use of the column leaching was applied. The results show that the maximum of 85% of uranium from the ore of Anomali ≠1 is extracted. The extra residual of the used acid dose not react with the uranium and therefore it will increase the free acidity of the leach liquor. In Anomali ≠6, the extraction efficiency of uranium is 75%, while in Anomali ≠8, using 30 periods of leaching, the efficiency is 81%. However, the maximum efficiency achievement has to be avoided by the non-economical circumstances. Based on some comparisons, it is shown that the presence of chlorine in ore will affect the efficiency. The capability of s eawater i n uranium extraction from salted, compared with the n ormal or sweat water h as some advantages. These include: reduction of the operational period, less acid consumption, and reduction in the ore leaching costs. Thus, the heap leaching industry is believed to be a valuable and economical method for uranium extraction, where the needs of utilizing the complicated technical facilities can be reduced. The present work is the first research project on the uranium extraction and concentration in solution containing chlorine. Our experimental results can provide a valuable pattern for the heap leaching of uranium ores design from arches shaped in the region Bandar Abbas

  14. Influence of electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts on microbial quality and overall appearance of blueberries during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liato, Viacheslav; Hammami, Riadh; Aïder, Mohammed

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of diluted electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts (potassium acetate, potassium citrate and calcium lactate) to extend the shelf life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. The sanitizing capacity of these solutions was studied against pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 as well as phytopathogenic fungi A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea. The results showed that a 5-min treatment of inoculated blueberries with electro-activated solutions resulted in a 4 log CFU/g reduction in Listeria monocytogenes for all solutions. For E. coli O157:H7, the electro-activated potassium acetate and potassium citrate solutions achieved a decrease of 3.5 log CFU/g after 5 min of berry washing. The most important fungus reduction was found when blueberries were washed with an electro-activated solution of potassium acetate and a NaOCl solution. After 5 min of blueberry washing with an electro-activated potassium acetate solution, a very high reduction effect was observed for A. alternata, F. oxysporum and B. cinerea, which showed survival levels of only 2.2 ± 0.16, 0.34 ± 0.15 and 0.21 ± 0.16 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the effect of the washing on the organoleptic quality of blueberries, the obtained results showed no negative effect on the product color or textural profile. Finally, this work suggests that washing with electro-activated solutions of weak organic acid salts can be used to enhance the shelf-life of blueberries during post-harvest storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. to drought and salt stress and salicylic acid foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the physiological responses of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. in drought and salinity stress conditions and salicylic acid foliar application, a greenhouse experiment was conducted based on completly randomized design with three replications in Yasouj university in 2015. Treatments including different levels of salinity and drought with similar osmotic potentials (-2, -4, -7 and -9 bar in 8 levels and a control treatment were applied in Hoagland solution. Second factor was salicylic acid foliar application in 2 levels (0 and 0.5 mM. Salinity and drought applied using sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol 6000, respectively. The results showed that leaf protein content, catalase activity, total chlorophyll and carotenoid significantly decreased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought levels, however salicylic acid could prevent this trend.  Proline soluble sugars and malodealdehide content significantly increased compared to control by increasing salinity and drought. However salicylic acid could not prevent this trend. Shoot and root dry weights significantly decreased in salinity and drought stress treatments, compared to control and salicylic acid could prevent this decrease. Generally regarded to the most of the measured traits, impact of drought was more than salinity and salicylic acid could compensate the stress impacts on linseed.

  16. INCREASING SALT TOLERANCE OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) PLANTS BY INTERACTION EFFECTS OF GAMMA IRRADIATION AND GIBBERELLIC ACID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on growth, photosynthetic pigments and some of the antioxidant enzymes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds were investigated. After irradiation with different doses of gamma radiation (20 and 40 Gy), seeds were soaked for 24 hours in either GA 3 , NaCl solution or in a mixture of both. NaCl induced reduction in growth as well as decrease in photosynthetic pigment content of the produced seedlings. However, GA 3 caused amelioration in growth inhibition and an increase in the pigment contents. Irradiated chickpea seeds treated with GA 3 evolved defence antioxidant mechanisms to combat the danger of salt stress by increasing the superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activities while malonaldehyde (MDA) contents were decreased

  17. Effect of ultrasound-assisted crystallization in the diastereomeric salt resolution of tetramisole enantiomers in ternary system with O,O'-dibenzoyl-(2R,3R)-tartaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeleczky, Zsolt; Kis-Mihály, Erzsébet; Semsey, Sándor; Pataki, Hajnalka; Bagi, Péter; Pálovics, Emese; Marosi, György; Pokol, György; Fogassy, Elemér; Madarász, János

    2016-09-01

    The diastereomeric salt resolution of racemic tetramisole was studied using ultrasound irradiation. We examined the effect of power and duration of ultrasonic irradiation on the properties of the crystalline phase formed by ultrasound-assisted crystallization and the result of the whole optical resolution. The results were compared with reference experiment without using ultrasound. The US time (5-30min) caused higher enantiomeric excess. Although yield was lower continuously high resolving efficiency could have been reached through ultrasound. We had the best results with 4.3W ultrasound power when resolvability was even higher than the best of reference. Furthermore, we accomplished a deep and thorough examination of the salts that possibly could form in this resolution. One of the four diastereomeric salts, which have been identified by powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR-spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the ternary system of the two tetramisole enantiomers and the resolving agent, namely the bis[(S)-tetramisole]-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-tartrate salt have been proven the key compound in the resolution process, and presented the highest melting point of 166°C (dec.) among the four salts. The originally expected diastereomeric bitartrate salts with 1:1M base:acid ratio [(S)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt and (R)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] and their 'racemic' co-crystal [(RS)-tetramisole-dibenzoyl-(R,R)-hydrogen-tartrate salt] showed somewhat lower melting points (152, 145, and 150°C, respectively) and their crystallization was also prevented by application of ultrasound. Based on the melting points and enthalpies of fusion measured by DSC, all the binary and ternary phase diagrams have been newly established and calculated in the system with help of classical modelling equations of liquidus curves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-performance sodium-organic battery by realizing four-sodium storage in disodium rhodizonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minah; Hong, Jihyun; Lopez, Jeffrey; Sun, Yongming; Feng, Dawei; Lim, Kipil; Chueh, William C.; Toney, Michael F.; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan

    2017-11-01

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for grid-scale applications need active materials that combine a high energy density with sustainability. Given the high theoretical specific capacity 501 mAh g-1, and Earth abundance of disodium rhodizonate (Na2C6O6), it is one of the most promising cathodes for SIBs. However, substantially lower reversible capacities have been obtained compared with the theoretical value and the understanding of this discrepancy has been limited. Here, we reveal that irreversible phase transformation of Na2C6O6 during cycling is the origin of the deteriorating redox activity of Na2C6O6. The active-particle size and electrolyte conditions were identified as key factors to decrease the activation barrier of the phase transformation during desodiation. On the basis of this understanding, we achieved four-sodium storage in a Na2C6O6 electrode with a reversible capacity of 484 mAh g-1, an energy density of 726 Wh kg-1cathode, an energy efficiency above 87% and a good cycle retention.

  19. Effect of Salicylic Acid and Ethephon on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheyla Shakeri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water or soil salinities are the most important factors that reduce the seed germination of plants. Ethephon can break seed dormancy in a variety of plants, such as cereals and speeds up germination. In some plants pretreatment of seeds with salicylic acid has increased the germination percentage. To study effect of salicylic acid and ethephon on seed germination of wheat (Seivand cultivar under salinity condition a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted at the Plant Research Laboratory of Neyshabur Branch of Islamic Azad University in 2011. Four salinity levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mM, three salicylic acid levels (0, 0.5, 1 mM and four ethephon levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2 mM were used. The results showed that at salinity condition seed germination rate and percentage, shoot and root length, their dry weight and α-amylase activity decreased and proline content increased. Pretreatment of seeds by salicylic acid increased seed germination percentage, some growth parameters, α-amylase activity and proline content under salinity condition. Moreover, pretreatment of seeds by ethephon decreased some growth parameters and increased proline content but its effect on germination and α-amylase activity were not significant. It seems that Salicylic acid as a plant growth regulator under salinity condition and ethephon convertion to ethylene, activated plant tolerance mechanisms to salinity condition and decrease damaging effect of salinity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat.

  20. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the fatty acid composition of salted, semi-dried Vietnamese scad and Bombay duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh, P.Q.; Rao, V.S.; Adhikar, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the lipid and fatty acid composition of semi-dried Bombay duck (Harpodon nehcreus) and Vietnamese scad (Alepes mate) was studied. In both these dried fishes, c16:0 aand c18:1 were the predominant fatty acids and the fishes contained ignificant quantities of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), C20:5 and C22:6. Irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, did not cause any alterations in the total lipid content and he overall lipid class profile in these fishes. However, in the Vietnamese scad, C18:3, C20:4 and C22:6 were significantly decreased in the irradiated samples. In spite of this decrease the irradiated semi-dried scad retained 82% of the initial amount of n-3 PUFAs

  1. Preparation of Copper (II) Containing Phosphomolybdic Acid Salt as Catalyst for the Synthesis of Biodiesel by Esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiu-Yun; Wei, Fang-Fang; Huang, Jin-Shu; Feng, Yun-Mei; Ma, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Yutao-

    2018-04-01

    Copper (II) containing phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) catalysts were synthesized by ion exchange method and characterization using various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization results showed that the Keggin ions were retained in the catalysts and possessed well thermal stability. The catalytic esterification of lauric acid with methanol could be easily achieved about 78.7% conversion under optimum condition, the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be reused for a certain time. This study demonstrated an alternative approach to biodiesel production with high efficiency by Cu (II) ion exchanged phosphomolybdic acid catalyst in the esterification catalytic.

  2. Effects of dietary energy levels using calcium salts of fatty acids on nutritive value of diets and milk quality in peripartum dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripartum is a critical period for dairy goats, as dry matter intake (DMI is not enough to supply the energy requirement for foetal growth and subsequent lactation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase dietary energy level of peripartum dairy goats and its effects on nutritive value of diets and milk quality. Twenty multiparous Saanen goats (body weight 63.5±10.3 kg were distributed in a completely randomised design in four treatments at the following dietary energy levels: 2.6 Mcal of metabolisable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM - control diet; and 2.7, 2.8, and 2.9 Mcal/kg DM - with added CSFA. Goats were housed in individual stalls and evaluated in the peripartum period, by measuring body weight (BW, DMI, dry matter and nutrient digestibility of diets, blood composition, and milk quality and yield. Increasing dietary energy level to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had no effect on BW and did not limit DMI. CSFA supplementation increased intake of total digestible nutrients and did not affect fibre digestion. Blood triglycerides and cholesterol concentration increased with CSFA addition. The treatments had no effect on milk yield and composition; however, CSFA supplementation changed the fatty acid concentration of milk fat, increasing levels of polyunsaturated and essential fatty acids. In conclusion, peripartum dairy goats supplemented with CSFA to increase dietary energy level up to 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM had a greater supply of total digestible nutrients and showed altered fatty acid concentration of milk fat.

  3. Microwave synthesis of delaminated acid saponites using quaternary ammonium salt or polymer as template. Study of pH influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebretsadik, Fiseha B.; Mance, Deni; Baldus, Marc; Salagre, Pilar; Cesteros, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous saponites were prepared at pH8 and 13 without and with template (surfactant or polymer) at 453K and autogenic pressure using microwaves or conventional oven during the hydrothermal ageing treatment. Acidity was obtained by calcination of the NH4-form. The effect of dilution

  4. 76 FR 77206 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Office Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, from David Layton..., 2011. \\3\\ See Memorandum to Susan H. Kuhbach, Office Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 1, from Austin... provision of sulfuric acid for less than adequate remuneration (``LTAR'') for both RZBC and Yixing, and...

  5. 78 FR 34642 - Citric Acid and Certain Citrate Salts From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... excepted from the electronic submission requirements must be filed manually (i.e., in paper form) with the... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-937] Citric Acid and Certain... Commerce. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') is conducting an administrative review...

  6. GC AND LC CHROMATOGRAPHIC AND EI, CE, +/- CI, AND ES MASS SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SALTS AND AMIDES OF PERFLUOROOCTANESULFONIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1976, fluorine in human blood serum was thought to be present as perfluorooctanic acid; however, in the 1990s it was correctly identified by LC/MS as perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS). PFOS was both a commercial product and an end-stage metabolite of numerous substituted amides ...

  7. Effect of Salicylic acid on some Growth and Biochemical Parameters of Wheat and Maize Plants under Salt Stress in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Dashagha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the difference between the resistance of wheat plants (c3 and maize (c4 the salinity was investigated. Research on environmental stresses (Hakimi, 2008 show thatstresses are considered as Limiting factors in crop production.and some phenolic compounds such as salicylic acid are used to improve or alleviate the negative effects of stress. In this study, plants were grown in plastic pots and the plants treated with salicylic acid, after two weeks and seven days later salinity was exerted.The effect of salinity treatmenton both plants, for some morphological and biochemical characteristics were studied. In biochemical tests, lipid peroxidation under salinity and salicylic acid treatments has increased for weat which represents the effect of salinity on the plant and the activetion of the defense mechanism, Howweverthese factors have reduced formaize. Moreover, the increase in total chlorophyll and flavonoids in wheatchlorophyll in wheat and maize shows the role of these pigments in quenching hydrogen peroxide and other active Oxygen types. This increases has not been concideralle in maize. The effect of treatment on the weight of … and root of both plants differed under the investigated concentration.

  8. Effect of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas; Batistel, Fernanda; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2017-02-01

    The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of sources of calcium salts of fatty acids (FA) on production, nutrient digestibility, energy balance, and carryover effects of early lactation grazing dairy cows. Treatment diets were offered from 3 to 16 wk postpartum (the treatment period), in which all cows grazed elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum 'Cameroon') and treatments were added to a concentrate supplement. The treatments were (1) control (concentrate without supplemental fat); (2) concentrate with calcium salts of soybean FA (CSSO); and (3) concentrate with calcium salts of palm FA (CSPO). From 17 to 42 wk postpartum (the carryover period), all cows received a common diet fed as a total mixed ration. During the treatment period, CSPO increased milk yield, milk fat yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and cumulative milk yield compared with control and CSSO. Treatment CSSO increased the yield of milk but did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected compared with control. Also, CSSO decreased milk fat yield, dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, and body weight and body condition loss. Compared with control, both CSSO and CSPO increased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk:dry matter intake), and CSPO increased feed efficiency compared with CSSO. When considering energy partitioning (as % energy intake), CSPO increased energy partitioning toward milk and increased energy mobilized from body reserves compared with control and CSSO. Furthermore, CSSO tended to reduce the mobilization of energy from body reserves compared with control. In the carryover period, no differences in milk composition were observed among treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed during the carryover period for milk yield because cows on CSPO maintained higher production compared with control and CSSO cows until 30 wk postpartum; CSSO had a lower carryover effect sustaining higher milk yield compared with

  9. Dgroup: DG00781 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DG00781 Chemical ... DGroup Clodronic acid ... D03545 ... Clodronic acid (USAN/INN) D03544 ... Clodron...ate disodium (USAN); Sodium clodronate hydrate (JAN) D07720 ... Clodronic acid disodium salt Other ... DG01600 ... Bisphosphonate ATC code: M05BA02 Bisphosphonates ...

  10. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agro alimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genotypes, their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses especially salinity and drought has the most effect on medicinal plants. The genus Lavandula (lavender of Lamiaceae family consists of about 30 species, many of which are found in Mediterranean, Sahara-Arabian and Iran-Turanian regions. There are only two species of Lavandula growing naturally in Iran, L. stricta Del. and L. sublepidata Rech. K. These species are not mentioned as medicinal plants in references; however L. soechas L., L. vera DC., L. angustifolia Mill. and L. dantata L. occurs naturally in Iran. Lavandula stricta Del. is a native aromatic plant in Iran from Lamiaceae. In traditional medicine, it is used for treatment of rheumatic pain, stomach pain and cough. Germination is one of the critical stages in the cycle of plants growth due to its important role in determining the final density of plant. Under water stress and salinity conditions, plant germination and its final density is important. Salicylic acid (from Latin salix is a monohydroxybenzoic acid which is a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid with C7H6O3 chemical formula. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone which is derived from salicin metabolism. Salicylic acid (SA is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast

  11. Effect of Salt and Drought Stresses and Pretreatment of Salicylic acid on Seed Germination Characteristics of Lavender (Lavandula stricta Del.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sanginabadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, medicinal and aromatic plants have received much attention in several fields such as agro alimentary, perfumes, pharmaceutical industries and natural cosmetic products. Although secondary metabolites in the medicinal and aromatic plants impressed conventionally by their genotypes, their biosynthesis is strongly influenced by environmental factors. It means biotic and abiotic environmental factors affect growth parameters, essential oil yield and constituents. Abiotic environmental stresses especially salinity and drought has the most effect on medicinal plants. The genus Lavandula (lavender of Lamiaceae family consists of about 30 species, many of which are found in Mediterranean, Sahara-Arabian and Iran-Turanian regions. There are only two species of Lavandula growing naturally in Iran, L. stricta Del. and L. sublepidata Rech. K. These species are not mentioned as medicinal plants in references; however L. soechas L., L. vera DC., L. angustifolia Mill. and L. dantata L. occurs naturally in Iran. Lavandula stricta Del. is a native aromatic plant in Iran from Lamiaceae. In traditional medicine, it is used for treatment of rheumatic pain, stomach pain and cough. Germination is one of the critical stages in the cycle of plants growth due to its important role in determining the final density of plant. Under water stress and salinity conditions, plant germination and its final density is important. Salicylic acid (from Latin salix is a monohydroxybenzoic acid which is a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid with C7H6O3 chemical formula. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone which is derived from salicin metabolism. Salicylic acid (SA is a phenolic phytohormone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. SA also induces specific changes in leaf anatomy and chloroplast

  12. Stimulation of Eryptosis by Combretastatin A4 Phosphate Disodium (CA4P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Signoretto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Combretastatin A4 phosphate disodium (CA4P is utilized for the treatment of malignancy. The substance has previously been shown to trigger suicidal cell death or apoptosis. Similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, erythrocytes may enter suicidal death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i, ceramide, oxidative stress and ATP depletion. The present study explored, whether CA4P induces eryptosis and, if so, to gain insight into mechanisms involved. Methods: Flow cytometry has been employed to estimate phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin-V-binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, reactive oxygen species (ROS abundance from DCF fluorescence, glutathione (GSH abundance from CMF fluorescence and ceramide abundance from fluorescent antibodies. In addition cytosolic ATP levels were quantified utilizing a luciferin-luciferase-based assay and hemolysis was estimated from hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to CA4P (≥ 50 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells and significantly decreased forward scatter. CA4P did not appreciably increase hemolysis. Hundred µM CA4P significantly increased Fluo3-fluorescence. The effect of CA4P (100 µM on annexin-V-binding was significantly blunted, but not abolished, by removal of extracellular Ca2+. CA4P (≥ 50 µM significantly decreased GSH abundance and ATP levels but did not significantly increase ROS or ceramide. Conclusions: CA4P triggers cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least in part due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and energy depletion.

  13. Disodium cromoglycate, a mast-cell stabilizer, alters postradiation regional cerebral blood flow in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Pautler, E.L.; Hampton, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Early transient incapacitation (ETI) is the complete cessation of performance during the first 30 min after radiation exposure, and performance decrement (PD) is a reduction in performance at the same time. Supralethal doses of radiation have been shown to produce a marked decrease in regional cerebral blood flow in primates concurrent with systemic hypotension and a dramatic release of mast-cell histamine. In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the radiation-induced ETI/PD phenomena and the postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow, primates were given the mast-cell stabilizers disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or BRL 22321 before exposure to 100 Gy whole-body gamma radiation. Hypothalamic and cortical blood flows were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after radiation exposure. Systemic blood pressures were determined simultaneously. The data indicated that DSCG was successful in diminishing postradiation decrease in cerebral blood flow. Irradiated animals pretreated with DSCG, showed only a 10% decrease in hypothalamic blood flow 60 min postradiation, while untreated, irradiated animals showed a 57% decrease. The cortical blood flow of DSCG treated, irradiated animals showed a triphasic response, with a decrease of 38% at 10 min postradiation, then a rise to 1% below baseline at 20 min, followed by a fall to 42% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. In contrast, the untreated, irradiated animals showed a steady decrease in cortical blood flow to 79% below baseline by 50 min postradiation. There was no significant difference in blood-pressure response between the treated and untreated, irradiated animals. Systemic blood pressure showed a 60% decrease at 10 min postradiation, falling to a 71% decrease by 60 min

  14. Preparation of acid salt M(HPO4)2.nH2 O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.

    1998-01-01

    The layered crystalline powders of Titanium Phosphate with the formula Ti(HPO 4 ) 2 .nH 2 O (phase α when n=2, phase γ when n=1) were prepared by reaction of titanium three chloride with phosphoric acid under specific thermal conditions. Starting from these powders thin films have been prepared using some methods such as: Thermal evaporation, sol-gel and vapor phase transport. The results of X-ray diffraction and differential thermal deferential analysis show that the temperature plays an important role in the determination of the crystalline phases and the phase transition of the prepared films. (author). 7 refs

  15. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  16. Gadoxetate disodium-induced tachypnoea and the effect of dilution method. A proof-of-concept study in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akai, Hiroyuki; Yasaka, Koichiro; Kunimatsu, Akira [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Nojima, Masanori [University of Tokyo, Division of Advanced Medicine Promotion, The Advanced Clinical Research Centre, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yusuke [Kitasato University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Abe, Osamu [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [International University of Health and Welfare, Ohtawara, Tochigi (Japan); Kiryu, Shigeru [International University of Health and Welfare Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nasushiobara, Tochigi (Japan)

    2018-02-15

    To directly investigate the rapid respiratory effect of gadoxetate disodium in an experimental study using mice. After confirming the steady respiratory state under general anaesthesia, eight mice were injected with all test agents in the following order: phosphate-buffered saline (A, control group), 1.25 mmol/kg of gadoteridol (B) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (C), or 0.31 mmol/kg of gadoxetate disodium (D, E). The experimenter was not blinded to the agents. The injection dose was fixed as 100 μL for Groups A-D and 50 μL for Group E. We continuously monitored and recorded respiratory rate (RR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}), and heart rate. The time-series changes from 0 to 30 s were compared by the linear mixed method Groups D and E showed the largest RR increase (20.6 and 20.3 breaths/min, respectively) and were significantly larger compared to Group A (3.36 breaths/min, both P<0.001). RR change of Groups D and E did not differ. RR change of Groups B and C was smaller (0.72 and 12.4 breaths/min, respectively) and did not differ statistically with Group A. Significant bradycardia was observed only in Group C (P<0.001). SpO{sub 2} was constant in all groups. Gadoxetate disodium causes a rapid tachypnoea without significant change of SpO{sub 2} and heart rate regardless of the dilution method. (orig.)

  17. Enhanced vasculotoxic metal excretion in post-myocardial infarction patients following a single edetate disodium-based infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Ivan A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ergui, Ian; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2017-10-01

    Toxic metals have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We have hypothesized that enhanced excretion of vasculotoxic metals might explain the positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single infusion of the edetate disodium- based infusion used in TACT led to enhanced excretion of toxic metals known to be associated with cardiovascular events. Twenty six patients (post-MI, age > 50 years, serum creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL) were enrolled in this open-label study. Urinary levels of 20 toxic metals normalized to urinary creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline in overnight urine collections, for 6h following a placebo infusion of 500mL normal saline and 1.2% dextrose, and for 6h following a 3g edetate disodium-based infusion. Self-reported metal exposure, smoking status, food frequency, occupational history, drinking water source, housing and hobbies were collected at baseline by a metal exposure questionnaire. The mean age was 65 years (range 51-81 years). All patients were male. 50% had diabetes mellitus and 58% were former smokers. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 0.95 (0.31) mg/dL. Toxic metals were detected in the baseline urine of >80% of patients. After placebo infusion there were no significant changes in total urinary metal levels. After edetate infusion, total urinary metal level increased by 71% compared to baseline (1500 vs. 2580µg/g creatinine; P<0.0001). The effect of edetate was particularly large for lead (3835% increase) and cadmium (633% increase). Edetate disodium-based infusions markedly enhanced the urinary excretion of lead and cadmium, toxic metals with established epidemiologic evidence and mechanisms linking them to coronary and vascular events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamic and structural of the water - dodecane - bis(ethyl-2-hexyl) phosphoric acid and its sodium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the appearance and disappearance of the 'third phase' obtained during the salification of the bis(ethyl-2 hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) diluted in dodecane, by sodium aqueous solutions. After a large bibliographical study on the properties of the intervening compounds (extraction of metallic cation by the acid, parameters influencing the 'third phase' appearance, surfactant properties, direct and inverse micelles, formation of para-crystalline phases), the author presents chemical experimental methods: liquid-liquid extraction tests, tests by the synthetic way, preparation of reactants, dosing method, methods of chemical analysis). Then, she reports and discusses experimental results in terms of determination of phase diagrams at 25 C, of composition by weight of the third phase, of influence of the apolar diluent, and of influence of the electrolyte. Physical experimental methods are then presented (differential calorimetric analysis, NMR, small angle X-ray scattering, light scattering, polarised light microscopy, constrained phase microscopy, photography, infrared spectroscopy, conductometry, transmission electron micrography, volumetric mass measurements, surface and interface tension measurements, viscoelasticity measurements) and their results are discussed and interpreted [fr

  19. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Co-crystal; dissolution; phase transformation; salts; solubility; stability; synthon. ... Salts of theobromine with hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and -toluenesulfonic acid were prepared using ... C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Central University P.O., Hyderabad 500 046, India ...

  20. EVALUASI IN VITRO TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN ISOLAT BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT ASAL AIR SUSU IBU UNTUK MENGASIMILASI KOLESTEROL DAN MENDEKONJUGASI GARAM EMPEDU [In Vitro Evaluation of Cholesterol Assimilation and Bile Salt Deconjugation by Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Nuraida1,2*

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in many countries. Several studies have shown that reduction of excessive levels of cholesterol in the blood decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is therefore important to develop ways of reducing serum cholesterol. Based on in vitro and in vivo studies, some of lactic acid bacteria (LAB having potential probiotic properties can reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of LAB isolated from breast milk in reducing cholesterol by assimilation and by bile salt deconjugation activity in vitro.Thirteen strains of LABs were evaluated for their acid and bile salt resistance and selected to test their ability to assimilate cholesterol and to deconjugate bile salt (natrium taurocholate in vitro. Cholesterol assimilation activity was determined by measuring the difference between the remaining cholesterol in broth medium inoculated with LAB with cholesterol in control after incubation. Bile salt deconjugation activity was determined by measuring free cholic acid released in broth medium after incubation with LAB. The results shows that most of the isolates was susceptible to low pH and all isolates used were able to survive in the presence of 0.5% bile salt. The LAB were also able to assimilate cholesterol at varying levels ranging from 0.86-14.97 µg/ml, with the highest activity showed by Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38, Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-B2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 2-A16. Taurocholate deconjugation assay showed that the isolates have weak bile salts deconjugation activity as indicated by free cholic acid released ranging from 0.06-0.25 µmol/ml, with the highest release in Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 and Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A22. The present study suggest that Pediococcus pentosaceus 1-A38 was potential for the development of probiotic products with

  1. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2006-09-07

    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  2. Sepiolite functionalized with N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]-ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt. Part II: Sorption of Ni2+ from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Slavica S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available sorption of Ni2+ on the sepiolite functionalized by covalent grafting of N-[3-(trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine triacetic acid trisodium salt, MSEAS, was studied in batch experiments as a function of the initial metal concentration, the equilibration time, pH value, and temperature. The modification of sepiolite resulted in an enhanced Ni2+ retention with a capacity of 0.261 mmol/g at 298 K. The retention of Ni2+ ions occurred dominantly by specific sorption and exchange of Mg2+ ions from the sepiolite structure. The sorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. The sorption equilibrium results were best described by the non-linear form of the Langmuir Sorption Equation. The values of the thermodynamic parameters (enthalpy, free energy and entropy were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms and these values showed that the sorption of Ni2+ onto modified sepiolite was endothermic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i FP7 NANOTECH FTM No. 245916

  3. In vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgóczy, L; Tóth, Liliána; Virágh, M; Papp, T; Vágvölgyi, C S

    2012-12-01

    The mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, R-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine) were tested with broth microdilution method against eight fungal isolates belonging to Zygomycetes (Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis, Saksenaeavasiformis) and Aspergillus genus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. terreus). These are known to be possible agents of central nervous fungal infections (CNFI). When used alone, the investigated nonantifungal drugs exerted slight antifungal effects. In their combinations with antifungal agents they acted antagonistically, additively and synergistically against zygomyceteous isolates. Primarily antagonistic interactions were revealed between the investigated drugs in case of Aspergilli, but additive and synergistic interactions were also observed. The additive and synergistic combinations allowed the usage of reduced concentrations of antifungal agents to inhibit the fungal growth in our study. These combinations would be a basis of an effective, less toxic therapy for treatment of CNFI.

  4. Initial solubility & density evaluation of Non-Aqueous system of amino acid salts for CO2 capture: potassium prolinate blended with ethanol and ethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ghulam; Garg, Sahil

    2018-05-01

    Amine scrubbing is the state of the art technology for CO2 capture, and solvent selection can significantly reduce the capital and energy cost of the process. Higher energy requirement for aqueous amine based CO2 removal process is still a most important downside preventive its industrial deployment. Therefore, in this study, novel non-aqueous based amino acid salt system consisting of potassium prolinate, ethanol and ethylene glycol has been studied. This work presents initial CO2 solubility study and important physical properties i.e. density of the studied solvent system. Previous work showed that non-aqueous system of potassium prolinate and ethanol has good absorption rates and requires lower energy for solvent regeneration. However, during regeneration, solvent loss issues were found due to lower boiling point of the ethanol. Therefore, ethylene glycol was added into current studied system for enhancing the overall boiling point of the system. The good initial CO2 solubility and low density of studied solvent system offers several advantages as compared to conventional amine solutions.

  5. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also show...

  6. Effect of cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) on the properties of sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Hacer; Inan, Tuelay Y.; Unveren, Elif [The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUeBiTAK), Marmara Research Center, Chemistry Institute, P.K. 21, 41470 Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Kaya, Metin [DEMIRDOeKUeM A.S. 4 Eyluel Mah, ismet inoenue Cad. No:245 Bozueyuek/Bilecik (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    We have prepared composite membranes for fuel cell applications. Cesium salt of tungstophosphoric acid (Cs-TPA) particles was synthesized by aqueous solutions of tungstophosphoric acid and cesium hydroxide and, Cs-TPA particles and sulfonated (polyether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with two sulfonation degrees (DS), 60 and 70%have been used. We examined both the effects of Cs-TPA in SPEEK membranes as functions of sulfonation degrees of SPEEK and the content of Cs-TPA. The performance of the composite membranes was evaluated in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, chemical stability, hydrolytic stability, thermal stability and methanol permeability. The morphology of the membranes was investigated with SEM micrographs. Increasing sulfonation degree of SPEEK from 60 to 70 caused agglomeration of the Cs-TPA particles. The methanol permeability was reduced to 4.7 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s for SPEEK (DS: 60%)/Cs-TPA membrane with 10 wt.% Cs-TPA concentration, and acceptable proton conductivity of 1.3 x 10{sup -1} S/cm was achieved at 80 C under 100% RH. The weight loss at 900 C increased with the addition of inorganic particles, as expected. The hydrolytic stability of the SPEEK/Cs-TPA based composite membranes was improved with the incorporation of the Cs-TPA particles into the matrix. We also noted that SPEEK60/Cs-TPA composite membranes were hydrolytically more stable than SPEEK70/Cs-TPA composite membranes. On the other hand, Methanol, water vapor, and hydrogen permeability values of SPEEK60 composite membranes were found to be lower than that of Nafion {sup registered}. (author)

  7. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures; Etude de proprietes acides-bases dans divers melanges eau-sels et eau-solvants organiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H{sup +} + B {r_reversible} HB{sup +} in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pK{sub A} value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO{sup -} + H{sup +} {r_reversible} H{sub 2}O has been investigated and a relation been found between pK{sub i} values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors) [French] Nous avons envisage l'etude des reactions acides-bases dans des melanges eau-sels MX et des melanges d'eau et de solvants organiques. Les uns et les autres ont ete choisis de facon a ce que la basicite du solvant ou celle de l'anion X{sup -} soit negligeable devant celle de l'eau dans les melanges consideres. Dans un premier temps nous avons etudie dans les melanges eau-sels MX les equilibres H{sup +} + B {r_reversible} HB{sup +} et HA {r_reversible} H{sup +} + A{sup -}. On montre que connaissant la valeur de la solubilite de la base B et de l'acide HA dans le melange eau-sel considere et dans l'eau pure et celle de l'activite de l'eau dans le melange, il est possible de prevoir la valeur de la constante de l'equilibre acide-base etudiee. Dans un deuxieme temps nous avons cherche a generaliser ces resultats, lorsque l'on remplace le sel MX dans le melange avec l'eau par un solvant organique. De meme que precedemment, nous avons compare les constantes d'equilibre du type HB

  8. Desorption of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. using solutions of acids and their salts mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA A. ČUČULOVIĆ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The desorption of 137Cs from Cetraria islandica (L. Ach. lichen was investigated using the solutions: A H2SO4–HNO3–K2SO4, B H2SO4–HNO3–Na2SO4 and C H2SO4–HNO3– (NH42SO4–(NH4NO3 at pH 2.00, 2.58, 2.87, 3.28 and 3.75, similar to acid rain. After five consecutive desorptions using solutions A, B and C, from 44.0 % (solution B, pH 3.75 to 68.8 % (solution C, pH 3.28 of 137Cs had been desorbed from the lichen. In all cases, the most successful 137Cs desorption was the first one. In the presence of K+ (solution A the total amount of desorbed 137Cs did not depend on the pH of the solution and this was confirmed by the analogous reactions of Cs+ and K+, due to their similar ionic radii. The dependencies of the non-desorbed content of 137Cs on the number of desorptions gave curves indicating that at least two types of sorption occur. One of them can be dominant if suitable desorbants are used. The results indicate lichens as secondary sources of environment pollution with 137Cs.

  9. Potentiometric and Conductometric Study of Aqueous Solutions of Lithium and Sodium Salts of Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostnik, Gregor; Vlachy, Vojko; Bondarev, Dmitrij; Jiří, Vohlídal; Cerar, Janez

    2012-09-01

    The title polymer, PTAA, practically free of ester groups was obtained by oxidative polymerization of methyl thiophen-3-ylacetate and subsequent basic hydrolysis of primary polymer. Poly(thiophen-3-ylacetic acid) has been thoroughly characterized by NMR, IR, Raman, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The polyacid behavior during neutralization titrations with lithium and sodium hydroxides, carried out under nitrogen atmosphere, has been studied by conductometry and potentiometry. Henderson-Hasselbach plots of potentiometric titration curves show a break point at pH around 6, where the curve slope drops from 1.8 (at lower pH) to a value from 1.05 to 1.3 (at higher pH values). The UV/Vis spectra monitored during back titration show: (i) monotonous decrease of both λmax and εmax as pH decreases, (ii) the presence of the isosbestic point at 401 nm that can be ascribed to conformational transition of PTAA chains, and (iii) absence of the isosbestic point at 392 nm reported previously by other authors.

  10. Use of image processing techniques to assess effect of disodium pamidronate in conjunction with radiotherapy in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Dardoufas, Costas E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Antypas, Christos E.; Sandilos, Panagiotis H.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Vlahos, Lambros J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was radiographically to monitor the effect of disodium pamidronate on metastatic bone disease, using image-processing techniques. Eighteen patients with osteolytic metastases from breast cancer received an intravenous infusion of 180 mg disodium pamidronate every 4 weeks for a period of 6 months. The first session of intravenous infusions was given concurrently with external beam radiotherapy with a 6 MV linear accelerator (total dose 30 Gy in 10 fractions). Radiographs of osteolytic lesions were obtained at every session of the treatment, retaining the same settings for each modality. The analysis of the attributes of the images was based on measuring the first-order statistics of the gray-level histogram in terms of mean value (MVGLH) and energy (EGLH). The measurements showed significant differences for MVGLH and EGLH values (p<0.05, Wilcoxon test). Analytically, there was an 11.08% (95% CI=10.21, 11.93) mean reduction of EGLH and an 11.63% (95% CI=10.96, 12.29) mean increase of MVGLH of the x-ray images, before and after the combined treatment protocol. The changes in the image-processing indices were also highly correlated with the reduction of the patient's pain score. These findings indicate an important increase in bone mass and bone formation, which the radiologists found difficult to identify visually

  11. Use of image processing techniques to assess effect of disodium pamidronate in conjunction with radiotherapy in patients with bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Dardoufas, Costas E.; Kouvaris, John R.; Antypas, Christos E.; Sandilos, Panagiotis H.; Matsopoulos, George K.; Vlahos, Lambros J. [Areteion Univ. Hospital Athens (Greece). Radiotherapy Dept.

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study was radiographically to monitor the effect of disodium pamidronate on metastatic bone disease, using image-processing techniques. Eighteen patients with osteolytic metastases from breast cancer received an intravenous infusion of 180 mg disodium pamidronate every 4 weeks for a period of 6 months. The first session of intravenous infusions was given concurrently with external beam radiotherapy with a 6 MV linear accelerator (total dose 30 Gy in 10 fractions). Radiographs of osteolytic lesions were obtained at every session of the treatment, retaining the same settings for each modality. The analysis of the attributes of the images was based on measuring the first-order statistics of the gray-level histogram in terms of mean value (MVGLH) and energy (EGLH). The measurements showed significant differences for MVGLH and EGLH values (p<0.05, Wilcoxon test). Analytically, there was an 11.08% (95% CI=10.21, 11.93) mean reduction of EGLH and an 11.63% (95% CI=10.96, 12.29) mean increase of MVGLH of the x-ray images, before and after the combined treatment protocol. The changes in the image-processing indices were also highly correlated with the reduction of the patient's pain score. These findings indicate an important increase in bone mass and bone formation, which the radiologists found difficult to identify visually.

  12. Simultaneous (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/MRI with gadoxetate disodium in patients with neuroendocrine tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Thomas A; Pampaloni, Miguel Hernandez; Nakakura, Eric; VanBrocklin, Henry; Slater, James; Jivan, Salma; Aparici, Carina Mari; Yee, Judy; Bergsland, Emily

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate a simultaneous PET/MRI approach to imaging patients with neuroendocrine tumor using a combination of (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC as a PET contrast agent and gadoxetate disodium as a hepatobiliary MRI contrast agent. Ten patients with neuroendocrine tumor with known or suspected hepatic disease were imaged using a (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET/CT immediately followed by a 3.0T time-of-flight PET/MRI, using a combined whole body and liver specific imaging. The presence of lesions and DOTA-TOC avidity were assessed on CT, PET from PET/CT, diffusion weighted imaging, hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP), and PET from PET/MRI. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in hepatic lesions and nodal metastases were compared between PET/CT and PET/MRI, as were detection rates using each imaging approach. A total of 101 hepatic lesions were identified, 47 of which were DOTA-TOC avid and able to be individually measured on both PET/CT and PET/MRI. HBP imaging had a higher sensitivity for detection of hepatic lesions compared to CT or PET (99% vs. 46% and 64%, respectively; p values TOC and gadoxetate disodium was successful in whole body staging of patients with neuroendocrine tumor. HBP imaging had an increased detection rate for hepatic metastases.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone (ID 330) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium and potassium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly...... from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are sodium and potassium salts of citric acid. The Panel considers that sodium and potassium salts of citric acid are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “acid-base balance and bone health”. The target...... using a higher dose of potassium citrate did not show an effect on bone mineral density. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of potassium or sodium salts of citric acid and maintenance of normal...

  14. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The role of disodium pamidronate in the management of bone pain due to malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, L; Zecca, E; De Conno, F; Brunelli, C; Boffi, R; Panzeri, C; Cazzaniga, M; Ripamonti, C

    2001-07-01

    A number of controlled studies have recently demonstrated the role of disodium pamidronate in the prevention of skeletal complications in patients with metastatic bone disease due to breast cancer and multiple myeloma. They have also shown that it relieves pain and is well tolerated. The aim of this open prospective study was to evaluate the acceptability of a new schedule of pamidronate infusion and to assess pain, analgesic consumption and the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) in patients with metastatic bone pain treated with pamidronate in association or not with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hormone therapy. Patients with different types of cancer and at least one painful bone metastasis were treated with two cycles of 60 mg intravenous (iv) pamidronate weekly for three consecutive doses, with a 3-week interval between the two cycles (six infusions over 7 weeks), followed by one infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 24 infusions. Two hundred patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 94 received at least the first six infusions; 25 patients received all 24 infusions. Pamidronate was well tolerated in the majority of the patients both during the first six infusions and during the whole study period. In the patients under study, pain intensity decreased compared with T0 after the first two infusions (second week of treatment). The mean equivalent daily dose of oral morphine required ranged from 21.5 to 41.5 mg/day and was low and stable during the study. For the patients who remained in the study, the KPS remained around 70 during the whole treatment period and intrasubject analysis showed a substantial stability of the KPS within each subject. A first fracture occurred within 321 days in 25% of the whole population under study. Pamidronate represents a further valid therapy to add to an already consolidated list of therapies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and orthopaedic intervention in the pain management of patients with bone

  16. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  17. INORGANIC AND ORGANIC ONIUM SALTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nitrosonium NO ion absorbs in the infrared between 1/2400 and 1/ 2150 cm. Salts of complex fluoro-acids absorb at higher frequencies than salts...halide adducts generally contain nitrosonium ions . Hexaphenylditin does not undergo marked heterolytic dissociation in nitromethane solution...influencing the covalent-ionic equilibrium are discussed. Infrared spectrum nitrosonium ion ; ionic character in lattice and position nitrosonium ion absorption

  18. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  19. Signal intensity change on unenhanced T1-weighted images in dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium: an intraindividual comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Giorgio; Minotti, Marta; De Piano, Francesca [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Postgraduation School in Radiodiagnostics, Milan (Italy); Preda, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Department of Clinical-Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Pavia (Italy); National Center of Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO Foundation), Division of Radiology, Pavia (Italy); Cocorocchio, Emilia; Ferrucci, Pier Francesco [European Institute of Oncology, Melanoma and Sarcoma Medical Oncology Division, Milan (Italy); Raimondi, Sara [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Milan (Italy); Giannitto, Caterina; Petralia, Giuseppe [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Bellomi, Massimo [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Radiology, Milan (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Oncology and Haematology/Oncology Department, Milan (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To investigate whether there is an increased signal intensity (SI) of dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in patients who had undergone multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium. We retrospectively included stage III melanoma patients, who had been previously enrolled in a trial of adjuvant therapy and who had undergone whole-body contrast-enhanced MRIs with gadoxetate disodium every three months for their follow-up. The SI ratios of DN-to-pons and GP-to-thalamus on unenhanced T1-weighted images were calculated. The difference in SI ratios between the first and the last MRI examinations was assessed and a linear mixed model was performed to detect how SI ratios varied with the number of administrations. Eighteen patients were included in our study. The number of gadoxetate disodium administrations ranged from 2 to 18. Paired t-test did not show any significant difference in DN-to-pons (p=0.21) and GP-to-thalamus (p=0.09) SI ratios by the end of the study. DN-to-pons SI ratio and GP-to-thalamus SI ratio did not significantly increase with increasing the number of administrations (p=0.14 and p=0.06, respectively). Multiple administrations of gadoxetate disodium are not associated with increased SI in DN and GP in the brain. (orig.)

  20. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  1. Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potentiometric titration curves of aluminium salt solutions and its species conversion ... of aluminium salt solutions under the moderate slow rate of base injection. ... silicate radical, and organic acid radical on the titration curves and its critical ...

  2. Studies on the biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in different metal fatty acid salt media and its application in biodegradation of fatty acids and bioremediation of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinaya Sindu, P; Gautam, Pennathur

    2017-01-01

    Metal fatty acid salts (MFAS) in untreated industrial effluents cause environmental pollution. The use of biocompatible agents for remediation may help in reducing the harm caused to the ambient aquatic organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous organism that thrives under harsh conditions and is resistant to toxic metal ions. The present study shows a proof-of-concept of using this organism in the biodegradation of MFAS. MFAS were prepared and we studied their effect on the growth of the planktonic form and the formation of biofilm by P. aeruginosa. We observed biofilm formation in the presence of all the MFAS when used as the sole carbon source, albeit the quantity of biofilm formed in the presence of cadmium and copper was less. There was no effect on the planktonic form of the organism but the formation of biofilm increased in the presence of magnesium palmitate. This study shows that metal ions play a pivotal role in the formation of biofilm. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analysis of the biofilm polysaccharide showed that hexose sugar was a major component when compared with pentose sugar. The structure of biofilm polysaccharide and the coordination of the metal ion with the biofilm polysaccharide were confirmed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  4. Deterioration of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements with Poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Gao, Chun-Xia; Yang, Lei; Saijilafu; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-11-01

    The mechanical reliability of calcium phosphate cements has restricted their clinical application in load-bearing locations. Although their mechanical strength can be improved using a variety of strategies, their fatigue properties are still unclear, especially after degradation. The evolutions of uniaxial compressive properties and the fatigue behavior of calcium phosphate cements incorporating poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after different in vitro degradation times were investigated in the present study. Compressive strength decreased from the 61.2±5.4MPa of the original specimen, to 51.1±4.4, 42.2±3.8, 36.8±2.4 and 28.9±3.2MPa following degradation for one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Fatigue life under same loading condition also decreased with increasing degradation time. The original specimens remained intact for one million cycles (run-out) under a maximum stress of 30MPa. After degradation for one to four weeks, the specimens were able to withstand maximum stress of 20, 15, 10 and 10MPa, respectively until run-out. Defect volume fraction within the specimens increased from 0.19±0.021% of the original specimen to 0.60±0.19%, 1.09±0.04%, 2.68±0.64% and 7.18±0.34% at degradation time of one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Therefore, we can infer that the primary cause of the deterioration of the mechanical properties was an increasing in micro defects induced by degradation, which promoted crack initiation and propagation, accelerating the final mechanical failure of the bone cement. This study provided the data required for enhancing the mechanical reliability of the calcium phosphate cements after different degradation times, which will be significant for the modification of load-bearing biodegradable bone cements to match clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic force measurements of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid and its salt with CH3, OH, and CONHCH3 functionalized self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Cruz, Angel L.; Tremont, Rolando; Martinez, Ramon; Roman-tilde ach, Rodolfo; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical and mechanical properties of different compounds can be elucidated by measuring fundamental forces such as adhesion, attraction and repulsion, between modified surfaces by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in force mode calibration. This work presents a combination of AFM, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), and crystallization techniques to study the forces of interaction between excipients and active ingredients used in pharmaceutical formulations. SAMs of 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, which represent magnesium stereate, were used to modify the probe tip, whereas CH 3 -, OH- and CONHCH 3 -functional SAMs were formed on a gold-coated mica substrate, and used as examples of the surfaces of lactose and theophylline. The crystals of lactose and theophylline were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The modification of gold surfaces with 16-mercaptohexadecanoate, 10-mercapto-1-decanol (OH-functional SAM), 1-decanethiol (CH 3 -functional) and N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide (CONHCH 3 -functional SAM) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in specular reflectance mode. XPS and AES results of the modified surfaces showed the presence of sulfur binding, and kinetic energies that correspond to the presence of 10-mercapto-1-decanol, 1-decanethiol, N-methyl-11-mercaptoundecanamide and the salt of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid. The absorption bands in the IR spectra further confirm the modification of the gold-coated substrates with these compounds. Force versus distance measurements were performed between the modified tip and the modified gold-coated mica substrates. The mean adhesion forces between the COO - Ca 2+ functionalized tip and the CH 3 -, OH-, and CONHCH 3 -modified substrates were determined to be 4.5, 8.9 and 6.3 nN, respectively. The magnitude of the adhesion force (ion-dipole) interaction between the modified

  6. Dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine (iodine 131, 123, 125, or 132) as well as their metal and amine salts; methods for the preparation of these compounds and of radioactive functional diagnostics containing them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttermann, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method for the preparation of dicarbonic acid anilides containing radioactive iodine is described. The initial substances are N,N dimethyl-p-toluene sulfonamide, N,N bis-dimethyl aminosulfon, or dimethyl sulfon, or mixtures of these, which are heated in aqueous solution or in a melt with an alkali or alkaline earth radioiodide as carrier-free as possible. From the water-soluble salts of the obtained iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilides aqueous solutions are produced with 1 mg up to 5 g iodine-labelled dicarbonic acid anilide per 10 ml and an activity of 0.025 and 25 mCi per ml with physiologically compatible bases as radioactive functional diagnostics. (RB) [de

  7. Synthesis and investigation of the physical-chemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At this stage of modern science development scientists get a lot of questions in the field of medicine and pharmacy. The study and search of new ways for synthesis of high-performance and low-toxic substances is one of the most important questions among them. Special attention is paid to 1,2,4-triazole and xanthine. On their basis some medical drugs have been previously made and are widely used in nowadays medicine. The aim of this work was the synthesis of salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid and the study of their properties. Methods and results. Theophylline has been selected as starting material. Through a number of stages 7'-((3-thio-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-ylmethyltheophylline has been obtained. Salts with organic and inorganic bases have been obtained by the neutralization reaction in aqueous medium. The structure of the compounds has been confirmed with elemental analysis on Elemental Vario EL cube (Elementar Analysensysteme, Germany, IR spectra (4000–400 cm-1 have been taken off the module ALPHA-T of Bruker ALPHA FT-IR spectrometer (Bruker optics, Germany. Gear Liquid Chromatography System with Mass spectrometric detector (Agilent Technologies, USA: Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC System; single quadrupole mass spectrometer Agilent 6120 with electrospray ionization (ESI; Open LAB CDS Software. The formation of salts has been confirmed by the signals corresponding to protonated amines. Conclusions. The optimal conditions of obtaining salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-methyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetic acid with inorganic and organic bases have been determined. Corresponding carboxylic acid has been obtained by interaction of the resulting thiol with monochloroacetic acid in aqueous solution with double quantity of alkali and subsequent neutralization by hydrochloric acid. It has been confirmed that the greatest outputs of the reaction products were observed while using

  8. Stereoselectivity in the salt-cocrystal products formed by phenylglycinol or phenylglycine with their respective sodium or hydrochloride salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2013-01-01

    The salt and stereoselective cocrystal phenomena associated with 2-phenylglycinol and 2-phenylglycine have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The chiral identities of the free acids and their sodium salts, or the free bases and their chloride salts, were found to play a determining role as to whether a salt-cocrystal product could or could not be formed. In particular, when cocrystallization of an enantiomerically pure basic or zwitterionic substance with its enantiomerically pure acid addition salt was attempted, a salt-cocrystal was only obtained when the absolute configuration of the two reactants is opposite. On the other hand, it has been found that no stereoselectivity in salt-cocrystal formation existed in the cocrystallization of an enantiomerically pure acidic or zwitterionic substance with its enantiomerically pure base addition salt. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Formation of the reduced form of furaneol® (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one) during the Maillard reaction through catalysis of amino acid metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Wang, Xi; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-11-01

    Under pyrolytic conditions the acidity/basicity of Maillard reaction mixtures can be controlled through the use of hydrochloride or sodium salts of amino acids to generate a diversity of products. When the degradation of glucose was studied under pyrolytic conditions using excess sodium glycinate the reaction was found to generate a major unknown peak having a molecular ion at m/z 130. Subsequent in-depth isotope labelling studies indicated that acetol was an important precursor of this compound under pyrolytic and aqueous heating conditions. The dimerisation and cyclisation of acetol into 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-tetrahydrofuran-3-one was found to be catalysed by amino acid metal salts. Also, ESI/qTOF/MS studies indicated that the unknown peak has expected molecular formula of C6H10O3. Finally, a peak having the same retention time and mass spectrum was also generated pyrolytically when furaneol® was reduced with NaBH4 confirming the initial hypothesis regarding the unknown peak to be the reduced form of furaneol®. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polymer-Supported Cinchona Alkaloid-Derived Ammonium Salts as Recoverable Phase-Transfer Catalysts for the Asymmetric Synthesis of α-Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Nájera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids such as cinchonidine, quinine and N-methylephedrine have been N-alkylated using polymeric benzyl halides or co-polymerized and then N-alkylated, thus affording a series of polymer-supported chiral ammonium salts which have been employed as phase-transfer catalysts in the asymmetric benzylation of an N-(diphenylmethyleneglycine ester. These new polymeric catalysts can be easily recovered by simple filtration after the reaction and reused. The best ee’s were achieved when Merrifield resin-anchored cinchonidinium ammonium salts were employed.

  11. Plutonium and americium separation from salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, P.G.; Miner, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Salts or materials containing plutonium and americium are dissolved in hydrochloric acid, heated, and contacted with an alkali metal carbonate solution to precipitate plutonium and americium carbonates which are thereafter readily separable from the solution

  12. IR, FT-ICR-MS studies on (1'S, 6'S)-1-cyclopropyl-7-(2,8-diazabicyclo[4.3.0] non-8-yl)-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiwei

    2014-01-01

    The infrared spectra of (1'S, 6'S)-1-cyclopropyl-7-(2,8-diazabicyclo[4.3.0] non-8-yl)-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride salt (CLF-HCl) were studied and compared with free base. Their fragmentation pathways were investigated using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) techniques on Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance spectrum, and many characteristic fragment ions were found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quraan, Nisreen A; Sartawe, Fatima Al-Batool; Qaryouti, Muien M

    2013-07-15

    The molecular response of plants to abiotic stresses has been considered a process mainly involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Nevertheless, recent findings have suggested new layers of regulation and complexity. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. Plants gain resistance to abiotic stress by reprogramming metabolism and gene expression. GABA is proposed to be a signaling molecule involved in nitrogen metabolism, regulating the cytosolic pH, and protection against oxidative damage in response to various abiotic stresses. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the GABA shunt pathway-specific response in five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hurani 75, Sham I, Acsad 65, Um Qayes and Nodsieh) to salt and osmotic stress in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation), and characterization of the glutamate decarboxylse gene (GAD) m-RNA level were determined using RT-PCR techniques. Our data showed a marked increase in GABA, MDA and GAD m-RNA levels under salt and osmotic stress in the five wheat cultivars. Um Qayes cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, GABA accumulation, and MDA level under salt and osmotic stresses. The marked increase in GAD gene expression explains the high accumulation of the GABA level under both stresses. Our results indicated that the GABA shunt is a key signaling and metabolic pathway that allows wheat to adapt to salt and osmotic stress. Based on our data, the Um Qayes wheat cultivar is the cultivar most recommended to be grown in soil with high salt and osmotic contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  15. Effect of disodium EDTA chelation regimen on cardiovascular events in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the TACT randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Goertz, Christine; Boineau, Robin; Mark, Daniel B; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L

    2013-03-27

    Chelation therapy with disodium EDTA has been used for more than 50 years to treat atherosclerosis without proof of efficacy. To determine if an EDTA-based chelation regimen reduces cardiovascular events. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial randomized trial enrolling 1708 patients aged 50 years or older who had experienced a myocardial infarction (MI) at least 6 weeks prior and had serum creatinine levels of 2.0 mg/dL or less. Participants were recruited at 134 US and Canadian sites. Enrollment began in September 2003 and follow-up took place until October 2011 (median, 55 months). Two hundred eighty-nine patients (17% of total; n=115 in the EDTA group and n=174 in the placebo group) withdrew consent during the trial. Patients were randomized to receive 40 infusions of a 500-mL chelation solution (3 g of disodium EDTA, 7 g of ascorbate, B vitamins, electrolytes, procaine, and heparin) (n=839) vs placebo (n=869) and an oral vitamin-mineral regimen vs an oral placebo. Infusions were administered weekly for 30 weeks, followed by 10 infusions 2 to 8 weeks apart. Fifteen percent discontinued infusions (n=38 [16%] in the chelation group and n=41 [15%] in the placebo group) because of adverse events. The prespecified primary end point was a composite of total mortality, recurrent MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. This report describes the intention-to-treat comparison of EDTA chelation vs placebo. To account for multiple interim analyses, the significance threshold required at the final analysis was P = .036. Qualifying previous MIs occurred a median of 4.6 years before enrollment. Median age was 65 years, 18% were female, 9% were nonwhite, and 31% were diabetic. The primary end point occurred in 222 (26%) of the chelation group and 261 (30%) of the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82 [95% CI, 0.69-0.99]; P = .035). There was no effect on total mortality (chelation: 87 deaths [10%]; placebo, 93 deaths [11%]; HR, 0

  16. Waste treatment using molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Stewart, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    MSO technology can be characterized as a submerged oxidation process; the basic concept is to introduce air and wastes into a bed of molten salt, oxidize the organic wastes in the molten salt, use the heat of oxidation to keep the salt molten and remove the salt for disposal or processing and recycling. The molten salt (usually sodium carbonate at 900-1000 C) provides four waste management functions: providing a heat transfer medium, catalyzing the oxidation reaction, preventing the formation of acid gases by forming stable salts, and efficiently capturing ash particles and radioactive materials by the combined effects of wetting, encapsulation and dissolution. The MSO process requires no wet scrubbing system for off-gas treatment. The process has been developed through bench-scale and pilot-scale testing, with successful destruction demonstration of a wide variety of hazardous and mixed (radioactive and hazardous wastes). (author). 24 refs, 2 tabs, 2 figs

  17. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Study of lithium extraction from brine water, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia by the precipitation series of oxalic acid and carbonate sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistiyono, Eko; Lalasari, Latifa Hanum; Mayangsari, W.; Prasetyo, A. B.

    2018-05-01

    Lithium is one of the key elements in the development of batteries for electric car applications. Currently, the resources of the world's lithium are derived from brine water and lithium mineral based on spodumene rock. Indonesia which is located in the area of the ring of fire, has potential brine water resources in some area, such as brine water from Bledug Kuwu, Central Java that used in this research. The purposes of this research are to characterize brine water, Bledug Kuwu and to investigate the influence of chemical solvents on Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, B ion precipitation from brine water. This research was done with 2 times the process of chemical precipitation that runs series as follows: 5 liters of brine water were chemically precipitated using 400 ml of 12.43 N oxalic acid and followed by chemical precipitation using 400 mL of 7.07 N sodium carbonate solutions. Evaporation and filtration processes were also done twice in an effort to separate white precipitate and filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed by ICP-OES and white precipitates (salts) were analyzed by SEM, XRD, and XRF. The result shows that oxalate precipitation process extracted 32.24% Al, 23.42% B, 22.43% Ca, 14.26% Fe, 3.21 % K, 9.86% Na and 14.26% Li, the following process by carbonate precipitation process extracted 98.86% Mg, 73% Ca, 22.53% Li, 82.04% Al, 14.38% B, 12.50% K, 2.27% Na. There is 63.21% lithium is not extracted from the series process. The SEM analysis shows that the structure of granules on the precipitated salts by oxalic acid form gentle cubic-shaped solid. In the other hand, oxalate precipitation followed by sodium carbonate has various particle sizes and the shape of crystals is fragments, prism and cube look like magnesium carbonate, calcium chloride, and calcite's crystal respectively. This is in accordance with XRD analysis that phases of whewellite (CaC2O4.H2O), disodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), magnesite (MgCO3), calcium lithium aluminum (Al1.19 Ca1Li0.81), dolomite (CaCO3

  19. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujia Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu. Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals.

  20. Characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis-Evaluation of the hepatocyte specific contrast agent gadoxetate disodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, Kristina I., E-mail: ringe.kristina@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Ringe, Bastian P., E-mail: ringe.bastian@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Bektas, Hueseyin, E-mail: bektas.hueseyin@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Opherk, Jan P., E-mail: opherk.p@gmx.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Reichelt, Angela, E-mail: reichelt.angela@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Lotz, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.lotz@med.uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August University Goettingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Robert-Koch Str. 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Meyer, Bernhard C., E-mail: meyer.bernhard@mh-hannover.de [Hannover Medical School, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To assess the value of gadoxetate disodium for characterization and staging of central bile duct stenosis (CBDS). Materials and methods: This prospective HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. 14 patients (8 male, 6 female; 36-80 years) with clinical suspicion of CBDS underwent preoperative MRI. To estimate the value of hepatocyte phase images (10, 20, 120 min p.i.), only T2w images (T2), only post-contrast images (CM), or both image datasets were assessed in three reading sessions by 3 readers. Agreement of each reading session with the intraoperative findings in terms of CBDS etiology and tumor extension (weighted kappa statistic) was calculated. Results: CBDS was caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma (n = 9), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 4) and pancreatic carcinoma (n = 1). Characterization of CBDS etiology was correct by use of: T2w images in 57%, 64%, 50%; CM images in 64%, 57%, 50%; both in 71%, 64%, 64%. Agreement comparing reading sessions and intraoperative findings regarding tumor extension was fair up to moderate ({kappa}-range = 0.21-0.54) as a result of common underestimation. Interobserver agreement for tumor extension was fair ({kappa}-range = 0.31-0.33). Conclusions: By means of combined evaluation of T2 and CM images a more reliable characterization of CBDS was possible. Even though CBDS tended to be underestimated assessment of exact tumor extension was improved by contrast administration.

  1. Spectroscopic study of the interaction between adenosine disodium triphosphate and gatifloxacin-Al3+ complex and its analytical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Faruqui, A Nayeem; Hossain, Mohammed Ifteker; Lee, Sang Hak

    2015-11-01

    A new and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method has been proposed to determine trace amount of adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP). The method is based on the fluorimetric interaction between gatifloxacin (GFLX)-aluminium (III) (Al(3+) ) complex and ATP and studied using UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. Weak luminescence spectra of Al(3+) were enhanced after complexation with GFLX at 423 nm upon excitation at 272 nm due to energy transfer from the ligand to the Al(3+) ion. It was observed that the FL emission spectrum of GFLX-Al(3+) was enhanced significantly by the addition of ATP. Under the optimal conditions, the enhancement of FL intensity at 423 nm was responded linearly with the concentration of ATP in the range 1.3 × 10(-10) - 1.0 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9981. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1.1 × 10(-11) mol L(-1) for ATP with the standard deviation (RSD) of 1.21% for five repeated measurement of 2.3 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) ATP. The presented method is simple, sensitive, free from coexisting interferents and can be applied successfully to determine ATP in the real samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Disodium cromoglycate may act as a novel adjuvant for UV-attenuated Toxoplasma gondii vaccine in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wu, Yifan; Huang, Shiguang; Lu, Fangli

    2018-06-01

    We have proven the beneficial effects during acute Toxoplasma gondii infection when mast cells were inhibited by disodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Here we investigated the adjuvant effect of DSCG on the protective efficacy of UV-attenuated T. gondii (UV-Tg) vaccine. Mice were infected with 10 2 Tg alone or infected with 10 2 Tg plus DSCG (Tg + DSCG), immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + Tg) or immunized with 10 5 UV-Tg plus DSCG and challenged with 10 2 Tg (UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg). Compared to Tg group, Tg + DSCG, UV-Tg + Tg, and UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg showed significantly prolonged survival times, decreased parasite burdens, reduced liver histopathologies, and increased levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers and spleens by using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Compared to UV-Tg + Tg, UV-Tg + DSCG + Tg had significantly longer survival time, lower tissue parasite burden and histopathological score, and higher levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and IL-17 in the livers or spleens. Our data suggest that DSCG may play an adjuvant role in the immunization induced by UV-attenuated T. gondii in mice, by promoting cellular immune response against T. gondii challenge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental measurement and modelling of solubility of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium in pure and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Fengxia; Zhuang, Wei; Wu, Jinglan; Zhou, Jingwei; Liu, Qiyan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Zhu, Chenjie; Guo, Ting; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-IMPNa 2 in various solvents was studied for the first time. • The solubility could be ranked as follows: water > methanol > ethanol > acetone. • Modified Apelblat equation gave the best correlating results. • Mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies were predicted. • Solubility data and equations can optimise the crystallization conditions. - Abstract: The solubility of biological chemicals in solvents provide important fundamental data and is generally considered as an essential factor in the design of crystallization processes. The equilibrium solubility data of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium (5′-IMPNa 2 ) in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, as well as in the solvent mixtures (methanol + water, ethanol + water, acetone + water), were measured by an isothermal method at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The measured data in pure and mixed solvents were then modelled using the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, λh equation, ideal model and the Wilson model. The modified Apelblat equation showed the best modelling results, and it was therefore used to predict the mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of 5′-IMPNa 2 in pure and binary solvents. The positive values of the calculated partial molar Gibbs free energies indicated the variations in the solubility trends of 5′-IMPNa 2 . Water and ethanol (in the binary mixture with water) were found to be the most effective solvent and anti-solvent, respectively

  4. Single and 2-week repeated intravenous dose toxicity studies of disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Fumio; Yabuuchi, Kazuya; Ohno, Kouji; Muraoka, Yoshihiro [Shionogi and Co. Ltd., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan). Developmental Research Lab.; Ikeuchi, Isao

    1998-10-01

    Disodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is a boron compound used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for malignant brain tumors. Intravenous single and 2-week repeated dose toxicity studies of BSH were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. In the single-dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 100, 300 or 600 mg/kg. Death occurred within 10 min (acute type) or from 5 hr to 2 days (delayed type) after dosing in the 600 mg/kg group. No differences in mortality by sex and dosing speed were observed. Major causes of death were considered to be circulatory disorder in acute death and renal injury in delayed death. The renal injury was observed in the 300 and 600 mg/kg groups. In the 2-week repeated dose study, BSH was administered at doses of 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Body weight gain was suppressed in the 100 and 300 mg/kg groups. One male in the 300 mg/kg group died due to renal and pulmonary lesions at day 8. Slight anemia was observed in the 300 mg/kg group. Pathologically, the kidney showed tubular regeneration with increase of weight in the 300 mg/kg. From these results, the NOAEL of BSH is 30 mg/kg/day. (author)

  5. Hypophosphatemic rickets developed after treatment with etidronate disodium in a patient with generalized arterial calcification in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Miyai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1 was originally reported as a responsible gene for generalized arterial calcification in infancy (GACI. Though the prognosis of GACI patients is poor because of myocardial infarction and heart failure in relation to medial calcification of the coronary arteries, some patients rescued by bisphosphonate treatment have been reported. Recently, ENPP1 is also reported as responsible for autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets type 2. We show here a boy with homozygous ENPP1 mutations diagnosed as having GACI in early infancy. After the diagnosis, he was treated with etidronate disodium (EHDP in combination with antihypertensive drugs. The calcification of major arteries was diminished and disappeared by the age of eight months. He also showed mild hypophosphatemia (2.6–3.7 mg/dl from the age of one year. After the treatment with EHDP for five years, he showed genu valgum with hypophosphatemia (2.6 mg/dl. He was diagnosed as having hypophosphatemic rickets at the age of seven years. The findings that hyper-mineralization of the arteries and hypo-mineralization of the bone observed in the same patient are noteworthy. ENPP1 could be regarded as a controller of the calcification of the whole body at least in part.

  6. Behavior of heavy metals in human urine and blood following calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate injection: observations in metal workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, F; Araki, S; Murata, K; Aono, H

    1998-06-12

    To evaluate the effects of calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate (CaEDTA) on the behavior of 8 heavy metals in human urine and blood, CaEDTA was administered for 1 h by intravenous injection to 18 male metal foundry workers, whose blood lead concentrations (PbB) were between 16 and 59 (mean 34) microg/dl. Significant increases were found in urinary excretion of manganese, chromium, lead, zinc, and copper after the start of CaEDTA injection. Urinary chromium excretion reached a maximal level within 1 h after the start of injection, while urinary manganese, lead, and zinc excretion reached their highest concentrations between 1 and 2 h. Urinary copper excretion reached the highest level between 2 and 4 h. The rapid increases in urinary excretion of five metals were different from the "circadian rhythms," which are the normal, daily variations in renal glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretory mechanisms. Plasma lead concentrations were highest 1.5 h after the start of the 1-h injection, while plasma zinc concentration became lowest 5 h after the start of CaEDTA injection. Data suggest that manganese and chromium absorbed in human tissues might be mobilized by CaEDTA.

  7. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  8. Discovery of novel histidine-derived lipo-amino acids: applied in the synthesis of ultra-short antimicrobial peptidomimetics having potent antimicrobial activity, salt resistance and protease stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mija; Murugan, Ravichandran N; Jacob, Binu; Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Cheong, Chaejoon; Hwang, Eunha; Park, Hyo-Nam; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Srinivasrao, G; Lee, Kyung S; Shin, Song Yub; Bang, Jeong Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Here we report for the first time the synthesis of Histidine (His) derived lipo-amino acids having pendant lipid tails at N(τ)- and N(π)-positions on imidazole group of His and applied it into synthesis of lipo-peptides. The attachment of His-derived lipo-amino acid into the very short inactive cationic peptides endows potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without hemolytic activity. Furthermore, our designed His-derived lipo-peptidomimetics (HDLPs) consisting of two or three residues displayed strong anti-MRSA activity and protease stability as well as retained potent antimicrobial activity under high salt concentration. Our results demonstrate that the novel lipo-amino acid is highly flexible to synthesize and carry out the extensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) on lipo-antimicrobial peptidomimetics and represents a unique amenable platform for modifying parameters important for antimicrobial activity. Through this study, we proved that the discovery of His-derived lipo-amino acid and the corresponding HDLPs are an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal structures of three anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with the ring-substituted benzoic acid analogues 4-aminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The anhydrous salts of the Lewis base 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU with 4-aminobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 4-aminobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H6NO2− (I], 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O6−, (II] and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA [1-aza-8-azoniabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene 2-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, C9H17N2+·C7H3N2O7−, (III] have been determined and their hydrogen-bonded structures are described. In both (II and (III, the DBU cations have a common disorder in three of the C atoms of the six-membered ring moieties [site-occupancy factors (SOF = 0.735 (3/0.265 (3 and 0.686 (4/0.314 (4, respectively], while in (III, there is additional rotational disorder in the DNSA anion, giving two sites (SOF = 0.72/0.28, values fixed for the phenol group. In the crystals of (I and (III, the cation–anion pairs are linked through a primary N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bond [2.665 (2 and 2.869 (3 Å, respectively]. In (II, the ion pairs are linked through an asymmetric three-centre R12(4, N—H...O,O′ chelate association. In (I, structure extension is through amine N—H...Ocarboxyl hydrogen bonds between the PABA anions, giving a three-dimensional structure. The crystal structures of (II and (III are very similar, the cation–anion pairs being associated only through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, giving in both overall two-dimensional layered structures lying parallel to (001. No π–π ring associations are present in any of the structures.

  10. Fused salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Working conditions for zirconium preparation by fused salt electrolysis were studied. For such purpose, a cell was built for operation under argon atmosphere. A graphite crucible served as anode, with steel cathodes. Proper design allowed cathode rechange under the inert atmosphere. Cathodic deposits of zirconium powder occluded salts from the bath. After washing with both water and hydrochloric acid, the metallic powder was consolidated by fusion. Optimum operating conditions were found to arise from an electrolyte of 12% potassium hexafluorzirconate -88% sodium chloride, at 820 deg C and 5 A/cm 2 cathodic current density. Deposits contained 35% of metal and current efficiency reached 66%. The powder contained up to 600 ppm of chlorine and 1.700 ppm of fluorine; after fusion, those amounts decreased to 2 ppm and 3 ppm respectively, with low proportion of metallic impurities. Though oxygen proportion was 4.500 ppm, it should be lowered by improving working conditions, as well as working on an ampler scale. (Author)

  11. Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry Melhora do efeito de estresse salino em morango por adição de ácido salicílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Karlidag

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is considered as a salinity sensitive species and is adversely affected in response to the salt stress in terms of growth and yield. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (SA application on physiology, growth, chlorophyll and mineral content of strawberry grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. Strawberry plants were treated with SA at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mM. Salinity treatments were established by adding 0 and 35 mM of NaCl to a base complete nutrient solution. Salt stress negatively affected the growth, chlorophyll content and mineral uptake of strawberry plants. However, plants treated with SA often had greater shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight and root dry weight as well as higher chlorophyll content under salt stress. The greatest values were obtained with 1.00 mM SA treatment in both saline and non-saline conditions. Leaf water relative content (LWRC was reduced in response to salt stress while electrolyte leakage was raised. SA treatments induced increases in LWRC and decreases in electrolyte leakage compared to the control under salt stress. With respect to the nutrient content, SA treatments increased almost contents of all nutrients in leaves and roots of strawberry plants under salt stress. The greatest values were often obtained by the 1.00 mM SA treatment. These findings suggest that the SA treatments can ameliorate the negative effect of salinity on the growth of strawberries.O morango é considerado uma espécie sensível à salinidade e é negativamente afetado por estresse salino, em termos de crescimento e produção. Por meio de experimentos em vaso foi determinado o efeito de ácido salicílico exógeno (SA na fisiologia, crescimento, conteúdos de clorofila e de minerais, em morangueiros cultivados em estufa sob estresse salino. As concentrações de SA foram 0.0, 0.25, 0.50 e 1.00 mM. O estresse salino foi

  12. Application of a Salt Coformer in a Co-Amorphous Drug System Dramatically Enhances the Glass Transition Temperature: A Case Study of the Ternary System Carbamazepine, Citric Acid, and l-Arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenqi; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger; Müllertz, Anette; Rades, Thomas

    2018-04-13

    The use of co-amorphous systems containing a combination of low molecular weight drugs and excipients is a relatively new technology in the pharmaceutical field to improve the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs. However, some co-amorphous systems show a lower glass transition temperature ( T g ) than many of their polymeric solid dispersion counterparts. In this study, we aimed at designing a stable co-amorphous system with an elevated T g . Carbamazepine (CBM) and citric acid (CA) were employed as the model drug and the coformer, respectively. co-amorphous CBM-CA at a 1:1 molar ratio was formed by ball milling, but a transition from the glassy to the supercooled melt state was observed under ambient conditions, due to the relatively low T g of 38.8 °C of the co-amorphous system and moisture absorption. To improve the T g of the coformer, salt formation of a combination of l-arginine (ARG) with CA was studied. First, ball milling of CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 forming co-amorphous systems was performed and led to a dramatic enhancement of the T g , depending on the CA-ARG ratio. Salt formation between CA and ARG was observed by infrared spectroscopy. Next, ball milling of CBM-CA-ARG at molar ratios of 1:1:1, 1:1:2, and 1:1:3 resulted in co-amorphous blends, which had a single T g at 77.8, 105.3, and 127.8 °C, respectively. These ternary co-amorphous samples remained in a solid amorphous form for 2 months at 40 °C. From these results, it can be concluded that blending of the salt coformer with a drug is a promising strategy to design stable co-amorphous formulations.

  13. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  14. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  15. The value of gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging for predicting posthepatectomy liver failure after major hepatic resection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Hyun, E-mail: shcho2405@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Daegu Fatima Hospital, 576-31 Sinam-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu 701-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Ung Rae, E-mail: tadtail@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joo Dong, E-mail: milledr@naver.com [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Young Seok, E-mail: gshyskhk@hanmail.net [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Lak, E-mail: dnchoi@cu.ac.kr [Department of Surgery, Catholic University of Daegu, School of Medicine, 3056-6 Daemyung-4-dong, Nam-gu, Daegu 705-718 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging predicts posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) in patients who underwent major hepatic resection. Materials and methods: Twenty nine patients who underwent preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging and following major hepatic resection were enrolled. Hepatic parenchymal signal intensity (SI) on pre-contrast T1-weighted imaging and 20 min hepatocyte phase was measured at each of the four liver segments by two observers using region of interest measurements. The mean value was calculated and used at each phase. The relative contrast enhancement index (RCEI) was calculated: (20 min hepatocyte phase SI - pre-contrast SI)/pre-contrast SI. PHLF was determined by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery 2011 guidelines. Correlation analysis was performed between preoperative liver function test and RCEI. Diagnostic accuracy of RCEI for predicting PHLF was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The reproducibility of the RCEI measurement was evaluated. Results: There was a significant correlation between preoperative albumin (r = 0.496, P = 0.006), T-bilirubin (r = -0.383, P = 0.041), and RCEI. Seven patients (24%) experienced PHLF, and one of these patients (3%) died. The diagnostic accuracy of RCEI was 0.838 (sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 77.3%, cut-off value: 0.7508, 95% confidence interval: 0.654, 0.947). The 95% limits of agreement and ICC between repeated RCEI measurements were 18.4% of the mean and 0.94, respectively, and between RCEI measurements by the two observers were 21.7% and 0.929, respectively. Conclusion: Our results show that preoperative gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MR imaging can predict PHLF in patients who underwent major hepatic resection.

  16. Spectroscopic Characterization of Omeprazole and Its Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Vrbanec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During drug development, it is important to have a suitable crystalline form of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. Mostly, the basic options originate in the form of free base, acid, or salt. Substances that are stable only within a certain pH range are a challenge for the formulation. For the prazoles, which are known to be sensitive to degradation in an acid environment, the formulation is stabilized with alkaline additives or with the application of API formulated as basic salts. Therefore, preparation and characterization of basic salts are needed to monitor any possible salinization of free molecules. We synthesized salts of omeprazole from the group of alkali metals (Li, Na, and K and alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca. The purpose of the presented work is to demonstrate the applicability of vibrational spectroscopy to discriminate between the OMP and OMP-salt molecules. For this reason, the physicochemical properties of 5 salts were probed using infrared and Raman spectroscopy, NMR, TG, DSC, and theoretical calculation of vibrational frequencies. We found out that vibrational spectroscopy serves as an applicable spectroscopic tool which enables an accurate, quick, and nondestructive way to determine the characteristic of OMP and its salts.

  17. Design of co-crystals/salts of some Nitrogenous bases and some derivatives of thiophene carboxylic acids through a combination of hydrogen and halogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, Samson Jegan; Muthiah, Packianathan Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The utility of N-heterocyclic bases to obtain molecular complexes with carboxylic acids is well studied. Depending on the solid state interaction between the N-heterocyclic base and a carboxylic acid a variety of neutral or ionic synthons are observed. Meanwhile, pyridines and pyrimidines have been frequently chosen in the area of crystal engineering for their multipurpose functionality. HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are the well known synthons that are formed in the presence of pyrimidines and carboxylic acids. Fourteen crystals involving various substituted thiophene carboxylic acid derivatives and nitrogenous bases were prepared and characterized by using single crystal X-ray diffraction. The 14 crystals can further be divided into two groups [1a-7a], [8b-14b] based on the nature of the nitrogenous base. Carboxylic acid to pyridine proton transfer has occurred in 3 compounds of each group. In addition to the commonly occurring hydrogen bond based pyridine/carboxylic acid and pyrimidine/carboxylic acid synthons which is the reason for assembly of primary motifs, various other interactions like Cl…Cl, Cl…O, C-H…Cl, C-H…S add additional support in organizing these supermolecules into extended architectures. It is also interesting to note that in all the compounds π-π stacking occurs between the pyrimidine-pyrimidine or pyridine-pyridine or acid-acid moieties rather than acid-pyrimidine/pyridine. In all the compounds (1a-14b) either neutral O-H…Npyridyl/pyrimidine or charge-assisted Npyridinium-H…Ocarboxylate hydrogen bonds are present. The HT (hetero trimers) and LHT (linear heterotetramers) are dominant in the crystal structures of the adducts containing N-heterocyclic bases with two proton acceptors (1a-7a). Similar type supramolecular ladders are observed in 5TPC44BIPY (8b), TPC44BIPY (9b), TPC44TMBP (11b). Among the seven compounds [8b-14b] the extended ligands are linear in all except for the TMBP (10b, 11b, 12b). The

  18. Synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio-acetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In last decades considerable interest to the search of biologically active compounds in series of azole derivatives is indicated. This is mainly connected with the successful use of several drugs with heterocyclic system in the structure. Analysis of the pharmacological properties of heterocyclic nitrogen–containing compounds of the known groups let us to suggest, that the triazole substituent is an important pharmacophore fragment, responsible for the availability of diverse physiological activity. In addition, it causes a little toxicity. Considerable attention belongs to synthesis and research of the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazoles derivatives. The great importance also has research of the influence of heterocyclic fragments of different nature in combination in one molecule on the activity of the synthesized compounds. Like different synthons in the structure of 1,2,4-triazoles in various kinds of biological activity of the reaction products with an aim of new and highly efficient low-toxicity compounds reception. The aim of work was to study synthesis and properties of substances among salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthioacetate acid. Materials and methods of the research. In the process as a starting material for reception of new series of compounds theophylline has been chosen. It is important to note, that by the diversity and strength of pharmacological effects, which appears, this structure takes its rightful place among heterocyclic compounds. Through the series of the successive stages 4-phenyle-5-(1',3'-dimethylxantine-7'-ylmethyle-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol was obtained from the theophylline. Research of the physico-chemical properties of the received compounds conducted according to methods, described in the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine. open capillary method, elemental analysis (Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of compounds were recorded with a

  19. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  20. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  1. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  2. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  3. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  4. Development of biomimetic catalytic oxidation methods and non-salt methods using transition metal-based acid and base ambiphilic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahashi, Shun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of ruthenium and flavin catalysts for environmentally benign oxidation reactions based on mimicking the functions of cytochrome P-450 and flavoenzymes, and low valent transition-metal catalysts that replace conventional acids and bases. Several new concepts and new types of catalytic reactions based on these concepts are described. (Communicated by Ryoji Noyori, M.J.A.).

  5. Development of biomimetic catalytic oxidation methods and non-salt methods using transition metal-based acid and base ambiphilic catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    MURAHASHI, Shun-Ichi

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the development of ruthenium and flavin catalysts for environmentally benign oxidation reactions based on mimicking the functions of cytochrome P-450 and flavoenzymes, and low valent transition-metal catalysts that replace conventional acids and bases. Several new concepts and new types of catalytic reactions based on these concepts are described. PMID:21558760

  6. Effect of salt and acidic pH on the stability of virulence plasmid (pYV) in Yersinia enterocolitica and expression of virulence-associated characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stability of the Yersinia enterocolitica virulence plasmid (pYV) under different NaCl concentrations and under acidic pH conditions was investigated. Exposure of five strains representing five serotypes of pYV-bearing virulent Y. enterocolitica to 0.5, 2 and 5% NaCl and under conditions of pH 4...

  7. Neutron crystallographic studies of amino acids and nucleic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Tatsuki

    2014-01-01

    Neutron crystallographic studies of two representative umami materials were executed utilizing iBLX at MLF/J-PARC. The results of them will be summarized in this report. At first, structure analysis of the alpha form crystal of L-glutamic acid was performed in order to assess the usefulness of neutron crystallography at iBIX to our company's R and D. Neutron crystal structure of it was successfully determined at 0.6 A resolution. All hydrogen atoms were clearly observed. Next, the mixed crystal of disodium Inosine-5'-phosphate (IMP · 2Na) and disodium Guanosine-5'-phosphate (GMP · 2Na) was analyzed by neutron crystallography. Neutron crystal structure of the mixed crystal of IMP and GMP (IM/GMP rate = 1.7) was successfully determined at 0.8 A resolution. In the neutron crystal structure of the mixed crystal, the hydrogen atom bonded to the C2 atom of purine base in IMP and the nitrogen atom bonded to the C2 atom of purine base in GMP were clearly observed in the nuclear density map, structurally demonstrating that this crystal is the mixed crystal. (author)

  8. Pluronic®-bile salt mixed micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vijay; Ray, Debes; Bahadur, Anita; Ma, Junhe; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, Pratap

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of two bile salts viz. sodium cholate (NaC) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) with three ethylene polyoxide-polypropylene polyoxide (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymers with similar PPO but varying PEO micelles with a focus on the effect of pH on mixed micelles. Mixed micelles of moderately hydrophobic Pluronic ® P123 were examined in the presence of two bile salts and compared with those from very hydrophobic L121 and very hydrophilic F127. Both the bile salts increase the cloud point (CP) of copolymer solution and decreased apparent micelle hydrodynamic diameter (D h ). SANS study revealed that P123 forms small spherical micelles showing a decrease in size on progressive addition of bile salts. The negatively charged mixed micelles contained fewer P123 molecules but progressively rich in bile salt. NaDC being more hydrophobic displays more pronounced effect than NaC. Interestingly, NaC shows micellar growth in acidic media which has been attributed to the formation of bile acids by protonation of carboxylate ion and subsequent solubilization. In contrast, NaDC showed phase separation at higher concentration. Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments provided information on interaction and location of bile salts in micelles. Results are discussed in terms of hydrophobicity of bile salts and Pluronics ® and the site of bile salt in polymer micelles. Proposed molecular interactions are useful to understand more about bile salts which play important role in physiological processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the function and fate of chloride ions in amyloidogenic self-assembly of insulin in an acidic environment: salt-induced condensation of fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Viktoria; Surmacz-Chwedoruk, Weronika; Dzwolak, Wojciech

    2015-02-24

    Formation of amyloid fibrils is often facilitated in the presence of specific charge-compensating ions. Dissolved sodium chloride is known to accelerate insulin fibrillation at low pH that has been attributed to the shielding of electrostatic repulsion between positively charged insulin molecules by chloride ions. However, the subsequent fate of Cl(-) anions; that is, possible entrapment within elongating fibrils or escape into the bulk solvent, remains unclear. Here, we show that, while the presence of NaCl at the onset of insulin aggregation induces structural variants of amyloid with distinct fingerprint infrared features, a delayed addition of salt to fibrils that have been already formed in its absence and under quiescent conditions triggers a "condensation effect": amyloid superstructures with strong chiroptical properties are formed. Chloride ions appear to stabilize these superstructures in a manner similar to stabilization of DNA condensates by polyvalent cations. The concentration of residual chloride ions trapped within bovine insulin fibrils grown in 0.1 M NaCl, at pD 1.9, and rinsed extensively with water afterward is less than 1 anion per 16 insulin monomers (as estimated using ion chromatography) implying absence of defined solvent-sequestered nesting sites for chloride counterions. Our results have been discussed in the context of mechanisms of insulin aggregation.

  10. Yttria hydroxy-salt binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Binder phase (primarily chloride or nitrate) formation was examined in YX 3 --NaOH--H 2 O, Y 2 O 3 --acid--H 2 O, and Y 2 O 3 --salt--H 2 O systems. The cementitious phase consisted mostly of plate- (or needle-) shaped hydroxy salts of the general formula Y 2 (OH)/sub 6-m/X/sub m/ nH 2 O, where m and n normally equal one. These binders were examined by x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques. Nitrate binders decompose to Y 2 O 3 by 600 0 C, whereas chloride binders form oxychlorides that sublime or convert to Y 2 O 3 after oxygen replacement of chlorine (in air) at > 1000 0 C. Although nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions form porous ( 2 O 3 powder, salt solutions (i.e., NH 4 NO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 , NH 4 Cl, and YCl 3 approx. = 6H 2 O) slow the reaction considerably (48 h to 4 weeks), allowing 70- to 80%-dense cements to form. The effects of formation conditions on physical properties of binders were studied. Examination of scandium and lanthanide oxides showed that several behave in the same way as yttria

  11. The effectiveness of organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2o as latent heat energy storage system in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    U, Sri Rahayu A.; Putri, Widya A.; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2016-08-01

    A latent heat energy storage system utilizing phase change materials (PCM) is an alternative strategy to reduce the use of Air Conditioning (AC) system in big cities in Indonesia in order for energy conservation in the future. In this research we used two kinds of materials, namely organic PCM based on lauric acid from coconut oil (CO) and inorganic PCM based on salt hydrate CaCl2.6H2O, because they have thermophysical parameters suitable for human's thermal comfort application in the building. The CO which contained more than 50% lauric acid has the melting temperature (Tm ) of about 26 °C and heat entalphy (ΔH) around 103 kJ/kg, while CaCl2.6H2O has the melting point of 29 °C and heat entalphy of 190 kJ/kg. In this paper we report the effectiveness of those two kinds of PCM in reducing the air temperature as one of some criteria for human's thermal comfort. The experiments were performed in a close and adiabatic room and the time-temperature measurements were done automatically using Arduino microcontroller and LM35 temperature sensor connected to the PC.

  12. The hsp 16 Gene of the Probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus Is Differently Regulated by Salt, High Temperature and Acidic Stresses, as Revealed by Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fiocco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (sHsps are ubiquitous conserved chaperone-like proteins involved in cellular proteins protection under stressful conditions. In this study, a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR procedure was developed and used to quantify the transcript level of a small heat shock gene (shs in the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, under stress conditions such as heat (45 °C and 53 °C, bile (0.3% w/v, hyperosmosis (1 M and 2.5 M NaCl, and low pH value (pH 4. The shs gene of L. acidophilus NCFM was induced by salt, high temperature and acidic stress, while repression was observed upon bile stress. Analysis of the 5' noncoding region of the hsp16 gene reveals the presence of an inverted repeat (IR sequence (TTAGCACTC-N9-GAGTGCTAA homologue to the controlling IR of chaperone expression (CIRCE elements found in the upstream regulatory region of Gram-positive heat shock operons, suggesting that the hsp16 gene of L. acidophilus might be transcriptionally controlled by HrcA. In addition, the alignment of several small heat shock proteins identified so far in lactic acid bacteria, reveals that the Hsp16 of L. acidophilus exhibits a strong evolutionary relationship with members of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group.

  13. High salt diet induces metabolic alterations in multiple biological processes of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Xiangyang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Zhengjun

    2018-06-01

    High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines. In addition, HS enhanced glycolysis (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase) and amino acid metabolism and suppressed the TCA (citrate synthase and aconitase) cycle. Finally, HS intake caused up-regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase), the ratio of NADPH/NADP + , NADPH oxidase activity and ROS production, suggesting that increased oxidative stress was associated with an altered PPP pathway. The metabolic pathways identified may serve as potential targets for the treatment of renal damage. Our findings provide comprehensive biochemical details about the metabolic responses to a high salt diet, which may contribute to the understanding of renal disease and salt-induced hypertension in SS rats. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Synthesis of racemic 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts, and intermediates therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The racemates of 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts are prepared by reductive amination of 3-fluoro-pyruvic acid, its hydrate or salts thereof, via the intermediate 2-imino-3-fluoro propionic acid salt, using alkali metal borodeuterides as reducing agents. The racemates thus obtained are valuable in the production of the corresponding 2-deutero-3-fluoro-D-alanine, and its pharmacologically acceptable salts, and derivatives thereof, which are potent antibacterial agents

  15. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xian J; Wen, Ai Y; Wang, Jian; Desta, Seare T; Dong, Zhi H; Shao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP). After 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg -1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure. Additives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO 4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO 4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO 4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stability of pharmaceutical salts in solid oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haichen; Byrn, Stephen R; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2017-08-01

    Using pharmaceutical salts in solid dosage forms can raise stability concerns, especially salt dissociation which can adversely affect the product performance. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salt instability encountered in solid-state formulations is imperative to ensure the product quality. The present article uses the fundamental theory of acid base, ionic equilibrium, relationship of pH and solubility as a starting point to illustrate and interpret the salt formation and salt disproportionation in pharmaceutical systems. The criteria of selecting the optimal salt form and the underlying theory of salt formation and disproportionation are reviewed in detail. Factors influencing salt stability in solid dosage forms are scrutinized and discussed with the case studies. In addition, both commonly used and innovative strategies for preventing salt dissociations in formulation, on storage and during manufacturing will be suggested herein. This article will provide formulation scientists and manufacturing engineers an insight into the mechanisms of salt disproportionation and salt formation, which can help them to avoid and solve the instability issues of pharmaceutical salts in the product design.

  18. Urinary calculi composed of uric acid, cystine, and mineral salts: differentiation with dual-energy CT at a radiation dose comparable to that of intravenous pyelography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Heuschmid, Martin; Schilling, David; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Stenzl, Arnulf; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2010-11-01

    To retrospectively evaluate radiation dose, image quality, and the ability to differentiate urinary calculi of differing compositions by using low-dose dual-energy computed tomography (CT). The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; informed consent was waived. A low-dose dual-energy CT protocol (tube voltage and reference effective tube current-time product, 140 kV and 23 mAs and 80 kV and 105 mAs; collimation, 64 × 0.6 mm; pitch, 0.7) for the detection of urinary calculi was implemented into routine clinical care. All patients (n = 112) who were examined with this protocol from July 2008 to August 2009 were included. The composition of urinary calculi was assessed by using commercially available postprocessing software and was compared with results of the reference standard (ex vivo infrared spectroscopy) in 40 patients for whom the reference standard was available. Effective doses were calculated. Image quality was rated subjectively and objectively and was correlated with patient size expressed as body cross-sectional area at the level of acquisition by using Spearman correlation coefficients. One calcified concrement in the distal ureter of an obese patient was mistakenly interpreted as mixed calcified and uric acid. One struvite calculus was falsely interpreted as cystine. All other uric acid, cystine, and calcium-containing calculi were correctly identified by using dual-energy CT. The mean radiation dose was 2.7 mSv. The average image quality was rated as acceptable, with a decrease in image quality in larger patients. Low-dose unenhanced dual-source dual-energy CT can help differentiate between calcified, uric acid, and cystine calculi at a radiation dose comparable to that of conventional intravenous pyelography. Because of decreased image quality in obese patients, only nonobese patients should be examined with this protocol. © RSNA, 2010.

  19. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 null mutant shows increased sensitivity to abscisic acid, salt, and osmotic stress in germination and postgermination stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eSalas-Muñoz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DnaJ proteins are essential co-chaperones involved in abiotic and biotic stress responses. Arabidopsis AtDjA3 gene encodes a molecular co-chaperone of 420 amino acids, which belongs to the J-protein family. In this study, we report the functional characterization of the AtDjA3 gene using the Arabidopsis knockout line designated j3 and the 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Loss of AtDjA3 function was associated with small seed production. In fact, j3 mutant seeds showed a reduction of 24% in seed weight compared to Col-0 seeds. Expression analysis showed that the AtDjA3 gene was modulated in response to NaCl, glucose, and abscisic acid. The j3 line had increased sensitivity to NaCl and glucose treatments in the germination and cotyledon development in comparison to parental Col-0. Furthermore, the j3 mutant line exhibited higher abscisic acid sensitivity in comparison to parental Col-0 and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. In addition, we examined the expression of ABI3 gene, which is a central regulator in ABA signalling, in j3 mutant and 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines. Under 5 μM ABA treatment at 24 h, j3 mutant seedlings displayed higher ABI3 expression, whereas in 35S::AtDjA3 overexpression lines, ABI3 gene expression was repressed. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the AtDjA3 gene is involved in seed development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  20. Search for new radioprotective agents. Part 34. Synthesis of Bunte's salts and isothicarbamides of aromatic derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulecki, J.; Kalinowska-Torz, J.; Senczuk, L.; Skwarski, D.

    1977-01-01

    In exchange reactions involving sodium thiosulphate and the respective halogen derivatives, the following Bunte's salts hitherto undescribed in the available literature were obtained: sodium salt of 4-methyl-benzyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodium salt of 4-metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /1/, sodum salt of 4 metoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /3/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /5/, sodum salt of 2-methoxy-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /7/, sodium salt of 4-ethoxy-phenly-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /8/, sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /9/, sodium salt of 3-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-methylene-thiosulphuric acid /10/, and sodium salt of 4-methyl-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-thiosulphuric acid /11/. In exchange reactions involving thiourea and the respective halogenderivatives, the following isothiocarbamides were obtained: 4-methyl-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /2/, 4-methoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isotchiocarbamide hydrochloride /4/, 4-ethoxy-benzoyl-methylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /6/, 4-methosy-phenyl-carbamyl-ethylene-isothiocarbamide hydrochloride /12/. (author)

  1. Reduced Solubility of Polymer-Oriented Water for Sodium Salts, Sugars, Amino Acids, and other Solutes Normally Maintained at Low Levels in Living Cells,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    following were obtained: gum arabic (64C-0252; gum ghatti (42C-2380; gum guar (32C1930); gum Karaya (103C-0720); gum locust bean (42C-2900); gum ...plotted against time of incubation. In the efflux method, usually the dry polymer powder was dissolved 22 + 35 in water containing the radioactive label...tragacanth (74C-0207); and gum xantham (888-0200); corn starch (6813-0216); potato starch (65B-2060); pectin (107B-0090); alginic acid (766-818); also

  2. Solution, thermal and optical properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s as ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Tae Soo; Koh, Jung Jae; Han, Haesook; Bhowmik, Pradip K.

    2013-01-01

    Bis(pyridinium salt)s containing different alkyl chain lengths and various organic counterions were prepared by the ring-transmutation reaction of bis(pyrylium tosylate) with aliphatic amines in dimethyl sulfoxide at 130–135 °C for 18 h and their tosylate counterions were exchanged to other anions such as triflimide, methyl orange, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate by the metathesis reaction in a common organic solvent. Their chemical structures were established by using 1 H, 19 F, and 13 C NMR spectra. The thermal properties of bis(pyridinium salt)s were studied by DSC and TGA measurements. Some of the dicationic salts provided low melting points below 100 °C and some of them displayed amorphous properties. Polarized optical microscopy studies revealed the crystal structures prior to melting temperatures in some cases. Their optical properties were examined by using UV–Vis and photoluminescent spectrometers; and they emitted blue light both in the solution and solid states regardless of their microstructures, counterions, and the polarity of organic solvents. However, most of these salts exhibited hypsochromic shifts in their emission peaks in the solid state when compared with those of their solution spectra. Due to unique properties of methyl orange anion as a pH indicator, two of the salts showed different color change in varying concentrations of triflic acid in common organic solvents, demonstrating their potential use as an acid sensor in methanol, acetonitrile and acetone. Highlights: ► Luminescent dicationic salts were synthesized by ring-transmutation and metathesis reactions. ► Thermal and optical properties of dicationic salts are affected by the size of anion structures. ► Due to the methyl orange counterions, some dicationic salts showed pH- sensing property

  3. Volatility of atmospherically relevant alkylaminium carboxylate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Avi; Segre, Enrico; Gomez-Hernandez, Mario; Zhang, Renyi; Rudich, Yinon

    2015-05-14

    Heterogeneous neutralization reactions of ammonia and alkylamines with sulfuric acid play an important role in aerosol formation and particle growth. However, little is known about the physical and chemical properties of alkylaminium salts of organic acids. In this work we studied the thermal stability and volatility of alkylaminium carboxylate salts of short aliphatic alkylamines with monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids. The enthalpy of vaporization and saturation vapor pressure at 298 K were derived using the kinetic model of evaporation and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The vapor pressure of alkylaminium dicarboxylate salts is ∼10(-6) Pa, and the vaporization enthalpy ranges from 73 to 134 kJ mol(-1). Alkylaminium monocarboxylate salts show high thermal stability, and their thermograms do not follow our evaporation model. Hence, we inferred their vapor pressure from their thermograms as comparable to that of ammonium sulfate (∼10(-9) Pa). Further characterization showed that alkylaminium monocarboxylates are room temperature protic ionic liquids (RTPILs) that are more hygroscopic than ammonium sulfate (AS). We suggest that the irregular thermograms result from an incomplete neutralization reaction leading to a mixture of ionic and nonionic compounds. We conclude that these salts are expected to contribute to new particle formation and particle growth under ambient conditions and can significantly enhance the CCN activity of mixed particles in areas where SO2 emissions are regulated.

  4. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adassa Gama Tavares

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl, potassium chloride (KCl, lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO. The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  5. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  6. Salt Effect on Osmotic Pressure of Polyelectrolyte Solutions: Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Michael Y. Carrillo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We present results of the hybrid Monte Carlo/molecular dynamics simulations of the osmotic pressure of salt solutions of polyelectrolytes. In our simulations, we used a coarse-grained representation of polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions. During simulation runs, we alternate Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation steps. Monte Carlo steps were used to perform small ion exchange between simulation box containing salt ions (salt reservoir and simulation box with polyelectrolyte chains, counterions and salt ions (polyelectrolyte solution. This allowed us to model Donnan equilibrium and partitioning of salt and counterions across membrane impermeable to polyelectrolyte chains. Our simulations have shown that the main contribution to the system osmotic pressure is due to salt ions and osmotically active counterions. The fraction of the condensed (osmotically inactive counterions first increases with decreases in the solution ionic strength then it saturates. The reduced value of the system osmotic coefficient is a universal function of the ratio of the concentration of osmotically active counterions and salt concentration in salt reservoir. Simulation results are in a very good agreement with osmotic pressure measurements in sodium polystyrene sulfonate, DNA, polyacrylic acid, sodium polyanetholesulfonic acid, polyvinylbenzoic acid, and polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride solutions.

  7. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  8. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  9. The upregulation of thiamine (vitamin B1 biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under salt and osmotic stress conditions is mediated by abscisic acid at the early stages of this stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapala-Kozik Maria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports suggest that vitamin B1 (thiamine participates in the processes underlying plant adaptations to certain types of abiotic and biotic stress, mainly oxidative stress. Most of the genes coding for enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana have been identified. In our present study, we examined the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, of genes encoding thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes and the levels of thiamine compounds during the early (sensing and late (adaptation responses of Arabidopsis seedlings to oxidative, salinity and osmotic stress. The possible roles of plant hormones in the regulation of the thiamine contribution to stress responses were also explored. Results The expression of Arabidopsis genes involved in the thiamine diphosphate biosynthesis pathway, including that of THI1, THIC, TH1 and TPK, was analyzed for 48 h in seedlings subjected to NaCl or sorbitol treatment. These genes were found to be predominantly up-regulated in the early phase (2-6 h of the stress response. The changes in these gene transcript levels were further found to correlate with increases in thiamine and its diphosphate ester content in seedlings, as well as with the enhancement of gene expression for enzymes which require thiamine diphosphate as a cofactor, mainly α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, pyruvate dehydrogenase and transketolase. In the case of the phytohormones including the salicylic, jasmonic and abscisic acids which are known to be involved in plant stress responses, only abscisic acid was found to significantly influence the expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes, the thiamine diphosphate levels, as well as the expression of genes coding for main thiamine diphosphate-dependent enzymes. Using Arabidopsis mutant plants defective in abscisic acid production, we demonstrate that this phytohormone is important in the regulation of THI1 and THIC gene expression during salt stress

  10. Naphthalene Acetic Acid Potassium Salt (NAA-K+) Affects Conidial Germination, Sporulation, Mycelial Growth, Cell Surface Morphology, and Viability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radici-lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Valencia, María Karina; Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Guzmán-de-Peña, Dora Linda

    2016-11-09

    The response to exogenous addition of naphthalene acetic acid potassium salt (NAA-K + ) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radici-lycopersici ATCC 60095 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolated from Michoacan Mexico soil is reported. The in vitro study showed that NAA-K + might be effective in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Exogenous application of NAA-K + affected both spores and mycelium stages of the fungi. Viability testing using acridine orange and propidium iodide showed that NAA-K + possesses fungal killing properties, doing it effectively in the destruction of conidia of this phytopathogenic fungi. Analysis of treated spores by scanning electron microscopy showed changes in the shape factor and fractal dimension. Moreover, NAA-K + repressed the expression of brlA and fluG genes. The results disclosed here give evidence of the use of this synthetic growth factor as a substance of biocontrol that presents advantages, and the methods of application in situ should be explored.

  11. Sonolytic and Silent Polymerization of Methacrlyic Acid Butyl Ester Catalyzed by a New Onium Salt with bis-Active Sites in a Biphasic System — A Comparative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumberkandgai A. Vivekanand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, ingenious new analytical and process experimental techniques which are environmentally benign techniques, viz., ultrasound irradiation, have become immensely popular in promoting various reactions. In this work, a novel soluble multi-site phase transfer catalyst (PTC viz., 1,4-bis-(propylmethyleneammounium chloridebenzene (BPMACB was synthesized and its catalytic efficiency was assessed by observing the kinetics of sonolytic polymerization of methacrylic acid butyl ester (MABE using potassium persulphate (PPS as an initiator. The ultrasound–multi-site phase transfer catalysis (US-MPTC-assisted polymerization reaction was compared with the silent (non-ultrasonic polymerization reaction. The effects of the catalyst and various reaction parameters on the catalytic performance were in detail investigated by following the kinetics of polymerization of MABE in an ethyl acetate-water biphasic system. From the detailed kinetic investigation we propose a plausible mechanism. Further the kinetic results demonstrate clearly that ultrasound-assisted phase-transfer catalysis significantly increased the reaction rate when compared to silent reactions. Notably, this environmentally benign and cost-effective process has great potential to be applied in various polymer industries.

  12. Synthesis of anatoxin a via intramolecular cyclization of iminium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, H.A.; Rapoport, H.

    1979-01-01

    Anatoxin a (1) has been synthesized by exploiting intramolecular cyclization between an iminium salt and a nucleophilic carbon to construct the 9-azabicyclo[4.2.1]nonane ring system. Cyclization of malonate iminiumsalt 16 at alkaline pH afforded a low yield of bicyclic malonate 18 owing to an unfavorable equilibrium constant and lability of the iminium salt in base. In contrast, cyclization of ketoiminium salt 31 afforded a good yield of bicyclic ketone 34 in acidic methanol. Dihydropyrrolium salts 16 and 31 were generated quantitatively by decarbonylation of substituted N-methylprolines 15 and 30b, obtained by reduction of the corresponding pyrroles

  13. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  14. Process for improving the energy density of feedstocks using formate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R.P.; Case, Paige A.

    2015-09-01

    Methods of forming liquid hydrocarbons through thermal deoxygenation of cellulosic compounds are disclosed. Aspects cover methods including the steps of mixing a levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock with a formic acid salt, exposing the mixture to a high temperature condition to form hydrocarbon vapor, and condensing the hydrocarbon vapor to form liquid hydrocarbons, where both the formic acid salt and the levulinic acid salt-containing feedstock decompose at the high temperature condition and wherein one or more of the mixing, exposing, and condensing steps is carried out a pressure between about vacuum and about 10 bar.

  15. Two-channel dansyl/tryptophan emitters with a cholic acid bridge as reporters for local hydrophobicity within supramolecular systems based on bile salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Mendoza, M; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2014-11-14

    The aim of the present work is to develop two-channel emitters to probe local hydrophobicity by means of fluorescence quenching within different biomimetic supramolecular environments. To achieve this goal, the dansyl (Dns) and tryptophan (Trp) fluorophores have been covalently attached to cholic acid (CA) in order to ensure simultaneous incorporation of the two emitting units into the same compartment. In principle, the two fluorophores of the synthesized Dns-CA-Trp probes could either exhibit an orthogonal behavior or display excited state interactions. The fluorescence spectra of 3β-Dns-CA-Trp showed a residual Trp emission band at ca. 350 nm and an enhanced Dns maximum in the 500-550 nm region. This reveals a partial intramolecular energy transfer, which is consistent with the Dns and Trp singlet energies. Thus, the two photoactive units are not orthogonal; nevertheless, 3β-Dns-CA-Trp seems appropriate as a two-channel reporter for the supramolecular systems of interest. Fluorescence quenching of 3β-Dns-CA-Trp by iodide (which remains essentially in bulk water) was examined within sodium cholate, sodium taurocholate, sodium deoxycholate and mixed micelles. Interestingly, a decrease in the emission intensity of the two bands was observed with increasing iodide concentrations. The most remarkable effect was observed for mixed micelles, where the quenching rate constants were one order of magnitude lower than in solution. As anticipated, the quenching efficiency by iodide decreased with increasing hydrophobicity of the microenvironment, a trend that can be correlated with the relative accessibility of the probe to the ionic quencher.

  16. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  18. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  19. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  20. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....